WorldWideScience

Sample records for laboratory worker knowledge

  1. Knowledge worker training in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Zulkifli, Izyani

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of countries have shifted, or are shifting, towards the knowledge-based economy. For these countries, including Malaysia, the quality of knowledge workers is extremely important in determining the pace and success of such transition. Thus, training is often carried out to improve the skills of knowledge workers at the workplace. But despite its importance, research on knowledge worker training is extremely limited. This study seeks to partially fill this gap in the litera...

  2. HOLISTIC MODEL OF KNOWLEDGE WORKER AND MARKET KNOWLEDGE VENTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telemtaev Marat Makhmetovich

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is the creation of model of knowledge of the worker of the enterprise and the concept of the market of knowledge of the enterprise and the market of knowledge of a society of knowledge. To purpose achievement it is applied complete-approach of Telemtaev M.M. The contradiction between the market in environment of the enterprise and absence of the market in the internal environment of the enterprise is shown. The role of capitalization of knowledge is shown. A number of new results is received. The general model of knowledge of the worker of the enterprise, and three private models of knowledge of the worker entering into it are developed. The Principle of complete-thinking and practice of the worker and the Principle of the organic replenishments of knowledge of the worker are formulated. It is established that a kernel of complete model of knowledge of the worker is set «ability and skill». The concept of technology of the market of knowledge of the enterprise is developed. As a methodological basis of technology of the market of knowledge the Law of industrialization of knowledge, the Law of mechanization of knowledge, the Law technologization knowledge, the Principle of enrichment of knowledge are formulated. Conditions of interaction of the worker and knowledge - PMK-literacy of the worker and FPI-availability of knowledge are established. The received results are sufficient for construction of base models of knowledge of workers and the concept of the market of knowledge of the concrete enterprise that allows the enterprise to create strategy of effective application of knowledge of workers and to develop advancing strategy of occurrence in the market of a society of knowledge.

  3. Career development of South African knowledge workers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roelof, van Staden; Adeline, du Toit.

    Full Text Available The demand for knowledge workers is on the increase, yet little is known about their career perceptions and attitudes. The objective of this article is to determine the factors affecting the career development of knowledge workers in South Africa. Part-time learners of a postgraduate course were use [...] d as a purposive sample and 82 completed questionnaires were received. The results of the online survey provide an interesting look at the unique career issues knowledge workers experience from a South African perspective. Issues identified dealt with the lack of importance placed upon organisational training, the lack of interest in temporary work assignments and the low importance placed on learning from mentors. Organisations need to take note of their reward structures as knowledge workers have indicated that promotions and rewards based on their knowledge is insufficient.

  4. Routine knowledge worker efficiency in physical workspaces

    OpenAIRE

    Salo, Joonas; Lehto, Pauliina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to investigate whether routine knowledge worker efficiency is affected by physical workspace layouts. This research was conducted for X-Index, a company selling, renting and designing workspaces. Though the majority of their workspaces are currently industrial and cater to the manual worker, the authors wanted to provide X-Index with answers on office workspace design and its connections to employee efficiency. This will consequently help X-Index develop their busine...

  5. Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Sutherland

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do not predict knowledge workers’ proposed future length of service.Factor analysis revealed seven underlying dimensions of retention cognitions. Cluster analysis revealed nine distinct clusters of knowledge workers with regard to their retention cognitions. High levels of individualism, need for challenge and focus on personal development were demonstrated. The implications of these findings are discussed. OpsommingEen van die eienskappe van kenniswerkers is hulle hoë vlak van mobiliteit. Die koste van arbeidsomset van hierdie sleutelbronne is hoog in beide finansiële en nie-finansiële terme. Daar bestaan dus ’n behoefte om die faktore wat onderliggend is aan die retensiekognisies van kenniswerkers te verstaan. Data is ingesamel van 306 kenniswerkers in voltydse diens wat ’n wye reeks demografiese groeperings verteenwoordig. Die resultate dui daarop dat werktevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid nie die kenniswerkers se verwagte lengte van diens voorspel nie. Faktorontleding het sewe onderliggende dimensies van retensiekognisies blootgelê. ’n Bondelontleding het nege duidelike bondels van kenniswerkers ten opsigte van hulle retensiekognisies onderskei. Hoë vlakke van individualisme, behoefte aan uitdaging en fokus op persoonlike ontwikkeling is aangedui. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

  6. Outdoor Workers and Sun Protection: Knowledge and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Cioffi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at high risk of developing skin cancer. Primary prevention can potentiallyreduce the incidence of skin cancer in this group. This study aimed to determine theknowledge and sun protective behaviour of outdoor workers towards skin cancer. A shortquestionnaire was used to collect data from workers on construction sites during workinghours. Despite workers having knowledge of the risks of skin cancer their use of sun protectionwas less than satisfactory, particularly considering their cumulative exposure.Workplace health education programs for outdoor workers addressing sun protection areindicated, as is further research to increase understanding of issues workers have withsun protection in the workplace.

  7. Knowledge Worker Control: Understanding via Principal and Agency Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Meacheam, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The growing prominence of knowledge workers in contemporary organisations has led to a considerable amount of research into their role and activities, however, despite this growing interest, there remains a lack of clarity regarding the relationship of knowledge workers to management. This paper aims to respond by investigating the…

  8. Spontaneous abortions among laboratory workers; a follow up study.

    OpenAIRE

    Heidam, L Z

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was conducted among all female laboratory workers in the county of Funen to test the hypothesis that work in laboratories during pregnancy increases the risk of spontaneous abortion. Laboratory workers from hospital, university, and other public laboratories and from laboratories in industry were investigated. A socially comparable reference group less exposed to chemicals at work included office workers, technical assistants and designers, physiotherapists, and occupational ...

  9. Taiwanese farm workers' pesticide knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and clothing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chen-Yu; Black, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Taiwanese fruit farm workers' knowledge, attitudes, behaviours, and clothing practices regarding pesticide activities. Seventy-seven fruit farm workers from four districts of Tainan City, Taiwan completed the questionnaire. Results indicated that farmer workers had a good overall level of knowledge of the adverse effects of pesticides on human health and most had experienced symptoms of pesticide poisoning. Farm workers' attitudes toward pesticide use and handling indicated that they saw pesticides useful in controlling pests. Farm workers indicated the limited availability of comfortable clothing designed for a hot and humid climate while still providing sufficient protection was the main reason for not wearing personal protective clothing (PPC) and personal protective equipment (PPE). Emphasis on safety precautions is needed when using pesticides, and the importance of PPC and PPE is essential for the health of farm workers. PMID:25761364

  10. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Avian Influenza, Poultry Workers, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Abbate, Rossella; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Marinelli, Paolo; Angelillo, Italo F

    2006-01-01

    We asked Italian poultry workers about knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding avian influenza. It was perceived to be a low occupational hazard, and wearing protective equipment and handwashing were not routine practices. Knowledge of transmission and preventive measures should be improved. Employers and health professionals should provide more effective information.

  11. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of dyeing and printing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramasivam Parimalam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview . Results: The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (?10.7. When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s, all the workers agreed that dye(s will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE such as rubber hand gloves during work. Conclusion: The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.

  12. Character and Effective Leadership of the Knowledge Worker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoury, A E

    2005-04-20

    Ulrich in the forward to the Zenger and Folkman (2002) book, ''The Extraordinary Leader'', wrote about the importance of character in leadership stating, ''Everything about great leaders radiates from character. Character improves the probability of exhibiting strong interpersonal skill. Some of this perceived character is innate . . . but more is driven by the leader's self-awareness and interactions with others'' (p. ix). The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership effectiveness and character using leader-managers of knowledge workers as the subject sample. Findings indicated that character, particularly those factors associated with honesty, setting the example, and valuing and strengthening others, were what set the most effective leader-managers apart from their peers. Technical competence and self-efficacy were found to be common characteristics of the study sample as was a drive for results. Who a leader-manager is, his/her substance, was found in this study to differentiate the ''best'' leader-managers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By their character, leader-managers establish the environment in which knowledge workers contribute and grow. As found by Pfeiffer (2000), Leaders of companies that experience smaller gaps between what they know and what they do (to turn knowledge into action), understand that their most important task is not necessarily to make strategic decisions, or, for that matter any decisions at all. Their task is to help build systems of practice that produce a more reliable transformation of knowledge into action. Leaders create environments, reinforce norms, and help set expectations through what they do. (p. 261) In other words, as confirmed by this research study, their task is to model the way. Study results also confirmed Ulrich's (1996) supposition that to create the ''air'' in which employees work, leaders have the personal characteristics that engender trust and commitment. In other words, as study results confirmed, the most effective leader-managers establish trusting relationships and strengthen others--they enable others; and, are just, fair, sincere, and recognize contributions--they encourage the heart. Based on study findings, the leadership development model proposed was founded on the premise that character can be developed, particularly if done so through assessment and challenging assignments, with coaching, mentoring, and peer network support. However, development of character requires a shift in our leadership development programs. What causes this shift is a focus on learning by doing through challenging assignments and teaching others rather than learning through event focused assessment and course work. Character cannot be learned in the classroom; it needs to be developed through experience and then learned by feedback, reflection, coaching, and teaching others. Study findings indicated that knowledge workers want to be encouraged, believed in and lead by those they trust to inspire them to accomplish the goals and objectives of the organization. To cause a workforce to generate intellectual capital for the organization, study findings found that the leader-manager's ''character'' does make a difference.

  13. Ubiquitous consultation tool for decentral knowledge workers

    OpenAIRE

    Nazari Shirehjini, A.A.; Rühl, C.; Noll, S

    2003-01-01

    The special issue of this initial study is to examine the current work situation of consulting companies, and to elaborate a concept for supporting decentralized working consultants. The concept addresses significant challenges of decentralized work processes by deploying the Peer-to-Peer methodology to decentralized expert and Knowledge Management, cooperation, and enterprise resource planning.

  14. Knowledge sharing in electronic working environments - experiences and practices of knowledge workers

    OpenAIRE

    Merilehto, Antti

    2010-01-01

    Objective of the Study The objective of the study was to discover how knowledge workers use electronic working environments (EWEs) to share and communicate knowledge and what are the perceived benefits using EWEs. The case company is a knowledge intensive company operating in sales consulting. Knowledge sharing practices were studied within the case company in order to answer the following research questions 1) How do the employees use EWEs? 2) How do they share knowledge using the EWE...

  15. Motivation Strategies for Knowledge Workers: Evidences and Challenges Motivation Strategies for Knowledge Workers: Evidences and Challenges Motivation Strategies for Knowledge Workers: Evidences and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Petroni; Pierluigi Colacino

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have been performed previously to investigate different theories of motivation and, more specifically, how to motivate technical professionals. Through a questionnaire survey carried out on 376 development engineers, identified as “knowledge workers” by managers in their firms, this study identifies what methods are used in industry to motivate these individuals, what works and what does not. While many aspects of standard incentives and reward systems used to motivate technical ...

  16. Supplier's sales engineer as a knowledge worker:

    OpenAIRE

    Kopecka, J.A.; Santema, S.C.; Hultink, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    The paper forms part of a multiple case study in progress that focuses on information relationships, i.e., the exchange of information and knowledge at the micro-social level between supplier and buyer firms in the fuzzy front end of product development. The micro-social level is made up of dyadic information relationships between the Design Engineer of buyer firms and the Sales Engineer of supplier firms. The case study explores the information relationship through the lens of three theoreti...

  17. Insufficient nutritional knowledge among health care workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowe, Morten; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Kondrup, Jens; Unosson, Mitra; Rothenberg, Elisabet; Irtun, Øivind; Scandinavian Nutrition Group

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Though a great interest and willingness to nutrition therapy, there is an insufficient practice compared to the proposed ESPEN guidelines for nutrition therapy. The aim of this questionnaire was to study doctors and nurses' self-reported knowledge in nutritional practice, with focus on ESPEN's guidelines in nutritional screening, assessment and treatment. METHODS: A questionnaire about different aspects of nutritional practice was answered by 4512 doctors and nurses in Denmark...

  18. Shareholders Should Welcome Knowledge Workers as Directors

    OpenAIRE

    Osterloh, Margit; Frey, Bruno S.

    2006-01-01

    "The most influential approach of corporate governance, the view of shareholders supremacyndoes not take into consideration that the key task of modern corporations is to generate andntransfer firm-specific knowledge. It proposes that, in order to overcome the widespreadncorporate scandals, the interests of top management and directors should be increasinglynaligned to shareholder interests by making the board more responsible to shareholders, andnmonitoring of top management by independent o...

  19. The workers role in knowledge management and sustainability policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolis, Ivan; Brunoro, Claudio; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal

    2012-01-01

    Based on the concepts of sustainability and knowledge management, this article seeks to identify points of contact between the two themes through an exploratory study of existing literature. The first objective is to find, in international literature, the largest number of papers jointly related to the theme of knowledge management and sustainability. In these documents, the authors looked at the kind of relationship existing between the two themes and what the benefits introduced in organizations are. Based on an ergonomic point of view, the second objective of this article is to analyze the role of the worker (whether at the strategic or operational level) and his importance in this context. The results demonstrate that there is very little literature that addresses the two themes together. The few papers found, however, can be said to show the many advantages of introducing sustainability policies supported by adequate knowledge management. Very little has been studied with regards to the role of workers, which could be interpreted as meaning that little importance is given to the proactive role they may play. On the other hand, there is a high potential for future research in these areas, based on the high level of consideration of workers in knowledge management and sustainability literature, as well as in literature in the areas of ergonomics and sociology. PMID:22317131

  20. The linkage between the lifestyle of knowledge workers and their intra-metropolitan residential choice

    OpenAIRE

    Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon; Kaplan, Sigal

    2011-01-01

    As knowledge-based economy is recognized as a powerful engine of economic growth and regional competitiveness, policy makers increasingly invest in branding their cities as knowledge-cities and focus on retaining and attracting knowledge-workers. Consequently, most studies related to the residential choice of knowledge workers focus on the inter-regional level, and empirical evidence regarding the residential choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level remains scarce. This ...

  1. The linkage between the lifestyle of knowledge workers and their intra-metropolitan residential choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon; Kaplan, Sigal

    2011-01-01

    As knowledge-based economy is recognized as a powerful engine of economic growth and regional competitiveness, policy makers increasingly invest in branding their cities as knowledge-cities and focus on retaining and attracting knowledge-workers. Consequently, most studies related to the residential choice of knowledge workers focus on the inter-regional level, and empirical evidence regarding the residential choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level remains scarce. This study ...

  2. Knowledge work difficulty factors: an empirical study based on different groups of knowledge workers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jalil Heidary, Dahooie; Abbas, Afrazeh; Seyed Mohammad Moathar, Hosseini; Mohammad Reza Ghezel, Arsalan.

    Full Text Available The determination of the difficulty factor in knowledge work can be important for improving the performance of knowledge workers. In this article a regression model for investigating the difficulty of knowledge based activities (KBAs) is proposed. Four factors are considered in the model: Uncertaint [...] y, Variability of information, Amount of information and Level of skill and expertise. An empirical study based on 119 jobs from three different groups of knowledge workers (i.e. managerial, professional and clerical) shows that there are significant differences between the difficulty of the KBAs in managerial, clerical and professional jobs, and that managerial KBAs are more difficult than the KBAs of the other two groups. Furthermore, regression models indicate that Level of skill and expertise is the most influential factor in the difficulty of the KBAs in each of the three groups.

  3. MOTIVATION STRATEGIES FOR KNOWLEDGE WORKERS: EVIDENCES AND CHALLENGES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alberto, Petronio; Pierluigio, Colacino.

    Full Text Available Many studies have been performed previously to investigate different theories of motivation and, more specifically, how to motivate technical professionals.Through a questionnaire survey carried out on 376 development engineers, identified as "knowledge workers" by managers in their firms,this study [...] identifies what methods are used in industry to motivate these individuals, what works and what does not.While many aspects of standard incentives and reward systems used to motivate technical professionals in general are also motivating for technical visionaries, these results indicate that they are motivated by additional factors not generally discussed in the literature.

  4. An Analysis on the Knowledge Workers’ Turnover: A Psychological Contract Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yumei Wang; Zhen Zhu; Qing Cong

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge workers are gradually becoming the most valuable and productive part of employees, but their intrinsic characters lead to their high turnover rate. As viewed from the theory of psychological contract, this article analyzes the flow process of knowledge workers, establishes the employee satisfaction model and finds out that one important reason inducing knowledge workers’ high turnover rate is to ignore and breach their psychological expectations. Based on that, this article also put...

  5. Surveying the Knowledge and Function of Motor Industry Workers on the Care of Lumbar Spine Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rezasoltani

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the level of the workersknowledge and their function regarding the care of lumbar spine. Some researchers have reported that increased knowledge of the workers, even when they have received specific training, does not cause any major changes in their back’s health and function. However, some research has shown a significant relationship between increased knowledge and improved worker function. Other research has shown that Back School instruction is effective in raising the level of knowledge in workers. This research was carried out using two questionnaires that assessed the level of knowledge and function of workers in a car company. The questions were designed in four groups relating to: (1 goods and load properties and methods of carrying and handling, (2 worker’s posture at work, (3 physical exertion, (4 tools and conditions of the workplace. Measures of outcome included the workers' function and the knowledge. We found that the workers' knowledge fell into one of 3 categories: low (%11, moderate (57%, and high (%32. We also found that %52 of workers had weak function, while %18 had moderate, and %2 had high function levels. Twenty-eight percent of workers showed function levels below that of the “low” category. In brief , our research showed that the level of the workersknowledge of the appropriate methods of work in relation to their back was in an acceptable range. However, this function level was associated with low knowledge levels. No significant relationship was found between the workersknowledge levels and their functional improvement.

  6. An Inquiry into the Motivations of Knowledge Workers in the Japanese Financial Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kubo, I; Saka-Helmhout, A

    2002-01-01

    The knowledge base of companies is increasingly seen as underlying a firm’s performance, and the role of knowledge workers within this framework is seen as strongly associated with a firm’s competitive performance. This perspective views the effective management of knowledge workers as crucial in sustaining an organisation’s competitive advantage. The paper views the financial industry as a knowledge intensive sector which nurtures the idea that financial firms rely on specialists’ knowledge ...

  7. An Analysis on the Knowledge Workers’ Turnover: A Psychological Contract Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Wang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge workers are gradually becoming the most valuable and productive part of employees, but their intrinsic characters lead to their high turnover rate. As viewed from the theory of psychological contract, this article analyzes the flow process of knowledge workers, establishes the employee satisfaction model and finds out that one important reason inducing knowledge workers’ high turnover rate is to ignore and breach their psychological expectations. Based on that, this article also puts forward the countermeasures to reduce knowledge workers’ turnover rate by managing their psychological contracts.

  8. The linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon; Kaplan, Sigal

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers in commute and leisure trips. Specifically, this study compares the commuting and leisure travel behavior of knowledge workers who receive either a company-car or car allowance with the travel behavior of workers who do not receive car-related fringe benefits. Data are based on a revealed-preferences survey among knowledge workers in Israel. Results show that car-related fringe bene...

  9. The Relationship between Workplace Climate, Motivation and Learning Approaches for Knowledge Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanthournout, Gert; Noyens, Dorien; Gijbels, David; Van den Bossche, Piet

    2014-01-01

    Workplace learning is becoming a central tenet for a large proportion of today's employees. This seems especially true for so-called knowledge workers. Today, it remains unclear how differences in the quality of workplace learning are affected by differences in perception of the workplace environment and the motivation of knowledge workers to…

  10. Disability Support Workers' Knowledge and Education Needs about Psychotropic Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, Mandy; Chan, Jeffrey; Webber, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    Disability support workers are the predominant workforce employed to support people with an intellectual disability in Australia. Many support workers are required to assist people they support to take psychotropic medications in the form of chemical restraint. Support workers in Australia receive limited education and training in this area and as…

  11. Energy conservation attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors in science laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy use per square foot from science research labs is disproportionately higher than that of other rooms in buildings on campuses across the nation. This is partly due to labs’ use of energy intensive equipment. However, laboratory management and personnel behavior may be significant contributing factors to energy consumption. Despite an apparent increasing need for energy conservation in science labs, a systematic investigation of avenues promoting energy conservation behavior in such labs appears absent in scholarly literature. This paper reports the findings of a recent study into the energy conservation knowledge, attitude and behavior of principle investigators, laboratory managers, and student lab workers at a tier 1 research university. The study investigates potential barriers as well as promising avenues to reducing energy consumption in science laboratories. The findings revealed: (1) an apparent lack of information about options for energy conservation in science labs, (2) existing operational barriers, (3) economic issues as barriers/motivators of energy conservation and (4) a widespread notion that cutting edge science may be compromised by energy conservation initiatives. - Highlights: ? Effective energy conservation and efficiency depend on social systems and human behaviors. ? Science laboratories use more energy per square foot than any other academic and research spaces. ? Time, money, quality control, and convenience overshadow personnel’s desire to save energy. ? Ignorance of conservation practices is a barrier to energy conservation in labs.

  12. Contributing Knowledge and Knowledge Workers: The Role of Chinese Universities in the Knowledge Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang-Ye

    2012-01-01

    As China has appeared only recently as an important knowledge producer with growing global economic significance, little is known internationally about how these processes develop and are managed within China. The rapidly expanding Chinese higher education system is playing an increasingly important role in China's knowledge economy and therefore…

  13. Cancer and workers' compensation at Chalk River nuclear laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the circumstances leading to the notification to the Worker's Compensation Board of Ontario of two cases of cancer, both involving the lymphatic and haematoporetic systems, in employees at Chalk River Nulcear Laboratories. Twenty of these neoplasms are known to have occurred in the CRNL population between 1966 and 1983. The leukemia/lymphoma ratio observed in the twenty neoplasms is similar to that found in populations not occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. The possible relationship between asbestos exposure and lymphoid neoplasms was discussed. 5 refs

  14. Knowledge Cities and Transport Sustainability: The Link between the Travel Behavior of Knowledge Workers and Car-Related Job Perks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the linkage between the travel behavior of knowledge workers and car-related job perks. The importance of this issue derives from the tendency of knowledge economy to concentrate in highly populated metropolitan regions. The analyzed data comprise 750 observations, retrieved from a survey among knowledge workers in Tel-Aviv. Results show that car-related job perks are associated with (1) high annual kilometrage, (2) increased commute by car, (3) long commute travel times, (4) high trip chaining frequency, and (5) many long-distance leisure trips. Results suggest that the development of sustainable knowledge-based cities should consider decoupling knowledge workers from car-related job perks. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  15. Knowledge and opinions of emergency contraceptive pills among female factory workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Sandra G; Becker, Davida; de Castro, Marcela Martínez; Paz, Francisco; Olavarrieta, Claudia Díaz; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2008-09-01

    Workers in Mexico's maquiladoras (assembly plants) are mainly young, single women, many of whom could benefit from emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). Because ECPs are readily available in Mexico, women who know about the therapy can obtain it easily. Do maquiladora workers know about the method? Could worksite programs help increase awareness? To investigate these questions, we conducted a five-month intervention during which workers in three maquiladoras along the Mexico-United States border could attend educational talks on ECPs, receive pamphlets, and obtain kits containing EC supplies. Among the workers exposed to our intervention, knowledge of ECPs increased. Reported ECP use also increased. Although our intervention apparently increased workers' knowledge and use, the factory proved to be a difficult intervention setting. Problems we experienced included a factory closure and management/staff opposition to certain project elements. Future studies should continue to investigate work-site interventions and other strategies to reach workers. PMID:18853641

  16. Assessment Of Knowledge And Skills Of Anganwadi Workers For Conduct Of Preschool Education Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajni Dhingra , Iesha Sharma And Priyanka Sharma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present research was carried out to assess the Knowledge and Skills of Anganwadi workers (the keyfunctionary in the ICDS programme for delivery of services for conduct of preschool education activities inAnganwadi centres. A sample of 105 Anganwadi workers was randomly drawn from three urban blocks of Jammudistrict. The tools used for collecting information were Observation and Rating scales. Rating scale devised byNational Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development (NIPCCD for “Assessment of PreschoolEducation (PSE skills of Anganwadi workers” and self devised rating scale for “Assessing knowledge level ofAnganwadi workers” were used. The results of the study revealed that majority of the respondents had adequateknowledge regarding their roles and responsibilities in preschool education component of ICDS programme. Theconceptual understanding of respondents on the issues related to growth and development of child, age forpreschool education, teaching method and language to be used for communication was found to be in accordancewith child development theory. On the other hand, knowledge level of Anganwadi workers on the aspect ofimportance of early childhood, concept and need of preschool education were found inadequate. Regarding theskills of Anganwadi worker, it was found that the Anganwadi worker demonstrated good skills for communication,preparation of teaching aids, motivating and organising PSE activities, while they were optimal in other skills likeinteraction between Anganwadi worker and helper and several aspects related to knowledge across the selectedblocks. Knowledge and skills of Anganwadi workers were found to share high positive correlation (0.75 thusdepicting the interdependence of these two factors. The study has important implication for policy makers, trainersand staff of Anganwadi Training Centres (AWTCs particularly for improvement in knowledge and skills ofAnganwadi workers especially in view of large scale expansion of ICDS programme in India.

  17. Genotoxic damage in pathology anatomy laboratory workers exposed to formaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical traditionally used in pathology and anatomy laboratories as a tissue preservative. Several epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to FA have indicated an increased risk of nasopharyngeal cancers in industrial workers, embalmers and pathology anatomists. There is also a clear evidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas from inhalation studies in the rat. The postulated mode of action for nasal tumours in rats was considered biologically plausible and considered likely to be relevant to humans. Based on the available data IARC, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, has recently classified FA as a human carcinogen. Although the in vitro genotoxic as well as the in vivo carcinogenic potentials of FA are well documented in mammalian cells and in rodents, evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting thus remains to be more documented. To evaluate the genetic effects of long-term occupational exposure to FA a group of 30 Pathological Anatomy laboratory workers was tested for a variety of biological endpoints, cytogenetic tests (micronuclei, MN; sister chromatid exchange, SCE) and comet assay. The level of exposure to FA was evaluated near the breathing zone of workers, time weighted average of exposure was calculated for each subject. The association between the biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic metabolising and DNA repair enzymes was also assessed. The mean level of exposure was 0.44 ± 0.08 ppm (0.04-1.58 ppm). MN frequency was significantly higher (p = 0.003) in the exposed subjects (5.47 ± 0.76) when compared with controls (3.27 ± 0.69). SCE mean value was significantly higher (p < 0.05) among the exposed group (6.13 ± 0.29) compared with control group (4.49 ± 0.16). Comet assay data showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) of TL in FA-exposed workers (60.00 ± 2.31) with respect to the control group (41.85 ± 1.97). A positive correlation was found between FA exposure levels and MN frequency (r = 0.384, p = 0.001) and TL (r = 0.333, p = 0.005). Regarding the genetic polymorphisms studied, no significant effect was found on the genotoxic endpoints. The results of the present biomonitoring study emphasize the need to develop safety programs

  18. Knowledge workers' creativity and the role of the physical work environment

    OpenAIRE

    Dul, J.; Ceylan, C.; Jaspers, F.P.H.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study examines the effect of the physical work environment on the creativity of knowledge workers, compared with the effects of creative personality and the social-organizational work environment. Based on data from 274 knowledge workers in 27 SMEs, we conclude that creative personality, the social-organizational work environment, and the physical work environment independently affect creative performance. The relative contribution of the physical work environment is s...

  19. HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Construction Workers in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Bo; Guo, Haiqiang; Sun, Gao; Zuo, Tianming; Zhang, Yang; Li, Brandon Y.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, risk behaviors, and sources of information among construction workers in China. A cross-sectional survey of 458 construction workers was conducted among 4 construction sites in Shenyang city in 2006. All 458 participants were individually interviewed in a private setting by a trained team of medical researchers using a structured questionnaire, which included questions on general personal information and the knowledge, ...

  20. The linkage between the residential choice and the lifestyle of knowledge workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon; Kaplan, Sigal

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the linkage between the lifestyle and the intra-metropolitan residential choice of knowledge-workers in terms of home ownership, location, dwelling size and building type. In order to identify population groups based on their lifestyle, data from a revealed-preferences survey among knowledge-workers in Israel are clustered by means of a two-stage clustering method, consisting of self-organizing maps (SOM) followed by neural gas, Bayesian classification and unified distanc...

  1. Residential location choice of knowledge-workers: The role of amenities, workplace and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward; Kaplan, Sigal

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the residential location choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level by applying discrete choice models. The models represent housing choices of 833 knowledge-workers in high-technology and financial services and analyze the relative importance of lifestyle and cultural amenities in addition to classic location factors. Hence, the model bridges the gap between the recent lifestyle-oriented and the classical utility-oriented conceptualizations of the reside...

  2. Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Workers towards Occupational Health and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    H Sanaei Nasab; Tavakoli, R; Ghofranipour, F; Kazemnejad, A; Khavanin, A

    2009-01-01

    "nBackground: Studies show that about 90% of accidents occur because of unsafe behavior and human errors. Even if workers do not have the right knowledge, attitude and behavior toward safety measures in a safe workplace, all efforts for an accident-free workplace will be in vain. This study aims to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior of workers toward occupational health and safety."nMethods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on workers in Ma...

  3. Knowledge Of Anganwadi Workers And Their Problems-in Gadwal (rural, Mahabubnagar, Dist. AP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji Ali Baba

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anganwadi workers and helpers are engaged by the government to work in the state-operated IntegratedChild Development Scheme (ICDS. This scheme caters to the health and pre-school education needs of childrenfrom birth to six years of age and also to the health and nutrition needs of pregnant women, nursing mothers, andadolescent girls, to study the profile of Anganwadi Workers (AWWs .To assess knowledge of AWWs & problemsfaced by them while working. The author discussed on “knowledge of Anganwadi workers and their problems”with special reference to Gadwal (Rural, Mahabubnagar, District .AP.

  4. Knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast cancer screening among female health workers in a Nigerian urban city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omuemu Vivian O

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late presentation has been observed as the hallmark of breast cancer in Nigerian women and an earlier onset has been reported in this population. This study was designed to assess the awareness of female health workers about risk factors and screening methods for early detection of breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among female health workers in the two major government health institutions in Benin City, Edo State capital in Nigeria. Data analysis was by SPSS version 10 and test of significance was done with differences considered significant at p Results Three hundred and ninety-three (393 female health workers out of five hundred and five eligible subjects completed and returned the questionnaires, giving a response rate of 77.8%. One hundred and two (26% were Doctors, two hundred and fifty-four (64.6% Nurses, and thirty-seven (9.4% were Radiographers, Laboratory Scientists and Pharmacists. A high proportion of our respondents had very poor knowledge about risk factors for breast cancer (55%. The awareness of mammography as a diagnostic method was very high (80.7%, but an extremely low knowledge of mammography as a screening method was found. Mammography practice of only 3.1% was found among those above 40 years of age who qualify for routine annual screening. Relatively low knowledge (45.5% about Breast Self Examination (BSE as a screening method was found. Conclusion These female health workers who are expected to act as role models and educate the public had poor knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer and practice of breast cancer screening. There is very urgent need for regular update courses for health workers concerning breast cancer education including screening methods.

  5. Organisational design elements and competencies for optimising the expertise of knowledge workers in a shared services centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ramsey

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations are still structured according to the Industrial Age control model that restricts optimising the expertise of knowledge workers.Research purpose: The general aim of the research was to explore the organisation design elements and competencies that contribute to optimising the expertise of knowledge workers in a shared services centre.Motivation for the study: Current organisational design methodologies do not emphasise optimising the expertise of knowledge workers. This research addresses the challenge of how an organisation design can improve the creation and availability of the expertise of knowledge workers.Research design/approach method: The researcher followed a qualitative case study research design and collected data in six focus group sessions (N = 25.Main findings: The findings showed that the shared services centre (SSC is not designed to enable its structure, culture and codifying system to optimise the expertise of knowledge workers. In addition, the SSC does not share the knowledge generated with other knowledge workers. Furthermore, it does not use the output of the knowledge workers to improve business processes.Practical/managerial implications: The expertise of knowledge workers is the basis of competitive advantage. Therefore, managers should create an organisational design that is conducive to optimising knowledge work expertise.Contribution/value add: This research highlights the important organisational design elements and supportive organisational structures for optimising the expertise of knowledge workers. The research also proposes a framework for optimising the expertise of knowledge workers and helping an organisation to achieve sustainable competitive advantage.

  6. A knowledge and awareness level survey of radiation protection among the radiation workers in Henan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Objective: To reveal the knowledge and awareness level of radiation protection among radiation workers in Henan province and to explore the methods to improve it. Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out among 208 radiation workers. Results: The correct rate of the answer to radiation protection knowledge from radiation workers in Henan province is 53.78%. Most of them (88.9%) realized that it is important to protect patients and their companions. They adhere to the principles of justification of medial exposure and optimization of radiation protection and follow the management system of radiation protection. However, a few workers didn't follow the principles strictly. Sometime, during the radio diagnosis and radiotherapy services, the patients and their companions were not well protected from the radiation, and some patients were given unnecessary X-ray examine. Even worse, some workers did not attach importance to the regulations of radiation protection and disobey them frequently. Again, some hospital leaders disregard the regulation of radiation protection and didn't follow the regulation of health surveillance and radiation protection monitoring properly. And those behaviors and attitude, in fact, influence some workers' attitude to radiation protection. Conclusion: The level of radiation protection knowledge and awareness among the radiation workers in Henan province needs to be improved. It is necessary to strengthen radiation protection knowledge by strengthening training, and to improve safety awareness among the radiation staff, and, more important, the hospital leaders as well. (author)

  7. The linkage between the lifestyle of knowledge workers and their intra-metropolitan residential choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon

    As knowledge-based economy is recognized as a powerful engine of economic growth and regional competitiveness, policy makers increasingly invest in branding their cities as knowledge-cities and focus on retaining and attracting knowledge-workers. Consequently, most studies related to the residential choice of knowledge workers focus on the inter-regional level, and empirical evidence regarding the residential choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level remains scarce. This study investigates the linkage between the residential choice of knowledge-workers and their lifestyle encompassing life-cycle stage, work-role and leisure activities, subject to economic and spatial constraints. The importance of this issue derives from the role of housing as key enabler for attracting and retaining knowledge-workers, and from evidence regarding the role of knowledge workers in promoting the contradictory trends of urban sprawl and inner city revitalization. The analysis consists of two stages. First, distinguishable clusters of knowledge-workers according to their lifestyle are identified by means of self-organizing maps (SOM) for pattern recognition and classification of multi-dimensional data. The applied method is a two-stage clustering process that comprises SOM followed by neural gas, Bayesian classification and distance matrix edge analysis. Following, the residential choice of these clusters is analyzed in terms of home ownership, location, building type, location and dwelling size. The analyzed data are retrieved from a custom designed revealed-preferences survey among workers in the high-technology and finance sector, who work and reside in the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area in Israel. Results identify five groups of knowledge workers that significantly differ in terms of lifestyle and residential choice: nest-builders, bon-vivants, careerists, entrepreneurs and laid-back. Bon-vivants and entrepreneurs largely prefer to reside in the metropolitan core, although they differ in terms of home ownership, dwelling size and building type. While bon-vivants rent small apartments, entrepreneurs tend towards owning large dwelling units and single detached houses. Careerists strongly prefer to own large single-detached houses in the middle and outer ring of the metropolitan area. Nest-builders exhibit strong preference for home ownership and large apartments or houses, and their main reason for suburban locating is the ability to reside in larger dwellings and single-detached houses. Laid-back trade-off between location and dwelling characteristics, although they exhibit weaker preferences towards home ownership, large dwellings and single detached houses than nest

  8. Reward preferences of knowledge workers in technology firms and their influence on attraction, retention and motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Toerien, Wernardt

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: In the global war for talent, companies competing in the new knowledge economy face global shortages of their most precious resource – human capital in the form of knowledge workers. In organisations that are at the forefront of the information age, such as information technology (IT) firms, the competitive advantage comes from the intangible value of the knowledge residing within pools of highly skilled employees. It is imperative to be able to attract, retain, and motivate thes...

  9. [Knowledge management system for laboratory work and clinical decision support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Masanori; Sato, Mayumi; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2011-05-01

    This paper discusses a knowledge management system for clinical laboratories. In the clinical laboratory of Toranomon Hospital, we receive about 20 questions relevant to laboratory tests per day from medical doctors or co-medical staff. These questions mostly involve the essence to appropriately accomplish laboratory tests. We have to answer them carefully and suitably because an incorrect answer may cause a medical accident. Up to now, no method has been in place to achieve a rapid response and standardized answers. For this reason, the laboratory staff have responded to various questions based on their individual knowledge. We began to develop a knowledge management system to promote the knowledge of staff working for the laboratory. This system is a type of knowledge base for assisting the work, such as inquiry management, laboratory consultation, process management, and clinical support. It consists of several functions: guiding laboratory test information, managing inquiries from medical staff, reporting results of patient consultation, distributing laboratory staffs notes, and recording guidelines for laboratory medicine. The laboratory test information guide has 2,000 records of medical test information registered in the database with flexible retrieval. The inquiry management tool provides a methos to record all questions, answer easily, and retrieve cases. It helps staff to respond appropriately in a short period of time. The consulting report system treats patients' claims regarding medical tests. The laboratory staffs notes enter a file management system so they can be accessed to aid in clinical support. Knowledge sharing using this function can achieve the transition from individual to organizational learning. Storing guidelines for laboratory medicine will support EBM. Finally, it is expected that this system will support intellectual activity concerning laboratory work and contribute to the practice of knowledge management for clinical work support. PMID:21706867

  10. Knowledge and Practice Assessment of Workers in a Pharmaceutical Company about Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yasser Labbafinejad; Marzieh Nojomi; Saber Mohammadi; Mirsaeed Attarchi

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is one of the most common reasons of death around the world. Also, according to previous studies, the incidence of coronary artery disease is rapidly increasing in developing countries such as Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and practice of pharmaceutical company workers towards the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In this cross sectional study that was conducted in Tehran, 1223 workers of a pharmaceutical company were enrolled. Data was ...

  11. Neonatal jaundice and its management: knowledge, attitude and practice of community health workers in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Olusoji J; Ogunfowora Olusoga B

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is still a leading cause of preventable brain damage, physical and mental handicap, and early death among infants in many communities. Greater awareness is needed among all health workers. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge of primary health care workers about the description, causes, effective treatment, and sequelae of NNJ. Methods The setting was a local government area i.e. an administrative district within the south-western...

  12. Level and Determinants of Knowledge of Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis among Railway Workers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Menke, J Michael; Challakere Ramaswamy, Vasudeva Murthy; Abdul Manaf, Rizal; Alabsi, Aied M; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman

    2014-01-01

    Background. Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, an ancient malady greatly impairing modern population quality of life, has stimulated global attention to find effective modes of prevention and intervention. Purpose. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) among Malaysian railway workers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 railway workers involving eight major states within Peninsular Malaysia using population-based...

  13. Assessment Of Knowledge And Skills Of Anganwadi Workers For Conduct Of Preschool Education Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Rajni Dhingra , Iesha Sharma And Priyanka Sharma

    2013-01-01

    The present research was carried out to assess the Knowledge and Skills of Anganwadi workers (the keyfunctionary in the ICDS programme for delivery of services) for conduct of preschool education activities inAnganwadi centres. A sample of 105 Anganwadi workers was randomly drawn from three urban blocks of Jammudistrict. The tools used for collecting information were Observation and Rating scales. Rating scale devised byNational Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development (NIPCCD) f...

  14. Nutrition Training Improves Health Workers’ Nutrition Knowledge and Competence to Manage Child Undernutrition: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sunguya, Bruno F.; Poudel, Krishna C.; Mlunde, Linda B.; Urassa, David P; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medical and nursing education lack adequate practical nutrition training to fit the clinical reality that health workers face in their practices. Such a deficit creates health workers with poor nutrition knowledge and child undernutrition management practices. In-service nutrition training can help to fill this gap. However, no systematic review has examined its collective effectiveness. We thus conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of in-service nutrition training on ...

  15. Oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children’s center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyne, Amjad; Hammad, Nouf; Splieth, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children’s center. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect following information: demographics, oral hygiene practices, importance of fluoride, dental visits, cause of tooth decay, gingival health, and sources of oral health information. The study was conducted at Riyadh Center for Special Children in Riyadh City from December 2013 to May 2014. Results: All 60 health care workers in the center completed the questionnaire. A great majority (95%) of the workers brushed their teeth twice or more daily. More than two-third (71.7%) of the workers knew that fluoride helps in caries prevention. One in five (21.7%) workers thought that a dental visit only becomes necessary in case of a dental problem. Similarly, 13.3% of the workers thought to “wait till there is some pain in case of a dental cavity” before seeking dental treatment. The workers ranked soft drinks/soda (98.3%), flavored fizzy drinks (60%) and sweetened/flavored milks (43.3%) as top three cariogenic drinks. A great majority (95%) of the workers correctly responded that blood on toothbrush most probably is a sign of “gum disease”. Dentists (50%) and media (45%) were the main source of their oral health information. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in workers’ response in relation to their specific job. Conclusion: The special health care workers in the disabled children’s center generally had satisfactory oral health knowledge and practices. PMID:25878636

  16. Risk Perception, Knowledge and Safety Attitude and Hearing Protector Use in Petrochemical Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Jahangiri

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing protectors (HP are widely employed as the only measure against noise exposure. However, it is well known that unless do workers wear HP continuously, its efficacy will be very low. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of risk perception, knowledge and safety attitude on hearing protection use in petrochemical industry's workers.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study a structural questionnaire was administrated to 236 randomly selected workers in Iranian petrochemical industry who had been to 85 dBA noise and some influencing factors including risk perception, knowledge and general attitude to safety on using of HP had been investigated.Results: This study showed that only 20.3% of employees claimed to wear hearing protection all the time when they exposed to noise. There was a significant relationship between use of hearing protector and worker's risk perception (p=0.048 and also their knowledge about hearing protection(p=0.009. Also, the relationship between general attitude of workers to safety and risk perception was statistically significant (p=0.046. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that for promoting the use of hearing protectors, two main strategy should be followed. First, removing the barriers to make hearing protectors compliant, and second enhancing the workers’ risk perception about hearing loss and proper use of ear protectors.

  17. Knowledge and Practice Assessment of Workers in a Pharmaceutical Company about Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Labbafinejad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease is one of the most common reasons of death around the world. Also, according to previous studies, the incidence of coronary artery disease is rapidly increasing in developing countries such as Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and practice of pharmaceutical company workers towards the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In this cross sectional study that was conducted in Tehran, 1223 workers of a pharmaceutical company were enrolled. Data was collected using a questionnaire that assessed the level of knowledge and practice of the participants towards coronary artery disease. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between study variables and the workers knowledge level. The results of this study showed that 49% of the workers were in a good level of knowledge and according to the regression analysis, the female gender, age above 28, education level higher than high school diploma, body mass index above 25 kilograms per square meters, history of hyperlipidemia, history of diabetes, history of hypertension, history of myocardial infarction, daily activity and exercise, were significantly related to a good knowledge towards coronary artery disease. In addition, the mean score of the participants' performance in preventing coronary artery disease was 4.66 out of 9. The results of this study showed that increasing level of knowledge of labors in order to prevent missing specialized work force, leads to imposition of health costs to the industry and the labor society.

  18. Residential location choice of knowledge-workers: The role of amenities, workplace and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the residential location choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level by applying discrete choice models. The models represent housing choices of 833 knowledge-workers in high-technology and financial services and analyze the relative importance of lifestyle and cultural amenities in addition to classic location factors. Hence, the model bridges the gap between the recent lifestyle-oriented and the classical utility-oriented conceptualizations of the residential choice of knowledge-workers. The most important factors are municipal socioeconomic level, housing affordability and commuting time, while substantial secondary factors are cultural and educational land-use and culture-oriented lifestyle. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between quality of work life and human resource productivity in knowledge workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Hatam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health care systems depend critically on the size, skill, and commitment of the health workforce. Therefore, researchers have a close observation on the subjects which leads to an increase in the productivity of human resources. This study aims at determining the relationship between the quality of work life and the productivity of knowledge workers of the central field of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, in order to determine the factors effective in the quality of their working life. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 individuals selected by stratified random sampling method. On 761 knowledge workers of the central field of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences by using Timossi questionnaire of Quality of Work Life and Knowledge Worker Productivity Assessment questionnaire of Antikainen, during May and June 2011. The collected data were recorded by SPSS version 15 software and then it underwent statistical analysis using Pearson correlation. The P value level for statistical significance was set at 0.05. Results: In general, 50% of the knowledge workers were dissatisfied about their quality of work life, and the other 50% had little satisfaction. 18% of the staff were in an unfavorable condition and 82% had a poor productivity. Also, the quality of work life had a positively significant relationship with the productivity of human resources (r=0.568; P>0.001. Conclusion: Most of the knowledge workers in the central field of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences had low productivity and quality of work life. Considering the relationship between the two variables, taking measures to improve the quality of work life can lead to more creative and profound planning in presenting services and, as a result, improving the productivity of the knowledge workers.

  20. Knowledge sharing among workers: a study on their contribution through informal communication in Cyberjaya, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norizzati Azudin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia, being a multi-racial society, faces the challenges of creating knowledge sharing capability in organisations, as cultural values are often reflected in the workplace by individual employees. For organisations, it is not clear whether this diversity has resulted in any form of competitive advantage. Studies have shown that various communities in Malaysia do not bring their respective cultures to work, and as such the company values prevail. This research is based on the demographic study of Informal Knowledge Sharing in Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia. After twelve years, Cyberjaya is approximately 25% developed, gradually expanding with the establishment of multinational and international organizations. Several flagship applications have been developed in MSC Malaysia to accelerate its growth. However, the expertise and knowledge shared among the workers are doubtful, especially at its initial growth stage. As Knowledge Management (KM developed, Communities of Practice (Wenger, 1998 became popular, even dominant „KM? intervention. Soon it was supplemented with story-telling interventions encouraging knowledge workers to use stories to „sell? KM internally, share knowledge and facilitate collaboration. This study will focus on knowledge sharing among workers, particularly the approach used to share knowledge through informal communication outside their organizations.

  1. Community health workersknowledge about crack and other drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analine Fernandes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify the knowledge of community health agents (CHA of the city of Passo Fundo on crack and other drugs and to describe their sociodemographic and health profiles. Methods: descriptive study with 78 CHA from Passo Fundo. Data collection occurred through the application of a structured and self-administered questionnaire on demographics and health of CHA, and another on knowledge about crack and other drugs. Descriptive analysis and Tukey´s test, as well as Pearson´s product moment correlation and Spearman´s correlation were performed. Results: all CHA were female, mean age 41.1±9.6 years, with 57.7% of them having completed high school and 69.2% being married. Also, 11.5% were smokers, 93.6% denied alcohol dependence and most had drug addicts in their coverage area. Half of them presented family problems. In relation to health, 29.5% obtained an SRQ score suggesting the possibility of Common Mental Disorders, and 51.3% said that they had chronic diseases. In the knowledge test the average of correct answers was 34.5%, with the highest number of correct answers being among the CHA with more schooling (p = 0.006. Conclusion: the low number of correct answers on the knowledge test shows an urgent need to strengthen the training of CHA. The specific profile of these professionals raises the need for more attention to their health, as well as new research in the area.

  2. Knowledge and Attitudes of Healthcare Workers in Umraniye, Turkey Regarding Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan H?d?ro?lu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers in primary health care centres regarding Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF in Umraniye.Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from July-August 2008 in 18 primary healthcare centres in the Umraniye Provincial Health Directorate. The study sample was not selected and we approached 229 healthcare workers working in these primary health care centres; 144 participants (62.8% completed the study. Study data were collected using a three-part questionnaire including 35 questions. The data were evaluated by descriptive statistics and t-tests.Results: Of the participants (72.2% women, 68.7% thought they had sufficient knowledge about the disease. 99.3% knew the aetiological factor of CCHF is a virus, and 92.4% specified that people who go picnicking and camping without protection are a risk group. The mean CCHF knowledge points was 17.48±3.37; the mean score of doctors (18.31±3.24 was significantly higher that that of nurses (17.01±3.36, p<0.05. 72.2% thought caring for a CCHF patient was a high risk task. Conclusion: The knowledge level of healthcare workers was found to be low compared to other studies performed in Turkey. The knowledge level of doctors was higher than that of nurses. In general, the answers of healthcare workers on the attitude questions were negative.

  3. THE MANAGEMENT OF KNOWLEDGE WORKERS – KEY FACTOR OF SUCCES

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia-Elena ?UCLEA; Gabriela ?IGU

    2007-01-01

    The traditional companies are built on familiar bedrock of buildings, plants, and inventories. Competitive advantage is viewed in terms of scale and volume stemming from high-capacity use of machine-based factories. Such an approach fails to recognize how the leverage of knowledge is becoming a key to long-term success. Nowadays, organizations must recognize that power resides in the minds of their best people, who are diffused throughout the business and the organizations are becoming more d...

  4. Sexual Knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among unmarried migrant female workers in China: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tang Jie; Gao Xiaohui; Yu Yizhen; Ahmed Niman; Zhu Huiping; Wang Jiaji; Du Yukai

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years, many studies have focused on adolescent's sex-related issues in China. However, there have been few studies of unmarried migrant females' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, which is important for sexual health education and promotion. Methods A sample of 5156 unmarried migrant female workers was selected from three manufacturing factories, two located in Shenzhen and one in Guangzhou, China. Demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and behavio...

  5. AIDS knowledge and risky sexual behaviors among registered female sex workers in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    BEDÜK, Tülin; ÜNLÜ, Hayriye; Duyan, Veli

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate AIDS knowledge and risky sexual behaviors of registered female sex workers during their obligatory periodic examination in the Department of Dermatology and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Ankara Metropolitan Municipality Hospital. Materials and methods: A questionnaire composed of items on socio-demographic features and knowledge levels on HIV/AIDS, its transmission routes, and risky sexual behaviors was administered via face to face interviews. Results: One hundred four sex ...

  6. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards zoonoses among public health workers in Nyanza province, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Darryn Knobel; Job Wasonga; Gamaliel Omondi; Eric Ogola; Peter Omemo

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine the knowledge and attitude of public health workers (PHWs) with respect to emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases and the practice of one health approach in the surveillance of zoonoses in the community. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 randomly selected districts of Nyanza province, Kenya. One hundred and ten randomly-selected PHWs were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Data were collected on their knowledge, attitudes and practices about common...

  7. Sexual Knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among unmarried migrant female workers in China: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Jie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, many studies have focused on adolescent's sex-related issues in China. However, there have been few studies of unmarried migrant females' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, which is important for sexual health education and promotion. Methods A sample of 5156 unmarried migrant female workers was selected from three manufacturing factories, two located in Shenzhen and one in Guangzhou, China. Demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the factors associated with premarital sexual intercourse. Results The average age of the unmarried female workers included in the sample was 20.2 years, and majority of them showed a low level of sex-related knowledge. Females from the west of China demonstrated a significant lower level of sex-related knowledge than those from the eastern or central provinces (p p p Conclusion The unmarried migrant female workers lack sexual knowledge and a substantial proportion of them are engaged in premarital sexual behaviors. Interventions aimed at improving their sexual knowledge and related skills are needed.

  8. Medical Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Female Sex Workers and Their Occupational Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna T. Nakagawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tendency for female sex workers to seek health care is highly influenced by physician attitudes and behavior. By identifying medical students' attitudes toward female sex workers and assessing their knowledge of barriers to seeking care, we can focus medical training and advocacy efforts to increase access to care and improve public health outcomes. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, medical students from various countries were invited to participate in an online survey with close-ended questions and Likert scale statements. Responses were quantified and knowledge and attitude scores were assigned based on knowledge of barriers to seeking care and agreement with positive and negative attitude statements. Results: A total of 292 medical students from 56 countries completed the survey, of whom 98.3% agreed that it will be their job to provide treatment to patients regardless of occupation. Self-identified religious students conveyed more negative attitudes toward female sex workers compared to those who did not identify themselves as religious (p<0.001. Students intending to practice in countries where prostitution is legal conveyed more positive attitudes compared to those intending to practice in countries where prostitution is illegal (p<0.001. Conclusion: Medical students largely agreed on the importance of providing care to female sex workers as a vulnerable group. In addition to addressing knowledge gaps in medical education, more localized studies are needed to understand the religious and legal influences on attitudes toward female sex workers. Such information can help focus the efforts in both medical education and communication training to achieve the desired behavioral impacts, reconciling the future generations of health care providers with the needs of female sex workers.

  9. Knowledge, attitude and practices about needle stick injuries in health care workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To assess knowledge, attitude and practices about needle stick Injuries in health care workers. Study type, settings and duration: Hospital based study carried out at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, from August 2010 to November 2010. Subjects and Methods: A self administered 19 items questionnaire was prepared which contained information about needle stick injuries, its awareness, frequency of injury and the protocols that were followed after an injury had occurred. These questionnaires were given to 500 health care workers working in different wards and theaters of the hospital after obtaining their informed written consent. The health care workers included doctors, nurses and paramedical staff of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 15. Results: A total of 500 health care workers filled the questionnaire and returned it. Out of these 416(83.2%) reported ever experiencing needle stick injuries in their professional life. Health care workers working in Emergency department were most frequently affected (65%) followed by those working in different wards (27%) and operation theatre (8%). Most (93.6%) workers had knowledge about needle stick injuries and only 6.4% were not aware of it. Needle stick injury occurred from a brand new (unused) syringe in 51.2% cases, while in 32.8% cases, the needle caused an injury after it had been used for an injection. In 5% cases, injury occurred with blood stained needles. The commonest reasons for needle injury in stick injuries were heavy work load (36.8%) followed by hasty work (33.6%) and needle recapping (18.6%). About 66% health care workers were already vaccinated against hepatitis B. Only 13% workers followed universal guidelines of needle stick injuries and no case was reported to hospital authorities. Conclusions: Health care workers had inadequate knowledge about the risk associated with needle stick injuries and do not follow standard preventive measures. Policy message: A standard protocol regarding the training and compliance to follow preventive measures should be followed in all health care institutions. (author)

  10. Bilingual, Digital, Audio-Visual Training Modules Improve Technical Knowledge of Feedlot and Dairy Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Reinhardt

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of digital multimedia modules as training tools for animal care workers.  Employees at a commercial feedlot (n = 17 and a commercial dairy (n = 10 were asked to independently complete a 10-question quiz prior to and following viewing of training modules.  Module topics in the feedlot were proper handling of non-ambulatory animals and humane methods of euthanasia; modules were administered to the workers, as a group, in either English (n = 7 or Spanish (N = 10, depending on previously indicated worker preference.  Modules addressing dairy cattle health practices and dairy cattle handling were presented to the dairy care workers who had a preference for learning in either English (n = 7 or Spanish (n = 3.  For feedlot workers, post-test scores were improved by 28% after viewing the modules compared to pre-test scores (74% vs. 58%; P < 0.01, across language and topic.  There were no interactions (P > 0.30 between language, topic, and between-test variation, indicating that the modules were equally effective at information delivery to both audiences in both languages.  For the dairy workers, test scores improved by 27% from pre-viewing to post-viewing (73% vs. 92%; P < 0.01; there was an interaction between the effect of module and language preference (P < 0.01 indicating that although scores increased for both of the topic areas for the English-speaking workers, only the score for the animal health topic increased for the Spanish-speaking workers.  Regardless of nationality, level of formal education, topic, or preferred language, digital media are effective at improving knowledge transfer to animal care professionals.

  11. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION TOWARDS JAUNDICE AMONG AYDER REFERAL HOSPITAL HEALTH WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selahudin Alemu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine knowledge, practice and attitude towards jaundice among hospital health workers in Ayder Referral Hospital. Jaundice is a condition in which a person's skin and the whites of the eyes are discolored yellow due to an increased level of bilirubin in blood it is associated with many myth and Misconception. A study, using self administered questionnaire, was conducted from March 2009 to early May 2009.The result of the study showed that 79% respondents were selected, from which only 4(4% of the respondents select all of the correct options namely Dark colour of the urine, Yellowish colour of skin and eye, Aching and convulsion. 10% knew two manifestation of jaundice, 84% of respondent knew only one manifestation of jaundice. 83%of the respondents knew jaundice is due to high blood concentration of billirubin. 5% answered wrong that is jaundice is due to high blood concentration of urea. 76% of the workers prefers modern medicine for the treatment of jaundice and 8% the traditional medicine. The health workers are fairly clear in some aspects of jaundice and inadequate knowledge in other aspects of jaundice. Most of the health workers have positive perception towards jaundice and prefer modern medicine for treating jaundice. They have totally poor knowledge about traditional medicine for the treatment of jaundice. The health workers need an education and training about jaundice to update their knowledge and other study at community level should be conducted to know more about traditional method of treating jaundice.

  12. GROWTH OF COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE BY LINKING KNOWLEDGE WORKERS THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAROSLAVA KUBÁTOVÁ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Collective intelligence can be defined, very broadly, as groups of individuals that do things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. Collective intelligence has existed for ages. Families, tribes, companies, countries, etc., are all groups of individuals doing things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. However, over the past two decades, the rise of the Internet has given upturn to new types of collective intelligence. Companies can take advantage from the so-called Web-enabled collective intelligence. Web-enabled collective intelligence is based on linking knowledge workers through social media. That means that companies can hire geographically dispersed knowledge workers and create so-called virtual teams of these knowledge workers (members of the virtual teams are connected only via the Internet and do not meet face to face. By providing an online social network, the companies can achieve significant growth of collective intelligence. But to create and use an online social network within a company in a really efficient way, the managers need to have a deep understanding of how such a system works. Thus the purpose of this paper is to share the knowledge about effective use of social networks in companies. The main objectives of this paper are as follows: to introduce some good practices of the use of social media in companies, to analyze these practices and to generalize recommendations for a successful introduction and use of social media to increase collective intelligence of a company.

  13. GROWTH OF COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE BY LINKING KNOWLEDGE WORKERS THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava KUBA TOVA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Collective intelligence can be defined, very broadly, as groups of individuals that do things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. Collective intelligence has existed for ages. Families, tribes, companies, countries, etc., are all groups of individuals doing things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. However, over the past two decades, the rise of the Internet has given upturn to new types of collective intelligence. Companies can take advantage from the so-called Webenabled collective intelligence. Web-enabled collective intelligence is based on linking knowledge workers through social media. That means that companies can hire geographically dispersed knowledge workers and create so-called virtual teams of these knowledge workers (members of the virtual teams are connected only via the Internet and do not meet face to face. By providing an online social network, the companies can achieve significant growth of collective intelligence. But to create and use an online social network within a company in a really efficient way, the managers need to have a deep understanding of how such a system works.Thus the purpose of this paper is to share the knowledge about effective use of social networks in companies. The main objectives of this paper are as follows: to introduce some good practices of the use of social media in companies, to analyze these practices and to generalize recommendations for a successful introduction and use of social media to increase collective intelligence of a company.

  14. Eco-chemical knowledge, behavior and engagement of workers employed in the mineral fertilizer industry in Novi Sad

    OpenAIRE

    Cvjeti?anin Stanko; Segedinac Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    The level of environmental pollution is influenced by the knowledge, behavior and ecological engagement of both the individual and society. The mineral fertilizer industry represents a potential source of pollution. The issue examined in this study is the level of eco-chemical knowledge, behavior and ecological engagement of the workers employed in the mineral fertilizer industry in Novi Sad. We have concluded that the workers hover low level of knowledge, behavior and engagement. The results...

  15. Work related symptoms, sensitisation, and estimated exposure in workers not previously exposed to laboratory rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Cullinan, P; Lowson, D; Nieuwenhuijsen, MJ; Gordon, S; Tee, RD; Venables, KM; McDonald, JC; Newman Taylor, AJ

    1994-01-01

    Findings are presented from the initial cross sectional phase of a cohort study of employees exposed to laboratory rats. Of 366 eligible workers at four sites 323 (88%) were surveyed; symptoms assessed by self completed questionnaire and sensitisation measured by the response to skin prick tests were related to intensity of exposure both to total dust and to rat urinary aeroallergen. Among 238 workers, without previous occupational exposure to rats, work related symptoms, which started after ...

  16. Health Care WorkersKnowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Tobacco Use in Economically Disadvantaged Dominican Republic Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Prucha, Michael G.; Susan G. Fisher; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C.; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Quiñones de Monegro, Zahíra; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Deborah J Ossip

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted wit...

  17. Bidding for brains: Intellectual property rights and the international migration of knowledge workers

    OpenAIRE

    McAusland, Carol; Kuhn, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We introduce international mobility of knowledge workers into a model of Nash equilibrium IPR policy choice among countries. We show that governments have incentives to use IPRs in a bidding war for global talent, resulting in Nash equilibrium IPRs that can be too high, rather than too low, from a global welfare perspective. These incentives become stronger as developing countries grow in size and wealth, thus allowing them to prevent the 'poaching' of their 'brains' by larger, wealthier mark...

  18. Medical students’ and public obstetric health care workersknowledge of the Saving Mothers campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Almereau Prollius; Gina Joubert; Adelien du Toit; Susan Joubert; Tarina Lourens; Johanna J. Steenkamp

    2011-01-01

    Maternal mortality in South Africa has been receiving attention since it became notifiable in 1997. The ’big five’ causes of maternal mortality are non-pregnancy-related infections (mainly HIV), complications of hypertension during pregnancy, obstetric haemorrhage, pregnancyrelated sepsis and pre-existing medical conditions. In many cases in which women die during pregnancy or childbirth, avoidable health worker-related factors can be identified. This study assessed the knowledge of different...

  19. Residential location choice of knowledge-workers in a "startup metropolis": the role of amenities, workplace and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the residential location choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level by applying discrete choice models. The models represent housing choices of 833 knowledge-workers in high-technology and financial services and analyze the relative importance of lifestyle and cultural amenities in addition to classic location factors. Hence, the model bridges the gap between the recent lifestyle-oriented and the classical utility-oriented conceptualizations of the residential choice of knowledge-workers. The most important factors are municipal socioeconomic level, housing affordability and commuting time, while substantial secondary factors are cultural and educational land-use and culture-oriented lifestyle.

  20. Residential choice of knowledge-workers in a 'startup metropolis': the role of amenities, workplace and lifestyle

    OpenAIRE

    Frenkel, Amnon; Benedit, Edward; Kaplan, Sigal

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge-workers belonging to the super-creative core of the creative-class are considered a mean to induce economic growth and to sharpen the regional competitive edge. Driven by the key-role of housing in attracting and retaining knowledge-workers, most studies focus on the residential choice of knowledge workers at the inter-metropolitan level. In contrast, empirical evidence and analysis at the intra-metropolitan level are scarce. This study focuses on investigating the tradeoff among lo...

  1. Knowledge of diabetes mellitus in tuberculosis amongst healthcare workers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeoghene Anthonia Ogbera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a World Diabetes Foundation funded research on detection of diabetes mellitus (DM in tuberculosis (TB which is currently being carried out in 56 TB centers in Lagos State Nigeria and against this background, we decided to evaluate the knowledge of DM and (TB amongst the health workers from these facilities. Materials and Methods: We employed the use of self-administered questionnaires comprising questions to determine participant?s knowledge on risk factors, clinical presentation and complications of DM, diagnosis, management of DM, and presentation and management of TB. We documented and also compared responses that differed in a statistically significant manner amongst the various cadres of health worker and the three tiers of healthcare facilities. Results: A total of 263 health care workers responded, out of which medical doctors constituted 72 (27.4% while nurses and other categories of health care workers constituted 191 (72.6%. All the respondents knew that TB is a communicable disease and a large majority- 86% knew that DM is a chronic disorder that as of now has no cure. One hundred and eighty one (71% respondents gave a correct response of a fasting plasma glucose level of 9mmol/L, which is in the range for diagnosis of DM. About a third-90-of the health workers, however, stated that DM may be diagnosed solely on clinical symptoms of DM. However, 104 (46% of the Study participants stated that urine may be employed for objectively diagnosing DM. All respondents had hitherto not had patients with TB who had been routinely screened for DM. There was insufficient knowledge on the non-pharmacological management with over half of the respondents, irrespective ofstatus, maintained that all persons diagnosed with DM should be made to lose weight and carbohydrate should make up less than 30% of the component of their meals. Conclusion: There remains largely inadequate knowledge on diagnosing and non-pharmacological management of DM among the health workers in our TB facilities.

  2. Students Integrate Knowledge Acquisition and Practical Work in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, E. I.; Sánchez-Hermosín, P.; Díz-Pérez, J.; Tovar, P.; Camacho, R.; Escribano, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to transfer a wider concept of teamwork and self-learning to the laboratory, encouraging students' capabilities when seeking, acquiring, and processing knowledge. This educational innovation was carried out with a total of 38 students (fourth year of degree in Biology) in the area of physiology (Advances in…

  3. Records/knowledge management in a nuclear facility's Industrial Hygiene Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is operated under the USA's Department of Energy (DOE) and is tasked with developing and applying science and technology to ensure the safety and reliability of U.S. nuclear deterrents and solving national problems in defense, energy, environment, and infrastructure. LANL is divided into numerous groups that accomplish various aspects of these overarching goals. An important aspect of this work is to ensure worker safety. To do this LANL has an on-site Industrial Hygiene (IH) Laboratory that is certified by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) that follows International Standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005 guidelines. Following these guidelines facilitates appropriate records retention and knowledge management by the laboratory. Field Industrial Hygienists monitor workers for exposure and generate various swipe and personal breathing zone air samples that are analyzed by the IH Laboratory. The laboratory provides legally defensible data on which health, safety, and environmental decisions are based. Such documentation serves to protect the legal and financial rights of the Laboratory and individuals affected by Laboratory activities. The proper maintenance and filing of this documentation also serves to avoid expensive and unnecessary re-sampling and reanalysis if customers lose reports or if results are requested by regulatory agencies. We will explain how the Sample Management Office (SMO) interacts with customers to determine their needs to ensure the appropriate analyses are conducted. Additionally, we will explain our process of sample receipt, sample log in into databases, sample analysis, data validation, and compliance to internal procedures, LANL policies, and DOE regulations. Furthermore, we will outline how the Records Management Custodian processes the laboratory's completed data packages starting from database entry to archival at the Federal Records Center. Many DOE records relating to personnel exposures, contamination, waste, and environmental sampling are kept and are scheduled for long-term retention by National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Records shall include information created and received in the course of conducting Laboratory programs and business. Records management serves to promote the creation, capture, use, and transfer of records and knowledge. It also serves to preserve and protect the Laboratory's archival of historical documents and information. All records are given retention periods of at least 75 years. After outlining some of our various records and documents, we will explain how our records management and document control systems are set up to ensure effective and efficient retrieval of these records for 75 years. In conclusion, we will demonstrate how our and LANL's Records Management Program follows good business practices to ensure the protection of our corporate information assets

  4. Organisational design elements and competencies for optimising the expertise of knowledge workers in a shared services centre

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Ramsey; Nicolene Barkhuizen

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: Organisations are still structured according to the Industrial Age control model that restricts optimising the expertise of knowledge workers.

    Research purpose: The general aim of the research was to explore the organisation design elements and competencies that contribute to optimising the expertise of knowledge workers in a shared services centre.

    Motivation for the study:

  5. Residential location choice of knowledge-workers in a "startup metropolis": the role of amenities, workplace and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward; Kaplan, Sigal

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the residential location choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level by applying discrete choice models. The models represent housing choices of 833 knowledge-workers in high-technology and financial services and analyze the relative importance of lifestyle and cultural amenities in addition to classic location factors. Hence, the model bridges the gap between the recent lifestyle-oriented and the classical utility-oriented conceptualizations of the reside...

  6. Eco-chemical knowledge, behavior and engagement of workers employed in the mineral fertilizer industry in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjeti?anin Stanko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of environmental pollution is influenced by the knowledge, behavior and ecological engagement of both the individual and society. The mineral fertilizer industry represents a potential source of pollution. The issue examined in this study is the level of eco-chemical knowledge, behavior and ecological engagement of the workers employed in the mineral fertilizer industry in Novi Sad. We have concluded that the workers hover low level of knowledge, behavior and engagement. The results obtained could be used for the selection of methods to enhance the eco-chemical knowledge of the employees.

  7. Migrant Workers in Kazakhstan: Gender Differences in HIV Knowledge and Sexual Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhussupov, Baurzhan; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2015-07-01

    This study compares sexual risk behaviors among male and female migrant market vendors in Almaty, Kazakhstan. From the Barakholka Market, 209 male and 213 female market vendors were randomly recruited. Self-reported data were collected through standardized face-to-face interviews. Dry blood spot was used as specimen for syphilis testing. Propensity score stratification was used to estimate adjusted prevalence or rate ratios by gender. Compared to male migrant workers, females had lower HIV knowledge and were less likely to have multiple sexual partners. There was no evidence of a gender difference for prevalence of syphilis, condom use with unsteady partners, and safe sex communication between couples. Associations between mobility patterns and engagement in multiple sexual partnerships were stronger among women than men. Efforts should be made to mitigate the gender differential in HIV knowledge among migrants, especially women. Such efforts need to be implemented in both home and host countries. PMID:25294629

  8. The value of a new idea: knowledge transmission, workers' mobility and market structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We model the process of knowledge transmission among firms via workers' mobility as a multi-stage game. In our setup an idea to be realized needs that the agent informed about the idea recruits another agent from a pool of uninformed people. This constraint generates a recursive effect of knowledge transmission via players' mobility across firms which affects simultaneously the players' payoffs and the number of active players engaged in market competition. We provide sufficient conditions for the game to possess a unique symmetric subgame perfect equilibrium in which all incumbent players deter the exit of their collaborators. The equilibrium outcome is shown to depend upon the success of the idea over time, expressed by the behaviour of the market demand and on players' time preferences. A few other intuitions are provided on the interplay between technology, market structure and the market value of an innovative idea

  9. Evidence-Based Practice: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs of Social Workers in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia RUNCAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The social work profession has been undergoing a period of change and has been encouraged to prove the effectiveness of clinical interventions by scientific evidence. This study was therefore designed to describe the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of a sample of Romanian social work professionals to evidence-based practice (EBP. 62 social workers were required to complete a 37-item closed ended questionnaire, which collected information on demographic data, practice settings, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding EBP. Respondents agreed that the use of EBP was necessary and that the quality of patient care was better when evidence was used, with the younger physiotherapists at the fore front. About 50% of the respondents had access to online information; the majority of these respondents only had time to access the internet more at home rather than at work place. The primary barrier to implementing EBP was insufficient time. The respondents had a positive attitude towards EBP and were interested in improving the skills necessary to implement EBP. There was a need to increase the use of EBP in clinical practice and decision making among social workers. The respondents who were recently licensed and those with post-graduate education expressed more positive attitudes toward EBP than those who were not. Results also point out the issue of appreciative inquiry (AI as a key-component in successful implementation of EBP in social work clinical settings.

  10. A Study of Knowledge and Practices among Commercial Sex Workers Registered Under Jyotisangh STD Clinic, Ahmedabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talsania NJ, Shah Rakesh, Shah Venu, Murugan V

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is growing evidence about the importance of commercial sex workers (CSWs and their clients as bridging groups for the HIV epidemic. In India, the role of CSWs is key to the future trajectory of the epidemic. Objective: To determine the level of knowledge and practices regarding STI/ HIV among CSWs. Study design: A Cross-sectional, community based study. Methodology: The study was conducted in December 2005 among CSWs registered under Jyotisangh. Results: The mean age was 27.5 years and majorities (64.5% of CSWs were below 35 years. Knowledge on some aspects of the diseases was quite low in the study group. A higher proportion of CSWs (73.5% don’t know the relationship between HIV and STI. About 66.3% of CSWs know one or more male STI symptoms. 58% of CSWs were aware of place for HIV testing. Majority (86.3% of CSWs are attending counseling programme at Jyotisangh. 97.5% CSWs were aware about condom still 50.5% CSWs were regularly using condom with regular partner while nearly one fourth (26.5% never used condom. And also 97% of CSWs never practiced anal intercourse with condom and only 25% reported either rarely/ sometimes non-penetrative sexual practice. Conclusion: High-risk behavior was established in the study sample. Safe sex and use of condom have to be energetically promoted among commercial sex workers.

  11. Health care workers' knowledge, attitudes and practices on tobacco use in economically disadvantaged dominican republic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prucha, Michael G; Fisher, Susan G; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; de Monegro, Zahíra Quiñones; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Ossip, Deborah J

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107) completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39%) strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%). Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR. PMID:25872018

  12. Residential location choice of knowledge-workers in a "startup metropolis": the role of amenities, workplace and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendit, Edward; Frenkel, Amnon; Kaplan, Sigal

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge cities (KC) and knowledge-based urban development (KBUD) are rapidly gaining momentum due their potential for inducing economic growth and regional competitiveness. The current study focuses on investigating the location preferences of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level, as an essential building block in the formulation of successful KBUD policies. Specifically, this study applies multinomial and nested logit models to investigate the impact of location amenities, access...

  13. Sexual Health Knowledge and Health Practices of Female Sex Workers in Liuzhou, China, Differ by Size of Venue

    OpenAIRE

    Youchun, Zhang; Brown, Jane D.; Muessig, Kathryn E; Xianxiang, Feng; Wenzhen, He

    2014-01-01

    We conducted qualitative interviews with 48 female sex workers (FSW) recruited from entertainment venues in Liuzhou, China. Analyses found that HIV knowledge and sexual health seeking strategies differed by size of venue: (1) Women in smaller venues said they douched before/after sex and used condoms with all but their regular partners and clients. Most found the brochures distributed by Chinese CDC workers “irrelevant” or “boring” and relied on friends for health advice. (2) FSW in middle an...

  14. The E?ect of Previous Co-Worker Experience on the Survival of Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the e?ect of previous co-worker experience on the survival of knowledge intensive start-ups. For the empirical analysis I use the Danish Integrated Database of Labor Market Research (IDA). This longitudinal employer-employee database allows me to identify co-worker experience among all members of the ?rm. In addition, I will make a distinction between ordinary start-ups and entrepreneurial spin-o?s. The results show that previous co-worker experience has a ...

  15. The E?ect of Previous Co-Worker Experience on the Survival of Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, Bram

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the e?ect of previous co-worker experience on the survival of knowledge intensive start-ups. For the empirical analysis I use the Danish Integrated Database of Labor Market Research (IDA). This longitudinal employer-employee database allows me to identify co-worker experience among all members of the ?rm. In addition, I will make a distinction between ordinary start-ups and entrepreneurial spin-o?s. The results show that previous co-worker experience has...

  16. A Study on Knowledge, Attitude And Practice of Laboratory Safety Measures Among Paramedical Staff of Laboratory Services

    OpenAIRE

    Hansa M Goswami, Sumeeta T Soni, Sachin M Patel, Mitesh K Patel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A lot of accidents occur in the laboratory due to lack of proper knowledge regarding laboratory safety measures, indifferent attitude & improper implementation of safe laboratory practices. In view of this, the present study on knowledge, Attitude & Practice (KAP) of laboratory safety measures was carried out among paramedical staff of laboratory services of tertiary care teaching hospital, western India. Method: This was a comparative study which used a standardized,...

  17. The Student?s Workplace Learning Program as a Strategy to Enhance Knowledge Worker Competency: An Alternative Way to Build Learning Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Worawit Janchai

    2013-01-01

    This research intends to study on knowledge worker competency development which effected from students who work in company through the university workplace learning program. The new leadership roles and skills of managers and leaders according to learning organization principle will be focused. Data were collected from knowledge workers using questionnaires and telephone interviews. The result found that students’ coming can stimulate knowledge workers to use and develop their competencies. C...

  18. Exposure of Laboratory Animal Care Workers to Airborne Mouse and Rat Allergens

    OpenAIRE

    Glueck, Joshua T; Huneke, Richard B; Perez, Hernando; Burstyn, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Urine of rats and mice is the main source of allergenic proteins that can enter the respiratory tract of laboratory animal care workers. Little is known about the levels and determinants of these exposures in the United States. We investigated the relationship between activities in animal facilities and levels of personal exposure to allergen by collecting personal breathing zone dust samples from 7 caretakers during full workdays for 1 wk. Mice and rat urinary allergens in inhalable dust wer...

  19. Protective effects of green tea on antioxidative biomarkers in chemical laboratory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Heidary Shayesteh; Akram, Ranjbar; Azam, Sayadi; Nahid, Zadkhosh

    2015-09-01

    Chemical materials are environmental contaminants, are extensively used in laboratories, and may cause various forms of health hazards in laboratory workers. Therefore, this toxicity most likely is a result of the oxidative metabolism of chemical to reactive products. As green tea (GT) possesses antioxidant effects, the objective of this study was to examine any amelioration oxidative stress in chemical laboratory workers drinking one cup (3 g/300 ml water) of freshly prepared tea once daily. Baseline characteristics including age, sex, smoking, fruit consumption, and duration of exposure were recorded via questionnaire to the subjects. Saliva level oxidative stress parameters such as total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated before and after consumption of GT in these workers. Treatment of subjects with GT induced a significant reduction in saliva GPx activity (406.61 ± 22.07 vs. 238.96 ± 16.26 U/l p = 0.001) and induction in TAC (0.46 ± 0.029 ?mol/ml vs. 0.56 ± 0.031, p = 0.016). No statistically significant alteration was found for saliva SOD (0.080 ± 0.0019 vs. 0.079 ± 0.0014, p > 0.05) and CAT (20.36 ± 0.69 vs. 19.78 ± 0.71, p > 0.05) after 28 days treatment by GT. These results demonstrate that drinking GT during chemical exposure can reduce several parameters indicative of oxidative stress. In conclusion, using GT as a dietary supplement can be a rational protocol to control source of hazards in chemical laboratory workers. PMID:23576111

  20. Child and youth care workers: profile, nutrition knowledge and food safety and hygiene practices

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hendrina H., Grobbelaar; Carin E., Napier.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Facilities concerned with children 'in need of care' should not only be considered as a last resort for a child's care, but also as an intervention that requires more than addressing a child's basic physical needs. The nutritional needs of children are particularly important to consider [...] as they are a fundamental part of the care provided. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this descriptive quantitative study was to investigate the profile, nutrition knowledge, food safety and hygiene practices of child and youth care workers (CCWs) in residential care settings in order to guide the development of a food preparation and nutrition manual. METHOD: The residential care settings included in this study were three that were selected randomly in Durban. CCWs (N = 40) employed permanently or part-time were included. Convenience purposive sampling of the CCWs was undertaken. A structured self-administered questionnaire, developed and tested for this purpose, was used to gather information on the profile, nutrition knowledge, food safety and hygiene practices. The data were analysed for descriptive statistics (means and frequencies). RESULTS: The majority of CCWs were women aged 18-34 years. Very few had completed a relevant tertiary qualification. The results indicated that the respondents' knowledge was fair on general nutrition guidelines, but there were areas of concern. Specifically, knowledge on recommended fruit and vegetable intake, correct serving sizes and importance of a variety in the diet were lacking. Some knowledge about food safety and hygiene practices was demonstrated, but not in totality. CONCLUSION: The overall findings supported the development of a comprehensive food preparation and nutrition manual for child residential care facilities.

  1. Knowledge-workers and the sustainable city: the travel consequences of car-related job-perks

    OpenAIRE

    Bendit, Edward; Frenkel, Amnon; Kaplan, Sigal

    2011-01-01

    Attracting firms in knowledge and technology intensive (KTI) sectors is highly desired at both the national and the regional level as a powerful engine of economic growth. Due to fierce competition in KTI sectors and national taxation policies, KTI firms often attract high-quality employees by offering car-related job perks as additional incentives to wage. In Canada, car allowance is offered by 46% of the employers to attract highly-skilled workers. In Israel, 61% of knowledge-workers in the...

  2. A survey on knowledge and self-reported formula handling practices of parents and child care workers in Palermo, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mammina Caterina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powdered infant formula (PIF is not a sterile product, but this information appears to be poorly diffused among child caregivers. Parents and child care workers may behave in an unsafe manner when handling PIF. Methods This study involved parents and child care workers in the 24 municipal child care centres of Palermo. Knowledge and self-reported practices about PIF handling were investigated by a structured questionnaire. A Likert scale was used to measure the strength of the respondent's feelings. Association of knowledge and self-reported practices with demographic variables was also evaluated. Results 42.4% of parents and 71.0% of child care workers filled in the questionnaire. Significant differences were found between parents and child care workers for age and education. 73.2% of parents and 84.4% of child care workers were confident in sterility of PIF. Generally, adherence to safe procedures when reconstituting and handling PIF was more frequently reported by child care workers who, according to the existing legislation, are regularly subjected to a periodic training on food safety principles and practices. Age and education significantly influenced the answers to the questionnaire of both parents and child care workers. Conclusion The results of the study reveal that parents and child care workers are generally unaware that powdered formulas may contain viable microorganisms. However, child care workers consistently chose safer options than parents when answering the questions about adherence to hygienic practices. At present it seems unfeasible to produce sterile PIF, but the risk of growth of hazardous organisms in formula at the time of administration should be minimized by promoting safer behaviours among caregivers to infants in both institutional settings and home.

  3. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Health Workers in a Tertiary Hospital in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, towards Ebola Viral Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowookere, Samuel Anu; Abioye-Kuteyi, Emmanuel Akintunde; Adepoju, Olusegun Kayode; Esan, Oluwaseun Taiwo; Adeolu, Temitope Michael; Adeoye, Tolulope Kola; Adepoju, Adesola Adebayo; Aderogba, Adedayo Titilayo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Health workers are more prone to Ebola viral disease (EVD) than the general population. This study assessed the preparedness of health workers in the control and management of EVD. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study. Consenting 400 health workers completed a semistructured questionnaire that assessed participants' general knowledge, emergency preparedness, and control and management of EVD. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. The mean age (SD) was 34.5 ± 8.62 years ranging from 20 to 59 years. Most participants were medical doctors (24.6%) and nurses (52.2%). The majority had practised <10 years (73.8%) and were aware of the EVD outbreak in the West African subregion (85.5%). Colleagues (40%) and radio (37.2%) were their major sources of information. Only 42% had good knowledge while 27% knew that there was no vaccine presently to prevent EVD. About one-quarter (24.2%) had low risk perception. The majority (89%) felt the hospital infection control policy was inadequate to protect against EVD. The only predictor of good knowledge was participants' occupation. Conclusion. There is knowledge gap and poor infection control preparedness among respondents. Thus, knowledge and practices of health workers towards EVD need improvement. PMID:26576160

  4. Students integrate knowledge acquisition and practical work in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüera, E I; Sánchez-Hermosín, P; Díz-Pérez, J; Tovar, P; Camacho, R; Escribano, B M

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to transfer a wider concept of teamwork and self-learning to the laboratory, encouraging students' capabilities when seeking, acquiring, and processing knowledge. This educational innovation was carried out with a total of 38 students (fourth year of degree in Biology) in the area of physiology (Advances in Reproduction course) at University of Córdoba in Córdoba, Spain. The design of the project's application methodology consisted of establishing a way in which problems would be tackled in the practical classes. For this purpose, the different tasks were set up so that students could relate them to the concepts learned in the theory classes. On the first day of class, the project was presented to the students. Groups of two to three students worked in the laboratory and set up an outline of the protocol of the practical work that they had done. This outline was performed individually and sent to the lecturers through a learning management system (Moodle). The teachers gave feedback and assessed student submissions. Upon finishing the course, students completed a survey. The project-based learning method promotes practical self-learning on the part of students. This methodology demonstrated to us that it stimulates a critical and self-critical capacity in students, both individually and in groups, and that writing didactic practical material helped students to enhance their theory knowledge. The experiment was a success in view of the scores obtained upon finishing the subject. PMID:26330040

  5. Medical students’ and public obstetric health care workersknowledge of the Saving Mothers campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almereau Prollius

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality in South Africa has been receiving attention since it became notifiable in 1997. The ’big five’ causes of maternal mortality are non-pregnancy-related infections (mainly HIV, complications of hypertension during pregnancy, obstetric haemorrhage, pregnancyrelated sepsis and pre-existing medical conditions. In many cases in which women die during pregnancy or childbirth, avoidable health worker-related factors can be identified. This study assessed the knowledge of different levels of medical students and health care workers at public health obstetric facilities in Bloemfontein concerning the Saving Mothers campaign.The self-administered, test-like questionnaire was completed by senior medical students,interns and obstetric personnel (nurses or midwives. Interns obtained the highest median score (48% for the questionnaire, while nurses obtained a median score of 31%. The results strongly suggest that training specific to the Saving Mothers campaign is urgently required across all levels of health care personnel.

    Résumé

    Depuis 1997, la mortalité maternelle est devenue à déclaration obligatoire en Afrique du Sud; ce qui a permis d’ attirer plus d’ attention sur cet fléau. Les big five causes de mortalité maternelle sont les infections non lié à la grossesse (principalement le VIH/SIDA, les maladies survenant au cours de la grossesse telles que l'hypertension artérielle, l'hémorragie, et la septicémie, et les pathologies chroniques persistantes. Dans de nombreux cas de mortalité maternelle ou infantile, des facteurs remédiables et associés au personnel de santé peuvent être identifiés. Cette étude a évalué les connaissances des étudiants en médecine et des professionnels de santé publique des maternités de Bloemfontein sur la ‘Saving Mothers campaign. Pour cette étude, un questionnaire était rempli par des étudiants en médecine en fin de cycle, des internes, des infirmières et des sages-femmes. Les internes avaient obtenu le meilleur score médian (48% de connaissance sur le sujet étudié, alors que les infirmières n’obtenaient que 31%. Les résultats montrent une urgente nécessité de formation spéciale lié au ‘Saving Mothers campaign‘ le pour le personnel de santé à tous les niveaux.

    How to cite this article: Prollius A, Joubert G, Du Toit A, Joubert S, Lourens T, Steenkamp JJ. Medical students’ and public obstetric health care workersknowledge of the Saving Mothers campaign.Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2011;3(1, Art. #184, 3 pages. doi:10.4102/phcfm.v3i1.184

  6. Knowledge, Attitudes, Risk Factors and Practices (KARP that Favor Leptospira Infection among Abattoir Workers in North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Abiayi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses are common infections when there is close contact between humans and animals. In Nigeria, where safety at work is poorly regulated and enforced, most workers do whatever they consider appropriate safe work place practices. Thus, 263 abattoir workers across five North Central (NC states in Nigeria were evaluated on their knowledge of leptospirosis, work place attitudinal practices and other risks that could favor spread of Leptospira among them. Findings showed that most workers 252 (95.8% were ignorant of leptospirosis. Other identified risk factors for infection included age of workers, occupation, illiteracy and risks within, such as inadequate protective gear and outside the workplace, such as rodents in homes. All these factors gave a prevalence of 226 (89.7% Leptospira antibodies in the abattoir workers which they probably contracted through un-mindful handling of infected animal fluids and tissues. Surveys of Knowledge, Attitudes, Risk Factors and Practices (KARP is a common strategy for collecting information to assess safe work environments among high risk populations and is a good starting point for prevention and control programs for individuals at risk of infection by zoonotic agents, especially Nigerian abattoir workers.

  7. The Impact of Healthcare Access on Knowledge and Willingness for HIV Testing in Chinese Female Entertainment Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sio, Terence T; Chang, Kenneth; Jayakrishnan, Ritujith; Amitai, Allon; Xu, He; Zaller, Nickolas D; Fu, Jeannia J; Mayer, Kenneth H; Wu, Lily H

    2015-10-01

    Chinese female entertainment workers are at high risk for HIV. We assessed the impact of healthcare access on HIV knowledge, condom use, and their willingness to receive HIV testing. We surveyed 257 entertainment workers in a cross-sectional study. Demographic, knowledge, and behavioral risk factors were examined. Of 257 women, 107 (42.1 %) reported inconsistent condom use. Only 9 % had prior HIV testing. Their HIV knowledge was generally poor. Having access to healthcare, being able to obtain condoms, and managers providing health information were associated with consistent condom use (all P < 0.01). Having access to healthcare was related to previous HIV testing (P < 0.01). Our study showed that having a doctor and access to healthcare had positive effects on HIV knowledge and likelihood of condom use and previous HIV testing. Chinese medical providers can play a significant role in encouraging HIV testing and outreach in migrant women employed at entertainment venues. PMID:25115291

  8. An Assessment of Instant Messaging Interruptions on Knowledge Workers' Task Performance in E-Learning-Based Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansi, Gary R.

    2011-01-01

    The modern workplace environment is filled with interruptions due to the necessity of coworkers to communicate with each other. Studies have revealed that interruptions can disrupt the ability of a knowledge worker to concentrate on a task, which can impact task performance (TP). Communication interruptions are due, in part, to the unavoidable…

  9. Development of an Educational Video to Improve HIV-Related Knowledge, Attitudes and Prevention among Company Workers in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Carmen Cabezas, María; Fornasini, Marco; Barmettler, David; Ortuño, Diego; Borja, Teresa; Albert, Adelin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop and assess an innovative educational video package for improving HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices among company workers in Ecuador. Methods: The design and development of the HIV prevention educational video was based on the results of a large-scale survey conducted in 115 companies (commerce, manufacturing and real…

  10. Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of community health workers about hypertension in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Sengwana

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the perceptions and attitudes of community health workers (CHWs about hypertension. The level of knowledge of hypertension, as well as their personal attitude towards this is crucial in the style and quality of their interventions. CHWs, whose role in health promotion is being increasingly recognised, can help contain or reduce the prevalence of hypertension by influencing the community to adopt healthy lifestyles. Forty-three CHWs employed by Zanempilo in two study areas, Sites B and C in Khayelitsha in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, were included in the study. Firstly, focus group discussions were conducted with 17 purposively selected CHWs to explore attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of hypertension. Secondly, interviews were conducted to assess their basic knowledge about causes, prevention and control of hypertension. The focus group discussions revealed that CHWs were uncertain about the causes of hypertension. They also found it difficult to grasp the fact that people without risk factors, such as overweight or a family history of hypertension, could be hypertensive. Many CHWs believe in traditional medicines and home-brewed beer as the best treatment for hypertension. They believe that people who take medical treatment become sicker and that their health deteriorates rapidly. Risk factors of hypertension mentioned during the structured interviews include inheritance, lack of physical activity, consuming lots of salty and fatty food. Conclusions drawn from the findings of the CHWs’ responses highlighted their insufficient knowledge about hypertension as a chronic disease of lifestyle. Meanwhile they are expected to play a role in stimulating community residents’ interest in the broad principle of preventive health maintenance and follow-up. Data obtained from this research can be used for the planning of health-promotion programmes. These should include preventing hypertension and improving primary management of individual sufferers. Because of their working relations and close link with CHWs, community nurses in primary health-care facilities need to recognise these beliefs and attitudes since these may differ from their own.

  11. Characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Peltzer, K.; P Seoka; S. Raphala

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa. The sample included 70 female sex workers from the Tzaneen and Phalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. A modified form of snowball sampling known as “targeted” sampling was used for identifying female sex workers. Results showed an inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention methods and some incorrect beliefs about AIDS trans...

  12. Rural male health workers in Western Jamaica: Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward prostate cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Andrew Bourne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Statistics have shown that since 1988, a significant percentage of males are unwilling to seek medical care. The question is if they had the knowledge, worked in the health system and were educated, would this be any different? Aim: The current study aims to fill this void in the literature by examining the perception of rural male health workers (from the Western Region about prostate examination, and why they are reluctant to inquire about the probability of having, or the likelihood of not having prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: The study utilized primary cross-sectional data that was collected during February and March 2008 from 170 males (ages 29 years and older, health-care workers who were employed in particular rural health institutions in Jamaica (i.e. Western Regional Health Authority. SPSS was used to analyze the data. Results: When the respondents were asked “Have you ever heard about the screening procedure for prostate?” 71.2% indicated yes, but only 27.1% had got their prostate checked by a health practitioner. When respondents were asked to state what influenced their choice of not doing a digital rectal examination, 20.6% indicated comfort level; 9.4% stated the gender of the health practitioner, 5.3% mentioned fear and others did not respond. Of those who had the examination 2 years ago, 96.5% did not state the choice of method. Conclusion: The current study is limited in terms of its generalizability to rural males or rural males in Western Jamaica, but it does provide an insight into the difficulty of men in breaking away from culture.

  13. Laboratory animals and respiratory allergies: The prevalence of allergies among laboratory animal workers and the need for prophylaxis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Erica, Ferraz; Luisa Karla de Paula, Arruda; Ericson, Bagatin; Edson Z., Martinez; Andrea A., Cetlin; Christian S., Simoneti; Amanda S., Freitas; José A.B., Martinez; Marcos C., Borges; Elcio O., Vianna.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Subjects exposed to laboratory animals are at a heightened risk of developing respiratory and allergic diseases. These diseases can be prevented by simple measures such as the use of personal protective equipment. We report here the primary findings of the Laboratory Animals an [...] d Respiratory Allergies Study regarding the prevalence of allergic diseases among laboratory animal workers, the routine use of preventive measures in laboratories and animal facilities, and the need for prevention programs. METHODS: Animal handlers and non-animal handlers from 2 Brazilian universities (University of São Paulo and State University of Campinas) answered specific questionnaires to assess work conditions and symptoms. These subjects also underwent spirometry, a bronchial challenge test with mannitol, and skin prick tests for 11 common allergens and 5 occupational allergens (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and rabbit). RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-five animal handlers (32±10 years old [mean±SD], 209 men) and 387 non-animal handlers (33±11 years old, 121 men) were evaluated. Sensitization to occupational allergens was higher among animal handlers (16%) than non-animal handlers (3%, p

  14. A Profile of Knowledge and Sexual Behaviours Among Textile Workers in Context of HIV and AIDS in Surat City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhautik Modi, Jay Padodara, Sarita Mangukiya, Vimalkumar Tailor

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is more prevalent in India and occurs in all states.2 Today, there are around 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS in India.1 Surat city in the western state of Gujarat attracts a very large migrant population. As most of them belong to sexually active age group, their exposure to sex workers or having multiple sexual partnerships is very high. The aim of this study was to explore the sexual behavior among textile factory workers in Surat and assess the knowledge and awareness about mode of transmission of HIV. This cross-sectional study of 250 textile workers reveal that 76.4% worker know that HIV can be transmitted by unsafe sexual route while 43.2% of workers does not know that HIV can be spread through reused injections. 43 worker currently had extra marital or premarital sexual relations and among them 48.8% had used condom during last such intercourse.

  15. Assessment of knowledge and perception regarding male sterilization (Non-Scalpel Vasectomy among community health workers in Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Mahapatra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In India, community health workers are the main source of information for family planning services and male population want to interact and discuss with them to clear their doubts about male oriented family planning methods. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and perception of community health workers regarding the modern male sterilization method. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Simdega district of Jharkhand. The target population was the community health workers and randomly selected from four randomly selected from blocks out of total seven in the district. A self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used for data collection comprising questions related to knowledge and perception of community health workers about modern male sterilization method. Results: 43% CHWs didn’t know that this method is different from traditional male sterilization method and around 62% thought man’s sexual performance get affected after NSV and 77% did not have any idea about time required to resume normal work. Conclusions: The poor knowledge and wrong perception could be one of the main reasons for poor male participation in family planning process in India.

  16. A Profile of Knowledge and Sexual Behaviours Among Textile Workers in Context of HIV and AIDS in Surat City

    OpenAIRE

    Bhautik Modi, Jay Padodara, Sarita Mangukiya, Vimalkumar Tailor

    2010-01-01

    HIV infection and AIDS is more prevalent in India and occurs in all states.2 Today, there are around 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS in India.1 Surat city in the western state of Gujarat attracts a very large migrant population. As most of them belong to sexually active age group, their exposure to sex workers or having multiple sexual partnerships is very high. The aim of this study was to explore the sexual behavior among textile factory workers in Surat and assess the knowledge and...

  17. Producing effective knowledge agents in a pluralistic environment: what future for community health workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, H; Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R

    2008-05-01

    This paper is concerned with how poor populations can obtain access to trusted, competent knowledge and services in increasingly pluralistic health systems where unregulated markets for health knowledge and services dominate. The term "unregulated" here derives from the literature on the development of markets in low income countries and refers to the lack of state enforcement of formal laws and regulations. We approach this question of access through the changing roles and fortunes of community health workers over the last few decades and ask what kind of role they can be expected to play in the future. Community based health agents have been used in many settings as a way of filling gaps in service provision where more skilled personnel are not available. They have also fulfilled a more transformative role in broad based community development. We explore the reasons for the decline of programmes from the 1980s onwards. Using the specific experience of Bangladesh, the paper considers what lessons can be learned from past successes and failures and what needs to change to meet the challenges of 21st century health systems. These challenges are those of establishing credibility and legitimacy in a pluralistic environment and creating a sustainable livelihood strategy. The article concludes with a discussion of four potential models of community based health agents which are not necessarily exclusive: a generic agent that is closely linked to a reputable supervisory agency; a specialist cadre working with particular health conditions; an expert advocate; and a mobiliser or facilitator who can mediate between users and health markets. PMID:18342421

  18. Ten years' experience in determining internal contamination among plutonium laboratory workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glove boxes in plutonium laboratories are fitted with ''sniffers'' (air samplers), which evaluate atmospheric contamination. The results of the measurements over a ten-year period of operation are available, and cases of detection in this way of air contamination exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations are exceptional. During contamination aerodynamic particle diameters of 1 - 4 ?m were measured. The concentration and characteristics of the aerosol have made it possible to ascertain the inhalable fraction and to estimate the pulmonary and systemic burden in workers. The workers exposed in the laboratories undergo a urine test each month. The results obtained show that there is little risk of internal contamination without the person concerned being aware of an abnormal situation. In the majority of cases it is possible to take proper precautions and to collect the data necessary for evaluating the body burden. Three cases of specific contamination are examined in detail: contamination by plutonium and americium from a non-identified source, detected by routine urine analysis; contamination by inhalation of plutonium; an injury to the left forefinger, accompanied by plutonium contamination. (author)

  19. The E?ect of Previous Co-Worker Experience on the Survival of Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the e?ect of previous co-worker experience on the survival of knowledge intensive start-ups. For the empirical analysis I use the Danish Integrated Database of Labor Market Research (IDA). This longitudinal employer-employee database allows me to identify co-worker experience among all members of the ?rm. In addition, I will make a distinction between ordinary start-ups and entrepreneurial spin-o?s. The results show that previous co-worker experience has a positive e?ect on new ?rm survival. This e?ect appears to be valid predominantly for ordinary start-ups than for entrepreneurial spin-o?s.

  20. The Student?s Workplace Learning Program as a Strategy to Enhance Knowledge Worker Competency: An Alternative Way to Build Learning Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worawit Janchai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research intends to study on knowledge worker competency development which effected from students who work in company through the university workplace learning program. The new leadership roles and skills of managers and leaders according to learning organization principle will be focused. Data were collected from knowledge workers using questionnaires and telephone interviews. The result found that students’ coming can stimulate knowledge workers to use and develop their competencies. Competency area that most used and developed is coaching and mentoring which result in knowledge worker’s planning, prioritizing, conducting, monitoring, communicating, and leading skills. The co-learner and model for learning, advocate for learning process and projects, and engage in systems thinking were also used and developed at high level. The study can initial conclude that university workplace learning program is the one of an alternative strategy to drive companies to become learning organization in people perspective.

  1. Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hezekiah K., Adesokan; Peter I., Alabi; Judy A., Stack; Simeon I.B., Cadmus.

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amon [...] gst livestock holders (LH) and livestock marketers (LM) in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interview-based study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5%) of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262). Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p

  2. Emergency contraceptive pills: Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of community health workers in a developing Muslim country

    OpenAIRE

    Azeem Sultan Mir; Raees Malik

    2010-01-01

    Background: Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions. Aims: This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the La...

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and anxiety towards influenza A/H1N1 vaccination of healthcare workers in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tanriverdi Derya; Savas Esen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the factors associated with knowledge and attitudes about influenza A (H1N1) and vaccination, and possible relations of these factors with anxiety among healthcare workers (HCW). Methods The study used a cross-sectional descriptive design, and it was carried out between 23 November and 4 December 2009. A total of 300 HCW from two hospitals completed a questionnaire. Data collection tools comprised a questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inve...

  4. Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Adesokan, Hezekiah K.; Peter I. Alabi; Stack, Judy A; Cadmus, Simeon I.B.

    2013-01-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH) and livestock marketers (LM) in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling te...

  5. Knowledge and performance of the Ethiopian health extension workers on antenatal and delivery care: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medhanyie Araya

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recognition of the critical shortage of human resources within health services, community health workers have been trained and deployed to provide primary health care in developing countries. However, very few studies have investigated whether these health workers can provide good quality of care. This study investigated the knowledge and performance of health extension workers (HEWs on antenatal and delivery care. The study also explored the barriers and facilitators for HEWs in the provision of maternal health care. Methods In conducting this research, a cross-sectional study was performed. A total of 50 HEWs working in 39 health posts, covering a population of approximately 195,000 people, were interviewed. Descriptive statistics was used and a composite score of knowledge of HEWs was made and interpreted based on the Ethiopian education scoring system. Results Almost half of the respondents had at least 5 years of work experience as a HEW. More than half (27 (54% of the HEWs had poor knowledge on contents of antenatal care counseling, and the majority (44 (88% had poor knowledge on danger symptoms, danger signs, and complications in pregnancy. Health posts, which are the operational units for HEWs, did not have basic infrastructures like water supply, electricity, and waiting rooms for women in labor. On average within 6 months, a HEW assisted in 5.8 births. Only a few births (10% were assisted at the health posts, the majority (82% were assisted at home and only 20% of HEWs received professional assistance from a midwife. Conclusion Considering the poor knowledge of HEWs, poorly equipped health posts, and poor referral systems, it is difficult for HEWs to play a key role in improving health facility deliveries, skilled birth attendance, and on-time referral through early identification of danger signs. Hence, there is an urgent need to design appropriate strategies to improve the performance of HEWs by enhancing their knowledge and competencies, while creating appropriate working conditions.

  6. Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezekiah K. Adesokan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH and livestock marketers (LM in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5% of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262. Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05. In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations.

  7. The Impact of an Educational Program on Knowledge and Attitude of Female Sex Workers in Preventing High Risk Sexual Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Larki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim:  The most important risk factor for one’s sexual health is high-risk sexual behavior. Implementation of educational programs has been considered as one of the most crucial interventions in the prevention and treatment of these behaviors. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of an educational program on the knowledge and attitude of female sex workers toward preventing high-risk sexual behaviors. Methods:This pretest-posttest, one-group study was conducted on 40 female sex workers, imprisoned in Mashhad Vakil Abad prison in 2013. Data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, as well as knowledge- and attitude-related data. An educational program was designed after the pretest and conducted in four 70-minute sessions. Immediately and four weeks after the educational program, post-test was performed. Data were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxon tests, using SPSS version 16. Results: A positive significant increase was found in the mean scores of knowledge and attitude of female sex workers immediately and four weeks after the program (P

  8. Knowledge of Hepatitis B Virus Infection, Immunization with Hepatitis B Vaccine, Risk Perception, and Challenges to Control Hepatitis among Hospital Workers in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Adekanle, Olusegun; Ndububa, Dennis A; Olowookere, Samuel Anu; Ijarotimi, Oluwasegun; Ijadunola, Kayode Thaddeus

    2015-01-01

    Background. Studies had reported high rate of hepatitis B infection among hospital workers with low participation in vaccination programmes, especially those whose work exposes them to the risk of HBV infection. The study assessed knowledge of hepatitis B virus infection, risk perception, vaccination history, and challenges to control hepatitis among health workers. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study. Consenting health care workers completed a self-administered questionnaire that as...

  9. A thyroid measurement method for monitoring laboratory workers exposed to I125

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe here the standardization of a technique for the estimation of 125I in the thyroid gland of laboratory workers involved with 125I labelling techniques. It is based on a comparison with a standard curve obtained by placing in a thyroid neck phantom various calibrated standard sources of 125I. Its sensitivity was calculated around 0,8 - 1,7 nCi. The precision of our measurements was avaliated in a range of 1.35 - 310.5 nCi and the coefficient of variation obtained varied from 2,2% to 26,3%. The accuracy of our ''in vivo'' measurements was checked by analyzing the influence of the shape and the size of the thyroid in the neck phantom. (author)

  10. Bilingual, Digital, Audio-Visual Training Modules Improve Technical Knowledge of Feedlot and Dairy Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher D. Reinhardt; Thomson, Daniel U.; Deanna D. Retzlaff; Brooks Butler; Jose Valles

    2010-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of digital multimedia modules as training tools for animal care workers.  Employees at a commercial feedlot (n = 17) and a commercial dairy (n = 10) were asked to independently complete a 10-question quiz prior to and following viewing of training modules.  Module topics in the feedlot were proper handling of non-ambulatory animals and humane methods of euthanasia; modules were administered to the workers, as a group, in eithe...

  11. Knowledge-workers and the sustainable city: the travel consequences of car-related job-perks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendit, Edward; Frenkel, Amnon

    2011-01-01

    Attracting firms in knowledge and technology intensive (KTI) sectors is highly sought by national and regional policy makers as a powerful engine of economic growth. Due to fierce competition in the KTI sector, KTI firms often attract employees by offering car-related job perks in addition to wage. This study analyzes the impact of company-cars and car-allowance on the travel behavior of knowledge-workers. The importance of this issue derives from the tendency of knowledge-based economy to concentrate in highly populated metropolitan regions. The analyzed data comprise 750 observations, retrieved from a revealed-preferences survey among KTI workers in the Tel-Aviv metropolitan region in Israel. Results show that car-related job perks are associated with (i) high annual kilometrage, (ii) high propensity of using the car as main commute mode, (iii) long commute distances and travel times, (iv) high trip chaining frequency in commuting trips, and (v) high frequency of long-distance weekend leisure trips. The results suggest that the development of sustainable knowledge-based cities should consider (i) the replacement of car-related job perks by other incentives, (ii) the provision of pedestrian and cyclist friendly infrastructures, and (iii) public transport improvements.

  12. The linkage between the lifestyle of knowledge-workers and their intra-metropolitan residential choice: A clustering approach based on self-organizing maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward; Kaplan, Sigal

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the linkage between the lifestyle and the intra-metropolitan residential choice of knowledge-workers in terms of home-ownership, location, dwelling size and building type. Data are retrieved from a revealed-preferences survey among knowledge-workers in the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area and are analyzed with self-organizing maps for pattern recognition and classification. Five clusters are identified: nest-builders, bon-vivants, careerists, entrepreneurs and laid-back. Bon-vi...

  13. Knowledge and Awareness Regarding Needle Stick Injuries Among Helath Care Workers in Tertiary Care Hospital in Ahmedabad, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Shah, HK Mehta, Manish Fancy, Sunil Nayak, Bhavesh N. Donga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Health care professionals are exposed to variety of dangers like infections, cuts and needle stick injuries, exposure to anesthetic gases, radiations, dermatitis causing substances, vaccines, serums etc. This study focuses on issues related to some of these risks and possible ways and means on how to overcome these risks. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices among health care workers about needle stick injury. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a teaching hospital in June 2008. Results: Mean age of Health care workers was 33.5 years, majority (50% in the age group of 20-30 years. 61% HCWs had less than 5 year of work experience. 67% HCWs had received hepatitis B vaccination of which only 17.9% had carried out Anti HBs antibody check up. Knowledge about disease transmitted by NSIs was satisfactory. Though 36% had suffered Needle stick injury (NSIs, only 8.3% reported the incident of NSIs. 81% HCWs know about universal precaution guidelines. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for strengthening skills, developing newer competencies and broadening our knowledge in occupational health and safety and disaster management.

  14. North Carolina school-based administrator's knowledge and perceptions concerning science laboratory safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbusieski, Todd J.

    The purpose of this research study is to examine the perceptions that principals have concerning school safety, particularly science laboratory classroom safety and to identify generalized safety equipment deficiencies as they pertain to public schools in North Carolina. Four questions were addressed in this study: First, are principals aware of specific laboratory safety equipment and policies that may create safer conditions in schools and science laboratory classrooms? Second, does an administrator's assignment (elementary, middle, or high school) have an affect on that person's level of science laboratory safety knowledge? Third, to what extent do principals perceive that it is important to ensure a safe science laboratory classroom? Fourth, what percentage of principals has had any formal training in science laboratory safety instruction? Descriptive research methodology was chosen using an electronic questionnaire. The questionnaire was e-mailed to all principals of public schools in the state of North Carolina. Four concerns were addressed in this questionnaire: (a) demographics including grade level, enrollment of school, years of experience, and area of teaching certificate; (b) administrator's background knowledge of science safety; (c) administrator's responsibilities concerning science laboratory safety; and (d) knowledge and availability of science safety devices. Principals in general felt their knowledge of science laboratory safety was minimal. Statistical analysis showed that high school principals did report more knowledge of science safety than their middle and elementary school counterparts. Also elementary principals perceived science laboratory safety as less important than their middle and high school counterparts. Only 1/3 of all principals reported that they had any formal science laboratory training either as teachers or as administrators. There is a wide difference in the perceived importance of safety knowledge and the actual knowledge principals possess. Principals are in need of further training in science laboratory training.

  15. KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTION OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS TOWARDS CLEAN CARE PRACTICES IN A TERTIARY CARE HO SPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payghan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Ten to thirty percent of the patients admitted to hospitals in India acquire nosocomial infections as against 5% i n the developed world. The first and foremost principle of Universal Safety Precaution is “HANDWASHING”. But the Health Care Workers often forget to wash their hands before int eracting with the patient. Such contaminated hands plays major role in transmitting infections. HCWs are also at an increased risk of needle stick injuries. According to data fr om EPINet system, hospital workers incur approximately 30 needle stick injuries per 100 beds per year on average – an alarming figure by no exaggeration. (5 OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge and perception of HCWs toward s hand hygiene and to know the incident of NSI and the fac tors associated with it. STUDY METHOD: Cross sectional study with purposive sampling was car ried out in a tertiary care hospital. Out of 275 participants 55 were doctors, 143 nurses and 77 i nterns. Self administered questionnaire was used to collect information. RESULTS : Ninety one percent doctors, 86% interns and 81% nurses had good knowledge about hand hygiene. 73% d octors, 61% interns and 56% nurses knew the duration required for hand rub. The main h indrance for not practicing hand hygiene was due to lack of resources (37%. Knowledge abou t recapping of the needle was poor and incident of injury due to needle stick was 50% amon g nurses. CONCLUSIONS : Study demonstrated adequate knowledge regarding hand hygi ene. The knowledge should be converted into practice. There is a need for educati onal programme about universal precautions especially about handling of the sharps

  16. The multi-dimensional effects of reciprocity on worker effort: Evidence from a hybrid field-laboratory labor market experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-taec; Slonim, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We examine the gift exchange hypothesis on both the quantity and quality of output using a hybrid field-laboratory labor market experiment. We recruited participants to enter survey data for a well-known charitable organization. Workers were paid either a high or low wage. We find that although the total number of surveys entered did not vary with the wage, high wage workers made fewer errors and entered more surveys after controlling for errors. We further find that for low costs associated ...

  17. Socio-economic status may suppress the effect of knowledge on sexual risk among female sex workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Socio-economic status (SES, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV knowledge and self-efficacy influence risky behaviors and female sex workers (FSWs are not exception. Aims: This study was aimed to investigate if SES, HIV knowledge and self-efficacy predict frequency of unprotected sex with injecting drug users (IDUs among a sample of FSWs in Iran. Setting and Design: Universal Network for Health Information Dissemination and Exchange HIV Risk Study was a survey of IDUs and FSWs, conducted in eight different provinces of Iran, 2009. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 FSWs were entered in this study. Frequency of unprotected sex with IDUs during the past 6 months was the dependent variable. Number of sexual partners during the past 6 month, SES, HIV Knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived HIV risk and intention for change were predictors. Statistical Analysis: We used hierarchical regression for data analysis. In each step, a block of predictors were added to the model. SES block composed of education level, owning a house and living alone. Results: In the absence of SES in the model, HIV knowledge and self-efficacy were not significantly associated with the frequency of unprotected sex with IDUs during the past 6 months, However, with adding SES block to the model, HIV knowledge became significant predictor of the outcome. Thus, among our sample of Iranian FSWs, SES has a suppressor effect for the effect of HIV knowledge on frequency of unprotected sex with IDUs during the past 6 months. Conclusion: Studies which wish to understand the role of theory-based psychological constructs such as HIV knowledge on high risk behaviors need to include SES an essential contextual factor. This finding may also explain why literature is mixed on the effect of HIV knowledge on HIV risk behaviors.

  18. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76±11.20, 90.55±8.59, 80.58±11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55±9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in married and general hospital demonstrated high self-efficacy levels. 3. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management showed statistical differences according to the relationship between the knowledge and the attitude, the knowledge and the behavior, the attitude and the behavior, the attitude and the self-efficacy, and the behavior and the self-efficacy. The relationship between the behavior and the self-efficacy was represented as ? = 0.482, which was the strongest relationship in such factors. Also, the knowledge and self-efficacy didn't show certain relationships

  19. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Eun Ok [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76{+-}11.20, 90.55{+-}8.59, 80.58{+-}11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55{+-}9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in married and general hospital demonstrated high self-efficacy levels. 3. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management showed statistical differences according to the relationship between the knowledge and the attitude, the knowledge and the behavior, the attitude and the behavior, the attitude and the self-efficacy, and the behavior and the self-efficacy. The relationship between the behavior and the self-efficacy was represented as {gamma} = 0.482, which was the strongest relationship in such factors. Also, the knowledge and self-efficacy didn't show certain relationships.

  20. Valuing the contribution of knowledge-oriented workers to projects: a merit based approach in the construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Arashpour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence points to the fact that frequent resignation of project engineers from construction companies is primarily the result of dissatisfaction with the factors that shape the salary scale. This research aims to identify the major influencing factors in merit based salary calculation systems for knowledge-oriented engineers so as to more accurately reflect their contribution to construction projects. Results from a questionnaire sent to managers, engineers and HR professionals throughout the Iranian construction industry revealed that while there was overall agreement on principles to a merit-based approach, engineers in particular identified ‘professional skills’, ‘experience’ and ‘creativity’. Management-oriented parties should take into account engineer perspectives in order to more accurately value the knowledge-oriented contribution of these workers to construction projects. This research provides a basis for understanding the key factors in the merit based salary scale formulation through the construction industry.

  1. A knowledge continuity management program for the energy, infrastructure and knowledge systems center, Sandia National Laboratories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menicucci, David F.

    2006-07-01

    A growing recognition exists in companies worldwide that, when employees leave, they take with them valuable knowledge that is difficult and expensive to recreate. The concern is now particularly acute as the large ''baby boomer'' generation is reaching retirement age. A new field of science, Knowledge Continuity Management (KCM), is designed to capture and catalog the acquired knowledge and wisdom from experience of these employees before they leave. The KCM concept is in the final stages of being adopted by the Energy, Infrastructure, and Knowledge Systems Center and a program is being applied that should produce significant annual cost savings. This report discusses how the Center can use KCM to mitigate knowledge loss from employee departures, including a concise description of a proposed plan tailored to the Center's specific needs and resources.

  2. The linkage between the residential choice and the lifestyle of knowledge workers : a self-organizing map approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the linkage between the lifestyle and the intra-metropolitan residential choice of knowledge-workers in terms of home ownership, location, dwelling size and building type. In order to identify population groups based on their lifestyle, data from a revealed-preferences survey among knowledge-workers in Israel are clustered by means of a two-stage clustering method, consisting of self-organizing maps (SOM) followed by neural gas, Bayesian classification and unified distance matrix edge analysis. The method is embedded in the software Synapse. Five clusters are identified: nest-builders, bon-vivants, careerists, entrepreneurs and laid-back. The clusters significantly differ in terms of their home ownership, location, dwelling size and building type. Bon-vivants and entrepreneurs differ in their dwelling size and home ownership, although both prefer the metropolitan core. Careerists prefer suburban large single-detached houses. Hence, bon-vivants and entrepreneurs bear potential to form part of core revitalization processes, while careerists are the more likely to induce urban sprawl. Nest-builders and laid-back are attracted to central locations, conditional on the provision of affordable medium-size dwellings.

  3. A study to evaluate the knowledge of ASHA workers on antenatal and postnatal care in Bijapur district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank KJ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The discourse on the ASHA's role centres around three typologies - ASHA as an activist, ASHA as a link worker or facilitator, and ASHA as a community level health care provider. She will counsel women on birth preparedness, importance of safe delivery, breastfeeding and complementary feeding, immunization, contraception and prevention of common infections including reproductive tract infection/sexually transmitted infection (RTIs/STIs and care of the young child. Hence this study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of antenatal and postnatal care of ASHA workers. Methods: A cross sectional study was done on 132 ASHA workers selected from 5 random PHCs in Bijapur taluk. Data was collected in a prestructured proforma using interview technique from June to October, 2012. Results: Most of the ASHA (68.1% considered minimum of 3 postnatal visits after the normal vaginal delivery. Around 73.4% were aware that the new born child is to be wrapped up in the cloth soon after birth to prevent hypothermia. Majority (735.% were aware about the duration of exclusive breastfeeding to be practiced by the lactating mother. 69.7% of the respondents said the duration of breastfeeding should be between 18-24 months. Conclusions: Self-explanatory, specific financial guidelines should be made available within time to the programme managers. Under the cascade model of training to the ASHA, trainings should provide complete knowledge and skills to the trainees within the stipulated time. Quality of training should be enhanced and refresher trainings should be planned regularly. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2299-2302

  4. Knowledge of hepatitis B and vaccination status of some expatriate ethnic groups of blue collar workers in Northern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Sattar Khan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B (HBV infection is relatively common throughout the world, but more prevalent in low socioeconomic and underprivileged classes. The chronic infection may lead to severe consequences including Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Method: A cross-sectional, community-based survey of some ethnic expatriate groups of blue color workers (n=665 living in four main areas along the Northern Borders of Saudi Arabia was completed in 2005. We examined knowledge of HBV and vaccination status and compared them with some socio-demographic factors. Results: The mean age of the participants was 45.61 years (±8.44, 53% of whom were Non-Arabs (Non Arabic speaking. Of the total, 41.6% gave seven or more correct answers out of 12 questions addressing knowledge about the transmission and sequelae of HBV. Almost 40% of the respondents had not been vaccinated while the remaining respondents had had three full doses of vaccination. A high level of knowledge (? 7 correct answers was significantly associated (p0.05 with level of knowledge. However, vaccination status was associated (p<0.05 with almost all socio-demographic factors. Conclusion: Hepatitis screening programs for expatriates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia started 10 years ago and are expected to have a great impact on the combat against HBV infections and their complications. However, beyond screening, health promotion, vaccination campaigns, and access to vaccine for the underprivileged classes are some necessary measures towards achieving success.

  5. Characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Peltzer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa. The sample included 70 female sex workers from the Tzaneen and Phalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. A modified form of snowball sampling known as “targeted” sampling was used for identifying female sex workers. Results showed an inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention methods and some incorrect beliefs about AIDS transmission. Most sex workers reported condom use with their last sex client, inconsistent condom use with paying partners, and had poor condom use with regular partners. One third were drinking alcohol daily, one quarter had had voluntary HIV tests, and three quarters had been exposed to HIV interventions. Findings are discussed and implications for HIV interventions outlined.

  6. Knowledge Retention for Computer Simulations: A study comparing virtual and hands-on laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croom, John R., III

    The use of virtual laboratories has the potential to change physics education. These low-cost, interactive computer activities interest students, allow for easy setup, and give educators a way to teach laboratory based online classes. This study investigated whether virtual laboratories could replace traditional hands-on laboratories and whether students could retain the same long-term knowledge in virtual laboratories as compared to hands-on laboratories. This study is a quantitative quasi-experiment that used a multiple posttest design to determine if students using virtual laboratories would retain the same knowledge as students who performed hands-on laboratories after 9 weeks. The study was composed of 336 students from 14 school districts. Students had their performances on the laboratories and their retention of the laboratories compared to a series of factors that might have affected their retention using a pretest and two posttests, which were compared using a t test. The results showed no significant difference in short-term learning between the hands-on laboratory groups and virtual laboratory groups. There was, however, a significant difference (p = .005) between the groups in long-term retention; students in the hands-on laboratory groups retained more information than those in the virtual laboratory groups. These results suggest that long-term learning is enhanced when a laboratory contains a hands-on component. Finally, the results showed that both groups of students felt their particular laboratory style was superior to the alternative method. The findings of this study can be used to improve the integration of virtual laboratories into science curriculum.

  7. KP-LAB Knowledge Practices Laboratory -- Specification of the SWKM Architecture (V1.0) and Core Services

    OpenAIRE

    Christophides, Vassilis; Kotzinos, Dimitris; Tzitzikas, Yannis; Spyratos, Nicolas; Belhajfrej, Hanen; Nguer, Mamadou; Paralic, Jan; Furdik, Karol; Smatana, Peter; Sarnovsky, Martin; Bednar, Peter; Smrz, Pavel; Sklenak, Vilem; Svatek, Vojtech; Kavalec, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The objective of WP5 is to develop a generic middleware supporting knowledge management services for ?trialogical? learning applications. More precisely, the KPLab Semantic Web Knowledge Middleware (SWKM) aims to facilitate knowledge creation processes by supporting advanced interactions of collaborating learners (or workers) with knowledge artefacts (i.e. discovery, access, evolution, recommendation and mining). In this deliverable we present the high-level functionality of SWKM along with t...

  8. The influence of risk perception on biosafety level-2 laboratory workers' hand-to-face contact behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James D; Eggett, Dennis; Johnson, Michele J; Reading, James C

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen transmission in the laboratory is thought to occur primarily through inhalation of infectious aerosols or by direct contact with mucous membranes on the face. While significant research has focused on controlling inhalation exposures, little has been written about hand contamination and subsequent hand-to-face contact (HFC) transmission. HFC may present a significant risk to workers in biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) laboratories where there is typically no barrier between the workers' hands and face. The purpose of this study was to measure the frequency and location of HFC among BSL-2 workers, and to identify psychosocial factors that influence the behavior. Research workers (N = 93) from 21 BSL-2 laboratories consented to participate in the study. Two study personnel measured workers' HFC behaviors by direct observation during activities related to cell culture maintenance, cell infection, virus harvesting, reagent and media preparation, and tissue processing. Following observations, a survey measuring 11 psychosocial predictors of HFC was administered to participants. Study personnel recorded 396 touches to the face over the course of the study (mean = 2.6 HFCs/hr). Of the 93 subjects, 67 (72%) touched their face at least once, ranging from 0.2-16.0 HFCs/hr. Among those who touched their face, contact with the nose was most common (44.9%), followed by contact with the forehead (36.9%), cheek/chin (12.5%), mouth (4.0%), and eye (1.7%). HFC rates were significantly different across laboratories F(20, 72) = 1.85, p = 0.03. Perceived severity of infection predicted lower rates of HFC (p = 0.03). For every one-point increase in the severity scale, workers had 0.41 fewer HFCs/hr (r = -.27, P perceptions had a modest impact on their HFC behaviors, but other factors not considered in this study, including social modeling and work intensity, may play a stronger role in predicting the behavior. Mucous membrane protection should be considered as part of the BSL-2 PPE ensemble to prevent HFC. PMID:24479417

  9. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and Knowledge About Hepatitis B Among Migrant Workers in Shandong Province, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Yan, Ming; Yue, Meng; Wang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jie; Li, Shuqing

    2015-01-01

    Background: China is a country with a high prevalence of hepatitis B. As a special population, migrant workers are more vulnerable to hepatitis B. Objectives: The present study was conducted to gain insight into the prevalence of hepatitis B and knowledge about hepatitis B among migrant workers in Shandong Province, China, as well as to explore a series of strategies for preventing and controlling the spread and prevalence of hepatitis B. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted without age restriction, in Shandong Province in China. The sample-size was determined scientifically. The study population was selected using the random multistage cluster sampling. Personal information, including sex, age, ethnicity, marital status, education level, years of duration of stay in Jinan and health insurance were obtained from 2065 migrant workers. Moreover, blood samples were collected for hepatitis B infection screening. Knowledge about hepatitis B was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Correct response rates were calculated. Results: Of 2065 migrant workers tested for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg), 167 (126 men and 41 women) tested positive for HBsAg; the overall prevalence was 8.1%. The prevalence rates in men and women were 9.6% and 5.4%, respectively. The prevalence rates in subjects 18 - 30 years old and 30 years older were 3.5% and 9.3%, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between those groups (P migrant workers correctly responded that vaccination is effective for hepatitis B. However, 68% of migrants also had the misconception that it is necessary to receive a booster vaccination. Conclusions: The hepatitis B virus infection rate in migrant workers is higher than average infection rates in China, and these workersknowledge regarding hepatitis B is poor. It is urgent that an appropriate program be undertaken for the prevention and control of hepatitis B among migrant workers. PMID:26023348

  10. Hospital Bioethics: A Beginning Knowledge Base for the Neonatal Social Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Ed

    1992-01-01

    Notes that life-saving advances in medicine have created difficult ethical and legal dilemmas for health care professionals. Presents beginning knowledge base for bioethical practice, especially in hospital neonatal units. Outlines key elements of bioethical decision making and examines potential social work role from clinical and organizational…

  11. Discourse, Power, and Knowledge in the Management of "Big Science": The Production of Consensus in a Nuclear Fusion Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Extends a Foucauldian view of power/knowledge to the archetypical knowledge-intensive organization, the scientific research laboratory. Describes the discursive production of power/knowledge at the "big science" laboratory conducting nuclear fusion research and illuminates a critical incident in which the fusion research "discipline" imposes…

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cervical cancer and screening among Ethiopian health care workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Catherine M; Sharling, Lisa; Owen-Smith, Ashli A; Desalegn, Dawit; Blumberg, Henry M; Goedken, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background Though cervical cancer incidence has dramatically decreased in resource rich regions due to the implementation of universal screening programs, it remains one of the most common cancers affecting women worldwide and has one of the highest mortality rates. The vast majority of cervical cancer-related deaths are among women that have never been screened. Prior to implementation of a screening program in Addis Ababa University-affiliated hospitals in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted to assess knowledge of cervical cancer etiology, risk factors, and screening, as well as attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer screening among women’s health care providers. Methods Between February and March 2012 an anonymous, self-administered survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to cervical cancer and its prevention was distributed to 334 health care providers at three government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and three Family Guidance Association clinics in Awassa, Adama, and Bahir Dar. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and chi-square test was used to test differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practices across provider type. Results Overall knowledge surrounding cervical cancer was high, although awareness of etiology and risk factors was low among nurses and midwives. Providers had no experience performing cervical cancer screening on a routine basis with <40% having performed any type of cervical cancer screening. Reported barriers to performing screening were lack of training (52%) and resources (53%); however the majority (97%) of providers indicated cervical cancer screening is an essential part of women’s health care. Conclusion There is a clear need among women’s health care providers for education regarding cervical cancer etiology, risk factors and for training in low-tech, low-cost screening methods. Meeting these needs and improving the infrastructure necessary to implement appropriate screening programs is essential to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in Ethiopia. PMID:26261427

  13. Knowledge sharing among workers: a study on their contribution through informal communication in Cyberjaya, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Norizzati Azudin; Mohd Nor Ismail; Zainab Taherali

    2009-01-01

    Malaysia, being a multi-racial society, faces the challenges of creating knowledge sharing capability in organisations, as cultural values are often reflected in the workplace by individual employees. For organisations, it is not clear whether this diversity has resulted in any form of competitive advantage. Studies have shown that various communities in Malaysia do not bring their respective cultures to work, and as such the company values prevail. This research is based on the demographic s...

  14. Facility-specific radiation exposure risks and their implications for radiation workers at Department of Energy laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Adam Christopher

    This research develops a new framework for evaluating the occupational risks of exposure to hazardous substances in any setting where As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) practices are mandated or used. The evaluation is performed by developing a hypothesis-test-based procedure for evaluating the homogeneity of various epidemiological cohorts, and thus the appropriateness of the application of aggregate data-pooling techniques to those cohorts. A statistical methodology is then developed as an alternative to aggregate pooling for situations in which individual cohorts show heterogeneity between them and are thus unsuitable for pooled analysis. These methods are then applied to estimate the all-cancer mortality risks incurred by workers at four Department-of-Energy nuclear weapons laboratories. Both linear, no-threshold and dose-bin averaged risks are calculated and it is further shown that aggregate analysis tends to overestimate the risks with respect to those calculated by the methods developed in this work. The risk estimates developed in Chapter 2 are, in Chapter 3, applied to assess the risks to workers engaged in americium recovery operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The work described in Chapter 3 develops a full radiological protection assessment for the new americium recovery project, including development of exposure cases, creation and modification of MCNP5 models, development of a time-and-motion study, and the final synthesis of all data. This work also develops a new risk-based method of determining whether administrative controls, such as staffing increases, are ALARA-optimized. The EPA's estimate of the value of statistical life is applied to these risk estimates to determine a monetary value for risk. The rate of change of this "risk value" (marginal risk) is then compared with the rate of change of workers' compensations as additional workers are added to the project to reduce the dose (and therefore, presumably, risk) to each individual.

  15. Taking knowledge for health the extra mile: participatory evaluation of a mobile phone intervention for community health workers in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Natalie; Schiffer, Eva; Buxbaum, Ann; McLean, Elizabeth; Perry, Cary; Sullivan, Tara M

    2014-02-01

    In Malawi, where the majority of the population resides in rural areas, community health workers (CHWs) are the first, and often only, providers of health services. An assessment of health information needs, however, found that these frontline workers often lacked essential health information. A pilot project, implemented in 2 rural districts of Malawi between 2010 and 2011, introduced a mobile phone system to strengthen knowledge exchange within networks of CHWs and district staff. To evaluate the mobile phone intervention, a participatory evaluation method called Net-Map was used, an approach built on traditional social network analysis. Together, CHWs and district personnel discussed information needs and gaps and the roles of different actors in their information networks. They then used drawings and 3-dimensional objects to create baseline and endline maps showing the linkages and levels of influence among members of the information network. Net-Map provided them with powerful evidence of differences before and after the mobile phone initiative. At baseline, CHWs were not mentioned as actors in the information network, while at endline they were seen to have significant connections with colleagues, beneficiaries, supervisors, and district health facilities, as both recipients and providers of information. Focus groups with CHWs complemented the Net-Map findings with reports of increased self-confidence and greater trust by their communities. These qualitative results were bolstered by surveys that showed decreases in stockouts of essential medicines, lower communication costs, wider service coverage, and more efficient referrals. As an innovative, participatory form of social network analysis, Net-Map yielded important visual, quantitative, and qualitative information at reasonable cost. PMID:25276560

  16. Sociology of Scientific Knowledge and Science Education Part 2: Laboratory Life under the Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The second of two articles that examine some of the claims of contemporary sociology of scientific knowledge and the bearing of these claims upon the rationale and practice of science teaching. The celebrated work "Laboratory Life" by Latour and Woolgar is critically examined. (LZ)

  17. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Among Quarry Workers in a North-Eastern State of Malaysia: A Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Filza Ismail; Aziah Daud; Zaliha Ismail; Baharudin Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Noise is known to be one of the environmental and occupational hazards listed in the Factory and Machinery Act 1967. Quarries with loud deafening sounds from trucks and machineries pose the risk of noise-induced hearing loss to workers. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards noise-induced hearing loss and to determine the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss and its associated factors among quarry workers in a north-eastern state of Mala...

  18. Healthcare workers and health care-associated infections: knowledge, attitudes, and behavior in emergency departments in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinelli Paolo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This survey assessed knowledge, attitudes, and compliance regarding standard precautions about health care-associated infections (HAIs and the associated determinants among healthcare workers (HCWs in emergency departments in Italy. Methods An anonymous questionnaire, self-administered by all HCWs in eight randomly selected non-academic acute general public hospitals, comprised questions on demographic and occupational characteristics; knowledge about the risks of acquiring and/or transmitting HAIs from/to a patient and standard precautions; attitudes toward guidelines and risk perceived of acquiring a HAI; practice of standard precautions; and sources of information. Results HCWs who know the risk of acquiring Hepatitis C (HCV and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV from a patient were in practice from less years, worked fewer hours per week, knew that a HCW can transmit HCV and HIV to a patient, knew that HCV and HIV infections can be serious, and have received information from educational courses and scientific journals. Those who know that gloves, mask, protective eyewear, and hands hygiene after removing gloves are control measures were nurses, provided care to fewer patients, knew that HCWs' hands are vehicle for transmission of nosocomial pathogens, did not know that a HCW can transmit HCV and HIV to a patient, and have received information from educational courses and scientific journals. Being a nurse, knowing that HCWs' hands are vehicle for transmission of nosocomial pathogens, obtaining information from educational courses and scientific journals, and needing information were associated with a higher perceived risk of acquiring a HAI. HCWs who often or always used gloves and performed hands hygiene measures after removing gloves were nurses, provided care to fewer patients, and knew that hands hygiene after removing gloves was a control measure. Conclusions HCWs have high knowledge, positive attitudes, but low compliance concerning standard precautions. Nurses had higher knowledge, perceived risk, and appropriate HAIs' control measures than physicians and HCWs answered correctly and used appropriately control measures if have received information from educational courses and scientific journals.

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and anxiety towards influenza A/H1N1 vaccination of healthcare workers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanriverdi Derya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the factors associated with knowledge and attitudes about influenza A (H1N1 and vaccination, and possible relations of these factors with anxiety among healthcare workers (HCW. Methods The study used a cross-sectional descriptive design, and it was carried out between 23 November and 4 December 2009. A total of 300 HCW from two hospitals completed a questionnaire. Data collection tools comprised a questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results Vaccination rate for 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1 among HCW was low (12.7%. Most of the respondents believed the vaccine was not safe and protective. Vaccination refusal was mostly related to the vaccine's side effects, disbelief to vaccine's protectiveness, negative news about the vaccine and the perceived negative attitude of the Prime Minister to the vaccine. State anxiety was found to be high in respondents who felt the vaccine was unsafe. Conclusions HCW considered the seriousness of the outbreak, their vaccination rate was low. In vaccination campaigns, governments have to aim at providing trust, and media campaigns should be used to reinforce this trust as well. Accurate reporting by the media of the safety and efficacy of influenza vaccines and the importance of vaccines for the public health would likely have a positive influence on vaccine uptake. Uncertain or negative reporting about the vaccine is detrimental to vaccination efforts.

  20. Knowledge and skills of primary health care workers trained on integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness: Follow-up assessment 3 years after the training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Venkatachalam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary health care workers of a district in northern India were trained in the year 2006 for Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI using two different training methods: conventional 8-day training and new interrupted 5-day training. Knowledge and skills may decline over a period of time. Rate of decline may be associated with the type of training. A study was thus conducted to see the retention of knowledge and skills in the two training groups, 3 years after the initial training. Materials and Methods: This study was done in the Panchkula district of Haryana state in northern India. In the year 2006, 50 primary health care workers were given new interrupted 5-day training and another 35 workers were given conventional 8-day training on IMNCI. Knowledge and skills of the same workers were evaluated in the year 2009, using the same methodology and tools as were used in the year 2006. Data analysis was done to see the extent of decline in knowledge and skills in these 3 years and whether decline was more in any particular training group. Results: Compared to post-training score in the year 2006, composite knowledge and skill scores for Auxilliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs and Anganwari workers (AWWs together declined significantly in the year 2009 from 74.6 to 58.0 in 8-day training group and from 73.2 to 57.0 in 5-day training group (P < 0.001. Follow-up composite scores in the two training groups were similar. Whereas the decline was more for knowledge scores in 8-day training group and for skill score in 5-day training group, the pattern of decline was inconsistent for different health conditions and among ANMs and AWWs. Conclusion: Long-term retention of knowledge and skills in 5-day group was equivalent to that in 8-day training group. Refresher trainings may boost up the decline in the knowledge and skills.

  1. The challenge of knowledge management in a newly-formed national laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction. In the autumn of 2006, the UK government made a commitment to establish a National Nuclear Laboratory based around Nexia Solutions and its 'state of the art' facility at Sellafield in Cumbria. The initial phase of the work to establish the laboratory is now complete and it has a remit for the following roles: to play a key role in supporting the UK's strategic R and D requirements; to operate world-class facilities; to ensure key skills are safeguarded and enhanced; to play a key role in the development of the UK's R and D supply base. It is evident that to be successful the National Nuclear Laboratory will need a strong capability in knowledge management to underpin its activities. Our origins in the R and D communities of BNFL and UKAEA have given us a broad portfolio of capabilities which range from reactor technology through fuel cycle technology to waste management and the knowledge held by our people is one of our major strengths. However, the capabilities and knowledge do need to be maintained and developed, for which we have a four part strategy: Strengthen internal systems and processes; Undertake strategic R and D programmes; Build networks with the nuclear industry across the world; Build links and partnerships with academic institutions. Systems and Processes. Internal systems and processes need to be strengthened to make the capture and sharing of knowledge and information more efficient. A key element will be succession planning for more experienced technologists. R and D programmes. Work is proceeding to develop a robust portfolio of R and D programmes. As well as fulfilling our remit to play a key role in the UK's strategic R and D requirements, this will also ensure that skills maintenance goes beyond formal training. Involvement in R and D programmes will develop capabilities in our younger scientists and engineers, particularly, to generate solutions relevant to the industrial-scale application of nuclear technology. We aim to use our R and D programmes to facilitate skills transfer from experienced practitioners across a wide range of disciplines. Industry Networks. Building networks across the nuclear industry needs to complement the R and D portfolio. We recognise that a creative approach is needed, and one example is that Nexia Solutions has created roles called Senior Fellows. Senior Fellows are leading technologists who are expected to 'act as ambassadors'. That is to say that they will develop links between technologists inside the laboratory with those in academia or other industries. In this context, knowledge management is to work with the 'tacit' knowledge held by experts in a variety of organisations. Establishing the correct links ensures the knowledge is more complete than it would otherwise be and enables it to be focused more effectively on real issues. Each senior fellow role is based around a fundamental technical discipline which provides the theme for the development of technical links. Currently we have roles in the following areas:- Materials behaviour; Corrosion; Actinide chemistry; Criticality; Reactor Systems. Senior Fellows are nationally and internationally known and respected in their field and are expected to maintain their specialist support role within Nexia Solutions in addition to interacting extensively with key research organisations, academia and relevant other industries. Academic links. The National Nuclear Laboratory will aim to maximise the value of its work for the UK and therefore must find ways of increasing the synergies between its own capabilities and those in universities. One example of how the National Laboratory may work is Nexia Solutions' existing initiative called University Research Alliances (URA). The knowledge management aspect is similar to that for industrial networks, i.e. dealing with 'tacit' knowledge. Academic and industrial knowledge can complement each other if the right links are established. Equally, important is the role that universities can play in renewing the knowledge base, through formal education pr ogra

  2. Early Changes in Clinical, Functional, and Laboratory Biomarkers in Workers at Risk of Indium Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kristin J.; Virji, M. Abbas; Trapnell, Bruce C.; Carey, Brenna; Healey, Terrance; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Occupational exposure to indium compounds, including indium–tin oxide, can result in potentially fatal indium lung disease. However, the early effects of exposure on the lungs are not well understood. Objectives To determine the relationship between short-term occupational exposures to indium compounds and the development of early lung abnormalities. Methods Among indium–tin oxide production and reclamation facility workers, we measured plasma indium, respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, chest computed tomography, and serum biomarkers of lung disease. Relationships between plasma indium concentration and health outcome variables were evaluated using restricted cubic spline and linear regression models. Measurements and Main Results Eighty-seven (93%) of 94 indium–tin oxide facility workers (median tenure, 2 yr; median plasma indium, 1.0 ?g/l) participated in the study. Spirometric abnormalities were not increased compared with the general population, and few subjects had radiographic evidence of alveolar proteinosis (n = 0), fibrosis (n = 2), or emphysema (n = 4). However, in internal comparisons, participants with plasma indium concentrations ?1.0 ?g/l had more dyspnea, lower mean FEV1 and FVC, and higher median serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 and surfactant protein-D levels. Spline regression demonstrated nonlinear exposure response, with significant differences occurring at plasma indium concentrations as low as 1.0 ?g/l compared with the reference. Associations between health outcomes and the natural log of plasma indium concentration were evident in linear regression models. Associations were not explained by age, smoking status, facility tenure, or prior occupational exposures. Conclusions In indium–tin oxide facility workers with short-term, low-level exposure, plasma indium concentrations lower than previously reported were associated with lung symptoms, decreased spirometric parameters, and increased serum biomarkers of lung disease. PMID:25295756

  3. The linkage between the lifestyle of knowledge-workers and their intra-metropolitan residential choice: A clustering approach based on self-organizing maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the linkage between the lifestyle and the intra-metropolitan residential choice of knowledge-workers in terms of home-ownership, location, dwelling size and building type. Data are retrieved from a revealed-preferences survey among knowledge-workers in the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area and are analyzed with self-organizing maps for pattern recognition and classification. Five clusters are identified: nest-builders, bon-vivants, careerists, entrepreneurs and laid-back. Bon-vivants and entrepreneurs differ in their dwelling size and home-ownership, although both prefer the metropolitan core. Careerists prefer suburban large detached houses. Nest-builders and laid-back are attracted to central locations, conditional on the provision of affordable medium-size dwellings.

  4. Mortality among workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Evidence of radiation effects in follow-up through 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White men hired at the Oak Ridge (Tenn) National Laboratory between 1943 and 1972 were followed up for vital status through 1984 (N = 8318, 1524 deaths). Relatively low mortality compared with that in US white men was observed for most causes of death, but leukemia mortality was elevated in the total cohort (63% higher, 28 deaths) and in workers who had at some time been monitored for internal radionuclide contamination (123% higher, 16 deaths). Median cumulative dose of external penetrating radiation was 1.4 mSv; 638 workers had cumulative doses above 50 mSv (5 rem). After accounting for age, birth cohort, a measure of socioeconomic status, and active worker status, external radiation with a 20-year exposure lag was related to all causes of death (2.68% increase per 10 mSv) primarily due to an association with cancer mortality (4.94% per 10 mSv). Studies of this population through 1977 did not find radiation-cancer mortality associations, and identical analyses using the shorter follow-up showed that associations with radiation did not appear until after 1977. The radiation-cancer dose response is 10 times higher than estimates from the follow-up of survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, but similar to one previous occupational study. Dose-response estimates are subject to uncertainties due to potential problems, including measurement of radiation doses and cancer outcomes. Longer-term follow-up of this and other populations with good measurement of protracted low-level exposures will be critical to evaluating the generalizability of the results reported herein

  5. Outbreak of Brucella melitensis among microbiology laboratory workers in a community hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Staszkiewicz, J; Lewis, C. M.; Colville, J.; M. Zervos; Band, J

    1991-01-01

    From May to September 1988, eight employees of a microbiology laboratory developed acute brucellosis (attack rate, 31%). Seven of the eight affected employees had clinical illness ranging from a nonspecific, flulike illness to severe hepatitis. Blood cultures obtained from five of the affected employees (63%) were positive for Brucella melitensis, biotype 3. Comparison of cases and controls showed that there were no risk factors besides employment in the laboratory. Based on work locations, a...

  6. International mobility trends of highly skilled workers: an analysis of the transnational migration of highly skilled immigrants for both receiving and sending countries and their role on innovation in a knowledge-based economy

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Victor Andrew

    2009-01-01

    In a knowledge-based economy, innovation has become a key driver of economic growth. The return migration of highly skilled workers to traditional sending countries such as Taiwan, China, and India has increased the international mobility of highly skilled workers in the Science and Technology sector. As a result, this will change transnational migration patterns of highly skilled workers in the future and will affect recruitment strategies of traditional receiving countries such as Canada. T...

  7. GenomeConnect: Matchmaking Between Patients, Clinical Laboratories, and Researchers to Improve Genomic Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brianne E; Riggs, Erin Rooney; Azzariti, Danielle R; Miller, Vanessa Rangel; Ledbetter, David H; Miller, David T; Rehm, Heidi; Martin, Christa Lese; Faucett, W Andrew

    2015-10-01

    As the utility of genetic and genomic testing in healthcare grows, there is need for a high-quality genomic knowledge base to improve the clinical interpretation of genomic variants. Active patient engagement can enhance communication between clinicians, patients, and researchers, contributing to knowledge building. It also encourages data sharing by patients and increases the data available for clinicians to incorporate into individualized patient care, clinical laboratories to utilize in test interpretation, and investigators to use for research. GenomeConnect is a patient portal supported by the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen), providing an opportunity for patients to add to the knowledge base by securely sharing their health history and genetic test results. Data can be matched with queries from clinicians, laboratory personnel, and researchers to better interpret the results of genetic testing and build a foundation to support genomic medicine. Participation is online, allowing patients to contribute regardless of location. GenomeConnect supports longitudinal, detailed clinical phenotyping and robust "matching" among research and clinical communities. Phenotype data are gathered using online health questionnaires; genotype data are obtained from genetic test reports uploaded by participants and curated by staff. GenomeConnect empowers patients to actively participate in the improvement of genomic test interpretation and clinical utility. PMID:26178529

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast cancer screening among female health workers in a Nigerian urban city

    OpenAIRE

    Omuemu Vivian O; Akhigbe Adenike O

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Late presentation has been observed as the hallmark of breast cancer in Nigerian women and an earlier onset has been reported in this population. This study was designed to assess the awareness of female health workers about risk factors and screening methods for early detection of breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among female health workers in the two major government health institutions in Benin City, Edo State capital in Nigeria...

  9. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory?s Book of Minimum Detectable Activity for Direct Measurement of Internally Deposited Radionuclides in Radiation Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintains an in vivo measurement program designed to identify and evaluate the activity of radionuclides deposited in the body. Two types of systems are primarily used for the routine monitoring of radiation workers, the lung counting system and the scanning bed whole body counting system. The lung counting system is comprised of two Canberra ACTII detector sets. Each ACTII set contains two planar germanium detectors with carbon composite end windows optimized to measure low energy photon emitting radionuclides. The ACTII detectors are placed on the upper torso over the lungs for the direct measurement of internally deposited radionuclides in the lungs that emit low energy photons. A correction for the thickness of the chest wall is applied to the efficiency. Because the thickness of the chest wall is a key factor in the measurement of low energy photon emitting radionuclides in the lung, the minimum detectable activity is a function of the chest wall thickness. The scanning bed whole body counting system is comprised of a thin air mattress on top of a carbon fiber bed that slowly scans over four high purity germanium detectors. The scanning system is designed to minimize variations in detected activity due to radionuclide distribution in the body. The scanning bed detection system is typically used for the measurement of internally deposited radionuclides that emit photons above 100 to 200 keV. MDAs have been generated for radionuclides that provide energies above 80 keV since the lowest calibration energy for the system is approximately 86 keV. The following charts and table provide best determination of minimum detectable activity using human subjects as controls for the background contributions. A wide variety of radionuclides are used throughout the laboratory and the following pages represent several of the radionuclides that have been encountered at the Whole Body and Spectroscopy Laboratories within Hazards Control

  10. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of oral health care workers in Lesotho regarding the management of patients with oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    K J, Ramphoma; S, Naidoo.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lesotho has the third highest prevalence of HIV In the world with an estimated 23% of the adult population infected. At least 70% of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have presented with oral manifestation of HIV as the first sign of the disease. Oral health workers regularly encounter patients pr [...] esenting with oral lesions associated with HIV disease and therefore need to have adequate knowledge of these conditions for diagnosis and management. The aim of the present study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of oral health care workers (OHCW) of Lesotho regarding the management of oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on all 46 OHCW in 26 public and private care facilities in all ten districts of Lesotho. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather information. The response rate was 100%. Nearly all (94.7%) agreed that oral lesions are common in people living with HIV and/or AIDS. The majority (91.3%) named oral candidiasis (OC) as the most common lesion found in PLWHA while Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) (34.7%) and Oral Hairy Leukoplakia (OHL) (32.6%) were mentioned as the least common oral lesions of HIV. Most correctly identified the images of oral candidiasis (97.8%), angular cheilitis (86.9%) and herpes zoster (80.4%). Only 16.7% felt they had comprehensive knowledge of oral HIV lesions, although 84.8% reported having previously received training. Almost three quarters (71%) reported that there was no need to treat HIV positive patients differently from HIV negative patients. OHCW in Lesotho demonstrated high confidence levels in their competence in managing dental patients with oral lesions associated with HIV, however, they lacked an in-depth knowledge in this regard. Amongst this group there is a need for comprehensive training with regards to diagnosis and management of oral lesions of HIV including the training of other cadres of health care workers together with nurses and community health workers.

  11. Taking knowledge for health the extra mile: participatory evaluation of a mobile phone intervention for community health workers in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Natalie; Schiffer, Eva; Buxbaum, Ann; McLean, Elizabeth; Perry, Cary; Sullivan, Tara M

    2014-01-01

    A participatory evaluation process called Net-Map showed that providing community health workers (CHWs) with mobile phones and essential technical information changed CHWs, from passive recipients of information with little influence to active information agents who sought and provided information to improve health services.

  12. Los Alamos national Laboratory overview of the SAVY-4000 design: meeting the challenge for worker safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2012-06-12

    Incidents involving release of nuclear materials stored in containers of convenience such as food pack cans, slip lid taped cans, paint cans, etc. has resulted in defense board concerns over the lack of prescriptive performance requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shared in these incidents and in response proactively moved into developing a performance based storage container design, the SAVY-4000. The SAVY-4000 is the first vented general use nuclear material container demonstrated to meet the requirements of DOE M 441.1-1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. The SAVY-4000 is an innovative and creative design demonstrated by the fact that it can be opened and closed in a few seconds without torque wrenches or other tools; has a built-in, fire-rated filter that prevents the build-up of hydrogen gas, yet retains 99.97% of plutonium particulates, and prevents release of material even in a 12 foot drop. Finally, it has been tested to 500C for 2 hours, and will reduce the risk to the public in the event of an earthquake/fire scenario. This will allow major nuclear facilities to credit the container towards source term Material at Risk (MAR) reduction. The container was approved for nuclear material storage in theTA-55 Plutonium Facility on March 15, 2011, and the first order of 79 containers was received at LANL on March 21, 2011. The first four SAVY-4000 containers were packaged with plutonium on August 2, 2011. Key aspects ofthe SAVY-4000 vented storage container design will be discussed which include design qualification and testing, implementation plan development and status, risk ranking methodology for re-packaging, in use implementation with interface to LANMAS, surveillance strategy, the design life extension program as enhanced by surveillance activities and production status with the intent to extend well beyond the current five year design life.

  13. Knowledge and Attitude toward Smoke-Free Legislation and Second-Hand Smoking Exposure among Workers in Indoor Bars, Beer Parlors and Discotheques in Osun State of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Olusola Onigbogi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the requirements of the Osun State smoke-free legislation is to ensure smoke-free enclosed and partially enclosed workplaces. This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques to smoke-free legislation in general and the Osun State smoke-free law in particular. Methods A convenience sampling of 36 hospitality centers was conducted. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit responses about the objectives from non-smoking workers. The questionnaires had sections on knowledge of the Osun State smoke-free law, attitude toward the law and smoke-free legislation in general and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke by the workers. Questions were also asked about the secondhand tobacco smoking status of these workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results We had 154 participants recruited into the study. There were 75 males (48.0% and 79 females (52.0%. On the overall, respondents had a good knowledge of the effects of second-hand smoke on health (70.2% with 75.0% of them being aware of the general smoke-free law and 67.3% being aware of the Osun State smoke-free law although none of them had ever seen a copy of the law. A high proportion (60.0% was in support of the Osun smoke-free law although all of them think that the implementation of the law could reduce patronage and jeopardize their income. Attitude toward second-hand smoking was generally positive with 72.0% of them having no tolerance for second-hand tobacco smoke in their homes. Most participants (95.5% had been exposed to tobacco smoke in the workplace within the past week. Conclusion Despite the high level of awareness of the respondents about the dangers of second hand smoke and their positive attitude to smoke-free laws, nearly all were constantly being exposed to second hand smoke at work. This calls for policy level interventions to improve the implementation of the smoke-free law.

  14. Conhecimento dos usuários, trabalhadores da saúde e gestores sobre conselheiros e Conselhos de Saúde / Knowledge of users, workers and managers about Health Councils and councilors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Camila Sartori, Martins; Michele Thaís, Sartori; Helena Luiza Douat, Dietrich; Fabiane Barbero, Klem; Camilo, Dallagnol; Guilherme Souza Cavalcanti de, Albuquerque; Paulo de Oliveira, Perna; Samya, Mehanna.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A criação de um espaço democrático de participação na condução do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) constituiu indubitável conquista dos brasileiros. O pleno exercício deste direito implica, no entanto, no conhecimento do próprio direito, dos espaços e dos mecanismos de participação, que permitam uma açã [...] o autônoma. No presente trabalho avalia-se o grau de conhecimento nos diversos segmentos sociais acerca da questão. Foram entrevistados usuários e trabalhadores do SUS, além de membros dos Conselhos de Saúde. Os resultados demonstram grande desinformação dos usuários, dos novos conselheiros e da maioria dos trabalhadores, em contraste com os gestores e os conselheiros com mais tempo no cargo. Abstract in english The creation of a democratic space for participation in the conduction of the Sistema Único de Saúde ( SUS) - Brazilian Public Health Care System - was undoubtedly an achievement for Brazilians. Full exercise of this right implies, however, knowledge of the right itself, spaces and mechanisms for pa [...] rticipation, allowing for autonomous action. The present study evaluates the degree of knowledge in the various social segments on this issue. Users and workers of SUS health care units were interviewed as well as members of Health Councils. Results show misinformation from most councilors and health workers when compared to managers and advisors who have worked longer in their positions.

  15. Latex allergy in health care workers : prevalence and knowledge at a tertiary teaching hospital in a developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Nazir Ahmed; Hoosen, Anwar Ahmed; Mehtar, Shaheen

    2010-01-01

    Latex allergy is an important concern from an occupational safety aspect and affects compliance of glove usage, which directly influences infection control practices aimed at providing safe medical care for both the health care worker (HCW) and patient. The Dr George Mukhari Hospital (DGM) in Pretoria has a staff complement of 1500 doctors and nurses who use latex gloves occasionally or regularly. The objective for this study was to evaluate the current prevalence of latex allergies and st...

  16. Promoting community knowledge and action for malaria control in rural Cambodia: potential contributions of Village Malaria Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Sachiko; Yasuoka Junko; Poudel Krishna C; Ly Po; Nguon Chea; Jimba Masamine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cambodia has been investing in Village Malaria Workers (VMWs) to improve malaria case management in rural areas. This study assessed the quality of the VMWs’ services compared to those by a government-run health center from the perspective of community members. We focused on VMWs’ contribution to promote their action to control malaria. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kampot province in 2009. Interviews were conducted at every accessible household ...

  17. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinc...

  18. Interdisciplinary Laboratory Course Facilitating Knowledge Integration, Mutualistic Teaming, and Original Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Full, Robert J; Dudley, Robert; Koehl, M A R; Libby, Thomas; Schwab, Cheryl

    2015-11-01

    Experiencing the thrill of an original scientific discovery can be transformative to students unsure about becoming a scientist, yet few courses offer authentic research experiences. Increasingly, cutting-edge discoveries require an interdisciplinary approach not offered in current departmental-based courses. Here, we describe a one-semester, learning laboratory course on organismal biomechanics offered at our large research university that enables interdisciplinary teams of students from biology and engineering to grow intellectually, collaborate effectively, and make original discoveries. To attain this goal, we avoid traditional "cookbook" laboratories by training 20 students to use a dozen research stations. Teams of five students rotate to a new station each week where a professor, graduate student, and/or team member assists in the use of equipment, guides students through stages of critical thinking, encourages interdisciplinary collaboration, and moves them toward authentic discovery. Weekly discussion sections that involve the entire class offer exchange of discipline-specific knowledge, advice on experimental design, methods of collecting and analyzing data, a statistics primer, and best practices for writing and presenting scientific papers. The building of skills in concert with weekly guided inquiry facilitates original discovery via a final research project that can be presented at a national meeting or published in a scientific journal. PMID:26238867

  19. Knowledge and beliefs among health care workers regarding hepatitis B infection and needle stick injuries at a tertiary care hospital, Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a recognized occupational risk for health care workers (HCWs). This study aimed to assess the knowledge and beliefs of HCWs regarding HBV transmission and needle stick injuries (NSIs). A cross-sectional questionnaire based KAP study was conducted at Civil Hospital, Karachi, during the period of January to September 2006. HCWs were inquired about possible modes of HBV transmission and association with NSIs. Data were entered using EpiInfo 6.04d software. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.5 software. A total of 343 HCWs participated, and those answered at least 5 correct modes of HBV transmission were considered knowledgeable. Knowledgeable group was more likely to report NSIs (p < 0.006), more vaccinated (p < 0.001) and were also more likely to attend awareness session (p < 0.009). Overall knowledge were inadequate and behaviour and attitude towards clinical practices were found compromised. To reduce the occupational risk, effort should be focused to establish effective infection control program and training of staff. (author)

  20. Healthcare workers and prevention of hepatitis C virus transmission: exploring knowledge, attitudes and evidence-based practices in hemodialysis units in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianco Aida

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence exists regarding the full prevention of HCV transmission to hemodialysis patients by implementing universal precaution. However, little information is available regarding the frequency with which hospitals have adopted evidence-based practices for preventing HCV infection among hemodialysis patients. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted among nurses in Calabria region (Italy in order to acquire information about the level of knowledge, the attitudes and the frequencies of evidence-based practices that prevent hospital transmission of HCV. Methods All 37 hemodialysis units (HDU of Calabria were included in the study and all nurses were invited to participate in the study and to fill in a self-administered questionnaire. Results 90% of the nurses working in HDU participated in the study. Correct answers about HCV pattern of transmission ranged from 73.7% to 99.3% and were significantly higher in respondents who knew that isolation of HCV-infected patients is not recommended and among those who knew that previous bloodstream infections should be included in medical record and among nurses with fewer years of practice. Most correctly thought that evidence-based infection control measures provide adequate protection against transmission of bloodborne pathogens among healthcare workers. Positive attitude was significantly higher among more knowledgeable nurses. Self-reporting of appropriate handwashing procedures were significantly more likely in nurses who were aware that transmission of bloodborne pathogens among healthcare workers may be prevented through adoption of evidence-based practices and with a correct knowledge about HCV transmission patterns. Conclusions Behavior changes should be aimed at abandoning outdated practices and adopting and maintaining evidence-based practices. Initiatives focused at enabling and reinforcing adherence to effective prevention practices among nurses in HDU are strongly needed.

  1. A worker perspective on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of the 15,000 members of the Power Workers Union (PWU) are employed in electricity production at Ontario Power Generation's nuclear generating stations and in nuclear technology research at the Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Our members therefore have an obvious vested interest in any discussion related to their jobs. Workers in nuclear power plants have a clearly defined responsibility to ensure a safe working environment for themselves and their fellow workers. They have an overwhelming vested interest in ensuring that the plants are constructed, maintained, and operated safely. As will be detailed in the presentation to the CNS, all workers are required to learn and demonstrate knowledge of the hazards as an integral part of employment initiation and subsequent training. As their union, the PWU has a responsibility to ensure conditions of employment that not only permit workers to refuse work they perceive to be unsafe but require them to bring safety concerns forward for resolution to the satisfaction of both management and workers' representatives. The PWU has accomplished this through the development of workplace structures to ensure worker input is sought and acted on. The paper will describe the next steps required to improve workplace safety at Ontario Power Generation, which could be adapted to other facilities and workgroups. (author)

  2. Knowledge about childhood autism and opinion among healthcare workers on availability of facilities and law caring for the needs and rights of children with childhood autism and other developmental disorders in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igwe Monday N

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In designing programs to raise the community level of awareness about childhood autism in sub-Saharan Africa, it is logical to use the primary healthcare workers as contact point for education of the general public. Tertiary healthcare workers could play the role of trainers on childhood autism at primary healthcare level. Assessing their baseline knowledge about childhood autism to detect areas of knowledge gap is an essential ingredient in starting off such programs that would be aimed at early diagnosis and interventions. Knowledge of the healthcare workers on availability of facilities and law that would promote the required interventions is also important. This study assessed the baseline knowledge about childhood autism and opinion among Nigerian healthcare workers on availability of facilities and law caring for the needs and rights of children with childhood autism and other developmental disorders. Method A total of one hundred and thirty four (134 consented healthcare workers working in tertiary healthcare facilities located in south east and south-south regions of Nigeria were interviewed with Socio-demographic, Knowledge about Childhood Autism among Health Workers (KCAHW and Opinion on availability of Facilities and Law caring for the needs and rights of children with Childhood Autism and other developmental disorders (OFLCA questionnaires. Results The total mean score of participated healthcare workers on KCAHW questionnaire was 12.35 ± 4.40 out of a total score of 19 possible. Knowledge gap was found to be higher in domain 3 (symptoms of obsessive and repetitive pattern of behavior, followed by domains 1 (symptoms of impairments in social interaction, 4 (type of disorder autism is and associated co-morbidity and 2 (symptoms of communication impairments of KCAHW respectively among the healthcare workers. Knowledge about childhood autism (KCA as measured by scores on KCAHW questionnaire was significantly associated with age group distribution of the healthcare workers, with those age group of fourth decades and above more likely to have higher mean score (p = 0.004 and previous experience of managing children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD (p = 0.000. KCA showed near significant association with area of specialty, with those healthcare workers in psychiatry compared to pediatrics having higher mean score (p = 0.071 and also with years of working experience of the healthcare workers (p = 0.056. More than half of the healthcare workers subscribed to the opinion that facilities and law caring for the needs and rights of children with childhood autism and other developmental disorders are lacking in Nigeria. Conclusion The correlates of KCA may help in selection of those tertiary healthcare workers that would best fit the role of trainers. It is important to update the knowledge gaps of those healthcare workers who scored low in different domains of KCAHW questionnaire. It is imperative for policy makers in Nigeria to advocate and implement multidisciplinary healthcare service system that would ensure early diagnosis and interventions. Nationally representative baseline epidemiological data that would guide policy and planning are also desirable.

  3. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus on the interrelationship between theory and practice in specific domains, while at the same time foregrounding the own position of the researcher. The transformation of European security in the 1990s is taken as an example of how an IR analysis changes focus when seeing knowledge as Bourdieu.

  4. KP-LAB Knowledge Practices Laboratory -- Specification of the shared space for knowledge practices software -release 1

    OpenAIRE

    Markkanen, Hannu; Aunimo, Lili; Bauters, Merja; Tchoumatchenko, Vassiliy; Furnadjiev, Ivan; Vasileva, Tania; A.M. Scapolla; Poggi, Arianna; Paralic, Jan; Babic, Frantisek; Wagner, Jozeph; Pascal DAYRE; Batatia, Hadj; Fotis, Thanasis

    2006-01-01

    This deliverable presents the high-level specification for the first release (M12) of the shared space for knowledge practices software, including the requirements, the functionality, as well as the service-oriented software architecture of the system. The requirements section describes the requirements process and the resulting high-level functional requirements. The functionality of the software is presented from the end-user perspective and divided into parts that form the major components...

  5. Agentes comunitários de saúde: mapeamento de conhecimento antes e após oficinas de instrumentalização / Community health workers: mapping of knowledge before and aftertraining workshops

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nathália de Carvalho, Lopes; Gleice Ane Scariot Silva, Vieira; Suelle Regina Bese, Pena; Stela Maris Aguiar, Lemos.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: mapear o conhecimento de agentes comunitários de saúde antes e após participação em oficinas de instrumentalização sobre aspectos fonoaudiológicos e verificar as mudanças de percepção segundo o tempo de trabalho na Estratégia de Saúde da Família. MÉTODOS: o estudo foi realizado em um mun [...] icípio a 170 km da capital de Minas Geraise com 74.409 habitantes. A rede de Atenção Primária a Saúde do município é composta por 10 unidades de Estratégia de Saúde da Família que alocam 60 agentes de saúde. Os dados foram coletados em todas as unidades e consistiu em três etapas: a) aplicação de questionário auto-aplicável acerca de aspectos fonoaudiológicos; b) processo de instrumentalização; c) reaplicação do questionário. RESULTADOS: participaram do estudo 51 agentes de saúde. Após a instrumentalização, tornou-se maior o número de agentes de saúde que deram relevância a fatores que sugerem a ocorrência de distúrbio da comunicação nas diferentes faixas etárias e que passaram a conhecer as quatro áreas que englobam a atuação fonoaudiológica. Não houve relação estatística entre o desempenho dos agentes nas respostas e a unidade de trabalho. Quanto ao tempo de trabalho Estratégia de Saúde da Família, na pré-instrumentalização, o melhor desempenho nas respostas foi dos agentes que trabalham há menos de um ano na atenção primária. CONCLUSÃO: ainstrumentalização favoreceu as respostas dos agentes comunitários de saúde. Houve relação entre o processo de instrumentalização e o tempo de atuação no Programa de Saúde da Família. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to map the knowledge of community health workers before and after the participation in training workshops on phonoaudiological aspects and to verify changes in the perception according to the working time in the Family Health Strategy. METHODS: the study was conducted in a municipality wit [...] h 74,409 inhabitants, 170 km from Belo Horizonte, the capital of the State of Minas Gerais. Its Primary Health Care network is composed of 10 units of Family Health Strategy that allocate 60 health workers. The information was collected from all units and the process consisted of three stages: a) application of a questionnaire about phonoaudiological aspects; b) training process; c) reapplication of the questionnaire. RESULTS: 51 health workers participated in the study. After the training, the number of health workers who started to give importance to factors that may indicate communication disorders in different age groups and that became aware of the four areas of the phonoaudiology became greater. There was no statistical relationship between the answers of the workers and the work unit. Regarding the working time in the Family Health Strategy, those who work for less than a year in the primary care gave the best answers before the training. CONCLUSION: the training favored the responses of the community health workers. There was a relationship between the training process and the working time in the Family Health Program.

  6. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime E. Barrientos; Michel Bozon; Edith Ortiz; Anabella Arredondo

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW ...

  7. The relationship between performance-based self-esteem and self-reported work and health behaviors among Danish knowledge workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roger; Albertsen, Karen; Garde, Anne Helene; Rugulies, Reiner

    2012-02-01

    Since knowledge intensive work often requires self-management, one might fear that persons who are dependent on work success for self-esteem will have difficulties in finding a healthful and sustainable balance between internal needs and external demands. Accordingly, we examined to what degree work-related performance-based self-esteem (PBS) was linked to work and health behaviors in 392 knowledge workers (226 women, 166 men). In the women group, multiple binary logistic regression analyses with repeated measurements showed that the PBS score was associated with 10 of the 17 examined work and health behaviors. For men the corresponding figure was 3 of 17. In both men and women, higher PBS scores were positively associated with reports of efforts and strivings for work as well as attending work while ill. In conclusion, statistically significant relationships between PBS and work and health behaviors were more clearly visible among women than men. Whether this gender difference is dependent on the study design, or on true inherent differences between women and men, cannot be concluded with any certainty. However, persons who described themselves as being relatively more dependent on work accomplishments for a high self-esteem, as expressed by the PBS score, seem to display work behaviors that may lessen their restitution time. In addition, they also seem to be more prone to work while sick. PMID:21906071

  8. Human papillomavirus knowledge, vaccine acceptance, and vaccine series completion among female entertainment and sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: the Young Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhera, Priya; Evans, Jennifer L; Stein, Ellen; Gandhi, Monica; Couture, Marie-Claude; Sansothy, Neth; Sichan, Keo; Maher, Lisa; Kaldor, John; Page, Kimberly; Kaldor, John; Kien, Serey Phal; Page, Kimberly; Palefsky, Joel M; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Vun, Mean Chhi

    2015-10-01

    SummaryHuman papillomavirus is a common sexually transmitted infection and the causative agent for cervical cancer, a frequently occurring malignant disease among women in developing countries. We assessed human papillomavirus awareness prior to the delivery of a brief information and education intervention, and human papillomavirus vaccine provision to female entertainment and sex workers (N?=?220). At baseline, only 23.6% of women had heard of human papillomavirus. Following the educational intervention, 90% answered all the human papillomavirus knowledge questions correctly. Of 192 participants attending the first quarterly cohort visit where vaccine was offered, 149 (78%) were eligible for vaccination; HIV-positive (n?=?32) and pregnant (n?=?11) women were excluded. Acceptance of vaccine among eligible women was universal, and 79.2% completed the three-dose vaccination series. Women who reported use of amphetamine-type stimulants had significantly and independently lower odds of vaccine completion (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.24; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08, 0.69). New pregnancies also had an impact on vaccine completion: 5.4% (8/149 5.4%) who started the series had to stop due to new pregnancy. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple education intervention designed to increase human papillomavirus knowledge and the feasibility of successful human papillomavirus vaccine in a population that is often difficult to engage in preventive health care. PMID:25505042

  9. Conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores de un hospital sobre el manejo de residuos hospitalarios, Chocó, Colombia, 2012 / Knowledge and practices of workers of a Hospital about handling of hospital waste, Chocó Colombia, 2012

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yulenny, Quinto-Mosquera; Luz Marina, Jaramillo-Pérez; Jaiberth Antonio, Cardona-Arias.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: los residuos hospitalarios y similares constituyen un grave problema de salud por el riesgo de contaminación biológica y química, y sus impactos negativos sobre la calidad de vida humana y el ambiente. Objetivo: describir los conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores de una Empresa [...] Social del Estado de Chocó-Colombia sobre el manejo de residuos hospitalarios y su asociación con sexo, edad, área de servicios y tiempo de labor en la Institución. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal, en 67 empleados de seis áreas de trabajo de un hospital de Colombia. Se aplicó una escala sobre conocimientos y prácticas relacionadas con el manejo de residuos hospitalarios. Los datos se almacenaron y analizaron en Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows, software SPSS 20, con medidas de resumen, frecuencias, chi cuadrado y Anova. Resultados: en los conocimientos el 40% presentó un grado insatisfactorio, en las prácticas el 17,9% fue regular y solo 3% excelente. Los conocimientos no presentaron asociación estadística con el sexo, el área de servicios, la edad y el tiempo laborado en la Institución Prestadora de Servicios de Salud, excepto en el personal del laboratorio clínico, donde 89% presentaron un conocimiento entre bueno y excelente. Las prácticas no presentaron asociación estadística con el sexo, el área de servicio, la edad y el tiempo de servicio. Conclusión: se observó una elevada proporción de conocimientos y prácticas inadecuadas o insatisfactorias frente al manejo de residuos, independiente del sexo, la edad, el área de trabajo y el tiempo de servicio; esto implica que el problema es generalizado en la Institución y evidencia la necesidad de mejorar los programas de educación y capacitación. (MÉD.UIS. 2013;26(1)9:20) Abstract in english Introduction: hospital waste and similar are relevant health problem for the biological and chemicals risk, and negative impacts on the human quality of life and the environment. Objective: to describe the knowledge and practices of the workers of a Empresa Social del Estado from Chocó, Colombia abo [...] ut the handle of the hospital waste. Materials and methods: cross sectional study in 67 workers of six work areas of a hospital from Colombia. A scale about knowledge and practices about hospital waste was applied. The data is stored and analyzed in SPSS 20, with summary measures, frequencies, chi2 and Anova. Results: in knowledge 40% presented an unsatisfactory grade, in practice 17.9% was regular and only 3.0% excellent. The knowledge do not presented statistical association with sex, area of service, age and the time worked in the IPS, except in clinical laboratory staff, where 89% had a good knowledge. Practices showed no statistical association with sex, area of service, age and length of service. Conclusion: there was a high proportion of practices and knowledge unsatisfactory related with waste management, independent of gender, age, work area and service time, this implies that the problem is widespread in the institution and highlights the need to improve education programs and training. (MÉD.UIS. 2013;26(1)9:20).

  10. Conocimiento y uso de métodos anticonceptivos en mujeres que ejercen la prostitución en Asturias / Knowledge and use of contraceptive methods in female sex workers in Asturias [Spain

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Domingo, Ojer Tsakiridu; Amalia, Franco Vidal; José Antonio, Varela Uría; Carmen, López Sánchez; María Luisa, Junquera Llaneza; Mar, Cuesta Rodríguez; Margarita, Busto Folgosa; María Jesús, Fernández Ollero.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir el conocimiento de los métodos contraceptivos y el uso que hacen de ellos las mujeres que ejercen la prostitución en Asturias. Métodos: Estudio transversal mediante cuestionario autoadministrado a 212 mujeres. Resultados: El 61,2% refería tener información suficiente sobre método [...] s contraceptivos, aunque el conocimiento real es menor. En su última relación comercial en un 2,4% no tuvo una actitud eficaz para prevenir el embarazo y en la última privada, el 20,4%. El método más usado fue el preservativo y el 52,2% de quienes lo usaron en la última relación comercial añadieron otro método eficaz. En caso de rotura, el 40% de las encuestadas no tuvo una actitud eficaz para evitar el embarazo. Conclusiones: El conocimiento contraceptivo en estas mujeres es menor del que cabría esperar por la actividad que realizan. El uso de otro método eficaz asociado al preservativo es escaso para evitar embarazos no deseados. Muchas mujeres no tienen una actitud eficaz para evitarlos en caso de rotura del preservativo. Abstract in english Objective: To describe the knowledge and use of contraceptive methods among female sex workers in Asturias (Spain). Methods: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study of 212 female sex workers by means of a self-completed questionnaire. Results: 61.2% of the women claimed to have sufficient i [...] nformation about contraceptive methods, although the real knowledge measured was much lower. Effective contraception was not used by 2.4% of the women in their last commercial relationship and by 20.4% in their private relationships. The most commonly employed method was the condom, but only 52.2% of the women who had used one in their previous commercial relationships did so together with another effective method. In the event of breakage, 40% of women did not have an attitude that would be effective in avoiding pregnancy. Conclusions: Knowledge about contraceptive methods among these women is lower than might be expected from their occupation. The use of another effective method together with the condom is insufficient to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Many of the women do not have an attitude that would be effective in avoiding pregnancy in the event of condom breakage.

  11. Conocimiento y uso de métodos anticonceptivos en mujeres que ejercen la prostitución en Asturias Knowledge and use of contraceptive methods in female sex workers in Asturias [Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Ojer Tsakiridu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir el conocimiento de los métodos contraceptivos y el uso que hacen de ellos las mujeres que ejercen la prostitución en Asturias. Métodos: Estudio transversal mediante cuestionario autoadministrado a 212 mujeres. Resultados: El 61,2% refería tener información suficiente sobre métodos contraceptivos, aunque el conocimiento real es menor. En su última relación comercial en un 2,4% no tuvo una actitud eficaz para prevenir el embarazo y en la última privada, el 20,4%. El método más usado fue el preservativo y el 52,2% de quienes lo usaron en la última relación comercial añadieron otro método eficaz. En caso de rotura, el 40% de las encuestadas no tuvo una actitud eficaz para evitar el embarazo. Conclusiones: El conocimiento contraceptivo en estas mujeres es menor del que cabría esperar por la actividad que realizan. El uso de otro método eficaz asociado al preservativo es escaso para evitar embarazos no deseados. Muchas mujeres no tienen una actitud eficaz para evitarlos en caso de rotura del preservativo.Objective: To describe the knowledge and use of contraceptive methods among female sex workers in Asturias (Spain. Methods: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study of 212 female sex workers by means of a self-completed questionnaire. Results: 61.2% of the women claimed to have sufficient information about contraceptive methods, although the real knowledge measured was much lower. Effective contraception was not used by 2.4% of the women in their last commercial relationship and by 20.4% in their private relationships. The most commonly employed method was the condom, but only 52.2% of the women who had used one in their previous commercial relationships did so together with another effective method. In the event of breakage, 40% of women did not have an attitude that would be effective in avoiding pregnancy. Conclusions: Knowledge about contraceptive methods among these women is lower than might be expected from their occupation. The use of another effective method together with the condom is insufficient to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Many of the women do not have an attitude that would be effective in avoiding pregnancy in the event of condom breakage.

  12. Knowledge assessment of Cienfuegos´ health workers on human toxocariasis. Evaluación de los conocimientos sobre la toxocariosis humana del personal médico del municipio de Cienfuegos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina S. Jiménez Suárez

    Full Text Available Background: Human toxocariasis is one of the most worldwide extended zoonosis. It mainly affects children and it is not always well known by medical staff. Objective: To assess knowledge of Cienfuegos´s health workers on human toxocariasis. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was developed from May to September 2005 and a survey was applied to a total sample of 51 doctors through a randomized, stratified sampling. In addition to consider professional category, years of experience and knowledge on zoonosis, we analyzed different aspects the form the variable general knowledge on human toxocariasis. Findings: We could develop a knowledge assessment on toxocariasis in Cienfuegos´ doctors. These findings were compared with surveys in other countries. There is not history of this kind of research in Cuba. Conclusions: Cienfuegos´ doctors knowledge on toxocariasis diagnosis, transmission, and prevention and not satisfactory except for clinic and treatment.Fundamento: La toxocariosis humana es una de las zoonosis más extendidas a escala mundial. Afecta principalmente a la población infantil y no siempre es bien conocida por el personal médico. Objetivo: Evaluar los conocimientos sobre toxocariosis humana del personal médico del municipio Cienfuegos. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal de mayo a septiembre del 2005 y se aplicó una encuesta a una muestra total de 51 médicos a través de un muestreo aleatorio y estratificado por los diferentes consejos populares. Además de considerar categoría profesional, años de experiencia de la especialidad y capacitación o no sobre zoonosis, se analizaron varios aspectos que conforman la variable conocimiento general sobre toxocariosis humana. Resultados: Se logró con esta investigación realizar una evaluación del conocimiento sobre toxocariosis que tienen los médicos de diferentes categorías del municipio de Cienfuegos. Estos resultados fueron comparados con encuestas de otros países y no hay antecedentes de este tipo trabajo en Cuba. Conclusiones: Los conocimientos que tienen los médicos del municipio Cienfuegos, relacionados con la transmisión, diagnóstico y prevención de la toxocariosis son insuficientes, excepto en la clínica y en el tratamiento.

  13. Ergonomics for the inclusion of older workers in the knowledge workforce and a guidance tool for designers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, I; Morer, P

    2016-03-01

    The ageing of the population and the inverted population pyramid is bringing important changes to society as a whole. These changes are associated with the inclusion of an older workforce in knowledge work and the challenge they represent in adapting the work environment accordingly. In order to approach a more universal design of the work environment, industrial designers need support from user-sensitive inclusive design studies. While there are plenty of guidelines and tools containing relevant information, there is a need to develop more appropriate tools for Industrial Designers that cover the initial phase of the design process. This study provides a review of the available tools and guidelines and proposes a theoretical framework intended for developing a design guidance tool for inclusive workstation design. PMID:26454819

  14. 78 FR 2447 - Proposed Information Collection Request (ICR) for the Worker Classification Survey; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ...reporting burden (time and financial resources) is minimized...experiences and workers' knowledge of basic employment laws and...experiences and workers' knowledge of basic employment laws and...and will measure workers' knowledge about their current job...

  15. KP-LAB Knowledge Practices Laboratory -- Specifications and Prototype of the Knowledge Repository (V.3.0) and the Knowledge Mediator (V.3.0)

    OpenAIRE

    Andreou, Dimitris; Christophides, Vassilis; Flouris, Giorgos; Kotzinos, Dimitris; Pediaditis, Panagiotis; Tsialiamanis, Petros

    2009-01-01

    This deliverable reports the technical and research development performed until M36 (January 2009) within tasks T5.2 and T5.4 of WP5 in the KP-Lab project, per the latest Description of Work (DoW) 3.2 [DoW3.2]. The described components are included in the KP-Lab Semantic Web Knowledge Middleware (SWKM) Prototype Release 3.0 software that takes place in M36. This release builds on the Prototype Release 2.0 that was presented in [D5.4]. The present deliverable includes both the specification, a...

  16. Knowledge and attitudes of health care workers from intensive care units regarding nosocomial transmission of influenza: a study on the immediate pre-pandemic period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CR Fortaleza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of influenza in health care settings is a major threat to patients, especially those with severe diseases. The attitude of health care workers (HCWs may influence the transmission of countless infections. The current study aimed to quantify knowledge and identify attitudes of HCWs involved in intensive care units (ICUs regarding the risk of nosocomial influenza transmission. A questionnaire was applied through interviews to HCWs who worked in one of the five ICUs from a teaching hospital. Questions about influenza were deliberately dispersed among others that assessed several infectious agents. Forty-two HCWs were interviewed: nine physicians, ten nurses and 23 nursing technicians or auxiliaries. Among the 42 HCWs, 98% were aware of the potential transmission of influenza virus in the ICUs, but only 31% would indicate droplet precautions for patients with suspected infection. Moreover, only 31% of them had been vaccinated against influenza in the last campaign (2008. Nursing technicians or auxiliaries were more likely to have been vaccinated, both by univariate and multivariable analysis. When asked about absenteeism, only 10% of the study subjects stated that they would not go to work if they had an influenza-like illness. Those findings suggest that, in non-pandemic periods, influenza control in hospitals requires strategies that combine continuous education with changes in organizational culture.

  17. Knowledge and attitudes of health care workers from intensive care units regarding nosocomial transmission of influenza: a study on the immediate pre-pandemic period

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CR, Fortaleza; CMCB, Fortaleza.

    Full Text Available The transmission of influenza in health care settings is a major threat to patients, especially those with severe diseases. The attitude of health care workers (HCWs) may influence the transmission of countless infections. The current study aimed to quantify knowledge and identify attitudes of HCWs [...] involved in intensive care units (ICUs) regarding the risk of nosocomial influenza transmission. A questionnaire was applied through interviews to HCWs who worked in one of the five ICUs from a teaching hospital. Questions about influenza were deliberately dispersed among others that assessed several infectious agents. Forty-two HCWs were interviewed: nine physicians, ten nurses and 23 nursing technicians or auxiliaries. Among the 42 HCWs, 98% were aware of the potential transmission of influenza virus in the ICUs, but only 31% would indicate droplet precautions for patients with suspected infection. Moreover, only 31% of them had been vaccinated against influenza in the last campaign (2008). Nursing technicians or auxiliaries were more likely to have been vaccinated, both by univariate and multivariable analysis. When asked about absenteeism, only 10% of the study subjects stated that they would not go to work if they had an influenza-like illness. Those findings suggest that, in non-pandemic periods, influenza control in hospitals requires strategies that combine continuous education with changes in organizational culture.

  18. KP-LAB Knowledge Practices Laboratory -- Release of end-user tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ahde, Ahti; Ahola, Toni; Alm, Olli; Astrouskaja, Maryna; Ausderau, Patrick; Bauters, Merja; Holi, Markus; Hämäläinen, Antti; Löytöläinen, Juha; Markkanen, Hannu; Mertoniemi, Joni; Raja, Ilari; Saarivesi, Eini; Baurens, Benoit; Racaru, Florin

    2009-01-01

    This deliverable describes the releases of KP-Lab end user applications and tools made during the DoW4 period of the project (M37-M48). These are as follows: KPE: Shared Space Views and Common, Support and Optional Tools provide the major functionality for the Knowledge Practices Environment. The Shared Space Views visualize the knowledge artefacts and their relations from different perspective, allowing users to view and access the information contained in a shared space in flexible manners....

  19. To Enhance Collaborative Learning and Practice Network Knowledge with a Virtualization Laboratory and Online Synchronous Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Yuin Hwang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various computer networking courses have included additional laboratory classes in order to enhance students’ learning achievement. However, these classes need to establish a suitable laboratory where each student can connect network devices to configure and test functions within different network topologies. In this case, the Linux operating system can be used to operate network devices and the virtualization technique can include multiple OSs for supporting a significant number of students. In previous research, the virtualization application was successfully applied in a laboratory, but focused only on individual assignments. The present study extends previous research by designing the Networking Virtualization-Based Laboratory (NVBLab, which requires collaborative learning among the experimental students. The students were divided into an experimental group and a control group for the experiment. The experimental group performed their laboratory assignments using NVBLab, whereas the control group completed them on virtual machines (VMs that were installed on their personal computers. Moreover, students using NVBLab were provided with an online synchronous discussion (OSD feature that enabled them to communicate with others. The laboratory assignments were divided into two parts: Basic Labs and Advanced Labs. The results show that the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group in two Advanced Labs and the post-test after Advanced Labs. Furthermore, the experimental group’s activities were better than those of the control group based on the total average of the command count per laboratory. Finally, the findings of the interviews and questionnaires with the experimental group reveal that NVBLab was helpful during and after laboratory class.

  20. To Enhance Collaborative Learning and Practice Network Knowledge with a Virtualization Laboratory and Online Synchronous Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Wu-Yuin Hwang; Chaknarin Kongcharoen; Gheorghita Ghinea

    2014-01-01

    Recently, various computer networking courses have included additional laboratory classes in order to enhance students’ learning achievement. However, these classes need to establish a suitable laboratory where each student can connect network devices to configure and test functions within different network topologies. In this case, the Linux operating system can be used to operate network devices and the virtualization technique can include multiple OSs for supporting a significant number of...

  1. Scoring CT/HRCT findings among asbestos-exposed workers: effects of patient's age, body mass index and common laboratory test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the effects of age, body mass index (BMI) and some common laboratory test results on several pulmonary CT/HRCT signs. Five hundred twenty-eight construction workers (age 38-80, mean 63 years) were imaged with spiral and high resolution CT. Images were scored by three radiologists for solitary pulmonary nodules, signs indicative of fibrosis and emphysema, ground glass opacities, bronchial wall thickness and bronchiectasis. Multivariate statistical analyses were adjusted for smoking and asbestos exposure. Increasing age, blood haemoglobin value and erythrocyte sedimentation rate correlated positively with several HRCT signs. Increasing BMI was associated with a decrease in several signs, especially parenchymal bands, honeycombing, all kinds of emphysema and bronchiectasis. The latter finding might be due to the suboptimal image quality in obese individuals, which may cause suspicious findings to be overlooked. Background data, including patient's age and body constitution, should be considered when CT/HRCT images are interpreted. (orig.)

  2. Scoring CT/HRCT findings among asbestos-exposed workers: effects of patient's age, body mass index and common laboratory test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehmas, T.; Huuskonen, M.S. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland); Kivisaari, L. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, M.S. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland); University of Birmingham, Institute of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    We studied the effects of age, body mass index (BMI) and some common laboratory test results on several pulmonary CT/HRCT signs. Five hundred twenty-eight construction workers (age 38-80, mean 63 years) were imaged with spiral and high resolution CT. Images were scored by three radiologists for solitary pulmonary nodules, signs indicative of fibrosis and emphysema, ground glass opacities, bronchial wall thickness and bronchiectasis. Multivariate statistical analyses were adjusted for smoking and asbestos exposure. Increasing age, blood haemoglobin value and erythrocyte sedimentation rate correlated positively with several HRCT signs. Increasing BMI was associated with a decrease in several signs, especially parenchymal bands, honeycombing, all kinds of emphysema and bronchiectasis. The latter finding might be due to the suboptimal image quality in obese individuals, which may cause suspicious findings to be overlooked. Background data, including patient's age and body constitution, should be considered when CT/HRCT images are interpreted. (orig.)

  3. Operational comparison of bubble (super heated drop) dosimetry with routine albedo TLD for a selected group of Pu-238 workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Personnel neutron dosimetry continues to be a difficult science due to the lack of availability of robust passive dosimeters that exhibit tissue- or near-tissue- equivalent response. This paper is an operational study that compares the use of albedo thermoluminescent dosimeters with bubble dosimeters to determine whether bubble dosimeters do provide a useful daily ALARA tool that can yield measurements close to the dose-of-record. A group of workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) working on the Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) for the NASA Cassini space mission wore both bubble dosimeters and albedo dosimeters over a period from 1993 through 1996. The personal albedo dosimeter was processed on a monthly basis and used as the dose-of-record. The results of this study indicated that cumulative daily bubble dosimetry results agreed with whole-body albedo dosimetry results within about 37% on average

  4. Knowledge and practices about multidrug-resistant tuberculosis amongst healthcare workers in Maseru / Connaissances et pratiques du personnel de santé de Maseru au sujet de la tuberculose multi-résistante

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ntambwe, Malangu; Omotayo D., Adebanjo.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To date, no study has been found that described the knowledge and practices of healthcare workers surrounding multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Lesotho. AIM AND SETTING: This study was conducted to fill this gap by investigating the knowledge level and practices surrounding MD [...] R-TB amongst healthcare workers at Botsabelo Hospital in Maseru, Lesotho METHOD: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by means of a questionnaire designed specifically for this study. Data collected included sociodemographic and professional details; and responses to questions about knowledge and practices regarding MDR-TB. The questions ranged from the definition of MDR-TB to its treatment. Respondents' practices such as the use of masks, guidelines and patient education were also assessed RESULTS: A response rate of 84.6% (110 out of 130) was achieved. The majority of participants were women (60%), married (71.8%) and nursing staff (74.5%). Overall, less than half (47.3%) of the participants had a good level of knowledge about MDR-TB. With regard to practice, about 83% of participants stated that they used protective masks whilst attending to MDR-TB patients. About two-thirds (66.4%) reported being personally involved in educating patients about MDR-TB; whilst about 55% stated that they referred to these guidelines CONCLUSION: The level of knowledge about MDR-TB amongst healthcare workers at the study site was not at an acceptable level. Unsafe practices, such as not wearing protective masks and not referring to the MDR-TB treatment guidelines, were found to be associated with an insufficient level of knowledge about MDR-TB. An educational intervention is recommended for all healthcare providers at this facility

  5. Conhecimento e estereótipo de trabalhadores acerca da hipertensão Conocimiento y estereotipo de trabajadores respecto a la hipertensión Knowledge and stereotypes of workers concerning hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Euridéa de Castro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A prevenção da hipertensão arterial torna-se difícil devido às dificuldades de acesso ao sistema de saúde. Foram objetivos deste estudo: averiguar o conhecimento dos trabalhadores acerca da pressão arterial, da hipertensão e, ainda, a prática da verificação da pressão arterial. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, realizado em uma Universidade Pública Estadual em Fortaleza-Ceará, Brasil. O universo do estudo foi constituído por 35 trabalhadores a partir de uma amostra aleatória simples. Depreendeu-se que há déficit de conhecimento acerca da pressão arterial e da hipertensão e que as questões culturais entre profissionais e usuários do sistema de saúde estão em desacordo com o processo ensino-aprendizagem. Concluiu-se que urgem estratégias que permitam maior adesão aos programas e às campanhas de hipertensão. O início dessa mudança tem como fundamento a atenção primária, que leve a população, dentro de uma posição crítica, a tomar atitudes que possibilitem adequar-se a uma condição de vida saudável.La prevención de la hipertensión arterial es difícil por el acceso al sistema de salud. El objetivo fue: averiguar el conocimiento de trabajadores sobre la tensión arterial y de la hipertensión y, además, la práctica de la verificación de la tensión arterial. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, realizado en la Universidad Pública en Fortaleza-Ceará-Brasil. Fueron seleccionados 35 individuos. Se concluyó que hay déficit de conocimiento de la tensión arterial y de la hipertensión, que los planteamientos culturales entre profesionales y usuarios del sistema están en desacuerdo con el proceso enseñanza/aprendizaje. Urgen estrategias que permitan una mayor adhesión al programa y comunicación efectiva al nivel de entendimiento de las personas. El inicio de ese cambio tiene como fundamento la atención primaria, llevando a la población, dentro de una posición crítica, tomar actitudes que posibiliten adecuarse a una condición de vida sana.The prevention of arterial hypertension has not been an easy task, due to the difficulties of access to the health system. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the amount of worker's knowledge concerning blood pressure and hypertension as well as about the practice of measuring blood pressure. This descriptive study was done at the State University in Fortaleza-Ceará. The universe was a simple random sample of 35 workers. A lack of knowledge about blood pressure and hypertension was found, as well as cultural issues between professionals and system users not being in agreement with the teaching-learning process. It was concluded that strategies which allow for a wider participation in the program and in hypertension campaigns are needed. The beginning of this change has as a basis primary care, which allows the population to make choices which fit a healthy life-style, from a critical position.

  6. KP-LAB Knowledge Practices Laboratory -- Specifications for the Knowledge Matchmaker (V.2.0), the Knowledge Synthesizer (V.1.0) and the Analytical and Knowledge Mining Services (V.1.0)

    OpenAIRE

    Paralic, Jan; Furdik, Karol; Bednar, Peter; Babic, Frantisek; Wagner, Jozeph; Schmidt, Marek; Smrz, Pavel; Spyratos, Nicolas; Simonenko, Ekaterina; Christophides, Vassilis; Flouris, Giorgos; Kotzinos, Dimitris; Rousakis, Yannis

    2009-01-01

    This deliverable presents specifications of three components responsible for advanced manipulation with the knowledge stored in the KP-Lab Semantic Web Knowledge Middleware (SWKM). It starts with motivating scenarios defined within various Working Knots (WKs), extracting relevant functional requirements and mapping them on the high-level requirements, of particular driving objectives and user tasks (described in deliverable [D2.4]). The first component is Knowledge Matchmaker (V2.0), which ut...

  7. Microbiological water examination during laboratory courses generates new knowledge for students, scientists and the government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanevik, Cecilie Smith; Lunestad, Bjørn Tore

    2015-10-01

    Contaminated water is globally the main vehicle for microbial pathogens in most regions. Teaching future microbiologist and employees in the food industry on the importance of hygienically satisfactory water, microbiological analyses and how to ensure good water quality and safety is highly relevant. This paper presents a complete experimental design for water analyses as a tool to teach students the methods and other key elements in microbiology, including food safety, environmental dissemination and survival of microorganisms, laboratory practices, water legislation and critical evaluation of results. All results from the last 10 classes (2006-2015) in a university course on seafood microbiology have been compiled and are presented here. Questionnaires used with former students reveal that the laboratory course is highly appreciated, and that many students remember important aspects of the water analyses, even after several years. The questionnaire results were consistent with our perception that some students find calculation of dilutions difficult to comprehend. PMID:26337153

  8. KP-LAB Knowledge Practices Laboratory -- External release of end-user applications

    OpenAIRE

    Airaksinen, Harri; Astrouskaja, Maryna; Aunimo, Lili; Ausderau, Patrick; Benmergui, Liisa; Holi, Markus; Kauranen, Johanna; Laine, Erkki; Markkanen, Hannu; Raja, Ilari; Toivonen, Samuli; Baurens, Benoit; Meaude, François; Ionescu, Mirela; Lizzi, Yannick

    2008-01-01

    This deliverable describes the M24 release of the End user applications for knowledge practices software v2.0.0. The deliverable includes the technical development performed until M24 (January 2008) within WP6 according to Description of Work 2.1 and D6.4 M21 specification of end-user applications. The current release is comprised of two set of tools: 1. Shared Space Tool The shared space and the accompanying support material can be found on the Internet at: http://2d.mobile.evtek.fi:8080/sha...

  9. Respiratory diseases in wood workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Carosso, A.; Ruffino, C; Bugiani, M

    1987-01-01

    A survey was carried out on wood workers and on a group of unexposed, healthy controls. One group of wood workers (group A) were asymptomatic and another (group B) had symptoms either of chronic cough and dyspnoea on exertion (B1) or dyspnoea at work and bronchial hyperreactivity (B2). The control group (group C) was randomly selected from among a population of laboratory workers. No significant differences were found among the groups with respect to the frequency of atopy but the prevalence ...

  10. Liability for Student Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Jonathan S.

    1994-01-01

    Examines liability issues for academic libraries=FE student workers. Discussion includes staff training; hiring practices; supervision; negligence; emergency procedures; the use of reasonable care; and knowledge of library rules. Specific nonlibrary liability cases are cited as examples of the importance of employee screening, training, and danger…

  11. Operational comparison of bubble (super heated drop) dosimetry with routine albedo thermoluminescent dosimetry for a selected group of Pu-238 workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is an operational study that compares the use of albedo thermoluminescent dosimeters with bubble dosimeters to determine whether bubble dosimeters do provide a useful daily ALARA tool that can yield measurements close to the dose-of-record. A group of workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) working on the Radioactive Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) for the NASA Cassini space mission wore both bubble dosimeters and albedo dosimeters over a period from 1993 through 1996. The bubble dosimeters were issued and read on a daily basis and the data were used as an ALARA tool. The personnel albedo dosimeter was processed on monthly basis and used as the dose-of-record. The results of this study indicated that cumulative bubble dosimetry results agreed with whole-body albedo dosimetry results within about 37% on average. However it was observed that there is a significant variability of the results on an individual basis both month-to-month and from one individual to another

  12. Intervención educativa para elevar nivel de conocimiento sobre brucelosis en trabajadores expuesto a riesgo: municipio Camagüey / Educational intervention to elevate the level of knowledge on brucellosis in workers exposed to risk: Camagüey municipality

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristina, Casado Rodríguez; Odalys, Rodríguez Heredia; Magalys, Mena Fernández; Gloria, García González.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La brucelosis es una importante zoonosis que puede ser transmitida por animales al hombre, según la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), esta enfermedad es uno de los principales problemas sanitarios en muchos países; con alrededor de medio millón de nuevos casos cada año. Objetivo: A [...] plicar una intervención educativa para elevar el nivel de conocimiento sobre brucelosis en trabajadores expuesto a riesgo. Método: Se realizó un estudio experimental de intervención en el matadero sanitario de Guanavaquilla y en el Combinado cárnico, dirigido a elevar el nivel de conocimientos de los trabajadores expuestos a riesgo acerca de la brucelosis, durante el período del 1ro de enero al treinta y uno de diciembre del 2007. El universo estuvo conformado por todos los trabajadores expuesto al riesgo de brucelosis de los centros Guanavaquilla con setenta y seis expuestos y Combinado cárnico con ciento sesenta expuestos, la muestra quedó conformada por sesenta y seis trabajadores seleccionados a través de un muestreo aleatorio simple a los que se les aplicó un cuestionario. Resultados: Se observó que antes de recibir las labores educativas se consideraron escasos los conocimientos que poseen los trabajadores acerca, de la forma en que se adquiere la brucelosis, la importancia del uso de los medios de protección personal y que estos estén en perfecto estado. El por qué es necesario la higiene personal y un ambiente adecuado, así como los riesgos para adquirir una brucelosis y las medidas de prevención. Conclusiones: Al inicio de la investigación los trabajadores tenían poco conocimiento sobre la brucelosis, luego de la intervención se logró un aumento significativo del mismo, por lo que se consideró efectiva la intervención. Abstract in english Background: The brucellosis is an important zoonosis of man acquired from an animal source, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), this disease is one of the main sanitary problems in many countries; about half million of new cases every year. Objective: To apply an educational interventi [...] on to elevate the level of knowledge on brucellosis in workers exposed to risk. Method: An intervention experimental study in the sanitary slaughterhouse of Guanavaquilla and in the meat processing factory, guided to elevate the level of knowledge of workers exposed to risk about brucellosis, from January 1st to December 31st, 2007. The universe was conformed by all the workers exposed to risk of brucellosis of the center Guanavaquilla with seventy six exposed workers and meat processing factory with one-hundred sixty ones, the sample was conformed by 66 workers selected through a random simple sampling to those were applied a questionnaire. Results: It was observed that before receiving the educational works were considered scarce the knowledge that the workers possess about, in the way brucellosis is acquired, the importance of the use of personal protection means and that these are in perfect state. Also why it is personal hygiene and an appropriate atmosphere necessary, as well as the risks to acquire brucellosis and the prevention measures. Conclusions: At the beginning of the investigation workers had little knowledge on brucellosis, after the intervention a significant increase was achieved, for what the intervention was considered effective.

  13. Estado vacinal e conhecimento dos profissionais de saúde sobre hepatite B em um hospital público do nordeste brasileiro / Vaccination status and knowledge on hepatitis B among healthcare workers of a public hospital in Northeastern Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávia Janólio Costacurta Pinto da, Silva; Paulo Sérgio Faro, Santos; Francisco do Prado, Reis; Sônia Oliveira, Lima.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO OBJETIVO: analisar o estado vacinal e o conhecimento prévio sobre o vírus da hepatite B pelos profissionais de saúde (PS) de um hospital público. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo de corte transversal, baseado no preenchimento do formulário pelos PS, contemplando: biomédicos, odontólogos, enfermeiro [...] s, fisioterapeutas, médicos, técnicos e auxiliares de enfermagem e de laboratório. Para analisar idade, categoria profissional, estado vacinal e conhecimento destes profissionais sobre hepatite B, utilizou-se o teste de qui-quadrado, considerando significante p Abstract in english ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the vaccination status and knowledge on hepatitis B virus of healthcare workers (HW) from a public hospital. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, based on a written questionnaire answered by HW, which included biomedical personnel, dentists, nurses, physiotherapists, physic [...] ians, nurse assistants, and lab technicians. They informed about their age, profession, immunization status and knowledge on hepatitis B. Chi-square test was used, considering p

  14. Occupational exposures to blood and body fluids (BBF): Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice among health care workers in general hospitals in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Ibtissam Sabbah; Hala Sabbah; Sanaa Sabbah; Hussein Akoum; Nabil Droubi

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare workers (HCWs) who are employed in traditional health care workplaces face a serious danger that may threaten their life; it is their exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF). In Lebanon, the introduction of a hospital accreditation system has put a particular emphasis on staff safety, and on the evaluation of professional practice (EPP) programs. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 277 HCWs working in 4 general hospitals in South Lebanon. Objective: 1) describe...

  15. The relationship between knowledge of HIV, self-perceived vulnerability and sexual risk behavior among community clinic workers in Chile Relación entre conocimientos sobre VIH, percepción de vulnerabilidad y conductas sexuales de riesgo en trabajadores de salud primaria en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltica Cabieses

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective Testing the hypothesis of an association between knowledge and sexual risk behaviour (SRB amongst community-clinic workers in Chile, explained by the confounding effect of self-perceived vulnerability to HIV. Methods A cross-sectional survey was analyzed; it was nested within a quasiexperimental study of 720 community-clinic workers in Santiago. The SRB score combined the number of sexual partners and condom use (coded as "high"/"low" SRB. Knowledge of HIV (a 25-item index was coded as "inadequate"/"adequate" knowledge. Self-perceived vulnerability to HIV was categorised as being "high"/ "moderate"/"low". Control variables included socio-demographics, religiousness and educational level. Percentages/averages, Chi-square tests and logistic regression (OR-estimations were used for descriptive, association and confounding analysis. Results Respondents were 78.2 % female, 46.8 % married and 67.6 % Catholic. Mean age was 38.9 (10.5 SD and 69 % had university/diploma level. Self-perceived HIV vulnerability was "low" in 71.5 % cases. A negative association between knowledge and SRB was found (OR=0.55;CI=0.35-0.86, but self-perceived vulnerability did not have a confounding effect on this relationship. This relationship also persisted after being adjusted for multiple control variables (e.g. age, sex, type of primary centre, educational level, and religiousness. Conclusions Some community-clinic workers had inaccurate knowledge of HIV, which was associated with SRB. Self-perceived vulnerability did not have a confounding effect; however, future studies should further analyze occupational risk of HIV as a possible driving factor in health workers' perception of their risk. Focused training programmes should be developed to enhance basic knowledge of HIV in this group.Objetivo Probar la asociación entre conductas sexuales de riesgo (CSR y conocimiento de VIH en trabajadores de salud primaria en Chile, y el posible efecto de confusión de auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad hacia VIH en dicha relación. Métodos Estudio transversal anidado en estudio cuasi-experimental de 720 trabajadores de salud de Santiago. Score de CSR combinó número de parejas sexuales y uso de condón. Conocimiento de VIH fue medido mediante índice de 25 preguntas. Percepción de vulnerabilidad hacia VIH fue medida como "alta"/"moderada"/ "baja". Variables socio-demográficas, religiosidad y nivel educativo sirvieron de control. Análisis descriptivo, de asociación y confusión fueron desarrollados mediante estimación de proporciones/medias, prueba de Chi-cuadrado y regresión logística. Resultados El 78,2 % de encuestados era mujer, el 46,8 % estaba casado y el 67,6 % era católico. Promedio de edad de 38,9 años (DS=10,5 y el 69 % tenía formación universitaria/técnica. La auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad fue "baja" en el 71,5 % de los trabajadores. Se observó una asociación negativa entre conocimiento y CSR (OR=0,55, IC=0,35-0,86 y la vulnerabilidad percibida no fue factor de confusión. La asociación se mantuvo tras ajustar por edad, sexo, tipo de centro primario, educación y religiosidad. Conclusiones Algunos trabajadores de salud comunitaria tenían conocimiento inadecuado de VIH, que se asoció a CSR. La auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad no fue factor de confusión, pero estudios futuros podrían analizar riesgos laborales de VIH como posible mediador en la percepción de riesgo. Programas de entrenamiento en conocimientos básicos de VIH y CSR debieran implementarse en trabajadores de salud primaria.

  16. The relationship between knowledge of HIV, self-perceived vulnerability and sexual risk behavior among community clinic workers in Chile / Relación entre conocimientos sobre VIH, percepción de vulnerabilidad y conductas sexuales de riesgo en trabajadores de salud primaria en Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Baltica, Cabieses; Lilian, Ferrer; Luis, Villarroel; Helena, Tunstall; Kathleen, Norr.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Probar la asociación entre conductas sexuales de riesgo (CSR) y conocimiento de VIH en trabajadores de salud primaria en Chile, y el posible efecto de confusión de auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad hacia VIH en dicha relación. Métodos Estudio transversal anidado en estudio cuasi-experimenta [...] l de 720 trabajadores de salud de Santiago. Score de CSR combinó número de parejas sexuales y uso de condón. Conocimiento de VIH fue medido mediante índice de 25 preguntas. Percepción de vulnerabilidad hacia VIH fue medida como "alta"/"moderada"/ "baja". Variables socio-demográficas, religiosidad y nivel educativo sirvieron de control. Análisis descriptivo, de asociación y confusión fueron desarrollados mediante estimación de proporciones/medias, prueba de Chi-cuadrado y regresión logística. Resultados El 78,2 % de encuestados era mujer, el 46,8 % estaba casado y el 67,6 % era católico. Promedio de edad de 38,9 años (DS=10,5) y el 69 % tenía formación universitaria/técnica. La auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad fue "baja" en el 71,5 % de los trabajadores. Se observó una asociación negativa entre conocimiento y CSR (OR=0,55, IC=0,35-0,86) y la vulnerabilidad percibida no fue factor de confusión. La asociación se mantuvo tras ajustar por edad, sexo, tipo de centro primario, educación y religiosidad. Conclusiones Algunos trabajadores de salud comunitaria tenían conocimiento inadecuado de VIH, que se asoció a CSR. La auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad no fue factor de confusión, pero estudios futuros podrían analizar riesgos laborales de VIH como posible mediador en la percepción de riesgo. Programas de entrenamiento en conocimientos básicos de VIH y CSR debieran implementarse en trabajadores de salud primaria. Abstract in english Objective Testing the hypothesis of an association between knowledge and sexual risk behaviour (SRB) amongst community-clinic workers in Chile, explained by the confounding effect of self-perceived vulnerability to HIV. Methods A cross-sectional survey was analyzed; it was nested within a quasiexper [...] imental study of 720 community-clinic workers in Santiago. The SRB score combined the number of sexual partners and condom use (coded as "high"/"low" SRB). Knowledge of HIV (a 25-item index) was coded as "inadequate"/"adequate" knowledge. Self-perceived vulnerability to HIV was categorised as being "high"/ "moderate"/"low". Control variables included socio-demographics, religiousness and educational level. Percentages/averages, Chi-square tests and logistic regression (OR-estimations) were used for descriptive, association and confounding analysis. Results Respondents were 78.2 % female, 46.8 % married and 67.6 % Catholic. Mean age was 38.9 (10.5 SD) and 69 % had university/diploma level. Self-perceived HIV vulnerability was "low" in 71.5 % cases. A negative association between knowledge and SRB was found (OR=0.55;CI=0.35-0.86), but self-perceived vulnerability did not have a confounding effect on this relationship. This relationship also persisted after being adjusted for multiple control variables (e.g. age, sex, type of primary centre, educational level, and religiousness). Conclusions Some community-clinic workers had inaccurate knowledge of HIV, which was associated with SRB. Self-perceived vulnerability did not have a confounding effect; however, future studies should further analyze occupational risk of HIV as a possible driving factor in health workers' perception of their risk. Focused training programmes should be developed to enhance basic knowledge of HIV in this group.

  17. Attitudes, knowledge and practices of healthcare workers regarding occupational exposure of pulmonary tuberculosis / Attitudes, connaissances et pratiques des membres du personnel soignant relatives à l'exposition du personnel soignant à la tuberculose pulmonaire

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lesley T., Bhebhe; Cornel, Van Rooyen; Wilhelm J., Steinberg.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated tuberculosis (TB) has become a major occupational hazard for healthcare workers (HCWs). HCWs are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Whenever there is a possibility of exposure, implemen [...] tation of infection prevention and control (IPC) practices is critical. OBJECTIVE: Following a high incidence of TB among HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital in Lesotho, a study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of HCWs regarding healthcare-associated TB infection and infection controls. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study performed in June 2011; it involved HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital who were involved with patients and/or sputum. Stratified sampling of 140 HCWs was performed, of whom, 129 (92.0%) took part. A self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was used. RESULTS: Most respondents (89.2%) had appropriate knowledge of transmission, diagnosis and prevention of TB; however, only 22.0% of the respondents knew the appropriate method of sputum collection. All of the respondents (100.0%) were motivated and willing to implement IPC measures. A significant proportion of participants (36.4%) reported poor infection control practices, with the majority of inappropriate practices being the administrative infection controls (> 80.0%). Only 38.8% of the participants reported to be using the appropriate N-95 respirator. CONCLUSION: Poor infection control practices regarding occupational TB exposure were demonstrated, the worst being the first-line administrative infection controls. Critical knowledge gaps were identified; however, there was encouraging willingness by HCWs to adapt to recommended infection control measures. Healthcare workers are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Implementation of infection prevention and control practices is critical whenever there is a possibility of exposure.

  18. HIV knowledge and risk behaviour of female sex workers in Yunnan Province, China: potential as bridging groups to the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, T; Zhang, J; Qiang, D J

    2005-11-01

    There is growing evidence about the importance of female sex workers (FSWs) and their clients as bridging groups for the HIV epidemic. In China the role of FSWs is key to the future trajectory of the epidemic. This study was carried out to explore factors which may increase the potential for FSWs to act as vectors for HIV transmission. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 84 sex workers in two types of brothel in Yingjiang County of Yunnan Province, where sex work and injecting drug use are common. The key findings are that the FSWs are young, (median age 17.8 years), their engagement in sex work is short term (69% plan to work for less than one year) and the throughput of clients is low (23% only 1-2 clients per week, 71% less than seven). Awareness of HIV, STIs and condom use was generally good, but only 32% always used condoms and 18% never did. Fifty-five percent had had a health check. FSWs at the cheaper, higher throughput brothels where condom use is uncommon are a potential bridge to the general population. Interventions must focus on these FSWs and their clients to prevent them from becoming drivers of the epidemic. PMID:16176892

  19. Process Knowledge Characterization of Radioactive Waste at the Classified Waste Landfill Remediation Project Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOTSON,PATRICK WELLS; GALLOWAY,ROBERT B.; JOHNSON JR,CARL EDWARD

    1999-11-03

    This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where direct measurement is not technically feasible, from accumulated PK of the excavated materials.

  20. Radiological Worker Training: Radiological Worker 2 study guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon completion of this training course, the participant will have the knowledge to work safely in areas controlled for radiological purposes using proper radiological practices. Radiological Worker H Training, for the worker whose job assignment involves entry into Radiological Buffer Areas and all types of Radiation Contamination and Airborne Radioactivity Areas. This course is designed to prepare the worker to work safely in and around radiological areas and present methods to use to ensure individual radiation exposure is maintained As Low As Reasonably Achievable

  1. Workers’ Conformism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Ivantchev

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Conformism was studied among 46 workers with different kinds of occupations by means of two modified scales measuring conformity by Santor, Messervey, and Kusumakar (2000 – scale for perceived peer pressure and scale for conformism in antisocial situations. The hypothesis of the study that workers’ conformism is expressed in a medium degree was confirmed partly. More than a half of the workers conform in a medium degree for taking risk, and for the use of alcohol and drugs, and for sexual relationships. More than a half of the respondents conform in a small degree for anti-social activities (like a theft. The workers were more inclined to conform for risk taking (10.9%, then – for the use of alcohol, drugs and for sexual relationships (8.7%, and in the lowest degree – for anti-social activities (6.5%. The workers who were inclined for the use of alcohol and drugs tended also to conform for anti-social activities.

  2. Knowledge level estimation of medical workers participating in rendering of emergency medical aid to children at a pre-hospital stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Popkov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Estimation of qualifying preparation of the doctors participating in rendering of emergency medical aid to children. Material: On the basis of the developed test cards the analysis of doctors' knowledge level of the first help on the basic questions of emergency medicine is carried out. 120 doctors are interrogated. Results compared depending on age, work experience and presence of a qualifying professional category. Results: As a whole answers of respondents were distributed as follows: unsatisfactorily - 2,6 %; satisfactorily - 7,9 %; well - 18,4 %; perfectly - 71,1 %. Distinctions in a dale of right answers on separate sections of knowledge depending on the experience and a qualifying professional category are established. The conclusion: The weakest places in preparation of experts of the first help on which it is necessary to pay special attention in courses of postdegree preparation are revealed

  3. Worker Safety and Health Issues Associated with the DOE Environmental Cleanup Program: Insights From the DOE Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public health Standards Steering Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.C. Edelson; Samuel C. Morris; Joan M. Daisey

    2001-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public Health Standards Steering Group (or ''SSG'') was formed in 1990. It was felt then that ''risk'' could be an organizing principle for environmental cleanup and that risk-based cleanup standards could rationalize clean up work. The environmental remediation process puts workers engaged in cleanup activities at risk from hazardous materials and from the more usual hazards associated with construction activities. In a real sense, the site remediation process involves the transfer of a hypothetical risk to the environment and the public from isolated contamination into real risks to the workers engaged in the remediation activities. Late in its existence the SSG, primarily motivated by its LANL representative, Dr. Harry Ettinger, actively investigated issues associated with worker health and safety during environmental remediation activities. This paper summarizes the insights noted by the SSG. Most continue to be pertinent today.

  4. The Knowledge Retrieval Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    AbstractPrevious discussions of knowledge transfer within multinational corporations tended tofocus on the process as an isolated phenomenon and on the factors that impede the process.Less attention has been given to how the individual knowledge worker retrieves or identifies,and then decodes knowledge accessed from the corporate memory. We suggest thatmultinational companies (MNCs) solve knowledge retrieval problems by implementingvirtual communities of practice - intranet-based collaborative f...

  5. Preparing the radiation protection worker to meet multiple needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the radiation protection worker aids in protecting personnel and their surrounding environment from the hazards of radiation. These individuals use their technical knowledge, skills, and abilities to survey and monitor various project-related activities. They must also provide guidance in project design, development, and implementation. These combined efforts assure that protective measures are taken in accordance with applicable standards. The ORNL performance-based training program enhances the skills of the worker. The program incorporates job specific information on the diverse facilities and activities monitored with basic fundamentals of radiation protection. Successful completion of this program includes passing both a qualification exam and an on-the-job skills review. This paper details the structure of such a program and explains the strategies taken to reach the program's goals. 4 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Preliminary volcanic hazards evaluation for Los Alamos National Laboratory Facilities and Operations : current state of knowledge and proposed path forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Gordon N.; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Miller, Elizabeth D.

    2010-09-01

    The integration of available information on the volcanic history of the region surrounding Los Alamos National Laboratory indicates that the Laboratory is at risk from volcanic hazards. Volcanism in the vicinity of the Laboratory is unlikely within the lifetime of the facility (ca. 50–100 years) but cannot be ruled out. This evaluation provides a preliminary estimate of recurrence rates for volcanic activity. If further assessment of the hazard is deemed beneficial to reduce risk uncertainty, the next step would be to convene a formal probabilistic volcanic hazards assessment.

  7. Migrant Workers and the Changing Psychological Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Arthur; Finniear, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The influx of migrant workers in the UK has widespread interest. This group's experience of the British work place has evoked considerable debate ranging from the potential to be exploited through unscrupulous practices to allegations about taking away jobs from British workers. The purpose of this paper is to extend knowledge about the…

  8. Relation Between Organizational Climate and its Dimensions and Knowledge-sharing Behavior among Knowledge Workers / Relación entre el Clima Organizacional y sus Dimensiones y Comportamiento del Conocimiento Compartido entre Trabajadores del Conocimiento

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milena Margarita, Villamizar Reyes; Delio Ignacio, Castañeda Zapata.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación buscó identificar la relación del clima organizacional y sus dimensiones desde el instrumento prueba de medición de clima organizacional PMCO (Cárdenas y Villamizar, 2008, citado por Cardenas, Arciniegas y Barrera, 2009), en la conducta de compartir conocimiento, la cual fu [...] e medida desde la prueba Variables psicosociales y condiciones organizacionales de la conducta de compartir conocimiento (Castañeda y Fernandez, 2007). Los participantes fueron 100 trabajadores del conocimiento de dos organizaciones: una de carácter privado y otra pública. Se encontró una correlación del 0,578 entre el clima organizacional y la conducta de compartir conocimiento. Al realizar el análisis por entidades se encontró que en la pública el nivel de correlación entre clima y compartir conocimiento es altamente significativa con un nivel de confianza superior al 99%. En la entidad privada se encontró que no hay correlación entre las dos variables estudiadas con un r de 0,093 a un 95%. En cuanto a las dimensiones de clima y compartir conocimiento en la universidad pública se encuentra que todas incluyendo nivel de trabajo que presento la relación más baja son estadísticamente significativas al 99.9%. En la universidad privada solo se encontró relación con la dimensión crecimiento personal al 95%. Abstract in english This study aimed at identifying the relation of organizational climate and its dimensions from the PMCO measuring test for organizational climate (Cardenas & Villamizar, 2008, as cited in Cardenas, Arciniegas y Barrera, 2009) - in knowledge-sharing behavior, which was measured from the psychosocial [...] variables and organizational conditions of knowledge-sharing behavior test (Castañeda y Fernandez, 2007). 100 participants from two types of organizations participated on this study: one of private nature and one public. A correlation of 0.578 between organizational climate and knowledge-sharing behavior was found. When carrying out an analysis of each organization, it was evident that the level of correlation between climate and knowledge-sharing behavior was highly significant in the public organization: There was a reliability level higher to 99%. There was no correlation found between the two variables studied in the private organization -with an r of 0.093 to 95%. As for the dimensions of climate and knowledge-sharing behavior, the results showed that in all public universities (including level of work, which got the lowest relation) these are statistically significant to 99.9%. In the private university only a relation to the personal growth dimension of 95% was found.

  9. Bringing Theory into Practice: A Study of Effective Leadership at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Leadership development, a component of HRD, is becoming an area of increasingly important practice for all organizations. When companies such as Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory rely on knowledge workers for success, leadership becomes even more important. This research paper tests the hypothesis that leadership credibility and the courage…

  10. Information, Technology, and Information Worker Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Aral, Sinan; Brynjolfsson, Erik; Van Alstyne, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    We econometrically evaluate information worker productivity at a midsize executive recruiting firm and assess whether the knowledge that workers accessed through their electronic communication networks enabled them to multitask more productively. We estimate dynamic panel data models of multitasking, knowledge networks, and productivity using several types of micro-level data: (a) direct observation of more than 125,000 email messages over a period of 10 months; (b) detailed accounting data o...

  11. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E. Barrientos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%, although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%. The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.Este artículo examina la prevalencia del VIH, los conocimientos respecto a su infección y, además, describe el uso del condón en mujeres que ejercen el comercio sexual en Santiago de Chile y que son atendidas en cinco centros especializados de enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Se aplicó una encuesta que indagaba sobre las características sociodemográficas, el conocimiento sobre el VIH/SIDA y el uso del condón a 626 mujeres. La prevalencia del VIH fue evaluada mediante un examen de ELISA. La prevalencia del VIH fue 0. El conocimiento del VIH fue bueno e, incluso, mejor que en población general, en algunos indicadores. El uso del condón con los clientes fue alto, aunque su uso regular con las parejas estables fue bajo. La prevalencia cero del VIH y el uso consistente de condones con los clientes confirma el impacto positivo que han tenido las estrategias de intervención implementadas para estos grupos, incrementando el conocimiento adecuado sobre el SIDA y el uso del condón con los clientes, contribuyendo a la disminución de la vulnerabilidad de estas mujeres hacia el.

  12. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile / Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jaime E., Barrientos; Michel, Bozon; Edith, Ortiz; Anabella, Arredondo.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina la prevalencia del VIH, los conocimientos respecto a su infección y, además, describe el uso del condón en mujeres que ejercen el comercio sexual en Santiago de Chile y que son atendidas en cinco centros especializados de enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Se aplicó una encues [...] ta que indagaba sobre las características sociodemográficas, el conocimiento sobre el VIH/SIDA y el uso del condón a 626 mujeres. La prevalencia del VIH fue evaluada mediante un examen de ELISA. La prevalencia del VIH fue 0. El conocimiento del VIH fue bueno e, incluso, mejor que en población general, en algunos indicadores. El uso del condón con los clientes fue alto, aunque su uso regular con las parejas estables fue bajo. La prevalencia cero del VIH y el uso consistente de condones con los clientes confirma el impacto positivo que han tenido las estrategias de intervención implementadas para estos grupos, incrementando el conocimiento adecuado sobre el SIDA y el uso del condón con los clientes, contribuyendo a la disminución de la vulnerabilidad de estas mujeres hacia el. Abstract in english This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was a [...] dministered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.

  13. Percepción y conocimientos de los profesionales sanitarios de una unidad de Nefrología sobre la higiene de manos: estudio comparativo / Hand hygiene perceptions and knowledge of healthcare workers in a Nephrology Unit: a comparative study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Luis, Cobo Sánchez; Raquel, Pelayo Alonso; Raquel, Menezo Viadero; Elena, Incera Setién; Magdalena, Gándara Revuelta; Luis Mariano, López López.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Un conocimiento adecuado sobre la higiene de las manos por parte de los profesionales sanitarios, es el primer paso para la adherencia a cualquier programa de disminución de infección relacionada con la asistencia sanitaria. Objetivo: Evaluar el nivel de conocimientos y percepciones respecto a la hi [...] giene de manos entre los profesionales sanitarios de nuestra unidad de Nefrología, y compararlos con los de otra unidad de nuestro centro (Traumatología). Material y método: Estudio prospectivo descriptivo comparativo en 69 profesionales sanitarios. Para evaluar los conocimientos y percepciones respecto a la higiene de manos se utilizó un cuestionario de 26 ítems basado en cuestionarios desarrollados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados: 73% utiliza regularmente preparados de base alcohólica para higiene de manos (Traumatología 96,9%, p=0,007). 94% piensa que las manos de los profesionales sanitarios cuando no están limpias son la principal vía de transmisión de gérmenes patógenos (Traumatología: 87,1%, p=NS). 75,7% piensan que el entorno/superficies del hospital es la principal fuente de gérmenes patógenos (Traumatología: 68,8%) y 16% que son los microrganismos ya presentes en el paciente (Traumatología: 25%) (p=NS). Percepciones: 89% consideran alta la repercusión de las infecciones relacionadas con la asistencia sanitaria en el desenlace de la enfermedad (Traumatología: 59,4%, p=0,009). Respecto a las medidas más efectivas para mejorar la higiene de manos destacan la formación de los profesionales sanitarios, recibir retroalimentación regularmente sobre cómo realizar la higiene de manos y que exista un preparado de base alcohólica en cada punto de atención. Conclusiones: Los profesionales sanitarios de Nefrología, al igual que los de Traumatología, en general tienen conocimientos y percepciones adecuados sobre la higiene de manos. Abstract in english Adequate knowledge about hand hygiene (Hh) by healthcare workers (HCW), is the first step for adhering to any decreased infection related with healthcare (IRHC) program. Aim: To evaluate Hh perceptions and knowledge of HCW in a Nephrology Unit and compare it with another unit in our hospital (Trauma [...] ). Methodology: Comparative prospective study in 69 HCW. A 26-item questionnaire, based on questionnaires developed by WHO to assess knowledge and perceptions of Hh in HCW was used. Results: 73% regularly use alcohol-based preparations for Hh (Trauma 96.9%, p = 0.007). 94% think that the hands of the HCW when they are not clean are the main route of transmission of pathogens (Trauma: 87.1%, p = NS). 75.7% think that the environment / hospital surfaces is the main source of pathogens (Trauma: 68.8%) and 16% which are the microorganisms already present in the patient (Trauma: 25%) (p = NS). Perceptions: 89% consider the impact of high IRHC in the outcome of the disease (Trauma: 59.4%, p = 0.009). Regarding the most effective measures to improve the Hh include the formation of HCW, receive regular feedback on how to make the Hh and that a alcohol-based handrub is present at each point of care. Conclusions: All healthcare workers have adequate knowledge and perceptions about Hh.

  14. Práticas e nível de conhecimento sobre doença cerebrovascular em um hospital universitário: Parte 1. Educação do corpo de enfermagem: prioridade para o tratamento do infarto cerebral Knowledge and attitudes regarding stroke in a Brazilian teaching hospital: Part 1. Results in health care workers and non-health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles André

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVOS: Em um hospital universitário, entrevista direta de amostras estratificadas dos 3587 funcionários, visando determinar o nível de conhecimento e a conduta prática do corpo social diante do acidente vascular cerebral ou encefálico (AVE. Estabelecer prioridades para esforços educacionais. MÉTODO: Pré-teste para otimização do instrumento e cálculo amostrai. Entrevista de 309 funcionários sorteados. Inquérito consistindo em 32 questões sobre fisiopatologia, epidemiologia e mortalidade, clínica, fatores de risco, evolução e tratamento, comportamento pessoal diante da doença. Teste de Kruskal-Wallis para múltiplas comparações de dados não-paramétricos. RESULTADOS: O corpo social do hospital exibiu baixo nível de conhecimento teórico sobre o AVE e atitudes errôneas diante da doença. A performance dos enfermeiros foi superior à de auxiliares, técnicos e atendentes de enfermagem. O corpo de enfermagem, apesar de pontuar melhor na entrevista que a população leiga, mantém-se desinformado sobre as novas possibilidades terapêuticas e dissemina mitos sobre a doença. Entre os grupos profissionais leigos, o nível de educação formal não influenciou a performance na entrevista. CONCLUSÕES: A comunidade leiga e de saúde do HUCFF não reconhece adequadamente os sintomas típicos, a evolução provável dos pacientes e a necessidade de intervir rapidamente diante da doença cerebrovascular. O corpo de enfermagem não está preparado para a tarefa de difundir conceitos corretos sobre a doença. Somente programas específicos de educação continuada podem reverter este quadro, e devem ser considerados prioritários.BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to evaluate professionals working at a university hospital as to their knowledge and attitudes towards stroke. METHODS: Individuals working in the hospital were divided in two groups, health care workers (HCW and non-health care workers (NHCW, and further subdivided according to level of schooling, resulting in seven strata. A closed questionnaire addressing epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, typical symptoms, treatment, clinical course and personal attitudes towards smoking and blood pressure control, was applied to a random sample of each stratum (total n = 309. Kruskal-Wallis test for multiple comparisons of non-parametric data was used. RESULTS: Significant differences between the seven groups were found. Knowledge was strongly associated with being a HCW and with level of formal education (p<0.001, even after excluding physicians from the analysis (p<0.001. In NHCW groups, knowledge was not associated with level of education (p=0.421. In these groups, personal fear of suffering a stroke was the only variable predictive of knowledge. Smoking and poor monitoring of blood pressure levels were also more common in strata with the lowest levels of education and among NHCW. CONCLUSION: Poor knowledge and wrong attitudes towards stroke are frequent among individuals working in a Brazilian university hospital. Although these results are not necessarily applicable to the general population, they will certainly be useful for the development of educational programs on stroke.

  15. Of knowledge and work

    OpenAIRE

    Dankbaar, Ben; Vissers, Geert

    2009-01-01

    The idea of the knowledge economy has brought with it a new paradigm of work that espouses the professionalization of all work. This new paradigm is now affecting the organization of work throughout the economy. However, not all work is knowledge work, whatever definition is used. The number of 'professionals' may rise, but many workers still face rather traditional working conditions. Moreover, we argue, the expected growth in the share of knowledge work may be less than expected: along with...

  16. Use of IT–related Technologies in Hyderabad-based DRDO Laboratories: An Evaluative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.C. Mohanta,

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving productivity of knowledge workers is one of the major challenges in today’s global environment. Information technology-related technologies have given a new fillip to increase the productivity of those who are working in a knowledge-intensive organisation. This paper discusses the perspective of scientists of Hyderabad-based Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO laboratories on usefulness of IT-related technologies on their performance.

  17. Social Workers’ Interest in Building Individuals’ Financial Capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Gina A. N. Chowa; Mathieu R. Despard

    2010-01-01

    Social workers have many opportunities to integrate a focus on personal finance into their practice with mostly lower-income and vulnerable client populations. However, little is known about social workers’ interest in personal finance. Results of a survey of social workers (N = 56) interested in integrating personal finance content into their practice are reported in this paper. Ways in which social workers might further develop knowledge and skills in personal finance are discussed. P...

  18. Evolution of a Corporate Knowledge Management and Knowledge Building Effort: A Case Study of Just-In-Time Training and Support of Laboratory Robotic Workstations Driven Through Online Community Portals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Kearns

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study of the evolution of how a successful knowledge management initiative was achieved in a corporate learning organization. The initiative was centered on providing training tools and documentation of automated laboratory workstations that are utilized by scientists in a drug discovery environment. The case study will address the software tools, processes for content building, and the organizational dynamics that either assisted or blocked the progression of the initiative. Over a four-year period three distinct efforts were implemented, each differed in the particular software tools and focus of the initiatives. This presentation will compare and contrast the elements that provided barriers to success in the first two initiatives and the mechanisms and focus used in the third initiative that proved successful, scalable, and sustainable.

  19. Knowledge Management: Usefulness of Knowledge to Organizational Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Roy L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge-usefulness to organizational managers. The determination of the level of usefulness provided organizational managers with a reliable measure of their decision-making. Organizational workers' perceptions of knowledge accessibility, quality of knowledge content, timeliness, and user…

  20. Conhecimento e percepção dos profissionais a respeito do ruído na unidade neonatal / Workers' knowledge and perception regarding noise in the neonatal unit / Conocimiento y percepción de los profesionales respecto del ruido en la unidad neonatal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela, Daniele; Eliana Moreira, Pinheiro; Teresa Yoshiko, Kakehashi; Maria Magda Ferreira Gomes, Balieiro.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o conhecimento e a percepção de profissionais de Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN) sobre as repercussões do ruído ao neonato, família e profissionais, antes da implementação de um programa educativo. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, quantitativa, [...] realizada em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de um hospital de São Paulo, com 101 profissionais. Foram utilizados: questionário para a coleta de dados, e os testes de Qui-quadrado e t de Student para a associação entre as variáveis. Os profissionais identificaram a UTIN como muito ruidosa (44,9%), perceberam os efeitos desse ruído durante e após a jornada de trabalho (67,4%) e utilizaram estratégias para amenizá-lo. Embora os profissionais desconheçam a legislação sobre o ruído no ambiente hospitalar, identificaram repercussões para si, recém-nascido e família. Os resultados apontaram para a necessidade de orientar a equipe quanto à legislação, prevenção de ruído e reorganização das práticas assistenciais e estrutura física da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal. Abstract in spanish Se objetivó verificar el conocimiento y percepción de profesionales de Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN) sobre efectos del ruido en el neonato, familia y profesionales, antes de implementar un programa educativo. Investigación descriptiva, cuantitativa, realizada en UTIN de un hospital de [...] São Paulo, con 101 profesionales. Fueron utilizados: cuestionario para recolección de datos y tests de Chi-cuadrado y T de Student para asociación entre las variables. Los profesionales se refirieron a la UTIN como muy ruidosa (44,9%), percibieron los efectos de ese ruido durante y después de la jornada laboral (67,4%) y utilizaron estrategias para neutralizarlo. A pesar de que los profesionales desconozcan la legislación sobre ruidos en ambiente hospitalario, identificaron repercusiones para sí mismos, para el recién nacido y su familia. Los resultados sugieren la necesidad de orientar al equipo respecto de la legislación, prevención de ruidos y reorganización de prácticas asistenciales y estructura física de la UTIN. Abstract in english The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and perception of professionals working in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) regarding the repercussions of noise on the neonates, families and workers, prior to the implementation of an educational program. This qualitative descriptive stud [...] y was conducted in a NICU of a São Paulo hospital with 101 professionals. A questionnaire was used for data collection, and chi-square and Student's t test were used to determine the association between variables. The workers described the NICU as very noisy (44.9%); they noticed the effects of noise during and after their work shift (67.4%) and used strategies to reduce noise. Despite not being familiar with legislation regarding noise in the hospital, the workers identify its repercussions on themselves, the neonates and families. Results indicate the need to teach the staff about legislation and noise prevention, as well as reorganize healthcare practices and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit facilities.

  1. Effects of hand wash agents: Prevent the laboratory associated infections

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Gurjeet, Urhekar AD, Raksha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in hands of the laboratory workers. Laboratory associated infections are an occupational hazard for laboratory workers in the microbiology laboratory. The workers can expose to infection if they do not properly wash their hands before taking food. Materials: Swabs from 35 laboratory workers was taken before and after applying the different disinfectants. The swabs were directly inoc...

  2. Scientific literacy in hospital workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Previous studies realized by our group have demonstrated radio-induction of genotoxic damage in peripheral blood of hospital workers exposed to chronic X-ray. The cytogenetic and cytomolecular damage was significant in the radiologists evaluated. Accordingly, we have researched the knowledge of risk radiation in 57 workers to different health centres, private and public, in La Plata city. Most of respondents (96.4%) answered to know the risk of working with radiation ionizing, but a large portion do not carry out with the appropriate safety rules. The workers have not interest in this rules, it is evidenced by negligence in the use of protective clothing and personal dosimeters. These results suggested that individuals could be sensitising to minimize their risk. For this purpose we are working in scientific literacy conferences which are organized by 'Asociacion de Tecnicos Radiologos y de Diagnostico por Imagenes de La Plata (ASTEDIRLP)'. (author)

  3. Knowledge Workers' Perceptions of Performance Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D.; Rupp, William T.

    2004-01-01

    One major purpose of performance appraisals is to determine individual merit, especially where pay for performance systems are employed. Based upon expectancy theory, high performance ratings should entail high merit increases while low performance ratings result in low merit increases. However, it appears that decoupling performance ratings and…

  4. User Interface Cultures of Mobile Knowledge Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Petri Mannonen

    2008-01-01

    Information and communication tools (ICTs) have become a major influencer of how modern work is carried out. Methods of user-centered design do not however take into account the full complexity of technology and the user interface context the users live in. User interface culture analysis aims providing to designers new ways and strategies to better take into account the current user interface environment when designing new products. This paper describes the reasons behind user interface cult...

  5. The Knowledge Economy and University Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Raewyn

    2015-01-01

    This article is a condensed analysis of the developing sustainability crisis of Australian universities. It is based on an address to National Council of the National Tertiary Education Union, Melbourne, 3 October 2014. Thanks to all my fellow-members, who have kept my hopes for the modern university alive.

  6. Interactive, Computer-Based Training Program for Radiological Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is redesigning its Computer-Based Training (CBT) program for radiological workers. The redesign represents a major effort to produce a single, highly interactive and flexible CBT program that will meet the training needs of a wide range of radiological workers--from researchers and x-ray operators to individuals working in tritium, uranium, plutonium, and accelerator facilities. The new CBT program addresses the broad diversity of backgrounds found at a national laboratory. When a training audience is homogeneous in terms of education level and type of work performed, it is difficult to duplicate the effectiveness of a flexible, technically competent instructor who can tailor a course to the express needs and concerns of a course's participants. Unfortunately, such homogeneity is rare. At LLNL, they have a diverse workforce engaged in a wide range of radiological activities, from the fairly common to the quite exotic. As a result, the Laboratory must offer a wide variety of radiological worker courses. These include a general contamination-control course in addition to radioactive-material-handling courses for both low-level laboratory (i.e., bench-top) activities as well as high-level work in tritium, uranium, and plutonium facilities. They also offer training courses for employees who work with radiation-generating devices--x-ray, accelerator, and E-beam operators, for instance. However, even with the number and variety of courses the Laboratory offers, they are constrained by the diversity of backgrounds (i.e., knowledge and experience) of those to be trained. Moreover, time constraints often preclude in-depth coverage of site- and/or task-specific details. In response to this situation, several years ago LLNL began moving toward computer-based training for radiological workers. Today, that CBT effort includes a general radiological safety course developed by the Department of Energy's Hanford facility and a contamination-control program developed by LLNL. A comprehensive study guide and a post-training practical exam supplement the CBT effort. The ''hands-on'' practical is particularly important in that it gives participants not only the opportunity to demonstrate what they've learned, but to ask questions about their individual work situations. The challenge is how to make the CBT program more facility- and task-specific while, at the same time, making the program more in tune with the education and/or experience levels of individual trainees. To that end, they have designed a CBT program, which they refer to as an ''onion''. That is, the course is layered, going from the general to the more and more specific

  7. Stress and work ability in oil industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresi?, Jozo; Knezevi?, Bojana; Milosevi?, Milan; Tomljanovi?, Tomislav; Golubi?, Rajna; Golubovi?, Rajna; Mustajbegovi?, Jadranka

    2007-12-01

    This cross-sectional study conducted between March and June 2006 examined stress at work and work ability of 180 people with different workplaces within an oil company. Office, laboratory, and oil-field workers were invited to complete the "Occupational Stress Assessment Questionnaire--the Oil Industry Version and Work Ability Index (WAI) Questionnaire". The overall response rate was 69.4%, and the final sample size was 125 workers who completed the questionnaires (57 office, 41 laboratory, 27 oil-field workers). Office, laboratory, and oil-field workers differed significantly with respect to age (Poil-field workers and the youngest were office workers. The average WAI score for office workers was 44.9, for laboratory workers 43.2 and for field workers 39.7, indicating satisfying work ability. After adjusting for age, the difference in WAI score between the groups of workers was still significant (Pworkers believed their job was stressful, but the perception of specific stressors depended on the workplace. PMID:18063524

  8. Capacitações perecíveis do trabalhador: a busca de saberes comportamentais e técnicos no novo capitalismo / Les formations périssables du travailleur: la recherche de savoirs comportamentaux et techniques dans le nouveau capitalisme / Perishable worker training: the search for behavioral and technical knowledge in the new capitalism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maurício dos Santos, Ferreira.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo problematiza as estratégias pelas quais a atualização permanente de saberes se impôs como imprescindível ao perfil profissional contemporâneo. Para tanto, opero com os conceitos foucaultianos de discurso, cuidados de si e tecnologias do eu, bem como trabalho imaterial, de Lazzarato e Neg [...] ri - articulados a uma crítica ao capital humano - , a fim de analisar o caderno Empregos & Oportunidades do jornal Zero Hora. Centrando-me nas exigências comportamentaise técnicas, destaco algumas implicações: o autoconhecimento torna-se a resposta à trivialidade do trabalho, orientando o sujeito a estabelecer relações superficiais consigo e com o outro; a busca por conhecimento técnico gera contingentes de trabalhadores capacitados que se mantêm em defasagem; a inovação faz-se "dobradiça" entre o mercado e a exigência de novos saberes. Hoje, a condição perecível das capacitações dá o tom à formação do trabalhador. Abstract in english This paper problematizes the strategies through which the permanent updating of knowledge has been imposed as indispensable to the contemporary professional profile. In order to do that, I have worked with the Foucauldian concepts of discourse, care of the self and technologies of the self, as well [...] as Lazzarato and Negri's concept of immaterial work - articulated with a criticism of human capital - to analyze the supplement called Jobs & Opportunities of Zero Hora newspaper. Focused on behavioral and technical requirements, I have highlighted some implications: self-knowledge has become the answer to work triviality, leading the subjects to establish superficial relationships with themselves and the others; the search for technical knowledge has generated contingents of skilled workers that lag behind; innovation has become a "hinge" between the market and the requirement for new knowledge. Nowadays, the perishable situation of worker training dominates worker learning.

  9. Personal Knowledge Management for Employee Commoditization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Susie A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge management thinking has resulted in the perception that the organization is the relevant beneficiary of knowledge. Individual approaches to and experiences with personal knowledge management are not well documented in empirical studies, which uncovered the specific problem that the situatedness of knowledge worker contemporaries within…

  10. Knowledge about knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

  11. Safety and Mission Assurance Knowledge Management Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Teresa A.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the issues surrounding the management of knowledge in regards to safety and mission assurance. The JSC workers who were hired in the 1960's are slated to retire in the next two to three years. The experiences and knowledge of these NASA workers must be identified, and disseminated. This paper reviews some of the strategies that the S&MA is developing to capture that valuable institutional knowledge.

  12. Peer discussions of cancer among Hispanic migrant farm workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Lantz, P. M.; Dupuis, L.; Reding, D; Krauska, M; K. Lappe

    1994-01-01

    Hispanic migrant agricultural workers' exposure to pesticides and other agrichemicals places them at increased risk for a variety of acute and chronic conditions, including cancer. As a socioeconomically disadvantaged group, migrant workers also face many barriers to effective cancer control. In 1992, a series of focus groups was held with 55 Hispanic migrant agricultural workers (22 women, 33 men) in central Wisconsin to gather information on their knowledge and attitudes regarding cancer et...

  13. The Dynamics of Knowledge Diversity and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Berliant, Marcus; Fujita, Masahisa

    2010-01-01

    How is long run economic growth related to the diversity of knowledge? We formulate and study a microeconomic model of knowledge creation, through the interactions among a group of R & D workers, embedded in a growth model to address this question. Income to these workers accrues as patent income, whereas transmission of newly created knowledge to all such workers occurs due to public transmission of patent information. Our model incorporates two key aspects of the cooperative process of k...

  14. Job Grading Standard for Wood Worker, WG-4604.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    A job grading standard for Wood Worker WG-4604 is given for grading jobs under the Federal Wage System. The standard covers physical requirements, tools, job task, skills, and knowledge at three grade levels, and the limits placed on the requirements at each level. In general the wood worker makes and repairs such supply shipping, and storage…

  15. Learning Stories from IT Workers--Development of Professional Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tak S.

    2015-01-01

    In the knowledge economy, many companies are well aware of the vital need to maintain the professional expertise of their workers at a high level. Though there have been a lot of research studies in the areas of professional expertise and workplace learning, few examined the learning pathways novice workers went through to become experts in their…

  16. Critiquing Human Judgment Using Knowledge-Acquisition Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Barry G.

    1990-01-01

    Automated knowledge-acquisition systems have focused on embedding a cognitive model of a key knowledge worker in their software that allows the system to acquire a knowledge base by interviewing domain experts just as the knowledge worker would. Two sets of research questions arise: (1) What theories, strategies, and approaches will let the modeling process be facilitated; accelerated; and, possibly, automated? If automated knowledge-acquisition systems reduce the bottleneck associated with a...

  17. Knowledge Processing for Autonomous Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Tenorth, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous robots are becoming more and more skilled in performing human-scale manipulation tasks, and will soon become common co-workers in our homes. In this work, we describe a framework for representing the knowledge that an autonomous robot needs for performing household tasks, for automated reasoning on this knowledge, and for acquiring new knowledge from sources on the Internet and from observations of human activities. The developed methods allow programmers to write more general and ...

  18. Classification of knowledge-intensive organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, Edward J.

    Managing knowledge workers in knowledge-intensive organizations has become important because knowledge itself is emerging as a primary sustainable competitive advantage. This dissertation traces the development of two important items related to knowledge-intensive organizations. First, it documents a careful study of the literature which allows for the construction of a Knowledge-Intensity Continuum. This continuum then forms the basis for the development of a Knowledge-Intensity Assessment survey instrument which allows an organization to be placed along this continuum. A cross-section of research, consulting, and manufacturing organizations was surveyed using this instrument. The findings provided evidence that supports the validity of the Knowledge-Intensity Continuum. Additionally, onsite interviews provided evidence that the Knowledge-Intensity Assessment survey can be used as a tool to locate any organization on this continuum. Using this survey to clearly identify knowledge-intensive organizations will allow for further research into effective management systems for knowledge workers in these organizations.

  19. O campo Saúde do Trabalhador: resgatando conhecimentos e práticas sobre as relações trabalho-saúde / The Workers' Health field: reclaiming knowledge and practices in the interface between work and health

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francisco Antonio de Castro, Lacaz.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute pressupostos teórico-operacionais do campo Saúde do Trabalhador e os formulados pela Saúde Ocupacional. Refere-se às categorias teórico-conceituais que sustentam ambas as abordagens, visando a demonstrar as diferentes matrizes que as embasam e suas diferenças epistêmicas, consideran [...] do as formulações de Foucault relativas à Arqueologia. Justifica-se tal empreitada pela constatação de que a abordagem interdisciplinar que caracterizou as pesquisas em Saúde do Trabalhador está sendo abandonada, ao lado da involução programática das ações de Saúde Pública em nível das políticas sociais, da fragilidade do movimento sindical e dos equívocos conceituais observados no Relatório Final da 3ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde do Trabalhador realizada em novembro de 2005 e convocada pelos Ministérios da Previdência Social, da Saúde e do Trabalho e Emprego. Tal evento representou o resultado das Conferências de Saúde do Trabalhador realizadas nos Estados e municípios, que mobilizaram cerca de 100 mil militantes pelo Brasil, representados pelos delegados a 3ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde do Trabalhador. Abstract in english This article discusses the underlying theoretical and operational premises in the fields of workers' health and occupational health, highlighting their respective frameworks and epistemological differences, based on Foucaultian archeology. The theme is particularly relevant, due to: the apparently l [...] imited attention to interdisciplinary research approaches in workers' health; various setbacks in public health measures at the social policy level; related weaknesses in the Brazilian trade union movement; and the conceptual misinterpretations drafted into the final report of the 3rd National Workers' Health Conference in November, 2005, convened by the Ministries of Social Security, Health, and Labor. The event resulted from the Workers' Health Conferences held in various States and Municipalities, mobilizing some 100,000 activists throughout Brazil and electing the delegates to the 3rd National Conference.

  20. Conocimientos sobre tuberculosis en trabajadores de la salud en una localidad de Bogotá D. C Conhecimentos sobre tuberculose entre trabalhadores da saúde em uma localidade de Bogotá D.C Knowledge on tuberculosis In health workers in a sector of Bogotá D.C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Andrés Cruz Martínez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es producto de una monografía de pre-grado para la obtención del título de enfermero-a profesional, el cual tuvo como objetivo identificar los conocimientos sobre tuberculosis en 117 trabajadores de la salud de 12 instituciones de salud públicas y privadas vinculadas al programa de prevención y control de tuberculosis, de la Secretaría Distrital de Salud, en una localidad de Bogotá. Para la recolección de datos se diseñó un instrumento de evaluación, el cual se aplicó a los trabajadores previa lectura y aceptación de participación mediante su consentimiento informado. Se realizó una caracterización general de los trabajadores y se evaluaron conocimientos básicos sobre tuberculosis. Los resultados evidenciaron que un 34% de trabajadores alcanzó un nivel de conocimientos medio, un 32% nivel inferior, un 27% nivel bajo y solo un 7% alcanzó el nivel alto. Se evidenció, en general, déficit de conocimientos sobre la enfermedad, principalmente en temas como diagnóstico, tratamiento, periodo de transmisibilidad y medidas de bioseguridad. Se verifica la necesidad de orientar acciones que amplíen los conocimientos sobre tuberculosis en los trabajadores de la salud, mediante la formación académica, la facilitación de espacios para capacitación, el mejoramiento de las condiciones de trabajo y la articulación de actividades de investigación y extensión entre la academia y el Programa Distrital de Control de Tuberculosis.Este artigo é produto duma monografia de pré-graduação para a obtenção do título de enfermeiro(a profissional, que objetivou identificar os conhecimentos sobre tuberculose em 177 trabalhadores da saúde de 12 instituições de saúde públicas e particulares vinculadas ao programa de prevenção e controle de tuberculose, da Secretaria Distrital de Saúde, em uma localidade de Bogotá. Para reunir os dados, desenhou-se um instrumento de avaliação que foi administrado entre os trabalhadores com a leitura prévia e aceitação de participação mediante consentimento informado. Realizou-se uma caracterização geral dos trabalhadores e avaliaram-se os conhecimentos básicos sobre tuberculose. Os resultados evidenciaram que um 34% de trabalhadores atingiu um nível de conhecimento médio, um 32% nível inferior, um 27% nível baixo e só um 7% conseguiu um nível alto. Verificou-se, em geral, um déficit de conhecimentos sobre a doença, principalmente, em temas como diagnóstico, tratamento, período de transmissibilidade e medidas de biosseguridade. Verifica-se a necessidade de orientar ações que ampliem os conhecimentos sobre tuberculose nos trabalhadores da saúde, mediante a formação acadêmica, a facilitação de espaços para capacitação, o melhoramento das condições de trabalho e a articulação de atividades de pesquisa e extensão entre a academia e o Programa Distrital de Controle de Tuberculose.This article comes from a pre-graduate monograph to obtain the title of Professional Nurse, whose purpose was to identify the knowledge on tuberculosis in 117 health workers from 12 public and private health institutions connected to the tuberculosis prevention and control program of the District Health Secretariat (Secretaría Distrital de Salud, in a sector of Bogotá. To collect data, an evaluation instrument was designed and applied to workers prior reading and accepting participation through informed consent. A general characterization of workers was carried out and basic knowledge on tuberculosis was assessed. Results showed that 34% of the workers reached a mid level of knowledge, 32% reached a lower level and 27% a low level and only 7% reached the high level. In general, a deficit in knowledge on the disease could be observed, mainly in subjects such as diagnosis, treatment, transmission period and bio-safety measures. The need to take actions to increase the knowledge on tuberculosis among health workers through academic training, facilitating training spaces, improving work conditions and articulating research and extens

  1. Conocimientos sobre tuberculosis en trabajadores de la salud en una localidad de Bogotá D. C / Knowledge on tuberculosis In health workers in a sector of Bogotá D.C / Conhecimentos sobre tuberculose entre trabalhadores da saúde em uma localidade de Bogotá D.C

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Óscar Andrés, Cruz Martínez; Érika Liliana, Flórez Suancha; Alba Idaly, Muñoz Sánchez.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é produto duma monografia de pré-graduação para a obtenção do título de enfermeiro(a) profissional, que objetivou identificar os conhecimentos sobre tuberculose em 177 trabalhadores da saúde de 12 instituições de saúde públicas e particulares vinculadas ao programa de prevenção e control [...] e de tuberculose, da Secretaria Distrital de Saúde, em uma localidade de Bogotá. Para reunir os dados, desenhou-se um instrumento de avaliação que foi administrado entre os trabalhadores com a leitura prévia e aceitação de participação mediante consentimento informado. Realizou-se uma caracterização geral dos trabalhadores e avaliaram-se os conhecimentos básicos sobre tuberculose. Os resultados evidenciaram que um 34% de trabalhadores atingiu um nível de conhecimento médio, um 32% nível inferior, um 27% nível baixo e só um 7% conseguiu um nível alto. Verificou-se, em geral, um déficit de conhecimentos sobre a doença, principalmente, em temas como diagnóstico, tratamento, período de transmissibilidade e medidas de biosseguridade. Verifica-se a necessidade de orientar ações que ampliem os conhecimentos sobre tuberculose nos trabalhadores da saúde, mediante a formação acadêmica, a facilitação de espaços para capacitação, o melhoramento das condições de trabalho e a articulação de atividades de pesquisa e extensão entre a academia e o Programa Distrital de Controle de Tuberculose. Abstract in spanish El presente artículo es producto de una monografía de pre-grado para la obtención del título de enfermero-a profesional, el cual tuvo como objetivo identificar los conocimientos sobre tuberculosis en 117 trabajadores de la salud de 12 instituciones de salud públicas y privadas vinculadas al programa [...] de prevención y control de tuberculosis, de la Secretaría Distrital de Salud, en una localidad de Bogotá. Para la recolección de datos se diseñó un instrumento de evaluación, el cual se aplicó a los trabajadores previa lectura y aceptación de participación mediante su consentimiento informado. Se realizó una caracterización general de los trabajadores y se evaluaron conocimientos básicos sobre tuberculosis. Los resultados evidenciaron que un 34% de trabajadores alcanzó un nivel de conocimientos medio, un 32% nivel inferior, un 27% nivel bajo y solo un 7% alcanzó el nivel alto. Se evidenció, en general, déficit de conocimientos sobre la enfermedad, principalmente en temas como diagnóstico, tratamiento, periodo de transmisibilidad y medidas de bioseguridad. Se verifica la necesidad de orientar acciones que amplíen los conocimientos sobre tuberculosis en los trabajadores de la salud, mediante la formación académica, la facilitación de espacios para capacitación, el mejoramiento de las condiciones de trabajo y la articulación de actividades de investigación y extensión entre la academia y el Programa Distrital de Control de Tuberculosis. Abstract in english This article comes from a pre-graduate monograph to obtain the title of Professional Nurse, whose purpose was to identify the knowledge on tuberculosis in 117 health workers from 12 public and private health institutions connected to the tuberculosis prevention and control program of the District He [...] alth Secretariat (Secretaría Distrital de Salud), in a sector of Bogotá. To collect data, an evaluation instrument was designed and applied to workers prior reading and accepting participation through informed consent. A general characterization of workers was carried out and basic knowledge on tuberculosis was assessed. Results showed that 34% of the workers reached a mid level of knowledge, 32% reached a lower level and 27% a low level and only 7% reached the high level. In general, a deficit in knowledge on the disease could be observed, mainly in subjects such as diagnosis, treatment, transmission period and bio-safety measures. The need to take actions to increase the knowledge on tuberculosis among health workers through academic training, facilitating training spaces

  2. Assessment of cardiometabolic risk among shift workers in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jermendy György

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Shift workers may be at risk of different diseases. In order to assess cardiometabolic risk in shift workers, a cross-sectional study was performed among active workers. Methods A total of 481 workers (121 men, 360 women were investigated; most of them were employees in light industry (58.2% or in public services (23.9%. Past medical history was recorded and physical examination was performed. Questionnaires were used to characterize daily activity. Fasting venous blood sample was collected for measuring laboratory parameters. Data from shift workers (n = 234, age: 43.9 ± 8.1 years were compared to those of daytime workers (n = 247, age: 42.8 ± 8.5 years, men and women were analyzed separately. Results In men, systolic blood pressure was higher in shift workers compared to daytime workers (133 ± 8 vs 126 ± 17 mmHg; p vs 67.7 ± 13.2 kg; p vs 13.4%; p vs 21.7%; p vs 1.68 ± 0.36 mmol/l; p Conclusion Middle-aged active shift workers, especially women, have a less healthy lifestyle and are at higher cardiometabolic risk as compared to daytime workers. Our study highlights the importance of measures for identifying and preventing cardiometabolic risk factors in shift workers.

  3. Pneumoconiosis in rubber workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiographic survey carried out on rubber workers revealed that 32 % (24/76) of the workers showed pneumoconiosis. The cases of pneumoconiosis were found in workers who had been exposed to dust for more than 10 years. Among the 24 cases of pneumoconiosis, 15 workers had been exposed to talc dust for more than 12 years. Chest radiographs of the rubber workers who had been exposed to dust for more than 10 years demonstrated radiographic findings and incidences as follows; nodular pattern (16 %), fine reticular and granular pattern (52 %), reticular pattern (36 %), irregularity of lung markings (61 %), ground-glass appearance (8 %), and pleural thickening (15 %). Irregular opacities such as fine reticular and granular pattern, reticular pattern and irregularity of lung markings seen to be major radiographic findings of pneumoconiosis of the rubber workers. While, nodular pattern seen in upper and middle lung zones and pleural thickening seen in apices and upper lung zones seen to be minor changes. (author)

  4. Fair Trade & Worker Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores the potential of Fairtrade in hired labour situations in terms of improving conditions for agricultural workers. The chapter will address various aspects including the contentious issue of Fairtrade and trade union organisation as well as on issues of worker empowerment. At a local level, analysis focuses on the implications of Fairtrade certification for large enterprises and workers, drawing on a field-based studies of certified flower farms in Ecuador and Kenya.

  5. Building Background Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Ross, Donna; Grant, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Too often, students enter our classrooms with insufficient knowledge of physical science. As a result, they have a difficult time understanding content in texts, lectures, and laboratory activities. This lack of background knowledge can have an impact on their ability to ask questions and wonder--both key components of inquiry. In this article,…

  6. Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z INDEX | OOH SITE MAP | EN ESPAÑOL Healthcare > Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians PRINTER-FRIENDLY ... of workers and occupations. What They Do -> What Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians Do About ...

  7. Triggering meaningful change : human resource management and health worker performance in an AIDS-endemic setting

    OpenAIRE

    Dieleman, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis intends to contribute to building evidence and expanding the knowledge base in the field of Human Resource Management (HRM) and health worker performance in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). It identifies the impact of HIV/AIDS on health workers, explores the factors influencing motivation of health workers, and examines the evidence on the effectiveness of HRM on health workers’ motivation and performance. In addition, it discusses whether HRM could contribute effectively t...

  8. Epidemiological study of health hazards among workers handling engineered nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing, E-mail: shliou@nhri.org.tw; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lai, Ching-Huang [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Public Health, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling [Fu Jen Catholic University, Department of Chemistry, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong [Council of Labor Affairs, Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Taiwan (China); Shih, Tung-Sheng [College of Public Health, China Medical University and Hospital, Institute of Environmental Health, Taiwan (China); Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20-100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in control workers. A significantly decreasing gradient was found for SOD (control > RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose-response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of workers handling engineered nanomaterials.

  9. Advanced worker protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration

  10. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacitknowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individualsin an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization,and managing key individuals as knowledge creators and carriers. By contrast, theexplicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held byindividuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating new knowledge, andthe ...

  11. Humidity preference for fungus culturing by workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa

    OpenAIRE

    Roces, Flavio; Kleineidam, Christoph

    2000-01-01

    The hygropreference of gardening workers ofthe leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa was investigated in the laboratory using a gradient of relative humidity. Gardening workers were placed, together with pieces offungus garden, in small, interconnected nest chambers offering four different relative humidities: 33%, 75%, 84% and 98% RH. Workers were allowed to move freely between them and to relocate the fungus following their humidity preference. While workers distributed themselves rando...

  12. Special Issue: Rural Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…

  13. Nuclear knowledge management strategies in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Canadian Nuclear Industry recognizes the importance of nuclear knowledge management and has already implemented a number of initiatives to maintain competency, capture and preserve existing knowledge, advance the nuclear technology, develop future nuclear workers, and maintain a critical R and D capability. Although this paper addresses the Canadian scene in general, it will focus on knowledge management from a technology development point of view. Therefore, special emphasis will be placed on activities underway at present at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). Maintaining competency is a high priority issue. With the on-going retirement of nuclear workers, resource management, succession planning and technical training programs are all in place at AECL. For example, a comprehensive assessment was recently completed to identify critical core competencies and the potential and timing of future retirements. Using a risk-based approach, the technology disciplines were prioritized and a plan was developed to address the requirements. The plan is now being implemented to hire, train, mentor and develop a new core of technical experts. Collaboration and knowledge sharing are important success factors in that regard. This is being achieved through cross-functional teamwork, consolidation of expertise, on-going work on nuclear power plant projects (e.g., the just completed units in China and ongoing work on unit 2 at the Romanian Cernavoda site), developing and designing new products (Advanced CANDU Reactor, ACR-700), adopting and improving Quality Management Systems (e.g., ISO 9001:2000 Global Certification and pursuing business excellence through the adoption of the Canadian Framework for Business Excellence). Capturing and preserving existing knowledge as well as advancing nuclear technology have also received significant attention. Fully computerized engineering tools have been developed and used to document the complete design of CANDU plants, and this methodology is being used for the recent build projects. This encompasses all plant design, analysis and licensing knowledge including engineering drawings, design manuals, design reviews, analysis reports and all licensing documentation. The same system is being used today for the development of the ACR. In addition, a comprehensive feedback of experience system documents all operational issues to ensure lessons learned from operating plants are shared widely within AECL and with CANDU owners. AECL has also developed smart technology that transfers knowledge from highly specialized technical experts working in our laboratories to computer systems that can be accessed by plant operators. Such technology enables nuclear operators in monitoring station conditions, converting measured data into useful information, analyzing the information intelligently and providing recommendations to support decision making. In this way, specialized knowledge can be used throughout the nuclear industry. Another essential element in AECL's strategy for preserving knowledge is the on-going design and development of advanced CANDU systems over the years. In this approach, each generation of CANDU reactor is firmly based on incremental advancements in technology, which ensures that future expertise is maintained and based on an extensive existing knowledge base. Development of future nuclear workers received a boost through the University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE) program. This is an alliance of Canadian universities, nuclear power utilities, research and regulatory agencies. The purpose of UNENE is to assure a sustainable supply of qualified nuclear engineers and scientists to meet the current and future needs of the Canadian nuclear industry. In addition to full-time undergraduate and graduate degrees, UNENE, through 5 major Canadian universities also offers part-time programs designed for students already employed in the industry. Courses are offered in flexible formats, generally at nuclear sites for the convenience of the students. More informati

  14. Produção de conhecimento e intersetorialidade em prol das condições de vida e de saúde dos trabalhadores do setor sucroalcooleiro / Production of knowledge and an inter-sectoral approach vis-à-vis living and health conditions of workers in the sugarcane sector

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Minayo-Gomez.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, são apresentadas algumas dimensões da atuação intersetorial com vistas à melhoria das condições de trabalho e de vida dos trabalhadores na área de saúde do trabalhador do setor sucroalcooleiro. É analisada a dinâmica seguida na construção de formas de intersetorialidade em determinadas [...] práticas desenvolvidas a esse respeito numa região do Estado de São Paulo. Destaca-se o importante papel desempenhado por setores do Ministério Público do Trabalho e do Poder Legislativo na articulação de atores institucionais e da sociedade civil que potencializa uma atuação de maior alcance de cada órgão público responsável, envolvido na solução das questões de saúde do trabalhador. O estudo foi produzido a partir da análise documental do material produzido pelas instituições e por fóruns de debates com propostas de intervenção. Os resultados mostram que a apropriação de conhecimentos estratégicos produzidos por pesquisadores no setor canavieiro, nos recursos utilizados do instrumental jurídico e nas ações de fiscalização e vigilância, propicia importantes avanços na saúde do trabalhador e no meio ambiente. Abstract in english This article presents some dimensions of inter-sectoral action aimed at improving working and living conditions of workers in the sugarcane and alcohol industry. The dynamics of the implementation of certain forms of given intersectoral practices established in a region of the State of São Paulo are [...] analyzed. The important role played by sectors of the Labor Prosecution Office and the Legislative Authority in the articulation of institutional actors and civil society is stressed. They give greater impetus to the work of each public sector responsible for addressing the issues of workers'healthcare. This study was produced from analysis of documents and material provided by institutions and discussion forums with proposals for intervention. The results show that the appropriation of strategic knowledge produced by researchers of the sugarcane industry in the instrumental resources used in legal actions, monitoring and surveillance generates important advances in the health of workers and the environment.

  15. Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among US construction workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altshul Larisa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have elevated serum PCB levels. Methods This project compared serum PCB levels among male workers who installed and/or removed PCB-containing caulking material from buildings in the greater Boston area with reference serum PCB levels from 358 men from the same area. Serum PCB levels were measured in the same laboratory by liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography clean-up and dual capillary column GC/microECD analysis. Results When the congener profiles were compared between the reference population and the construction workers, the serum levels of the more volatile, lighter PCBs (di-, tri-and tetrachloro, sum of IUPAC# 6–74 were substantially higher among the construction workers. One of the youngest workers had the lowest total serum PCB levels (sum of 57 congeners of all 6 workers, but the contribution of more volatile (less chlorinated PCB congeners (#16, 26,28,33,74,66, and 60 was markedly higher than in other 5 workers and reference men. Only this worker was working on a job that involved removing PCB caulking at the time of the blood sampling. Conclusion While the results of this pilot study are based upon small numbers (6 construction workers who handled PCB caulking, the serum PCB levels among the construction workers exceed the referents. Comparison of the congener profiles suggests that there are substantial differences between the construction workers and the general population samples. These differences, and the similarities of profiles among the construction workers strongly suggest that occupational contact with caulking material can be a major source of PCB exposure for construction workers.

  16. Epidemiological study of health hazards among workers handling engineered nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20–100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly (p RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose–response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of workers handling engineered nanomaterials.

  17. Knowledge crash and knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Ermine, Jean-Louis

    2010-01-01

    This article, by including the problem of ?Knowledge Crash? in the more general framework of ?Knowledge Management?, enlarges the concepts of knowledge, generation and knowledge transfer. It proposes a global approach, starting from a strategic analysis of a knowledge capital and ending in the implementation of socio-technical devices for inter-generational knowledge transfer.

  18. Trabajadores de conocimiento: predictores de la agregación de valor a la organización / Travailleurs de la connaissance: prédicteurs de la valeur ajoutée de l'organisation / Knowledge workers: predictors of added value for an organization / Trabalhadores de conhecimento: indicativos da agragação de valor à organização

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosa Araceli, Cortés Mendoza; Ricardo, Flores Zambada.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Em uma amostra por conveniência de 220 trabalhadores de conhecimento, explorou-se a relação multivariante entre a motivação, aprendizagem, pensamento e escuta, gestão da informação, atitudes, e nível de conhecimento com a variável agregação de valor. O modelo estrutural encontrado representa de mane [...] ira aceitável e nos dá evidência empírica, sobre algumas das variáveis que a literatura propõe dentro do perfil do trabalhador de conhecimento, e como aquelas incidem de maneira direta e indireta na agregação de valor por parte destes. Este último aspecto é muito importante, encontra-se evidência de que há traços intrapessoais e atitudinais que favorecem a acumulação de conhecimento e o uso do mesmo para gerar valor. Abstract in spanish En una muestra por conveniencia de 220 trabajadores de conocimiento, se exploró la relación multivariante entre motivación, aprendizaje, pensamiento y escucha, manejo de la información, actitudes, y nivel de conocimiento con la variable agregación de valor. El modelo estructural encontrado represent [...] a de manera aceptable, y da evidencia empírica, sobre algunas de las variables que la literatura propone dentro del perfil del trabajador de conocimiento, y cómo estas inciden de manera directa e indirecta en la agregación de valor por parte de estos. Este último aspecto es muy importante; se encuentra evidencia de que hay rasgos intrapersonales y actitudinales que favorecen la acumulación de conocimiento y el uso del mismo para generar valor. Abstract in english In a convenient sample of 220 knowledge workers, the multi-variant relationship between motivation, learning, thinking and listening, handling information, attitudes, and the level of knowledge of the added value variable was explored. The structural model that was found provides an acceptable repre [...] sentation along with empirical evidence regarding some of the values that the literature proposes within the profile of the knowledge worker, and how these directly and indirectly influence their added value. This last aspect is very important and it was found that there are intrapersonal and attitudinal characteristics that favor the generation of knowledge and its use to create value.

  19. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    GrØntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers.

  20. Knowledge Sharing via Social Networking Platforms in Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettles, Degan

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge Management Systems have been actively promoted for decades within organizations but have frequently failed to be used. Recently, deployments of enterprise social networking platforms used for knowledge management have become commonplace. These platforms help harness the knowledge of workers by serving as repositories of knowledge as well…

  1. The level of knowledge and radiation safety practice amongst cardiovascular technology, medical assistant, nursing and diagnostic radiography students and dose monitoring in radiography laboratory of Kolej Islam Sains dan Teknologi, Kelantan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text: This study investigated the knowledge level and practices regarding radiation safety among the cardiovascular technology, medical assistant nursing and radiography diagnostic students of Kolej Islam Sains dan Teknologi (KIST). The objectives of this study are to monitor the dose rate at radiography lab and to propose the guideline on radiation safety topics to improve the syllabus. 274 respondents including 30 psychology students acting as the control group were asked to answer questions from the questionnaires which cover the topics of basic knowledge of radiation and radiation safety practice. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the correct answers and courses for 18 questions except for the question 4. There was a significant different (p < 0.05) between the correct answers and year of study for the questions 4, 5, 7, 12 to 15 and 18 to 20. There was a significance different (p < 0.05) between the correct answers and gender for questions 7, 11 and 19. For area dose monitoring in the radiography diagnostic lab, the assessment report on film batches of 4 walls in the lab were recorded and Victoreen451-RYR survey meter was used to monitor the dose rate for 7 selected areas with the exposure factors set for the chest, abdomen, upper extremity, lower extremity and skull radiography examinations. The dose rates at area 1 to 4, area 5 during the examination of chest, abdomen and skull, area 6 during the examination of abdomen and area 7 during the examination of abdomen, had exceeded the dose limit for radiation worker. The dose rate at the area 1 and 4 are slightly higher than the other areas. The contributing factors are the distance, tube potential, collimation and X-ray tube angulation. This study had shown that the cardiovascular technology and diagnostic radiography students have better knowledge and radiation safety practice level than the medical assistant and nursing students. In general, the level of knowledge and radiation safety practices were below satisfactory with the mean values of correct answers percentage was 42.74 % ± 0.91. As a result, a guideline to improve the syllabus is proposed because of the needs for the students to have better basic knowledge on radiation safety. (author)

  2. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom

  3. Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooten, H.D.

    1994-09-01

    Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom.

  4. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 56: Technical Communications in Engineering and Science: The Practices Within a Government Defense Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    VonSeggern, Marilyn; Jourdain, Janet M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    Research in recent decades has identified the varied information needs of engineers versus scientists. While most of that research looked at the differences among organizations, we surveyed engineers and scientists within a single Air Force research and development laboratory about their information gathering, usage, and production practices. The results of the Phillips Laboratory survey confirm prior assumptions about distinctions between engineering and science. Because military employees responded at a much higher rate than civilian staff, the survey also became an opportunity to profile a little-known segment of the engineer/scientist population. In addition to the effect Phillips Laboratory's stated mission may have on member engineers and scientists, other factors causing variations in technical communication and information-related activities are identified.

  5. The current status of radiopharmacy laboratories in Turkey, conveniences to good radiopharmacy practice (GRP) and quality management systems (ISO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study ha been conducted in the Radiopharmacy Laboratories of Nuclear Medicine departments of various hospitals and private nuclear medicine laboratories. A total of 35 laboratories from 7 regions of Turkey have been selected by layered sampling method from 131 Radiopharmacy Laboratories located in 30 different cities. During the study, a GRP investigation list with 67 questions and direct communication technique have been used. The aim was determine the current status of the Radiopharmacy Laboratories in general and the administration of radiopharmaceuticals on patients, and good practices in radiopharmacy and conformance with quality assurance systems. In this respect, questions have been asked to determine a) General status, b) Information level of lab workers regarding to the GRP and ISO concepts (i-Status of lab managers, ii- Responsibilities and knowledge of lab workers and iii- regarding to GRP and ISO-9000), c) Conditions of infrastructure, and lab services and its quality, d) Status of organizations. Results showed that only two of the 35 managers of laboratories were radiopharmacists, the rest were Nuclear Medicine specialists. There were less knowledge on GRP than ISO, the labs holding ISO certificate were in minority even though ISO is known concept, radiopharmacist were more knowledgeable in GRP while nuclear medicine specialists were in ISO, the labs with better GRP knowledge have better infrastructure, the GRP knowledge were better in the university and armed forces hospitals while ISO knowledge and certificates were more in private labs and hospitals, the armed forces hospitals better paraphernalia, practically almost all radiopharmaceutical kits were imported goods and there were important problems in quality control

  6. Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas frente a la tuberculosis en trabajadores del sector salud en municipios prioritarios de la Costa Pacífica colombiana / Health Workers' Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Towards Tuberculosis in Priority Municipalities of the Colombian Pacific Coast / Conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas perante a tuberculose em trabalhadores da saúde em municipalidades prioritárias do litoral pacífico sul da Colômbia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rocío, Carvajal-Barona; María Teresa, Varela-Arévalo; Paula Andrea, Hoyos; Eliana Sofía, Angulo-Valencia; Carolina, Duarte-Alarcón.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectivo: caracterizar os conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas perante a tuberculose em trabalhadores da saúde que participam dos programas de controle em municipalidades prioritárias do litoral pacífico colombiano. Materiais e métodos: Realizou-se um estudo descritivo de corte transversal com 38 tra [...] balhadores da Saúde, os quais correspondem a maior parte da população de pessoas com funções nos programas de TBC em 10 municipalidades prioritárias num departamento do sul da Colômbia. Usou-se um questionário estruturado, previamente validado através de entrevistas cognitivas realizadas em pessoas com caraterísticas similares as da população de estudo e realizadas previamente à coleta da informação. Resultados: Os trabalhadores disseram ter conhecimentos sobre a TBC e saber como tratar os pacientes com a doença seguindo as normatividades estabelecidas. Porém, identificaram-se algumas práticas de risco relacionadas com o cumprimento das medidas do plano de controle de infecções e atitudes que refletem o estigma perante a doença. Conclusão: O estudo confere informação a respeito dos conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas das equipes de saúde no pacífico sul da Colômbia, a qual se pode converter em insumo de consulta no momento do planejamento de estratégias de intervenção que possibilitem o fortalecimento do programa de controle de TB com enfoque cultural nesta região. Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Caracterizar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas frente a la tuberculosis (TB) en los trabajadores de la salud que participan en los programas de control en municipios prioritarios de la Costa Pacífica colombiana. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transv [...] ersal en 38 trabajadores de la salud, que corresponden a la mayor parte de la población del personal con funciones en los programas de TB de 10 municipios prioritarios en Nariño, Colombia. El instrumento utilizado fue un cuestionario estructurado, previamente validado a través de entrevistas cognitivas a personas con características similares a la población estudio, realizadas previamente a la recolección de información. Resultados: Los trabajadores reportan tener conocimientos sobre TB y su manejo de acuerdo a las normas de control establecidas. No obstante, se identificaron algunas prácticas de riesgo relacionadas con el cumplimiento de las medidas del plan de control de infecciones y actitudes que reflejan estigma frente a la enfermedad. Conclusiones: El estudio aporta información referente a los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas del personal de salud en el pacífico nariñense, que se puede convertir en insumo de consulta al momento del diseño de estrategias de intervención que posibiliten el fortalecimiento del programa de control de TB con enfoque cultural en esta región. Abstract in english Purpose: To describe knowledge, attitudes and practices of health workers of tuberculosis (TB) programs in priority municipalities of the Colombian Pacific coast. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 38 health workers, corresponding to the entire population of [...] people working at the TB programs in ten priority municipalities of Nariño, Colombia. A structured interview, previously validated trough cognitive interviews, was used. Results: Health workers report to have knowledge about TB and its management according to the established control guidelines. Nevertheless, some risk practices concerning biosecurity standards of infection control were found, that show some stigmatizing attitudes towards the illness. Conclusions: The study provides information about the health workers' knowledge, attitudes and practices towards TB in Nariño that can be used as input to the design of intervention strategies to strengthen the TB programs with local and cultural approach.

  7. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people with this disease are older than 50. Smoking does not increase your risk of developing this disease, but it may have an additional harmful effect on the lungs. If coal worker's pneumoconiosis occurs with rheumatoid arthritis , ...

  8. Risks for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are discussed: recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection; methods for determining dose limits to workers; use of data from survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki for estimating risk factors; use of data from survivors of nuclear explosions in Marshall Islands, uranium miners, and patients exposed to diagnostic and therapeutic radiation; risk factors for radioinduced malignancies; evidence that risk factors for persons exposed to partial-body radiation and Japanese survivors are too low; greater resistance of A-bomb survivors to radiation; and radiation doses received by U.K. medical workers and by U.K. fuel reprocessing workers. It is suggested that the dose limit for radiation workers should be reduced by a factor of 5

  9. Views of the workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the nuclear industry has matured, workers are now regularly required to keep to just a fraction of the legal authorized limit. In addition, where higher doses are possible careful use of worker rotation will reduce the risk. However, it is interesting to note that workers undertaking industrial radiography can incur high doses because they may be poorly supervised. There are also hazards in decommissioning experimental reactors where, after a period of long operation, records or the memory of operators may be incomplete or not available. There is also a risk in reprocessing and handling the waste stream where exit routes previously thought to be available have been closed because of developing environmental concerns. In all this, trust is needed between workers and employing organizations to provide the best protection

  10. Health of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation workers are healthier than the average person in the general population and appear to be as healthy as workers in other ?safe? industries. It is, however, assumed that there is no safe dose of radiation and that any exposure to radiation will cause a small increase in the incidence of cancer, this increase being directly proportional to the total radiation dose. On the basis of the risk estimates given by ICRP, radiation exposures up to 1 rem per year for 47 years are predicted to cause fewer work-related deaths than expected for the average worker in Canadian industry. Radiation exposures of 5 rem per year from age 18 to 65 would result in predicted risk which is about four times higher than that for most workers in Canada and might increase the chances of death before age 75 to nearly the same level as for the average member of the general public. (auth)

  11. A comparative analysis of two cross-sectional surveys of healthcare workers' hand hygiene knowledge, intentions, access and product preferences between two university hospitals, one in Norway and one in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Mediå, Anne Kristine

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) and The University Hospital of Northern Norway in Tromsø (UNN-Tromsø) were compared for self-reported differences in level of knowledge and intentions to comply with the hand hygiene guidelines. Hand hygiene products were also assessed for preference of use, access, gentleness and promotion of hand hygiene compliance. Methods: A cross-sectional quality assurance staff survey was made available at UNN- Tromsø and at VGH in both print and in electroni...

  12. A comparative analysis of two cross-sectional surveys of healthcare workers' hand hygiene knowledge, intentions, access and product preferences between two university hospitals, one in Norway and one in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Mediå, Anne Kristine

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) and The University Hospital of Northern Norway in Tromsø (UNN-Tromsø) were compared for self-reported differences in level of knowledge and intentions to comply with the hand hygiene guidelines. Hand hygiene products were also assessed for preference of use, access, gentleness and promotion of hand hygiene compliance. Methods: A cross-sectional quality assurance staff survey was made available at UNN- Tromsø and at VGH in both print and in electr...

  13. Worker in nuclear activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juridical aspects with respect to the workers in nuclear activity are presented. Special emphasis is given to the clauses of the statute of workers (Consolidacao das Leis do Trabalho) the rules of the Ministerio do Trabalho and the rules of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. The performance of the international authorities is also emphasized such as the International Labour Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the International Radiological Protection Commission. (Author)

  14. Mushroom compost worker's lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, M. S.; Robinson, A A; Higenbottam, T. W.; Calder, I M

    1987-01-01

    This study draws attention to difficulties in the diagnosis and the understanding of the mechanism of action of mushroom compost worker's lung. Descriptions are given of 4 workers in one factory who developed acute respiratory failure within a 6-month period; 13 others who were unaffected were also studied. Serological investigation appears to be largely unhelpful, and the evidence against the condition being included amongst the extrinsic allergic alveolitides is discussed. A detailed clinic...

  15. Conocimiento de las vías de transmisión de las zoonosis y de las especies afectadas entre los trabajadores rurales / Knowledge of zoonoses transmission routes and of the species concerned among rural workers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana I, Molineri; Marcelo L, Signorini; Héctor D, Tarabla.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el grado de conocimiento que tienen los trabajadores rurales sobre las zoonosis a las que se encuentran expuestos en su trabajo y su asociación con factores socio-demográficos. Se efectuó un estudio observacional transversal basado en la realización de encuest [...] as (N = 110, n = 94), utilizando un cuestionario estructurado. El análisis incluyó c², t de Student y correlación de Pearson y de Spearman. Las zoonosis más conocidas fueron la triquinosis, la rabia y la sarna. En el caso de la brucelosis, la tuberculosis y el carbunco, fueron muy conocidas las especies que las transmiten, pero no así las formas de transmisión. Las enfermedades menos conocidas en ambos sentidos fueron la toxocariasis y la hidatidosis, seguidas por la leptospirosis y la toxoplasmosis. Para todas las zoonosis estudiadas se encontró correlación significativa (p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of awareness of zoonoses among rural workers and their potential associations with socio-demographic factors. A cross-sectional study was performed by holding personal interviews (N = 110, n = 94) using a structured questionnaire. The statistical analy [...] sis included the c² test, the Student's t test and Pearson and Spearman correlations. The highest level of awareness was found for trichinosis, rabies and scabies. Species transmitting brucellosis, tuberculosis and anthrax were well known, but not their modes of transmission. The least known diseases were toxocariasis and hydatidosis, followed by leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis. Significant associations were found (p

  16. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  17. Impact of workers’ competence on their performance in the Malaysian private service sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahida Zainal Abidin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia has to address the challenges of globalization to become a developed nation by year2020. Changing economy to one that is based on knowledge-economy and enhanced importanceof the service sector needs a competitive workforce with high performance and capability. Thisarticle analyses the impact of workers’ competence towards their performance in the privateservice sector. The analysis is based on a sample of 1136 workers who are either executive,manager or professional from three service sub-sectors, namely, education, health andinformation and communication technology (ICT in Selangor, Federal Territory of KualaLumpur, Penang and Johor collected in 2007/2008. In this analysis, Workers’ Performance Index(WPI and Workers’ Competence Index (WCI are developed and subsequently used to analyzefactors determining workers’ performance in the selected service sector. The results show thatworkers’ competence has significant influence towards workers’ performance. Besides that,human capital and workers’ characteristics also determine workers’ performance in the servicesector.

  18. Client violence toward Iranian social workers : A national study

    OpenAIRE

    Padyab, Mojgan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction   Client violence toward social workers has become recognized as a common problem, and major concern has been raised with regard to its impacts on the workers’ practice, and physical and psychological health. More than half a century has passed since the social work profession was established in Iran, and yet client violence and the associated health-related consequences remain unexplored. This thesis aims to address this gap in knowledge. Methods   A national survey was conducte...

  19. Manpower Development for Workers in Tertiary Institutions: Distance Learning Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Moshood Ayinde

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which workers patronize distance learning approach to further their education. Other purposes include: determine problems facing workers in the process of improving their knowledge and skills through distance learning approach; establish the level of attainment of manpower development objectives of Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba-Akoko and Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, both in Ondo State, Nigeria; and find out the relationship between manpo...

  20. Free the data: one laboratory's approach to knowledge-based genomic variant classification and preparation for EMR integration of genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Lora J H; Tinker, Stuart W; da Silva, Cristina; Hegde, Madhuri R

    2013-09-01

    Current technology allows clinical laboratories to rapidly translate research discoveries from small patient cohorts into clinical genetic tests; therefore, a potentially large proportion of sequence variants identified in individuals with clinical features of a genetic disorder remain unpublished. Without a mechanism for clinical laboratories to share data, interpretation of sequence variants may be inconsistent. We describe here the two components of Emory Genetics Laboratory's (EGL) in-house developed data management system. The first is a highly curated variant database with a data structure designed to facilitate sharing of information about variants identified at EGL with curated databases. This system also tracks changes in variant classifications, creating a record of previous cases in need of updated reports when a classification is changed. The second component, EmVClass, is a Web-based interface that allows any user to view the inventory of variants classified at EGL. These software tools provide a solution to two pressing issues faced by clinical genetics laboratories: how to manage a large variant inventory with evolving variant classifications that need to be communicated to healthcare providers and how to make that inventory of variants freely available to the community. PMID:23757202

  1. Culture in global knowledge societies : knowledge cultures and epistemic cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Knorr-Cetina, Karin D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the concepts of knowledge culture and epistemic culture against the background of contemporary transformations in global society. Studies of knowledge culture came to prominence in the 1970s, with the trend towards laboratory fieldwork and direct observation in the new sociology of science. If the focus in such early studies was on knowledge construction, the focus in an epistemic culture approach by contrast is on the construction of the machineries of knowledge construct...

  2. Laboratory animal allergy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, A

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers at 8 laboratory animal facilities. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent skin prick testing with common and occupational allergens. Total and specific IgE measures were obtained....

  3. Knowledge Mangement and Management of Working-life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ipsen, Christine

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge Management and the Management of Working Life Research paper – case study Oral presentation Keywords: Knowledge work, knowledge management, working life and knowledge-intensive companies. A single case study has indicated that there is a clear connection between the organizational work, managerial style and the working environment in knowledge-intensive companies. Furthermore the study indicates that the knowledge-workers only to a limited extent use the formalised working environment–...

  4. Knowledge Management of E-Government in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Almarabeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available nowadays, knowledge management is considered an essential part of any organization to prepare and develop its vision for the future. Knowledge management allows better utilization of the organization expertise, resources, and bright ideas. The science of knowledge management started when the technology revolution reached every organization. The ease and availability of information, major advancements in communication technologies, the emergence of knowledge worker, and the knowledge economy are the reasons of knowledge management development.

  5. Semantic knowledge representation for information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gödert, Winfried; Nagelschmidt, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the basics of semantic web technologies and indexing languages, and describes their contribution to improve languages as a tool for subject queries and knowledge exploration. The book is relevant to information scientists, knowledge workers and indexers. It provides a suitable combination of theoretical foundations and practical applications.

  6. Educating for the Knowledge Economy? Critical Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Hugh, Ed.; Young, Michael, Ed.; Daniels, Harry, Ed.; Balarin, Maria, Ed.; Lowe, John, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The promise, embraced by governments around the world, is that the knowledge economy will provide knowledge workers with a degree of autonomy and permission to think which enables them to be creative and to attract high incomes. What credence should we give to this promise? The current economic crisis is provoking a reappraisal of both economic…

  7. Knowledge management : what can organizational economics contribute?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating and integrationknowledge, rewarding knowledge workers, etc.) , and derive refutable implications that are novelto the knowledge management field from our discussion.

  8. Uncovering Tacit Knowledge: A Pilot Study to Broaden the Concept of Knowledge in Knowledge Translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Nancy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All sectors in health care are being asked to focus on the knowledge-to-practice gap, or knowledge translation, to increase service effectiveness. A social interaction approach to knowledge translation assumes that research evidence becomes integrated with previously held knowledge, and practitioners build on and co-create knowledge through mutual interactions. Knowledge translation strategies for public health have not provided anticipated positive changes in evidence-based practice, possibly due in part to a narrow conceptualization of knowledge. More work is needed to understand the role of tacit knowledge in decision-making and practice. This pilot study examined how health practitioners applied tacit knowledge in public health program planning and implementation. Methods This study used a narrative approach, where teams from two public health units in Ontario, Canada were conveniently selected. Respondents participated in individual interviews and focus groups at each site. Questions were designed to understand the role of tacit knowledge as it related to the program planning process. Data were analyzed through a combination of content analysis and thematic comparison. Results The findings highlighted two major aspects of knowledge that arose: the use of tacit knowledge and the integration of tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge included: past experiences, organization-specific knowledge, community contextual knowledge, and the recognition of the tacit knowledge of others. Explicit knowledge included: research literature, the Internet, popular magazines, formal assessments (surveys and interviews, legislation and regulations. Participants sometimes deliberately combined tacit and explicit knowledge sources in planning. Conclusions This pilot demonstrated that front-line public health workers draw upon both tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge in their everyday lived reality. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in practitioners' interpretation and implementation of explicit research findings. This indicates a need to broaden the scope of knowledge translation to include other forms of knowledge beyond explicit knowledge acquired through research. Strategies that recognize and support the use of tacit knowledge, such as communities of practice or networks, may be important components of a comprehensive approach to knowledge translation. This study provides support for further investigation of the role of tacit knowledge in the planning and delivery of effective public health services.

  9. Patient empowerment begins with knowledge: consumer perceptions and knowledge sources for hand hygiene compliance rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuckin, Maryanne; Govednik, John

    2014-10-01

    A survey of 1,000 US consumers quantified their knowledge of health care worker hand hygiene compliance, their information sources on hand hygiene rates, and their past behavior of asking health care workers to perform hand hygiene. Sixty-nine percent of respondents believed compliance is above 50%; 17% of respondents had asked a health care worker to perform hand hygiene. Our findings suggest that an organized plan of disclosure about hand hygiene rates may be a way to empower through knowledge. PMID:25278403

  10. Knowledge Commodification and New Patterns of Specialisation: Professionals and Experts in Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS)

    OpenAIRE

    Strambach, Simone

    2010-01-01

    The knowledge society is characterized by knowledge becoming a kind of commodity that can be traded and priced. Knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) are representative for such a knowledge-based economy, since their main input and output factor is directly related to knowledge itself. While research on KIBS has been mainly conducted on the firm and sector level, focusing on their role in innovation processes, little attention has been paid to the knowledge workers within the firms, wh...

  11. Individual recognition and learning of queen odors by worker honeybees

    OpenAIRE

    Breed, Michael D.

    1981-01-01

    A honeybee queen is usually attacked if she is placed among the workers of a colony other than her own. This rejection occurs even if environmental sources of odor, such as food, water, and genetic origin of the workers, are kept constant in laboratory conditions. The genetic similarity of queens determines how similar their recognition characteristics are; inbred sister queens were accepted in 35% of exchanges, outbred sister queens in 12%, and nonsister queens in 0%. Carbon dioxide narcosis...

  12. Factors influencing biosafety level and lai among the staff of medical laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kozajda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to assess the biological risks of medical laboratory employees with particular focus on laboratory acquired infection (LAI, activities having the greatest risk, accidents with biological material, post exposure procedure, preventive measures and workers' knowledge about biological exposure. Materials and Methods: The study involved 9 laboratories. A questionnaire survey was attended by 123 employees and 9 heads of these units with the use of two questionnaires for laboratory workers and the managers. Results: 32.5% of the respondents (40 persons had an accident at least once. Needlestick or a broken glass injury covered 18.7% respondents (23 persons, while splashing the skin, mucous membranes or conjunctivae related to 22.8% (28 persons. Among the employees who had an accident, only 45% of the respondents (18 persons reported this to the manager. Microbes dominant in the biological material were known only to 57 respondents (46.3%, less than half could correctly give an example of a disease (57 persons, 46.3%. More than half of the respondents admitted that they do not know all of the possible routes of infection while working in the laboratory (68 persons, 55.3%. Conclusions: In the study population, a high incidence of accidents was observed, usually during blood sampling and transfer of biological material. Condition of the workers' equipment with personal protective measures and laboratory facilities in devices to reduce the risk of infection and procedures for handling the potentially infectious material should be considered as insufficient. Lack of basic knowledge of the employees about biohazards at workplaces was shown. Med Pr 2013;64(4:473–486

  13. Knowledge Management

    CERN Document Server

    Gerami, Mohsen

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.

  14. Conocimientos y prácticas sobre la nueva influenza A (H1N1) en trabajadores de salud y pacientes ambulatorios, Perú (mayo 2009) / Knowledge and practices about novel influenza A (H1N1) in health workers and ambulatory patients, peru (may 2009)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jeannette, Ávila; César V., Munayco; Jorge, Gomez; Juan, Nunura; Jerónimo, Canahuiri.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar el nivel de conocimientos, las actitudes y prácticas de los pacientes y del personal de salud a inicios de la pandemia de la nueva Influenza A H1N1, desarrollamos un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en establecimientos del Ministerio de Salud del Perú (MINSA) so [...] bre 313 usuarios y 244 trabajadores de 4 ciudades del país. El 38% de los pacientes encuestados asocia la nueva Influenza A (H1N1) con los cerdos o aves, un 17% no reconoce que la transmisión es de persona a persona, asimismo, entre el 35% a 50% utiliza la mano para cubrirse nariz y boca al estornudar o toser y no tiene práctica de higiene de manos. En el caso del personal de salud, el 99% advierte la transmisión humana y el 86% conoce la definición de caso sospechoso de Influenza A (H1N1). Entre el 83% y 95% de los trabajadores encuestados reconocen las medidas de protección individual recomendadas por el MINSA. En ambos grupos la televisión es el medio más visto (60%) y por dónde recibe mayor información sobre Influenza A (H1N1), además, en los trabajadores de salud, un medio frecuente de información sobre el tema también es el internet (11%). Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices of patients and health personnel at the beginning of the pandemic of novel Influenza A (H1N1), we did a cross sectional survey appliying a questionnaire in health facilities of Ministry of Health (MoH). 313 patients and 244 he [...] alth workers were interviewed in 4 Peruvian cities. 38% of surveyed patients linked Influenza A (H1N1) with pigs or poultry, 17% do not recognize that the transmission is from person to person, between 35% to 50% used the hand to cover nose and mouth when sneezing or coughing and does not practice hand hygiene. 99% and 86% of health personnel recognizes human transmission and knows the case definition of suspected case of Influenza A (H1N1), respectively. Between 83% and 95% of workers surveyed understand the individual protection measures recommended by the MoH. In both groups, television is the most seen (60%) and where to get more information on Influenza A (H1N1). An important way of information, through health care workers get information is internet (11%).

  15. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowle...

  16. Knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Breedt, Marlize; Janse van Rensburg, Antonie C.

    2006-01-01

    The emergence of the Information Age necessitates the need to manage the organisation’s knowledge asset. The competitive advantage of the organisation depends on the quality of the organisation’s knowledge asset and the successful exploitation of it. Knowledge management aims at leveraging this explicit and tacit knowledge asset to the collective benefit of the organisation by developing an infrastructure to facilitate knowledge processes. Elements such as company know-how, employee competenc...

  17. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf; Lee Sherson, David

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We ...

  18. Human Resources Management in the Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    POPESCU Dan; Iulia CHIVU

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge is increasingly claimed to be a key critical resource and source of competitive advantage in the modern global economy, especially with the rise of the service economy, the growth in the number of 'knowledge workers', the increasingly rapid flow of global information, and the growing recognition of the importance of intellectual capital and intellectual property rights. Knowledge, with its intangible aspects, is becoming a defining characteristic of economic activities, as opposed t...

  19. Conhecimentos e práticas de trabalhadoras de creches universitárias relativos às infecções respiratórias agudas na infância / Knowledge and practices of university day care center workers relative to acute respiratory infections in childhood / Conocimientos y prácticas de trabajadoras de guarderías universitarias relativos a las infecciones respiratorias agudas en la infancia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roberta Cristiane P., Alves; Maria De Lá Ó Ramallo, Veríssimo.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Dada a elevada freqüência de infecções respiratórias agudas em creches, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar conhecimentos e práticas de trabalhadoras de creches relativos à prevenção, detecção precoce e manejo desses agravos. Mediante quatorze entrevistas estruturadas em duas creches universit [...] árias da cidade de São Paulo, verificou-se que as trabalhadoras: demonstram familiaridade com diversos agravos; apontam febre e respiração ruidosa como sinais de gravidade; consideram poluição e transmissão como principais causas; referem o cuidado com o ambiente como melhor forma de controle; cuidam mantendo observação contínua da criança e intervenções de higiene e conforto e maior cuidado emocional; consideram educação e cuidado interligados no atendimento infantil, manifestando necessidade de maior preparo para cuidar; têm na prática diária a fonte de seus conhecimentos. Abstract in spanish Dada la elevada frecuencia de infecciones respiratorias agudas en guarderías, el objetivo en este trabajo fue identificar conocimientos y prácticas de trabajadoras de guarderías relativos a la prevención, detección precoz y manejo de esas afecciones. Mediante catorce entrevistas estructuradas en dos [...] guarderías universitarias de la ciudad de São Paulo, se verificó que las trabajadoras: demuestran familiaridad con las diversas afecciones; señalan fiebre y respiración ruidosa como signos de gravedad; consideran a la polución y transmisión como sus principales causas; refieren al cuidado del ambiente como la mejor forma de control; se preocupan con la observación continua del niño y con acciones de higiene, confort y cuidado emocional; consideran que la educación y el cuidado son necesarios para atender a los niños y desean mayor preparación para cuidar; tienen en la práctica diaria la fuente de sus conocimientos. Abstract in english Given the increasing frequency of acute respiratory infections in day care centers, the objective of this work was to identify knowledge and practices of day care center workers relative to the prevention, precocious detection and management of these illnesses. Through fourteen structured interviews [...] in two university day care centers of the city of São Paulo, it was verified that the workers: demonstrate familiarity with several respiratory illnesses; indicate fever and noisy breath as danger signals; consider pollution and transmission as main causes; refer to environment care as the best form of control; keep continuous observation of the child and interventions of hygiene and comfort, and greater emotional care; consider education and care complementary in child attendance, revealing the need for better preparation for caring; have in daily activities the source of their knowledge.

  20. Knowledge Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Nick

    2008-01-01

    Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools are available? What are the main issues?). The book is aimed at students, researchers and practitioners interested in Knowledge Management, Artificial Intelligence, Design Engineering and Web Technologies. During the 1990s, Nick worked at the University of Nottingham on the application of AI techniques to knowledge management and on various knowledge acquisition projects to develop expert systems for military applications. In 1999, he joined Epistemics where he worked on numerous knowledge projects and helped establish knowledge management...

  1. Educational Advantage - E-learning helps companies capture the knowledge of retiring employees and gain competitive edge

    CERN Multimedia

    Tischelle, G

    2003-01-01

    NASA has discovered that 60% of aerospace workers will reach retirement age over the next few years so needed to find a way to capture knowledge from exiting workers and make it available to remaining and future staff (1 page).

  2. Female Migrant Sex Workers in Moscow: Gender and Power Factors and HIV Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Weine, Stevan; Golobof, Alexandra; Bahromov, Mahbat; Kashuba, Adrianna; Kalandarov, Tohir; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Loue, Sana

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding HIV risks in female migrant sex workers in Moscow, focusing on gender and power. This was a collaborative ethnographic study, informed by the theory of gender and power, in which we conducted minimally structured interviews with 24 female sex workers who were migrants to Moscow and who provided sexual services to male migrant laborers. Overall, the female migrant sex workers engaged in HIV risk behaviors and practiced inadequate HIV prot...

  3. Heat Stress Resources for Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acclimatization Keeping Workers Hydrated and Cool Despite the Heat Read " Keeping Workers Hydrated and Cool Despite the ... Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ...

  4. Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... for More Information Resources for Those Vaccinating HCWs Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk for exposure to ...

  5. Gestión del conocimiento y comunidades de práctica en laboratorios de investigación del Polo Científico Grenoblés en Francia* / Knowledge management and communities of practice in research laboratories of the scientific center in Grenoble, France

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margarita María, Gaviria Velásquez.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan algunas de las prácticas relacionadas con la gestión del conocimiento en los laboratorios del Polo de Investigación Científica ubicado en la ciudad de Grenoble (Francia). El polo científico grenoblés se construye a partir del acentuado desarrollo científico e industrial que vive la regió [...] n desde finales del siglo XIX, ligado a un largo proceso de producción académica, y de compromiso económico y estatal; denso en generación de nuevos conocimientos. Es también un modelo de trabajo colectivo, en el cual cooperan varias ciudades y países. La pregunta fundamental de la investigación es si, efectivamente, en este contexto se puede hablar de la presencia de un modelo de gestión del conocimiento y cuáles serían las condiciones para que esto se de. El análisis se ocupa específicamente del estudio del modelo Nonaka llamado ''Ba'' (conocimiento situado) que estudia el proceso de conversión de conocimientos tácitos en explícitos en los laboratorios de investigación y si éstos funcionan como comunidades de práctica. Los datos que sustentan este trabajo fueron construidos a partir de entrevistas, análisis de componentes principales, observaciones sobre el terreno y el análisis de estudio de caso. Abstract in english Some practices related to knowledge management in the laboratories of the scientific center of Grenoble (France) are analyzed. This center was set up from the great scientific and industrial advance in this region since the 19th Century, which has resulted in a large process of academic production, [...] and economic and governmental commitment. It is also a model of collective work, in which several cities and countries cooperate. The main question of this research is if, in this context, a knowledge management model really exists, and which would be the conditions of its existence. Particularly, the analysis focuses on the Nonaka's model called ''Ba'' (situated knowledge), which studies the tacit and explicit knowledge conversion process in the research laboratories, and if they work like communities of practice. The data that support this study were gathered from interviews, principal component analysis, field observations, and case study analysis.

  6. Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge management is an evolving subject area based on two notions: - That knowledge is a fundamental aspect of effective organizational performance; - That specific steps need to be actively taken to promote knowledge creation and use. Two common approaches to knowledge management that are often used in combination include: - Knowledge management focused on the capture of explicit knowledge and sharing this via technology; - Knowledge management focused on managing tacit knowledge without necessarily making it explicit, and creating new knowledge as well as sharing existing knowledge. In the context of human resources development, knowledge management is strongly tied to strategy and is activity oriented. Properly applied knowledge management improves organizational efficiency and productivity through reducing process times, introducing technology to assist finding relevant information and instituting techniques to remedy poor quality outputs. Knowledge management also promotes innovations, which can result from initiatives such as developing social networks for knowledge exchange, providing leadership to encourage risk taking and capturing the lessons learned from past activities. Both of these benefits require openness to change and a drive for continual improvement. Other benefits of knowledge management include improved decision making, retaining organizational memory and organizational learning, as well as improving morale. Knowledge management can be used on its own or in collaboration with other management disciplines and tools to establish an environment that will enable the organization to realize these benefits. Summarizing the effective management of nuclear knowledge includes ensuring the continued availability of qualified personnel. As the nuclear workforce ages and retires, and with support uncertain for university programmes in nuclear science and engineering, this issue has become critical to ensuring safety and security, encouraging innovation and making certain that the benefits of nuclear energy related to different applications including electricity supply remain available for future generations

  7. Healthy radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent study of health records of the workforce at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), has shown that radiation workers have lower mortality rates from all causes and from all cancers than the general population. The Lucas Heights data cover more than 7000 past and present employees, from 1957-1998. This study was part of a research programme being carried out in conjunction with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in France and its results add to the much larger pool of data already held by IARC. This finding of the Australian study is similar to the findings of epidemiological studies of the health of workers who have been exposed to low levels of ionising radiation in the course of their occupations elsewhere in the world, and has often been explained as the healthy worker effect. According to this argument, it is reasonable to expect that any group of workers should be more healthy than an average group (with the same age and sex distribution) from the general population. After all, they must at least be healthy enough to get out of bed regularly and go to work. The purpose of the present paper is to ask whether this is the whole story

  8. - Construction Workers’ Satisfaction with Work Provision Requirement Dimensions in Ghana’s Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humphrey Danso

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper, sought to empirically assess and analyze workers’ satisfaction with different dimensions of work provision requirement of the construction industry in Ghana. It involved a cross-sectional survey that used a self-administered structured questionnaire administered to five hundred respondents of building construction workers. The findings indicate that though workers are satisfied with some work provision requirement dimension items significantly, most of the workers are very dissatisfied with working environment and work benefit of the work provision requirement in Ghana. The management of construction firms in Ghana and policy makers are called upon to focus and redirect attention and effort to ensuring that work provision requirement that workers are dissatisfied with are improved significantly to meet workers expectations. The paper contributes to the general body of knowledge in the area of workers’ satisfaction in developing countries particularly in Ghana’s construction industry. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

  9. Knowledge Management of E-Government in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Tamara Almarabeh

    2011-01-01

    nowadays, knowledge management is considered an essential part of any organization to prepare and develop its vision for the future. Knowledge management allows better utilization of the organization expertise, resources, and bright ideas. The science of knowledge management started when the technology revolution reached every organization. The ease and availability of information, major advancements in communication technologies, the emergence of knowledge worker, and the knowledge economy a...

  10. Older Workers. Myths and Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    An increasing proportion of the work force is aging at the same time that the workplace is changing in ways that are detrimental to older workers. Attitudes and beliefs about older workers appear to be ambivalent. Studies show that employers and managers stereotype older workers as loyal and possessing good work habits but inflexible and difficult…

  11. Molting in workers of the Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Ashok; Park, Yong Ihl; Gelman, Dale

    2008-01-01

    The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus, with its huge colonies, is a major urban pest in several southern states and Hawaii as well as in South Asia. Because of their cryptic nature (underground habitat) and very long life cycle, not much is known about molting in termite workers. In C. formosanus, the workers stop foraging and lose their gut fauna, respectively, approximately 10 and 5 days prior to ecdysis. In any given colony an average of 1.01% (range 0.6-1.8) of the workers were found to molt each day under laboratory conditions. Workers destined to molt become sluggish and their head capsules develop a mottled texture one day prior to ecdysis. Ecdysis was generally accomplished with the assistance of other workers, which also fed on the exuviae. Immediately after molting worker mandibles were light pink in color and became fully melanized approximately two days later. Gut fauna were acquired on the fourth day after molting. Flagellates were transferred as small encysted cells from other workers through proctodeal feeding. Juvenile hormone III titer ranged between 30-41 pg/mg bodyweight in all stages except in workers sampled 6 days prior to ecdysis. In these workers the titer was 80.5 pg/mg. The high juvenile hormones (JH) titer may also be involved in causing defaunation. Ecdysteroid titer increased from 2.1 pg/mg in non-molting workers to 359.5 and 332.4 pg/mg one and two days following defaunation, respectively. There was a second smaller peak two days prior to ecdysis. PMID:17904575

  12. Project-Based Learning and the Limits of Corporate Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Carl; Garrick, John

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of management discourses, especially project-based learning and knowledge management, indicates that such terms as human capital, working knowledge, and knowledge assets construe managerial workers as cogito-economic subjects. Although workplace learning should develop economically related capabilities, such discourses imply that these…

  13. KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2007-01-01

    In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed an...

  14. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge– including research-based knowledge – do practicing architects make use of when designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners found their primary support in context-dependent knowledge, whereas context-independent knowledge was criticised as being too prescriptive. Further, they tended to ask for assistance from the researcher in person rather than reading research publications. The findings challenge research in two ways – first to produce context-dependent knowledge to structure the first steps of the design process, second to develop new ways to ensure a knowledge flow between research and practice.

  15. Instrumentation for the individual dosimetry of workers

    CERN Document Server

    Thévenin, J C

    2003-01-01

    The control of the radiation dose exposure of workers and personnel exposed to ionizing radiations (nuclear industry, nuclear medicine, army, university laboratories etc..) is ensured by individual dosemeters. This dosimetry is mandatory for all workers susceptible to be exposed to more than 30% of the regulatory dose limit. dosemeters are worn on the chest and in some particular cases, on the finger (dosemeter rings) or on the wrist. Passive dosemeters allow to measure the dose a posteriori, while electronic dosemeters allow a direct reading and recording of the dose. This article presents successively: 1 - the general principles of individual dosimetry: situations of exposure, radiation detection, operational data, standardization, calibration and quality assurance, measurement uncertainties; 2 - goals and regulatory framework of individual dosimetry: regulation and recommendations, optimization, respect of dose limits, accidental situations; 3 - passive dosemeters: film, thermoluminescent, radio-photolumin...

  16. Workers of Acromyrmex echinatior leafcutter ants police worker-laid eggs, but not reproductive workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkstra, M.B.; van Zweden, J.S.; Dirchsen, M.; Boomsma, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Nonreproductive workers of many eusocial Hymenoptera 'police' the colony, that is, they attack reproductive sister workers or destroy their eggs (unfertilized; developing into haploid males). Several ultimate causes of policing have been proposed, including (1) an increase in colony productivity, applicable if reproductive workers work less, or (2) an increase in worker-to-male relatedness, applicable if within-colony relatedness is low. To explain the distribution of policing across taxa, the e...

  17. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  18. Haiti. Educating factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, H

    1990-04-01

    There are approximately 50,000 workers employed in the light assembly industry in Haiti. About 70% are women, the majority of whom are aged between 25 and 34 years, and are either single or in a nonpermanent relationship with the father of their children. Many live and work in appalling conditions, surviving on very low wages to support several children and an extended family. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is now a visible problem in many factories. In October 1988, the Center for the Promotion of Women Workers (Centre de Promotion des Femmes Ouvriers/CPFO) launched a pilot AIDS education program for factory women. The Center, based in a large industrial zone near the airport, runs a health clinic and courses in literacy, communications skills, health promotion and family planning. The new AIDS program allowed CPFO staff to gain entry into factories for the 1st time. Other courses were held outside working hours and outside factory premises. Staff contacted manages by telephone to arrange a meeting to discuss AIDS and to ask permission to hold educational "round tables" with workers. Of 18 managers in the factories approached over a 12-month period, only 2 refused entry to CPFO staff. Almost all managers reported they had registered between 2 and 5 deaths from AIDS among their employees over the past couple of years. A total of 85 educational sessions, each lasting about 2 hours, were held within 28 different factories, community or labor organizations reaching 3063 workers (male and female). In each session, the presentation was carried out by 2 CPFO trained monitors and included a slide show, flip charts, and the video "Met ko," originally produced for Haitian immigrants in New York. The most important aspect of the program was the training of 38 volunteer factory-based health promoters. These promoters attended the round table sessions, where they facilitated discussion and distributed condoms and were subsequently available for counseling co-workers. Initially, the Center intended to recruit only literate women as promoters, but several nonliterate women were selected for training by labor organizations 18 hours of tuition and discussion of AIDS/human immunodeficiency virus were held over 2 1/2 weeks, including sessions on group dynamics and organizational skills. To improve communications skills, sessions included role play exercises which were videotaped and played back to trainees. Training in communication skills also helps promoters participate in activities aimed at supporting a broader range of workers' rights. PMID:12342836

  19. Acquisition IT Integration : The Roles of Temporary Agency Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Øhrgaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The IT integration of acquisitions consists an important challenge for the many acquiring organizations. Complementing existing research, this paper searches for explanation to differences in acquirers’ abilities for acquisition IT integration in the external of the acquirer, by a study of the use of temporary agency workers. Following an analytic induction approach, theoretically grounded in the re-source-based view of the firm, we identify the complimentary and supplementary roles consultants can assume in acquisition IT integration. Through case studies of three acquirers, we investigate how the acquirers appropriate the use of agency workers as part of its acquisition strategy. For the investigated acquirers, assigning roles to agency workers is contingent on balancing the needs of knowledge induction and knowledge retention, as well as experience richness and in-depth under-standing. Composition of the acquisition IT integration team should consider the balance of these, in practice, commonly mutually excluding needs.

  20. Pediculose nos centros de educação infantil: conhecimentos e práticas dos trabalhadores / Pediculosis in children attending day care centers: knowledge and practice of workers / Infestión de piojos en los centros de educación infantil: conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Flávia Lopes, Gabani; Clarice Martins Lima, Maebara; Rosângela Aparecida Pimenta, Ferrari.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou identificar e analisar conhecimentos e práticas, acerca da pediculose, dos trabalhadores de Centros de Educação Infantil (CEI) das áreas de abrangência de duas Unidades de Saúde da Família, Londrina, Paraná. Trata-se de estudo descritivo transversal. Foi aplicado formulário c [...] om questões sobre mitos, tabus, práticas, dúvidas e dificuldades na interrupção da infestação da pediculose em oito CEI. Posteriormente, realizou-se oficina com materiais educativos. Participaram 60,4% dos funcionários, aqueles que estavam presentes no dia determinado pela instituição. Quase a totalidade referiu infestação pela ectoparasitose, assim como em seus familiares. A problemática é enfrentada cotidianamente nos CEI (72,1%). Práticas adequadas de enfrentamento ainda são limitadas. Muitos mitos e tabus persistem (piolhos pulam, uso de sal, vinagre e querosene, etc.). As principais dúvidas estão relacionadas ao tratamento, e a maior dificuldade é a falta de colaboração dos pais. Ressalta-se, enfim, necessidade e importância de ações intersetoriais, preventivas e sistemáticas, no ambiente escolar. Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar y analizar los conocimientos y prácticas acerca de la pediculosis que tienen los empleados de los Centros de Educación Infantil (CEI), de las áreas que abarcan dos unidades de Salud de la Familia, Londrina, Paraná. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo transv [...] ersal. Se aplicó un formulario con preguntas acerca de mitos y tabúes, prácticas, dudas y dificultades para poner fin a la infestación de piojos en ocho CEI. Posteriormente, se realizó un taller con materiales educativos. Participó el 60,4% de los empleados, los que estaban presentes en el día determinado por la institución. Casi todos reportaron la infestación parasitaria, así como en sus familias. El problema es enfrentado diariamente en los CEI (72,1%). Prácticas adecuadas para hacer frente as este problema aún son limitadas. Persisten muchos mitos y tabúes (que los piojos saltan, el uso de la sal, del vinagre y de la parafina, etc.) Las principales dudas se relacionan con el tratamiento y la mayor dificultad que se presenta es la falta de cooperación de los padres. Por último, cabe señalar la necesidad y la importancia de que se implementen acciones intersectoriales, preventivas y sistemáticas en el ambiente escolar. Abstract in english This study aimed to identify and analyze knowledge and practices, about pediculosis, from employees at Child Day Care Centers at two areas of coverage of the Family Health Units, Londrina, Paraná. It's descriptive transversal study. Form was applied with questions about myths, taboos, practices, dou [...] bts and difficulties in stopping the infestation of pediculosis in eight Child Day Care Centers. Subsequently, workshop was held with educational materials. 60.4% of employees participated, those who were present on the day determined by the institution. Almost all indicated the ectoparasitic infestation, as well as their families. The problem is faced daily in Child Day Care Centers (72.1%). Practice appropriate care is still limited. Many myths and taboos persist (lice jump, use salt, vinegar and kerosene, etc). The main questions are related to treatment and the greatest difficulty is the lack of cooperation from parents. It emphasizes, finally, the need and the importance of internal actions, preventive and systematic in the school environment.

  1. A theoretical foundation for building Knowledge-work Support Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Laha, Arijit

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel approach aimed at building a new class of information system platforms which we call the "Knowledge-work Support Systems" or KwSS. KwSS can play a significant role in enhancing the IS support for knowledge management processes, including those customarily identified as less amenable to IS support. In our approach we try to enhance basic functionalities provided by the computer-based information systems, namely, that of improving the efficiency of the knowledge workers in accessing, processing and creating useful information. The improvement, along with proper focus on cultural, social and other aspects of the knowledge management processes, can enhance the workers' efficiency significantly in performing high quality knowledge works. In order to build the proposed approach, we develop several new concepts. The approach analyzes the information availability and usage from the knowledge workers and their works' perspectives and consequently brings forth more transparency in vario...

  2. Advanced Worker Protection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs

  3. Os trabalhadores do conhecimento num setor tradicional: o caso dos designers do vestuário / Les travailleurs de la connaissance dans un secteur traditionnel: le cas des designers de vêtements / Knowledge workers in a traditional sector: the case of clothes designers / Los trabajadores del conocimiento en un sector tradicional: el caso de los diseñadores de vestuario

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Margarida Ramires, Paulos; António Brandão, Moniz.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A reestruturação do trabalho no setor da indústria, resultante do desenvolvimento da “sociedade do conhecimento”, provocou importantes mudanças nas organizações e nos seus trabalhadores. Um dos principais setores que tem vindo a sofrer alterações bruscas nos últimos anos é o da indústria transformad [...] ora. O subsetor do vestuário foi dos primeiros a utilizar diferentes formas de flexibilidade com o objetivo de se manter competitivo. Este artigo analisa este processo de mudança e os seus efeitos nas “profissões do conhecimento” na indústria, nomeadamente a sua aplicação ao grupo profissional dos designers do vestuário. Para compreender o impacto da reestruturação do trabalho no grupo estudado analisam-se as mudanças que ocorreram nas suas condições de trabalho, qualificações e competências, uso do conhecimento, identidade profissional e trajetórias de carreira. Abstract in spanish La reestructuración del trabajo en el sector de la industria, resultante del desarrollo de la “sociedad del conocimiento”, provocó importantes cambios en las organizaciones y en sus trabajadores. Uno de los principales sectores que han sufrido alteraciones bruscas en los últimos años es el de la ind [...] ustria transformadora. El subsector de vestuario, fue de los primeros en utilizar diferentes formas de flexibilidad con el objetivo de mantenerse competitivo. Éste artículo analiza este proceso de cambio y sus efectos en las “profesiones del conocimiento” en la industria, particularmente a su aplicación al grupo profesional de los diseñadores de vestuario. Para comprender el impacto de la reestructuración del trabajo en el grupo estudiado analizaremos los cambios que ocurrieron en sus condiciones de trabajo, grados de estudio y competencias, uso del conocimiento, identidad profesional y trayectorias de carrera. Abstract in english The restructuring of work in the industrial sector brought about by the development of the “knowledge society” has led important changes in organisations and their workers. The transforming industry is one of the main sectors that have undergone abrupt changes in the last few years. The clothing sub [...] sector was one of the first to use different forms of flexibility in order to remain competitive. This article analyses this change process and its effects on the industry's “knowledge professions”, particularly in terms of its application to the professional group “clothes designers”. In order to understand the impact that the restructuring of their work has had on this group, the authors analyse the changes that have taken place in their working conditions, qualifications and skills, use of knowledge, professional identity and career trajectories.

  4. Interviewing media workers

    OpenAIRE

    Heike Graf

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, ...

  5. Worker Flows in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Grogan, Louise

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates worker flows in Russia. Information onelapsed durationsof job tenure from the 1994-1996 Russian Longitudinal MonitoringSurvey (RLMS)and fromretrospective work history responses to the Institute for LaborRelationsResearch (ISITO) 1998 household survey is used. Competing risksmodels fordurations of job tenure with multiple destination states areestimated. Patternsof transitions between sectors and to non-employment are identifiedfordifferent demographic groups. Rates of ...

  6. Integrating The Non-Electrical Worker Into The Electrical Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, T. David; McAlhaney, John H.

    2012-08-17

    The intent of this paper is to demonstrate an electrical safety program that incorporates all workers into the program, not just the electrical workers. It is largely in response to a paper presented at the 2012 ESW by Lanny Floyd entitled "Facilitating Application of Electrical Safety Best Practices to "Other" Workers" which requested all attendees to review their electrical safety program to assure that non-electrical workers were protected as well as electrical workers. The referenced paper indicated that roughly 50% of electrical incidents involve workers whose primary function is not electrical in nature. It also encouraged all to "address electrical safety for all workers and not just workers whose job responsibilities involve working on or near energized electrical circuits." In this paper, a program which includes specific briefings to non-electrical workers as well as to workers who may need to perform their normal activities in proximity to energized electrical conductors is presented. The program uses a targeted approach to specific areas such as welding, excavating, rigging, chart reading, switching, cord and plug equipment and several other general areas to point out hazards that may exist and how to avoid them. NFPA 70E-2004 was incorporated into the program several years ago and with it the need to include the "other" workers became apparent. The site experience over the years supports the assertion that about half of the electrical incidents involve non-electrical workers and this prompted us to develop specific briefings to enhance the knowledge of the non-electrical worker regarding safe electrical practices. The promotion of "May is Electrical Safety Month" and the development of informative presentations which are delivered to the general site population as well as electrical workers have greatly improved the hazards awareness status of the general worker on site.

  7. Rehumanising Knowledge Work through Fluctuating Support Networks: A grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A. Holton, Ph.D.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Through the basic social structural process of fluctuating support networks, knowledge workers self-organise to overcome the dehumanising impact of a rapidly changing workplace context. Such networks operate outside the formal organisation. They are epiphenomenal – self-emerging, self-organising, and selfsustaining. Participation is voluntary and intuitive. The growth of fluctuating support networks facilitates a rehumanising process which serves to counterbalance the dehumanisation that knowledge workers experience in the face of persistent and unpredictable change.

  8. Healthy worker effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In his letter published in the previous issue of the Journal (pages 71-2), Barrie Skelcher recognises the fact that radiation workers are not a true cross section of the general population because they are selected, and that they have to pass a medical examination. He then infers, despite his own experience of staff recruitment, that it is the medical examination that is responsible 'for weeding out those unfortunate enough to die of cancer in the coming decades'. Typically, the reject percentage from pre-medicals is between 1% and 5%. Thus, in a statistical sense, rejection on medical grounds is unusual, and this concurs with the experience of Barrie Skelcher. One would be rightly sceptical that this in itself could be the explanation for the 'healthy worker effect' so often cited. Though Barrie Skelcher mentions selection he does not consider this aspect further. Three different aspects of the selection process may be considered: (i) self-selection by the employee to apply for work; (ii) employer selection of those that apply; and (iii) selection out of work. An individual will apply for a job that he or she is physically capable of pursuing. As William Ogle observed in 1885, 'Some occupations may repel, while others attract, the unfit at the age of starting work.' Radiation work may repel the unfit; those that apply to work in this industry are self-selected fit. The employer then selects from this self-selected pool of potential recruits. This selection process includes the pre-medical. However, as the pool of recruits are already self-selected fit, the reject percentage is small. Having been selected into the workforce, there is then a selection process that removes people from the workforce. Whilst in employment, the occupational health departments monitor the employees' health. If an individual's health has deteriorated then 'those occupations that attract the unfit' may appear attractive. Others may take ill-health retirement. Workers that remain in employment tend to be healthier than those that leave. The occupational health departments also promote healthy lifestyles. The reduction in the number of cancers and heart diseases may also be a consequence of the effective promotion of these healthy lifestyles (such as encouraging smokers to refrain) to those in employment. In summary, the pre-medical has only a minor effect and the other components of the selection process dominate the 'healthy worker effect'. Assuming that employees are not exposed to health hazards in their working environment then, whilst employees are in employment, they benefit health-wise from employment and this further reinforces the 'healthy worker effect'. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  9. Knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of co...

  10. Etiological explanation, treatability and preventability of childhood autism: a survey of Nigerian healthcare workers' opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonkwo Kevin O

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their peculiar sociocultural background, healthcare workers in sub-Saharan African subcultures may have various conceptions on different aspects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD, such as etiology, treatment and issues of prognosis. These various conceptions, if different from current knowledge in literature about ASD, may negatively influence help-seeking behavior of parents of children with ASD who seek advice and information from the healthcare workers. This study assessed the opinions of healthcare workers in Nigeria on aspects of etiology, treatability and preventability of childhood autism, and relates their opinions to the sociodemographic variables. Methods Healthcare workers working in four tertiary healthcare facilities located in the south-east and south-south regions of Nigeria were interviewed with a sociodemographic questionnaire, personal opinion on etiology, treatability and preventability of childhood autism (POETPCA questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire to assess their knowledge and opinions on various aspects of childhood autism. Results A total of 134 healthcare workers participated in the study. In all, 78 (58.2%, 19 (14.2% and 36 (26.9% of the healthcare workers were of the opinion that the etiology of childhood autism can be explained by natural, preternatural and supernatural causes, respectively. One (0.7% of the healthcare workers was unsure of the explanation of the etiology. Knowledge about childhood autism as measured by scores on the KCAHW questionnaire was the only factor significantly associated with the opinions of the healthcare workers on etiology of childhood autism. In all, 73 (54.5% and 43 (32.1%, of the healthcare workers subscribed to the opinion that childhood autism is treatable and preventable respectively. Previous involvement with managing children with ASD significantly influenced the opinion of the healthcare workers in subscribing to treatability of childhood autism, while working experience of less than 6 years among the healthcare workers significantly influenced the opinion of the healthcare workers in admitting to believing in the preventability of childhood autism. Conclusion In designing policies and programs to change negative opinions or beliefs of healthcare workers about childhood autism, there is a need for baseline information such as this survey. Changing the negative opinions or beliefs of the healthcare workers about childhood autism should encourage appropriate help-seeking behavior among parents of children with ASD who may be seeking advice or information from the healthcare workers. This would encourage early interventions, which are essential to prognosis of childhood autism.

  11. Radiological protection of the worker in medicine and dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first three sections of this report concern general understanding of radiation protection, basic concepts for all workers, and practical problems common to all users of radiation in medicine and dentistry. The remaining sections cover specialist topics covering practical aspects in diagnostic radiology, dental radiography, the use of unsealed radionuclides (in the laboratory, diagnostic and therapeutic uses) balneotherapy, brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Radiological protection of the worker in medicine and dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The first three sections of this report concern general understanding of radiation protection, basic concepts for all workers, and practical problems common to all users of radiation in medicine and dentistry. The remaining sections cover specialist topics covering practical aspects in diagnostic radiology, dental radiography, the use of unsealed radionuclides (in the laboratory, diagnostic and therapeutic uses) balneotherapy, brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy. (author).

  13. Knowledge and Attitudes toward Sexuality in Adolescents and Their Association with the Family and Other Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Franco, Raquel; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studies family structure and function and their association with knowledge and attitudes toward sexuality, contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in student and adolescent factory workers. Finds female workers at higher risk for unwanted pregnancies and STDs. Factors associated with knowledge and attitudes included age, schooling…

  14. Hazards to worker’s health: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgana Fernanda Soares

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Worker’s Health, a new field in Public Health, requires professionals capable of dealing with the hazards workers are exposed to in their environment. These professionals in the health area, mainly nurses, need to understand the meaning of the concept of hazard to the worker’s health. An interdisciplinary work with the workers may effectively change the work and health conditions of the Brazilian people. Therefore, this paper aims at providing better understanding of the concept of hazard to the worker’s health for professionals in health, mainly for nurses. This is done through a literature review based on all journals on health published in the Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO Brazil and some books whose authors approach the theme hazard. A hazard is something uncertain, a possibility, a socio-historical construct, thus, it is fundamental that professionals in health, including nurses, know what a hazard to workers’ health is and how it can be minimized.

  15. Rethinking Laboratory Notebooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Zander, Pär-Ola

    2010-01-01

    We take digitalization of laboratory work practice as a challenging design domain to explore. There are obvious drawbacks with the use of paper instead of ICT in the collaborative writing that takes place in laboratory notebooks; yet paper persist in being the most common solution. The ultimate aim with our study is to produce design relevant knowledge that can envisage an ICT solution that keeps as many advantages of paper as possible, but with the strength of electronic laboratory notebooks as...

  16. [Effect of cross current due to worker's arm movement on local exhaust ventilation hood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Jun

    2005-09-01

    The effect of cross drafts caused by a worker's arm movements on the capture efficiency of a local exhaust ventilation hood was examined in a laboratory. The performance of the local exhaust hoods (rectangular type and slot type) and the transportation of gaseous contaminants from an emission source to the breathing zone were studied by means of the tracer gas method. Acetone vapor was used as a tracer gas. The worker's arm movement was simulated by a dummy worker and a moving forearm model. The results suggest that a worker's arm movements disturb the exhaustion efficiency and may lead to exposure or leakage from a hood according to exhaust velocity. PMID:16180514

  17. Construction Site Workers’ Awareness on Using Safety Equipment: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulang N. Md

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction sector is an important sector and contributed significantly to national development. However, this sector poses higher risk to accident. This is due to fact that construction site can be considered as a dangerous zone to workers and to the public. Due to the variety of cases occurs on site, the contractor will usually have to pay the cost related to accidents in the form of higher insurance premium. Despite various measures, accidents still occur at construction sites. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE is one of the important means to protect the wearer from hazards in the workplace. Since this equipment is the last frontier of the wearer from worksite hazards, it is important to select it based on the job scope and the intended protection. Therefore, this study was formulated to find out the level of knowledge and awareness of construction workers on PPE usage. It was also important to know what make the workers would want or do not want to use the PPE. It was found in this study that the level of awareness and knowledge among workers on the proper use of PPE is moderate. Construction sites accident can be further be reduced with proper implementation of PPE voluntarily by all workers.

  18. Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) is the process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual and knowledge-based assets. Frequently generating value from such assets means sharing them among employees, divisions and even with other companies in order to develop best practices. This article discusses three basic aspects of…

  19. Conventionalized knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Mental health nurses routinely hand over clinical knowledge at intershift reports. In the present study, field descriptions from prolonged fieldwork and transcripts of audio recordings of handovers were analysed discursively drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. The analysis identified linguistic and social conventions for handing over clinical knowledge; in particular, differences were identified between non-interactional and interactional handovers. The interactional handovers...

  20. Solid knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been referred to as ‘silent knowledge’.

  1. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowl...

  2. DOMESTIC WORKERS: A SOCIALOGICAL INQUIRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj Badiger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A domestic worker is a person who works within the employer's household. Domestic workers perform a variety of household services for an individual or a family, from providing care for children and elderly dependents to cleaning and household maintenance, known as housekeeping. Responsibilities may also include cooking, doing laundry and ironing, food shopping and other household errands. Some domestic workers live within the household where they work. In the course of twentieth-century movements for labour rights, women's rights and immigrant rights, the conditions faced by domestic workers and the problems specific to their class of employment have come to the fore. In 2011, the International Labour Organization adopted the Convention Concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers which covers decent work conditions for domestic workers.

  3. Statistical Analysis of the Worker Engagement Survey Administered at the Worker Safety and Security Team Festival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Adam Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-25

    The Worker Safety and Security Team (WSST) at Los Alamos National Laboratory holds an annual festival, WSST-fest, to engage workers and inform them about safety- and securityrelated matters. As part of the 2015 WSST-fest, workers were given the opportunity to participate in a survey assessing their engagement in their organizations and work environments. A total of 789 workers participated in the 23-question survey where they were also invited, optionally, to identify themselves, their organization, and to give open-ended feedback. The survey consisted of 23 positive statements (i.e. “My organization is a good place to work.”) with which the respondent could express a level of agreement. The text of these statements are provided in Table 1. The level of agreement corresponds to a 5-level Likert scale ranging from “Strongly Disagree” to “Strongly Agree.” In addition to assessing the overall positivity or negativity of the scores, the results were partitioned into several cohorts based on the response meta-data (self-identification, comments, etc.) to explore trends. Survey respondents were presented with the options to identify themselves, their organizations and to provide comments. These options suggested the following questions about the data set.

  4. Mathematical knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Leng, Mary; Potter, Michael

    2007-01-01

    What is the nature of mathematical knowledge? Is it anything like scientific knowledge or is it sui generis? How do we acquire it? Should we believe what mathematicians themselves tell us about it? Are mathematical concepts innate or acquired? Eight new essays offer answers to these and many other questions. - ;What is the nature of mathematical knowledge? Is it anything like scientific knowledge or is it sui generis? How do we acquire it? Should we believe what mathematicians themselves tell us about it? Are mathematical concepts innate or acquired? Eight new essays offer answers to these and many other questions. Written by some of the world''s leading philosophers of mathematics, psychologists, and mathematicians, Mathematical Knowledge gives a lively sense of the. current state of debate in this fascinating field. -

  5. Metabolic disturbances in shift workers

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Berndt

    2004-01-01

    An increased risk for coronary heart disease among shift workers is earlier shown in the epidemiological literature. The aim of this thesis has been to penetrate metabolic disturbances and obesity among shift workers compared to day workers, and to compare if there are differences in total mortality or cause specific mortality of coronary heart disease (CHD), diabetes or ischaemic stroke in between the two groups. In an intervention study on female nurses (N=11), on night schedules in Umeå ho...

  6. Workforce reorganization and the worker

    OpenAIRE

    Kriechel, Ben; Pfann, Gerard A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the joint decision process of changing the structure of jobs and laying off individual workers in a firm that downsizes its workforce. A hierarchical decision model is proposed and estimated using personnel data from a firm in demise comparing the characteristics of the individual workers and the structure of the firm's labour force before and after its reorganization. Our results show that workers in jobs in the top levels of each skill group's hierarchy are better pro...

  7. Are transition economy workers underpaid?

    OpenAIRE

    Adamchik, Vera A.; Brada, Josef C.; King, Arthur E.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the extent to which workers in transition and developed market economies are able to obtain wages that fully reflect their skills and labor force characteristics. We find that workers in two transition economies, the Czech Republic and Poland, are able to better attain the maximum wage available than are workers in a sample of developed market economies. This greater wage-setting efficiency in the transition economies ap-pears to be more the result of social and demographic charact...

  8. Violence against women migrant workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyanukij, Charnchao

    2004-10-01

    A paper on "Violence against Women Migrant Workers in Thailand" will show the situation of women migrant workers in Thailand, why they have to come to Thailand, what kind of job they do, how they are abused and exploited by employer in many types of violence and how the Thai government manages to solve the problems and assist them. The term or definition of "violence against women-VAW" and "discrimination against women" is provided and based on the definition stated in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Readers will see that violence against women is a form of discrimination committed on a basis of sex. In other words, VAW is a clear violation of women's inherent human rights including the rights to life, liberty, and security of person, equality, equal protection under the law and freedom from all forms of discrimination. More than one hundred thousands of women illegal migrant workers work in Thailand. They come from countries in the Mekong Sub-region namely Myanmar Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and China (Yunnan province). As they come illegally and have low level of education and working skills, they are vulnerable to exploitation, abuse or face violence. In general, they work in small factories, domestic work and restaurant. They are forced begging, forced prostitution or work in a slavery-like condition. Root causes of illegal migration and VAW are interrelated and occur in both sending and receiving countries of migrant workers. Poverty, demand and supply sides of labor, level of education, no knowledge of their own rights, impact of capitalism and gender issues, are mentioned as original factors of migration and VAW. The Thai government has national policy, plan, instrument and measures to cope with in- migration of illegal workers. Not only government agencies are active to solve the problems and assist the women migrant workers, but also non-government and international organizations as well as the UN agencies are working seriously to assist them and protect their rights. PMID:21218599

  9. Radiological worker training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

  10. Radiological worker training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance

  11. Immigrants and Native Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Mette; Peri, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Using a database that includes the universe of individuals and establishments in Denmark over the period 1991-2008 we analyze the effect of a large inflow of non-European (EU) immigrants on Danish workers. We first identify a sharp and sustained supply-driven increase in the inflow of non-EU immigrants in Denmark, beginning in 1995 and driven by a sequence of international events such as the Bosnian, Somalian and Iraqi crises. We then look at the response of occupational complexity, job upgradin...

  12. [Techniques of communication and information-formation of the workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomei, G; Tomei, F; Fiaschetti, M; Fantini, S; Caciari, T; Sancini, A

    2010-01-01

    Communication has always had a very important role among human activities. Communication is: a Source sending a Message to an Addressee within a Context through a Contact thanks to a Code. In 1965 Umberto Eco developed the concept of Aberrant Decoding that is the wrong decoding of the message by the addressee. As to communication D.Lgs81/08 e s.m.i. fixes the following rules. Information of workers (Art. 36/1)--The employer is responsible for the workers to have the right information about risks for health and safety in their specific workplaces, etc. Formation of workers (Art 37/1)--The employer is responsible for the workers to have adequate and proper formation as to health and safety with regard to linguistic knowledge. Therefore it is really important for a Company to establish real communication between management and workers and among workers, to have a frequent feedback and to let information circulate in order to have all safety regulations followed properly. PMID:21086696

  13. Implementation of ANSI 13.36 radiation safety training for workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1999, new standard, ANSI 13.36 'Radiation Safety Training for Workers,' was completed. The standard is unique in that it emphasizes establishing a training program and performance-based training, rather than simply prescribing objectives. The standard includes a comprehensive list of topics to be addressed, as applicable, and also addresses basic criteria, including instructor qualifications. The standard is based on input from a wide array of regulatory agencies, universities, national laboratories, and nuclear power entities. The standard allows for a graded approach to the development and implementation of the training program. The working group that developed the new standard was reluctant to establish a broad program of specific course objectives because of the diversity of radiation workers and because of a concern that knowledge-based training might be misapplied. In conformance with performance-based training, the working group felt that the length of training should not be arbitrarily prescribed, but derived from the training system development and process. Similarly, passing scores should not be arbitrarily established, but based on specified goals and the characteristics of test questions. The standard shall apply to radiation workers likely to receive in a year an occupational whole-body dose in excess of 100 mrem, 2% of any applicable dose limit, or whose dose could be significant if the person did not receive training. 'Likely to receive' includes evaluation of normal and abnormal situations, but not accidents or emergencies. The standard should apply to radiation workers who operate radiation-generating devices or handle radioactive materials whose dose is likely to be less than 100 mrem per year or 2% of any applicable annual dose limit. It should also apply to individuals whose duties may occasionally bring them into areas where radiation exposures could occur and where it is possible that an occupational dose in excess of 100 mrem per year could be received. Such individual might include shipping clerks, secretaries, nurses, or janitors. This presentation addresses the philosophy behind the requirements in the standard and an implementation approach by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that minimizes unnecessary expenditures of time and resources. We developed a matrix to ensure that applicable topics were addressed and to justify the exclusion of topics. Based on the new list, existing courses were evaluated. An informal job evaluation was performed incorporating the requirements of the standard. In addition to radiation safety courses, the overall training program was revised. Exemptions, deferments, and instructor qualifications, as detailed in the standard, were incorporated into the existing training program. The result has been revitalized training program with emphasis on performance. (author)

  14. Tritium and workers in fusion devices-lessons learnt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion machines from all over the world have contributed to the knowledge accumulated in fusion science. This knowledge has been applied to design new experimental fusion machines and in particular ITER. Only two fusion devices based on magnetic confinement have used deuterium and tritium fuels to-date-the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, in Princeton, USA, and JET, the European tokamak. These machines have demonstrated that the fusion reaction is achievable with these fuels, and have provided valuable lessons on radioprotection-related issues as concerns tritium and workers. Dedicated tritium installations for fusion research and development have also contributed to this knowledge base.

  15. Retaining Talent in Knowledge Intensive Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Gerges, David; Sonander, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    Background: Recruitment and development of employees is a large burden for companies in most industries. Because of this, there is a clear organizational imperative to attract and retain knowledge workers since these constitute an important resource, especially for knowledge intensive organizations. A decisive factor for success is thus to retain and develop this vital resource in order to upgrade and sustain competitive advantage. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate what i...

  16. Lover, mother or worker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann

    2005-01-01

    International and national campaigns to prevent HIV/AIDS and efforts to promote reproductive health remain separate in terms of conceptualisation and implementation. Local negotiations around reproductive health issues similarly seem to lack explicit attention to HIV/AIDS. This paper argues that even in reproductive health clinics a gap exists between the extent of knowledge of HIV/AIDS and AIDS talk. There also appears to be a mismatch between collective knowledge of the behavioural and biomedi...

  17. Organizational Knowledge Conversion and Creation Processes in a Chaotic Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei ?tefan NESTIAN

    2013-01-01

    This is an explorative and conceptual paper, based on the analysis and comparison of relevant literature. the purpose of the article is to clarify the differences between knowledge creating processes and knowledge conversion processes, by analysing them when confronted with a chaotic environment. the way the knowledge conversion and creation processes are presented by Ikujiro Nonaka and his co-workers suggests the necessary existence of a Ba in order to generate the spiral of knowledge creati...

  18. Knowledge typology for imprecise probabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G. D. (Gregory D.); Zucker, L. J. (Lauren J.)

    2002-01-01

    When characterizing the reliability of a complex system there are often gaps in the data available for specific subsystems or other factors influencing total system reliability. At Los Alamos National Laboratory we employ ethnographic methods to elicit expert knowledge when traditional data is scarce. Typically, we elicit expert knowledge in probabilistic terms. This paper will explore how we might approach elicitation if methods other than probability (i.e., Dempster-Shafer, or fuzzy sets) prove more useful for quantifying certain types of expert knowledge. Specifically, we will consider if experts have different types of knowledge that may be better characterized in ways other than standard probability theory.

  19. A Comparison of Workers Employed in Hazardous Jobs in Terms of Job Satisfaction, Perceived Job Risk and Stress: Turkish Jean Sandblasting Workers, Dock Workers, Factory Workers and Miners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…

  20. Immigrant workers and worker's compensation: the need for reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Smith, J D

    2012-06-01

    Foreign-born workers in the United States suffer high rates of workplace injuries and accidents. Both for workers who are unauthorized to work in the United States and for those who are present legally under guest worker programs, access to workers' compensation benefits presents nearly insurmountable barriers. Some of these are longstanding, such as employer retaliation and aggressive litigation of claims. Some are more recent and related to the increasingly transnational character of the workforce and to barriers put in place by administrators. This is a legal overview of the cases, statutes, and policies that act as barriers to access for immigrant workers, conducted by reviewing case law and basic compensation statutes in all fifty states. Where these are known, policies that keep workers locked out of workers' compensation are also discussed. It concludes that reform of the system is needed in order to ensure its standing as an insurance program with universal application. As part of that reform, further state by state research and advocacy would discover specific administrative practices in each state that keep immigrant workers from receiving the benefits to which they are entitled. PMID:22457221

  1. The First Identification of Encephalitozoon cuniculi Infection in an Animal Care Worker in Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Carhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As a zoonotic pathogen, Encephalitozoon cuniculi is a cause of serious disease in animals and people. The present study was to evaluate the health status examination of this seropositive animal care worker in our previous study.Blood samples were taken from five workers. CIA test was applied to detect antibodies against E. cuniculi in blood serum. The indirect immunofluorescence antibody test was used as confirmation test. Seropositive worker had a complete medical examination.Only one worker was found to be seropositive according to the results of the serological test. Sera positive to E. cuniculi was confirmed with IFAT and spores were detected in the urine sample of the worker. The worker was treated with albendazole.Rabbits should be examined routinely for the presence of anti-E. cuniculi antibody. People working with laboratory animal should avoid contact with urine and faeces of infected or pay attention to personal hygiene.

  2. Influence of Intangible Motivation Factors on Workers’ Labour Behavior Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hruzina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an opinion that Ukrainian workers can be motivated only by money, therefore, money is the most important motivation. However more theorists and practical workers in the sphere of personnel management including V. Sladkevych, E. Utkin, Yu. Domin and others do not agree with this statement, but there are often such situations, when quite high payment level and use of various financial factors practically do not influence on the labour intensity of workers.The reason of dependence decline between a financial reward and labour intensity consists in that the workers differ widely from their attitude and perception of the mentioned type of stimuli. It is marked, that with the growth of financial prosperity, age and education the value of money is diminishing among the motivating factors. Another argument in favour of intangible motivation consists in that many existing necessities of people are met exactly by intangible stimuli. Nowadays in accordance with the specialists’ estimations, the number of workers who prefer the intangible motivation is constantly growing. The response to changes in the structure of reasons lead to the appearance of numerous modern concepts which emphasize the necessity of application of new approaches which increase the social and production activity of workers. To these concepts specialists ascribe the theories of labour life quality, enrichment of labour content, labour humanization, participation of workers.The career planning is considered by many authors as the important factor of motivation. The promotion and knowledge of your growth prospects is a necessity which people aim to meet in the process of labour activity. The feeling of dependence between the level of work efficiency and promotion contributes to the labour activity of workers.

  3. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify the design, OSS was able to develop and successfully test, in both the lab and in the field, a prototype AWPS. They clearly demonstrated that a system which provides cooling can significantly increase worker productivity by extending the time they can function in a protective garment. They were also able to develop mature outer garment and LCG designs that provide considerable benefits over current protective equipment, such as self donning and doffing, better visibility, and machine washable. A thorough discussion of the activities performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 is presented in the AWPS Final Report. The report also describes the current system design, outlines the steps needed to certify the AWPS, discusses the technical and programmatic issues that prevented the system from being certified, and presents conclusions and recommendations based upon the seven year effort

  4. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify the design, OSS was able to develop and successfully test, in both the lab and in the field, a prototype AWPS. They clearly demonstrated that a system which provides cooling can significantly increase worker productivity by extending the time they can function in a protective garment. They were also able to develop mature outer garment and LCG designs that provide considerable benefits over current protective equipment, such as self donning and doffing, better visibility, and machine washable. A thorough discussion of the activities performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 is presented in the AWPS Final Report. The report also describes the current system design, outlines the steps needed to certify the AWPS, discusses the technical and programmatic issues that prevented the system from being certified, and presents conclusions and recommendations based upon the seven year effort.

  5. Views of the workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: I hope that it is not symptomatic of the radiological protection business that I am making a last minute unscheduled intervention of behalf of the workers. I wonder too whether the Conference should consider the fact that there are no facilities for organized labour or indeed the public to comment during the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) consultation process regarding its recommendations. I have just a few points to make. As a non-scientific participant I can see that we have available accurate dosimetry which can be applied everywhere. This is a most important point. But a problem for the Conference is the different position of developed and developing countries and I would say straight away that I could not accept lower national standards of radiological protection simply to allow that State to catch up economically. We have heard a lot during the Conference about the application of ALARA. Perhaps I could introduce something different, that standards should be 'AHARA' - as high as reasonably achievable. There is no point, however, in imposing criteria that will be ignored, so there may have to be a period of optimization between developing and developed countries. There is every evidence to show that we are here at this Conference to help each other and this may provide an example. But I did not see the causation probability calculations yesterday distinguishing between developing and non-developed countries in relation to the effect of dosages on the human being. Those same calculations also made no distinction between human-made and what I have come to recognize this week as NORM radiation exposure, so it follows again that the worker in a western State's nuclear power plant should have the same standards as underground workers in other countries. This is just an example but at least the same philosophy driving those standards should be applied. No one will argue against the protection of the unborn child and I am not sure that we have a complete answer to this - providing equal opportunities and at the same time ensuring that there is no harm even before a pregnancy is noticed let alone reported. I think more work is needed on this particular subject. I liked the comment made earlier this week that few managers - or even chief executives - expect to receive a radiation dose in their office. I don't think anything was intended here by my scientific colleague but the need to consult, listen and take note of the radiation worker should be obvious. If it is not, then it should be written into the regulatory procedure as being necessary. After all, for each pair of hands engaged by an employer or an operator there is a free brain as well. If the intention is to 'simplify' and to 'unify' the present system of ICRP recommendations and to 'focus on real problems' we can finish here today satisfied only if the situation of the worker, worldwide, in coal mine, nuclear plant, hospital, or wherever, is such that they leave their family at home and go to work and return to them safely day after day after day and without harm whatsoever. If that then needs major changes to the ICRP recommendations then so be it. (author)

  6. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in workers at a university hospital: colonization and beliefs in health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Drehmer de Almeida Cruz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The carrier state of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is pointed as infection predictor among hospitalized patients, and factor for environmental and person to person dissemination, including health service workers, when colonized are commonly associate to outbreaks1. Prevention of professional colonization risk is associated to behavior and dependent of knowledge and beliefs in health. Objective: analyze the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva of workers of the nursing, medical, physiotherapist, occupational therapist and cleaning teams, at a big university hospital. Method: epidemiologic longitudinal study carried out with 486 workers between April 2006 and June 2008, three saliva samples were collected and a data collection instrument with open and closed questions was applied. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the clinical specimen and characterized by phenotypes; the methicillin-resistant were submitted to mecA gene detection and SCCmec chromosome cassette identification. Quantitative data from the instrument and the laboratory results were organized and processed with EPI-Info software and analyzed by descriptive statistics. Data from the open questions were submitted to quantitative discourse analysis and analyzed according to the categories which emerged from the answer subjects. The ethics principles in research were observed. Results: among the researched workers, 60,9% were colonized by Staphylococcus aureus in saliva, of those 67,9% were transitory carriers and 32,1% persistent carriers; the prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among the isolated was 15,7%. The average prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 12,7% and higher among nurses’ aides (21,4% and cleaning aides (20,6% and lower among nurses (4,5% and doctors (5,9%. The mecA gene was detected in 36,9% of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The most valorized preventive measures were the use of individual protective devices and adoption of basic hygiene and isolation measures. Workers understand their susceptibility to colonization and see it as dependent of their health conditions. The consequences of colonization and the benefits of adopting preventive attitudes were associated to the patient, family and workers themselves; knowledge and working conditions were referred to as the main interventions in adopting control and prevention measures. Conclusions: workers presented high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva, indicating mouth as an important body site to investigate colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and potential source to its dissemination2. The phenotypic profile revealed differences on the antimicrobial sensibility profile between isolated resistant and meticillin-resistant; as well as the multi-resistance of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to the other antimicrobials tested. The study of workersknowledge and beliefs allowed a better comprehension of the professional behavior and contributed to the planning of educational actions3;4, targeting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention and control.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in workers at a university hospital: colonization and beliefs in health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Drehmer de Almeida Cruz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The carrier state of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is pointed as infection predictor among hospitalized patients, and factor for environmental and person to person dissemination, including health service workers, when colonized are commonly associate to outbreaks1. Prevention of professional colonization risk is associated to behavior and dependent of knowledge and beliefs in health. Objective: analyze the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva of workers of the nursing, medical, physiotherapist, occupational therapist and cleaning teams, at a big university hospital. Method: epidemiologic longitudinal study carried out with 486 workers between April 2006 and June 2008, three saliva samples were collected and a data collection instrument with open and closed questions was applied. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the clinical specimen and characterized by phenotypes; the methicillin-resistant were submitted to mecA gene detection and SCCmec chromosome cassette identification. Quantitative data from the instrument and the laboratory results were organized and processed with EPI-Info software and analyzed by descriptive statistics. Data from the open questions were submitted to quantitative discourse analysis and analyzed according to the categories which emerged from the answer subjects. The ethics principles in research were observed. Results: among the researched workers, 60,9% were colonized by Staphylococcus aureus in saliva, of those 67,9% were transitory carriers and 32,1% persistent carriers; the prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among the isolated was 15,7%. The average prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 12,7% and higher among nurses’ aides (21,4% and cleaning aides (20,6% and lower among nurses (4,5% and doctors (5,9%. The mecA gene was detected in 36,9% of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The most valorized preventive measures were the use of individual protective devices and adoption of basic hygiene and isolation measures. Workers understand their susceptibility to colonization and see it as dependent of their health conditions. The consequences of colonization and the benefits of adopting preventive attitudes were associated to the patient, family and workers themselves; knowledge and working conditions were referred to as the main interventions in adopting control and prevention measures. Conclusions: workers presented high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva, indicating mouth as an important body site to investigate colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and potential source to its dissemination2. The phenotypic profile revealed differences on the antimicrobial sensibility profile between isolated resistant and meticillin-resistant; as well as the multi-resistance of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to the other antimicrobials tested. The study of workersknowledge and beliefs allowed a better comprehension of the professional behavior and contributed to the planning of educational actions3;4, targeting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention and control.

  8. Do hornets have zombie workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, K R; Ratnieks, F L; Raybould, A F

    2000-06-01

    Colonies of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, are typically founded by a single queen mated to a single male. From the resulting colony relatedness pattern we predicted strong worker-queen conflict over male production where both the workers and the queen attempt to produce the colony's males. To test for this conflict, male production was studied in 15 hornet nests using a combination of DNA microsatellite analysis (282 males), worker ovary dissections (500 workers from eight nests) and 50 h of observation (four nests). In contrast to our prediction, the data show that hornet males are queens' sons, that workers never attempt to lay eggs, rarely have activated ovaries, and that there is no direct aggression between the queen and the workers. This contrasts with other data for vespine wasps, which support relatedness predictions. Dolichovespula arenaria has the same kin structure as V. crabro and workers produce males in many colonies. The similarity between these two species makes it difficult to explain why workers do not reproduce in V. crabro. Self-restraint is expected if worker reproduction significantly reduces colony productivity but there is no obvious reason why this should be important to V. crabro but not to D. arenaria. Alternatively, queen control may be important. The absence of expressed queen-worker conflict rules out physical control. Indirect pheromonal control is a possibility and is supported by the occurrence of royal courts and queen pheromone in Vespa but not Dolichovespula. Pheromonal queen control is considered evolutionarily unstable, but could result from a queen-worker arms race over reproductive control in which the queen is ahead. The genetic data also revealed diploid males in one colony, the first example in the vespine wasps, and two colonies with double matrilines, suggesting that occasional usurpation by spring queens occurs. PMID:10849289

  9. Knowledge Fascism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight

  10. Impact of Educational Intervention Regarding Mosquito Borne Diseases and Their Control Measures among The Link Workers of Urban Health Centers (UHCs) of Ahmedabad City

    OpenAIRE

    Fancy Manish; Parikh Sonal,; Prajapati Arpit; Bala DV

    2012-01-01

    Background: In urban area link workers are playing key role in implementing anti-larval measures and behaviour change communication at community level to prevent and control mosquito borne diseases. Objectives: To check baseline knowledge of link workers regarding mosquito borne diseases and control measures and assess their knowledge 14 days after single educational interventional training. Methodology: All 274 link workers of 17 selected UHCs out of total 57 UHCs were taken as study populat...

  11. ICT and Information Strategies for a Knowledge Economy: The Indian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Maitrayee; Ghosh, Ipsheet

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the progress India has made in its move towards a knowledge-based economy with details of how the Indian Government has demonstrated its commitment to the development of fundamental pillars of knowledge sharing infrastructure, knowledge workers and a knowledge innovation system. Libraries are…

  12. Knowledge Blogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    2012-01-01

    The rise of social media and web 2.0 technologies over the last few years has impacted many communication functions. One influence is organizational bloggers as knowledge mediators on government agency practices. The ways in which these organizational bloggers in their roles as experts are able to change, facilitate, and enable communication about a broad range of specialized knowledge areas, in a more open interactional institutional communication environment than traditional media typically of...

  13. Placing knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Valentin, Karen; Nielsen, Gritt B.

    2014-01-01

    Internationalisation of higher education is premised by a seeming paradox: On the one hand, academic knowledge strives to be universal in the sense that it claims to produce generalizable, valid and reliable knowledge that can be used, critiqued, and redeveloped by academics from all over the world; on the other hand, the rationale for strengthening mobility through internationalisation is based on an imagination of the potentials of particular locations (academic institutions). Intrigued by thi...

  14. Personal monitoring and assessment of doses received by radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Personal Radiation Monitoring Service operated by the Australian Radiation Laboratory is outlined and the types of monitors used for assessment of doses received by radiation workers are described. The distribution of doses received by radiation workers in different occupational categories is determined. From these distributions, the average doses received have been assessed and the maximum likely additional increase in cancer deaths in Australia as a result of occupational exposure estimated. This increase is shown to be very small. There is, however, a considerable spread of doses received by individuals within occupational groups

  15. Part I. Emergency workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monograph deals with assessment of radiological health effects of the Chernobyl accident for emergency workers (part 1) and the population of the contaminated areas in Russia (part 2). The Chernobyl emergency workers and people living in the contaminated areas of Russia received much lower doses than the population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and it was unclear whether risks of radiation-induced cancers derived with the Japanese data could be extrapolated to the low dose range However, it was predicted as early as in 1990 that the thyroid cancer incidence might be increasing due to incorporated 131 irradiation. What conclusions can be drawn from regarding cancer incidence among emergency workers and residents of the contaminated areas in Russia and the role of the radiation factor on the basis of the registry data? Leukemia incidence. Leukemia incidence is known to be one of principal indications of radiation effects. The radiation risk for leukemias is 3-4 times higher that for solid cancers and its latent period is estimated to be 2-3 years after exposure. Results of the radiation epidemiological studies discussed in this book show that in the worst contaminated Bryansk region the leukemia incidence rate is not higher than in the country in general. Even though some evidence exists for the dose response relationship, the radiation risks appear to be not statistically significant. Since risks of leukemia are known to be higher for those who were children at exposure, long-term epidemiological studies need to be continued. The study of leukemias among emergency workers strongly suggest the existence of dose response relationship. In those who received external doses more than 0.15 Gy the leukemia incidence rate is two time higher and these emergency workers should be referred to as a group of increased radiation risk. Solid cancers. The obtained results provide no evidence to a radiation-induced increase in solid cancers among residents of the contaminated areas. Yet, prognostic estimates of lifetime risk for residents of the worst affected south-west areas of the Bryansk region suggest a possible increase in incidence rates by 1.5-2.5% above the spontaneous level, but this is probably hard to detect in epidemiological studies. On the other hand, the latent period for solid cancers is about 10 years and hence epidemiological studies should be continued. In this context, an issue of thyroid cancers stands out. It has been proved with statistical significance that 70% of thyroid cancers diagnosed among those who were children at exposure in the Bryansk region were radiation induced (incorporated 131 irradiation of thyroid). At the same time, the increased thyroid can incidence rates children partly explained by non-radiation risk factors such as medical screening. For emergency workers solid cancer incidence as a function of external radiation dose was found to be slightly increasing. In the whole range of radiation doses, however, the excess relative risk (ERR) is not statistically significant. Non-cancer diseases. Radiation risks of non-cancer diseases has nor been studied sufficiently well. It is worth noting that incidence rates for cerebrovascular diseases in emergency workers. But generally, the radiation epidemiology of non-cancer diseases is still in its infancy and large-scale studies need to be continued. In conclusion the scientific value and importance of the studies conducted by the RNMDR has to be stressed. The international experience of the past 15-20 years has shown that the dose-response relationship, particularly as applied to low doses, can be adequately examined only with the support of direct epidemiological studies. In practical terms, as the problem in question is long-term effects of low radiation doses, large-scale cohort studies are required. The RNMDR database currently contains individual medical and dosimetric information for more than 0.6 million people. Long-term follow-up of the health status of those exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl accident will provide a basis for objective ev

  16. Personal Epistemologies and Older Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billett, Stephen; van Woerkom, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the need and prospects for older workers to develop and deploy effective and critical personal epistemologies in order to maintain workplace competence, successfully negotiate work transitions and secure ontological security in their working life. Furthermore, it addresses different ways of reflecting by workers, which types…

  17. [Rural workers' health in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Jessica Pronestino de Lima; Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves de; Muzi, Camila Drumond; Cunha, Carlos Leonardo Figueiredo; Brito, Alexandre Dos Santos; Luiz, Ronir Raggio

    2015-08-01

    Workers' health is a central theme in public health surveys, but the specificity of work activities should be considered. This study aimed to analyze the health of rural workers in Brazil that perform both agricultural and non-agricultural work, based on self-rated health and self-reported diseases. The Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD 2008) was used, incorporating information from the complex sampling plan. Agricultural workers 18 years or older were selected, stratified according to those with and without non-agricultural work. Logistic regression was performed for self-rated health, and odds ratios were calculated for self-reported diseases. Exclusive agricultural work decreased the odds of reporting good health and increased the odds of reporting back pain, high blood pressure, and arthritis/rheumatism. Exclusive agricultural workers reported more diseases and worse living conditions. Self-rated health was generally better in workers with non-agricultural occupations. PMID:26375648

  18. Investigation of the Effect of Noise Exposure in the Workplace on the General Health of Steel Industry Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Rostami; Zahra Zamanian; Jafar Hasanzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Improvements in knowledge as well as technology andindustrial workers’ exposure to adverse factors have caused more attention tobe paid to the workers’ occupational health. According to the report by W.H.O.,noise, as one of the most important physical factors of workplace, causes 4million dollars health damage every day. Noise can also reduce the workers’morale as well as motivation and, consequently, have negative effects on theirperformance. Considering the importance of occupational health...

  19. Hospital social workers' attitudes toward euthanasia and assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csikai, E L

    1999-01-01

    Euthanasia and assisted suicide are the subjects of increasing controversy in the health care setting. In this study of 122 hospital social workers' attitudes toward euthanasia and assisted suicide, many respondents reported agreement that both practices may be ethical, should be legal in some situations, and that they would be willing to participate in the practices. Almost one-fourth of the respondents have been asked by patients and families during their careers to discuss euthanasia and assisted suicide. The social workers also identified situations in which euthanasia and assisted suicide may be appropriate and safeguards that should apply if practices are legalized. Preparation for requests to discuss these practices, through awareness of their own beliefs and attitudes and becoming knowledgeable about current controversies, policies, and practices, is essential. By doing so, social workers will be ready to seize the opportunity to emerge as leaders of multidisciplinary discussion of complex ethical issues in health care. PMID:10855802

  20. Unitizing worker expertise and maximizing the brain reward centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Anthony Bert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    People are experts when it comes to the work they do; unfortunately their expertise is not utilized as frequently as it could be. More opportunities need to be provided that allow people to participate in the design of their work including: accident investigations, job planning, and process improvements. Many employers use some form of job hazard analysis process to identify and document hazards and controls, but the front line worker is rarely involved. This presentation will show the core principles supporting employee involvement, provide examples where workers had brilliant ideas but no one listened, and provide examples where workers were given the opportunity to use their expertise to improve occupational safety. According to Abraham Maslow's Hierarch of Needs model, one essential human need is to be innovative and solve problems. Advances in brain science have proven, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, the brain reward pathway is activated when people are recognized for their intellectual contributions. As people contribute their expertise to improve occupational safety more frequently they will feel a sense of gratification. In addition, safety professionals will have more time to spend on strategic planning of emerging occupational safety issues. One effect of the current global recession is that SH&E professionals are asked to do more with less. Therefore, to be successful it is essential that SH&E professionals incorporate worker expertise in job planning. This will be illustrated in the presentation through an example where a worker had the answer to a difficult decision on appropriate personal protective equipment for a job but no one asked the worker for his idea during the job planning phase. Fortunately the worker was eventually consulted and his recommendation for the appropriate personal protective equipment for the job was implemented before work began. The goal of this presentation is to expand the awareness and knowledge of SH&E professionals on the benefits and opportunities for leveraging brain science. This will include an overview of the components of the brain reward pathway and the biological mechanisms that make workers feel a sense of gratification when they contribute their ideas toward improving occupational safety. On-the-job examples where it is hypothesized that the brain reward pathway was activated in workers will be provided. Finally, the presentation will include a model illustrating the importance of empowering workers to participate in occupational safety programs. SH&E professionals can use this model to maintain a robust safety and health program with limited resources. The model will also help SH&E professionals prepare for challenges in the SH&E fields by showing them how to allocate more time for strategic planning of emerging issues. Many recent best selling business books such as Wikinomics, Crowdsourcing, and Sway, illustrate how the benefit of harnessing the collective knowledge of employees is a key to company success. Companies like Google and Pixar have mastered the ability to capture empFoyee knowledge in terms of technology. Why should occupational safety be any different? Workers know how to improve safety in their workplace. SH&E professionals can harness this collective safety knowledge just as top companies do with technology, and workers will feel grateful for contributing.

  1. Job Satisfaction Among Gerontological Social Workers in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Kelsey; An, Sofiya

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about job satisfaction among Canada's social work workforce in aging, although social workers remain a key component of interdisciplinary care in health and social service settings. This study begins to address this gap in knowledge by examining individual, interpersonal, and job-design factors influencing the job satisfaction of gerontological social workers in Ontario. Data were collected via two online surveys with a sample drawn from the Ontario Association of Social Workers' membership list (N = 104). A multiple regression model explained 37% of the variance in job satisfaction, F = 5.47[10, 93], p < .001). Three independent variables were significant (positive affect, ? = .21; promotional chances, ? = .21; and client acuity, ? = -.18). The results suggest the importance of promoting strategies for enhancing job satisfaction, advancing promotional opportunities for social work clinicians, and providing educational and clinical supports to clinicians. PMID:26156048

  2. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Takaro

    2009-05-29

    The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997. After excluding current workers, construction workers, and deceased workers, the total estimated number of former workers eligible for screening was 72,611. By September, 2006, 53,010 workers had been contacted, 20,298 responded, 2,835 were eligible and authorized, and 2,773 workers were ultimately screened. The cohort was 80% male, 85% white, and had a mean age of 63 years (range 24-96 years) at the time of first exam. Participants completed an occupational health history survey prior to the medical exam. Former Hanford workers were considered eligible for an exam if they reported exposure to asbestos, beryllium, or noise, or if a review of their Hanford work history indicated possible or probable exposure to one of these three hazards. We also invited any former Hanford worker who requested an exam to participate, regardless of documentation of exposure. The screening exam included a problem-focused physical exam, along with screening tests for one or more of three specific medical conditions: asbestosis (chest X-ray and spirometry), berylliosis (chest X-ray, spirometry, and beryllium-induced lymphocyte proliferation test), and NIHL (audiometry). We assisted ill workers in filing appropriate workers’ compensation claims, and facilitated appropriate follow-up medical care. This program has made an important contribution to the health of former DOE contractor workers at the Hanford defense nuclear site.

  3. The Retention of Tacit Knowledge in Higher Learning Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Andrew Everardo

    2013-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) could be among organizations without effective programs for preserving tacit knowledge (TK) when knowledge workers retire, quit, take a leave of absence, or are terminated. The theoretical underpinnings of this study were neuroscience related to brain learning physiology, transformational leadership theory,…

  4. Making Knowledge Delivery Failsafe: Adding Step Zero in Hypothesis Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xia; Zhou, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of statistical analysis is increasingly important for professionals in modern business. For example, hypothesis testing is one of the critical topics for quality managers and team workers in Six Sigma training programs. Delivering the knowledge of hypothesis testing effectively can be an important step for the incapable learners or…

  5. Transforming Knowledge to Knowing at Work: The Experiences of Newcomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filstad, Cathrine; McManus, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores how newcomers experience their transition to work as they strive to move from a position of "educational" knowledge to professional knowing. Hence, we focus on how newcomers learn to transform knowledge to knowing at work. We do this through the analysis of two ethnographic case studies: one with a focus on new office workers

  6. Heart rate variability and endothelial function after sleep deprivation and recovery sleep among male shift and non-shift workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Wehrens, SM; Hampton, SM; Skene, DJ

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Endothelial dysfunction and alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) as well as sleep deprivation and shift work have been associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to compare HRV and endothelial function among shift and matched non-shift workers in response to total sleep deprivation and recovery sleep under identical laboratory settings. METHODS: Eleven experienced male shift workers (shift work ?5 years) and 14 non-shift workers were matched for age, ...

  7. [A Literature Review of Health Effects on Workers in Disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yu; Mori, Koji

    2015-09-01

    Various types of disasters, such as natural disasters, industrial accidents and crimes, often occur in the workplace and many workers are involved in them. They are not only directly injured but also exposed to health hazards, such as terrible experiences and chemical materials. Occupational health specialists are expected to act to minimize the adverse health effects from them speedily and appropriately. It is assumed that learning from past cases is effective for such occupational health activities. Accordingly, we conducted a literature review about the health effects on workers in disasters. Relevant literature was searched in PubMed. Twenty four studies were extracted by our criteria. In this review, subjects were limited to general workers by excluding professional workers, such as emergency services and firefighters. The health effects were examined as follows: mental health (13 articles), respiratory (5), cardiovascular (2), musculoskeletal (1), skin (1), nervous (1), and general (1). It was obvious that few studies on general workers were published when considering large number of disasters in the past. Factors that affect health outcomes were categorized into ? those related to devastation of environment of work and life due to disaster, and ? those related to health hazards due to disasters. Knowledge from the review will support the activities of occupational health specialists during disasters, but additional studies are needed. PMID:26370044

  8. Knowledge Management Audit - a methodology and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lauer

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The strategic importance of knowledge in today’s organisation has been discussed extensively and research has looked at various issues in developing knowledge management systems. Both the characterisation of knowledge and alternate models for understanding the acquisition and use of such knowledge have taken on significant prominence. This is due to the complexities associated with acquiring and representing knowledge, and the varied nature of its use in knowledge work. However, the role of the knowledge workers and the processes that guide their knowledge work as they meet the knowledge goals of an organisation have received little attention. This paper proposes a knowledge audit (an assessment of the way knowledge processes meet an organisation’s knowledge goals methodology to understand the “gaps” in the needs of a knowledge worker before one develops KM systems. The methodology also uses “process change” research to help build a socio-technical environment critical for knowledge work. The audit methodology is applied to a particular case and the implementation of the audit recommendations is discussed. Future implications of such an audit are also discussed.

  9. Modificación de conocimientos sobre medio ambiente en jóvenes del Laboratorio de Anticuerpos y Biomodelos Experimentales / Modification to knowledge of environment in young people from Laboratory of Antibodies and Experimental Biomodels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosa Iris, García Céspedes; Yaimarelis, Saumell Nápoles; Maria Eugenia, García Céspedes; Osmany, Harteman Ávila.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de intervención educativa para modificar los conocimientos sobre la conservación del medioambiente en 16 jóvenes del Laboratorio de Anticuerpos y Biomodelos Experimentales de Santiago de Cuba, seleccionados mediante un muestreo aleatorio simple desde abril hasta junio del 2008. [...] Para lograr ese objetivo, la población escogida participó en un programa de clases con 4 sesiones de trabajo, luego de las cuales se comprobó que la insuficiente o errónea información que poseían sobre la necesidad de cuidar responsablemente el entorno por su influencia sobre la salud y calidad de vida, fue modificada favorablemente mediante técnicas participativas y discusiones grupales, de modo que hubo una gran diferencia entre lo que sabían antes del estudio y lo que aprendieron en favor del ambiente después de su ejecución. Abstract in english A study on educational intervention was conducted to modify the knowledge of the environment conservation in 16 young people from Laboratory of Antibodies and Experimental Biomodels in Santiago de Cuba, selected by means of a simple random sampling from April to June, 2008. To achieve that goal the [...] chosen population participated in a program of classes with 4 working sessions, after which it was verified that their inadequate or erroneous information about the necessity of taking care of the environment responsibly because of its influence on the health and quality of life, was modified favorably by means of participatory techniques and group discussions, so that there was a great difference between what they knew before the study and what they learned in favor of the enviroment after it.

  10. Modificación de conocimientos sobre medio ambiente en jóvenes del Laboratorio de Anticuerpos y Biomodelos Experimentales Modification to knowledge of environment in young people from Laboratory of Antibodies and Experimental Biomodels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Iris García Céspedes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de intervención educativa para modificar los conocimientos sobre la conservación del medioambiente en 16 jóvenes del Laboratorio de Anticuerpos y Biomodelos Experimentales de Santiago de Cuba, seleccionados mediante un muestreo aleatorio simple desde abril hasta junio del 2008. Para lograr ese objetivo, la población escogida participó en un programa de clases con 4 sesiones de trabajo, luego de las cuales se comprobó que la insuficiente o errónea información que poseían sobre la necesidad de cuidar responsablemente el entorno por su influencia sobre la salud y calidad de vida, fue modificada favorablemente mediante técnicas participativas y discusiones grupales, de modo que hubo una gran diferencia entre lo que sabían antes del estudio y lo que aprendieron en favor del ambiente después de su ejecución.A study on educational intervention was conducted to modify the knowledge of the environment conservation in 16 young people from Laboratory of Antibodies and Experimental Biomodels in Santiago de Cuba, selected by means of a simple random sampling from April to June, 2008. To achieve that goal the chosen population participated in a program of classes with 4 working sessions, after which it was verified that their inadequate or erroneous information about the necessity of taking care of the environment responsibly because of its influence on the health and quality of life, was modified favorably by means of participatory techniques and group discussions, so that there was a great difference between what they knew before the study and what they learned in favor of the enviroment after it.

  11. Monitoring of nuclear industry workers that combines medical biology with computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the COGEMA nuclear reprocessing plant at La Hague, the Medical Laboratory is responsible for the biological and radiotoxicological monitoring of over 8 000 workers. The entire administrative and technical management of this laboratory is done by several computer systems connected to automatic analytical devices

  12. Interviewing media workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Graf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, from the current study, of how systems theory can be applied in order to analyse interviews. Using a difference-theoretical approach means looking at the distinctions the informants make when talking about their experiences. These main guiding distinctions can be summarised as immigrant background/competence as well as advantage/competence. Using the guiding distinction of inclusion/exclusion when interpreting the interviewees’ statements, the interdependencies of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in newsrooms related to ethnic background can be examined.

  13. Knowledge Management in Healthcare Zipperer Lorri Knowledge Management in Healthcare 250pp £70 Gower Publishing 9781409438830 140943883X [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    AN INTENSE academic review of knowledge management is provided by this book, covering the nature of knowledge-sharing environments, insights from healthcare workers, and advice on how to initiate and measure knowledge sharing. While many of the contributors are academic leaders in the US, it will translate to the UK and NHS. PMID:25355116

  14. Respiratory allergy in agricultural workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2005-01-01

    To review recent evidence on the relationship between occupational exposure to allergens and asthmagens, and risk for developing allergy and asthma and the role of modifying factors in farmers and farm workers.

  15. NGO field workers in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan

  16. Radiation protection optimization of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the contribution of CEPN (study center on protection evaluation in nuclear area) to the Days of the French Radiation Protection Society (SFRP) on optimization of workers radiation protection in electronuclear, industrial and medical areas

  17. Cytogenetic analysis of Chernobyl cleanup workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodosimetric analyses were performed of workers involved in clean-up operations following the Chernobyl accident. Blood samples were collected from 188 exposed workers who participated in the cleanup and from 69 subjects living in Russia but not involved in the cleanup activities. The samples were collected between September 1991 and May 1996 and shipped to Livermore for cytogenetic evaluation. Chromosome 1, 2, and 4 were painted simultaneously with whole-chromosome DNA probes, at at least 1500 metaphase cells (500 cell equivalents) were analyzed for structural aberrations from each subject. The PAINT system was used for the initial classification of all aberrations. Translocations were subsequently evaluated to determine whether they were reciprocal or non-reciprocal, and then enumerated according to the classical method which assumes all translocations are reciprocal. Univariate statistical analyses (including adjustments for age and smoking status) found greater frequencies of chromosome translocations among the exposed compared to controls (p?0.0001), regardless of the method of enumerating translocations. The difference in translocation frequencies between clean-up and control subjects was explainable by invoking an average population exposure to 12 ± 3 cGy. This estimate was based on an in vitro dose response curve with 137Cs exposure to human blood, and was obtained in our laboratory with the same painting probes. Differences between clean-up workers and controls were seen for dicentrics and for total acentric fragments. Smoking was also associated with increased translocation frequencies. These results show the feasibility of performing retrospective biodosimetry by painting following low doses of ionizing radiation

  18. HOUSING PROVISION FOR FACTORY WORKERS

    OpenAIRE

    Liliany S Arifin

    2001-01-01

    The need of factory worker housing cannot be denied during the period of industrialization. In fact, from early 18 century in Europe and at the end of 20 century in Asia, industrialization have been bringing the problem of housing for their workers, but only few attention are given by governments or companies. This study is a secondary study and at the end offers some arguments that can be used as further implication research.

  19. HOUSING PROVISION FOR FACTORY WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliany S Arifin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The need of factory worker housing cannot be denied during the period of industrialization. In fact, from early 18 century in Europe and at the end of 20 century in Asia, industrialization have been bringing the problem of housing for their workers, but only few attention are given by governments or companies. This study is a secondary study and at the end offers some arguments that can be used as further implication research.

  20. Respiratory disease in foundry workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Low, I; Mitchell, C.

    1985-01-01

    A survey was carried out in a steel foundry in Brisbane to evaluate the nature and frequency of respiratory symptoms and to assess ventilatory function. The foundry used many moulding processes including the Furane, Isocure, Shell, carbon dioxide, and oil sand systems. Nasal symptoms and wheeze were often reported, particularly by workers in the general foundry and core shop, and on a semiautomated line. By contrast, workers in the aftercast section not exposed to fumes or vapours from the va...

  1. Share Capitalism and Worker Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Bryson, Alex; Clark, Andrew E.; Freeman, Richard B.; Green, Colin P.

    2014-01-01

    We show that worker wellbeing is not only related to the amount of compensation workers receive but also how they receive it. While previous theoretical and empirical work has often been pre-occupied with individual performance-related pay, we here demonstrate a robust positive link between the receipt of a range of group performance schemes (profit shares, group bonuses and share ownership) and job satisfaction. Critically, this relationship remains after conditioning on wage levels, which s...

  2. HIV and female sex workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Estébanez, P.; Fitch, K; Nájera, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this review of published findings on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk factors among female sex workers, we summarize the results of seroprevalence studies in different countries and discuss the different patterns of transmission among such workers in various geographical regions. The highest rates of HIV infection occur in sub-Saharan Africa, where the widespread existence of sexually transmitted diseases may play an important role in sustaining transmission. In Europe...

  3. "Cloud" health-care workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherertz, R. J.; Bassetti, S.; Bassetti-Wyss, B.

    2001-01-01

    Certain bacteria dispersed by health-care workers can cause hospital infections. Asymptomatic health-care workers colonized rectally, vaginally, or on the skin with group A streptococci have caused outbreaks of surgical site infection by airborne dispersal. Outbreaks have been associated with skin colonization or viral upper respiratory tract infection in a phenomenon of airborne dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus called the "cloud" phenomenon. This review summarizes the data supporting the e...

  4. Orientations of entertainment media workers

    OpenAIRE

    von Rimscha, M Bjørn; Siegert, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Although entertaining media content is considered to be highly influential on values and norms shared by the recipients, little is known about the orientation and self-perceptions of entertainment media workers conveying these values and norms. This article offers an overview of existing research on TV entertainment workers and concludes that the common stereotype of a primarily commercial orientation cannot be sustained across the board. To underpin this argument results from two exploratory...

  5. Why should I share my knowledge? A multiple foci of commitment perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swart, Juani; Kinnie, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge-intensive firms need to leverage their individual knowledge assets via knowledge sharing to create collective knowledge resources. This process is, however, in the control of the knowledge worker. We explore this personal and emotive quality of knowledge sharing by asking: ‘How does employee commitment impact on knowledge sharing?’ We study professional service firms operating in cross-boundary environments and examine the impact of commitment to the organisation, profession, team and client on knowledge sharing. The article contributes directly to our understanding of the interrelationship between (a) the types and foci of commitment and (b) bidirectional knowledge sharing.

  6. Documentation Requirements, Intrinsic Motivation, and Worker Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte BØgh; Kristensen, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Command systems are widely used to monitor public service provision, but little is known about unintended effects on individual workers’ motivation and work effort. Using insights from motivation crowding theory, we estimate a SEM model that captures how Danish childcare assistants and social/healthcare assistants perceive documentation requirements. We analyze how this perception relates to intrinsic motivation measured in a survey and sickness absence as reported in administrative registers and find that individuals who perceive documentation requirements as controlling have lower intrinsic motivation and higher sickness absence. The association is statistically significant, but very small in substantive terms. The result is nevertheless consistent with the expectation in motivation crowding theory and contributes to the literature by including a new reliable behavioral variable, sickness absence, and by drawing attention to possible downsides of command-and-control. Even though command systems can also have positive disciplining effects, knowledge about potential drawbacks is important for public managers.

  7. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities and differences in the disparate theories are discussed through a critical perspective on metaphor, time, space, agency and technology. It is asserted that the process of globalization is leading to a new pro...

  8. Knowledge brokering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the spanning of inter-organizational weak ties and technological boundaries influences knowledge brokering. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on original fieldwork and employs a case study research design, investigating a Danish HTSF’s inter-organizational activities. Findings – The findings show how an inter-organizational search that crosses technological boundaries and is based on a network structure of weak ties can imply a...

  9. Cancer Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provide population estimates for variables that represent knowledge about certain cancer risk factors, screening tests, and resources. The data are sourced from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). The HINTS data collection program was created to monitor changes in the rapidly evolving field of health communication. Survey researchers are using the data to understand how adults 18 years and older use different communication channels, including the Internet, to obtain vital health information for themselves and their loved ones.

  10. Knowledge brokering:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    In the recent years a number of studies have explored different inter-organizational search strategies in relation to knowledge brokering and innovation performance. So far there has been very limited research that involves a crossing of both organizational and technological boundaries that also includes a perspective on the strength of the organizational relation. In this paper, an in-depth case study of a High-Tech-Small-Firm (HTSF) is presented. By combining the literature on inter-organizati...

  11. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    2014-01-01

    The thesis is about the conceptualisation of knowledge associated with ‘evidence’. In the Danish society, there is a proliferating demand for ‘evidence’, which started as the basis of practices in medicine and has spread into social work, education and most policymaking arenas. The aim of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowl...

  12. Prevention of low back pain in female eldercare workers: randomized controlled work site trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone Donbæk; Gonge, Henrik Gjesing; Jørs, Erik; Ryom, Pia Køhler; Foldspang, Anders; Christensen, M; Vesterdorff, A; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    Study Design. Randomized controlled trial. Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of an ergonomic and psychosocial intervention in reducing low back pain (LBP) among health care workers. Summary of Background Data. LBP and injuries are reported frequently among health care workers worldwide. Improvement of person-transfer techniques is the preferred tool in the prevention of both. Although popular, to our knowledge, any effect has not been documented in controlled trials. Methods. Study partic...

  13. Etiological explanation, treatability and preventability of childhood autism: a survey of Nigerian healthcare workers' opinion

    OpenAIRE

    Okonkwo Kevin O; Eaton Julian; Ebigbo Peter O; Agomoh Ahamefule O; Bakare Muideen; Onwukwe Jojo U; Onyeama Gabriel M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Because of their peculiar sociocultural background, healthcare workers in sub-Saharan African subcultures may have various conceptions on different aspects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), such as etiology, treatment and issues of prognosis. These various conceptions, if different from current knowledge in literature about ASD, may negatively influence help-seeking behavior of parents of children with ASD who seek advice and information from the healthcare workers. This...

  14. Impact of workers’ competence on their performance in the Malaysian private service sector

    OpenAIRE

    Syahida Zainal Abidin; Rahmah Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia has to address the challenges of globalization to become a developed nation by year2020. Changing economy to one that is based on knowledge-economy and enhanced importanceof the service sector needs a competitive workforce with high performance and capability. Thisarticle analyses the impact of workers’ competence towards their performance in the privateservice sector. The analysis is based on a sample of 1136 workers who are either executive,manager or professional from three servic...

  15. Rethinking Human Resource Strategies: A Shift in the Treatment of Contingent Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Tekeisha Zimmerman; Mariya Gavrilova-Aguilar; Princess Cullum

    2013-01-01

    Contingent workers fulfill valuable organizational needs and have functioned as knowledge resources fororganizations. Despite their contributions, the literature suggests that a difference in treatment exists betweencontingent and standard workers in terms of onboarding, pay for performance, and training and developmentpractices within organizations. This paper presents an empirically testable framework that argues for a shift inHR strategies that will allow for equality in treatment between ...

  16. "National heroes" or "transnational shames"? Exploring the development-migration nexus in migrant domestic workers and ICT workers

    OpenAIRE

    Shinozaki, Kyoko

    2008-01-01

    "Information and communication technologies (ICT) and domestic work are the two sectors that Germany has recently lifted its general recruitment ban. The recruitment of migrant women and men, either as a domestic or an ICT worker, provides solutions to the alleged 'deficit' in care and in the knowledge economy. In addition, they send remittances back home. Despite these commonalities the existing literature tends to treat these two groups of migrants as separate subjects of research, resultin...

  17. Fluency experiences in knowledge-intensive individual work and collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Heli

    2011-01-01

    Although knowledge-intensive work and leadership of knowledge workers have been studied from different viewpoints and with different approaches, the research in the field appears to be very fragmented. The existing literature concentrates on the nature of knowledge-intensive work, or productivity and effectiveness of it. Because of limited amount of scientific literature and lack of empirical evidence, significance of fluency is not well understood, although fluency is an important concept fr...

  18. Laevo: A Temporal Desktop Interface for Integrated Knowledge Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeuris, Steven; Houben, Steven; Bardram, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Prior studies show that knowledge work is characterized by highly interlinked practices, including task, file and window management. However, existing personal information management tools primarily focus on a limited subset of knowledge work, forcing users to perform additional manual configuration work to integrate the different tools they use. In order to understand tool usage, we review literature on how users' activities are created and evolve over time as part of knowledge worker practices...

  19. Collective Learning in the Workplace: Important Knowledge Sharing Behaviours

    OpenAIRE

    Allison Littlejohn; Colin Milligan; Anoush Margarayn

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we identify a set of learning practices adopted by knowledge workers as they learn at work. We examine how key knowledge sharing behaviours: consuming, connecting, creating and contributing knowledge, are associated with these learning practices. Each learning practice brings together a combination of these components to form a distinct learning pathway, providing a baseline for rethinking combinations of practices for more effective learning and development in the workplace.

  20. Collective Learning in the Workplace: Important Knowledge Sharing Behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Littlejohn

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we identify a set of learning practices adopted by knowledge workers as they learn at work. We examine how key knowledge sharing behaviours: consuming, connecting, creating and contributing knowledge, are associated with these learning practices. Each learning practice brings together a combination of these components to form a distinct learning pathway, providing a baseline for rethinking combinations of practices for more effective learning and development in the workplace.

  1. Why Would Anyone Like To Share His Knowledge?

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, A.J.; Homburg, V.M.F.

    2001-01-01

    Why do workers within organizations, or organizations in a network share information and knowledge? This question reverses the logic in some of the knowledge management literature, which addresses impediments and problems in information and knowledge sharing. According to property rights theory, information sharing can be explained in terms of self-interest, maximizing behavior, indispensability of groups and complementarity of assets. Based on this line of reasoning and on empirical evidence...

  2. STATE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN INDIAN IT COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Ajayraj M. Vyas; Mr. Ankur Amin; Ms. Rina Dave

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge management is the need of corporate for excellence. Increasingly, ability ofan organization to compete in the global village is defined by its ability to manage itsknowledge and knowledge workers. It is most apparent in knowledge-intensive industriessuch as software, biotechnology, consultancy and pharmaceuticals. However, knowledgemanagement has become an important issue in all type of organizations and industries. Itis being said that only those organizations t...

  3. Knowledge work: gender-blind or gender-biased?

    OpenAIRE

    Truss, C.; Conway, Edel; d'Amato, A.; Kelly, G.; Monks, K.; Hannon, E.; Flood, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge-intensive firms (KIFs) have been the subject of growing interest from researchers. However, investigations into the comparative experiences of men and women in KIFs remain sparse, and little is known about women’s participation in the processes of innovation and knowledge exchange and combination that are core features of KIFs. We report on the findings of a study in the UK and Ireland involving 498 male and female knowledge workers in KIFs. Despite equal levels of qualification an...

  4. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  5. Instrumentation for the individual dosimetry of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The control of the radiation dose exposure of workers and personnel exposed to ionizing radiations (nuclear industry, nuclear medicine, army, university laboratories etc..) is ensured by individual dosemeters. This dosimetry is mandatory for all workers susceptible to be exposed to more than 30% of the regulatory dose limit. dosemeters are worn on the chest and in some particular cases, on the finger (dosemeter rings) or on the wrist. Passive dosemeters allow to measure the dose a posteriori, while electronic dosemeters allow a direct reading and recording of the dose. This article presents successively: 1 - the general principles of individual dosimetry: situations of exposure, radiation detection, operational data, standardization, calibration and quality assurance, measurement uncertainties; 2 - goals and regulatory framework of individual dosimetry: regulation and recommendations, optimization, respect of dose limits, accidental situations; 3 - passive dosemeters: film, thermoluminescent, radio-photoluminescent and pencil dosemeters; 4 - active dosemeters: gas counters, electronic semiconductor dosemeters; 5 - instrumentation for neutron dosimetry: specificity of neutron fields, neutron detection, passive dosemeters (film, TLD, nuclear emulsion, track detector), bubble dosemeter, electronic dosemeters; 6 - hands dosimetry; 7 - instrumentation for criticality dosimetry. (J.S.)

  6. Healthcare worker competencies for disaster training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelen Gabor D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although training and education have long been accepted as integral to disaster preparedness, many currently taught practices are neither evidence-based nor standardized. The need for effective evidence-based disaster training of healthcare staff at all levels, including the development of standards and guidelines for training in the multi-disciplinary health response to major events, has been designated by the disaster response community as a high priority. We describe the application of systematic evidence-based consensus building methods to derive educational competencies and objectives in criteria-based preparedness and response relevant to all hospital healthcare workers. Methods The conceptual development of cross-cutting competencies incorporated current evidence through a systematic consensus building process with the following steps: (1 review of peer-reviewed literature on relevant content areas and educational theory; (2 structured review of existing competencies, national level courses and published training objectives; (3 synthesis of new cross-cutting competencies; (4 expert panel review; (5 refinement of new competencies and; (6 development of testable terminal objectives for each competency using similar processes covering requisite knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Results Seven cross-cutting competencies were developed: (1 Recognize a potential critical event and implement initial actions; (2 Apply the principles of critical event management; (3 Demonstrate critical event safety principles; (4 Understand the institutional emergency operations plan; (5 Demonstrate effective critical event communications; (6 Understand the incident command system and your role in it; (7 Demonstrate the knowledge and skills needed to fulfill your role during a critical event. For each of the cross-cutting competencies, comprehensive terminal objectives are described. Conclusion Cross-cutting competencies and objectives developed through a systematic evidence-based consensus building approach may serve as a foundation for future hospital healthcare worker training and education in disaster preparedness and response.

  7. Human Brucella canis Infection and Subsequent Laboratory Exposures Associated with a Puppy, New York City, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, C M; Jacob, K; Lee, L V; Mendez, H A; Chotikanatis, K; McDonough, P L; Chico, D M; De, B K; Tiller, R V; Traxler, R M; Campagnolo, E R; Schmitt, D; Guerra, M A; Slavinski, S A

    2015-08-01

    Human Brucella canis infection incidence is unknown. Most identified cases are associated with pet dogs. Laboratory-acquired infections can occur following contact with Brucella spp. We identified a paediatric B. canis case, the source and other exposed persons. A 3-year-old New York City child with fever and dyspnoea was hospitalized for 48 h for bronchiolitis. After her admission, blood culture grew B. canis, she was prescribed anti-microbials and recovered. B. canis was also isolated from blood of the child's pet dog; these isolates were genetically similar. The dog originated from an Iowa breeding facility which was quarantined after identification of the dog's infection. Additionally, 31 laboratory workers were exposed and subsequently monitored for symptoms; 15 completed post-exposure prophylaxis. To our knowledge, this is the first report strongly suggesting B. canis zoonotic transmission to a child in the United States, and highlights the need for coordinated control policies to minimize human illness. PMID:25363807

  8. Do working environment interventions reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. ...

  9. Characteristics of Menstrual Cycle in Shift Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Mirsaeed Attarchi; Hamidreza Darkhi; Mahshad Khodarahmian; Mandana Dolati; Maryam Kashanian; Mostafa Ghaffari; Elham Mirzamohammadi; Saber Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Background: In this study, the characteristics of menstrual cycle in shift workers employed in the pharmaceutical industry are investigated. Method: This study was conducted in a pharmaceutical industrial complex in Tehran in 2012. 406 female workers in packaging units were studied on the menstrual cycle characteristics. The studied workers were divided into two groups of shift workers and non-shift workers and were compared in terms of the frequency of menstrual disorder (short-term cycle, l...

  10. Putting co-workers in the limelight: New challenges for communication professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Heide, Mats; Simonsson, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    The status of co-workers has increased due to the expansion of post-bureaucratic and knowledge-intensive organizations. In organization studies the importance of co-workers has for a rather long time been acknowledged. Remarkably has co-workers more or less been neglected in research as well as in practice within the field of strategic communication. In research the overall focus is mainly on the practice of communication pro-fessionals or at a management or strategic level. In practice many ...

  11. Human Resources Management in the Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan POPESCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is increasingly claimed to be a key critical resource and source of competitive advantage in the modern global economy, especially with the rise of the service economy, the growth in the number of 'knowledge workers', the increasingly rapid flow of global information, and the growing recognition of the importance of intellectual capital and intellectual property rights. Knowledge, with its intangible aspects, is becoming a defining characteristic of economic activities, as opposed to tangibles such as goods, services or production processes. The rise of the knowledge economy has seen a proliferation of information and communication technologies, coupled with greater organizational complexity, the growth of virtual and global organizations and rapid change. This in turn requires drastic change within HRM to respond to changing demands of the knowledge economy.

  12. Recruiting knowledge, not just nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeding, Toni H; Rambur, Betty

    2004-01-01

    The importance of the definition of nurse as a "knowledge worker" and the utility of knowledge as a recruitment policy for building a strong nursing workforce are discussed. The method used is the implementation of a statewide merit-based scholarship program targeting academically excellent students. At the University of Vermont, which educates roughly half of the state's nursing students, applications to the College of Nursing are up 83 percent, and entering class size is up 92 percent. Most significantly, Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) scores have improved 4 percent, reversing an 8-year trend. In conclusion, merit scholarships are an effective means of building intellectual capacity and attracting academically stronger candidates to the nursing profession. PMID:15176017

  13. WORK AND HEALTH: THE TEMPORATY WORKER’S CASE OF THE SUGAR CANE INDUSTRY AT LAGOA DA PRATA, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Maciel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The farm workers of the sugar cane agroindustry are subject to the social, economic and environmental impacts coming from that plantation, especially by the existing working conditions which fall upon their life quality and health. Using a methodology of qualitative nature, this study aimed to investigate aspects relative to the life, work and health conditions of the temporary worker of the sugar cane agroindustry of Lagoa da Prata, town of Minas Gerais. For the data collection, the semi-structured interview was used, the sample being limited through the informational redundancy criteria and the information were dealt through the Bardin content analysis. The predominance of young and male workers and the presence of migrant workers and recurrent from of other crops were found. Women seem to perform the working activities mostly in the same way that men, logically within their physical limitations. The worker’s purchasing power seems to be insufficient, an evident escape of capitals coming from the sugar-cane cutting with the migrant temporary workers. There was no apparent evidence of expropriation of small farms to the urban area increasing rural exodus. Informal work was present in these worker’s every day, which at the off-season time made use of different opportunities to meet their needs. Although, the workers showed to be aware of the importance of the utilization of the equipment for individual protection, the need of an improved knowledge as far as the health risks and problems to which they were exposed due to their working conditions are concerned was found.

  14. Noise, Worker Perception, and Worker Concentration in Timber Harvesting Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Timber harvesting activities are unquestionably related with high risk of work accidents and health disorders.Such activities were not only burdened the workers with heavy physical workloads due to uneasy workingenvironment, and massive work materials and tools, but also physiopsychologically burdened workers as theywere imposed with both mechanical and acoustic vibrations (noise produced by the chainsaw. However,  it is acommon practice that most of the workers still ignored the importance of the use of noise reduction devices suchas earmuff or ear plug.  This study was aimed to reveal the factual effects of noise on work concentration of theworkers to provide a scientific basis in supporting efforts in improving workers’ attitude.  The results confirmedthat chainsaw might produce noise during operation.  Noise intensities received by both right and left ears werenot significantly different, indicating that left-handed and normal workers received similar degree of noise inboth side of ears. Further, results also showed that there was a significant difference on the perception and workconcentration of chainsaw operators versus sedentary people to the noise.  These findings proved that hearingability of chainsaw operators had declined due to frequent noise exposure.Keywords: timber harvesting, physio-psychological disorder, noise, chainsaw

  15. Workers and the ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In both the preparation and the application of the recommendations presented by the ICRP one important voice has been absent: that of the workers in the nuclear industry. A large number of specialists are studying their situation from all points of view, in their different capacities as workers, consumers and male or female members of the public, but this extensive study is being done without consulting them, without their opinion even being asked for. The paper discusses such deficiencies, in particular all those aspects which distinguish these recommendations from a legal text. The lack of conciseness in the definition of the limit which the average annual dose to a large group of workers must not exceed (500 mrad) is considered. The possibility of a large number of workers being exposed for a long period is not acceptable if the decision is left to the manager of a nuclear facility alone. Cost-benefit analysis, as it is described in the ICRP text, cannot be considered to provide credible protection from the point of view of workers. Moreover, the various ICRP recommendations fail to mention such important matters as allowance for low-dose effects, disparities in the social security coverage offered to various categories of workers in the event of occupational illness, and the increasing use of migrant workers for difficult decontamination and maitenance tasks. At a time when it is thought that nuclear technology can be standardized, the French Democratic Labour Confederation (CFDT) expresses its fears concerning the practical application of the ICRP recommendations; for example, the text of ICRP Publication 26 has not yet been translated into French, but Euratom has already proposed directives for its application in Member States

  16. Lack of combined effects of exposure and smoking on respiratory health in aluminium potroom workers

    OpenAIRE

    Radon, K; D Nowak; SZADKOWSKI, D.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the combined influence on respiratory health of smoking and exposure in an aluminium potroom. METHODS: In a cross sectional study of 75 potroom workers (23 never smokers, 38 current smokers, 14 ex-smokers) and 56 controls in the same plant (watchmen, craftsmen, office workers, laboratory employees; 18 non-smokers, 21 current smokers, 17 ex-smokers), prevalences of respiratory symptoms and spirometric indices were compared. RESULTS: Smokers in the potroom group ...

  17. Knowledge Model: Project Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel; Jahn, Karsten; Nielsen, Peter Axel; Munk-Madsen, Andreas; Pedersen, Keld

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions for usage in KIWI system (Sections 3). This document is intended for technological partners to understand how for example the software development concepts can be applied to a semantic wiki framework.

  18. Practical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas his critical attitude has become superseded. A critical discussion on the heritage from Bacon leads to a focus on the concepts of truth, utility, and goodness. Unification of skills and Bildung, it is st...

  19. Contingent workers: Workers' compensation data analysis strategies and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Michael; Ruser, John; Shor, Glenn; Shuford, Harry; Sygnatur, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The growth of the contingent workforce presents many challenges in the occupational safety and health arena. State and federal laws impose obligations and rights on employees and employers, but contingent work raises issues regarding responsibilities to maintain a safe workplace and difficulties in collecting and reporting data on injuries and illnesses. Contingent work may involve uncertainty about the length of employment, control over the labor process, degree of regulatory, or statutory protections, and access to benefits under workers' compensation. The paper highlights differences in regulatory protections and benefits among various types of contingent workers and how these different arrangements affect safety incentives. It discusses challenges caused by contingent work for accurate data reporting in existing injury and illness surveillance and benefit programs, differences between categories of contingent work in their coverage in various data sources, and opportunities for overcoming obstacles to effectively using workers' compensation data. PMID:24464742

  20. Presenting a framework for knowledge management within a web-enabled Living Lab

    OpenAIRE

    Lizette de Jager; Albertus A.K. Buitendag; Jacobus S. van der Walt

    2012-01-01

    Background: The background to this study showed that many communities, countries and continents are only now realising the importance of discovering innovative collaborative knowledge. Knowledge management (KM) enables organisations to retain tacit knowledge. It has many advantages, like competitiveness, retaining workersknowledge as corporate assets and assigning value to it. The value of knowledge can never depreciate. It can only grow and become more and more...

  1. Toward a Model of Growth Stages for Knowledge Management Technology in Law Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Petter Gottschalk

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge management was introduced to law firms to help create, share, and use knowledge more effectively. Information technology can play an important role in successful knowledge management initiatives. In this paper, information technology support for knowledge management is linked to stages of growth. A model of growth stages is proposed consisting of four stages. The first stage is end-user tools that are made available to knowledge workers, the second stage is information about who kno...

  2. Healthcare organization-education partnerships and career ladder programs for health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Janette S; Chuang, Emmeline; Morgan, Jennifer C

    2014-12-01

    Increasing concerns about quality of care and workforce shortages have motivated health care organizations and educational institutions to partner to create career ladders for frontline health care workers. Career ladders reward workers for gains in skills and knowledge and may reduce the costs associated with turnover, improve patient care, and/or address projected shortages of certain nursing and allied health professions. This study examines partnerships between health care and educational organizations in the United States during the design and implementation of career ladder training programs for low-skill workers in health care settings, referred to as frontline health care workers. Mixed methods data from 291 frontline health care workers and 347 key informants (e.g., administrators, instructors, managers) collected between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed using both regression and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). Results suggest that different combinations of partner characteristics, including having an education leader, employer leader, frontline management support, partnership history, community need, and educational policies, were necessary for high worker career self-efficacy and program satisfaction. Whether a worker received a wage increase, however, was primarily dependent on leadership within the health care organization, including having an employer leader and employer implementation policies. Findings suggest that strong partnerships between health care and educational organizations can contribute to the successful implementation of career ladder programs, but workers' ability to earn monetary rewards for program participation depends on the strength of leadership support within the health care organization. PMID:25441318

  3. Why Do Part-Time Workers Earn Less? : The Role of Worker and Job Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Barry T.

    2004-01-01

    The wages of part-time workers are considerably lower than are those of full-time workers. Measurable worker and job characteristics, including occupational skill requirements, account for much of the part-time penalty. Longitudinal analysis indicates that much of the remaining gap reflects worker heterogeneity, evidenced by small wage gains and losses among workers switching between part-time and full-time jobs. The lower skills of part-time than fulltime workers result primarily from limite...

  4. Health management of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    People in Japan have expressed great anxiety about possible radiation and radioactivity after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company's (TEPCO), due to the great earthquake and tsunami in eastern Japan on 11 March 2011. A large number of workers were engaged in response and recovery operations, and they were possibly exposed to high doses of radiation as compared to the general population. In the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986, high doses of radiation to 134 plant staff and emergency personnel resulted in acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which proved fatal for 28 of them. In the Fukushima accident, six workers were exposed to more than 250 mSv of radiation during the initial response phase, but no one showed ARS. It is necessary to continue registration of radiation doses for all workers who were exposed to radiation to facilitate suitable healthcare management in the future. In addition to radiation exposure, a group of workers were also exposed to other health hazards. Frequent occurrence of heat disorders has been a concern for the workers wearing protective clothing with poor ventilation. A comprehensive program to prevent heat illness was implemented by TEPCO under the guidance of the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. It is important to provide effective systems not only for prevention of radiation exposure but also for general management of other health risks including heat disorders and infection. (author)

  5. Musculoskeletal diseases in forestry workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukovi? Sla?ana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common hazards in the forestry that may induce disorders of the musculoskeletal system are vibrations, unfavorable microclimatic conditions, noise, over-time working hours, work load and long-term repeated movements. The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases and its difference among workers engaged in various jobs in the forestry. Two groups of workers were selected: woodcutters operating with chain-saw (N=33 and other loggers (N=32. Selected workers were of the similar age and had similar total length of employment as well as the length of service in the forestry. Both groups of workers employed in the forestry had the high prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases (woodcutters 69.7% and other loggers 62.5%, respectively. Degenerative diseases of spinal column were very frequent, in dependently of the type of activity in the forestry. Non-significantly higher risk of carpal tunnel syndrome was found in woodcutters with chain-saw compared to workers having other jobs in the forestry (OR=3.09; 95%CI=0.64-19.72. The lateral epicondylitis was found only in woodcutters operating with chain-saw with the prevalence of 18.2%.

  6. Nuclear: a world without worker?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having recalled some characteristics of the electro-nuclear sector in terms of employment (direct and indirect jobs, average age, number of persons controlled on the radiological level, exposure with respect to work location), the author outlines that workers of this sector are seldom evoked whereas investments, incidents and accidents are generally the main evoked and commented topics. He proposes some explanations about this image of the nuclear sector. He reports an incident which occurred in Marcoule and outlines how a set of imperfectly managed events resulted in this incident. He also outlines the importance of the role of workers and the difficulty to make the right choice in such situations. As a conclusion, the author draws some lessons, and particularly outlines that the commitment of workers should be put forward

  7. Constructing Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Patricia

    2003-02-01

    Schools are expected to lay the foundation upon which knowledge can be built and equip students with the tools necessary to accomplish the construction. The role of the teacher in this building process is crucial to the type of structure the student can build. Whether you call it constructivism, discussion teaching, project-based learning, inquiry learning, or any of the other names given to the instructional strategies being suggested by education researchers, the key is getting students to become active participants in the process. While some students may be able to learn from eloquently delivered lectures and dynamic demonstrations, the majority of students cannot effectively retain and apply ideas communicated in this manner.

  8. Counselling on breastfeeding: assessing knowledge and skills.

    OpenAIRE

    Rea, M. F.; Venancio, S. I.; Martines, J. C.; Savage, F

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of the WHO/UNICEF 40-hour course "Breastfeeding counselling: a training course". The course was conducted in a maternity hospital which provides care to a low-income population in a metropolitan area in São Paulo, Brazil. Health workers from 60 health units were randomly assigned to be either participants (20) or controls (40), and their breastfeeding knowledge and skills were assessed before and immediately...

  9. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AMONG SOCIAL WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ????? ?????????? ?????

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of the specific activity of Social Workers and the revision of the existing views on their work professionally and efficiently designed to offer a range of activities aimed at improving the welfare and quality of life in difficult life situations.Purpose: a theoretical basis and practical necessity to prove the development of social responsibility among Social Workers, the structural components.Method or the methodology of the work: theoretical (analysis, synthesis, generalization, classification, classification, etc., empirical (study and summary of teaching experience, teaching experiment, observation, questionnaire, survey, testing methods, and the methods of mathematical processing data.Results: The problems related to the social professional activities of Social Workers. Results of research literature on the study clarified the notion of "social responsibility", the structural - its substantive components. Based on the material model developed in-house training as a means of social responsibility USO workers, formed phases models in-house training.Field of application of the results: The results of this study can be applied to social service institutions to develop the knowledge, skills and abilities, as structural components of social responsibility.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-1-20

  10. Evaluation of radiation protection educational level of professional exposed workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Serbia and Montenegro legislation concerning with radiation protection was upgrading after publication ICRP- 60 and B.S.S., No.115. Present Law on the Protection against Ionizing Radiation is in force from 1996. Among quite new issues in radiation protection regulations there was article relate to obligatory refresher training. Due to adverse political and economic situation through many years radiation protection regulations were not fulfill completely. The aim of this investigation was to get real view to education level of professional exposed workers. In Serbia and Montenegro the most of ionizing radiation sources are in medical use and the most exposed workers are radiographers and radiologists. The test was passed by 200 radiographers and 50 radiologists. Main groups of questions were: Radiation protection and safety; difference between safety and security; legislation: law and regulations; incidents, accidents and operational failures: recording, learning. Usually, knowledge from school pales. New quantities (as ambient and personal dose equivalent) are mostly unknown. It is easier to understand the real difference between safety and security than to understand linguistic differences. Discussing regulations workers are more interesting in syndicate regulations than radiation protection ones. Operational failures and incidents are hidden. Better to say: nobody dare to speak about them. The results imposed conclusion that regulatory body has to pay more attention to upraise safety culture and radiation protection education level of professional exposed workers. (authors)

  11. Competency development information system - Knowledge management based competency development management tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Knowledge identification, acquisition, sharing, preservation and measurement are some of the desired habits and processes necessary for knowledge management to be effective and contributes to increased innovation, organizational value, competitiveness and sustainability. The knowledge workers in the K-economic era are expected to be an innovative knowledge professional who are capable of managing their own work as well as their own competency development. Organizations however need to provide an environment, tools and policies to support and encourage learning and knowledge acquisition in all forms, methods and approaches beyond what is traditionally done. For an ordinary knowledge professional, he is only interested in developing the necessary competency to complete his assigned tasks and progress in his career. He would not be interested to learn and be lectured on knowledge management or learning principles and concepts. But for the organization it is not only important that its staff members understand and able to go through the process of acquiring the necessary skills to carry out their current and future tasks at the right time, but it has to ensure that what they learn or their individual knowledge is converted into organizational knowledge, utilised, shared and preserved. Hence it is important that tools are provided and policies are set in place to ensure that staff identify, acquire, utilise, share and preserve knowledge necessary for organizational sustainability and growth. A Competency Development Information System was recently developed to address the issue of inculcating the habit of identifying, acquiring, utilising, sharing, preserving and measuring knowledge among staff members hands-on by doing and repeating without having to learn the theory first. Besides that it helps organization manage competency development processes from analysis to planning, implementing and right through to evaluation. The process starts from capturing information on business or division level mission, vision, objectives, strategies, projects and activities. From here the desired competencies are identified and broken down into knowledge and knowledge content. From this process the organization knowledge taxonomy is derived. The next process is the knowledge needs analysis conducted at group level and then at individual level. The level of all identified knowledge necessary to carryout planned projects and activities are assessed at group and individual level on a scale of 1-10. This process is conducted in a group lead by the group leader or manager. The knowledge profile that results is presented graphically and the knowledge gap that has to be filled through some learning initiatives is clearly portrayed Having identified the gap, the next task is to identify the knowledge sources in the form of books, journal articles, websites, laboratories, experts, vendors, electronic media and organised training and these are keyed into the system. At this stage individual staff would have enough information to plan his learning and knowledge acquisition. He would then plan his learning using the training plan module. He can learn through self directed learning or go for courses, seminars, attachments, scientific visit, or Masters and PhD. The time, place, budget and source of fund need to be determined. The staff biodata and development plan is also captured by the system. After implementing the training, the staff must submit a report and lessons learnt to the system. The system requires that the supervisor evaluates the training effectiveness, reviews recommendations and lessons learnt that was submitted and support and facilitate application of learning and implementation of any useful recommendations as a result of the training All the learning initiatives should increase the knowledge and competency level. This assessment is conducted on a regular basis to evaluate the effectiveness of learning initiatives and investment in human resource development. This system assess competency level on a scale of 1-6, 6 bein g ex

  12. Health protection of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essential information on the health protection of radiation workers which has accumulated since the advent of nuclear fission thirty years ago is presented in simple terms. Basic facts on ionizing radiation, its measurement, and dosimetry are presented. Acute and chronic somatic and genetic effects are discussed with emphasis on prevention. Radiation protection standards and regulations are outlined, and methods for maintaining these standards are described. Diagnosis and treatment of radiation injury from external radiation and/or internally deposited radionuclides is considered generally as well as specifically for each radioisotope. The medical supervision of radiation workers, radiation accidents, atomic power plants, and medicolegal problems is also covered. (853 references) (U.S.)

  13. Cancer epidemiology of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation-induced cancer risk has been estimated mainly from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation study of atomic bomb survivors who were exposed to a high instant radiation dose. With the development of nuclear industries, the cancer risk has recently been estimated directly from epidemiological studies of radiation workers who were exposed to low-level protracted doses, though the results still remain controversial due to the lack of statistical power. The present article is to review, summarize and comment on epidemiological papers on radiation workers in various job types published up to 1994. (author). 83 refs

  14. Knowledge Management: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Morrow, Noreen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses issues related to knowledge management and organizational knowledge. Highlights include types of knowledge; the knowledge economy; intellectual capital; knowledge and learning organizations; knowledge management strategies and processes; organizational culture; the role of technology; measuring knowledge; and the role of the information…

  15. HRM in the Knowledge-based Economy: Is There an Afterlife?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raich, Mario

    2002-01-01

    Explains changes in the workplace attributed to the knowledge economy and poses questions for businesses, workers, and the human resources function. Outlines new expectations of and a new framework for human resource management. (SK)

  16. Occupational exposure in Greek industrial radiography laboratories (1996-2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 40 industrial radiography laboratories are operating in Greece using X-ray or gamma-ray sources and more than 250 workers occupationally exposed to ionising radiation in these facilities are monitored on a regular basis. This study presents the evolution of individual doses received by radiographers during the past years. The mean annual dose (MAD) of all workers as well as of exposed workers is estimated, and correlated to the types of laboratories and practices applied. The MAD of the exposed workers in industrial radiography is compared with the doses of workers in other specialties and with the doses of radiographers in other countries. Furthermore, the study attempts to propose dose constraints for the practices in industrial radiography, according to the BSS European directive and the relevant Greek radiation protection legislation. The proposed value was defined as the dose below which the annual doses of 75% of the exposed radiographers are expected to be included. (authors)

  17. Meta-tool support for knowledge acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge acquisition is a major bottleneck in expert system development. Specialized, or domain-oriented, knowledge acquisition tools can provide efficient support in restricted domains. However, the principal drawback with specialized knowledge acquisition tools is that the tool cost per expert system developed is typically high. Meta-level environments is an approach to support knowledge engineers in developing such knowledge acquisition tools. Meta-tools, i.e. tools for creating knowledge acquisition tools, can be used to specify and automatically generate knowledge acquisition tools for single domains and even single applications. This thesis presents an abstract architecture approach to the specification of knowledge acquisition tools. In this framework knowledge acquisition tools can be specified according to an abstract model of the target tool architecture. DOTS is a meta-tool that supports the abstract-architecture specification scheme. Knowledge engineers can use DOTS to specify and generate domain-oriented knowledge acquisition tools that can be used by domain experts directly. Two implementations of knowledge acquisition tools for different domains are presented in this thesis. These tools are representatives of knowledge acquisition tools that are desirable to generate form meta-tools. One of them was hand-crafted and specialized to the domain of protein purification planning. The other emerged form an evaluation of DOTS by developing a knowledge acquisition tool in a different domain (troubleshooting laboratory equipment). Results from this evaluation are also reported. (144 refs.) (au)

  18. Decommissioning of a Nuclear Research Laboratory in Hamburg, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The former laboratory was situated at a research centre in Hamburg and used between the 1970s and late 1980s for research on living animals and biological material. The two-storey laboratory was shut down at the end of the 1980s and was partially demolished. Most of removable laboratory equipment had been removed and also all of the radioactive materials. The rest of equipment like glove boxes, exhaust fumes and fixed installed furniture (e.g. a shielded source safe made of lead) and the major items remaining were three contaminated tanks in the cellar, contaminated mainly with 241Am, 137Cs and 152Eu. The whole building complex in which the laboratory was located is now scheduled for demolition. Decontamination of the residual contamination in the laboratory to achieve free release of the building was required prior to demolition. The owner decided to appoint a specialist contractor to carry out the decommissioning project. The first step of the contractor was to make a site visit to get an overview of what the laboratory decommissioning would require, including taking pictures, measuring dose rates and performing contamination measurements and collecting samples from several materials such as the sediment of the tanks. The main problem was that the competent radiation protection officer for this site had minimal knowledge of the history of this laboratory. No historical documents were available for the laboratory to identify the type of work performed in the past, and no former workers were available. Only some measurement values relating to the general contamination status of the laboratory, which had been made by the owner, were provided to the contractor. After collecting and reviewing all of the information, the contractor made an offer to the owner to undertake the work. The project included removal and transport of some materials off site to a decontamination facility. The decontamination of other materials (e.g. PVC pipes, pumps, valves, etc.) was not attempted because no benefit could be foreseen. The three tanks could not be transported to the decontamination facility because of their geometry and the radioactive contamination level. It was decided to decontaminate the tanks at the site by first removing the contaminated sediment as waste and then to clean the inner surface of the tanks using a scrubbing method. The end state of this project is to be the free release of the laboratory inventory (including the tanks) and the building structure. The regulator informed that he wished to inspect the site at the end of the decommissioning project.

  19. HEALTH OF MIGRANT WORKERS: A STUDY AT WORKER’S PLACE OF ORIGIN IN RURAL BIHAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at understanding health of migrant workers at their place of origin in Bihar (India. Migration is a social reality in which push and pull factors are the major determinants. In case of rural Bihar push factors are instrumental in large scale migration of workers. The research literature on Bihar suggests that lowest socio-economic indicators and high population density are primary reasons of the push enabled migration. This research among workers of scheduled caste found them at a double edged road. They are already characterised by weaker institutional framework, and when they migrate for work, they get uprooted from the existing set up at place of origin and simultaneously do not find space in the institutional setup at place of destination. This creates a situation where their behavioural patterns become vulnerable to the extent that it severely affects their health status and health seeking behaviour.

  20. Worker’s Competency and Perception toward Safety and Health on Forest Harvesting Operation in Indonesian Long Rotation Plantation Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efi Yuliati Yovi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite of prevention measures such as government regulations and recommendations through technical and managerial researches, unsafe working practices are still a common practice in Indonesia's forestry work, especially in tree harvesting operation.  In order to determine competency level of both field supervisor and workers as a baseline in developing participatory occupational safety and health (OSH protection program, a previously developed competency assessing instrument has been modified.  Further, the redesigned instrument was used to verify competency level of field supervisor and forestry workers (chainsawman, hauling workers, and truck drivers from 6 different forest sites with similar working method.  Results showed that both group of respondents had overestimated their competency level in practical aspect, indicated by the gap existence between OSH self-perception value and the standard-based assessment value.  The gap significantly occurred in knowledge, skill, and attitude elements; however working attitudes rest in the worst level.  This finding then indicated that improving working attitude should be taken as the goal priority in the OSH protection programs in Indonesia.  In short, when the discussion is pointed to practical activities, OSH protection program should adapt such strategies which put serious consideration on control mechanism.Keywords: tree harvesting, workers, safety and health, competency, attitude

  1. A study to assess the knowledge and practice on bio-medical waste management among the health care providers working in PHCs of Bagepalli Taluk with the view to prepare informational booklet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraju B

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proper handling and disposal of bio-medical waste is very imperative. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate knowledge and practice on bio-medical waste disposal leads to staid health and environment apprehension. Aim: To assess the knowledge and practice on bio-medical waste management among the health care providers working in primary health centres (PHCs of Bagepalli Taluk with the view to prepare informational booklet. Methods: In the present study, health care providers are categorized into four; Senior Health Workers (SHW, Junior Health Workers (JHW, Laboratory Technicians and Pharmacists. Periodical visits were made to analyze knowledge and practice about bio-medical waste management among health care providers of all PHCs in Bagepalli Taluk using questionnaires. Results: 29% were between the age of 21-30 years and 41-50 years, 26% were between the age group of 31-40 years and 16% were ? 51 years. 77 (64% were females. 85% of were multi-purpose branch health worker/auxiliary nurse midwives (MPBHW/ANM, 8% were laboratory technicians, and 7% were pharmacists. 39 (33% had 0-5 years of experience, 28 (23% had 6-10 years of experience, 18 (15% had 11-15 years of experience, and 35 (29% had ? 16 years of experience. 99 (83% did not have any in-service education and 21 (17% had attended in-service education regarding bio-medical waste management. Conclusion: The results obtained pointed towards lack of knowledge and awareness towards legislations on bio-medical waste management even among qualified hospital personnel. Consequently, there is inappropriate practice of biomedical waste handling and management, thus exposing themselves and the general public to health and environment hazards.

  2. Sense of responsibility in health workers source of job stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedi? Olesja

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Job stress is a great problem in developed countries of the world, but in Yugoslavia, it is increased due to additional reasons associated with economic crisis in the society. Health services and health workers are in particulary difficult conditions. The aim of this paper was to examine sources and causes of job stress in health workers. Material and methods The research was undertaken among health workers treated at Health Centre "Hospital" in Novi Sad. The study group included health workers - doctors nurses and laboratory workers, and the control group included the rest of non-medical staff. Adapted Siegrist questionnaire was used. Three factors were examined: extrinsic efforts (disturbances at work, sense of great job responsibility and the need for overtime work; intrinsic efforts (major criticism, thinking about the job from the early morning, getting nervous because of minor problems, discontentment because of unsolved problems at work, relaxation at home and so on, and low reward (respect from the superiors and colleagues, support and security at workplace. Answers were scored indicating intensity (high, moderate, low, not at alt. Statistic analysis included testing the level of significance in health workers in relation to non-medical staff (t test and Fisher's exact test. Results Applying the scoring system it has been established that health workers are exposed to greater job stress, great sense of very high job responsibility and frequent overtime work (p<0,001 than the control group. In regard to answers from the second group - intrinsic effort and low reward, there was no statistical significance between the study and control group. Generally high level of risk factors was established, especially presence of one or more risk factors. Discussion Job stress increases absenteeism, reduces work productivity, causes higher expenses of medical treatment, rehabilitation and staff retraining. It is of great importance to identify factors which cause job dissatisfaction in order to decrease them to the lowest level. Conclusion High sense of responsibility in health workers is a source of job stress.

  3. Knowledge Sharing for the Islamic Banking Sector in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdusalam A. A. Abuazoum

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the causes of resistance or support by knowledge workers to the sharing of knowledge. Today, banks are starting to understand the relevance and importance of knowledge sharing. They are also beginning to appreciate knowledge as the most significant and valued asset that leads to organizational performance. Hence, promising motivational factors are expected to be helpful in emphasizing the need for employees to share not only crucial knowledge but also new knowledge to further ensure that the banking industry possesses the competitive edge they seek. This study investigates and thoroughly examines the intrinsic (trust, learning, behavior and extrinsic (organization culture, reward system information technology motivational factors that encourage widespread knowledge sharing among bank employees, especially in the dynamic and ever-growing Islamic banking sector in Malaysia. The research findings provide useful information and help deepen the understanding of banks about motivating their employees’ tendencies to engage in knowledge sharing practices.

  4. Pay Policies for Student Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Perry

    1975-01-01

    A survey of all types of colleges in nine southern states revealed that 37 percent pay the minimum wage to all student workers and 63 percent pay differential rates. Survey results are reported and a plan for differentiated pay rates based on job classification, seniority, and merit is outlined. (JT)

  5. Healthcare Workers and Workplace Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Pinar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence is a threatening worldwide public health problem. Healthcare workers have under particular risk of workplace violence, and they are being exposed to violence 4-16 times more than other service workers. The frequency of violence in the health sector in the world has indicated in different range of results since there is no consistent definition of workplace violence and differences in research methodology (any type of violence: 22,0% - 60,0%; physical violence: 2,6% - 57,0%; verbal violence: 24,3% - 82,0%; sexual harassment: %1,9 - 10,5%. All healthcare workers have right to work in a safe working place. The safety of healthcare workers should deserve the same priority as patient safety. Various risk factors including social, cultural, environmental, organizational and personal elements play a role in the formation of workplace violence that is very important for our country. Considering all those factors, the workplace violence in health sector should be seriously handled and the strategies and policies must be developed for prevention. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 315-326

  6. Policies for displaced workers: An american perspective

    OpenAIRE

    O'Leary, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    American employment policy for displaced workers started in the Great Depression with programs for the employment service, unemployment insurance, work experience, and direct job creation. Assistance for workers displaced by foreign competition emerged in the 1960s along with formalized programs for occupational job skill training. The policy focus on displaced workers was sharpened in the 1980s through the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act and the Economic Dislocation and Wor...

  7. Brucella serology in abattoir workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brucellosis is an occupational hazard with those particularly at risk either living in close proximity with animals or handling them. It is a public health problem in developing countries with adverse health implications both for animals and human beings as well as economic implications for individuals and communities. The Objectives were to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among abattoir workers of Lahore District and to determine the association of brucellosis with nature of job of the workers. Data was collected in April 2008. It was a cross-sectional study in which four main slaughterhouses in Lahore were included. The slaughterhouse workers were divided into seven strata based on their nature of job: meat sellers, slaughterers, animal keepers, drivers, cleaners, loaders and vets/paravets. A total of 360 such workers were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Sampling frames for different strata were prepared and from each frame, proportionate numbers, were selected through simple random method using random number tables. Data was obtained using a questionnaire. Additionally blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-Brucella Immunoglobulin G (IgG) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The seroprevalence of anti-Brucella IgG was found to be 21.7%. A statistically significant difference was observed between the immune status of the respondents and their nature of job (p=0.005), age groups (p=0.013), and duration of job (p=0.003). The disease is an important public health problem in Pakistan. The disease can be prevented in the slaughterhouse workers through the use of personal protective devices. Public health authorities should educate the general public regarding prevention of the disease with specific emphasis on people working in slaughterhouses. (author)

  8. Ergonomics on the Build Colombian Health of Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Ernesto Luna García

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The health of workers in Colombia traverses multiple challenges and difficulties, starting from the national, political and economic context, crossroads living social security system and the trends in the world of work. Faced with this situation, the ergonomics as a field of knowledge and action has multiple possibilities of contribution, which depend on not to see this disciplined reduced to a technical dimension, but encourage their contribution within a framework of action located and contextualized. Although it has emphasized the action of ergonomics in its contribu-tion to the prevention of muscle-skeletal disorders, their contribution to the health of workers can be very important, in a setting of search of the labor and social welfare as a complement to the prevention of occupational risks.

  9. The Worker's Cooperative = Cooperativas de Trabajadores Duenos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Mayra Lee

    Written in Spanish and English (on facing pages), this manual is a practical guide for those interested in forming a worker-owned cooperative. It includes examples based on the personal experience of teaching about cooperativism and worker-owned cooperatives to a group of construction workers with diverse levels of education; vocabulary and…

  10. Child Welfare Worker Caseload: What's Just Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamatani, Hide; Engel, Rafael; Spjeldnes, Solveig

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to establish a caseload standard for child welfare workers. Understanding reasonable workload expectations for child welfare workers is a cornerstone of quality service provision and the recruitment and retention of qualified workers. Because of the analytic complexity of this question, qualitative and quantitative methods…

  11. Psychological attitudes of nuclear industry workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was carried out within the frame of occupational medicine on the psychological attitudes of workers in the nuclear industry towards ionizing radiations. Three aspects were considered: awareness of the danger; feeling of safety in the working environment; workers' feelings following incidents or accidents; satisfaction level felt by the workers in the plant

  12. Linking Knowledge Producers and Knowledge Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, W. C., Jr.

    Three different approaches to the problem of linking educational knowledge producers and knowledge users are studied in this paper. First, data are reported describing the knowledge generation and knowledge communication behavior of twelve successful innovators. Second, characteristics of twelve programs, conceived to train persons as change…

  13. Appendix XX: Nuclear Energy Knowledge Portal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Nuclear Energy Knowledge Portal is to offer professionals in the nuclear field a direct and efficient access path to scientific and technical expert knowledge. Knowledge ultimately resides with people, it comprises the information and skills that a knowledgeable person commands. In complex systems, knowledge may also exist in a distributed form: A group may be able to succeed in tasks, which exceed the knowledge of every one individual member of the group. In the latter case, there must be at least one person who has the additional organizational knowledge of where key subject knowledge resides within the group. Individual experts may gain knowledge in three ways: - by studying (reading and understanding documented information); - by example and explanation from an expert (on-the-job training, tutoring); - by research (observation, discovery, reasoning). Research is the only way of creating original knowledge which is either truly novel or has existed before, but was lost without sufficient record. It is also the slowest, most expensive and in some cases (failed experiments) the most dangerous way. However, given time and resources, research work will always enable mankind to regain lost knowledge, how ever expensive that may be. While the IAEA has been actively coordinating and fostering nuclear research and development for many years, there are other aspects of nuclear knowledge management, which are now gaining in importance, too. In particular the stimulation of interest in the nuclear field in the younger generation and activities associated with succession planning are increasingly recognized as important aspects of knowledge management. Experts who are presently leaving the nuclear field due to retirement or because of professional re-orientation have in many cases gained their knowledge by direct research (scientists) or have been instructed by the original researchers (engineers). Ideally, they should now pass their knowledge on to the next generation of nuclear workers. However, because of the generally reduced interest in the nuclear field, the nuclear workforce is shrinking in a number of countries and it becomes therefore more and more difficult to extend or even to maintain humankind's present knowledge in the nuclear field. The main function of the proposed nuclear knowledge portal is therefore to support and enhance the existing infrastructure for knowledge transmission. The portal will facilitate access to archived materials (on-line and off-line) and foster professional contacts in academic and industrial contexts by identifying centers of excellence (universities, institutes, industries) where nuclear knowledge presently resides

  14. Indoor Air Quality Assessment with Emphasis on Flour Dust: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Random Sample from Iranian Bakeries Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Seyedtaghi Mirmohammadi

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates the time weighted average (TWA) exposure of bakeries workers to the particulate matters concentration in the randomly selected bakeries workers. Air samples were collected from worker inhalation area in the workplaces by personal sampling method (PTFE Membrane SKC Filter with 25 mm, 2.0-?m pore sizes and SKC personal samplers pump with flow rate of 2 L/min). Filters were weighted by digital balance before and after sampling in the controlled laboratory....

  15. The Knowledge Retrieval Matrix : Codification and Personification as Separate Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    AbstractPrevious discussions of knowledge transfer within multinational corporations tended tofocus on the process as an isolated phenomenon and on the factors that impede the process.Less attention has been given to how the individual knowledge worker retrieves or identifies,and then decodes knowledge accessed from the corporate memory. We suggest thatmultinational companies (MNCs) solve knowledge retrieval problems by implementingvirtual communities of practice - intranet-based collaborative forums. Codification andpersonalization strategies have previously been emphasized as an either-or solution. Thesevirtual communities of practice combine the codification and personalization strategies,simultaneously utilizing the advantages of two approaches.

  16. Assessment of hypertension levels control and management (hypertension "AUDIT" project). Study in a population of workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carp, C; En?chescu, D; David, I; Nandri?, G; Calangiu, G; Coman, I; Apetrei, E; Stoian, I; Ginghin?, C

    1990-01-01

    The hypertension AUDIT project (WHO) was used for the study of large populations of workers in two Romanian industrial centers, Slatina and Sibiu, constituted into two main groups. The objects of the study were: the detection of new cases of arterial hypertension (AH) and of their proportion as compared with older cases, the assessment of the quality of diagnosis control and treatment methodology as well as the estimation of the patient's attitude regarding the conditions of treatment and of the physician's knowledge and attitude regarding AH. Group I (Slatina) included 22,839 workers and the program was applied in 15,740 randomly chosen subjects. Group II (Sibiu) included 14,874 workers of whom 2,838 were randomly chosen for study. From a total of 606 (6.20%) subjects aged 35 to 64 years with AH in both groups, 494 (81.51%) were older cases and 112 (18.48%) were newly detected. The prevalence of AH was found to increase with age and to be higher in women aged 55 to 64 years. The treatment in older cases from both groups was considered effective in 232 cases (46.96%) (of which 26 (11.2%) with overtreatment) and insufficient in 262 (53%). The reasons alleged by the patients for the late detection of AH were the absence of symptoms and a casual interest for their state of health. The risk factors were systematically checked. Smoking was found in 30.36% of the subjects in group I and in 31% of those in group II. The use of diagnostic laboratory procedures was corresponding to the present recommendations. The nonpharmaceutic therapy was frequently recommended, especially reduction of salt consumption. Besides that, pharmaceutic treatment was indicated in most of the patients (63% in group I and 90% in group II). Diuretics (41.26% in group I and 75% in group II), and beta blocking drugs (35.3% in group I and 70% in group II) were the most frequently administered and in a lesser proportion vasodilators with central or peripheral action, calcium blockers, Rauwolfia and angiotensin conversion enzyme inhibitors. The consumer inquiry showed satisfactory compliance of patients, most of them took their tablets regularly, were satisfied with the medical assistance and preferred to consult the same physician. The data of the physician inquiry regarding diagnosis treatment of AH and professional training also proved satisfactory. The use of the AUDIT project has allowed a complex estimation of AH in the groups studied and will prove useful for a more efficient control of AH in the whole population. PMID:2270421

  17. What is Tacit Knowledge in NPP Maintenance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants have recognized the importance of preserving critical knowledge due to many nuclear experts retiring simultaneously in the near future. The different characteristics of explicit and tacit knowledge have implications on how these types of knowledge can and should be preserved and transferred from the retiring experts to the novices in the NPPs. This paper provides a literature review of the characteristics of tacit knowledge. In addition the DIAMOND model of tacit knowledge in NPP maintenance is presented. In conclusion: In addition to knowing how to perform maintenance tasks (having procedural tacit knowledge), the maintenance workers have to understand the 'what' and 'why' perspectives of the work, e.g. have appropriate cognitive tacit knowledge on the NPP systems, processes and devices as well as knowledge on the reasons and backgrounds for different behaviors. We need to take into account the various aspects of the tacit knowledge when we are determining the methods and aims for sharing tacit knowledge between the employees and especially between experts and novices. Sharing tacit knowledge is not a new invention but observation and imitation (i.e. apprenticeship) is probably the oldest method for teaching and learning. The current emphasis on workplace learning, however, further emphasizes this and the idea that people should become more aware and reflective, and hence, potentially more in control of what and how they learn (Alred and Garvey, 2000). Therefore, as learners and experts are not passive but actively shape their cognitive and procedural tacit knowledge (mainly unconsciously), we need to actively involve them into designing employee training programs and competence development efforts. (authors)

  18. Biological Risks and Laboratory-Acquired Infections: A Reality That Cannot be Ignored in Health Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Ana Cláudia; García Díez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Advances and research in biotechnology have applications over a wide range of areas, such as microbiology, medicine, the food industry, agriculture, genetically modified organisms, and nanotechnology, among others. However, research with pathogenic agents, such as virus, parasites, fungi, rickettsia, bacterial microorganisms, or genetic modified organisms, has generated concern because of their potential biological risk - not only for people, but also for the environment due to their unpredictable behavior. In addition, concern for biosafety is associated with the emergence of new diseases or re-emergence of diseases that were already under control. Biotechnology laboratories require biosafety measures designed to protect their staff, the population, and the environment, which may be exposed to hazardous organisms and materials. Laboratory staff training and education is essential, not only to acquire a good understanding about the direct handling of hazardous biological agents but also knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenicity, and human susceptibility to the biological materials used in research. Biological risk can be reduced and controlled by the correct application of internationally recognized procedures such as proper microbiological techniques, proper containment apparatus, adequate facilities, protective barriers, and special training and education of laboratory workers. To avoid occupational infections, knowledge about standardized microbiological procedures and techniques and the use of containment devices, facilities, and protective barriers is necessary. Training and education about the epidemiology, pathogenicity, and biohazards of the microorganisms involved may prevent or decrease the risk. In this way, the scientific community may benefit from the lessons learned in the past to anticipate future problems. PMID:25973418

  19. Knowledge management, codification and tacit knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Kimble, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. This article returns to a theme addressed in Vol. 8(1) October 2002 of the journal: knowledge management and the problem of managing tacit knowledge. Method. The article is primarily a review and analysis of the literature associated with the management of knowledge. In particular, it focuses on the works of a group of economists who have studied the transformation of knowledge into information through the process of codification and the knowledge transaction topography they...

  20. CardioKnowledge: A Knowledge Management Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Montoni, Mariella A.; Galotta, Catia; Rocha, Ana Regina; Rabelo, Álvaro; Rabelo, Lisia

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management supports decision-making by capturing and analyzing key performance indicators, providing visibility into the effectiveness of the business model, and by concentrating collaborative work and employee knowledge reviews on critical business problems. CardioKnowledge is a knowledge management environment based on the business and process requirements of a health care organization in Cardiology. CardioKnowledge supports organizational processes in order to facilitate the comm...