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Rise of the Knowledge Worker  

CERN Multimedia

A generation of magnificent scholars, from Peter Drucker to Jack Welch, have taught us that understanding business issues and the profound changes the world's economy is undergoing makes sense if set in historical context. Today the best managers in the world demand to know how things came to be as they are. This collection of essays is designed to give the reader an historical perspective on the fastest growing sector of the work force: knowledge workers. The articles tell you how knowledge workers evolved from manufacturing and agricultural jobs and then go on to give you some insight as to

Cortada, James W

1998-01-01

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Career development of South African knowledge workers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The demand for knowledge workers is on the increase, yet little is known about their career perceptions and attitudes. The objective of this article is to determine the factors affecting the career development of knowledge workers in South Africa. Part-time learners of a postgraduate course were used as a purposive sample and 82 completed questionnaires were received. The results of the online survey provide an interesting look at the unique career issues knowledge worker (more) s experience from a South African perspective. Issues identified dealt with the lack of importance placed upon organisational training, the lack of interest in temporary work assignments and the low importance placed on learning from mentors. Organisations need to take note of their reward structures as knowledge workers have indicated that promotions and rewards based on their knowledge is insufficient.

van Staden, Roelof; du Toit, Adeline

2011-01-01

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Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do not predict knowledge workers’ proposed future length of service.Factor analysis revealed seven underlying dimensions of retention cognitions. Cluster analysis revealed nine distinct clusters of knowledge workers with regard to their retention cognitions. High levels of individualism, need for challenge and focus on personal development were demonstrated. The implications of these findings are discussed. OpsommingEen van die eienskappe van kenniswerkers is hulle hoë vlak van mobiliteit. Die koste van arbeidsomset van hierdie sleutelbronne is hoog in beide finansiële en nie-finansiële terme. Daar bestaan dus ’n behoefte om die faktore wat onderliggend is aan die retensiekognisies van kenniswerkers te verstaan. Data is ingesamel van 306 kenniswerkers in voltydse diens wat ’n wye reeks demografiese groeperings verteenwoordig. Die resultate dui daarop dat werktevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid nie die kenniswerkers se verwagte lengte van diens voorspel nie. Faktorontleding het sewe onderliggende dimensies van retensiekognisies blootgelê. ’n Bondelontleding het nege duidelike bondels van kenniswerkers ten opsigte van hulle retensiekognisies onderskei. Hoë vlakke van individualisme, behoefte aan uitdaging en fokus op persoonlike ontwikkeling is aangedui. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

Margie Sutherland; Wilhelm Jordaan

2004-01-01

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Cyborgs and Knowledge Workers? Gendered Constructions of Workers in Vocational Education and Training.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussions of knowledge workers are gender blind and ignore or devalue women's work. A more useful conception of the worker as cyborg illuminates questions of ownership of skills and knowledge and the blurring of boundaries between humans and technologies. (SK)

Connole, Helen

1996-01-01

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User Interface Cultures of Mobile Knowledge Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Information and communication tools (ICTs) have become a major influencer of how modern work is carried out. Methods of user-centered design do not however take into account the full complexity of technology and the user interface context the users live in. User interface culture analysis aims providing to designers new ways and strategies to better take into account the current user interface environment when designing new products. This paper describes the reasons behind user interface culture analysis and shows examples of its usage when studying mobile and distributed knowledge workers.

Petri Mannonen

2008-01-01

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On the Management Based on Characteristics of Knowledge Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available How to manage knowledge workers effectively is an important project for most managers. Because of knowledge workers’ different characteristics from common workers, the effective management for them should be based on their unique characteristics. Therefore, a systematic, comprehensive, and pertinent management strategy is necessary.

Jinghua Wu

2009-01-01

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Knowledge workers & knowledge utilization. Professionalizing interchange of knowledge between practice and science  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the era of "Knowledge Societies" innovations and expertise are often called the most important resources (Daniel Bell; Peter Drucker) especially for organizations, and the knowledge worker becomes a famous object of sociological research (e.g. Helmut Willke). In theories of organizational learnin...

Hessler, Gudrun; Micheel, Heinz-Günter; Unzicker, Kai

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Outdoor Workers and Sun Protection: Knowledge and Behaviour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at high risk of developing skin cancer. Primary prevention can potentiallyreduce the incidence of skin cancer in this group. This study aimed to determine theknowledge and sun protective behaviour of outdoor workers towards skin cancer. A shortquestionnaire was used to collect data from workers on construction sites during workinghours. Despite workers having knowledge of the risks of skin cancer their use of sun protectionwas less than satisfactory, particularly considering their cumulative exposure.Workplace health education programs for outdoor workers addressing sun protection areindicated, as is further research to increase understanding of issues workers have withsun protection in the workplace.

Jane Cioffi; Lesley Wilkes; Jess O'Brien

2012-01-01

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Knowledge Worker Roles and Actions - Results of Two Empirical Studies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reinhardt, W., Schmidt, B., Sloep, P. B., & Drachsler, H. (2011). Knowledge Worker Roles and Actions - Results of Two Empirical Studies. Knowledge and Process Management, 18(3), 150–174. doi: 10.1002/kpm.378 Online: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/kpm.378/abstract , This paper proposes a typ...

Reinhardt, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Benedikt; Sloep, Peter; Drachsler, Hendrik

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Knowledge, attitude, and practice of dyeing and printing workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview . Results: The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (?10.7). When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s), all the workers agreed that dye(s) will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE) such as rubber hand gloves during work. Conclusion: The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.

Paramasivam Parimalam; Raghavan Premalatha; Srinivasan Padmini; Kumar Ganguli

2010-01-01

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Character and Effective Leadership of the Knowledge Worker  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ulrich in the forward to the Zenger and Folkman (2002) book, ''The Extraordinary Leader'', wrote about the importance of character in leadership stating, ''Everything about great leaders radiates from character. Character improves the probability of exhibiting strong interpersonal skill. Some of this perceived character is innate . . . but more is driven by the leader's self-awareness and interactions with others'' (p. ix). The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership effectiveness and character using leader-managers of knowledge workers as the subject sample. Findings indicated that character, particularly those factors associated with honesty, setting the example, and valuing and strengthening others, were what set the most effective leader-managers apart from their peers. Technical competence and self-efficacy were found to be common characteristics of the study sample as was a drive for results. Who a leader-manager is, his/her substance, was found in this study to differentiate the ''best'' leader-managers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By their character, leader-managers establish the environment in which knowledge workers contribute and grow. As found by Pfeiffer (2000), Leaders of companies that experience smaller gaps between what they know and what they do (to turn knowledge into action), understand that their most important task is not necessarily to make strategic decisions, or, for that matter any decisions at all. Their task is to help build systems of practice that produce a more reliable transformation of knowledge into action. Leaders create environments, reinforce norms, and help set expectations through what they do. (p. 261) In other words, as confirmed by this research study, their task is to model the way. Study results also confirmed Ulrich's (1996) supposition that to create the ''air'' in which employees work, leaders have the personal characteristics that engender trust and commitment. In other words, as study results confirmed, the most effective leader-managers establish trusting relationships and strengthen others--they enable others; and, are just, fair, sincere, and recognize contributions--they encourage the heart. Based on study findings, the leadership development model proposed was founded on the premise that character can be developed, particularly if done so through assessment and challenging assignments, with coaching, mentoring, and peer network support. However, development of character requires a shift in our leadership development programs. What causes this shift is a focus on learning by doing through challenging assignments and teaching others rather than learning through event focused assessment and course work. Character cannot be learned in the classroom; it needs to be developed through experience and then learned by feedback, reflection, coaching, and teaching others. Study findings indicated that knowledge workers want to be encouraged, believed in and lead by those they trust to inspire them to accomplish the goals and objectives of the organization. To cause a workforce to generate intellectual capital for the organization, study findings found that the leader-manager's ''character'' does make a difference.

Khoury, A E

2005-04-20

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[Protection of medical diagnostic laboratory workers against biohazards].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Medical diagnostic laboratories form a particular occupational environment, in which workers have contact with patients and potentially infectious biological materials thus it should be acknowledged that it poses a significantly increased risk to health of laboratory workers. The risk directly depends on the kind of microbes present in a biological material and natural resistance to infections of individual workers. Therefore, the adopted technical and organizational solutions, properly worked out and obeyed procedures assuring safety work with biological material and microbes and properly trained laboratory staff play an essential role in reducing the risk. The risk of contact with microbes among laboratory workers is higher in Poland than in a number of other countries because hermetic devices for diagnostic analyzes and safety blood sampling systems are not always in use. The most important methods of infectious diseases prevention among laboratory workers are to protect them against direct contact with biological material, to apply vaccinations and to implement proper post-exposure procedures. Appropriate qualifications and habits of workers are of relevance to prevent infections in laboratories. A difficult financial situation of health care in Poland and other economic reasons can significantly increase the risk of infections and endanger health and safety of laboratory workers. It is necessary to develop practical instructions aimed at improving occupational safety to protect this occupational group against harmful effects of biological agents.

Kozajda A; Szadkowska-Sta?czyk I

2011-01-01

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Motivation Strategies for Knowledge Workers: Evidences and Challenges Motivation Strategies for Knowledge Workers: Evidences and Challenges Motivation Strategies for Knowledge Workers: Evidences and Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many studies have been performed previously to investigate different theories of motivation and, more specifically, how to motivate technical professionals. Through a questionnaire survey carried out on 376 development engineers, identified as “knowledge workers” by managers in their firms, this study identifies what methods are used in industry to motivate these individuals, what works and what does not. While many aspects of standard incentives and reward systems used to motivate technical professionals in general are also motivating for technical visionaries, these results indicate that they are motivated by additional factors not generally discussed in the literature. Many studies have been performed previously to investigate different theories of motivation and, more specifically, how to motivate technical professionals. Through a questionnaire survey carried out on 376 development engineers, identified as “knowledge workers” by managers in their firms, this study identifies what methods are used in industry to motivate these individuals, what works and what does not. While many aspects of standard incentives and reward systems used to motivate technical professionals in general are also motivating for technical visionaries, these results indicate that they are motivated by additional factors not generally discussed in the literature. Many studies have been performed previously to investigate different theories of motivation and, more specifically, how to motivate technical professionals. Through a questionnaire survey carried out on 376 development engineers, identified as “knowledge workers” by managers in their firms, this study identifies what methods are used in industry to motivate these individuals, what works and what does not. While many aspects of standard incentives and reward systems used to motivate technical professionals in general are also motivating for technical visionaries, these results indicate that they are motivated by additional factors not generally discussed in the literature.

Alberto Petroni; Pierluigi Colacino

2008-01-01

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Knowledge-mediated retrieval of laboratory observations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Intelligent medical applications including agents, clinical decision support systems, and expert systems can benefit from components that expose the meanings of medical concepts. We have endeavored to create an ontology for laboratory observations and to make the ontology accessible in a distributed environment through a knowledge mediator offering several services. To date we have created two such services, one service to mediate the retrieval of laboratory observations and an auxiliary service to facilitate the mapping of units of measure to LOINC property-types. We report progress and insights on the development of our ontology and related knowledge mediator.

Hsu C; Goldberg HS

1999-01-01

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The workers role in knowledge management and sustainability policies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on the concepts of sustainability and knowledge management, this article seeks to identify points of contact between the two themes through an exploratory study of existing literature. The first objective is to find, in international literature, the largest number of papers jointly related to the theme of knowledge management and sustainability. In these documents, the authors looked at the kind of relationship existing between the two themes and what the benefits introduced in organizations are. Based on an ergonomic point of view, the second objective of this article is to analyze the role of the worker (whether at the strategic or operational level) and his importance in this context. The results demonstrate that there is very little literature that addresses the two themes together. The few papers found, however, can be said to show the many advantages of introducing sustainability policies supported by adequate knowledge management. Very little has been studied with regards to the role of workers, which could be interpreted as meaning that little importance is given to the proactive role they may play. On the other hand, there is a high potential for future research in these areas, based on the high level of consideration of workers in knowledge management and sustainability literature, as well as in literature in the areas of ergonomics and sociology.

Bolis I; Brunoro C; Sznelwar LI

2012-01-01

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In Search of Influence - Leading Knowledge Workers with Care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Managers in Research and development (R&D) are in search of influence because knowledge workers valueautonomy and dislike direct supervision. The purpose of this article is to explore if and how leadership support isconnected to influence. Through interviews with knowledge workers, it is evident that they expect their managerto be supportive and take an interest in them as complete persons. Observations and interviews with managersreveal that they fulfill these expectations by engaging in listening and chatting. In addition, the data alsoillustrates that managers care about their employees. The analysis shows that manager’s activities of care canindeed be a source of social influence, illustrating close connection between emotion and influence. Thisintertwinement should inspire future research to look deeper and broader for potential sources of influence in theleadership process, but also to acknowledge the importance of leadership in the setting of innovation.

Ola Edvin Vie

2012-01-01

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Knowledge work difficulty factors: an empirical study based on different groups of knowledge workers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The determination of the difficulty factor in knowledge work can be important for improving the performance of knowledge workers. In this article a regression model for investigating the difficulty of knowledge based activities (KBAs) is proposed. Four factors are considered in the model: Uncertainty, Variability of information, Amount of information and Level of skill and expertise. An empirical study based on 119 jobs from three different groups of knowledge workers (i. (more) e. managerial, professional and clerical) shows that there are significant differences between the difficulty of the KBAs in managerial, clerical and professional jobs, and that managerial KBAs are more difficult than the KBAs of the other two groups. Furthermore, regression models indicate that Level of skill and expertise is the most influential factor in the difficulty of the KBAs in each of the three groups.

Dahooie, Jalil Heidary; Afrazeh, Abbas; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Moathar; Arsalan, Mohammad Reza Ghezel

2012-01-01

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THE MANAGEMENT OF KNOWLEDGE WORKERS – KEY FACTOR OF SUCCES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The traditional companies are built on familiar bedrock of buildings, plants, and inventories. Competitive advantage is viewed in terms of scale and volume stemming from high-capacity use of machine-based factories. Such an approach fails to recognize how the leverage of knowledge is becoming a key to long-term success. Nowadays, organizations must recognize that power resides in the minds of their best people, who are diffused throughout the business and the organizations are becoming more dependent on people than ever before. The recruitment and the employment of knowledge workers are becoming very important issues from Romanian managers. The competitiveness is the only chance to deal with a very challenging market, especially after European integration. In this paper we present the results of a survey of the opinions of Romanian managers about the most effective strategies for recruitment, motivation and retention the knowledge workers. The study investigated two groups of managers: the first group included the managers who never were involved in activities related to human resources, and the second, the managers who have been involved. The managers from the first group chose theoretical the strategies they considered most effective; the managers for the second group indicated the strategies they applied.

Claudia-Elena ?UCLEA; Gabriela ?IGU

2007-01-01

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Motivation Strategies for Knowledge Workers: Evidences and Challenges  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many studies have been performed previously to investigate different theories of motivation and, more specifically, how to motivate technical professionals. Through a questionnaire survey carried out on 376 development engineers, identified as “knowledge workers” by managers in their firms, this study identifies what methods are used in industry to motivate these individuals, what works and what does not. While many aspects of standard incentives and reward systems used to motivate technical professionals in general are also motivating for technical visionaries, these results indicate that they are motivated by additional factors not generally discussed in the literature.

Alberto Petroni; Pierluigi Colacino

2008-01-01

20

Guidelines for Biosafety Training Programs for Workers Assigned to BSL-3 Research Laboratories.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Guidelines for Biosafety Training Programs for Workers Assigned to BSL-3 Research Laboratories were developed by biosafety professionals who oversee training programs for the 2 national biocontainment laboratories (NBLs) and the 13 regional biocontainment laboratories (RBLs) that participate in the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) NBL/RBL Network. These guidelines provide a general training framework for biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) high-containment laboratories, identify key training concepts, and outline training methodologies designed to standardize base knowledge, understanding, and technical competence of laboratory personnel working in high-containment laboratories. Emphasis is placed on building a culture of risk assessment-based safety through competency training designed to enhance understanding and recognition of potential biological hazards as well as methods for controlling these hazards. These guidelines may be of value to other institutions and academic research laboratories that are developing biosafety training programs for BSL-3 research.

Homer LC; Alderman TS; Blair HA; Brocard AS; Broussard EE; Ellis RP; Frerotte J; Low EW; McCarthy TR; McCormick JM; Newton JM; Rogers FC; Schlimgen R; Stabenow JM; Stedman D; Warfield C; Ntiforo CA; Whetstone CT; Zimmerman D; Barkley E

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Guidelines for Biosafety Training Programs for Workers Assigned to BSL-3 Research Laboratories.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Guidelines for Biosafety Training Programs for Workers Assigned to BSL-3 Research Laboratories were developed by biosafety professionals who oversee training programs for the 2 national biocontainment laboratories (NBLs) and the 13 regional biocontainment laboratories (RBLs) that participate in the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) NBL/RBL Network. These guidelines provide a general training framework for biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) high-containment laboratories, identify key training concepts, and outline training methodologies designed to standardize base knowledge, understanding, and technical competence of laboratory personnel working in high-containment laboratories. Emphasis is placed on building a culture of risk assessment-based safety through competency training designed to enhance understanding and recognition of potential biological hazards as well as methods for controlling these hazards. These guidelines may be of value to other institutions and academic research laboratories that are developing biosafety training programs for BSL-3 research. PMID:23477631

Homer, Lesley C; Alderman, T Scott; Blair, Heather Ann; Brocard, Anne-Sophie; Broussard, Elaine E; Ellis, Robert P; Frerotte, Jay; Low, Eleanor W; McCarthy, Travis R; McCormick, Jessica M; Newton, JeT'Aime M; Rogers, Francine C; Schlimgen, Ryan; Stabenow, Jennifer M; Stedman, Diann; Warfield, Cheryl; Ntiforo, Corrie A; Whetstone, Carol T; Zimmerman, Domenica; Barkley, Emmett

2013-03-11

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Mortality among workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Workers employed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were potentially exposed to a range of chemical and physical hazards, many of which are poorly characterized. We compared the observed deaths among workers to expectations based upon US mortality rates. METHODS: The cohort included 22,831 workers hired between January 1, 1943 and December 31, 1984. Vital status and cause of death information were ascertained through December 31, 2008. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed separately for males and females using US and Tennessee mortality rates; SMRs for men were tabulated separately for monthly-, weekly-, and hourly-paid workers. RESULTS: Hourly-paid males had more deaths due to cancer of the pleura (SMR?=?12.09, 95% CI: 4.44, 26.32), cancer of the bladder (SMR?=?1.89, 95% CI: 1.26, 2.71), and leukemia (SMR?=?1.33, 95% CI: 0.87, 1.93) than expected based on US mortality rates. Female workers also had more deaths than expected from cancer of the bladder (SMR?=?2.20, 95% CI: 1.20, 3.69) and leukemia (SMR?=?1.64, 95% CI: 1.09, 2.36). The pleural cancer excess has only appeared since the 1980s, approximately 40 years after the start of operations. The bladder cancer excess was larger among workers who also had worked at other Oak Ridge nuclear weapons facilities, while the leukemia excess was among people who had not worked at other DOE facilities. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational hazards including asbestos and ionizing radiation may contribute to these excesses.

Richardson DB; Wing S; Keil A; Wolf S

2013-07-01

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Contributing Knowledge and Knowledge Workers: The Role of Chinese Universities in the Knowledge Economy  

Science.gov (United States)

|As China has appeared only recently as an important knowledge producer with growing global economic significance, little is known internationally about how these processes develop and are managed within China. The rapidly expanding Chinese higher education system is playing an increasingly important role in China's knowledge economy and therefore…

Chen, Shuang-Ye

2012-01-01

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Relationship of stress and knowledge workers productivity in Mess-Sarcheshmeh Company  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and aims   the stress is creating from high density, complexity and long hours of work. Stress is higher among Knowledge workers because of the nature of knowledge work based on the complexity and high focus, aside from the Millennium Challenge is the productivity of   Knowledge workers. The aim of this study reviews the relationship between stress and productivity of Knowledge workers at the Mess-Sarcheshmeh company.     Methods   in this cross sectional study was studied 120 Knowledge workers of Mess-Sarcheshmeh Company. Data in this study were extracted through interviews and completing of performance measurement questionnaire, stress measurement questionnaire and Knowledge   workers productivity measurement questionnaire.     Results   The group of Computer Programming has highest productivity and job satisfaction,  and stress in this group is more desirable. Stress in the 95 percent confidence level and loyalty and job satisfaction in the 90 percent confidence level are associated with knowledge workers productivity. Job satisfaction has most effect on knowledge workers productivity.     Conclusion   The findings of this study indicate that not only stress has harmful effects suffering of people to emotional and physical diseases. But also, it affects on the productivity of managers and knowledge workers. Deal with it, which need for proper proactive planning in this area, who should participate in planning the annual interest adhered.  

A. Najafi; A. Afrazeh; M. Jahanshahi

2010-01-01

25

A survey of environmental service workers' knowledge and opinions regarding environmental cleaning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Environmental service workers play an important role in the prevention of health care-associated infections. Environmental service workers working at a Veterans Administration Medical Center completed the Environmental Service Workers' Knowledge and Opinions Regarding Environmental Cleaning Survey. The findings from this survey suggest the need for further education of environmental service workers regarding the different types of pathogens that are spread by contaminated environmental surfaces and which of these are killed with bleach.

Jennings A; Sitzlar B; Jury L

2013-02-01

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Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for Prediction of Knowledge Worker Productivity Based on Real Coded Genetic Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Improving knowledge worker productivity has been one of the most important tasks of the century. However, we have few measures or management interventions to make such improvement possible, and it is difficult to identify patterns that should be followed by knowledge workers because systems and processes in an organization are often regarded as a death blow to creativity. In this paper, we seek to present a method for prediction of Knowledge worker productivity (KWP) that it must be capable of predicting the productivity of the knowledge workers in a one year period of time based on the Fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM) technique Based on Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) , as well as presenting the best option from among different options as the knowledge workers’ productivity improving strategy (suggesting solution), based on the results gained from this and the previous section and depending on the requirements. The validity of the suggested model will be tested in an Iranian Company.

Asadallah Najafi; Abbas Afrazeh

2011-01-01

27

Cancer and workers' compensation at Chalk River nuclear laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the circumstances leading to the notification to the Worker's Compensation Board of Ontario of two cases of cancer, both involving the lymphatic and haematoporetic systems, in employees at Chalk River Nulcear Laboratories. Twenty of these neoplasms are known to have occurred in the CRNL population between 1966 and 1983. The leukemia/lymphoma ratio observed in the twenty neoplasms is similar to that found in populations not occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. The possible relationship between asbestos exposure and lymphoid neoplasms was discussed. 5 refs.

28

Cancer incidence among workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analysis of cancer incidence among Los Alamos workers was reported at the Sixteenth Mid-Year Topical Symposium of the Health Physics Society. Cancer incidence was especially low among Anglo-American males for cancer of the lung and oral cancer, cancer sites commonly associated with cigarette smoking. No cases of cancer of the lung, oral cavity, pancreas, or bladder were observed among Anglo-American females in the population. Standardized incidence ratios for cancer of the breast and cancer of the uterine corpus exceeded one; however, these findings were not statistically significant. These findings are consistent with expectation for a population of high socioeconomic class, such as the Laboratory work force. Therefore, working conditions at the Laboratory do not appear to have affected cancer incidence in this population. 1 reference, 2 tables

1985-01-01

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Genotoxic damage in pathology anatomy laboratory workers exposed to formaldehyde.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical traditionally used in pathology and anatomy laboratories as a tissue preservative. Several epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to FA have indicated an increased risk of nasopharyngeal cancers in industrial workers, embalmers and pathology anatomists. There is also a clear evidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas from inhalation studies in the rat. The postulated mode of action for nasal tumours in rats was considered biologically plausible and considered likely to be relevant to humans. Based on the available data IARC, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, has recently classified FA as a human carcinogen. Although the in vitro genotoxic as well as the in vivo carcinogenic potentials of FA are well documented in mammalian cells and in rodents, evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting thus remains to be more documented. To evaluate the genetic effects of long-term occupational exposure to FA a group of 30 Pathological Anatomy laboratory workers was tested for a variety of biological endpoints, cytogenetic tests (micronuclei, MN; sister chromatid exchange, SCE) and comet assay. The level of exposure to FA was evaluated near the breathing zone of workers, time weighted average of exposure was calculated for each subject. The association between the biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic metabolising and DNA repair enzymes was also assessed. The mean level of exposure was 0.44+/-0.08ppm (0.04-1.58ppm). MN frequency was significantly higher (p=0.003) in the exposed subjects (5.47+/-0.76) when compared with controls (3.27+/-0.69). SCE mean value was significantly higher (p<0.05) among the exposed group (6.13+/-0.29) compared with control group (4.49+/-0.16). Comet assay data showed a significant increase (p<0.05) of TL in FA-exposed workers (60.00+/-2.31) with respect to the control group (41.85+/-1.97). A positive correlation was found between FA exposure levels and MN frequency (r=0.384, p=0.001) and TL (r=0.333, p=0.005). Regarding the genetic polymorphisms studied, no significant effect was found on the genotoxic endpoints. The results of the present biomonitoring study emphasize the need to develop safety programs.

Costa S; Coelho P; Costa C; Silva S; Mayan O; Santos LS; Gaspar J; Teixeira JP

2008-10-01

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Genotoxic damage in pathology anatomy laboratory workers exposed to formaldehyde.  

Science.gov (United States)

Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical traditionally used in pathology and anatomy laboratories as a tissue preservative. Several epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to FA have indicated an increased risk of nasopharyngeal cancers in industrial workers, embalmers and pathology anatomists. There is also a clear evidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas from inhalation studies in the rat. The postulated mode of action for nasal tumours in rats was considered biologically plausible and considered likely to be relevant to humans. Based on the available data IARC, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, has recently classified FA as a human carcinogen. Although the in vitro genotoxic as well as the in vivo carcinogenic potentials of FA are well documented in mammalian cells and in rodents, evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting thus remains to be more documented. To evaluate the genetic effects of long-term occupational exposure to FA a group of 30 Pathological Anatomy laboratory workers was tested for a variety of biological endpoints, cytogenetic tests (micronuclei, MN; sister chromatid exchange, SCE) and comet assay. The level of exposure to FA was evaluated near the breathing zone of workers, time weighted average of exposure was calculated for each subject. The association between the biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic metabolising and DNA repair enzymes was also assessed. The mean level of exposure was 0.44+/-0.08ppm (0.04-1.58ppm). MN frequency was significantly higher (p=0.003) in the exposed subjects (5.47+/-0.76) when compared with controls (3.27+/-0.69). SCE mean value was significantly higher (p<0.05) among the exposed group (6.13+/-0.29) compared with control group (4.49+/-0.16). Comet assay data showed a significant increase (p<0.05) of TL in FA-exposed workers (60.00+/-2.31) with respect to the control group (41.85+/-1.97). A positive correlation was found between FA exposure levels and MN frequency (r=0.384, p=0.001) and TL (r=0.333, p=0.005). Regarding the genetic polymorphisms studied, no significant effect was found on the genotoxic endpoints. The results of the present biomonitoring study emphasize the need to develop safety programs. PMID:18721846

Costa, Solange; Coelho, Patrícia; Costa, Carla; Silva, Susana; Mayan, Olga; Santos, Luís Silva; Gaspar, Jorge; Teixeira, João Paulo

2008-07-31

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[Knowledge management system for laboratory work and clinical decision support].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper discusses a knowledge management system for clinical laboratories. In the clinical laboratory of Toranomon Hospital, we receive about 20 questions relevant to laboratory tests per day from medical doctors or co-medical staff. These questions mostly involve the essence to appropriately accomplish laboratory tests. We have to answer them carefully and suitably because an incorrect answer may cause a medical accident. Up to now, no method has been in place to achieve a rapid response and standardized answers. For this reason, the laboratory staff have responded to various questions based on their individual knowledge. We began to develop a knowledge management system to promote the knowledge of staff working for the laboratory. This system is a type of knowledge base for assisting the work, such as inquiry management, laboratory consultation, process management, and clinical support. It consists of several functions: guiding laboratory test information, managing inquiries from medical staff, reporting results of patient consultation, distributing laboratory staffs notes, and recording guidelines for laboratory medicine. The laboratory test information guide has 2,000 records of medical test information registered in the database with flexible retrieval. The inquiry management tool provides a methos to record all questions, answer easily, and retrieve cases. It helps staff to respond appropriately in a short period of time. The consulting report system treats patients' claims regarding medical tests. The laboratory staffs notes enter a file management system so they can be accessed to aid in clinical support. Knowledge sharing using this function can achieve the transition from individual to organizational learning. Storing guidelines for laboratory medicine will support EBM. Finally, it is expected that this system will support intellectual activity concerning laboratory work and contribute to the practice of knowledge management for clinical work support.

Inada M; Sato M; Yoneyama A

2011-05-01

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Assessment Of Knowledge And Skills Of Anganwadi Workers For Conduct Of Preschool Education Activities  

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Full Text Available The present research was carried out to assess the Knowledge and Skills of Anganwadi workers (the keyfunctionary in the ICDS programme for delivery of services) for conduct of preschool education activities inAnganwadi centres. A sample of 105 Anganwadi workers was randomly drawn from three urban blocks of Jammudistrict. The tools used for collecting information were Observation and Rating scales. Rating scale devised byNational Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development (NIPCCD) for “Assessment of PreschoolEducation (PSE) skills of Anganwadi workers” and self devised rating scale for “Assessing knowledge level ofAnganwadi workers” were used. The results of the study revealed that majority of the respondents had adequateknowledge regarding their roles and responsibilities in preschool education component of ICDS programme. Theconceptual understanding of respondents on the issues related to growth and development of child, age forpreschool education, teaching method and language to be used for communication was found to be in accordancewith child development theory. On the other hand, knowledge level of Anganwadi workers on the aspect ofimportance of early childhood, concept and need of preschool education were found inadequate. Regarding theskills of Anganwadi worker, it was found that the Anganwadi worker demonstrated good skills for communication,preparation of teaching aids, motivating and organising PSE activities, while they were optimal in other skills likeinteraction between Anganwadi worker and helper and several aspects related to knowledge across the selectedblocks. Knowledge and skills of Anganwadi workers were found to share high positive correlation (0.75) thusdepicting the interdependence of these two factors. The study has important implication for policy makers, trainersand staff of Anganwadi Training Centres (AWTCs) particularly for improvement in knowledge and skills ofAnganwadi workers especially in view of large scale expansion of ICDS programme in India.

Rajni Dhingra , Iesha Sharma And Priyanka Sharma

2013-01-01

33

Mortality among workers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted among employees of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Since 1943, this facility has been the site of energy-related research, including uranium and plutonium recovery and radioisotope production. Historical follow-up conducted for the years 1943 to 1977 for 8681 white males who had been employed for at least one month during the period 1943 to 1972. Vital status was ascertained for 90 percent of the cohort. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were computed to contrast the workers' mortality experience with that of the US white male population. The observed number of 1017 deaths from all causes was 74 percent of that expected, a finding indicative of the healthy worker effect and the relatively high socioeconomic status of the cohort. The SMR for all cancers was 0.75 (195 observed vs. 261.3 expected). Mortality deficits were seen for non-malignant diseases of all major organ groups and for all site-specific malignancies except prostate cancer (SMR = 1.13), leukemia (SMR = 1.16) and Hodgkin's disease (SMR = 1.28). None of the elevations was statistically significant. There were no consistent trends of cause-specific mortality with either external or internal radiation exposure levels.

1983-01-01

34

Knowledge about General Health Insurance of Health Workers Working in the Primary Health Care in Umraniye  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM: The aim of our study was to determine the knowledge of general health insurance of health workers working in the primary health care in Umraniye. METHODS: This descriptive research performed on health workers working in 18 primary health care centers and Province Health Dirocterate in Umraniye,...

Seyhan Hidiroglu; M. Fatih Onsuz; Serdar Sulun; Ahmet Topuzoglu; Melda Karavus

35

Harnessing the Knowledge Assets of Older Workers: A Work in Progress  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reports part of a study that examines how to harness the knowledge assets of older workers. Fiveolder workers, from both public and private sector organisations, were interviewed face-to-face regardingtheir potential contributions to other work colleagues based on their expertise on work practices. Preliminaryresults revealed the following set of common themes: (a) challenges in transitioning to retirement, (b) relevantand transferable skills and knowledge, (c) organisational readiness in retaining knowledge and skills and (d)the use of information technology to support knowledge sharing. The implications the findings have for futureresearch will be discussed.

Carmel Joe; Pak Yoong

36

Knowledge Of Anganwadi Workers And Their Problems-in Gadwal (rural), Mahabubnagar, Dist. AP  

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Full Text Available Anganwadi workers and helpers are engaged by the government to work in the state-operated IntegratedChild Development Scheme (ICDS). This scheme caters to the health and pre-school education needs of childrenfrom birth to six years of age and also to the health and nutrition needs of pregnant women, nursing mothers, andadolescent girls, to study the profile of Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) .To assess knowledge of AWWs & problemsfaced by them while working. The author discussed on “knowledge of Anganwadi workers and their problems”with special reference to Gadwal (Rural), Mahabubnagar, District .AP.

Haji Ali Baba

2013-01-01

37

78 FR 54487 - Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic-Hematology; Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic--Hematology; Including On-Site Leased Workers...Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostic--Hematology division, including on-site leased...activities related to the production of hematology reagents and instruments. The...

2013-09-04

38

The linkage between the lifestyle of knowledge workers and their intra-metropolitan residential choice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

As knowledge-based economy is recognized as a powerful engine of economic growth and regional competitiveness, policy makers increasingly invest in branding their cities as knowledge-cities and focus on retaining and attracting knowledge-workers. Consequently, most studies related to the residential choice of knowledge workers focus on the inter-regional level, and empirical evidence regarding the residential choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level remains scarce. This study investigates the linkage between the residential choice of knowledge-workers and their lifestyle encompassing life-cycle stage, work-role and leisure activities, subject to economic and spatial constraints. The importance of this issue derives from the role of housing as key enabler for attracting and retaining knowledge-workers, and from evidence regarding the role of knowledge workers in promoting the contradictory trends of urban sprawl and inner city revitalization. The analysis consists of two stages. First, distinguishable clusters of knowledge-workers according to their lifestyle are identified by means of self-organizing maps (SOM) for pattern recognition and classification of multi-dimensional data. The applied method is a two-stage clustering process that comprises SOM followed by neural gas, Bayesian classification and distance matrix edge analysis. Following, the residential choice of these clusters is analyzed in terms of home ownership, location, building type, location and dwelling size. The analyzed data are retrieved from a custom designed revealed-preferences survey among workers in the high-technology and finance sector, who work and reside in the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area in Israel. Results identify five groups of knowledge workers that significantly differ in terms of lifestyle and residential choice: nest-builders, bon-vivants, careerists, entrepreneurs and laid-back. Bon-vivants and entrepreneurs largely prefer to reside in the metropolitan core, although they differ in terms of home ownership, dwelling size and building type. While bon-vivants rent small apartments, entrepreneurs tend towards owning large dwelling units and single detached houses. Careerists strongly prefer to own large single-detached houses in the middle and outer ring of the metropolitan area. Nest-builders exhibit strong preference for home ownership and large apartments or houses, and their main reason for suburban locating is the ability to reside in larger dwellings and single-detached houses. Laid-back trade-off between location and dwelling characteristics, although they exhibit weaker preferences towards home ownership, large dwellings and single detached houses than nest

Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon

39

Maternal Knowledge after Nutrition Behavior Change Communication Is Conditional on Both Health Workers' Knowledge and Knowledge-Sharing Efficacy in Rural Haiti.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the context of a food assistance program in rural Haiti, we developed measures of the effectiveness of community health worker (CHW)-delivered behavior change communication (BCC). We administered knowledge tests to 954 mothers and 38 CHWs to define 4 measures: CHW knowledge, maternal knowledge, knowledge-sharing efficacy (proportion of CHW knowledge shared), and shared correct knowledge between the CHWs and the mothers with whom they interacted. On the basis of the tests, CHWs had high knowledge (93% correct), mothers scored 72% on maternal knowledge, the proportion of CHW knowledge shared was 75%, and shared correct knowledge between CHWs and mothers was 70%. Factors affecting maternal knowledge included CHW characteristics (unmarried: ? = -0.070, P < 0.05), long (19-45 mo) duration of program participation (? = 0.034, P < 0.05), and having multiple sources of health and nutrition information (? = 0.072, P < 0.01). Shared correct knowledge and CHW knowledge-sharing efficacy were positively associated with CHW (age, education) and program participation characteristics. We parsed the relative contributions of CHW characteristics to total and proportion of shared CHW knowledge. We observed a positive association between CHW education and shared correct knowledge between the CHWs and mothers (? = 0.328, P < 0.01), not because of more knowledge (? = -0.012, P > 0.05) but rather because of greater knowledge-sharing efficacy (? = 0.340, P < 0.01). These measures provide a means of examining features of program delivery and interpreting impact evaluation results. They show that BCC outcomes are conditional on both frontline workers' knowledge and knowledge-sharing efficacy. Whereas most programs focus on content training to improve CHWs' knowledge, it is also important to strengthen process training and support to foster knowledge-sharing efficacy.

Mbuya MN; Menon P; Habicht JP; Pelto GH; Ruel MT

2013-09-01

40

Knowledge and communication needs assessment of community health workers in a developing country: a qualitative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Primary health care is a set of health services that can meet the needs of the developing world. Community health workers act as a bridge between health system and community in providing this care. Appropriate knowledge and communication skills of the workers are key to their confidence and elementary for the success of the system. We conducted this study to document the perceptions of these workers on their knowledge and communication needs, image building through mass media and mechanisms for continued education. METHODS: Focus group discussions were held with health workers and their supervisors belonging to all the four provinces of the country and the Azad Jammu & Kashmir region. Self-response questionnaires were also used to obtain information on questions regarding their continued education. RESULTS: About four fifths of the respondents described their communication skills as moderately sufficient and wanted improvement. Knowledge on emerging health issues was insufficient and the respondents showed willingness to participate in their continued education. Media campaigns were successful in building the image of health workers as a credible source of health information. CONCLUSION: A continued process should be ensured to provide opportunities to health workers to update their knowledge, sharpen communication skills and bring credibility to their persona as health educators.

Haq Z; Hafeez A

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Strategic Knowledge Workers Features in the Context of Communities of Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Communities of Practice (CoPs) provide a good medium for effective utilization of knowledge workers and group innovation in an organization. It is also an organizational instrument for developing competitive advantage based on chosen business strategy.  For effective operation of CoPs and utilization of organizational resources business strategy and knowledge sharing attributes of knowledge workers play a key role in effective design of CoPs. Furthermore, to enable effective implementation of CoPs, an IT enabled knowledge hub is considered useful. This research combines the above mentioned components to develop a CoPs enabled knowledge hub.  This research can help organizations to design and implement CoPs based on business strategy and knowledge sharing attribute fit. 

Mei-Tai Chu; Rajiv Khosla

2012-01-01

42

Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Workers towards Occupational Health and Safety  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: Studies show that about 90% of accidents occur because of unsafe behavior and human errors. Even if workers do not have the right knowledge, attitude and behavior toward safety measures in a safe workplace, all efforts for an accident-free workplace will be in vain. This study aims to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior of workers toward occupational health and safety."nMethods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on workers in Mahshahr Razy Petrochemical Complexm Ahwaz, Iran. A sample size of 210 was randomly selected. Data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. Ques­tionnaire's validity was gained by content-validity and its reliability was validated by Kronbach's alpha. Data was analyzed using SPSS 13."nResults: Mean age of workers was 31.1 years. The mean of their knowledge, attitude and behavior was reported 26.02, 153.18 and 36, respectively. 52.9% of workers had low, 36.7% moderate and 10.5% high level of knowledge. In addition, 75.7% of the subjects had a positive attitude towards occupational health and safety; 30% of workers had low safety behavior and 70% had safe behavior. The mean of knowledge grade shows a significant relationship with education level. A same relationship was reported for the mean of attitudes and behavior with age."nConclusion: Managers should design and implement educational interventions to promote knowledge, attitude and safe behaviors of workers.

H Sanaei Nasab; R Tavakoli; F Ghofranipour; A Kazemnejad; A Khavanin

2009-01-01

43

Risk Perception, Knowledge and Safety Attitude and Hearing Protector Use in Petrochemical Industry Workers  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing protectors (HP) are widely employed as the only measure against noise exposure. However, it is well known that unless do workers wear HP continuously, its efficacy will be very low. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of risk perception, knowledge and safety attitude on hearing protection use in petrochemical industry's workers.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study a structural questionnaire was administrated to 236 randomly selected workers in Iranian petrochemical industry who had been to 85 dBA noise and some influencing factors including risk perception, knowledge and general attitude to safety on using of HP had been investigated.Results: This study showed that only 20.3% of employees claimed to wear hearing protection all the time when they exposed to noise. There was a significant relationship between use of hearing protector and worker's risk perception (p=0.048) and also their knowledge about hearing protection(p=0.009). Also, the relationship between general attitude of workers to safety and risk perception was statistically significant (p=0.046). Conclusion: The results of the study showed that for promoting the use of hearing protectors, two main strategy should be followed. First, removing the barriers to make hearing protectors compliant, and second enhancing the workers’ risk perception about hearing loss and proper use of ear protectors.

Mahdi Jahangiri; Dr. Ramazan Mirzaei; Dr.Hossein Aansari

2008-01-01

44

Activity based Knowledge workers in Organisations: The especial case of Intelligent Software Agents  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper we entertain a distinction between Knowledge workers as occupiedworkers producing and transmitting knowledge (Machlup 1962), and Informationworkers in a modern Knowledge Society. This distinction is built upon a discussionof the difference between the nature of knowledge and Information. Upon this thenotion of Activity based Knowledge worker is introduced. Then, the notion ofIntelligent Software Agents (ISAs) as autonomous, social , reactive, proactive andsubservient software computer systems is introduced. In (Abolfazlian 1996a) wehave shown the need for these Agents as a direct consequence of factors such asInformation anxiety, i.e. a human Agent's emotional response to the increasingvolume and diversity of available information in our modern societies. Upon this wehave shown (Abolfazlian 1996b, 1996c, 1996d) how these ISAs support humanAgents in managerial issues concerning the introduction of new InformationTechnology in Organisations. In this paper we sho...

Ali Reza; Kian Abolfazlian

45

Knowledge sharing among workers: a study on their contribution through informal communication in Cyberjaya, Malaysia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malaysia, being a multi-racial society, faces the challenges of creating knowledge sharing capability in organisations, as cultural values are often reflected in the workplace by individual employees. For organisations, it is not clear whether this diversity has resulted in any form of competitive advantage. Studies have shown that various communities in Malaysia do not bring their respective cultures to work, and as such the company values prevail. This research is based on the demographic study of Informal Knowledge Sharing in Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia. After twelve years, Cyberjaya is approximately 25% developed, gradually expanding with the establishment of multinational and international organizations. Several flagship applications have been developed in MSC Malaysia to accelerate its growth. However, the expertise and knowledge shared among the workers are doubtful, especially at its initial growth stage. As Knowledge Management (KM) developed, Communities of Practice (Wenger, 1998) became popular, even dominant „KM? intervention. Soon it was supplemented with story-telling interventions encouraging knowledge workers to use stories to „sell? KM internally, share knowledge and facilitate collaboration. This study will focus on knowledge sharing among workers, particularly the approach used to share knowledge through informal communication outside their organizations.

Norizzati Azudin; Mohd Nor Ismail; Zainab Taherali

2009-01-01

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PRODUCING MODERN WORKERS: PSYCHOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND THE WORLD OF WORK IN THE SOUTH  

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Full Text Available This article considers the relationship established between psychology and the production of workers as subjects inthe “third world”. It is pointed out that the celebratory attitude of psychologists in regards to the disseminationof the psychological knowledge avoids the analysis of its neo-colonial dimensions. Some of these dimensions,when the psychological knowledge contributes to the construction of workers’ subjectivity in developing countriesas the “other” in need of being psychologically transformed or “modernized” in order to the achievement ofnational development, are illustrated and analyzed. Possible paths to continue researching the neo-colonial dimensionsof psychology in the world of work are suggested.

HERNÁN CAMILO PULIDO-MARTÍNEZ

2007-01-01

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Knowledge and Attitudes of Healthcare Workers in Umraniye, Turkey Regarding Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever  

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Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers in primary health care centres regarding Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Umraniye.Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from July-August 2008 in 18 primary healthcare centres in the Umraniye Provincial Health Directorate. The study sample was not selected and we approached 229 healthcare workers working in these primary health care centres; 144 participants (62.8%) completed the study. Study data were collected using a three-part questionnaire including 35 questions. The data were evaluated by descriptive statistics and t-tests.Results: Of the participants (72.2% women), 68.7% thought they had sufficient knowledge about the disease. 99.3% knew the aetiological factor of CCHF is a virus, and 92.4% specified that people who go picnicking and camping without protection are a risk group. The mean CCHF knowledge points was 17.48±3.37; the mean score of doctors (18.31±3.24) was significantly higher that that of nurses (17.01±3.36, p<0.05). 72.2% thought caring for a CCHF patient was a high risk task. Conclusion: The knowledge level of healthcare workers was found to be low compared to other studies performed in Turkey. The knowledge level of doctors was higher than that of nurses. In general, the answers of healthcare workers on the attitude questions were negative.

Seyhan H?d?ro?lu; Muhammed Fatih Önsüz; Ahmet Topuzo?lu; Melda Karavu?

2012-01-01

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HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Construction Workers in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of the study was to describe HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, risk behaviors, and sources of information among construction workers in China. A cross-sectional survey of 458 construction workers was conducted among 4 construction sites in Shenyang city in 2006. All 458 participants were individually interviewed in a private setting by a trained team of medical researchers using a structured questionnaire, which included questions on general personal information and the knowledge, attitudes, practice questions and the favorable mode of health education. A total of 428 valid questionnaires were collected. Data entry and statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS 13.0. Our results indicated that the majority of construction workers in China are sexually active youths and adults with limited education and poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS. The proportions of correct answers to questions about HIV/AIDS ranged from 4.9% to 70.7%. The score was significantly different by education level (?(2)=47.51, p<0.01), and marrital status (?(2)=16.48, p<0.01). More than 60% of the construction workers had a negative attitude toward HIV/AIDS-infected individuals. The source of workers' knowledge toward HIV/AIDS mainly came from TV (35.8%), newspaper (14.3%), family and friend (13.1%) and others (28.2%). Chinese migrant workers in general lack knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Our study suggests prevention programs should be encouraged and these may have the potential role to limit the emergence of China's HIV/AIDS epidemic.

Qu B; Guo H; Sun G; Zuo T; Zhang Y; Li BY

2008-09-01

49

Latex allergy: assessment of knowledge, appropriate use of gloves and prevention practice among hospital healthcare workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers and patients are often exposed to natural rubber latex (NRL) through contact with gloves and various healthcare products, which can potentially cause allergic reactions, with varying degrees of severity. In 2008, the Royal College of Physicians published their first evidence-based guidance on occupational health interventions for latex allergy, which emphasized the importance of healthcare workers having knowledge of latex allergy. AIM: This study aimed to survey the knowledge of healthcare workers (n = 156) about latex gloves and NRL allergy, routine prevention practice and the appropriate use of gloves in patient care. METHODS: Healthcare workers in a large teaching hospital were surveyed using a standard questionnaire. RESULTS: We found that only 1% of healthcare workers were able to correctly match the appropriate gloves to the specifically designed procedure. More than half (n = 74.53%) were unable to recognize the presentation of type 1 allergy to NRL. Of the 156 participants, 131 (84%) considered that they would benefit from training about NRL allergy and the use of different types of gloves in clinical care. CONCLUSIONS: This survey indicates the importance of education regarding appropriate use of gloves and prevention of NRL allergy among healthcare workers, and dermatologists should play an important role in facilitating this.

Al-Niaimi F; Chiang YZ; Chiang YN; Williams J

2013-01-01

50

Knowledge about General Health Insurance of Health Workers Working in the Primary Health Care in Umraniye  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: The aim of our study was to determine the knowledge of general health insurance of health workers working in the primary health care in Umraniye. METHODS: This descriptive research performed on health workers working in 18 primary health care centers and Province Health Dirocterate in Umraniye, between September-November 2006. Study sample didn?t select and we included 250 health workers working in the primary health care centers. Study performed at 197 participants (78.8%). Study data collected by a three part questionnaire which had 43 questions. For estimating the knowledge point of general health insurance we gived one point for each of the correct answer. The data evaluated by descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskall Wallis Variance Analysis. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 35.2±7.18 (min. 22, max. 55). 36.5% of participants had knowledge about general health system. The most important knowledge source was media. There were significant differences between sex, group of career and knowledge point of general health insurance (p<0.05). The participants generally thought general health insurance made no effect (39.2%) for their families and it would be a negative effect (39.1%) for society. CONCLUSION: In this study we confirmed that health workers had lacking knowledge about general health insurance. Also health workers generally thought that general health insurance would be harmful effects on their families and society or same effects as current system. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000): 245-250

Seyhan Hidiroglu; M. Fatih Onsuz; Serdar Sulun; Ahmet Topuzoglu; Melda Karavus

2009-01-01

51

Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of health care workers towards influenza vaccination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Influenza vaccination is routinely offered to health care workers in the U.K. to prevent nosocomial spread to patients and illness among health care workers. Despite its importance uptake has been low in the U.K. AIMS: To describe the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of health care workers towards influenza vaccination offered as part of occupational health and to understand their relative importance in promoting uptake of influenza vaccine. We also sought to make comparisons with other vaccines more readily accepted as part of occupational health. METHODS: An online survey was distributed by e-mail to health care workers in the South Central Strategic Health Authority. The questionnaire included the following: demographic characteristics; vaccination status; and knowledge, attitudes and behaviour towards influenza, MMR and hepatitis B vaccination. We used logistic regression to identify the independent predictors of receipt of influenza vaccine. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 998 health care workers representing just over 1% of health care workers in the region. Of those, 69% thought that overall benefits of influenza vaccination were greater than the risks and inconvenience (versus 92% for hepatitis B and 86% for MMR). The following predicted receipt of influenza vaccine: belief that influenza poses a risk to one's own health (OR 3.74; 95% CI 2.45-5.71); belief that influenza vaccine is harmful (OR 0.25; 95% CI 0.16-0.37); and belief that influenza vaccine will protect patients (OR 2.96; 95% CI 1.89-4.62). CONCLUSIONS: Staff knowledge, attitudes and beliefs concerning influenza and its vaccine are an important predictor of uptake and should be a target for campaigns to promote uptake.

Mytton OT; O'Moore EM; Sparkes T; Baxi R; Abid M

2013-04-01

52

HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practices among Burmese migrant factory workers in Tak Province, Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Little information is known regarding the level of knowledge among Burmese migrant workers along the Thai/Burma border concerning risk factors, prevention or transmission of HIV. The Burma Medical Association (BMA) and National Health and Education Committee (NHEC) collected data on knowledge, attitudes and practices among 725 factory workers in Tak Province, Thailand during July 2000. We present results from a secondary analysis of these data. Responses were grouped into prevention, transmission and risk categories, and percentages answered correctly were recorded. Men consistently scored higher than women, with significant gender differences in the prevention and transmission questions. Forty-one per cent of the women understood that contraceptive pills do not prevent infection and 15% of females reported ever seeing a condom. Twelve per cent of men and 1.4% of women reported ever using a condom (OR = 8.57, p < 0.0001). Previously, virtually no access has been extended to persons trying to document health status among Burmese migrant workers in factories. The survey reveals a significant lack of knowledge about HIV among factory workers and indicates that a sub-population of Burmese people appears to lack the most basic information about the epidemic.

Mullany LC; Maung C; Beyrer C

2003-02-01

53

Knowledge, attitude and practices about needle stick injuries in health care workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: To assess knowledge, attitude and practices about needle stick Injuries in health care workers. Study type, settings and duration: Hospital based study carried out at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, from August 2010 to November 2010. Subjects and Methods: A self administered 19 items questionnaire was prepared which contained information about needle stick injuries, its awareness, frequency of injury and the protocols that were followed after an injury had occurred. These questionnaires were given to 500 health care workers working in different wards and theaters of the hospital after obtaining their informed written consent. The health care workers included doctors, nurses and paramedical staff of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 15. Results: A total of 500 health care workers filled the questionnaire and returned it. Out of these 416(83.2%) reported ever experiencing needle stick injuries in their professional life. Health care workers working in Emergency department were most frequently affected (65%) followed by those working in different wards (27%) and operation theatre (8%). Most (93.6%) workers had knowledge about needle stick injuries and only 6.4% were not aware of it. Needle stick injury occurred from a brand new (unused) syringe in 51.2% cases, while in 32.8% cases, the needle caused an injury after it had been used for an injection. In 5% cases, injury occurred with blood stained needles. The commonest reasons for needle injury in stick injuries were heavy work load (36.8%) followed by hasty work (33.6%) and needle recapping (18.6%). About 66% health care workers were already vaccinated against hepatitis B. Only 13% workers followed universal guidelines of needle stick injuries and no case was reported to hospital authorities. Conclusions: Health care workers had inadequate knowledge about the risk associated with needle stick injuries and do not follow standard preventive measures. Policy message: A standard protocol regarding the training and compliance to follow preventive measures should be followed in all health care institutions. (author)

2011-01-01

54

Neonatal jaundice and its management: knowledge, attitude and practice of community health workers in Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is still a leading cause of preventable brain damage, physical and mental handicap, and early death among infants in many communities. Greater awareness is needed among all health workers. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge of primary health care workers about the description, causes, effective treatment, and sequelae of NNJ. Methods The setting was a local government area i.e. an administrative district within the south-western part of Nigeria. Community health workers in this area were interviewed by means of a self-administered questionnaire which focused on awareness and knowledge of neonatal jaundice and its causes, treatment and complications. Results Sixty-six community health workers participated in the survey and male-to-female ratio was 1:5. Their work experience averaged 13.5 (SD 12.7) years. Only 51.5% of the respondents gave a correct definition of NNJ. 75.8 % knew how to examine for this condition while 84.9 % knew at least two of its major causes in our environment. Also, only 54.5 % had adequate knowledge of effective treatment namely, phototherapy and exchange blood transfusion. Rather than referring affected babies to hospitals for proper management, 13.4 %, 10.4 % and 3 % of the participants would treat with ineffective drugs, natural phototherapy and herbal remedies respectively. None of the participants knew any effective means of prevention. Conclusion Primary health care workers may have inadequate knowledge and misconceptions on NNJ which must be addressed concertedly before the impact of the condition on child health and well-being can be significantly reduced. We recommend regular training workshops and seminars for this purpose.

Ogunfowora Olusoga B; Daniel Olusoji J

2006-01-01

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GROWTH OF COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE BY LINKING KNOWLEDGE WORKERS THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA  

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Full Text Available Collective intelligence can be defined, very broadly, as groups of individuals that do things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. Collective intelligence has existed for ages. Families, tribes, companies, countries, etc., are all groups of individuals doing things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. However, over the past two decades, the rise of the Internet has given upturn to new types of collective intelligence. Companies can take advantage from the so-called Web-enabled collective intelligence. Web-enabled collective intelligence is based on linking knowledge workers through social media. That means that companies can hire geographically dispersed knowledge workers and create so-called virtual teams of these knowledge workers (members of the virtual teams are connected only via the Internet and do not meet face to face). By providing an online social network, the companies can achieve significant growth of collective intelligence. But to create and use an online social network within a company in a really efficient way, the managers need to have a deep understanding of how such a system works. Thus the purpose of this paper is to share the knowledge about effective use of social networks in companies. The main objectives of this paper are as follows: to introduce some good practices of the use of social media in companies, to analyze these practices and to generalize recommendations for a successful introduction and use of social media to increase collective intelligence of a company.

JAROSLAVA KUBÁTOVÁ

2012-01-01

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GROWTH OF COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE BY LINKING KNOWLEDGE WORKERS THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA  

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Full Text Available Collective intelligence can be defined, very broadly, as groups of individuals that do things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. Collective intelligence has existed for ages. Families, tribes, companies, countries, etc., are all groups of individuals doing things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. However, over the past two decades, the rise of the Internet has given upturn to new types of collective intelligence. Companies can take advantage from the so-called Webenabled collective intelligence. Web-enabled collective intelligence is based on linking knowledge workers through social media. That means that companies can hire geographically dispersed knowledge workers and create so-called virtual teams of these knowledge workers (members of the virtual teams are connected only via the Internet and do not meet face to face). By providing an online social network, the companies can achieve significant growth of collective intelligence. But to create and use an online social network within a company in a really efficient way, the managers need to have a deep understanding of how such a system works.Thus the purpose of this paper is to share the knowledge about effective use of social networks in companies. The main objectives of this paper are as follows: to introduce some good practices of the use of social media in companies, to analyze these practices and to generalize recommendations for a successful introduction and use of social media to increase collective intelligence of a company.

Jaroslava KUBATOVA

2012-01-01

57

Social workers' knowledge and perceptions of effectiveness and acceptability of medication assisted treatment of substance use disorders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Data from a national study of 345 privately funded, community-based substance use disorder (SUD) treatment centers were used to investigate social workers' knowledge, perceptions of effectiveness, and perceptions of the acceptability of medication assisted treatments (MATs) for SUDs. Results reveal the importance of exposure to MATs for social workers to develop a knowledge base regarding the effectiveness of various pharmacological agents. Results also underline the importance of social workers' perceptions of effectiveness in forming opinions regarding the acceptability of the use of MATs in SUD treatment. Lastly, a 12-Step orientation toward treatment has a negative influence on social workers' opinions regarding the acceptability of MATs.

Bride BE; Abraham AJ; Kintzle S; Roman PM

2013-01-01

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Health workers and AIDS: knowledge, attitudes and experiences as determinants of anxiety.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of the study was to measure the level of HIV/AIDS related anxiety among health care workers and identify its determinants. Data were obtained by means of a mailed, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire distributed to 2561 Danish medical doctors, nurses and nursing aides drawn randomly from the lists of members of the respective national associations. The data were analysed on the basis of a pre-study model including 12 variables hypothesizing a hierarchy of causal dependencies with anxiety at the top. 44% of the participants expressed HIV/AIDS related anxiety--hospital workers more than primary care workers, the older less than the younger. Anxiety was significantly associated with negative/restrictive attitudes towards HIV positives and gay men and with low levels of knowledge about HIV transmission and less education about HIV/AIDS. Negative/restrictive attitudes towards HIV positives were associated both with less knowledge regarding HIV transmission and fewer contacts with HIV positives. Similar associations were found regarding gay men. It is suggested that new kinds of training programmes be established which focus much more on attitudes and norms concerning HIV/AIDS--especially among health care workers with only occasional contact with HIV patients.

Krasnik A; Fouchard JR; Bayer T; Keiding N

1990-06-01

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Designing and explaining the model of knowledge workers’ retention with emphasis on HRM practices  

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Full Text Available This study identifies the relationship between human resource management practices and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, trust in management and intention to stay of knowledge workers and to investigate the predictability of their intent to stay with HRM practices through the intermediary variables of job satisfaction, organizational commitment and trust in management in surveyed organizations. Standard questionnaires are used to measure the variables. In addition, to gather data, stratified random sampling of faculty members in colleges and higher education institutions in South Khorasan province of Iran, was accomplished. The results obtained in method of path analysis with AMOS software show that HRM practices including the development of skills, compensation, opportunity to participate, organizational support and procedural justice are able to anticipate intend to stay through job satisfaction, organizational commitment and trust in management. Among them, organizational support has a direct effect and the strongest indirect effect on the intention to stay of knowledge workers.

Reza Rasouli; Alireza Mooghali; Mohammad Mousavi; Mehdi Rashidi

2013-01-01

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Theatre and laboratory workers' awareness of and safety practices against hepatitis B and C infection in a suburban university teaching hospital in Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The consistent use of barrier protection among theatre workers is low in this region, so also is hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination. We assessed the level of awareness of HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV), HBV vaccination and adoption of safety measures by theatre and laboratory workers. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were administered to these workers which assessed level of knowledge of the viruses, practice of barrier protection and level of HBV vaccination. RESULTS: Of 169 participants 32.5% were laboratory workers, 67.5% were theatre workers; 29.6% males, 70.4% females. Most 94% (159) were aware that HBV and HCV are viral infections, while 77% (127) and 72.1% (119) knew HBV and HCV are transmitted through blood transfusion and needle stick injuries; a correct knowledge was significantly better among respondents with tertiary education (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.3 and OR 2.3; 95%CI 1.0-5.1 respectively). Although 49.1% (80) were aware unprotected sex was a route of transmission, laboratory staff was twice as likely to have this knowledge (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.08-4.08). Only 67.5% (114) use safety measures consistently, while 86 (54.8%) had received the vaccine of which only 48 (29.78% of total respondents) had completed three (3) doses; more likely among those with tertiary education (OR 2.6; 95%CI 1.2-5.8). CONCLUSION: Most (94%) workers were aware of the risk of HBV and HCV and HBV vaccine (92.9%) but only few (29.78%) completed vaccination. Unfortunately, only 2/3 use protective measures consistently. There is need to make vaccination of health care workers against HBV infection a firm policy and ensure complete and consistent adherence to work standard safety measures.

Okwara EC; Enwere OO; Diwe CK; Azike JE; Chukwulebe AE

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Neutralizing antibodies associated with exposure factors to Orthopoxvirus in laboratory workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Extensive use of Vaccinia virus (VACV) in research has led to associated accidental human exposure in laboratories worldwide. In spite of the social and economic relevance of Bovine Vaccinia outbreaks in Brazil, national data concerning laboratory workers handling these infectious agents are relatively scarce. Therefore, a serological survey was conducted in a Brazilian laboratory to evaluate staff exposure to orthopoxviruses (OPVs). Information concerning direct work with OPVs, vaccination status and laboratory accidents was collected and correlated to serology results. This study presents an opportunity for discussion of routine procedures involving OPVs in laboratories and their intrinsic risks. Aspects of the live attenuated smallpox vaccine are also discussed.

Costa GB; Moreno EC; de Souza Trindade G

2013-10-01

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A tool to assess knowledge, attitude and behavior of indonesian health care workers regarding infection control.  

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Aim: to investigate knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire and to evaluate the use of the questionnaire as a tool. Methods: we investigated knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire to identify problem areas, barriers and facilitators. The target was to include at least 50% of all health care workers (physicians, nurses, assistant nurses and infection control nurses) in each hospital, department and profession. Differences between demographic variables and scores for individual questions and groups of questions were compared using the chi-square statistic and analysis of variance and Spearman's rho was used to test for correlations between knowledge, attitude, self-reported behaviour and perceived obstacles. Results: more than half of the health care workers of the participating departments completed the questionnaire. Of the 1036 respondents (44% nurses, 37% physicians and 19% assistant nurses), 34% were vaccinated against hepatitis B, 77% had experienced needle stick accidents and 93% had been instructed about infection control. The mean of the correct answers to the knowledge questions was 44%; of the answers to the attitude questions 67% were in agreement with the correct attitude; obstacles to compliance with infection control guidelines were perceived in 30% of the questions and the mean self-reported compliance was 63%. Safe handling of sharps, hand hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment were identified as the most important aspects for interventions. Significant positive correlations were found between knowledge, attitude, self-reported behaviour and perceived obstacles. Conclusion: the questionnaire in conjunction with site visits and interviews was a valuable strategy to identify trouble spots in the hospitals and to determine barriers to facilitators of change that should be taken into account when planning interventions. Successful interventions should cover hospital management, the infection control team, as well as the health care workers on the wards. PMID:24045391

Duerink, D O; Hadi, U; Lestari, E S; Roeshadi, Djoko; Wahyono, Hendro; Nagelkerke, N J D; Meulen, R G Van der; Broek, P J Van den

2013-07-01

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A tool to assess knowledge, attitude and behavior of indonesian health care workers regarding infection control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aim: to investigate knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire and to evaluate the use of the questionnaire as a tool. Methods: we investigated knowledge, attitude and behaviour toward infection control in two teaching hospitals on the island of Java by means of a questionnaire to identify problem areas, barriers and facilitators. The target was to include at least 50% of all health care workers (physicians, nurses, assistant nurses and infection control nurses) in each hospital, department and profession. Differences between demographic variables and scores for individual questions and groups of questions were compared using the chi-square statistic and analysis of variance and Spearman's rho was used to test for correlations between knowledge, attitude, self-reported behaviour and perceived obstacles. Results: more than half of the health care workers of the participating departments completed the questionnaire. Of the 1036 respondents (44% nurses, 37% physicians and 19% assistant nurses), 34% were vaccinated against hepatitis B, 77% had experienced needle stick accidents and 93% had been instructed about infection control. The mean of the correct answers to the knowledge questions was 44%; of the answers to the attitude questions 67% were in agreement with the correct attitude; obstacles to compliance with infection control guidelines were perceived in 30% of the questions and the mean self-reported compliance was 63%. Safe handling of sharps, hand hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment were identified as the most important aspects for interventions. Significant positive correlations were found between knowledge, attitude, self-reported behaviour and perceived obstacles. Conclusion: the questionnaire in conjunction with site visits and interviews was a valuable strategy to identify trouble spots in the hospitals and to determine barriers to facilitators of change that should be taken into account when planning interventions. Successful interventions should cover hospital management, the infection control team, as well as the health care workers on the wards.

Duerink DO; Hadi U; Lestari ES; Roeshadi D; Wahyono H; Nagelkerke NJ; Meulen RG; Broek PJ

2013-07-01

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Are healthcare workers' intentions to vaccinate related to their knowledge, beliefs and attitudes? A systematic review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The Summit of Independent European Vaccination Experts (SIEVE) recommended in 2007 that efforts be made to improve healthcare workers' knowledge and beliefs about vaccines, and their attitudes towards them, to increase vaccination coverage. The aim of the study was to compile and analyze the areas of disagreement in the existing evidence about the relationship between healthcare workers' knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about vaccines and their intentions to vaccinate the populations they serve. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in four electronic databases for studies published in any of seven different languages between February 1998 and June 2009. We included studies conducted in developed countries that used statistical methods to relate or associate the variables included in our research question. Two independent reviewers verified that the studies met the inclusion criteria, assessed the quality of the studies and extracted their relevant characteristics. The data were descriptively analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 2354 references identified in the initial search, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. The diversity in the study designs and in the methods used to measure the variables made it impossible to integrate the results, and each study had to be assessed individually. All the studies found an association in the direction postulated by the SIEVE experts: among healthcare workers, higher awareness, beliefs that are more aligned with scientific evidence and more favorable attitudes toward vaccination were associated with greater intentions to vaccinate. All the studies included were cross-sectional; thus, no causal relationship between the variables was established. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that interventions aimed at improving healthcare workers' knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about vaccines should be encouraged, and their impact on vaccination coverage should be assessed.

Herzog R; Álvarez-Pasquin MJ; Díaz C; Del Barrio JL; Estrada JM; Gil Á

2013-01-01

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Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Sawmill Workers Towards Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Kota Bharu, Kelantan.  

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The purpose of this study was to determine the sawmill workers’ knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in relation to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 83 workers from 3 factories in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Questionnaires were distributed to obtain the ...

Rus, Razman Mohd; Daud, Aziah; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Naing, Lin

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Heat-related illness knowledge and practices among California hired farm workers in The MICASA Study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Global climate change has great potential for escalating the number and duration of extreme heat events in California. California accounts for 16% of U.S. crop production, and over 450,000 people are employed in agriculture, with more than two-thirds being of Latino ethnicity. Despite Cal/OSHA regulations which specify that potable water, toilets, shade and rest be provided to agricultural workers, heat related illnesses and deaths still occur. The MICASA Study is a population-based sample of 467 hired farm worker households from Mendota, in California's Central Valley. 474 study participants completing follow-up interview and working in agriculture in the year prior are included in this analysis. Men reported an average of 222 d (SD=69.7) of work compared to 148 d (SD=67.3) for women (p<0.0001). Over 91% of participants reported receiving training on heat-related illness, but level of heat illness knowledge was moderate with 70% responding correctly to 4-5 questions. Knowledge about acclimatization was low, with 44% severely underestimating the time required, and water consumption was low at an average of 10.7 drinks per day. Results suggest important areas to target for heat illness prevention in farm worker populations and that gender specific approaches may be needed for effective heat illness prevention.

Stoecklin-Marois M; Hennessy-Burt T; Mitchell D; Schenker M

2013-01-01

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Heat-related illness knowledge and practices among California hired farm workers in The MICASA Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Global climate change has great potential for escalating the number and duration of extreme heat events in California. California accounts for 16% of U.S. crop production, and over 450,000 people are employed in agriculture, with more than two-thirds being of Latino ethnicity. Despite Cal/OSHA regulations which specify that potable water, toilets, shade and rest be provided to agricultural workers, heat related illnesses and deaths still occur. The MICASA Study is a population-based sample of 467 hired farm worker households from Mendota, in California's Central Valley. 474 study participants completing follow-up interview and working in agriculture in the year prior are included in this analysis. Men reported an average of 222 d (SD=69.7) of work compared to 148 d (SD=67.3) for women (p<0.0001). Over 91% of participants reported receiving training on heat-related illness, but level of heat illness knowledge was moderate with 70% responding correctly to 4-5 questions. Knowledge about acclimatization was low, with 44% severely underestimating the time required, and water consumption was low at an average of 10.7 drinks per day. Results suggest important areas to target for heat illness prevention in farm worker populations and that gender specific approaches may be needed for effective heat illness prevention. PMID:23411756

Stoecklin-Marois, Maria; Hennessy-Burt, Tamara; Mitchell, Diane; Schenker, Marc

2013-01-01

68

Eco-chemical knowledge, behavior and engagement of workers employed in the mineral fertilizer industry in Novi Sad  

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Full Text Available The level of environmental pollution is influenced by the knowledge, behavior and ecological engagement of both the individual and society. The mineral fertilizer industry represents a potential source of pollution. The issue examined in this study is the level of eco-chemical knowledge, behavior and ecological engagement of the workers employed in the mineral fertilizer industry in Novi Sad. We have concluded that the workers hover low level of knowledge, behavior and engagement. The results obtained could be used for the selection of methods to enhance the eco-chemical knowledge of the employees.

Cvjeti?anin Stanko; Segedinac Mirjana

2006-01-01

69

Evaluation of knowledge of healthcare workers in hospitals of Zabol city on proper methods of blood and components transfusion  

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Background and Aims: Blood and components are more frequently used in surgery and non-surgical procedures. In medical procedures blood transfusion is important and needs adequate expertise and practice, thus adequate knowledge in healthcare workers of this procedure is essential. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study is designed to assess the knowledge of healthcare workers about proper methods of blood transfusion, and how to promote their knowledge for proper performance if their knowledge is inadequate. Data were collected with aimed questionnaire and analyzed by statistics software. Result: The study population mainly comprised 122 healthcare workers (HCWs). The main findings from this study showed that 26.2% of healthcare workers (HCWs) had low-level knowledge, 22.1% moderate and 51.6% acceptable knowledge. We did not find any significant correlation between knowledge of HCWs and years in profession, participation in training, number of blood transfusions per day, age, gender, etc. (P < 0.05). Discussion and Conclusion: Results strongly emphasized the need for a curriculum to promote knowledge of HCWs about blood transfusion because we found low and moderate level of knowledge in approximately half our samples and on the importance of blood transfusion procedure, suggesting that more attempts should be made to build up knowledge about blood transfusion.

Reza, Piri Ali; Aziz, Shahraki Vahed; Ali, Moien Abbas; Marjan, Mardani Hamuleh; Reza, Taghavi Mohammad

2009-01-01

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Evaluation of knowledge of healthcare workers in hospitals of Zabol city on proper methods of blood and components transfusion  

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Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood and components are more frequently used in surgery and non-surgical procedures. In medical procedures blood transfusion is important and needs adequate expertise and practice, thus adequate knowledge in healthcare workers of this procedure is essential. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study is designed to assess the knowledge of healthcare workers about proper methods of blood transfusion, and how to promote their knowledge for proper performance if their knowledge is inadequate. Data were collected with aimed questionnaire and analyzed by statistics software. Result: The study population mainly comprised 122 healthcare workers (HCWs). The main findings from this study showed that 26.2% of healthcare workers (HCWs) had low-level knowledge, 22.1% moderate and 51.6% acceptable knowledge. We did not find any significant correlation between knowledge of HCWs and years in profession, participation in training, number of blood transfusions per day, age, gender, etc. ( P Discussion and Conclusion: Results strongly emphasized the need for a curriculum to promote knowledge of HCWs about blood transfusion because we found low and moderate level of knowledge in approximately half our samples and on the importance of blood transfusion procedure, suggesting that more attempts should be made to build up knowledge about blood transfusion.

Piri Ali; Shahraki Vahed; Moien Abbas; Mardani Hamuleh; Taghavi Mohammad

2009-01-01

71

Knowledge, attitudes and practice pertaining to depression among primary health care workers in Tanzania  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Examination of consultation data in a variety of primary care settings in Tanzania shows that, while psychoses are routinely diagnosed and treated at primary care level, depression is rarely recorded as a reason for consultation. Since, epidemiological studies elswhere show that depression is a much more common disorder than psychosis, a series of studies were undertaken to elucidate this apparent paradox in Tanzania and inform mental health policy; firstly, a household prevalence study to ascertain the prevalence of common mental disorders at community level in Tanzania; secondly, a study to ascertain the prevalence of common mental disorders in primary care attenders; and thirdly, a study to ascertain the current status of the knowledge, attitude and practice pertaining to depression among primary health care workers. This paper reports the findings of the latter study. Methods All the primary health care workers (N = 14) in four primary health care centres in Tanzania were asked to complete the Depression Attitude Questionnaire, which assesses the health worker's knowledge and attitude towards the causes, consequences and treatment of depression. Results The majority of respondents felt that rates of depression had increased in recent years, believed that life events were important in the aetiology of depression, and generally held positive views about pharmacological and psychological treatments of depression, prognosis and their own involvement in the treatment of depressed patients. However, the majority of respondents felt that becoming depressed is a way that people with poor stamina deal with life difficulties. Conclusion The findings suggest a need to strengthen the training of primary health care workers in Tanzania about the detection of depression, pharmacological and psychological treatments, and psychosocial interventions.

Mbatia Joseph; Shah Ajit; Jenkins Rachel

2009-01-01

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Task- and Time-Dependent Weighting Factors in a Retrospective Exposure Assessment of Chemical Laboratory Workers  

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Results are reported from a chemical exposure assessment that was conducted for a cohort mortality study of 6157 chemical laboratory workers employed between 1943 and 1998 at four Department of Energy sites in Oak Ridge, Tenn., and Aiken, S.C.

Scott A. Henn, David F. Utterback, Kathleen M. Waters, Andrea M. Markey, William G. Tankersley

2007-02-01

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Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C Infection among Laboratory Health Care Workers in Isfahan, Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Clinical laboratory health care workers can become infected through their occupation with blood-borne pathogens by percutanous injuries and mucocutaneous blood contacts such as cuts, needle sticks, splashes to mucous membranes or other body injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of, Hepatitis C virus (HCV), and some of the risk factors in medical laboratory health care workers. METHODS: Through a descriptive cross sectional study, 203 participants employed in the clinical laboratories of the city of Isfahan, composed of medical laboratory technologists, technicians and cleaning staff were studied. Participant data were obtained through a self-reporting questionnaire and the level of anti-HCV antibody was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Chi-square test was used to determine risk factors associated with infection. RESULTS: The mean age of the individuals (n = 203) was 35.8 ± 9.54 years. There were 115 women (56.7%) and 88 men (43.3%). All of the subjects were negative for HCV Ab. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis C infection is infrequent in laboratory health care workers in Isfahan province.

Shoaei P; Lotfi N; Hassannejad R; Yaran M; Ataei B; Kassaian N; Foroughifar M; Adibi P

2012-03-01

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Knowledge and awareness of female sex workers towards human papillomavirus infection in Turkey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and awareness of female sex workers (FSWs) about human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Turkey. METHODS: 239 brothel-based FSWs were recruited for an interview. A questionnaire was completed by face to face interview. The demographic features, the level of knowledge, and awareness about HPV infection of the participants were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 152 (63.6%) were over 30 years of age, and 210 (87.9%) completed primary education. 122 FSWs (50.9%) were using condom, and about one third had high frequency of sexual contacts. Knowledge scores were < OR =4 in 181 (75.7%) FSWs. Low education and higher age group were not significant predictors of low knowledge scores. Low education was not an independent risk factor for awareness but higher age group participants were significantly less aware of risks associated with HPV infection (p = 0.019) although overall score was very poor (0.60 +/- 0.68). CONCLUSIONS: The knowledge and awareness about HPV infection and its possible consequences (cervical cancer) as well as the utility of screening methods among FSWs in Turkey are extremely poor. HPV-focused educational programmes for targeted populations, e.g. FSWs and young adults prior to their sexual activity, should be launched urgently to increase awareness of the risks associated with HPV infection and thus reducing the incidence of cervical cancer in Turkey in the future.

Ersan G; Köse S; Gunes H; Ozkan M

2012-09-01

75

Knowledge, attitude and practices of pesticide use and acetylcholinesterase depression among farm workers in Nepal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Assessing erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in farm workers across agricultural seasons can be used to monitor risks of pesticide exposure. We surveyed a total of 403 households in Nepal and adopted the Test-mate ChE Cholinesterase Test System to monitor AChE activity across season on the 127 individuals of the sampled households. The study aims to (i) document knowledge and practices of pesticide use among farmers and (ii) present the relationship between farmers' reported acute health symptoms and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase depression. We found low levels of pesticide use hygiene and high levels of individuals' knowledge on the local environmental impacts of pesticide use. Safety measures taken against potential risks of pesticides exposure were inadequate. Exposure to organophosphates significantly reduced AChE activity across season, but was not sufficient enough to claim clinical symptoms whereas exposure to the pyrethroid insecticides and fungicides were sufficient enough to claim acute symptoms of poisoning.

Atreya K; Sitaula BK; Overgaard H; Bajracharya RM; Sharma S

2012-01-01

76

A mental health training program for community health workers in India: impact on knowledge and attitudes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Unmet needs for mental health treatment in low income countries are pervasive. If mental health is to be effectively integrated into primary health care in low income countries like India then grass-roots workers need to acquire relevant knowledge and skills to be able to recognise, refer and support people experiencing mental disorders in their own communities. This study aims to provide a mental health training intervention to community health workers in Bangalore Rural District, Karnataka, India, and to evaluate the impact of this training on mental health literacy. Methods A pre-test post-test study design was undertaken with assessment of mental health literacy at three time points; baseline, completion of the training, and three month follow-up. Mental health literacy was assessed using the interviewer-administered Mental Health Literacy Survey. The training intervention was a four day course based on a facilitator's manual developed specifically for community health workers in India. Results 70 community health workers from Doddaballapur, Bangalore Rural District were recuited for the study. The training course improved participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder in a vignette, and reduced participants' faith in unhelpful and potentially harmful pharmacological interventions. There was evidence of a minor reduction in stigmatizing attitudes, and it was unclear if the training resulted in a change in participants' faith in recovery following treatment. Conclusion The findings from this study indicate that the training course demonstrated potential to be an effective way to improve some aspects of mental health literacy, and highlights strategies for strengthening the training course.

Armstrong Gregory; Kermode Michelle; Raja Shoba; Suja Sujatha; Chandra Prabha; Jorm Anthony F

2011-01-01

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Hazardous materials on golf courses: experience and knowledge of golf course superintendents and grounds maintenance workers from seven states.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The golf course industry has a growing Latino work force. Little occupational health research has addressed this work force. This article examines golf course superintendents' and Latino grounds maintenance workers' pesticide knowledge, beliefs, and safety training. In particular, it focuses on knowledge of and adherence to OSHA Right-to-Know regulations. METHODS: In person, in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 golf course superintendents in five states and with 16 Latino grounds maintenance workers in four states. RESULTS: Few superintendents were in compliance with Right-to-Know regulations or did pesticide safety training with all of their workers. Few workers had any pesticide safety knowledge. Most safety training on golf courses was rudimentary and focused on machine safety, and was usually conducted in the off-season or on rainy days, not before workers were assigned tasks. CONCLUSIONS: More Right-to-Know training is necessary for superintendents and grounds maintenance workers. Culturally and linguistically appropriate Spanish language materials need to be developed or made more widely available to train workers. Better enforcement of safety and training regulations is necessary.

Arcury-Quandt AE; Gentry AL; Marín AJ

2011-06-01

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A Study of Knowledge and Practices among Commercial Sex Workers Registered Under Jyotisangh STD Clinic, Ahmedabad  

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Full Text Available Background: There is growing evidence about the importance of commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients as bridging groups for the HIV epidemic. In India, the role of CSWs is key to the future trajectory of the epidemic. Objective: To determine the level of knowledge and practices regarding STI/ HIV among CSWs. Study design: A Cross-sectional, community based study. Methodology: The study was conducted in December 2005 among CSWs registered under Jyotisangh. Results: The mean age was 27.5 years and majorities (64.5%) of CSWs were below 35 years. Knowledge on some aspects of the diseases was quite low in the study group. A higher proportion of CSWs (73.5%) don’t know the relationship between HIV and STI. About 66.3% of CSWs know one or more male STI symptoms. 58% of CSWs were aware of place for HIV testing. Majority (86.3%) of CSWs are attending counseling programme at Jyotisangh. 97.5% CSWs were aware about condom still 50.5% CSWs were regularly using condom with regular partner while nearly one fourth (26.5%) never used condom. And also 97% of CSWs never practiced anal intercourse with condom and only 25% reported either rarely/ sometimes non-penetrative sexual practice. Conclusion: High-risk behavior was established in the study sample. Safe sex and use of condom have to be energetically promoted among commercial sex workers.

Talsania NJ, Shah Rakesh, Shah Venu, Murugan V

2010-01-01

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Evidence-Based Practice: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs of Social Workers in Romania  

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Full Text Available The social work profession has been undergoing a period of change and has been encouraged to prove the effectiveness of clinical interventions by scientific evidence. This study was therefore designed to describe the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of a sample of Romanian social work professionals to evidence-based practice (EBP). 62 social workers were required to complete a 37-item closed ended questionnaire, which collected information on demographic data, practice settings, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding EBP. Respondents agreed that the use of EBP was necessary and that the quality of patient care was better when evidence was used, with the younger physiotherapists at the fore front. About 50% of the respondents had access to online information; the majority of these respondents only had time to access the internet more at home rather than at work place. The primary barrier to implementing EBP was insufficient time. The respondents had a positive attitude towards EBP and were interested in improving the skills necessary to implement EBP. There was a need to increase the use of EBP in clinical practice and decision making among social workers. The respondents who were recently licensed and those with post-graduate education expressed more positive attitudes toward EBP than those who were not. Results also point out the issue of appreciative inquiry (AI) as a key-component in successful implementation of EBP in social work clinical settings.

Mihai-Bogdan IOVU; Patricia RUNCAN

2012-01-01

80

Residential location choice of knowledge-workers in a "startup metropolis": the role of amenities, workplace and lifestyle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knowledge cities (KC) and knowledge-based urban development (KBUD) are rapidly gaining momentum due their potential for inducing economic growth and regional competitiveness. The current study focuses on investigating the location preferences of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level, as an essential building block in the formulation of successful KBUD policies. Specifically, this study applies multinomial and nested logit models to investigate the impact of location amenities, accessibility, housing preferences and leisure-activity pattern on knowledge-workers’ residential location choice. The models are applied to 833 actual housing choices collected by means of a web-based survey. Survey respondents consist of knowledge-workers in high-technology and financial business services, who work and reside in Tel-Aviv metropolitan region, also known as the ‘the startup metropolis’. The results reveal that knowledge-workers (i) prefer dense urban environments and large cities, (ii) reside in well-established knowledge communities (iii) seek abundance cultural and education opportunities, (iv) seek affordable housing, (v) reside in locations that are compatible with their housing preferences, workplace location and leisure activity pattern.

Bendit, Edward; Frenkel, Amnon

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practices among healthcare workers in a tertiary care hospital on needle stick injury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The study aims to assess healthcare workers' needle-stick injury (NSI) knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP). DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a 600-bedded hospital throughout six months. The data were collected using an anonymous, self-reporting questionnaire. Participants were various healthcare workers (HCW) drawn through stratified random sampling and their knowledge, attitude and practice regarding NSI were assessed. FINDINGS: There is significant difference in the mean knowledge, attitude and practice scores among healthcare workers. Even though scores are better for doctors and nurses, practice scores were better for technical staff. Healthcare workers, who had better practice scores, had suffered fewer NSIs. Since this study is a cross-sectional, the population's NSI incidence could not be calculated. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: This study emphasizes that applying knowledge to practice is required to prevent NSIs. Various recommendations to help prevent and deal with NSIs are made. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This study analyses healthcare workers' NSI knowledge, attitude and practices, and also assesses their correlation with NSI incidence, which has not been done previously.

Bhargava A; Mishra B; Thakur A; Dogra V; Loomba P; Gupta S

2013-01-01

82

Are Care Takers of Link WorkerAND#8217;s Scheme of HIV/AIDS Knowledgeable Enouth? Assessment Study of Link Workers Scheme in Surat District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Gujarat State AIDS Control Society with support from UNICEF Gujarat has initiated as unique project for prevention of HIV /AIDS at rural set up since 2008, which is known as Link Workers’ scheme. Link Workers (LWs) are working in each cluster of villages around a 5,000+ population village which will serve as the node for intervention. They are supported in their work by village level volunteers selected from the available groups in the community. Methodology: 140 Link workers and 70 volunteers from 70 villages of 14 blocks of district Surat were invited for the study. Due to few vacant posts, total 183 participants took part in the study; out of these 117 were link workers (LWs) while 66 were volunteers. Their Knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and STI were assessed on a predesigned pretested semi structured study tool. Result: 96.59% link workers and 93.44% volunteers had knowledge about condom use as a method of preventing HIV infection. The concern issue is that only 11.11% LWs and 13.64% volunteers revealed that HIV testing during ANC check up can also prevent HIV transmission from mother to child, inspite of receiving induction training. Only 74.36% LWs and 68.31% volunteers were able to tell about three or more HIV preventive methods. Recommendations: Refresher training and exposure visit to HIV care centres are needed for these workers to strengthen their knowledge. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000): 173-175

Parmar Rohit; Desai Binita; Kosambiya JK; Solanky Priti; Prajapati Shailesh; Kantharia SL

2012-01-01

83

Infection of laboratory workers with hantavirus acquired from immunocytomas propagated in laboratory rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hantavirus has been isolated in cell culture from rat immunocytomas used and stored at a research laboratory in the U.K. where there was evidence of a laboratory-acquired infection leading to haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Both transplantation into LOU/M/Wsl rats and storage of passaged immunocytomas at -70 degrees C over a period of 8-10 years had not eliminated the virus. The isolates were identified as Hantavirus by means of serum obtained from patients with hantavirus infection as well as polyclonal serum derived from laboratory animals. This paper identifies a potential source of hantavirus infection in laboratories. The importing of rats, rat immunocytomas and anti-immunocytoma serum in relation to the potential risks of laboratory-acquired hantavirus infection is discussed.

Lloyd G; Jones N

1986-03-01

84

Laboratory measurement error in external dose estimates and its effects on dose-response analyses of Hanford worker mortality data  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report addresses laboratory measurement error in estimates of external doses obtained from personnel dosimeters, and investigates the effects of these errors on linear dose-response analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers. These errors have the distinguishing feature that they are independent across time and across workers. Although the calculations made for this report were based on Hanford data, the overall conclusions are likely to be relevant for other epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to external radiation.

Gilbert, E.S.; Fix, J.J.

1996-08-01

85

Community health workers: knowledge and conditions in a city of minas gerais, brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: to examine the knowledge and work conditions of the community health workers from a city of Minas Gerais state. Method: this is about an exploratory and descriptive study from quantitative data analysis. With the help of a structured instrument constructed by the researchers and validated by experts, we investigated the ACS of a local miner. Inclusion criteria were: ACS for more than a year in the city studied, not being on vacation, maternity leave or other absence from work take part in the study and sign the Informed Consent (IC), resulting in 61 ACS studied. The study was approved by the Health Department of the municipality and by the Ethics in Research of the Pontiphical University Catholic of Minas Gerais protocol number 0276.0.213.000-08. Results: most of them have high school degree, live next to the job, do not have the necessaries equipments to make home visits, can recognize an emergency and an urgency situation, know the socioeconomic and cultural reality of the community, have access to homes visited and their mission is the prevention and the promotion of basic health. Conclusions: the development of a more effective policy in this area should promote a process of continued education for the professionals, improving their training related to the family and community approach. Descriptors: family health program; public health, workers.

Cecília Cardoso de Araújo Silva, Daniele Fernanda Rosário, Nancy Gomes Coelho, Cristiane Aparecida Silveira, Sonia Maria Alves de Paiva

2010-01-01

86

Migration Matters in the Asia-Pacific Region: Immigration Frameworks, Knowledge Workers and National Policies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the past three decades the Asia-Pacific region has experienced amajor wave of immigration despite tighter migration policies andbetter border controls. Southeast Asia has been prominent in thischange, with some countries being important sources and destinationsof skilled and unskilled migrants. Australia has also increased itsmigration quotas, particularly the skilled migration intake. Theemergence of new regional migration patterns, the fast growth in thedemand for knowledge workers and skilled migrants in specificoccupational categories, and the creation of subregional labourmarkets are all manifestations of the scale and diversity of recentmigratory movements in the region. Key factors accounting for thesedevelopments include disparities in economic growth; income andpoverty levels between countries; labour shortages arising fromdemographic transformations; structural change in labour supply;and the role of social networks and the migration industry as driversof migration.

Amarjit Kaur

2007-01-01

87

Identification and Classification of Factors Affecting ICT Knowledge Workers’ Turnover in Iran’s Mobile Communications Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is identification and classification of factors affecting ICT knowledge workers’ turnover in Iran’s mobile communications industry. After reviewing research literature, seeking experts’ opinions and doing statistical analyses, 11 variables were identified as the main turnover precedents; then using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the aforementioned factors were classified in three categories. Results of the research suggest that the personal, job-related and internal/extra-organizational aspects, respectively, explain ICT specialists’ and knowledge workers’ turnover in Iran’s mobile communications industry.

Mohammad Reza Mehregan; Nader Seyed Kalali

2013-01-01

88

Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice of Tabriz's school health workers about oral and dental health  

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Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: School health workers have an important role in education and prevention of common oral and dental diseases. An organized program can be helpful in training and shaping the proper behavior. This study has evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practice of schools health workers in Tabriz about oral and dental health in 2007-2008."nMaterials and Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was performed in primary schools in Tabriz. Questionnaires were sent to the schools that had health workers. Levels of the knowledge, attitude and practice of the health workers who had answered this questionnaire were evaluated. SPSS software and independent T-Test and Paired- Sample T-Test were used for analyzing the results."nResults: Fifty eight out of 64 school health workers were women. Mean age of school health workers was 45 years. Forty four of school health workers had passed special course about oral health and dental health. 49 of them had passed special educational course the mean of acquired knowledge score was 6.77 out of 10 and women's scores were significantly higher. Also women had more work experience than men. The mean of acquired attitude and practice scores were 7.42 and 7.14 out of 10, respectively."nConclusion: Findings show that performing of the educational courses during work and experience has an effective role in the scales of the health workers. Progress in this situation can be achieved by retraining programs and accessible pamphlets.

Taghizadeh Ganji A.; Jafari A.; Poorgholi N.; Iranizadeh H.

2009-01-01

89

A survey on knowledge and self-reported formula handling practices of parents and child care workers in Palermo, Italy  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Powdered infant formula (PIF) is not a sterile product, but this information appears to be poorly diffused among child caregivers. Parents and child care workers may behave in an unsafe manner when handling PIF. Methods This study involved parents and child care workers in the 24 municipal child care centres of Palermo. Knowledge and self-reported practices about PIF handling were investigated by a structured questionnaire. A Likert scale was used to measure the strength of the respondent's feelings. Association of knowledge and self-reported practices with demographic variables was also evaluated. Results 42.4% of parents and 71.0% of child care workers filled in the questionnaire. Significant differences were found between parents and child care workers for age and education. 73.2% of parents and 84.4% of child care workers were confident in sterility of PIF. Generally, adherence to safe procedures when reconstituting and handling PIF was more frequently reported by child care workers who, according to the existing legislation, are regularly subjected to a periodic training on food safety principles and practices. Age and education significantly influenced the answers to the questionnaire of both parents and child care workers. Conclusion The results of the study reveal that parents and child care workers are generally unaware that powdered formulas may contain viable microorganisms. However, child care workers consistently chose safer options than parents when answering the questions about adherence to hygienic practices. At present it seems unfeasible to produce sterile PIF, but the risk of growth of hazardous organisms in formula at the time of administration should be minimized by promoting safer behaviours among caregivers to infants in both institutional settings and home.

Calamusa Giuseppe; Valenti Rosalia; Guida Ivana; Mammina Caterina

2009-01-01

90

A survey on knowledge and self-reported formula handling practices of parents and child care workers in Palermo, Italy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Powdered infant formula (PIF) is not a sterile product, but this information appears to be poorly diffused among child caregivers. Parents and child care workers may behave in an unsafe manner when handling PIF. METHODS: This study involved parents and child care workers in the 24 municipal child care centres of Palermo. Knowledge and self-reported practices about PIF handling were investigated by a structured questionnaire. A Likert scale was used to measure the strength of the respondent's feelings. Association of knowledge and self-reported practices with demographic variables was also evaluated. RESULTS: 42.4% of parents and 71.0% of child care workers filled in the questionnaire. Significant differences were found between parents and child care workers for age and education. 73.2% of parents and 84.4% of child care workers were confident in sterility of PIF. Generally, adherence to safe procedures when reconstituting and handling PIF was more frequently reported by child care workers who, according to the existing legislation, are regularly subjected to a periodic training on food safety principles and practices. Age and education significantly influenced the answers to the questionnaire of both parents and child care workers. CONCLUSION: The results of the study reveal that parents and child care workers are generally unaware that powdered formulas may contain viable microorganisms. However, child care workers consistently chose safer options than parents when answering the questions about adherence to hygienic practices.At present it seems unfeasible to produce sterile PIF, but the risk of growth of hazardous organisms in formula at the time of administration should be minimized by promoting safer behaviours among caregivers to infants in both institutional settings and home.

Calamusa G; Valenti RM; Guida I; Mammina C

2009-01-01

91

Laboratory animals and respiratory allergies: the prevalence of allergies among laboratory animal workers and the need for prophylaxis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Subjects exposed to laboratory animals are at a heightened risk of developing respiratory and allergic diseases. These diseases can be prevented by simple measures such as the use of personal protective equipment. We report here the primary findings of the Laboratory Animals and Respiratory Allergies Study regarding the prevalence of allergic diseases among laboratory animal workers, the routine use of preventive measures in laboratories and animal facilities, and the need for prevention programs. METHODS: Animal handlers and non-animal handlers from 2 Brazilian universities (University of São Paulo and State University of Campinas) answered specific questionnaires to assess work conditions and symptoms. These subjects also underwent spirometry, a bronchial challenge test with mannitol, and skin prick tests for 11 common allergens and 5 occupational allergens (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and rabbit). RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-five animal handlers (32±10 years old [mean±SD], 209 men) and 387 non-animal handlers (33±11 years old, 121 men) were evaluated. Sensitization to occupational allergens was higher among animal handlers (16%) than non-animal handlers (3%, p<0.01). Accessibility to personal protective equipment was measured at 85% (median, considering 73 workplaces of the animal handler group). Nineteen percent of the animal handlers indicated that they wear a respirator at all times while handling animals or working in the animal room, and only 25% of the animal handlers had received an orientation about animal-induced allergies, asthma, or rhinitis. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our data indicate that preventive programs are necessary. We suggest providing individual advice to workers associated with institutional programs to promote a safer work environment.

Ferraz E; Arruda LK; Bagatin E; Martinez EZ; Cetlin AA; Simoneti CS; Freitas AS; Martinez JA; Borges MC; Vianna EO

2013-06-01

92

Laboratory animals and respiratory allergies: The prevalence of allergies among laboratory animal workers and the need for prophylaxis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Subjects exposed to laboratory animals are at a heightened risk of developing respiratory and allergic diseases. These diseases can be prevented by simple measures such as the use of personal protective equipment. We report here the primary findings of the Laboratory Animals and Respiratory Allergies Study regarding the prevalence of allergic diseases among laboratory animal workers, the routine use of preventive measures in laboratories and animal f (more) acilities, and the need for prevention programs. METHODS: Animal handlers and non-animal handlers from 2 Brazilian universities (University of São Paulo and State University of Campinas) answered specific questionnaires to assess work conditions and symptoms. These subjects also underwent spirometry, a bronchial challenge test with mannitol, and skin prick tests for 11 common allergens and 5 occupational allergens (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and rabbit). RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-five animal handlers (32±10 years old [mean±SD], 209 men) and 387 non-animal handlers (33±11 years old, 121 men) were evaluated. Sensitization to occupational allergens was higher among animal handlers (16%) than non-animal handlers (3%, p<0.01). Accessibility to personal protective equipment was measured at 85% (median, considering 73 workplaces of the animal handler group). Nineteen percent of the animal handlers indicated that they wear a respirator at all times while handling animals or working in the animal room, and only 25% of the animal handlers had received an orientation about animal-induced allergies, asthma, or rhinitis. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our data indicate that preventive programs are necessary. We suggest providing individual advice to workers associated with institutional programs to promote a safer work environment.

Ferraz, Erica; Arruda, Luisa Karla de Paula; Bagatin, Ericson; Martinez, Edson Z.; Cetlin, Andrea A.; Simoneti, Christian S.; Freitas, Amanda S.; Martinez, José A.B.; Borges, Marcos C.; Vianna, Elcio O.

2013-06-01

93

Laboratory animals and respiratory allergies: The prevalence of allergies among laboratory animal workers and the need for prophylaxis  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: Subjects exposed to laboratory animals are at a heightened risk of developing respiratory and allergic diseases. These diseases can be prevented by simple measures such as the use of personal protective equipment. We report here the primary findings of the Laboratory Animals and Respiratory Allergies Study regarding the prevalence of allergic diseases among laboratory animal workers, the routine use of preventive measures in laboratories and animal facilities, and the need for prevention programs. METHODS: Animal handlers and non-animal handlers from 2 Brazilian universities (University of São Paulo and State University of Campinas) answered specific questionnaires to assess work conditions and symptoms. These subjects also underwent spirometry, a bronchial challenge test with mannitol, and skin prick tests for 11 common allergens and 5 occupational allergens (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and rabbit). RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-five animal handlers (32±10 years old [mean±SD], 209 men) and 387 non-animal handlers (33±11 years old, 121 men) were evaluated. Sensitization to occupational allergens was higher among animal handlers (16%) than non-animal handlers (3%, p<0.01). Accessibility to personal protective equipment was measured at 85% (median, considering 73 workplaces of the animal handler group). Nineteen percent of the animal handlers indicated that they wear a respirator at all times while handling animals or working in the animal room, and only 25% of the animal handlers had received an orientation about animal-induced allergies, asthma, or rhinitis. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our data indicate that preventive programs are necessary. We suggest providing individual advice to workers associated with institutional programs to promote a safer work environment.

Ferraz, Erica; Arruda, Luisa Karla de Paula; Bagatin, Ericson; Martinez, Edson Z; Cetlin, Andrea A; Simoneti, Christian S; Freitas, Amanda S; Martinez, Jose A B; Borges, Marcos C; Vianna, Elcio O

2013-01-01

94

Laboratory animals and respiratory allergies: The prevalence of allergies among laboratory animal workers and the need for prophylaxis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Subjects exposed to laboratory animals are at a heightened risk of developing respiratory and allergic diseases. These diseases can be prevented by simple measures such as the use of personal protective equipment. We report here the primary findings of the Laboratory Animals and Respiratory Allergies Study regarding the prevalence of allergic diseases among laboratory animal workers, the routine use of preventive measures in laboratories and animal facilities, and the need for prevention programs. METHODS: Animal handlers and non-animal handlers from 2 Brazilian universities (University of São Paulo and State University of Campinas) answered specific questionnaires to assess work conditions and symptoms. These subjects also underwent spirometry, a bronchial challenge test with mannitol, and skin prick tests for 11 common allergens and 5 occupational allergens (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and rabbit). RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-five animal handlers (32±10 years old [mean±SD], 209 men) and 387 non-animal handlers (33±11 years old, 121 men) were evaluated. Sensitization to occupational allergens was higher among animal handlers (16%) than non-animal handlers (3%, p<0.01). Accessibility to personal protective equipment was measured at 85% (median, considering 73 workplaces of the animal handler group). Nineteen percent of the animal handlers indicated that they wear a respirator at all times while handling animals or working in the animal room, and only 25% of the animal handlers had received an orientation about animal-induced allergies, asthma, or rhinitis. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our data indicate that preventive programs are necessary. We suggest providing individual advice to workers associated with institutional programs to promote a safer work environment.

Erica Ferraz; Luisa Karla de Paula Arruda; Ericson Bagatin; Edson Z. Martinez; Andrea A. Cetlin; Christian S. Simoneti; Amanda S. Freitas; José A.B. Martinez; Marcos C. Borges; Elcio O. Vianna

2013-01-01

95

Effects of knowledge and internal locus of control in groups of health care workers judging likelihood of pathogen transfer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: A study was conducted to measure the effects of attitudes and beliefs on the risk judgments of health care workers. BACKGROUND: Lack of hand hygiene compliance is a worldwide issue in health care, contributing to infections, fatalities, and increased health care costs. Human factors methods are a promising solution to the problem of compliance, although thus far, the concentration has been on process and engineering methods, such as the design of no-touch sinks. Factors internal to the health care worker, such as their attitudes and beliefs about hand hygiene, have received less attention. METHOD: For this study, three groups of health care workers completed measures of attitudes, control beliefs, and hand hygiene knowledge. They then provided risk judgments of touching various surfaces via a factorial survey. RESULTS: Attitudes, knowledge, control beliefs, and surface type all predicted the risk judgments of the sample of health care workers, with differences between professional groups. CONCLUSION: Health care workers perceive less risk when touching surfaces,which may explain historically low rates of hand hygiene compliance after surface contact. APPLICATION: Although more research is needed to directly connect risk judgments to failures of hand hygiene, the current results can inform interventions targeting the internal attitudes and beliefs of health care workers.

McLaughlin AC; Walsh F; Bryant M

2013-08-01

96

Olfactory sensitivity in medical laboratory workers occupationally exposed to organic solvent mixtures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Published epidemiological information relating the effects of occupational exposure to organic solvents (OS) to olfaction is limited. AIMS: The objectives of this pilot study were to measure the chemosensory abilities of medical laboratory employees occupationally exposed to OS mixtures, to compare these with control workers employed within the same occupational setting and to correlate chemosensory performance with OS exposure history and with employees' hedonic (pleasantness) perceptions about workplace OS odors. METHODS: Twenty-four medical laboratory employees (OS-exposed technicians plus control workers minimally exposed to OS) completed a health-related questionnaire, a test of pyridine odor detection threshold, along with a gustatory detection threshold test involving aqueous quinine solutions. Estimates of cumulative hours of OS exposure (CSI) were calculated from self-reports. RESULTS: OS-exposed laboratory technicians detected weaker concentrations of pyridine odor. Positive correlations were detected between CSI estimates to both pyridine detection and the degree that participants reported that OS odors were present in the workplace. However, no association was detected between pyridine detection and how unpleasant workplace OS odors were perceived. The OS-exposed participants were able to detect weaker concentrations of quinine. Compared to controls, OS-exposed workers complained more of experiencing several symptoms while working, including headaches, nasal irritation and mild cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this cross-sectional pilot study indicated that, compared to controls, medical laboratory technicians exposed to low-level OS mixtures displayed evidence of elevated olfactory sensitivity (hyperosmia) to pyridine odor. The relation of this study's results to chemical intolerance warrants further investigation.

Zibrowski EM; Robertson JM

2006-01-01

97

Attitudes and beliefs, not just knowledge, influence the effectiveness of environmental cleaning by environmental service workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Hospital environmental service workers (ESWs) play an important role in interrupting the chain of infection because the environment is a reservoir for nosocomial pathogens. Improving ESWs' knowledge through education has been shown to improve ESW cleaning, but the behavioral determinants of their work have not been studied. Understanding and targeting ESWs' attitudes and beliefs may inform strategies to improve environmental cleaning. METHODS: With the theory of planned behavior as framework, we used questionnaires and focus groups to examine intensive care unit ESWs' attitudes, beliefs [behavioral, normative, and control], and control) and intent about their job. Baseline quantitative microbial cultures of high-touch services were performed before and after cleaning. After an educational intervention addressing their attitudes, beliefs, and general infection control knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and microbial contamination were reassessed. RESULTS: Beliefs were uniformly strong (4.5/5-5/5), and normative beliefs correlated best with intent to clean (R(2) = 0.3). Themes elicited from the focus groups included "me versus them," lack of appreciation, pride in work, and "if it were me." The rate of environmental contamination was significantly improved after the intervention (P = .0074 vs P = .0023, respectively); the measured relationship among attitudes, beliefs, and intent was not significantly changed. CONCLUSION: ESWs' attitudes and beliefs about their job may impact their intent to clean and in turn the effectiveness of their efforts. Understanding and addressing these attitudes and beliefs can be used to inform strategies for sustained improvement of environmental cleaning.

Matlow AG; Wray R; Richardson SE

2012-04-01

98

Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to avian influenza among poultry workers in Nepal: a cross sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza is a considerable threat to global public health. Prevention and control depend on awareness and protective behaviours of the general population as well as high risk-groups. This study aims to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to avian influenza among poultry workers in Nepal. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional study design, using a structured questionnaire administered in face-to-face interviews with 96 poultry workers age 15 and above from the Rupandehi district in Nepal. Results The majority of respondents were male (80%), mean age was 35 (SD = 11.6). Nearly everybody was aware that AI cases had been detected in Nepal and that poultry workers were at risk for infection. The major sources of AI information were radio, TV and newspapers. Knowledge about preventive measures was high with regard to some behaviours (hand washing), but medium to low with regard to others (using cleaning and disinfecting procedures or protective clothing). Poultry workers who got their information from TV and newspapers and those who were more afraid of contracting AI had higher knowledge than those who did not. Being employed as compared to being an owner of a poultry farm as well as having a high level of knowledge was associated with practising more preventive behaviours. While on one hand many specific government control measures found a high degree of acceptance, a majority of study participants also thought that government control and compensation measures as a whole were insufficient. Conclusions The study provides information about knowledge and practices regarding avian influenza among poultry workers in Nepal. It highlights the importance of targeting lack of knowledge as well as structural-material barriers to successfully build preparedness for a major outbreak situation.

Neupane Dinesh; Khanal Vishnu; Ghimire Kamal; Aro Arja R; Leppin Anja

2012-01-01

99

High urinary bisphenol A concentrations in workers and possible laboratory abnormalities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in epoxy resins in China. There are few reports on the adverse health effects of occupational exposure to BPA. This study examined associations between urinary BPA concentrations in workers and laboratory parameters for health status. METHODS: Spot urine checks at the end shift on Friday were used for cross-sectional analysis of BPA concentrations, and blood or urinary markers of liver function, glucose homeostasis, thyroid function and cardiovascular diseases were measured. The 28 participants were workers in two semiautomatic epoxy resin factories. RESULTS: The average urinary BPA concentration was 55.73±5.48 ng/ml (geometric mean ± geometric SD) (range 5.56-1934.85 ng/ml). After adjusting for urine creatinine (Cr), it was 31.96±4.42 ?g/g Cr (geometric mean ± geometric SD) (range 4.61-1253.69 ?g/g Cr). BPA feeding operators showed the highest concentrations, over 10 times those of the crushing and packing and office workers. Higher BPA concentrations were associated with clinically abnormal concentrations of FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, thyroid-stimulating hormone, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and ?-glutamyl transferase. Workers with higher BPA concentrations showed higher FT3 concentrations (linear trend: p<0.001). Bivariate correlation tests for laboratory analytes within normal limits showed FT3 to be positively associated with logged BPA concentrations, r=0.57, p=0.002. FT4 was positively associated with lactate dehydrogenase, r=0.45, p=0.020, and insulin was positively associated with thyroid-stimulating hormone with r=0.57, p=0.009. CONCLUSIONS: Higher occupational BPA exposure, reflected in urinary concentrations of BPA, may be associated with thyroid hormone disruption.

Wang F; Hua J; Chen M; Xia Y; Zhang Q; Zhao R; Zhou W; Zhang Z; Wang B

2012-09-01

100

A Study on Knowledge, Attitude And Practice of Laboratory Safety Measures Among Paramedical Staff of Laboratory Services  

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Full Text Available Purpose: A lot of accidents occur in the laboratory due to lack of proper knowledge regarding laboratory safety measures, indifferent attitude & improper implementation of safe laboratory practices. In view of this, the present study on knowledge, Attitude & Practice (KAP) of laboratory safety measures was carried out among paramedical staff of laboratory services of tertiary care teaching hospital, western India. Method: This was a comparative study which used a standardized, structured self-administered questionnaire to survey knowledge, attitude and practice of paramedical staff. The KAP study enrolled 81 respondents. Results: Regarding knowledge- the majority knew the very important issues related with laboratory safety like Post Exposure Prophylaxis (96.55%) & discarding of blood samples (93.10%) etc. In regard to attitude towards the scientific process, all are very much aware about importance of protective devices (i.e. Wearing Gloves) and Biomedical waste management. In regard to the practice in laboratory, the entire study subject group (100%) replied “YES” in each question that shows the good quality work of the laboratory. Conclusion: The induction training on Laboratory safety is very important and motivating exercise for improving the laboratory safety measures.

Hansa M Goswami, Sumeeta T Soni, Sachin M Patel, Mitesh K Patel

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Evaluation of knowledge of healthcare workers in hospitals of Zabol city on proper methods of blood and components transfusion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and Aims: Blood and components are more frequently used in surgery and non-surgical procedures. In medical procedures blood transfusion is important and needs adequate expertise and practice, thus adequate knowledge in healthcare workers of this procedure is essential. Materia...

Piri Ali; Shahraki Vahed; Moien Abbas; Mardani Hamuleh; Taghavi Mohammad

102

The E?ect of Previous Co-Worker Experience on the Survival of Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the paper is to investigate the e?ect of previous co-worker experience on the survival of knowledge intensive start-ups. For the empirical analysis I use the Danish Integrated Database of Labor Market Research (IDA). This longitudinal employer-employee database allows me to identify co-wo...

Timmermans, Bram

103

The linkage between the residential choice and the lifestyle of knowledge workers : a self-organizing map approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates the linkage between the lifestyle and the intra-metropolitan residential choice of knowledge-workers in terms of home ownership, location, dwelling size and building type. In order to identify population groups based on their lifestyle, data from a revealed-preferences survey...

Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon; Kaplan, Sigal

104

Rural male health workers in Western Jamaica: Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward prostate cancer screening  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Statistics have shown that since 1988, a significant percentage of males are unwilling to seek medical care. The question is if they had the knowledge, worked in the health system and were educated, would this be any different? Aim: The current study aims to fill this void in the literature by examining the perception of rural male health workers (from the Western Region) about prostate examination, and why they are reluctant to inquire about the probability of having, or the likelihood of not having prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: The study utilized primary cross-sectional data that was collected during February and March 2008 from 170 males (ages 29 years and older), health-care workers who were employed in particular rural health institutions in Jamaica (i.e. Western Regional Health Authority). SPSS was used to analyze the data. Results: When the respondents were asked “Have you ever heard about the screening procedure for prostate?” 71.2% indicated yes, but only 27.1% had got their prostate checked by a health practitioner. When respondents were asked to state what influenced their choice of not doing a digital rectal examination, 20.6% indicated comfort level; 9.4% stated the gender of the health practitioner, 5.3% mentioned fear and others did not respond. Of those who had the examination 2 years ago, 96.5% did not state the choice of method. Conclusion: The current study is limited in terms of its generalizability to rural males or rural males in Western Jamaica, but it does provide an insight into the difficulty of men in breaking away from culture.

Paul Andrew Bourne

2010-01-01

105

Hepatitis and liver disease knowledge and preventive practices among health workers in Mexico: a cross-sectional study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge and preventive practices regarding hepatitis and liver disease among a sample of participants in the Mexican Health Worker Cohort Study. METHODS: The study population consisted of 892 participants from Cuernavaca, Mexico. Demographic characteristics, knowledge about hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and liver disease in general, as well as information about prevention practices were obtained from self-reported questionnaires. Participants were grouped into categories that were created using information about their professional background and patient contact status. Knowledge and prevention practices were compared within these categories. RESULTS: Inadequate levels of knowledge and preventive practices were found, even within the more highly educated group. Nearly 57 % of the participants had inadequate knowledge about liver disease in general, while 76 and 79 % had inadequate knowledge about Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV), respectively. For general liver disease, the mean knowledge score increased significantly with education, history of HCV screening, and low alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Health workers should be better educated about hepatitis and liver disease so they can reduce their own risk and share their knowledge of how to prevent liver disease with patients.

Islam N; Flores YN; Ramirez P; Bastani R; Salmerón J

2013-10-01

106

Guidelines for preventing catheter infection: assessment of knowledge and practice among paediatric and neonatal intensive care healthcare workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We analysed knowledge of and adherence to guidelines for the prevention of catheter-related infection (CRI) among Spanish healthcare workers (HCWs) from paediatric and neonatal intensive care units by distributing 357 questionnaires to 31 Spanish hospitals. The overall mean scores for individual knowledge and daily practice were 5.61 and 5.78, respectively. Our results reveal room for improvement in Spanish HCWs' knowledge of prevention of CRI. Continuing education programmes and implementation of care bundles must be introduced to improve prevention and management of CRI.

Guembe M; Bustinza A; Sánchez Luna M; Carrillo-Álvarez A; Pérez Sheriff V; Bouza E

2012-06-01

107

Outdoor workers' sun-related knowledge, attitudes and protective behaviours: a systematic review of cross-sectional and interventional studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sun protection is a major concern for outdoor workers as they are particularly exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation and therefore at increased risk of developing some forms of skin cancer, cataract and ocular neoplasm. In order to provide an overview of outdoor workers' sun-related knowledge, attitudes and protective behaviours as reported in the literature and to evaluate the effectiveness of sun-safety education programmes in outdoor occupational settings, we conducted a systematic review of the literature by searching three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO) from their inception up to 25 April 2012. An extensive hand search complemented the database searches. We identified 34 relevant articles on descriptive studies and 18 articles on interventional studies. Considerable numbers of outdoor workers were found to have sun-sensitive skin types; sunburn rates per season ranged from 50% to 80%. Data concerning outdoor workers' sun-related knowledge and attitudes were scarce and controversial. The reported sun-protective behaviours were largely inadequate, with many workers stating that they never or only rarely wore a long-sleeved shirt (50-80%), sun-protective headgear (30-80%) and sunscreen (30-100%) while working in the sun. However, there is growing evidence that occupational sun-safety education is effective in increasing outdoor workers' sun-protection habits and presumably in decreasing sunburn rates. Occupational sun-safety education programmes offer great potential for improving outdoor workers' largely insufficient sun-protective behaviours. It is hoped that, in the future, committed support from healthcare authorities, cancer foundations, employers and dermatologists will open the way for rapid and uncomplicated implementation of sun-safety education programmes.

Reinau D; Weiss M; Meier CR; Diepgen TL; Surber C

2013-05-01

108

A Profile of Knowledge and Sexual Behaviours Among Textile Workers in Context of HIV and AIDS in Surat City  

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Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is more prevalent in India and occurs in all states.2 Today, there are around 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS in India.1 Surat city in the western state of Gujarat attracts a very large migrant population. As most of them belong to sexually active age group, their exposure to sex workers or having multiple sexual partnerships is very high. The aim of this study was to explore the sexual behavior among textile factory workers in Surat and assess the knowledge and awareness about mode of transmission of HIV. This cross-sectional study of 250 textile workers reveal that 76.4% worker know that HIV can be transmitted by unsafe sexual route while 43.2% of workers does not know that HIV can be spread through reused injections. 43 worker currently had extra marital or premarital sexual relations and among them 48.8% had used condom during last such intercourse.

Bhautik Modi, Jay Padodara, Sarita Mangukiya, Vimalkumar Tailor

2010-01-01

109

The E?ect of Previous Co-Worker Experience on the Survival of Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the paper is to investigate the e?ect of previous co-worker experience on the survival of knowledge intensive start-ups. For the empirical analysis I use the Danish Integrated Database of Labor Market Research (IDA). This longitudinal employer-employee database allows me to identify co-worker experience among all members of the ?rm. In addition, I will make a distinction between ordinary start-ups and entrepreneurial spin-o?s. The results show that previous co-worker experience has a positive e?ect on new ?rm survival. This e?ect appears to be valid predominantly for ordinary start-ups than for entrepreneurial spin-o?s.

Timmermans, Bram

110

Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH) and livestock marketers (LM) in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interview-based study using (more) a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5%) of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262). Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p

Adesokan, Hezekiah K.; Alabi, Peter I.; Stack, Judy A.; Cadmus, Simeon I.B.

2013-01-01

111

Radiation, work experience, and cause specific mortality among workers at an energy research laboratory.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted among 8375 white male employees who had worked at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for at least one month between 1943 and 1972. This plant has been the site of energy related research, including uranium and plutonium reactor technology and radioisotope production. Radiation doses, primarily from gamma rays, were generally low; the median cumulative exposure for workers was 0.16 rems. Historical follow up was conducted for the years 1943-77 and ascertainment of vital status was achieved for 92.3% of the cohort. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed to contrast the subjects' cause specific mortality experience with that of the United States white male population. The observed number of 966 deaths from all causes was 73% of the number expected. Mortality deficits were also seen for arteriosclerotic heart disease (SMR = 0.75; 344 observed) and all cancers (SMR = 0.78; 194 observed). These results are indicative of the healthy worker effect and the favourable influence on health of the cohort's relatively high socioeconomic status. Non-statistically significant raised SMRs were seen for all leukaemias (SMR = 1.49, 16 observed), cancer of the prostate (SMR = 1.16, 14 observed), and Hodgkin's disease (SMR = 1.10, 5 observed). Internal comparisons of mortality (standardised rate ratios, SRRs) were made between subgroups of the cohort according to radiation dose level and duration of employment in various job categories. No consistent gradients of cause specific mortality were detected for radiation exposure. Leukaemia mortality was highest among workers with greater than or equal to 10 years employment in engineering (SRR = 2.40) and maintenance (SRR = 3.12) jobs. The association of leukaemia with employment in engineering was unexpected; maintenance jobs entail potential exposures to radiation and to a wide range of organic chemicals; metals, and other substances.

Checkoway H; Mathew RM; Shy CM; Watson JE Jr; Tankersley WG; Wolf SH; Smith JC; Fry SA

1985-08-01

112

Exposure of laboratory animal care workers to airborne mouse and rat allergens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urine of rats and mice is the main source of allergenic proteins that can enter the respiratory tract of laboratory animal care workers. Little is known about the levels and determinants of these exposures in the United States. We investigated the relationship between activities in animal facilities and levels of personal exposure to allergen by collecting personal breathing zone dust samples from 7 caretakers during full workdays for 1 wk. Mice and rat urinary allergens in inhalable dust were quantified via immunoassay. The activities of the sampled workers were observed, and the methods of preventing exposure to allergens were recorded. Mouse urinary allergen was detected in 20 of 39 measurements, yielding a geometric mean of 0.8 ng/m(3) with a maximum of 24 ng/m(3). Washing and cleaning cages and the number of mice handled daily were the most important determinants of personal exposure to mouse urinary allergen, as identified by using multiple linear regressions that explained 51% of total variance. Personal exposures to mouse urinary allergen were associated with day-to-day variation of tasks rather than characteristics of workers. Where potential for personal exposure is the highest, protective measures (N95 masks and cage dumping stations) appeared to be used, as is appropriate. Rat urinary allergen was detected in 4 of 39 measurements; detectable concentrations were between 0.8 and 39 ng/m(3). Only persons who handled rats were exposed to rat urinary allergen. The current findings are valuable for establishing exposure levels against which comparisons of improvement or deterioration of personal exposures can be made.

Glueck JT; Huneke RB; Perez H; Burstyn I

2012-01-01

113

Knowledge and performance of the Ethiopian health extension workers on antenatal and delivery care: a cross-sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In recognition of the critical shortage of human resources within health services, community health workers have been trained and deployed to provide primary health care in developing countries. However, very few studies have investigated whether these health workers can provide good quality of care. This study investigated the knowledge and performance of health extension workers (HEWs) on antenatal and delivery care. The study also explored the barriers and facilitators for HEWs in the provision of maternal health care. Methods In conducting this research, a cross-sectional study was performed. A total of 50 HEWs working in 39 health posts, covering a population of approximately 195,000 people, were interviewed. Descriptive statistics was used and a composite score of knowledge of HEWs was made and interpreted based on the Ethiopian education scoring system. Results Almost half of the respondents had at least 5 years of work experience as a HEW. More than half (27 (54%)) of the HEWs had poor knowledge on contents of antenatal care counseling, and the majority (44 (88%)) had poor knowledge on danger symptoms, danger signs, and complications in pregnancy. Health posts, which are the operational units for HEWs, did not have basic infrastructures like water supply, electricity, and waiting rooms for women in labor. On average within 6 months, a HEW assisted in 5.8 births. Only a few births (10%) were assisted at the health posts, the majority (82%) were assisted at home and only 20% of HEWs received professional assistance from a midwife. Conclusion Considering the poor knowledge of HEWs, poorly equipped health posts, and poor referral systems, it is difficult for HEWs to play a key role in improving health facility deliveries, skilled birth attendance, and on-time referral through early identification of danger signs. Hence, there is an urgent need to design appropriate strategies to improve the performance of HEWs by enhancing their knowledge and competencies, while creating appropriate working conditions.

Medhanyie Araya; Spigt Mark; Dinant GeertJan; Blanco Roman

2012-01-01

114

High Risk Behavior, Knowledge and Attitude of HIV/AIDS among Workers in Factories Manufacturing Alcohol in Mandalay, Myanmar  

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Full Text Available Analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in Mandalay, Myanmar to identify high risk sexual behavior, knowledge and attitude regarding HIV/AIDS and prevention practice related to HIV/AIDS among male workers in factories manufacturing alcohol. Participants included male workers (n = 219) from 10 alcohol factories in Industrial Zone (A). Data were collected through face to face interviews using pretested structured questionnaire. Results showed that 38.8% of the respondents were able to get discount to buy alcohol from their factory, and 70.3% of them consumed alcohol in the last 12 months. Regarding high risk sexual behavior, 38.4% of the respondents had intercourse with a casual partner of opposite gender, while 31.5% had intercourse with commercial sex workers and 19.2% had homosexual relationship during last 12 months. Among the married, 45% had extramarital intercourse. More than 80% of the respondents received HIV/AIDS related information from media and colleagues while 51.1% of them received from NGOs or health education at workplace. Among the respondents who engaged in different high risk sexual behaviors, 50% - 88.9% did not use condom consistently and they had significantly lower knowledge about HIV/AIDS. However, the knowledge and attitude regarding HIV/AIDS were not significantly different between the respondents who used condom consistently and those who did not. This study highlights the need of health education about HIV/AIDS and access to affordable condoms among workers in factories manufacturing alcohol to improve their knowledge, attitude and behavior, as well as to promote consistent condom usage as it is vital for prevention and control of HIV/AIDS.

Khin Thiri Maung; Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe; Nan Nitra Than; Simerjit Singh Madan; Senthil Kumar P.

2013-01-01

115

Knowledge and utilization of computer among health workers in Addis Ababa hospitals, Ethiopia: computer literacy in the health sector.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Incorporation of information technology advancements in healthcare has gained wide acceptance in the last two decades. Developed countries have successfully incorporated information technology advancements in their healthcare system thus, improving healthcare. However, only a limited application of information technology advancements is seen in developing countries in their healthcare system. Hence, this study was aimed at assessing knowledge and utilization of computer among health workers in Addis Ababa hospitals. METHODS: A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted among 304 health workers who were selected using stratified sampling technique from all governmental hospitals in Addis Ababa. Data was collected from April 15 to April 30, 2010 using a structured, self-administered, and pre-tested questionnaire from five government hospitals in Addis Ababa. The data was entered into Epi Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 16. Analysis was done using multinomial logistic regression technique. RESULTS: A total of 270 participants, age ranging from 21 to 60 years responded to the survey (88.8% response rate). A total of 91 (33.7%) respondents had an adequate knowledge of computers while 108 (40.0%) had fair knowledge and 71(26.3%) of the respondents showed inadequate knowledge. A total of 38(14.1%) were adequately utilizing computers, 14(5.2%) demonstrated average or fair utilization and majority of the respondents 218(80.7%) inadequately utilized computers. Significant predictor variables were average monthly income, job satisfaction index and own computer possession. CONCLUSIONS: Computer knowledge and utilization habit of health workers were found to be very low. Increasing accessibility to computers and delivering training on the use of computers for workers will increases the knowledge and utilization of computers. This will facilitate the rate of diffusion of the technology to the health sector. Hence, programs targeted at enhancing knowledge and skill of computer use and increasing access to computer should be designed. The association between computer knowledge/skill and health care delivery competence should be studied.

Mohammed E; Andargie G; Meseret S; Girma E

2013-01-01

116

Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH) and livestock marketers (LM) in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5%) of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262). Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations.

Hezekiah K. Adesokan; Peter I. Alabi; Judy A. Stack; Simeon I.B. Cadmus

2013-01-01

117

Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH) and livestock marketers (LM) in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5%) of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262). Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations. PMID:23718254

Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Alabi, Peter I; Stack, Judy A; Cadmus, Simeon I B

2013-03-06

118

Knowledge and practices related to bovine brucellosis transmission amongst livestock workers in Yewa, south-western Nigeria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH) and livestock marketers (LM) in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5%) of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262). Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations.

Adesokan HK; Alabi PI; Stack JA; Cadmus SI

2013-01-01

119

Sister chromatid exchange analysis and chromosoma aberration studies in interventional cardiology laboratory workers. One year follow up study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Invasive cardiology laboratory workers are occupationally exposed to chronic ionizing radiation. It is known that ionizing radiation has a damaging effect on chromosomes. In present study, we investigated the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations in 11 invasive cardiology laboratory workers and 11 healthy controls. After a vacation period, we took blood samples for chromosome analysis in months 0, 4, 8 and 12 (last two month period was the nonradiation time). The SCE frequencies did not change significantly after exposure to ionizing radiation in any worker. Our study has revealed that non-specific structural chromosome aberrations such as gaps, isogaps, acentric chromosomes, chromatids and chromosome breakage could be in the 4th and 8th months after ionizing radiation exposure in the metaphase plaques. All abnormal chromosomal effects had disappeared by the end of the two month non-exposure period in each worker. In conclusion, the results suggest that SCE frequencies are not significantly affected in invasive cardiology laboratory workers who are exposed occupationally to ionizing radiation, although some degree of reversible chromosomal aberrations did appear. (author)

Erol, M.K.; Oztas, S.; Bozkurt, E.; Karakelleoglu, S. [Ataturk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey). Medical Faculty

2002-03-01

120

Bilingual, Digital, Audio-Visual Training Modules Improve Technical Knowledge of Feedlot and Dairy Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of digital multimedia modules as training tools for animal care workers.  Employees at a commercial feedlot (n = 17) and a commercial dairy (n = 10) were asked to independently complete a 10-question quiz prior to and following viewing of training modules.  Module topics in the feedlot were proper handling of non-ambulatory animals and humane methods of euthanasia; modules were administered to the workers, as a group, in either English (n = 7) or Spanish (N = 10), depending on previously indicated worker preference.  Modules addressing dairy cattle health practices and dairy cattle handling were presented to the dairy care workers who had a preference for learning in either English (n = 7) or Spanish (n = 3).  For feedlot workers, post-test scores were improved by 28% after viewing the modules compared to pre-test scores (74% vs. 58%; P P > 0.30) between language, topic, and between-test variation, indicating that the modules were equally effective at information delivery to both audiences in both languages.  For the dairy workers, test scores improved by 27% from pre-viewing to post-viewing (73% vs. 92%; P P

Christopher D. Reinhardt; Daniel U. Thomson; Deanna D. Retzlaff; Brooks Butler; Jose Valles

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

[Biosafety profile of laboratory workers at three education hospitals in Izmir, Turkey].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The laboratory personnel in hospitals are at risk in terms of transmission of various infectious diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, behavior and attitude of the health personnel who work in one university and two state hospitals in Izmir, Turkey, about biosafety. The study is an observational-sectional study. Participants were selected via random sampling method. The hospitals were visited on workdays determined by the random selection method and all of the personnel (doctor, technician, cleaning-staff) were included to the study. The data were analyzed statistically using Chi square test. Of the 183 participants included in the study, 106 were from Dokuz Eylül University School of Medicine Central Laboratory and 77 were from state hospitals. 62.8% of the participants were female, 37.2% were male and mean age of all was 32.8 +/- 6.9 years. 23.5% of the participants stated that they had previously taken education about biosafety (p= 0.002). It was determined that 91.3% of the participants were wearing gloves and 87.4% of them were wearing lab-coat during laboratory studies. A significant difference was observed between the hospitals in terms of use of gloves (p= 0.004). All the participants stated that they wash their hands and 43% of them indicated that their daily hand wash rate was > or = 10 times. It was determined that 38.3% of the participants consumed food or drinks in the laboratory, however, this rate was statistically significantly less in the university hospital laboratory (p= 0.000). The rate of participants who had been subjected to a microorganism in the last six months was 6.6%. Obedience to the biosafety rules in laboratory will not only provide a safer environment but also improve the quality of work. We believe that the results of this study will serve as a guide for future studies on laboratory biosafety.

Aksoy U; Ozdemir MH; Usluca S; Toprak Ergönen A

2008-07-01

122

Sexual Health Knowledge and Health Practices of Female Sex Workers in Liuzhou, China, Differ by Size of Venue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We conducted qualitative interviews with 48 female sex workers (FSW) recruited from entertainment venues in Liuzhou, China. Analyses found that HIV knowledge and sexual health seeking strategies differed by size of venue: (1) Women in smaller venues said they douched before/after sex and used condoms with all but their regular partners and clients. Most found the brochures distributed by Chinese CDC workers "irrelevant" or "boring" and relied on friends for health advice. (2) FSW in middle and large venues were less concerned about prevention, claiming their clients were "healthy." They relied more on the Internet for health information and were less concerned about the cost of seeing a doctor. (3) Pregnancies and abortions were frequent, especially among the younger women in large venues. This research documents the need to develop tailored HIV-related messages and prevention strategies with the help of FSW to address differences among FSW working in venues of different sizes.

Youchun Z; Brown JD; Muessig KE; Xianxiang F; Wenzhen H

2013-04-01

123

Sexual Health Knowledge and Health Practices of Female Sex Workers in Liuzhou, China, Differ by Size of Venue.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted qualitative interviews with 48 female sex workers (FSW) recruited from entertainment venues in Liuzhou, China. Analyses found that HIV knowledge and sexual health seeking strategies differed by size of venue: (1) Women in smaller venues said they douched before/after sex and used condoms with all but their regular partners and clients. Most found the brochures distributed by Chinese CDC workers "irrelevant" or "boring" and relied on friends for health advice. (2) FSW in middle and large venues were less concerned about prevention, claiming their clients were "healthy." They relied more on the Internet for health information and were less concerned about the cost of seeing a doctor. (3) Pregnancies and abortions were frequent, especially among the younger women in large venues. This research documents the need to develop tailored HIV-related messages and prevention strategies with the help of FSW to address differences among FSW working in venues of different sizes. PMID:23612941

Youchun, Zhang; Brown, Jane D; Muessig, Kathryn E; Xianxiang, Feng; Wenzhen, He

2013-04-24

124

Knowledge and Awareness Regarding Needle Stick Injuries Among Helath Care Workers in Tertiary Care Hospital in Ahmedabad, Gujarat  

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Full Text Available Health care professionals are exposed to variety of dangers like infections, cuts and needle stick injuries, exposure to anesthetic gases, radiations, dermatitis causing substances, vaccines, serums etc. This study focuses on issues related to some of these risks and possible ways and means on how to overcome these risks. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices among health care workers about needle stick injury. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a teaching hospital in June 2008. Results: Mean age of Health care workers was 33.5 years, majority (50%) in the age group of 20-30 years. 61% HCWs had less than 5 year of work experience. 67% HCWs had received hepatitis B vaccination of which only 17.9% had carried out Anti HBs antibody check up. Knowledge about disease transmitted by NSIs was satisfactory. Though 36% had suffered Needle stick injury (NSIs), only 8.3% reported the incident of NSIs. 81% HCWs know about universal precaution guidelines. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for strengthening skills, developing newer competencies and broadening our knowledge in occupational health and safety and disaster management.

Rakesh Shah, HK Mehta, Manish Fancy, Sunil Nayak, Bhavesh N. Donga

2010-01-01

125

First impressions last… A survey of knowledge of first aid in burn-related injuries amongst hospital workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

RATIONALE: The administration of first aid in burns has been shown to have a significant influence on the ultimate severity of the burn. We wanted to assess in-hospital healthcare (HCW), and non-healthcare workers' (nHCW) knowledge of first aid in burns. METHODS: A purpose-designed questionnaire, including information about previous attendance at a first aid course and four clinical scenarios of burns, was distributed to HCWs in the local hospitals and non-medical students in the Universities of Leeds and Sheffield. RESULTS: 697 questionnaires were completed - 397 (57%) from HCW and 300 (43%) from nHCW. 59% of HCW had attended a first aid course, 68% of these courses included teaching on first aid in burns. HCW who had completed a first aid course generally did better than those who had not. Only 16% of HCW achieved correct answers in all questions compared to 30% nHCW. CONCLUSIONS: We show that the knowledge of first aid in burns is relatively poor amongst HCW and that attendance at a burns first aid course improves knowledge (although perhaps not as much as one might hope). We recommend that the burns content of first aid courses be reviewed, and that there is a requirement for ALL hospital healthcare workers to undertake a first aid course, which includes appropriate burns first aid.

Tay PH; Pinder R; Coulson S; Rawlins J

2013-03-01

126

A study of HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude and behaviors among female sex workers in Shanghai China  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background China is currently facing a rapid and widespread increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The activities of female sex workers (FSWs) have contributed to the mounting epidemic of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude and risk behaviors among FSWs operating in Shanghai China. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in five districts of Shanghai, including three suburbs and two downtown locales. We adopted a cluster randomized sampling method to obtain ten geographic sites which consisted of one or more communities/villages proximal to a location where FSWs were accessible. A total of 324 FSWs from 109 Xitou Fang, massage parlors and hair salons who explicitly provided sexual services were enrolled in the study. Each participant completed a questionnaire survey and interview aimed to collect information on the individual's knowledge, attitude, and behaviors associated with risk for HIV/AIDs. Results The overall correct answer rate of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge was 60.8%, and the knowledge of FSWs from downtown areas was significantly higher than those from suburban areas (P P Conclusions Based on the findings from our survey, we advise that promotion of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge be targeted towards FSWs in Shanghai, especially those operating in the suburbs. HIV prevention efforts, such as urging constant condom usage with both clients and steady partners, should be sustained and reinforced among the female sex workers population.

Cai Yong; Shi Rong; Shen Tian; Pei Bei; Jiang Xueqin; Ye Xiuxia; Xu Gang; Li Shenghui; Huang Hong; Shang Meili

2010-01-01

127

Sickle cell knowledge, premarital screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background: In Nigeria, as in the rest of equatorial Africa, sickle cell disease (SCD) has its highest incidence and continues to cause high morbidity and early death. The condition is a major public health problem among the black race. The aim of this survey is to determine the level of knowledge about SCD and the factors associated with its prevention among local government workers in Ile- Ife.Method: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of the knowledge about SCD, attitude towards premarital sickle cell screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, using a self-administered questionnaire.Results: 69% of study subjects had poor knowledge of SCD, while attitude towards premarital screening was favourable in 95% of the study subjects. Knowledge and attitude were significantly better among subjects with tertiary education. There was a strong positive association between attitude towards sickle cell screening and a history of undergoing screening or partner screening. Most (86.7%) of the respondents and 74.0% of their partners have had sickle cell screening. One-quarter of married and engaged respondents did not know their partner’s sickle cell status. One-third to two-thirds of study subjects will continue the relationship with their partner when either or both have haemoglobinopathy.Conclusion: This study showed poor knowledge of SCD among the studied subjects. There is a need for more emphasis on health education through programmes promoting sickle cell education. In addition, the development of multifaceted patient and public health education programmes, the intensification of screening for the control of SCD by heterozygote detection, particularly during routine preplacement and premarital medical examinations, and the provision of genetic counselling to all SCD patients and carriers are vital to the identification and care of the couples at risk. These will enhance the capacity of the intending couples to make informed decisions and be aware of the consequences of such decisions. Policies are needed to ensure easily accessible community-wide sickle cell screening and premarital and genetic counselling to achieve the desired decline in new births of children with SCD.How to cite this article: Abioye-Kuteyi EA, Oyegbade O, Bello I, Osakwe C. Sickle cell knowledge, premarital screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2009;1(1), Art. #22, 5 pages. DOI:10.4102/phcfm.v1i1.22

Emmanuel A. Abioye-Kuteyi; Olanrewaju Oyegbade; Ibrahim Bello; Chiddude Osakwe

2009-01-01

128

Implementation of Proper Hand Hygiene among Microbiological Laboratory Workers Respectively to WHO Guidelines  

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Full Text Available Background: Hand hygiene has a fundamental role in the prevention of one of the most challenging problems in the management of modern hospitals: nosocomial infections and occupational diseases.Aim: This survey presents the experience of laboratorians in the Microbiology Department in the Clinical Center in Skopje in promoting proper hand hygiene by participating in a training course and implementation of WHO guidelines among laboratory staff.Material and Methods: The group of 36 Health Care Workers (HCW) has been divided in to seven different groups, based on their specific work in the Institute of Microbiology. The investigation was conducted in two phases: phase-1 was before the training course and phase-2 immediately after taking the training course. During phase-2, hand samples were taken with the technique of the moist swab on the left hand and the fingertips touch method on the right hand.Results: It was found that 17% of the cultures from the left hand detected pathogenic bacteria and 39% on the samples taken from the right one (there is significant difference (p = 0.041).Conclusion: The Touch Method appears to be the more sensitive method than swabbing the critical areas of the palms. It is also evident (significant) that awareness of the problem of the staff, obtain some changes in their attitude and practice.

Katja Popovska; Milka Zdravkovska; Bozhica Blazevska; Konstantin Icev; Georgi Eftimovski

2012-01-01

129

Blood collection procedures in hematology: knowledge and practice among laboratory personnel.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Blood collection is an important preanalytical component of haematological testing. This questionnaire based study was conducted on laboratory personnel to elicit their knowledge and practice regarding blood collection procedures for haematological testing. Questionnaire comprised of 37 multiple choice questions, of which 10 questions each were related to essential and desirable knowledge, 10 to practice and 7 to educational and job profile. Ninety four laboratory personnel participated in the study. Analysis was done on SPSS software. Percentages of unsatisfactory scores were 42.6%, 4.3%, 17% and 6% in the essential knowledge, desirable knowledge, practice and total scoring respectively. 91.5%, however, had a satisfactory total score. Importance needs to be given to blood collection procedures both, individually and collectively. The study highlights the deficient areas which need to addressed by all laboratorians. Such studies should also be conducted among nursing and resident staff- the other groups concerned with blood collection.

Chaturvedi S; Suri V; Pant I; Rusia U

2006-07-01

130

Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76±11.20, 90.55±8.59, 80.58±11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55±9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in married and general hospital demonstrated high self-efficacy levels. 3. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management showed statistical differences according to the relationship between the knowledge and the attitude, the knowledge and the behavior, the attitude and the behavior, the attitude and the self-efficacy, and the behavior and the self-efficacy. The relationship between the behavior and the self-efficacy was represented as ? = 0.482, which was the strongest relationship in such factors. Also, the knowledge and self-efficacy didn't show certain relationships.

2007-01-01

131

Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76{+-}11.20, 90.55{+-}8.59, 80.58{+-}11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55{+-}9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in married and general hospital demonstrated high self-efficacy levels. 3. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management showed statistical differences according to the relationship between the knowledge and the attitude, the knowledge and the behavior, the attitude and the behavior, the attitude and the self-efficacy, and the behavior and the self-efficacy. The relationship between the behavior and the self-efficacy was represented as {gamma} = 0.482, which was the strongest relationship in such factors. Also, the knowledge and self-efficacy didn't show certain relationships.

Han, Eun Ok [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2007-06-15

132

Valuing the contribution of knowledge-oriented workers to projects: a merit based approach in the construction industry  

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Full Text Available Evidence points to the fact that frequent resignation of project engineers from construction companies is primarily the result of dissatisfaction with the factors that shape the salary scale. This research aims to identify the major influencing factors in merit based salary calculation systems for knowledge-oriented engineers so as to more accurately reflect their contribution to construction projects. Results from a questionnaire sent to managers, engineers and HR professionals throughout the Iranian construction industry revealed that while there was overall agreement on principles to a merit-based approach, engineers in particular identified ‘professional skills’, ‘experience’ and ‘creativity’. Management-oriented parties should take into account engineer perspectives in order to more accurately value the knowledge-oriented contribution of these workers to construction projects. This research provides a basis for understanding the key factors in the merit based salary scale formulation through the construction industry.

Mehrdad Arashpour; Majeed Shabanikia; Mohammadreza Arashpour

2012-01-01

133

Knowledge and practices on breast and cervical cancer screening methods among female health care workers: a Sri Lankan experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Breast and cervical cancer are the most common causes of cancer mortality among women worldwide, but they are largely preventable. There are limited data on knowledge and practices on screening methods of breast and cervical cancers among female health care workers in Sri Lanka, in spite of having an organized screening programme islandwide. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 219 female health care workers including public health midwives (68.9%) selected from 6 districts in Sri Lanka using convenient sampling methods. A self-administered questionnaire was used as a pre-test in a capacity building training programme to collect the data. The mean (SD) duration of work experience of the respondents was 12 years and 52.5% were aged over 35 years. Most (76.7%) were married, and a family history of cancer was reported by 24.2%. Over 98% knew about self breast examination. Even though 84.1% practiced it, only 47.9% practiced it on a monthly basis. Clinical breast examination and mammography were known by 94.1% and 64.3% respectively. Only 19.2% had undergone a clinical breast examination within one year and 3.6% had ever undergone a mammography. Only 76.3% knew that a Pap smear detects precancerous stage of cervical cancer. Among 169 married workers, 73.4% had never had a Pap smear and only 17.2% had got it done within the preceding 5 years. Among the reasons for not doing a pap smear within 5 years, 47.0% believed it as not necessary, 17.3% due to fear/dislike, 23.2% as not having symptoms, 3% had not known about it and 3% not known about availability of services. The study findings suggest that the knowledge and practices on breast and cervical cancer screening methods among female health care workers need to be improved. Considering the role that health care workers play in communicating health behaviors to the general public, strengthening health education interventions for this group of females is essential.

Nilaweera RI; Perera S; Paranagama N; Anushyanthan AS

2012-01-01

134

Discourse, Power, and Knowledge in the Management of "Big Science": The Production of Consensus in a Nuclear Fusion Research Laboratory.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extends a Foucauldian view of power/knowledge to the archetypical knowledge-intensive organization, the scientific research laboratory. Describes the discursive production of power/knowledge at the "big science" laboratory conducting nuclear fusion research and illuminates a critical incident in which the fusion research "discipline" imposes…

Kinsella, William J.

1999-01-01

135

Assessment of blood pressure knowledge among workers in a midwestern manufacturing plant. A pilot study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This pilot study assessed knowledge of blood pressure among employees in a midwestern manufacturing plant. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) guidelines were used to define blood pressure categories. The Roy Adaptation Model served as the framework. Results indicated two statistically significant relationships-one between knowledge of blood pressure and employees taking blood pressure medication, and one between employees' knowledge of blood pressure readings and increased interest in learning about lifestyle modifications impacting blood pressure. Of those correctly identifying the blood pressure ranges for prehypertension, 94.4% indicated interest in learning about lifestyle modifications to improve blood pressure. Occupational health nurses in industrial settings have a unique opportunity to influence employees' blood pressure knowledge, which can propel employees to consider lifestyle modifications or wellness programs that may favorably impact indirect and direct costs.

Fearn CL; Brick GY; Lizer S; Doughty A; MacDowell M

2011-06-01

136

Assessment of blood pressure knowledge among workers in a midwestern manufacturing plant. A pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This pilot study assessed knowledge of blood pressure among employees in a midwestern manufacturing plant. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) guidelines were used to define blood pressure categories. The Roy Adaptation Model served as the framework. Results indicated two statistically significant relationships-one between knowledge of blood pressure and employees taking blood pressure medication, and one between employees' knowledge of blood pressure readings and increased interest in learning about lifestyle modifications impacting blood pressure. Of those correctly identifying the blood pressure ranges for prehypertension, 94.4% indicated interest in learning about lifestyle modifications to improve blood pressure. Occupational health nurses in industrial settings have a unique opportunity to influence employees' blood pressure knowledge, which can propel employees to consider lifestyle modifications or wellness programs that may favorably impact indirect and direct costs. PMID:21627061

Fearn, Cindy L; Brick, Gail Y; Lizer, Shannon; Doughty, Andrea; MacDowell, Martin

2011-06-01

137

Characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa. The sample included 70 female sex workers from the Tzaneen and Phalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. A modified form of snowball sampling known as “targeted” sampling was used for identifying female sex workers. Results showed an inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention methods and some incorrect beliefs about AIDS transmission. Most sex workers reported condom use with their last sex client, inconsistent condom use with paying partners, and had poor condom use with regular partners. One third were drinking alcohol daily, one quarter had had voluntary HIV tests, and three quarters had been exposed to HIV interventions. Findings are discussed and implications for HIV interventions outlined.

K. Peltzer; P. Seoka; S. Raphala

2004-01-01

138

HIV knowledge, risk perception, and safer sex practices among female sex workers in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea  

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Full Text Available Eunice Bruce1, Ludwina Bauai2, Mathias Sapuri3, John M Kaldor4, Christopher K Fairley1, Louise A Keogh51Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, School of Population Health, The University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Central Papua Mission (CPM) of the Seventh Day Adventist Church, Pacific Adventist University, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea; 3Pacific International Hospital, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea; 4National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 5Centre for Women's Health, Gender and Society, School of Public Health, The University of Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaAbstract: Sex workers are considered a high-risk group for sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and are often targeted by prevention interventions with safer sex messages. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which knowledge of HIV and perception of risk influence safer sex practices among female sex workers (FSWs) in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. FSWs (n = 174) were recruited from 19 sites to participate in the study. Qualitative data were collected using semistructured interviews with FSWs (n = 142) through focus group discussions and (n = 32) individual interviews. In addition, quantitative data were collected from all FSWs using a short structured, demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using recurring themes and calculations of confidence intervals. Despite some common misperceptions, overall, most FSWs were basically aware of the risks of HIV and informed about transmission and prevention modalities but used condoms inconsistently. Most reported using condoms 'sometimes', almost one-sixth 'never' used condoms, only a fraction used condoms 'always' with clients, and none used condoms 'always' with regular sexual partners (RSPs). Among these FSWs, being knowledgeable about the risks, transmission, and prevention of HIV did not translate into safe sex. The findings suggest that certain contextual barriers to safer sex practices exist. These barriers could heighten HIV vulnerability and possibly may be responsible for infection in FSWs. Specific interventions that focus on improving condom self-efficacy in FSWs and simultaneously target clients and RSPs with safer sex messages are recommended.Keywords: HIV knowledge, risk perception, safer sex practices, female sex workers, clients, regular sexual partners

Eunice Bruce; Ludwina Bauai; Mathias Sapuri; et al

2011-01-01

139

Social Integration, AIDS Knowledge and Factors Related to HIV Prevention Among Migrant Workers in Thailand.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous research on migrant health indicates that social integration may exert a strong influence on health behavior. However, to our knowledge, this factor has not been integrated into models for HIV prevention. Drawing constructs from the Health Belief Model, the objective of this paper was to determine whether social integration, demographic, relationship and other factors were related to migrants' ability to prevent HIV infection through AIDS knowledge and condom use. Data for the study were drawn from a survey of 3,405 male and female migrant laborers from Myanmar, Cambodia and Laos who were working in Thailand in 2010. Regression analysis showed that social integration, participation in an AIDS prevention program, self efficacy, demographic and relationship factors increased AIDS knowledge and condom use with regular and nonregular partners. The social integration of migrants into the Thai community strengthened HIV prevention efforts.

Ford K; Chamratrithirong A; Apipornchaisakul K; Panichapak P; Pinyosinwat T

2013-01-01

140

HPV and cervical cancer related knowledge, awareness and testing behaviors in a community sample of female sex workers in China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Limited data suggested that the prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among female sex workers (FSW) is much higher than in the general female population. The current study aimed to examine the HPV and cervical cancer related awareness, knowledge, and behaviors among FSW in China. METHODS: A total of 360 FSW recruited from entertainment establishments in Beijing completed a self-administered survey including demographics, HPV related knowledge, and health-seeking and cervical cancer preventive behaviors. RESULTS: Approximately 70.8% of the participants ever heard of cervical cancer, and as few as 22.1% and 13.3% ever heard of HPV and HPV vaccine, respectively. The mean score on a 7-item knowledge scale was 2.2 (SD = 2.4). Less than 10% of FSW perceived any risk of cervical cancer, and only 15.3% ever had a Pap smear. About 40.8% of FSW would accept HPV vaccine if it is free, and 21.8% would accept it even with a charge. Multivariate regression suggested that women with better knowledge of cervical cancer were more likely to have a Pap smear (aOR = 1.35); women who had tested for HIV were 11 times more likely to have a Pap smear, and women who had worked longer in commercial sex (aOR = 1.01) and had regular health check-ups (aOR = 1.95) were more likely to accept HPV vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Our study underscores the needs for effective cervical cancer prevention programs for FSW in China and other resource-limited countries. We specifically call for cervical cancer and HPV knowledge and awareness programs and regular screening as well as HPV risk-reduction programs for these vulnerable women.

Hong Y; Zhang C; Li X; Lin D; Liu Y

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Emergency contraceptive pills: Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of community health workers in a developing Muslim country  

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Full Text Available Background: Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions. Aims: This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills. Materials and Methods: The cross sectional survey was conducted during the monthly meeting of Lady Health Supervisors. Self administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire consisting of 17 items, regarding demographic profile, awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practices, was used. Results: Insufficient knowledge, high misinformation and strongly negative attitudes were revealed. More than half did not know that emergency contraceptive pills do not cause abortion. About four fifths believed that emergency contraceptive pills will lead to ‘evil’ practices in society. More than four fifths recognized that the clients of National Program for Family Planning need emergency contraceptive pills. The attitudes were significantly associated with knowledge (P=0.034, Fisher’s Exact Test). Conclusion: The awareness of emergency contraceptive pills is high. Serious gaps in knowledge have been identified. There is a clear recognition of the need of emergency contraceptive pills for the clients of National Program for Family Planning. However, any strategy to introduce emergency contraceptive pills must cater for the misplaced beliefs of the work force.

Azeem Sultan Mir; Raees Malik

2010-01-01

142

Promoting community knowledge and action for malaria control in rural Cambodia: potential contributions of Village Malaria Workers  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cambodia has been investing in Village Malaria Workers (VMWs) to improve malaria case management in rural areas. This study assessed the quality of the VMWs’ services compared to those by a government-run health center from the perspective of community members. We focused on VMWs’ contribution to promote their action to control malaria. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kampot province in 2009. Interviews were conducted at every accessible household in a village with VMWs (n?=?153) and a village with a health center (n?=?159), using interviewer administered questionnaire. Preference of the interview was given to female household head. Multiple regression analyses were run to compare knowledge about malaria, preventive measures taken, and time before first malaria treatment between the two villages. Findings The villagers perceived the VMWs’ services equally as good as those provided by the health center. After controlling for confounding factors, the following indicators did not show any statistical significance between two villages: community members’ knowledge about malaria transmission (AOR?=?0.60, 95% CI?=?0.30-1.22) and government-recommended antimalarial (AOR?=?0.55, 95% CI?=?0.25-1.23), preventive measures taken (Beta?=??0.191, p?=?0.315), and time before the first treatment (Beta?=?0.053, p?=?0.721). However, knowledge about malaria symptoms was significantly lower in the village with VMWs than the village with a health center (AOR?=?0.40, 95% CI?=?0.19-0.83). Conclusions VMWs played an equivalent role as the health center in promoting malaria knowledge, action, and effective case management. Although VMWs need to enhance community knowledge about malaria symptoms, the current government policy on VMWs is reasonable and should be expanded to other malaria endemic villages.

Lim Sachiko; Yasuoka Junko; Poudel Krishna C; Ly Po; Nguon Chea; Jimba Masamine

2012-01-01

143

[Effect evaluation on intervention for knowledge-attitude-practice on AIDS among the peasant workers in construction site in Hefei City].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of intervention for knowledge-attitude-practice on AIDS among the peasant workers in construction site. METHODS: 646 persons of 8 construction sites were chosen as intervention object by cluster sampling. The intervention mainly include health education at construction site, peer education, giving free condoms and providing free counseling service and so on. RESULTS: The score of HIV/AIDS knowledge improve more after intervention (15.10 +/- 6.02 before intervention vs. 11.41 +/- 6.57 after intervention). The mistake answer rates of transmission knowledge decreased 10.29%-19.66% after intervention. The attitude to HIV/AIDS suffers improved significantly. 74.7% of the peasant workers had often used condom in their unsafely sexual intercourse after intervention from 52.27% before intervention. CONCLUSION: The intervention among peasant workers were effective and might be extend to similar population on HIV/AIDS.

Huang F; Cheng H; Wang J; Yang L

2009-01-01

144

Pharmacy workers' sexually transmitted diseases/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge in Fuzhou, China: implications for human immunodeficiency virus testing, treatment, and prevention strategies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Pharmacies play a special role in providing treatment services for patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in China. There is a need to study the STD/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge among pharmacy workers in retail pharmacies. METHOD: A total of 200 pharmacy workers were recruited from 120 randomly selected retail pharmacies in Fuzhou, China. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect information of demographics, working experience, pharmacy structure and clientele profile, and pharmacy workers' attitudes toward traditional Chinese folk remedies and their STD/HIV knowledge. RESULTS: Work-related training during the past 6 months, holding pharmacist license, and years of being a pharmacy worker showed significant association with STD/HIV knowledge. Work-related training also significantly associated with provision of consultation. Years of education and medical training, however, failed to show significant association with STD/HIV knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: In order to improve service quality and avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment of STD/HIV, on-the-job training or continuous education for pharmacy workers should be required, implemented, and monitored as part of the national effort for STD control and treatment.

Wen Y; Guan J; Wu Z; Li L; Rotheram-Borus MJ; Lin C; Detels R

2009-04-01

145

Hospital Bioethics: A Beginning Knowledge Base for the Neonatal Social Worker.  

Science.gov (United States)

Notes that life-saving advances in medicine have created difficult ethical and legal dilemmas for health care professionals. Presents beginning knowledge base for bioethical practice, especially in hospital neonatal units. Outlines key elements of bioethical decision making and examines potential social work role from clinical and organizational…

Silverman, Ed

1992-01-01

146

A cross-sectional study to assess knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention measures in company workers in Ecuador.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS was first reported in Ecuador in 1984 and its prevalence has been increasing ever since. In 2009, the National AIDS Program reported 21,810 HIV/AIDS cases and confirmed that the worker population was amongst the most affected groups. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge about HIV transmission and prevention measures in company workers in Ecuador. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey based on a random sample of 115 companies (1,732 workers), stratified by three large provinces and working sectors (commerce, manufacturing and real estate) was conducted. A validated instrument developed by Family Health International was used to evaluate HIV prevention knowledge and common local misconceptions about HIV transmission. Descriptive statistics, chi square test and logistic regression analysis were performed using SAS. RESULTS: Incorrect knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission were found in 49.1% (95% CI: 46.6-51.6) of subjects. Incorrect knowledge was higher among males (OR = 1.73 [1.39-2.15]), older subjects (OR = 1.35 [1.02-1.77]), subjects with lower education (OR = 3.72 [2.44-5.65]), manual labor workers (OR = 2.93 [1.82-4.73]) and subjects without previous exposure to HIV intervention programs (OR = 2.26 [1.79-2.86]). Incorrect knowledge about preventive measures was found among 32.9% (95%CI: 30.6-35.2) of respondents. This proportion was higher among subjects with lower education (OR = 2.28 [1.52-3.43]), married subjects (OR = 1.34 [1.07-1.68]), manual labor workers (OR = 1.80 [1.34-2.42]), and subjects not previously exposed to HIV intervention programs (OR = 1.44 [1.14-1.83]). CONCLUSIONS: HIV intervention programs targeting company workers are urgently needed to improve knowledge and reduce HIV transmission in Ecuador.

Cabezas MC; Fornasini M; Dardenne N; Borja T; Albert A

2013-01-01

147

Knowledge, attitude and practices regarding swine flu among para-medical workers in a tertiary care hospital in Pondicherry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Para-medical workers (PMWs) are first contacts for suspected Swine flu patients and also the media to spread key messages regarding its prevention and control strategies. Present study was conducted to ascertain knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Swine flu among para-medical workers in a tertiary care hospital. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among PMWs during May-July, 2010. KAP regarding Swine flu was collected through pre-designed questionnaire and information on attitude towards Swine flu was also collected through FGD-free list analysis. Data was analysed using Epi_Info and Anthropac software. A total of 237 PMWs responded. Majority of the PMWs knew about signs and symptoms (89.03%), mode of transmission (91.56%) and route of transmission (91.98%) of Swine flu. Television (67.51%) was the major source of information. 75.53% and 58.65% PMWs respectively knew about organ of the body chiefly affected and type of specimen to be collected during Swine flu. 196 (82.7%) and 191 (80.59%) PMWs respectively knew about availability of vaccine and treatment against Swine flu. 94.09% PMWs stated that extra precautions such as use of face mask, frequent handwashing, use of gloves etc. should be taken while handling any suspected Swine flu case and 73.84% PMWs do take such precautions. 80.17% PMWs opined that epidemic of Swine flu can be halted at current stage. In the present study, PMWs possessed good knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Swine flu and this fact should be utilized while designing and guiding containment strategies against existing Swine flu epidemic.

Datta SS; Kuppuraman D; Boratne AV; Abraham SB; Singh Z

2011-03-01

148

The challenge of knowledge management in a newly-formed national laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Introduction. In the autumn of 2006, the UK government made a commitment to establish a National Nuclear Laboratory based around Nexia Solutions and its 'state of the art' facility at Sellafield in Cumbria. The initial phase of the work to establish the laboratory is now complete and it has a remit for the following roles: to play a key role in supporting the UK's strategic R and D requirements; to operate world-class facilities; to ensure key skills are safeguarded and enhanced; to play a key role in the development of the UK's R and D supply base. It is evident that to be successful the National Nuclear Laboratory will need a strong capability in knowledge management to underpin its activities. Our origins in the R and D communities of BNFL and UKAEA have given us a broad portfolio of capabilities which range from reactor technology through fuel cycle technology to waste management and the knowledge held by our people is one of our major strengths. However, the capabilities and knowledge do need to be maintained and developed, for which we have a four part strategy: Strengthen internal systems and processes; Undertake strategic R and D programmes; Build networks with the nuclear industry across the world; Build links and partnerships with academic institutions. Systems and Processes. Internal systems and processes need to be strengthened to make the capture and sharing of knowledge and information more efficient. A key element will be succession planning for more experienced technologists. R and D programmes. Work is proceeding to develop a robust portfolio of R and D programmes. As well as fulfilling our remit to play a key role in the UK's strategic R and D requirements, this will also ensure that skills maintenance goes beyond formal training. Involvement in R and D programmes will develop capabilities in our younger scientists and engineers, particularly, to generate solutions relevant to the industrial-scale application of nuclear technology. We aim to use our R and D programmes to facilitate skills transfer from experienced practitioners across a wide range of disciplines. Industry Networks. Building networks across the nuclear industry needs to complement the R and D portfolio. We recognise that a creative approach is needed, and one example is that Nexia Solutions has created roles called Senior Fellows. Senior Fellows are leading technologists who are expected to 'act as ambassadors'. That is to say that they will develop links between technologists inside the laboratory with those in academia or other industries. In this context, knowledge management is to work with the 'tacit' knowledge held by experts in a variety of organisations. Establishing the correct links ensures the knowledge is more complete than it would otherwise be and enables it to be focused more effectively on real issues. Each senior fellow role is based around a fundamental technical discipline which provides the theme for the development of technical links. Currently we have roles in the following areas:- Materials behaviour; Corrosion; Actinide chemistry; Criticality; Reactor Systems. Senior Fellows are nationally and internationally known and respected in their field and are expected to maintain their specialist support role within Nexia Solutions in addition to interacting extensively with key research organisations, academia and relevant other industries. Academic links. The National Nuclear Laboratory will aim to maximise the value of its work for the UK and therefore must find ways of increasing the synergies between its own capabilities and those in universities. One example of how the National Laboratory may work is Nexia Solutions' existing initiative called University Research Alliances (URA). The knowledge management aspect is similar to that for industrial networks, i.e. dealing with 'tacit' knowledge. Academic and industrial knowledge can complement each other if the right links are established. Equally, important is the role that universities can play in renewing the knowledge base, through formal education pr ogra

2007-01-01

149

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of male community health workers in Mako township, Iran about beast self-examination  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Breast cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and the cause of about 18% of all malignancies in females. By breast self-examination (BSE) it is possible to diagnose a breast tumor in the preliminary stages and treat it. Basic changes in the knowledge, attitude and practice of women as regards regular BES and follow-up will lead to considerable success in campaigns against breast cancer. Considering the role and responsibilities of community health workers (CHWs) in the health services delivery system in the Islamic Republic of Iran, this study aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of female CHWs as regards BSE in 2006. "nMethods and Materials: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 89 female CHWs in the Iranian Mako township health houses. The data was collected through interviews using a questionnaire consisting of 4 sections, the first section containing 10 demographic questions, and the second to fourth sections containing 33 questions on knowledge, attitude, and practice. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed using the repeat testing with r=85%. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software (version 11)."nResults: The data showed that the BSE knowledge of 50.6% and 49.4% of the subjects was good and moderate, respectively; 76.4% of them had a positive attitude towards BSE. The reasons for not self-examination were as follows: inability to do it alone (12.4%); fear of a positive result, i.e., existence of a tumor (1.1%); having no time (2.2%); fear of increased anxiety (5.6%); not believing in BSE, even if it was likely to have a tumor (11.2%). Further analysis of the data showed the practice of the subjects to be good, moderate, and weak in 9%, 61.8%, and 29.2% of the cases, respectively. "nThere were significant associations between knowledge and a positive attitude (p=0.038), between attitude of the unmarried subjects towards performing BSE as compared to the married subjects (p=0.00), and between attitude and practice (p=0.045)."nConclusion: This study showed a moderate to good knowledge, a relatively good attitude, and a moderate practice among female CHWs in the Makoo Township, Iran, with regard to BSE. Considering the role of CHWs, improving their knowledge, attitude , and practice of BSE is essential.

2009-01-01

150

Knowledge & Perceptions of ICDS Anganwadi Workers with Reference To Promotion of Community Based Complementary Feeding Practices in Semi Tribal Gujarat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To assess ICDS anganwadi workers’ knowledge and perception regarding promotion and enhance community based complementary feeding practices. Methodology: Total 17 anganwadi workers’ (AWWs) from one semi tribal sector (covering approximately 850 children under three two years) of Vadodara district in Gujarat state, India were purposely selected. This study employed interview with AWWs as a principal method of data collection using a pretested semi-structured interview schedule. The entire interview was divided into 8 themes. Results: The knowledge of AWWs with regard to key IYCF practices was average. None of the AWWs knew the complete rationale for promoting breastfeeding till 2 years and beyond. Merely 65% AWWs recommended food with thick consistency while 47% recommended liquid diets for children. These practices in fact are one of the primary reasons which can be attributed to low energy and protein intake during complementary feeding. As low as 18% AWWs advised giving small frequent feeds during illness and only 6% advised additional meal after illness. None of the AWWs recommended persistence in feeding the child with required quantity of food. Total 41% listed sickness as key reason for child not feeling hungry, missing out on the other two imperative reasons i.e. micronutrient deficiency and mouth lesion. Conclusion: Overall knowledge and perceptions for promoting of community based CF practices was average amongst the ICDS AWWs with a percent score of 40%. The AWWs were aware of key IYCF practices, however the AWWs perceptions and knowledge with regard to the rationale applicable to the appropriate recommended CF practices being promoted was rather poor. This is noted to be a critical gap and needs to be addressed for equipping the ICDS frontline workers for effectively promoting successful adoptions of CF practices by community.

Purvi Parikh, Kavita Sharma

2011-01-01

151

Effectiveness of training on the knowledge of vitamin A deficiency among Anganwadi workers in a rural area of north India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Training of 95 Anganwadi workers (AWW) were done in two groups in a rural block of Haryana State, India to impart knowledge on vitamin A deficiency (VAD) through lecture, demonstration, discussion. In group A consisting of 56 AWW townom coloured film slide was shown while in group B consisting of 39 AWW no film slide was shown. During pre-test 90.5% participants had medium score with an overall mean (+/- SD) score of 14.1 (+/- 3.0). Post-test conducted after 6 months showed a significant increase in knowledge of AWW regarding VAD with a mean score of 20.3 (+/- 4.51), (P < 0.01). Mean score of group A [22.5 (+/- 4.04)] was significantly higher than mean score of group B [17.4 (+/- 3.5); P < 0.05]. This study reveals the need for in-service training of AWW using appropriate teaching methods incorporating audio-visual aids like film slide show for control of VAD.

Singh MM; Devi R; Gupta S

1999-04-01

152

Mobile talent or privileged sites? Making sense of biotech knowledge worker mobility and performance in Sweden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Great hope is currently put in biotechnological innovation to create economic growth and ensure future competitiveness or firms, regions and nations. For some years, economic geography and economics have been focusing on privileged sites when explaining geographical variances in actors' ability to innovate: e.g. regional innovation systems, clusters, industrial districts, creative milieus, etc. In such explanations, the basic notion is that certain sites, as a result of their privileged configuration, relative position and history, tend to support innovation to a higher degree than other milieus. Lately, however, there has been a shift in focus within some research communities towards what could be called a "talented people" explanation. The problem for those interested in biotech innovation policy and in the larger question about exactly how biotechnological knowledge production takes place, is that this debate offers two diametrically different understandings of (i) the geography of innovation and, in turn, (ii) how to actually design innovative spaces or increase rates of innovation. According to the talented people argument, innovation policy should be focusing on designing attractive spaces in which creative people want to live, while the privileged sites argument instead focuses on figuring out how to design creative spaces. In this paper, a unique dataset is used to attempt to determine which of the two rivalling explanatory concepts, privileged sites or talented people, that does best describe what is going on in biotech landscapes in Sweden.

H. Mattsson

2007-01-01

153

Mobile talent or privileged sites? Making sense of biotech knowledge worker mobility and performance in Sweden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Great hope is currently put in biotechnological innovation to create economic growth and ensure future competitiveness of regions and nations. For some years, economic geography and economics have been focusing on privileged sites when explaining geographical variances in actors' ability to innovate: e.g. regional innovation systems, clusters, industrial districts and creative milieus. In such explanations, the basic notion is that certain sites, as a result of their privileged configuration, relative position and history, tend to support innovation to a higher degree than other milieus. Lately, however, there has been a shift in focus within some research communities towards what could be called a "talented people" explanation. The problem for those interested in biotech innovation policy and in the larger question about exactly how biotechnological knowledge production takes place, is that this debate offers two diametrically different understandings of (i) the geography of innovation and, in turn, (ii) how to actually design innovative spaces or increase rates of innovation. According to the talented people argument, innovation policy should be focusing on designing attractive spaces in which creative people want to live, while the privileged sites argument instead focuses on figuring out how to design creative spaces. In this paper, a unique dataset is used to explore to what extent the two debating concepts, privileged sites and talented people, can explain what is going on in biotech landscapes in Sweden.

H. Mattsson

2007-01-01

154

Covert leadership: notes on managing professionals. Knowledge workers respond to inspiration, not supervision.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The orchestra conductor is a popular metaphor for managers today--up there on the podium in complete control. But that image may be misleading, says Henry Mintzberg, who recently spent a day with Bramwell Tovey, conductor of the Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra, in order to explore the metaphor. He found that Tovey does not operate like an absolute ruler but practices instead what Mintzberg calls covert leadership. Covert leadership means managing with a sense of nuances, constraints, and limitations. When a manager like Tovey guides an organization, he leads without seeming to, without his people being fully aware of all that he is doing. That's because in this world of professionals, a leader is not completely powerless--but neither does he have absolute control over others. As knowledge work grows in importance, the way an orchestra conductor really operates may serve as a good model for managers in a wide range of businesses. For example, Mintzberg found that Tovey does a lot more hands-on work than one might expect. More like a first-line supervisor than a hands-off executive, he takes direct and personal charge of what is getting done. In dealing with his musicians, his focus is on inspiring them, not empowering them. Like other professionals, the musicians don't need to be empowered--they're already secure in what they know and can do--but they do need to be infused with energy for the tasks at hand. This is the role of the covert leader: to act quietly and unobtrusively in order to exact not obedience but inspired performance.

Mintzberg H

1998-11-01

155

Covert leadership: notes on managing professionals. Knowledge workers respond to inspiration, not supervision.  

Science.gov (United States)

The orchestra conductor is a popular metaphor for managers today--up there on the podium in complete control. But that image may be misleading, says Henry Mintzberg, who recently spent a day with Bramwell Tovey, conductor of the Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra, in order to explore the metaphor. He found that Tovey does not operate like an absolute ruler but practices instead what Mintzberg calls covert leadership. Covert leadership means managing with a sense of nuances, constraints, and limitations. When a manager like Tovey guides an organization, he leads without seeming to, without his people being fully aware of all that he is doing. That's because in this world of professionals, a leader is not completely powerless--but neither does he have absolute control over others. As knowledge work grows in importance, the way an orchestra conductor really operates may serve as a good model for managers in a wide range of businesses. For example, Mintzberg found that Tovey does a lot more hands-on work than one might expect. More like a first-line supervisor than a hands-off executive, he takes direct and personal charge of what is getting done. In dealing with his musicians, his focus is on inspiring them, not empowering them. Like other professionals, the musicians don't need to be empowered--they're already secure in what they know and can do--but they do need to be infused with energy for the tasks at hand. This is the role of the covert leader: to act quietly and unobtrusively in order to exact not obedience but inspired performance. PMID:10187244

Mintzberg, H

156

Potential impact of a 2-person security rule on BioSafety Level 4 laboratory workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Directors of all major BioSafety Level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories in the United States met in 2008 to review the current status of biocontainment laboratory operations and to discuss the potential impact of a proposed 2-person security rule on maximum-containment laboratory operations. Special attention was paid to the value and risks that would result from a requirement that 2 persons be physically present in the laboratory at all times. A consensus emerged indicating that a video monitoring system represents a more efficient, economical standard; provides greater assurance that pathogens are properly manipulated; and offers an increased margin of employee safety and institutional security. The 2-person security rule (1 to work and 1 to observe) may decrease compliance with dual responsibilities of safety and security by placing undue pressure on the person being observed to quickly finish the work, and by placing the observer in the containment environment unnecessarily.

LeDuc JW; Anderson K; Bloom ME; Carrion R Jr; Feldmann H; Fitch JP; Geisbert JB; Geisbert TW; Holbrook MR; Jahrling PB; Ksiazek TG

2009-07-01

157

Mortality among workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Evidence of radiation effects in follow-up through 1984  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

White men hired at the Oak Ridge (Tenn) National Laboratory between 1943 and 1972 were followed up for vital status through 1984 (N = 8318, 1524 deaths). Relatively low mortality compared with that in US white men was observed for most causes of death, but leukemia mortality was elevated in the total cohort (63% higher, 28 deaths) and in workers who had at some time been monitored for internal radionuclide contamination (123% higher, 16 deaths). Median cumulative dose of external penetrating radiation was 1.4 mSv; 638 workers had cumulative doses above 50 mSv (5 rem). After accounting for age, birth cohort, a measure of socioeconomic status, and active worker status, external radiation with a 20-year exposure lag was related to all causes of death (2.68% increase per 10 mSv) primarily due to an association with cancer mortality (4.94% per 10 mSv). Studies of this population through 1977 did not find radiation-cancer mortality associations, and identical analyses using the shorter follow-up showed that associations with radiation did not appear until after 1977. The radiation-cancer dose response is 10 times higher than estimates from the follow-up of survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, but similar to one previous occupational study. Dose-response estimates are subject to uncertainties due to potential problems, including measurement of radiation doses and cancer outcomes. Longer-term follow-up of this and other populations with good measurement of protracted low-level exposures will be critical to evaluating the generalizability of the results reported herein.

1991-01-01

158

Radiation and mortality of workers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Positive association for doses received at older ages  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We examined associations between low-level exposure to ionizing radiation and mortality among 14,095 workers hired at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1943 and 1972. Workers at the facility were individually monitored for external exposure to ionizing radiation and have been followed through 1990 to ascertain cause of death information. Positive associations were observed between low-level exposure to external ionizing radiation and mortality. These associations were larger for doses received after 45 years of age, larger under longer lag assumptions, and primarily due to cancer causes of death. All cancer mortality was estimated to increase 4.98% [standard error (SE)=1.5] per 10-mSv cumulative dose received after age 45 under a 10-year lag, and 7.31% (SE=2.2) per 10-mSv cumulative dose received after age 45 under a 20-year lag. Associations between radiation dose and lung cancer were of similar magnitude to associations between radiation dose and all cancers except lung cancer. Nonmalignant respiratory disease exhibited a positive association with cumulative radiation dose received after age 45, whereas ischemic heart disease exhibited no association with radiation dose. These findings suggest increases in cancer mortality associated with low-level external exposure to ionizing radiation and potentially greater sensitivity to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation with older ages at exposure. (orig.)

2001-01-01

159

Knowledge and attitudes of health care workers from the Primary Health Centre in In?ija, Serbia on professional exposures to blood-borne infections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exposure to blood-borne infections (HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C) poses a serious risk to health care workers (HCWs). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes on occupational exposure in primary health care. In 2009, a total of 100 health care workers from the Primary Health Care Centre in In?ija, Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia were included in the study. The results suggested that the health care workers who participated in the survey possess basic knowledge about blood-borne virus transmission routes. Most incorrect answers were related to the transmission of blood-borne viruses by tears, saliva, urine and stool. This study also demonstrated that health workers tend to unrealistically estimate the risk of HIV infections. As for the level of education about the prevention and control of blood-borne infections, 49 % of the participants had never had any education on this topic, while 22 % had been educated during the last five years. Around 75 % consider education on blood-borne infection and protective measures at work unnecessary.

Gaji? Z; Raj?evi? S; Duri? P; Ili? S; Dugandžija T

2013-03-01

160

The linkage between the lifestyle of knowledge-workers and their intra-metropolitan residential choice: A clustering approach based on self-organizing maps  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigates the linkage between the lifestyle and the intra-metropolitan residential choice of knowledge-workers in terms of home-ownership, location, dwelling size and building type. Data are retrieved from a revealed-preferences survey among knowledge-workers in the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area and are analyzed with self-organizing maps for pattern recognition and classification. Five clusters are identified: nest-builders, bon-vivants, careerists, entrepreneurs and laid-back. Bon-vivants and entrepreneurs differ in their dwelling size and home-ownership, although both prefer the metropolitan core. Careerists prefer suburban large detached houses. Nest-builders and laid-back are attracted to central locations, conditional on the provision of affordable medium-size dwellings.

Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Improved Techniques Used at Brookhaven National Laboratory to Package and Dispose of Radioisotope Production Waste Lowers Worker Exposure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the operations that generate Radioisotope Production Waste at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the improved techniques used to handle and dispose of this waste. Historically, these wastes have produced high worker exposure during processing, packaging and disposal. The waste is made up of accelerator-produced nuclides of short to mid-length half-lives with a few longer-lived nuclides. However, because radiopharmaceutical research and treatment requires a constant supply of radioisotopes, the waste must be processed and disposed of in a timely manner. Since the waste cannot be stored for long periods of time to allow for adequate decay, engineering processes were implemented to safely handle the waste routinely and with ALARA principles in mind.

Sullivan, P.

2003-02-24

162

Social workers as "experts" in the family court system: is evidence-based practice a missing link or host-created knowledge?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The graduate school curriculum for social workers requires that students learn to critically distinguish between opinion-based knowledge and evidence-based practices, or empirically-supported interventions. Once graduated, licensed social workers are often called upon to offer diagnostic and predictive opinions as experts in a variety of macro-environments. When the family courts are that "host" environment, social workers proffer expert opinions that may categorize and label parents or children for purposes of a judge's allocation of physical or legal custody. In this article, it is suggested that the social work profession, within all three domains of education, practice, and research, should more precisely link the design and fidelity of an evidence-based practice (EBP) with its potential misapplication or warping when proffered as science in "host" environments like family courts. As Foucault and other scholars warn, the failure to verify that an intervention is applied correctly may actually enhance the risk of social injustice by interpreting and translating EBP knowledge in the non-empirical form of authority-by-license. This article, therefore, proposes that the social work profession, from the classroom to the field, has an obligation to thoroughly understand and engage interdisciplinary practices that assure respect for the strengths and limits of social work knowledge.

Prescott DE

2013-10-01

163

Studies of transformer repair workers exposed to PCBs. II. Results of clinical laboratory investigations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thirty-eight transformer repairmen currently exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 17 former transformer repairmen, and 56 comparison workers not known to be exposed to PCBs were studied. Measurements were made of serum liver function tests, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lipid profile, thyroid function tests, and other serum biochemistry; hemoglobin; white cell count; 24-hour excretion of delta-aminolevulinic acid, porphyrins, 17-hydroxycorticosteriods and 17-ketosteroids; sperm count; spirometry; and antipyrine half-life to evaluate microsomal mixed function oxidase induction. The total exposed group differed significantly from the comparison group in albumin, LDH, T4, T4-RT3 index, and actual/predicted FEV1. Significant differences among all three exposure groups were seen for albumin, T4, T4-RT3 index, and 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion. Differences in FEV1 were attributable to smoking. Significant correlations between serum PCBs and serum lipids were removed by adjustment for confounding variables. After adjustment for confounding variables, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between serum PCBs and GGT and a negative correlation between adipose PCBs and 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion. These may reflect subtle metabolic effects of PCBs.

Emmett, E.A.; Maroni, M.; Jefferys, J.; Schmith, J.; Levin, B.K.; Alvares, A.

1988-01-01

164

Inter-laboratory comparison of cytogenetic endpoints for the biomonitoring of radiological workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The evaluation of different cytogenetic endpoints of radiation damage for the biomonitoring of contract workers temporarily employed at nuclear power plants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples from six donors were irradiated in vitro with doses ranging from 0.1 to 2Gy 60Co gamma-rays. Compared were a conventional analysis for dicentrics, the conventional micronucleus (MN) assay, the centromere micronucleus assay using p82H and an alphaAllCen pancentromeric probe, and tricolour FISH with chromosome 2, 4 and 8 DNA probes for the scoring of translocations. RESULTS: Agreement in the number of MN between Giemsa-and propidium iodine fluorescence-stained preparations was obtained. The control samples showed higher centromere positivity for the MN after FISH with the p82H probe compared with the alphaAllCen probe. The MN results with both probes showed a slight but systematic increase in the number of centromere-positive MN with dose, indicating that radiation, although principally clastogenic, also has aneuploidogenic properties. The values of the genomic translocation frequency (FG) derived from the observed translocation frequencies were systematically higher than the dicentric yields. Comparing the sensitivity of the different methods with restriction of the scoring time to 1 day for biomonitoring purposes, the centromere micronucleus assay had the lowest dose detection limit (0.1 to 0.2 Gy). CONCLUSION: This study shows that at present only the centromere micronucleus assay can combine high sensitivity with a reasonable scoring time for the biomonitoring of relatively large populations.

Thierens H; Vral A; de Ridder L; Touil N; Kirsch-Volders M; Lambert V; Laurent C

1999-01-01

165

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory?s Book of Minimum Detectable Activity for Direct Measurement of Internally Deposited Radionuclides in Radiation Workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintains an in vivo measurement program designed to identify and evaluate the activity of radionuclides deposited in the body. Two types of systems are primarily used for the routine monitoring of radiation workers, the lung counting system and the scanning bed whole body counting system. The lung counting system is comprised of two Canberra ACTII detector sets. Each ACTII set contains two planar germanium detectors with carbon composite end windows optimized to measure low energy photon emitting radionuclides. The ACTII detectors are placed on the upper torso over the lungs for the direct measurement of internally deposited radionuclides in the lungs that emit low energy photons. A correction for the thickness of the chest wall is applied to the efficiency. Because the thickness of the chest wall is a key factor in the measurement of low energy photon emitting radionuclides in the lung, the minimum detectable activity is a function of the chest wall thickness. The scanning bed whole body counting system is comprised of a thin air mattress on top of a carbon fiber bed that slowly scans over four high purity germanium detectors. The scanning system is designed to minimize variations in detected activity due to radionuclide distribution in the body. The scanning bed detection system is typically used for the measurement of internally deposited radionuclides that emit photons above 100 to 200 keV. MDAs have been generated for radionuclides that provide energies above 80 keV since the lowest calibration energy for the system is approximately 86 keV. The following charts and table provide best determination of minimum detectable activity using human subjects as controls for the background contributions. A wide variety of radionuclides are used throughout the laboratory and the following pages represent several of the radionuclides that have been encountered at the Whole Body and Spectroscopy Laboratories within Hazards Control.

Hickman, D P

2008-10-08

166

Safety, tolerability and effectiveness of an ergonomic intervention with chiropractic care for knowledge workers with upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders: A prospective case series.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: One hundred and sixty million office workers (knowledge workers) in the U.S. and 2/3 of the developed countries use computers on a daily basis. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the effectiveness of ergonomic and diversified chiropractic care for the reduction of pain, discomfort and impaired productivity in knowledge workers presenting with neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal complaints. METHODS: A one-year prospective case series (n=5 applying ergonomic job task analyses and ongoing surveillance at baseline, 8 weeks, 16 weeks and one-year for musculoskeletal discomfort (CMDQ and VAS, quality of life (Rand SF-36, productivity and forward head posture (FHP).RESULTS: CMDQ and VAS scores decreased by 45% (neck) and 80% (upper extremities); productivity increased from 65% to 100%; physical functioning, role physical and role emotional improved for 4 of 5 subjects; body pain and general health improved for 3 of 5. Average FHP changed from 1-inch (baseline) to 1/4-inch (16-weeks) to 1/2-inch (one year).CONCLUSIONS: Effectiveness of this intervention for the reduction of risks depended upon the subject's adoption of safe workstyle behaviors and postures. A transtheoretical model (TTM) for behavior change is discussed as a possible methodology to enhance the adoption of safer work habits.

Sherrod C; Johnson D; Chester B

2013-09-01

167

Knowledge and beliefs among health care workers regarding hepatitis B infection and needle stick injuries at a tertiary care hospital, Karachi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a recognized occupational risk for health care workers (HCWs). This study aimed to assess the knowledge and beliefs of HCWs regarding HBV transmission and needle stick injuries (NSIs). A cross-sectional questionnaire based KAP study was conducted at Civil Hospital, Karachi, during the period of January to September 2006. HCWs were inquired about possible modes of HBV transmission and association with NSIs. Data were entered using EpiInfo 6.04d software. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.5 software. A total of 343 HCWs participated, and those answered at least 5 correct modes of HBV transmission were considered knowledgeable. Knowledgeable group was more likely to report NSIs (p

2011-01-01

168

Knowledges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus on the interrelationship between theory and practice in specific domains, while at the same time foregrounding the own position of the researcher. The transformation of European security in the 1990s is taken as an example of how an IR analysis changes focus when seeing knowledge as Bourdieu.

Berling, Trine Villumsen

2012-01-01

169

Do governo dos homens: "Novas responsabilidades" do trabalhador e acesso aos conhecimentos/ On men government: The workers "new responsibilities" and access to knowledge  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese As atuais mudanças na divisão e organização do trabalho capitalista colocam, como uma das exigências ao trabalhador, o acesso a novos conhecimentos. Buscamos compreender o que é o novo nestas mudanças, e o fazemos através de duas hipóteses. A primeira concerne à mudança de governo do trabalho, ou seja, dos homens como trabalhadores. Este governo não mais se escora na forma taylorista, porém repropõe seu ideal político. A segunda refere-se à vivência pelo (more) trabalhador do acesso aos conhecimentos enquanto profissionalização e/ou qualificação de sua força de trabalho. Desenvolvemos nossas reflexões tanto em nível teórico quanto empírico. Em nível teórico discutimos a política reduzida à instrumentalização, no exercício do governo dos homens, na situação de trabalho. Relacionamos este governo com a concepção do trabalho como uso de si, do homem, como trabalhador. Esta concepção colocou como necessário ouvir os trabalhadores sobre suas atividades de trabalho através de entrevistas. Articulamos este nível empírico e o teórico com as questões do sujeito e do agente social presentes nessas hipóteses. Abstract in english The changes on the division and organisation of capitalistic labour demand that workers have access to new knowledge. We try in this article to understand such changes and what is new about them. We do it through the examination of two hypothesis. The first concerns the change on the government of work, that is, the government of men as workers. This new government does not assume a tayloristic form anymore, but it reproposes its political-ideal. The second one refers to (more) the worker's experience regarding the access to knowledge considered a crucial part of his qualification. Our study has been developed both on the theoretical and on the empirical levels. Theoreticaly we discuss politics in it's reducionistic connotation, that is, as an expression of the government of some men over others in the work situation. We related this government to the conception of work in which men as whole being, are used by others as workers. This conception made it necessary to hear workers about their work activities through enterviews. We articulated both the theoretical and the empirical level of the study through the categories of subject and of social agent, which are part of our hypothesis.

Rosa, Maria Inês

1998-09-01

170

XML Comparison of Knowledge and Practice of Private Clinical Laboratories and Educational Centers Staff in Shiraz about AIDS,2011  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS) is one of the most well-known disease in the world .It is not only A heaththrapeutic problem but also with politic ,social, cultural and economic aspects. Paying attention to high-risk groups such as Lab staff is important. we decided to study and compare the knowledge of public and private Laboratories staff. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study, descriptive-analytic,was conducted on 350 personnel of private laboratories and educational centers of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences,2011.We collected Information by using a questionnaire including three parts of demographic characteristic questions, questions about knowledge in different fields of AIDS and those related to the performance of personnel. The results were reported as tables and graphs and analyzed by ANOVA,t-test and square. Results: The data, in different areas of AIDS, in public and private laboratories are similar and the difference statistically is not significant. Regarding to symptoms and treatment, the knowledge of privale Lab staff is higher than stste ones and this difference is significant (P=0.01).As a whole,the results show the knowledge of staff about the transmission modes(92.7%),the pathologic agent(99.2%),at risk people (61.2%)and preventive measure (53.1%).both group have good practice in wearing gloves and using disposable syringes.Regarding to disposing infectious waste material,private and state center practice are 92.6% and 77%,respectively. Conclusion: Based on the result,the knowledge relating to preventive procedures and at risk people of AIDS is not enough.Therefore;it is a necessity to hold in service training for Lab staff,stressing on disposing infectious waste materials. Key words: AIDS, laboratory personnel, knowledge, practice

Rezaei MA; Ghahramani F

2011-01-01

171

A prática do assistente social: conhecimento, instrumentalidade e intervenção profissional (The social worker practice: knowledge, instrumentality and professional intervention)  

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Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo tem por finalidade apresentar uma reflexão sobre a prática profissional do Assistente Social, reconhecendo suas dimensões, com o objetivo de situar a instrumentalidade do Serviço Social bem como seu arsenal técnico-operativo. Em seguida, serão apresentados, de forma sucinta, alguns dos principais instrumentos de trabalho utilizados pelos Assistentes Sociais no exercício da prática profissional, bem como algumas considerações finais.Abstract: This article has in view to introduce a reflection about the Social Worker professional practice, recognizing dimensions, in order to situate the Social Work instrumentality and the technical-operation that the professionals use. After, will be introduced, succinctly, some principal tools used for the Social Workers in their professional practice, and also some final considerations.

Charles Toniolo Sousa

2008-01-01

172

Study Of Knowledge and Compliance Among Health Care Workers Receiving Post Exposure Prophylaxis For HIV At Two ART Centres In Bangalore.  

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Full Text Available Abstract Health care workers (HCW) are at risk of acquiring blood borne infections through contact with body fluids of patients, one of the most dangerous among these is HIV infection. Fortunately now there is effective antiretroviral post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) therapy available. It is best when initiated within 2 hours, and is considered to be useful up to 72 hours after exposure. Objectives 1) To assess the knowledge about PEP therapy. 2) To assess the compliance of PEP therapy. Materials & methodsA study was conducted among health care workers who have received PEP therapy for HIV during the period November 2008 to October 2009 at ART centres, Victoria and Bowring hospital, Bangalore. Data was collected by interview method. Results: Among 31 persons studied 2 physicians, 1 obstetrician, 10 interns, 5 PG students, 9 nursing staff, 2 lab technicians and 2 group D workers were present. HIV status of the patients was known among 67.7 % cases. 80.6% of the HCW got exposed by percutneous route, 16.1% by the cutaneous route, and 1 person exposed by mucocuataneous route. 83.9% of HCW were not aware that PEP is best when started within 2 hours, only 74.2% of HCW were aware that it is only of use when initiated within 72 hours. Only one (3.2%) person started PEP within 2 hour. Only 16.1% of people have tested for HIV after 6 wks of exposure, 74.2% of people have completed the full course of treatment. Most common cause for defaulter was the treatment side effects. Main side effects were gastric symptoms (74.2%). Conclusion: There is poor knowledge among the paramedical staff regarding the early initiation of the post exposure prophylaxis. It needs to be corrected by conducting regular CME’s.

Shashidhar Basagoudar

2012-01-01

173

Knowledge and beliefs among health care workers regarding hepatitis B infection and needle stick injuries at a tertiary care hospital, karachi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a recognized occupational risk for health care workers (HCWs). This study aimed to assess the knowledge and beliefs of HCWs regarding HBV transmission and needle stick injuries (NSIs). A cross-sectional questionnaire based KAP study was conducted at Civil Hospital, Karachi, during the period of January to September 2006. HCWs were inquired about possible modes of HBV transmission and association with NSIs. Data were entered using EpiInfo 6.04d software. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.5 software. A total of 343 HCWs participated, and those answered at least 5 correct modes of HBV transmission were considered knowledgeable. Knowledgeable group was more likely to report NSIs (p < 0.006), more vaccinated (p < 0.001) and were also more likely to attend awareness session (p < 0.009). Overall knowledge were inadequate and behaviour and attitude towards clinical practices were found compromised. To reduce the occupational risk, effort should be focused to establish effective infection control program and training of staff.

Habib F; Khan DK; Shan-E-Abbas; Bhatti F; Zafar A

2011-05-01

174

Knowledge and beliefs among health care workers regarding hepatitis B infection and needle stick injuries at a tertiary care hospital, karachi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a recognized occupational risk for health care workers (HCWs). This study aimed to assess the knowledge and beliefs of HCWs regarding HBV transmission and needle stick injuries (NSIs). A cross-sectional questionnaire based KAP study was conducted at Civil Hospital, Karachi, during the period of January to September 2006. HCWs were inquired about possible modes of HBV transmission and association with NSIs. Data were entered using EpiInfo 6.04d software. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.5 software. A total of 343 HCWs participated, and those answered at least 5 correct modes of HBV transmission were considered knowledgeable. Knowledgeable group was more likely to report NSIs (p < 0.006), more vaccinated (p < 0.001) and were also more likely to attend awareness session (p < 0.009). Overall knowledge were inadequate and behaviour and attitude towards clinical practices were found compromised. To reduce the occupational risk, effort should be focused to establish effective infection control program and training of staff. PMID:21575529

Habib, Faiza; Khan, Durreshahwar K; Shan-E-Abbas; Bhatti, Faiza; Zafar, Afia

2011-05-01

175

[Preparedness for influenza A/H5N1 pandemic in Niger: a study on health care workers' knowledge and global organization of health activities].  

Science.gov (United States)

In industrialized countries, the emergence of potentially pandemic influenza virus has invited reactions consistent with the potential threat represented by these infectious agents. However, with globalization, controlling epidemics depends as much on an effective global coordination of control methods as on preparedness of northern and southern national health care systems, at the core of which are health care workers. Our study was conducted in the National Hospital of Niamey, the main Nigerian hospital. Its objective was to evaluate the knowledge of health care professionals regarding flu pandemic and control of infection. We interviewed 178 nursing staff, doctors and paramedics on the basis of a survey. This study - the first to our knowledge to explore these issues in the African context-revealed that caregivers have a rather good mastery of theoretical knowledge. Nevertheless, beyond theoretical knowledge, miscellaneous factors compromise the effectiveness of the health care structure. Some of them seem to occupy a critical position, particularly the absence of shared references among sanitary authorities and health care professionals, and the weaknesses of global coordination of preventive activities and case management. PMID:22057928

d'Alessandro, E; Soula, G; Jaffré, Y; Gourouza, B; Adehossi, E; Delmont, J

2011-11-04

176

[Preparedness for influenza A/H5N1 pandemic in Niger: a study on health care workers' knowledge and global organization of health activities].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In industrialized countries, the emergence of potentially pandemic influenza virus has invited reactions consistent with the potential threat represented by these infectious agents. However, with globalization, controlling epidemics depends as much on an effective global coordination of control methods as on preparedness of northern and southern national health care systems, at the core of which are health care workers. Our study was conducted in the National Hospital of Niamey, the main Nigerian hospital. Its objective was to evaluate the knowledge of health care professionals regarding flu pandemic and control of infection. We interviewed 178 nursing staff, doctors and paramedics on the basis of a survey. This study - the first to our knowledge to explore these issues in the African context-revealed that caregivers have a rather good mastery of theoretical knowledge. Nevertheless, beyond theoretical knowledge, miscellaneous factors compromise the effectiveness of the health care structure. Some of them seem to occupy a critical position, particularly the absence of shared references among sanitary authorities and health care professionals, and the weaknesses of global coordination of preventive activities and case management.

d'Alessandro E; Soula G; Jaffré Y; Gourouza B; Adehossi E; Delmont J

2012-02-01

177

Knowledge and anticipated behavior of health care workers in response to an outbreak of pandemic influenza in Georgia  

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Full Text Available Background: Avian influenza has been documented in over 331 humans since 2003 with 203 associated deaths. Health Care Workers (HCWs) have been shown to be at personal risk during other highly virulent outbreaks with a high attack rate. This study aimed to determine the magnitude and factors associated with absenteeism of hospital based health care workers (HCWs) in Georgia associated with a potential highly virulent influenza pandemic.Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study of how HCWs responded to a potentially highly virulent influenza pandemic in two urban hospitals in Georgia. Hospital based physicians and nurses were studied. Data was collected utilizing a survey instrument. The survey was either self-administered or interviewer administered based upon the preference of the respondent.Results: There were 288 HCWs surveyed. The study suggested a 23% rate of worker absenteeism, predominately among women and nurses. The majority of the respondents (58.1%), mostly HCWs less than age 35, were opposed to forced isolation or quarantine of staff during a highly virulent influenza pandemic. Seventy-six percent of respondents correctly reported that the strain of virus that was responsible for the outbreaks in the neighboring countries was H5N1. Only 15.5% of respondents, however, correctly identified influenza as the culprit virus.Conclusions: The rate of work absenteeism suggested by this study represents a significant workforce reduction. There are specific groups who would choose not to attend work in the face of a flu pandemic. This information may allow planners to target these specific groups for education and social support services to encourage greater inclination to attend to clinical duties.

Maia Butsashvili,1 Wayne Triner,2 George Kamkamidze,1 Maia Kajaia,1 Louise-Anne McNutt.2

2007-01-01

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Healthcare workers and prevention of hepatitis C virus transmission: exploring knowledge, attitudes and evidence-based practices in hemodialysis units in Italy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Evidence exists regarding the full prevention of HCV transmission to hemodialysis patients by implementing universal precaution. However, little information is available regarding the frequency with which hospitals have adopted evidence-based practices for preventing HCV infection among hemodialysis patients. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted among nurses in Calabria region (Italy) in order to acquire information about the level of knowledge, the attitudes and the frequencies of evidence-based practices that prevent hospital transmission of HCV. METHODS: All 37 hemodialysis units (HDU) of Calabria were included in the study and all nurses were invited to participate in the study and to fill in a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: 90% of the nurses working in HDU participated in the study. Correct answers about HCV pattern of transmission ranged from 73.7% to 99.3% and were significantly higher in respondents who knew that isolation of HCV-infected patients is not recommended and among those who knew that previous bloodstream infections should be included in medical record and among nurses with fewer years of practice. Most correctly thought that evidence-based infection control measures provide adequate protection against transmission of bloodborne pathogens among healthcare workers. Positive attitude was significantly higher among more knowledgeable nurses. Self-reporting of appropriate handwashing procedures were significantly more likely in nurses who were aware that transmission of bloodborne pathogens among healthcare workers may be prevented through adoption of evidence-based practices and with a correct knowledge about HCV transmission patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Behavior changes should be aimed at abandoning outdated practices and adopting and maintaining evidence-based practices. Initiatives focused at enabling and reinforcing adherence to effective prevention practices among nurses in HDU are strongly needed.

Bianco A; Bova F; Nobile CG; Pileggi C; Pavia M

2013-01-01

179

Noise-induced hearing loss among quarry workers in a north-eastern state of malaysia: a study on knowledge, attitude and practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Noise is known to be one of the environmental and occupational hazards listed in the Factory and Machinery Act 1967. Quarries with loud deafening sounds from trucks and machineries pose the risk of noise-induced hearing loss to workers. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards noise-induced hearing loss and to determine the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss and its associated factors among quarry workers in a north-eastern state of Malaysia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at six quarries in a north-eastern state of Malaysia, with 97 consented respondents who answered a validated version of a questionnaire and underwent pure tone audiogram. The respondents were male, aged between 18 to 50 years, working in the quarry area for at least 6-months duration with no family history of ear diseases. RESULTS: The mean percentage scores of knowledge, attitude and practice were 44 (11), 70 (10) and 28 (16) percent, respectively. The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was found to be 57 (95% CI: 47, 67) with 46 (84%) having mild and moderate noise-induced hearing loss, and 34 (62%) involved both ears. Multiple logistic regressions showed that age and practice score were the associated factors with odd ratios of 1.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.2; p<0.001) and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0; p=0.008), respectively. CONCLUSION: The knowledge, attitude and practice scores of the respondents were poor and the high prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was contributed by factors such as poor practice and old age.

Ismail AF; Daud A; Ismail Z; Abdullah B

2013-09-01

180

Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Among Quarry Workers in a North-Eastern State of Malaysia: A Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice  

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Full Text Available Objectives: Noise is known to be one of the environmental and occupational hazards listed in the Factory and Machinery Act 1967. Quarries with loud deafening sounds from trucks and machineries pose the risk of noise-induced hearing loss to workers. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards noise-induced hearing loss and to determine the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss and its associated factors among quarry workers in a north-eastern state of Malaysia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at six quarries in a north-eastern state of Malaysia, with 97 consented respondents who answered a validated version of a questionnaire and underwent pure tone audiogram. The respondents were male, aged between 18 to 50 years, working in the quarry area for at least 6-months duration with no family history of ear diseases.Results: The mean percentage scores of knowledge, attitude and practice were 44 (11), 70 (10) and 28 (16) percent, respectively. The prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was found to be 57 (95% CI: 47, 67) with 46 (84%) having mild and moderate noise-induced hearing loss, and 34 (62%) involved both ears. Multiple logistic regressions showed that age and practice score were the associated factors with odd ratios of 1.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.2; p<0.001) and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0; p=0.008), respectively.Conclusion: The knowledge, attitude and practice scores of the respondents were poor and the high prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss was contributed by factors such as poor practice and old age.

Ahmad Filza Ismail; Aziah Daud; Zaliha Ismail; Baharudin Abdullah

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers in Chinese intensive care units regarding 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To describe the knowledge and attitudes of critical care clinicians during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Methods A survey conducted in 21 intensive care units in 17 provinces in China. Results Out of 733 questionnaires distributed, 695 were completed. Three hundred and fifty-six respondents (51.2%) reported their experience of caring for H1N1 patients. Despite the fact that 88.5% of all respondents ultimately finished an H1N1 training program, only 41.9% admitted that they had the knowledge of 2009 H1N1 influenza. A total of 572 respondents (82.3%) expressed willingness to care for H1N1 patients. Independent variables associated with increasing likelihood to care for patients in the logistic regression analysis were physicians or nurses rather than other professionals (odds ratio 4.056 and 3.235, p = 0.002 and 0.007, respectively), knowledge training prior to patient care (odds ratio 1.531, p = 0.044), and the confidence to know how to protect themselves and their patients (odds ratio 2.109, p = 0.001). Conclusion Critical care clinicians reported poor knowledge of H1N1 influenza, even though most finished a relevant knowledge training program. Implementation of appropriate education program might improve compliance to infection control measures, and willingness to work in a pandemic.

Ma Xiaochun; He Zhenyang; Wang Yushan; Jiang Li; Xu Yuan; Qian Chuanyun; Sun Rongqing; Chen Erzhen; Hu Zhenjie; Zhou Lihua; Zhou Fachun; Qin Tiehe; Cao Xiangyuan; An Youzhong; Sun Renhua; Zhang Xijing; Lin Jiandong; Ai Yuhang; Wu Dawei; Du Bin

2011-01-01

182

Infant feeding in the context of HIV: a qualitative study of health care workers' knowledge of recommended infant feeding options in Papua New Guinea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Interventions to prevent mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during childbirth and breastfeeding can reduce HIV infections in infants to less than 5% in low and middle income countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends all mothers, regardless of their HIV status, practice exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of an infant's life. In line with these recommendations and to protect, promote and support breastfeeding, in 2009 the PNG National Department of Health revised their National HIV infant feeding guidelines, reinforcing the WHO recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months followed by the introduction of other food and fluids, while continuing breastfeeding.The overall aim of this paper is to explore health care workers' knowledge regarding infant feeding options in PNG, specifically as they relate to HIV exposed infants. METHODS: As part of a study investigating women's and men's experiences of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) services in two sites in PNG, 28 key informant interviews were undertaken. This paper addresses one theme that emerged from thematic data analysis: Health care workers' knowledge regarding infant feeding options, specifically how this knowledge reflects the Papua New Guinea National HIV Care and Treatment Guidelines on HIV and infant feeding (2009). RESULTS: Most informants mentioned exclusive breastfeeding, the majority of whom reflected the most up-to-date National Guidelines of exclusive breastfeeding for six months. The importance of breastfeeding continuing beyond this time, along with the introduction of food and fluids was less well understood. The most senior people involved in PMTCT were the informants who most accurately reflected the national guidelines of continuing breastfeeding after six months. CONCLUSION: Providing advice on optimal infant feeding in resource poor settings is problematic, especially in relation to HIV transmission. Findings from our study reflect those found elsewhere in identifying that key health care workers are not aware of up-to-date information relating to infant feeding, especially within the context of HIV. Greater emphasis needs to be placed on ensuring the most recent feeding guidelines are disseminated and implemented in clinical practice in PNG.

Vallely LM; Kelly A; Kupul M; Neo R; Fiya V; Kaldor JM; Mola GD; Worth H

2013-01-01

183

Evaluating Knowledge and Self-Efficacy among Caribbean Healthcare Workers through a Community Engagement Nutrition Education Program  

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Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate knowledge, skills, and confidence of Community Health Aides(CHAs) working in Dominican communities.Methods: Baseline and post-nutrition education workshop assessments of knowledgeand self-efficacy were administered to participants of an interactive train-the-trainernutrition education program. Fisher's Exact tests and Mann-Whitney tests were used todetermine improvements of knowledge and self-efficacy.Results: Significant increases in knowledge occurred in five of eight assessmentmodules, and more significant increases in self-efficacy occurred in seven of eightassessment modules.Conclusions: The nutrition education program enhanced the immediate knowledgeand self-efficacy of the CHAs; however, particular areas were identified as needing to bepresented on an ongoing basis. This program will serve as a foundation for developingsustainable, longitudinal assessment and intervention strategies related to health in theCaribbean.

Elizabeth D. Wall-Bassett , Laura Gantt , Xiangming Fang , Nancy G. Harris , Jamie Hopkins 6 7 8 Shelby Donnelly , Jacqueline Lancaster-Prevost ,Marynese Titre

2013-01-01

184

The Implications of a Health Promotion Program on the Knowledge and Practice of Automotive Workers Exposed To Solvent  

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Problem statement: An in-house health promotion program aimed at promoting safety and health awareness when handling organic solvents at the workplace was carried out and its effectiveness was evaluated by comparing the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) scores at the pre and post-interv...

Rumaizah Ruslan; Zailina Hashim; Ismi A. Ismail; Lin Naing; Rusli Nordin

185

PRODUCIENDO TRABAJADORES MODERNOS: CONOCIMIENTO PSICOLÓGICO Y EL MUNDO DEL TRABAJO EN EL SUR/ PRODUCING MODERN WORKERS: PSYCHOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE AND THE WORLD OF WORK IN THE SOUTH  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este artículo considera el interjuego que se establece entre la producción del conocimiento psicológico en las sociedades nor-atlánticas y la construcción de la subjetividad de los trabajadores que se adelanta en los países del “tercer mundo”. Inicialmente, se señala la actitud celebratoria que asumen los psicólogos ante la expansión del conocimiento psicológico industrial/organizacional, la cual evita el análisis de las dimensiones neo-coloniales d (more) e la psicología. Se ilustran y analizan algunas de las implicaciones colonizantes que el saber psicológico tiene cuando contribuye a construir la subjetividad de los trabajadores en los países “en desarrollo” como “otros” que requieren ser psicológicamente transformados o “modernizados”, con el objetivo de alcanzar el desarrollo nacional. Se concluye sugiriendo algunos de los posibles caminos para continuar la investigación de las dimensiones neo-coloniales de la psicología en el mundo del trabajo. Abstract in english This article considers the relationship established between psychology and the production of workers as subjects in the “third world”. It is pointed out that the celebratory attitude of psychologists in regards to the dissemination of the psychological knowledge avoids the analysis of its neo-colonial dimensions. Some of these dimensions, when the psychological knowledge contributes to the construction of workers’ subjectivity in developing countries as (more) the “other” in need of being psychologically transformed or “modernized” in order to the achievement of national development, are illustrated and analyzed. Possible paths to continue researching the neo-colonial dimensions of psychology in the world of work are suggested.

PULIDO-MARTÍNEZ, HERNÁN CAMILO

2007-04-01

186

Conhecimento e atitudes dos profissionais de saúde em relação à violência de gênero Knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers towards gender based violence  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Várias são as políticas públicas no Brasil para o enfrentamento da violência contra a mulher. Registra-se na literatura que os profissionais de saúde acham o tema de difícil abordagem. Para melhorar o atendimento no SUS em Ribeirão Preto, realizou-se um estudo para avaliar o conhecimento e a atitude dos profissionais de saúde em relação à violência de gênero. MÉTODOS: Contataram-se 278 profissionais de saúde, dos quais 221 foram entrevistados utilizando-se um questionário estruturado. RESULTADOS: 51 (23,0%) eram enfermeiras e 170 (77,0%) médicos; 119 (53,8%) homens e 102 (46,2%) mulheres, com idade média de 38,6 anos; 200 (90,5%) consideravam-se brancos ou asiáticos e 21 (9,5%) pretos e pardos. Tinham em média 12,5 anos de vida profissional e 158 (68,8%) eram oriundos de universidade pública. Apenas pouco mais da metade (58,7%) mostrou conhecimento geral adequado (bom e alto) sobre a violência de gênero, o que indica a necessidade de capacitar os profissionais para este atendimento. Em relação às barreiras para averiguar a violência, os profissionais citaram a falta de uma política institucional e o silêncio da mulher que não revela a violência. Os entrevistados, em particular as mulheres jovens, apresentaram atitudes mais favoráveis para o acolhimento da mulher em situação de violência. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos entrevistados demonstrou atitudes positivas e podemos inferir que há bom potencial para o manejo adequado dos casos, se receberem capacitação.OBJECTIVES: There are several public policies to deal with violence against women in Brazil. The literature has reported that healthcare workers find this subject difficult to approach. To improve care in the public health system (SUS) of Ribeirão Preto, a study was conducted aiming to assess knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers regarding gender violence. METHODS: A total 278 healthcare workers were contacted and 221 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: 51 (23.0%) were nurses and 170 (77.0%) physicians, 119 (53.8%) males and 102 (46.2%) females, with a mean age of 38.6 years; 200 (90.5%) considered themselves to be white or Asian and 21 (9.5%) black or mulattos. They had an average of 12.5 years of professional practice and 158 (68.8%) had graduated from a public university. About 58.7% had an adequate general knowledge (good and high) about gender violence, which indicates the need to train healthcare workers. Regarding the barriers to identify violence, healthcare workers mentioned the lack of an institutional policy and the silence of women who do not reveal violence. Respondents, especially young women, presented more favorable attitudes towards women living in violence situation. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, most of them show positive attitudes toward women living in violence and we infer that they present good potential for appropriate case management if they receive training.

Elisabeth Meloni Vieira; Gleici de Castro Silva Perdona; Ana Maria de Almeida; Ana Márcia Spano Nakano; Manoel Antônio dos Santos; Daniela Daltoso; Fernanda Garbelini De Ferrante

2009-01-01

187

The modulation of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders for a knowledge worker with chiropractic care and applied ergonomics: a case study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective This report describes the case management of musculoskeletal disorders for an employee in a college work environment using both chiropractic care and applied ergonomics. Clinical Findings A 54-year-old male office worker presented with decreased motor function in both wrists; intermittent moderate-to-severe headaches; and pain or discomfort in the neck, both shoulders, left hand and wrist, and lumbosacral region resulting from injuries sustained during recreational soccer and from excessive forces and awkward postures when interacting with his home and office computer workstations. Intervention and Results Ergonomic training, surveillance, retrofitted equipment with new furniture, and an emphasis on adopting healthy work-style behaviors were applied in combination with regular chiropractic care. Baseline ergonomic job task analysis identified risk factors and delineated appropriate control measures to improve the subject's interface with his office workstation. Serial reevaluations at 3-month, 1-year, and 2-year periods recorded changes to the participant's pain, discomfort, and work-style behaviors. At end of study and relative to baseline, pain scale improved from 4/10 to 2/10; general disability improved from 4 to 0; and hand grip strength (pounds) increased from 20 to 105 (left) and 45 to 100 (right). Healthy work habits and postures adopted in the 3-month to 1-year period regressed to baseline exposures for 3 of 6 risk priorities identified in the ergonomic job task analysis. Conclusion The patient responded positively to the intervention of chiropractic care and applied ergonomics.

Sherrod, Charles W.; Casey, George; Dubro, Robert E.; Johnson, Dale F.

2013-01-01

188

The modulation of upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders for a knowledge worker with chiropractic care and applied ergonomics: a case study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This report describes the case management of musculoskeletal disorders for an employee in a college work environment using both chiropractic care and applied ergonomics. CLINICAL FINDINGS: A 54-year-old male office worker presented with decreased motor function in both wrists; intermittent moderate-to-severe headaches; and pain or discomfort in the neck, both shoulders, left hand and wrist, and lumbosacral region resulting from injuries sustained during recreational soccer and from excessive forces and awkward postures when interacting with his home and office computer workstations. INTERVENTION AND RESULTS: Ergonomic training, surveillance, retrofitted equipment with new furniture, and an emphasis on adopting healthy work-style behaviors were applied in combination with regular chiropractic care. Baseline ergonomic job task analysis identified risk factors and delineated appropriate control measures to improve the subject's interface with his office workstation. Serial reevaluations at 3-month, 1-year, and 2-year periods recorded changes to the participant's pain, discomfort, and work-style behaviors. At end of study and relative to baseline, pain scale improved from 4/10 to 2/10; general disability improved from 4 to 0; and hand grip strength (pounds) increased from 20 to 105 (left) and 45 to 100 (right). Healthy work habits and postures adopted in the 3-month to 1-year period regressed to baseline exposures for 3 of 6 risk priorities identified in the ergonomic job task analysis. CONCLUSION: The patient responded positively to the intervention of chiropractic care and applied ergonomics.

Sherrod CW; Casey G; Dubro RE; Johnson DF

2013-03-01

189

Conocimiento y uso de métodos anticonceptivos en mujeres que ejercen la prostitución en Asturias Knowledge and use of contraceptive methods in female sex workers in Asturias [Spain  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir el conocimiento de los métodos contraceptivos y el uso que hacen de ellos las mujeres que ejercen la prostitución en Asturias. Métodos: Estudio transversal mediante cuestionario autoadministrado a 212 mujeres. Resultados: El 61,2% refería tener información suficiente sobre métodos contraceptivos, aunque el conocimiento real es menor. En su última relación comercial en un 2,4% no tuvo una actitud eficaz para prevenir el embarazo y en la última privada, el 20,4%. El método más usado fue el preservativo y el 52,2% de quienes lo usaron en la última relación comercial añadieron otro método eficaz. En caso de rotura, el 40% de las encuestadas no tuvo una actitud eficaz para evitar el embarazo. Conclusiones: El conocimiento contraceptivo en estas mujeres es menor del que cabría esperar por la actividad que realizan. El uso de otro método eficaz asociado al preservativo es escaso para evitar embarazos no deseados. Muchas mujeres no tienen una actitud eficaz para evitarlos en caso de rotura del preservativo.Objective: To describe the knowledge and use of contraceptive methods among female sex workers in Asturias (Spain). Methods: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study of 212 female sex workers by means of a self-completed questionnaire. Results: 61.2% of the women claimed to have sufficient information about contraceptive methods, although the real knowledge measured was much lower. Effective contraception was not used by 2.4% of the women in their last commercial relationship and by 20.4% in their private relationships. The most commonly employed method was the condom, but only 52.2% of the women who had used one in their previous commercial relationships did so together with another effective method. In the event of breakage, 40% of women did not have an attitude that would be effective in avoiding pregnancy. Conclusions: Knowledge about contraceptive methods among these women is lower than might be expected from their occupation. The use of another effective method together with the condom is insufficient to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Many of the women do not have an attitude that would be effective in avoiding pregnancy in the event of condom breakage.

Domingo Ojer Tsakiridu; Amalia Franco Vidal; José Antonio Varela Uría; Carmen López Sánchez; María Luisa Junquera Llaneza; Mar Cuesta Rodríguez; Margarita Busto Folgosa; María Jesús Fernández Ollero

2008-01-01

190

Filling the Knowledge Gap: Measuring HIV Prevalence and Risk Factors among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Female Sex Workers in Tripoli, Libya.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Publications on Libya's HIV epidemic mostly examined the victims of the tragic nosocomial HIV outbreak in the 1990s and the related dispute about the detention of foreign medical workers. The dispute resolution in 2003 included an agreement with the European Union on humanitarian cooperation and the development of Libya's first National HIV Strategy. As part of this we conducted Libya's first bio-behavioural survey among men having sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW). METHODS: Using respondent-driven sampling, we conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and related risk factors among 227 MSM and 69 FSW in Tripoli (FSW recruitment ended prematurely due to the political events in 2011). RESULTS: For MSM we estimated an HIV prevalence of 3.1%, HBV prevalence of 2.9%, and HCV prevalence of 7.3%, and for FSW an HIV prevalence of 15.7%, HBV prevalence of 0%, and HCV prevalence of 5.2%. We detected high levels of risk behaviours, poor HIV-related knowledge, high stigma and lack of prevention programmes. These results must be interpreted in the context of the political situation which prohibited reaching an ideal sample size for FSW. CONCLUSION: There is urgent need to implement an effective National HIV Strategy informed by the results of this research. The risk of transmission within different risk groups and to the general population may be high given the recent military events that led to increased violence, migration, and the disruption of essential HIV-related services.

Valadez JJ; Berendes S; Jeffery C; Thomson J; Ben Othman H; Danon L; Turki AA; Saffialden R; Mirzoyan L

2013-01-01

191

Influence of toxic bait type and starvation on worker and queen mortality in laboratory colonies of Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The efficacy of toxic baits should be judged by their ability to kill entire ant colonies, including the colony queen or queens. We studied the efficacy of four toxic baits to the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). These baits were Xstinguish that has the toxicant fipronil, Exterm-an-Ant that contains both boric acid and sodium borate, and Advion ant gel and Advion ant bait arena that both have indoxacarb. Experimental nests contained 300 workers and 10 queen ants that were starved for either 24 or 48 h before toxic bait exposure. The efficacy of the toxic baits was strongly influenced by starvation. In no treatment with 24-h starvation did we observe 100% worker death. After 24-h starvation three of the baits did not result in any queen deaths, with only Exterm-an-Ant producing an average of 25% mortality. In contrast, 100% queen and worker mortality was observed in colonies starved for 48 h and given Xstinguish or Exterm-an-Ant. The baits Advion ant gel and Advion ant bait arena were not effective against Argentine ants in these trials, resulting in <60% mortality in all treatments. Because of the strong influence of starvation on bait uptake, control efficacy may be maximized by applying bait when ants are likely to be starved. Our results suggest queen mortality must be assessed in tests for toxic bait efficacy. Our data indicate that of these four baits, Xstinguish and Exterm-an-Ant are the best options for control of Argentine ants in New Zealand.

Mathieson M; Toft R; Lester PJ

2012-08-01

192

The role biomedical science laboratories can play in improving science knowledge and promoting first-year nursing academic success  

Science.gov (United States)

The Role Biomedical Science Laboratories Can Play In Improving Science Knowledge and Promoting First-Year Nursing Academic Success The need for additional nursing and health care professionals is expected to increase dramatically over the next 20 years. With this in mind, students must have strong biomedical science knowledge to be competent in their field. Some studies have shown that participation in bioscience laboratories can enhance science knowledge. If this is true, an analysis of the role bioscience labs have in first-year nursing academic success is apposite. In response, this study sought to determine whether concurrent enrollment in anatomy and microbiology lecture and lab courses improved final lecture course grades. The investigation was expanded to include a comparison of first-year nursing GPA and prerequisite bioscience concurrent lecture/lab enrollment. Additionally, research has indicated that learning is affected by student perception of the course, instructor, content, and environment. To gain an insight regarding students' perspectives of laboratory courses, almost 100 students completed a 20-statement perception survey to understand how lab participation affects learning. Data analyses involved comparing anatomy and microbiology final lecture course grades between students who concurrently enrolled in the lecture and lab courses and students who completed the lecture course alone. Independent t test analyses revealed that there was no significant difference between the groups for anatomy, t(285) = .11, p = .912, but for microbiology, the lab course provided a significant educational benefit, t(256) = 4.47, p = .000. However, when concurrent prerequisite bioscience lecture/lab enrollment was compared to non-concurrent enrollment for first-year nursing GPA using independent t test analyses, no significant difference was found for South Dakota State University, t(37) = -1.57, p = .125, or for the University of South Dakota, t(38) = -0.46, p = .651. Student perception survey examination included computation of means and standard deviations for statements related to the educational importance of lab courses, the value of lab experimentation, and the usefulness of concurrent lecture/lab enrollment. Independent t test analyses sought to determine differences within the courses of anatomy lab and microbiology lab as well as differences between the instructors involved. Results suggested that student perceptions may be dependent on the course, the instructor, and possibly the content.

Arneson, Pam

193

Integrating child health services into malaria control services of village malaria workers in remote Cambodia: service utilization and knowledge of malaria management of caregivers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Malaria and other communicable diseases remain major threats in developing countries. In Cambodia, village malaria workers (VMWs) have been providing malaria control services in remote villages to cope with the disease threats. In 2009, the VMW project integrated child health services into the original malaria control services. However, little has been studied about the utilization of VMWs' child health services. This study aimed to identify determinants of caregivers' VMW service utilization for childhood illness and caregivers' knowledge of malaria management. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 36 VMW villages of Kampot and Kampong Thom provinces in July-September 2012. An equal number of VMW villages with malaria control services only (M) and those with malaria control plus child health services (M+C) were selected from each province. Using structured questionnaires, 800 caregivers of children under five and 36 VMWs, one of the two VMWs who was providing VMW services in each study village were interviewed. RESULTS: Among the caregivers, 23% in M villages and 52% in M+C villages utilized VMW services for childhood illnesses. Determinants of caregivers' utilization of VMWs in M villages included their VMWs' length of experience (AOR = 11.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.46-31.19) and VMWs' service quality (AOR = 2.04, CI = 1.01-4.11). In M+C villages, VMWs' length of experience (AOR = 2.44, CI = 1.52-3.94) and caregivers' wealth index (AOR = 0.35, CI = 0.18-0.68) were associated with VMW service utilization. Meanwhile, better service quality of VMWs (AOR = 3.21, CI = 1.34-7.66) and caregivers' literacy (AOR = 9.91, CI = 4.66-21.05) were positively associated with caregivers' knowledge of malaria management. CONCLUSIONS: VMWs' service quality and length of experience are important determinants of caregivers' utilization of VMWs' child health services and their knowledge of malaria management. Caregivers are seeking VMWs' support for childhood illnesses even if they are providing only malaria control services. This underlines the importance of scaling-up VMWs' capacity by adding child health services of good quality, which will result in improving child health status in remote Cambodia.

Hasegawa A; Yasuoka J; Ly P; Nguon C; Jimba M

2013-01-01

194

Learning the facts in medical school is not enough: which factors predict successful application of procedural knowledge in a laboratory setting?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Medical knowledge encompasses both conceptual (facts or "what" information) and procedural knowledge ("how" and "why" information). Conceptual knowledge is known to be an essential prerequisite for clinical problem solving. Primarily, medical students learn from textbooks and often struggle with the process of applying their conceptual knowledge to clinical problems. Recent studies address the question of how to foster the acquisition of procedural knowledge and its application in medical education. However, little is known about the factors which predict performance in procedural knowledge tasks. Which additional factors of the learner predict performance in procedural knowledge? METHODS: Domain specific conceptual knowledge (facts) in clinical nephrology was provided to 80 medical students (3rd to 5th year) using electronic flashcards in a laboratory setting. Learner characteristics were obtained by questionnaires. Procedural knowledge in clinical nephrology was assessed by key feature problems (KFP) and problem solving tasks (PST) reflecting strategic and conditional knowledge, respectively. RESULTS: Results in procedural knowledge tests (KFP and PST) correlated significantly with each other. In univariate analysis, performance in procedural knowledge (sum of KFP+PST) was significantly correlated with the results in (1) the conceptual knowledge test (CKT), (2) the intended future career as hospital based doctor, (3) the duration of clinical clerkships, and (4) the results in the written German National Medical Examination Part I on preclinical subjects (NME-I). After multiple regression analysis only clinical clerkship experience and NME-I performance remained independent influencing factors. CONCLUSIONS: Performance in procedural knowledge tests seems independent from the degree of domain specific conceptual knowledge above a certain level. Procedural knowledge may be fostered by clinical experience. More attention should be paid to the interplay of individual clinical clerkship experiences and structured teaching of procedural knowledge and its assessment in medical education curricula.

Schmidmaier R; Eiber S; Ebersbach R; Schiller M; Hege I; Holzer M; Fischer MR

2013-01-01

195

A Text Analysis Approach to Motivate Knowledge Sharing via Microsoft SharePoint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Creating incentives for knowledge workers to share their knowledge within an organization continues to be a challenging task. Strong, innate behaviors of the knowledge worker, such as self-preservation and self- advancement, are difficult to overcome, regardless of the level of knowledge. Many incentive policies simply focus on providing external pressure to promote knowledge sharing. This work describes a technical approach to motivate sharing. Utilizing text analysis and machine learning techniques to create an enhanced knowledge sharing experience, a prototype system was developed and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that reduces the overhead cost of sharing while providing a quick, positive payoff for the knowledge worker. This work describes the implementation and experiences of using the prototype in a corporate production environment.

Patton, Robert M [ORNL; McNair, Wade [ORNL; Symons, Christopher T [ORNL; Treadwell, Jim N [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

2012-01-01

196

Effect of an educational intervention on knowledge, attitudes and preventive behaviours related to HIV and sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers in southern Iran: a quasi-experimental study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This quasi-experimental, before-after study was designed to assess the effect of an educational intervention on knowledge and attitudes about sexually transmitted infections, HIV and preventive behaviours among female sex workers in Shiraz, Iran. A single-group pre-post test design was used and the study was done between August and December 2009. The participants were 80 female sex workers recruited from three drop-in centers in Shiraz, with stratified random sampling. Pre-intervention knowledge was assessed by interview with a standard questionnaire. The educational intervention consisted of a lecture, face-to-face education, printed information, an educational movie, role playing and a contest. After 2 months, the effect of the intervention was evaluated (post-test). The average age of the participants was 32.6?±?9.1 years. After the intervention, the mean score for general knowledge about HIV and sexually transmitted infections increased from 13.7?±?0.95 (pre-test) to 19.47?±?11.62 (post-test, p?knowledge and attitudes, and in decreasing their risk behaviours.

Sakha MA; Kazerooni PA; Lari MA; Sayadi M; Azar FE; Motazedian N

2013-09-01

197

Occupational exposures to blood and body fluids (BBF): Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice among health care workers in general hospitals in Lebanon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Healthcare workers (HCWs) who are employed in traditional health care workplaces face a serious danger that may threaten their life; it is their exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF). In Lebanon, the introduction of a hospital accreditation system has put a particular emphasis on staff safety, and on the evaluation of professional practice (EPP) programs. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 277 HCWs working in 4 general hospitals in South Lebanon. Objective: 1) describe the prevalence and the risk factors for occupational exposure to BBF among HCWs; 2) evaluate knowledge, attitude, and practices of HCW concerning blood-borne pathogens and adherence to universal safety precautions. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 32.14 years (SD = 10.33), 57.4% were females. 43.3% of HCWs expressed that they use gloves all the time for every activeity of care. 67.1% were aware that needles should not be recapped after use; registered nurses and nursing students were more aware than physicians and nursing assistants (nurse) in this subject. 30% of HCWs declared having had at least one occupational exposure to BBF; 62.7% of all accidental exposure was reported to the department responsible for managing exposures. Percutaneous injuries were the most frequently reported. Vaccination coverage was 88.4% for hepatitis B, and 48.4% against influenza. The source patient was tested in 43.4% of reported BBF exposures. Accidental exposure to BBF was more frequent in older people (OR = 3.42; p = 0.03) and the more experienced. Subjects working in intensive care unit ward reported more exposure to BBF (OR = 3; p = 0.04). Participants incurring exposure to BBF resorted to different measures after the injury suggesting a lack of a uniform policy for post-exposure prophylaxis. Conclusion: Exposure to BBF represents an important and frequently preventable occupational hazard for HCWs in Lebanon that requires continuous EPP of HCWs, and a comprehensive approach for prevention and management.

Ibtissam Sabbah; Hala Sabbah; Sanaa Sabbah; Hussein Akoum; Nabil Droubi

2013-01-01

198

Operational comparison of bubble (super heated drop) dosimetry results with routine albedo thermoluminescent dosimetry for a selected group of Pu-238 workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper is an operational study that compares the use of albedo thermoluminescent dosimeters with bubble dosimeters to determine whether bubble dosimeters do provide a useful daily ALARA tool that can yield measurements close to the dose-of-record. A group of workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) working on the Radioactive Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) for the NASA Cassini space mission wore both bubble dosimeters and albedo dosimeters over a period from 1993 through 1996. The bubble dosimeters were issued and read on a daily basis and the data were used as an ALARA tool. The personnel albedo dosimeter was processed on monthly basis and used as the dose-of-record. The results of this study indicated that cumulative bubble dosimetry results agreed with whole-body albedo dosimetry results within about 37% on average. However it was observed that there is a significant variability of the results on an individual basis both month-to-month and from one individual to another.

Romero, L.L.; Hoffman, J.M.; Foltyn, E.M.; Buhl, T.E.

1999-03-01

199

Process Knowledge Characterization of Radioactive Waste at the Classified Waste Landfill Remediation Project Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where direct measurement is not technically feasible, from accumulated PK of the excavated materials.

DOTSON,PATRICK WELLS; GALLOWAY,ROBERT B.; JOHNSON JR,CARL EDWARD

1999-11-03

200

Occupational exposures to blood and body fluids (BBF): Assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice among health care workers in general hospitals in Lebanon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Healthcare workers (HCWs) who are employed in traditional health care workplaces face a serious danger that may threaten their life; it is their exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF). In Lebanon, the int...

 
 
 
 
201

O processo de reestruturação produtiva e o jovem trabalhador: conhecimento e participação/ The process of productive restructuring and the young worker: knowledge and participation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O artigo tem como objetivo analisar as percepções de jovens trabalhadores metálurgicos, entre 18 a 25 anos, sobre as mudanças organizacionais e tecnológicas que estão sendo introduzidas no processo produtivo de oito indústrias dos setores metalúrgico e eletroeletrônico do município de Osasco. Considerando que essas mudanças no trabalho redefinem o perfil do trabalhador e colocam novas exigências quanto à escolaridade, formação profissional, participação e (more) compromisso com os objetivos da empresa, o texto discute a relação dos jovens com a escola, o trabalho, a empresa e o sindicato. Na análise do jovem trabalhador é retomada a perspectiva de autores europeus que acentua a heterogeneidade da juventude. Portanto, mesmo com identidade comum definida pela condição operária, os jovens entrevistados avaliam e interpretam de diversas maneiras as condições de trabalho e situam-se diferentemente diante das modificações feitas. Abstract in english The aim of this article is to analyze the perceptions of young metal workers, between 18 and 25 years of age, of organizational and technological changes being introduced in the productive process in eight industries of the metal works and electro-electronic sectors in the Osasco area. Considering that these changes in labor redefine the profile of the worker and bring about new demands as to schooling, professional development, participation and commitment to the compani (more) es' objectives, the text discusses the young workers' relationship with school, work, industry and union. In the analysis of the young laborer, the perspective of European authors that accentuate youth heterogeneity is taken up. Thus, in spite of the common identity defined by the condition of being a worker, the young workers interviewed evaluate and interpret differently working conditions and situate themselves in a diverse manner in face of the changes.

Martins, Heloisa Helena T. de Souza

2001-11-01

202

Exploring and Exploiting Knowledge. Research on Knowledge Processes in Knowledge-Intensive Organizations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge, and how it is utilized, is the most important source of competitive advantage for a growing number of companies and organizations. Knowledge workers predominantly work from knowledge, with knowledge, and for knowledge. This study explores how employees in knowledge-intensive organizations...

Mäki, Eerikki

203

Estado vacinal e conhecimento dos profissionais de saúde sobre hepatite B em um hospital público do nordeste brasileiro/ Vaccination status and knowledge on hepatitis B among healthcare workers of a public hospital in Northeastern Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese RESUMO OBJETIVO: analisar o estado vacinal e o conhecimento prévio sobre o vírus da hepatite B pelos profissionais de saúde (PS) de um hospital público. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo de corte transversal, baseado no preenchimento do formulário pelos PS, contemplando: biomédicos, odontólogos, enfermeiros, fisioterapeutas, médicos, técnicos e auxiliares de enfermagem e de laboratório. Para analisar idade, categoria profissional, estado vacinal e conhecimento destes (more) profissionais sobre hepatite B, utilizou-se o teste de qui-quadrado, considerando significante p Abstract in english ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the vaccination status and knowledge on hepatitis B virus of healthcare workers (HW) from a public hospital. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, based on a written questionnaire answered by HW, which included biomedical personnel, dentists, nurses, physiotherapists, physicians, nurse assistants, and lab technicians. They informed about their age, profession, immunization status and knowledge on hepatitis B. Chi-square test was used, considering (more) p

Silva, Flávia Janólio Costacurta Pinto da; Santos, Paulo Sérgio Faro; Reis, Francisco do Prado; Lima, Sônia Oliveira

2011-12-01

204

Prion disease risk perception in Canadian medical laboratories.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There are no national guidelines specific for handling prion-associated specimens in Canadian medical laboratories. Medical laboratory workers may perceive themselves at risk of prion transmission and, on occasion, decline to process such specimens. OBJECTIVE: To examine the knowledge, attitudes and reported behaviours of medical laboratory workers in relation to prion disease to understand their risk perception and the need for national laboratory guidelines on prion infection control. DESIGN: Survey development and cross-sectional web-based administration. METHODS: The survey was developed through key informant interviews and a modified Delphi process. Medical laboratory workers across Canada were invited by laboratory managers and national organizations to complete the web-based survey. RESULTS: Twelve key informant interviews were performed. Consensus for questionnaire content was reached through two rounds of the Delphi process. Responses were received from 426 Canadian medical laboratory workers; 37% of medical laboratory staff reported processing prion-associated specimens. Different protocols for specimen processing were followed, and 18% believed they were at risk when processing these specimens. Less than one-third of those receiving specimens believed they were adequately trained. The mean (±SD) knowledge score was 9.25±4.5/24; individuals who had received training scored significantly higher than those who were untrained (P<0.01). Eighty-one per cent of respondents would be more comfortable processing specimens if national guidelines existed and were used in their laboratory. CONCLUSION: There is a high perception of risk and few perceived benefits of processing prion-associated specimens. National guidelines for prion infection control in medical laboratories and adequate training would enable medical laboratory workers to process these specimens efficiently and confidently.

Buxton JA; Henry B; Waheed A; Crabtree A

2012-01-01

205

Conocimiento y actitud en prevención de trabajadores lesionados de una empresa metalmecánica en México Knowledge and attitudes towards prevention among occupationally injured workers at a Mexican metal-mechanic company  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se investigan a 51 trabajadores que sufrieron algún tipo de accidentes de trabajo durante el año de 2007, en una empresa metalmecánica, no importando la región anatómica de la lesión con la finalidad de determinar el nivel de conocimiento y actitud en prevención de riesgos laborales que existe entre ellos. Tal información servirá para mejorar la administración de la seguridad en la empresa. La investigación es de tipo no experimental, descriptiva y transversal. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó, un cuestionario integrado por 30 ítems, divididos en tres apartados: datos demográficos y las variables: conocimiento y actitud en prevención de riesgos laborales. La validez del instrumento obtuvo un valor de alfa de Cronbach del 0,74. Con respecto a las variables de estudio, los resultados obtenidos nos indican que, los trabajadores presentan un nivel bajo de conocimiento en prevención de riesgos laborales. En relación con la variable actitud, estos se ubicaron en un nivel bajo también. Por lo que se concluye que, el conocimiento en prevención de riesgos laborales y la actitud de los trabajadores, están directamente relacionados.51 workers that suffered some type of work accident were investigated during 2007, at a metal-mechanic company; the lesion’s anatomic region is not an issue, in order to determine the knowledge and attitude level on occupational risks prevention. Such information will enhance safety management at the company. The investigation is descriptive, transverse and non-experimental. For data collection was used a questionnaire of 30 multiple-choice, divided into three sections: demographics data, and the variables knowledge and attitude on occupational risk prevention. The validity of the instrument got a Cronbach´s alpha of 0,74. With respect to the variables, the results indicate that workers have a low level in prevention knowledge occupational risk. Regarding the attitude variable, these were located at a low level also. As it is concluded that knowledge on occupational risk prevention and the attitude of workers are directly related.

Benito Zamorano González; Víctor Parra Sierra; Fabiola Peña Cárdenas; Yolanda Castillo Muraira

2009-01-01

206

Accident Prevention: A Workers' Education Manual.  

Science.gov (United States)

Devoted to providing industrial workers with a greater knowledge of precautionary measures undertaken and enforced by industries for the protection of workers, this safety education manual contains 14 lessons ranging from "The Problems of Accidents during Work" to "Trade Unions and Workers and Industrial Safety." Fire protection, safety equipment…

International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

207

Preliminary volcanic hazards evaluation for Los Alamos National Laboratory Facilities and Operations : current state of knowledge and proposed path forward  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The integration of available information on the volcanic history of the region surrounding Los Alamos National Laboratory indicates that the Laboratory is at risk from volcanic hazards. Volcanism in the vicinity of the Laboratory is unlikely within the lifetime of the facility (ca. 50–100 years) but cannot be ruled out. This evaluation provides a preliminary estimate of recurrence rates for volcanic activity. If further assessment of the hazard is deemed beneficial to reduce risk uncertainty, the next step would be to convene a formal probabilistic volcanic hazards assessment.

Keating, Gordon N.; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Miller, Elizabeth D.

2010-09-01

208

Internet usage and knowledge of radiation health effects and preventive behaviours among workers in Fukushima after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSIONS: Internet usage was significantly and positively associated with greater health knowledge and more preventive behaviours. The internet is a useful method of distributing information to the general public in emergency situations such as a nuclear disaster.

Kanda H; Takahashi K; Sugaya N; Mizushima S; Koyama K

2013-10-01

209

The relationship between knowledge of HIV, self-perceived vulnerability and sexual risk behavior among community clinic workers in Chile Relación entre conocimientos sobre VIH, percepción de vulnerabilidad y conductas sexuales de riesgo en trabajadores de salud primaria en Chile  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective Testing the hypothesis of an association between knowledge and sexual risk behaviour (SRB) amongst community-clinic workers in Chile, explained by the confounding effect of self-perceived vulnerability to HIV. Methods A cross-sectional survey was analyzed; it was nested within a quasiexperimental study of 720 community-clinic workers in Santiago. The SRB score combined the number of sexual partners and condom use (coded as "high"/"low" SRB). Knowledge of HIV (a 25-item index) was coded as "inadequate"/"adequate" knowledge. Self-perceived vulnerability to HIV was categorised as being "high"/ "moderate"/"low". Control variables included socio-demographics, religiousness and educational level. Percentages/averages, Chi-square tests and logistic regression (OR-estimations) were used for descriptive, association and confounding analysis. Results Respondents were 78.2 % female, 46.8 % married and 67.6 % Catholic. Mean age was 38.9 (10.5 SD) and 69 % had university/diploma level. Self-perceived HIV vulnerability was "low" in 71.5 % cases. A negative association between knowledge and SRB was found (OR=0.55;CI=0.35-0.86), but self-perceived vulnerability did not have a confounding effect on this relationship. This relationship also persisted after being adjusted for multiple control variables (e.g. age, sex, type of primary centre, educational level, and religiousness). Conclusions Some community-clinic workers had inaccurate knowledge of HIV, which was associated with SRB. Self-perceived vulnerability did not have a confounding effect; however, future studies should further analyze occupational risk of HIV as a possible driving factor in health workers' perception of their risk. Focused training programmes should be developed to enhance basic knowledge of HIV in this group.Objetivo Probar la asociación entre conductas sexuales de riesgo (CSR) y conocimiento de VIH en trabajadores de salud primaria en Chile, y el posible efecto de confusión de auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad hacia VIH en dicha relación. Métodos Estudio transversal anidado en estudio cuasi-experimental de 720 trabajadores de salud de Santiago. Score de CSR combinó número de parejas sexuales y uso de condón. Conocimiento de VIH fue medido mediante índice de 25 preguntas. Percepción de vulnerabilidad hacia VIH fue medida como "alta"/"moderada"/ "baja". Variables socio-demográficas, religiosidad y nivel educativo sirvieron de control. Análisis descriptivo, de asociación y confusión fueron desarrollados mediante estimación de proporciones/medias, prueba de Chi-cuadrado y regresión logística. Resultados El 78,2 % de encuestados era mujer, el 46,8 % estaba casado y el 67,6 % era católico. Promedio de edad de 38,9 años (DS=10,5) y el 69 % tenía formación universitaria/técnica. La auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad fue "baja" en el 71,5 % de los trabajadores. Se observó una asociación negativa entre conocimiento y CSR (OR=0,55, IC=0,35-0,86) y la vulnerabilidad percibida no fue factor de confusión. La asociación se mantuvo tras ajustar por edad, sexo, tipo de centro primario, educación y religiosidad. Conclusiones Algunos trabajadores de salud comunitaria tenían conocimiento inadecuado de VIH, que se asoció a CSR. La auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad no fue factor de confusión, pero estudios futuros podrían analizar riesgos laborales de VIH como posible mediador en la percepción de riesgo. Programas de entrenamiento en conocimientos básicos de VIH y CSR debieran implementarse en trabajadores de salud primaria.

Baltica Cabieses; Lilian Ferrer; Luis Villarroel; Helena Tunstall; Kathleen Norr

2010-01-01

210

VOLUNTARY LIFESTYLE CHANGES AND KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HEALTHY LIFESTYLES OF CHILEAN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE WORKERS CAMBIOS DE ESTILO DE VIDA Y CONOCIMIENTOS SOBRE ALIMENTACIÓN SALUDABLE Y ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA EN PROFESIONALES DE ATENCIÓN PRIMARIA EN CHILE  

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Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing life style changes and knowledge regarding healthy diet and physical activity among Chilean primary health care (PHC) professionals. The sample of 194 PHC workers was composed of physicians, nurses, nutritionists, midwives and social workers, of which 86% were women.The majority reported to have made positive changes in their lifestyle: more than 80% stated that they consumed less fat and ate more vegetables; two-thirds said they ate less sugar; around half reported that they drank less alcohol and 45% that they were more physically active. Negative changes like increasing the consumption of soft drinks, alcohol and tobacco were highest in the youngest of all the age groups. Eighty percents correctly answered the knowledge questions about healthy diet and physical activity. Significant differences among the professionals could be identified. Most of the PHC professionals show a positive change in their lifestyle and have a high knowledge level about healthy diet and physical activity. It has to be emphasized that good teamwork among nutritionists, physicians, nurses and other PHC workers is a necessary pre-condition to improve the effectiveness of a heath care team dealing with non-communicable disease preventionSe evaluaron los cambios en los estilos de vida y conocimientos en alimentación saludable y actividad física en profesionales de atención primaria de salud. Se aplicó una encuesta a 194 profesionales (médicos, enfermeras, nutricionistas, matronas y asistentes sociales), de los cuales el 86% eran mujeres. Se observó que durante el último año, la mayoría de los profesionales modificó sus hábitos hacia estilos de vida mas saludables. Alrededor del 80% señalaron que consumen menos grasas y consumen mas verduras, dos tercios indicaron consumir menos azúcar, alrededor de la mitad menos alcohol y un 45% hacen más actividad física. La gente mas joven es la que ha hecho las mayores modificaciones, a pesar que aumentaron el consumo de bebidas gaseosas, alcohol y tabaco. Un 80% de los profesionales respondió correctamente las preguntas relacionadas con alimentación y actividad física. Se encontró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los diferentes grupos de profesionales. Se concluye que muchos profesionales han efectuado cambios hacia estilos de vida mas saludable, tienen un buen conocimiento de hábitos alimentarios y actividad física. Estos resultados indican la importancia del trabajo en equipo para contribuir a la prevención de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles

Svenja Jungjohann; Isabel Zacarías; Ingrid Keller

2002-01-01

211

The Study of Implement of HCS Program at Hazardous Chemicals Knowledge and Safety performance in Tehran refinery, s laboratory unit  

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Full Text Available Background and aims   The HCS standard includes listing of chemicals, labeling of chemical  containers, preparation of material safety data sheets, writing plan and employee training  programs. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of implemented program to enhance the knowledge and safety performance level of employees.   Methods   The knowledge level and unsafe act ratio were measured using both questionnaire  and behavior checklist (with safety sampling method) before and after enforcing this interface.   Results   In this study, the mean and standard deviation of the knowledge level of employees  related to chemical safety before enforcing the interface was 46% and 14%. However, after  enforcing the interface, mean and standard deviation was 88% and 12%. The paired-t-test result   in this parameter was significant (p-value <0.0001). The mean and standard deviation of  knowledge level of employees related to warning labels before to enforcing the interface was 29%  and 22%. After enforcing the interface, mean and standard deviation was 80% and 16%. The paired-t-test result in this parameter was significant (p-value <0.0001). The mean and standard  deviation of the knowledge level of employees related to hazard communication methods before enforcing the interface was 25% and 11%. After enforcing the interface, mean and standard deviation was 79% and 16%. The paired-t-test result in this parameter was significant (p-value   <0.001).   Conclusion   The obtained result revealed that enhancement of the knowledge related to chemical safety, hazard communication methods and warning labels was significant. Statistical paired-t-test and control chart methods was used to comparison between unsafe act ratio before  and after enforcing the interface. The mean and standard deviation of unsafe act ratio before implementation of HCS program was 23.6% and 5.49%. However, mean and standard deviation of unsafe act ratio after implementation of HCS program was 18.1% and 6.18%. Therefore, after  implementation of HCS program unsafe act ratio decreased (5.45%) significantly (p-value   <0.0001). This result implies that chemical safety performance of employees was increased.

Y. Khosravi; A.A. Farshad; SH. Arghami; MH. Taghdisi; MR. Gaohari; N. Hassanzadeh-Rangi

2008-01-01

212

???????????? Empirical Research on Incentive Factors for Knowledge Employee  

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Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Based on literature review and research hypothesis, a model of the relationship between knowledge workers’ working attitude and performance is proposed. According to the empirical research on knowledge workers of the knowledge-based enterprises in Shenyang, Liaoning, PRC, it is concluded that knowledge workers’ working attitude is correlated with their performance positively. Furthermore, knowledge workers’ individual differences, such as sex, age, education, work experience, salary level and job type can affect their working attitude and performance significantly.

???; ??; ??

2011-01-01

213

Knowledge level estimation of medical workers participating in rendering of emergency medical aid to children at a pre-hospital stage  

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Full Text Available Purpose: Estimation of qualifying preparation of the doctors participating in rendering of emergency medical aid to children. Material: On the basis of the developed test cards the analysis of doctors' knowledge level of the first help on the basic questions of emergency medicine is carried out. 120 doctors are interrogated. Results compared depending on age, work experience and presence of a qualifying professional category. Results: As a whole answers of respondents were distributed as follows: unsatisfactorily - 2,6 %; satisfactorily - 7,9 %; well - 18,4 %; perfectly - 71,1 %. Distinctions in a dale of right answers on separate sections of knowledge depending on the experience and a qualifying professional category are established. The conclusion: The weakest places in preparation of experts of the first help on which it is necessary to pay special attention in courses of postdegree preparation are revealed

V.M. Popkov; D.E. Tsymbal; M.Yu. Svinarev; I.V. Arkhipov

2010-01-01

214

Using O*NET in Dislocated Worker Retraining: The Toledo Dislocated Worker Consortium Project.  

Science.gov (United States)

A project used the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to assist eligible dislocated workers in determining whether training offered by the Toledo Dislocated Worker Consortium fit their needs. More specifically, O*NET was used to help the dislocated workers understand whether they had knowledge and skills that were transferable into the…

Sommers, Dixie; Austin, James

215

Evolution of a Corporate Knowledge Management and Knowledge Building Effort: A Case Study of Just-In-Time Training and Support of Laboratory Robotic Workstations Driven Through Online Community Portals  

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Full Text Available This is a case study of the evolution of how a successful knowledge management initiative was achieved in a corporate learning organization. The initiative was centered on providing training tools and documentation of automated laboratory workstations that are utilized by scientists in a drug discovery environment. The case study will address the software tools, processes for content building, and the organizational dynamics that either assisted or blocked the progression of the initiative. Over a four-year period three distinct efforts were implemented, each differed in the particular software tools and focus of the initiatives. This presentation will compare and contrast the elements that provided barriers to success in the first two initiatives and the mechanisms and focus used in the third initiative that proved successful, scalable, and sustainable.

Karen Kearns

2005-01-01

216

The role of the healthcare sector in the prevention of sexual violence against sub-Saharan transmigrants in Morocco: a study of knowledge, attitudes and practices of healthcare workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan transmigrants in Morocco are extremely vulnerable to sexual violence. From a public health perspective, the healthcare system is globally considered an important partner in the prevention of sexual violence. The aim of this study is twofold. In a first phase, we aimed to identify the current role and position of the Moroccan healthcare sector in the prevention of sexual violence against sub-Saharan transmigrants. In a second phase, we wanted these results and available guidelines to be the topic of a participatory process with local stakeholders in order to formulate recommendations for a more desirable prevention of sexual violence against sub-Saharan transmigrants by the Moroccan healthcare sector. METHODS: Knowledge, attitudes and practices of healthcare workers in Morocco concerning sexual violence against sub-Saharan transmigrants and its prevention were firstly explored in semi-structured interviews after which they were discussed in a participatory process resulting in the formulation of recommendations. RESULTS: All participants (n=24) acknowledged the need for desirable prevention of sexual violence against transmigrants. Furthermore, important barriers in tertiary prevention practices, i.e. psychosocial and judicial referral and long-term follow-up, and in secondary prevention attitudes, i.e. active identification of victims were identified. Moreover, existing services for Moroccan victims of sexual violence currently do not address the sub-Saharan population. Thus, transmigrants are bound to rely on the aid of civil society. CONCLUSIONS: This research demonstrates the low accessibility of existing Moroccan services for sub-Saharan migrants. In particular, there is an absence of prevention initiatives addressing sexual violence against the sub-Saharan transmigrant population. Although healthcare workers do wish to develop prevention initiatives, they are dealing with structural difficulties and a lack of expertise. Recommendations adapted to the context of sub-Saharan transmigrants in Morocco are suggested.

van den Ameele S; Keygnaert I; Rachidi A; Roelens K; Temmerman M

2013-01-01

217

Conhecimento sobre produtos fitofarmacêuticos de agricultores e trabalhadores agrícolas da região do Douro que frequentaram cursos de aplicação/ Knowledge of farmers and farm workers from douro region who attended courses of plant protection products application  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O estudo pretendeu avaliar a informação e as atitudes relativas à utilização dos produtos fitofarmacêuticos pelos agricultores e trabalhadores agrícolas da Região do Douro, após a frequência de cursos de aplicação de produtos fitofarmacêuticos, entre 2002 e 2006, no âmbito do QCA III. Um inquérito realizado, sob a forma de entrevista directa com questionário escrito, abrangeu o universo de 1565 indivíduos que frequentaram 120 cursos de aplicação. A amos (more) tra foi de 100 inquiridos, seleccionados de forma aleatória. O inquérito incluiu questões estruturadas e abertas, de índole pessoal, profissional e sobre atitudes e conhecimentos no uso de produtos fitofarmacêuticos. Foram obtidos dados sobre as características da população agrícola, agricultores e trabalhadores agrícolas, sobre o uso dos produtos fitofarmacêuticos e do equipamento de protecção individual e a motivação para a frequência do curso. Abstract in english To assess the information and attitudes concerning the use of pesticides by farmers and agricultural workers of the Douro region, after the frequency of application courses of plant protection products, between 2002 and 2006, under the QCA III, an investigation was carried out in the form of a direct interview, with a written questionnaire, of 100 individuals which covered the universe of 1565 individuals who attended 120 courses. The sample was randomly selected. The que (more) stionnaire included structured and open issues of personal and professional nature and on attitudes and knowledge in the use of pesticides. Data were obtained on the characteristics of the farming population, farmers and farm workers, on the use of plant protection products and personal protective equipment and motivation for the course.

Carvalho, Alberto Manuel de Araújo Ribeiro de; Araújo, António Luís da Costa; Cunha, Maria José Moreno da

2012-07-01

218

HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile/ Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Este artículo examina la prevalencia del VIH, los conocimientos respecto a su infección y, además, describe el uso del condón en mujeres que ejercen el comercio sexual en Santiago de Chile y que son atendidas en cinco centros especializados de enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Se aplicó una encuesta que indagaba sobre las características sociodemográficas, el conocimiento sobre el VIH/SIDA y el uso del condón a 626 mujeres. La prevalencia del VIH fue evaluada m (more) ediante un examen de ELISA. La prevalencia del VIH fue 0. El conocimiento del VIH fue bueno e, incluso, mejor que en población general, en algunos indicadores. El uso del condón con los clientes fue alto, aunque su uso regular con las parejas estables fue bajo. La prevalencia cero del VIH y el uso consistente de condones con los clientes confirma el impacto positivo que han tenido las estrategias de intervención implementadas para estos grupos, incrementando el conocimiento adecuado sobre el SIDA y el uso del condón con los clientes, contribuyendo a la disminución de la vulnerabilidad de estas mujeres hacia el. Abstract in english This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV pr (more) evalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.

Barrientos, Jaime E.; Bozon, Michel; Ortiz, Edith; Arredondo, Anabella

2007-08-01

219

HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile  

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Full Text Available This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.Este artículo examina la prevalencia del VIH, los conocimientos respecto a su infección y, además, describe el uso del condón en mujeres que ejercen el comercio sexual en Santiago de Chile y que son atendidas en cinco centros especializados de enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Se aplicó una encuesta que indagaba sobre las características sociodemográficas, el conocimiento sobre el VIH/SIDA y el uso del condón a 626 mujeres. La prevalencia del VIH fue evaluada mediante un examen de ELISA. La prevalencia del VIH fue 0. El conocimiento del VIH fue bueno e, incluso, mejor que en población general, en algunos indicadores. El uso del condón con los clientes fue alto, aunque su uso regular con las parejas estables fue bajo. La prevalencia cero del VIH y el uso consistente de condones con los clientes confirma el impacto positivo que han tenido las estrategias de intervención implementadas para estos grupos, incrementando el conocimiento adecuado sobre el SIDA y el uso del condón con los clientes, contribuyendo a la disminución de la vulnerabilidad de estas mujeres hacia el.

Jaime E. Barrientos; Michel Bozon; Edith Ortiz; Anabella Arredondo

2007-01-01

220

Práticas e nível de conhecimento sobre doença cerebrovascular em um hospital universitário: Parte 1. Educação do corpo de enfermagem: prioridade para o tratamento do infarto cerebral Knowledge and attitudes regarding stroke in a Brazilian teaching hospital: Part 1. Results in health care workers and non-health care workers  

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Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVOS: Em um hospital universitário, entrevista direta de amostras estratificadas dos 3587 funcionários, visando determinar o nível de conhecimento e a conduta prática do corpo social diante do acidente vascular cerebral ou encefálico (AVE). Estabelecer prioridades para esforços educacionais. MÉTODO: Pré-teste para otimização do instrumento e cálculo amostrai. Entrevista de 309 funcionários sorteados. Inquérito consistindo em 32 questões sobre fisiopatologia, epidemiologia e mortalidade, clínica, fatores de risco, evolução e tratamento, comportamento pessoal diante da doença. Teste de Kruskal-Wallis para múltiplas comparações de dados não-paramétricos. RESULTADOS: O corpo social do hospital exibiu baixo nível de conhecimento teórico sobre o AVE e atitudes errôneas diante da doença. A performance dos enfermeiros foi superior à de auxiliares, técnicos e atendentes de enfermagem. O corpo de enfermagem, apesar de pontuar melhor na entrevista que a população leiga, mantém-se desinformado sobre as novas possibilidades terapêuticas e dissemina mitos sobre a doença. Entre os grupos profissionais leigos, o nível de educação formal não influenciou a performance na entrevista. CONCLUSÕES: A comunidade leiga e de saúde do HUCFF não reconhece adequadamente os sintomas típicos, a evolução provável dos pacientes e a necessidade de intervir rapidamente diante da doença cerebrovascular. O corpo de enfermagem não está preparado para a tarefa de difundir conceitos corretos sobre a doença. Somente programas específicos de educação continuada podem reverter este quadro, e devem ser considerados prioritários.BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to evaluate professionals working at a university hospital as to their knowledge and attitudes towards stroke. METHODS: Individuals working in the hospital were divided in two groups, health care workers (HCW) and non-health care workers (NHCW), and further subdivided according to level of schooling, resulting in seven strata. A closed questionnaire addressing epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, typical symptoms, treatment, clinical course and personal attitudes towards smoking and blood pressure control, was applied to a random sample of each stratum (total n = 309). Kruskal-Wallis test for multiple comparisons of non-parametric data was used. RESULTS: Significant differences between the seven groups were found. Knowledge was strongly associated with being a HCW and with level of formal education (p<0.001), even after excluding physicians from the analysis (p<0.001). In NHCW groups, knowledge was not associated with level of education (p=0.421). In these groups, personal fear of suffering a stroke was the only variable predictive of knowledge. Smoking and poor monitoring of blood pressure levels were also more common in strata with the lowest levels of education and among NHCW. CONCLUSION: Poor knowledge and wrong attitudes towards stroke are frequent among individuals working in a Brazilian university hospital. Although these results are not necessarily applicable to the general population, they will certainly be useful for the development of educational programs on stroke.

Charles André; Mônica F. Costa; Ronir Raggio; Letícia L. Vermelho; Sérgio A. P. Novis

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Preparing the radiation protection worker to meet multiple needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the radiation protection worker aids in protecting personnel and their surrounding environment from the hazards of radiation. These individuals use their technical knowledge, skills, and abilities to survey and monitor various project-related activities. They must also provide guidance in project design, development, and implementation. These combined efforts assure that protective measures are taken in accordance with applicable standards. The ORNL performance-based training program enhances the skills of the worker. The program incorporates job specific information on the diverse facilities and activities monitored with basic fundamentals of radiation protection. Successful completion of this program includes passing both a qualification exam and an on-the-job skills review. This paper details the structure of such a program and explains the strategies taken to reach the program's goals. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

Abercrombie, J.S.; Thorpe, B.C.

1987-01-01

222

Laboratory studies of the impact of calcite on in vitro and in vivo effects of coal dust: a potential preventive agent for coal workers' pneumoconiosis?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Bioavailable iron (BAI) in coal, which may play a key role in causing coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), is present at relatively high levels in Appalachian coals. Calcite decreases BAI and is more plentiful in Western coals than in Appalachian coals, possibly explaining the lower CWP prevalence among Western miners. METHODS: We measured effects of calcite on BAI in non-cellular and cellular systems involving Pennsylvania (PA) coal dust. We also tested in vivo effects of calcite on transferrin receptor and markers of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inflammation in mice exposed to PA coal. RESULTS: Calcite rapidly eliminated BAI in an aqueous suspension of PA coal. Ferritin induction in human lung epithelial cells exposed to PA coal was effectively eliminated by calcite. Mouse lung tissue markers indicated increased EMT after exposure to PA coal dust, but not after exposure to PA coal plus calcite. Markers of inflammation increased following exposure to PA coal alone, but not following exposure to PA coal plus calcite. CONCLUSION: Additional research may lead to the use of supplemental calcite in coal mining as a safe and effective way to prevent CWP among Appalachian coal miners.

Aladdin M; Jian J; Yang Q; Chen LC; Finkelman RB; Huang X

2013-03-01

223

Conhecimento e percepção dos profissionais a respeito do ruído na unidade neonatal/ Workers' knowledge and perception regarding noise in the neonatal unit/ Conocimiento y percepción de los profesionales respecto del ruido en la unidad neonatal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o conhecimento e a percepção de profissionais de Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN) sobre as repercussões do ruído ao neonato, família e profissionais, antes da implementação de um programa educativo. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, quantitativa, realizada em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de um hospital de São Paulo, com 101 profissionais. Foram utilizados: questionário para a coleta de dados, e os test (more) es de Qui-quadrado e t de Student para a associação entre as variáveis. Os profissionais identificaram a UTIN como muito ruidosa (44,9%), perceberam os efeitos desse ruído durante e após a jornada de trabalho (67,4%) e utilizaram estratégias para amenizá-lo. Embora os profissionais desconheçam a legislação sobre o ruído no ambiente hospitalar, identificaram repercussões para si, recém-nascido e família. Os resultados apontaram para a necessidade de orientar a equipe quanto à legislação, prevenção de ruído e reorganização das práticas assistenciais e estrutura física da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal. Abstract in spanish Se objetivó verificar el conocimiento y percepción de profesionales de Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN) sobre efectos del ruido en el neonato, familia y profesionales, antes de implementar un programa educativo. Investigación descriptiva, cuantitativa, realizada en UTIN de un hospital de São Paulo, con 101 profesionales. Fueron utilizados: cuestionario para recolección de datos y tests de Chi-cuadrado y T de Student para asociación entre las variables. Lo (more) s profesionales se refirieron a la UTIN como muy ruidosa (44,9%), percibieron los efectos de ese ruido durante y después de la jornada laboral (67,4%) y utilizaron estrategias para neutralizarlo. A pesar de que los profesionales desconozcan la legislación sobre ruidos en ambiente hospitalario, identificaron repercusiones para sí mismos, para el recién nacido y su familia. Los resultados sugieren la necesidad de orientar al equipo respecto de la legislación, prevención de ruidos y reorganización de prácticas asistenciales y estructura física de la UTIN. Abstract in english The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and perception of professionals working in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) regarding the repercussions of noise on the neonates, families and workers, prior to the implementation of an educational program. This qualitative descriptive study was conducted in a NICU of a São Paulo hospital with 101 professionals. A questionnaire was used for data collection, and chi-square and Student's t test were used to determ (more) ine the association between variables. The workers described the NICU as very noisy (44.9%); they noticed the effects of noise during and after their work shift (67.4%) and used strategies to reduce noise. Despite not being familiar with legislation regarding noise in the hospital, the workers identify its repercussions on themselves, the neonates and families. Results indicate the need to teach the staff about legislation and noise prevention, as well as reorganize healthcare practices and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit facilities.

Daniele, Daniela; Pinheiro, Eliana Moreira; Kakehashi, Teresa Yoshiko; Balieiro, Maria Magda Ferreira Gomes

2012-10-01

224

Conhecimento e percepção dos profissionais a respeito do ruído na unidade neonatal Conocimiento y percepción de los profesionales respecto del ruido en la unidad neonatal Workers' knowledge and perception regarding noise in the neonatal unit  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o conhecimento e a percepção de profissionais de Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN) sobre as repercussões do ruído ao neonato, família e profissionais, antes da implementação de um programa educativo. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, quantitativa, realizada em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de um hospital de São Paulo, com 101 profissionais. Foram utilizados: questionário para a coleta de dados, e os testes de Qui-quadrado e t de Student para a associação entre as variáveis. Os profissionais identificaram a UTIN como muito ruidosa (44,9%), perceberam os efeitos desse ruído durante e após a jornada de trabalho (67,4%) e utilizaram estratégias para amenizá-lo. Embora os profissionais desconheçam a legislação sobre o ruído no ambiente hospitalar, identificaram repercussões para si, recém-nascido e família. Os resultados apontaram para a necessidade de orientar a equipe quanto à legislação, prevenção de ruído e reorganização das práticas assistenciais e estrutura física da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal.Se objetivó verificar el conocimiento y percepción de profesionales de Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN) sobre efectos del ruido en el neonato, familia y profesionales, antes de implementar un programa educativo. Investigación descriptiva, cuantitativa, realizada en UTIN de un hospital de São Paulo, con 101 profesionales. Fueron utilizados: cuestionario para recolección de datos y tests de Chi-cuadrado y T de Student para asociación entre las variables. Los profesionales se refirieron a la UTIN como muy ruidosa (44,9%), percibieron los efectos de ese ruido durante y después de la jornada laboral (67,4%) y utilizaron estrategias para neutralizarlo. A pesar de que los profesionales desconozcan la legislación sobre ruidos en ambiente hospitalario, identificaron repercusiones para sí mismos, para el recién nacido y su familia. Los resultados sugieren la necesidad de orientar al equipo respecto de la legislación, prevención de ruidos y reorganización de prácticas asistenciales y estructura física de la UTIN.The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and perception of professionals working in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) regarding the repercussions of noise on the neonates, families and workers, prior to the implementation of an educational program. This qualitative descriptive study was conducted in a NICU of a São Paulo hospital with 101 professionals. A questionnaire was used for data collection, and chi-square and Student's t test were used to determine the association between variables. The workers described the NICU as very noisy (44.9%); they noticed the effects of noise during and after their work shift (67.4%) and used strategies to reduce noise. Despite not being familiar with legislation regarding noise in the hospital, the workers identify its repercussions on themselves, the neonates and families. Results indicate the need to teach the staff about legislation and noise prevention, as well as reorganize healthcare practices and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit facilities.

Daniela Daniele; Eliana Moreira Pinheiro; Teresa Yoshiko Kakehashi; Maria Magda Ferreira Gomes Balieiro

2012-01-01

225

Ubiquitous consultation tool for decentral knowledge workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The special issue of this initial study is to examine the current work situation of consulting companies, and to elaborate a concept for supporting decentralized working consultants. The concept addresses significant challenges of decentralized work processes by deploying the Peer-to-Peer methodolog...

Nazari Shirehjini, A.A.; Rühl, C.; Noll, S.

226

[Prevention and protection of workers' reproductive health].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The article mentiones issues of preserving and strengthening the reproductive health of women workers, dealed by researchers of the laboratory, established in 1974. It describes the developed concept of the reproductive health problems and scientific research areas, developed documents, including legislative fields, formulates main prospects of the laboratory to meet the requirements of the present moment. Noted the role of the Problem Commission "Scientific basis for the reproductive health of workers", in the work of the Scientific Council on medical and environmental issues of workers' health.

Sivochalova OV; Fesenko MA; Golovaneva GV; Morozova TV; Fedorova EV; Irmiakova AR; Gromova EIu; Stepanian IV; Vu?tsik PA

2013-01-01

227

Work flow policy and within-worker and between-workers variability in performance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Work flow policies are shown to induce a change in average between-workers variability (worker heterogeneity) and within-worker variability in performance times. In a laboratory experiment, the authors measured the levels of worker heterogeneity and within-worker variability under an individual performance condition, a work sharing condition, and a fixed assignment condition. The work sharing policy increased the levels of worker heterogeneity and worker variability, whereas the fixed assignment policy decreased them. These effects, along with work flow policy main effects on mean performance times and variability are examined. This article represents an initial step in understanding effects that may be important in the selection of an operating policy, the ignorance of which may lead to costly misestimates of performance. PMID:15506870

Doerr, Kenneth Howard; Freed, Tali; Mitchell, Terence R; Schriesheim, Chester A; Zhou, Xiaohua Tracy

2004-10-01

228

Occupational Trajectories and Immigrant Worker Health  

Science.gov (United States)

During their initial years in the receiving country, many immigrants experience occupational downgrading. Downgrading is a loss of occupational status between one’s last job in the home country and first job in the receiving country, often resulting in overeducation or overqualification. Although the extent and determinants of such occupational trajectories have been characterized, the connection to immigrant worker health has not been widely examined. However, an emerging body of knowledge indicates that negative health outcomes are associated with overeducation and overqualification in general worker populations, suggesting similar experiences by immigrant workers. This article provides an overview of the magnitude and conceptualization of occupational downgrading, overeducation, and overqualification and discusses implications for immigrant worker health. Occupational health professionals should spearhead research efforts on occupational downgrading, raise public awareness about the issue, and serve as advocates for immigrant workers’ rights.

Crollard, Allison; de Castro, A. B.; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun

2013-01-01

229

Community Health Worker Handbook.  

Science.gov (United States)

An experienced community health worker describes her experiences in the field as a basis for recommended guidelines for the role, philosophy, aims, and goals of community health workers. The role of the community health worker as a member of the health care team is explored, and the problem of recognition for community health workers is considered…

Perales, Aurora Rodriguez

230

Acidentes de trabalho e doença ocupacional: estudo sobre o conhecimento do trabalhador hospitalar dos riscos à saúde de seu trabalho Accidentes de trabajo y enfermedad ocupacional: estudio sobre el conocimiento del trabajador hospitalario, en relación con los riesgos de su trabajo para la salud Labour accidents and occupational sckness: study about the knowledge degree of the hospitalar worker in a private hospital  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo busca levantar o conhecimento dos trabalhadores de saúde hospitalar quanto a sua própria saúde no desenvolvimento de suas atividades. Foi realizado em um hospital geral, de médio porte, com serviço de medicina ocupacional funcionante. O caminho percorrido é a apresentação do objeto em estudo e a fundamentação teórica como forma de embasar a análise dos dados, colhidos através de um formulário com questões norteadoras e agrupados por categorias de análise, com a finalidade de apreender o saber do trabalhador sobre a relação trabalho-saúde-doença. O resultado evidenciou conhecimento genérico dos trabalhadores acerca da prevenção de acidentes e doenças ocupacionais.Este estudio busca levantar el conocimiento de los trabajadores de salud hospitalaria en relación con su propia salud en el desarrollo de sus actividades. Fue realizado en un hospital general de medio porte, con servicio de medicina ocupacional en funcionamiento. El camino recorrido es la presentación del objeto en estudio y la fundamentación teórica como forma de sustentar el análisis de los datos recogidos a través de un formulario con preguntas orientadoras y agrupadas por categorías de análisis, con la finalidad de aprehender el saber del trabajador sobre la relación trabajo-salud-enfermedad. El resultado evidenció conocimiento genérico de los trabajadores acerca de la prevención de accidentes y enfermedades ocupacionales.This study searches to gather the knowledge of the hospitalar health workers in relationship their own health in the development of their activities. The study was accomplished in a general hospital, of medium load, with medicine service occupational functioning. The way gone through is the presentation of the subject in study and the theoretical foundation as a way of basing the analysis of the datas, gathered through the questionaire, to apprehend the worker's knowledge about the relationship work-health-disease. The result evidenced the workers' generic knowledge concernig the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases.

Beatriz Rosana Gonçalves de Oliveira; Neide Tiemi Murofuse

2001-01-01

231

Changes in clients' care ratings after HIV prevention training of hospital workers in Malawi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the changes in clients' health-care ratings before and after hospital workers received an HIV prevention intervention in Malawi, which increased the workers' personal and work-related HIV prevention knowledge, attitudes and preventive behaviors. DESIGN: Pre- and post-intervention client surveys. SETTING: A large urban referral hospital in Malawi. PARTICIPANTS: Clients at purposefully selected inpatient and outpatient units on designated days (baseline, n = 310 clients; final, n = 683). INTERVENTION: Ten-session peer-group intervention for health workers focused on HIV transmission, personal and work-related prevention, treating clients and families respectfully and incorporating HIV-related teaching. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Brief face-to-face clients' interview obtaining ratings of confidentiality of HIV, whether HIV-related teaching occurred and ratings of service quality. RESULTS: Compared with baseline, at the final survey, clients reported higher confidence about confidentiality of clients' HIV status (83 vs. 75%, P < 0.01) and more clients reported that a health worker talked to them about HIV and AIDS (37 versus 28%, P < 0.01). More clients rated overall health services as 'very good' (five-item mean rating, 68 versus 59%, P < 0.01) and this was true for both inpatients and outpatients examined separately. However, there was no improvement in ratings of the courtesy of laboratory or pharmacy workers or of the adequacy of treatment instructions in the pharmacy. CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevention training for health workers can have positive effects on clients' ratings of services, including HIV-related confidentiality and teaching, and should be scaled-up throughout Malawi and in other similar countries. Hospitals need to improve laboratory and pharmacy services.

Chimwaza AF; Chimango JL; Kaponda CP; Norr KF; Norr JL; Jere DL; Kachingwe SI

2012-04-01

232

Laboratory-acquired meningococcemia--California and Massachusetts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although Neisseria meningitidis is commonly isolated in clinical laboratories, laboratory-acquired infection is rare (1). This report describes two fatal cases of meningococcal infection in laboratory workers; both of these cases probably were laboratory acquired.

1991-01-01

233

Radium dial workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The population of radium dial workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions. Finally, the question of the effect of fetal irradiation on the offspring of these women remains to be resolved. No evidence exists to suggest that any effects have occurred, but there is no question that a chronic irradiation of the developing fetus did take place. No formal follow-up of these children has yet been initiated

1982-01-01

234

The Paradigm Laboratory Project  

Science.gov (United States)

This project aims to develop problem-based inquiry learning laboratories that have science majors in introductory chemistry laboratories transfer an understanding of the attitudes and methods of scientific inquiry to knowledge and experiences in their disciplines of study.

Heppert, Joseph A.

2011-04-06

235

Comparison of knee gait kinematics of workers exposed to knee straining posture to those of non-knee straining workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Workers exposed to knee straining postures, such as kneeling and squatting, may present modifications in knee gait kinematics that can make them vulnerable to osteoarthritis. In this study, knee kinematics of workers exposed to occupational knee straining postures (KS workers) were compared to those of non-knee straining (non-KS) workers. Eighteen KS workers and 20 non-KS workers participated in the study. Three-dimensional gait kinematic data were recorded at the knee using an electromagnetic motion tracking system. The following parameters were extracted from flexion/extension, adduction/abduction and internal/external rotation angle data and used for group comparisons: knee angle at initial foot contact, peak angles, minimal angles and angle range during the entire gait cycle. Group comparisons were performed with Student t-tests. In the sagittal plane, KS workers had a greater knee flexion angle at initial foot contact, a lower peak knee flexion angle during the swing phase and a lower angle range than non-KS workers (p<0.05). In the frontal plane, all parameters indicated that KS workers had their knees more adducted than non-KS workers. External/internal rotation range was greater for KS workers. This study provides new knowledge on work related to KS postures and knee kinematics. The results support the concept that KS workers might exhibit knee kinematics that are different from those of non-KS workers.

Gaudreault N; Hagemeister N; Poitras S; de Guise JA

2013-06-01

236

Conhecimentos, práticas e percepções de profissionais de saúde sobre o tratamento de malária não complicada em municípios de alto risco da Amazônia Legal/ Uncomplicated malaria treatment in the Brazilian Amazon: knowledge, practices and perceptions of health workers in high-incidence municipalities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O controle da malária no Brasil conta com diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado e oportuno como estratégia para cura rápida e duradoura. Consequências clínicas e resistência aos antimaláricos podem resultar de falhas na prescrição, dispensação e aceitação dos profissionais aos esquemas terapêuticos propostos. Objetivou-se avaliar conhecimentos, práticas, percepções e atitudes de profissionais envolvidos na assistência farmacêutica à malária, fren (more) te ao protocolo oficial e a possíveis falhas na terapêutica. Entrevistaram-se profissionais em seis municípios na Amazônia Legal. Utilizou-se técnica de análise do discurso para determinação de categorias analíticas e sistematização. Dos 63 entrevistados, houve apenas um médico. Os demais, de nível médio, atuavam no diagnóstico, indicação e dispensação do tratamento antimalárico. O tempo de formação e de treinamento foi variável. Houve falhas na adesão ao protocolo nacional, perpassando indicação, dispensação e orientação aos pacientes. Os profissionais carecem de conhecimento para lidar com as especificidades da doença e do tratamento. A responsabilização de profissionais que não possuem o preparo necessário para a atenção sugere necessidade de políticas para a adequada capacitação e incorporação de recursos humanos. Abstract in english Malaria control in Brazil is based on early diagnosis and adequate and timely treatment as strategies for a rapid and long-lasting cure. Clinical consequences and resistance to antimalarials may arise from problems in prescribing, dispensing and in acceptance of therapeutic regimens by healthcare workers. We studied knowledge and practices, perceptions and attitudes of health workers participating in pharmaceutical services for malaria, regarding the official protocol and (more) the possible flaws in therapy. Health workers from six municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon were interviewed. Speech analysis was employed as a technique to determine analytical categories and to organize data. There was only 1 physician among the 63 interviewees, the others were health technicians carrying out diagnosis, therapy indication and dispensing of antimalarial treatment. Training time and period since course completion varied. Flaws in the adherence to the national protocol included therapy indication, dispensing and counseling. Health workers need knowledge to face disease and treatment specificities. Holding accountable health workers that are unprepared and unfit for the job may indicate the need for adequacy in policies regarding adequate training and hiring of human resources.

Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Miranda, Elaine Silva; Esher, Ângela; Campos, Mônica Rodrigues de; Brasil, Juliana de Castro; Ferreira, Ana Cristina Soares; Emmerick, Isabel Cristina Martins

2011-01-01

237

Governing sex workers in Timor Leste.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper argues that international security forces in Timor Leste depend upon civilian partners in HIV/AIDs "knowledge networks" to monitor prostitutes' disease status. These networks produce mobile expertise, techniques of government and forms of personhood that facilitate international government of distant populations without overt coercion. HIV/AIDs experts promote techniques of peer education, empowerment and community mobilisation to construct women who sell sex as health conscious sex workers. Such techniques make impoverished women responsible for their disease status, obscuring the political and economic contexts that produced that status. In the militarised context of Timor Leste, knowledge of the sexual conduct of sub-populations labelled high risk circulates among global HIV/AIDs knowledge networks, confirming their expert status while obscuring the sexual harm produced by military intervention. HIV/AIDs knowledge networks have recently begun to build Timorese sex worker organisations by contracting an Australian sex worker NGO to train a Timorese NGO tasked with building sex worker identity and community. Such efforts fail to address the needs and priorities of the women supposedly empowered. The paper engages theories of global knowledge networks, mobile technologies of government, and governmentality to analyse policy documents, reports, programmes, official statements, speeches, and journalistic accounts regarding prostitution in Timor Leste. PMID:21847829

Harrington, Carol

2011-01-01

238

Governing sex workers in Timor Leste.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper argues that international security forces in Timor Leste depend upon civilian partners in HIV/AIDs "knowledge networks" to monitor prostitutes' disease status. These networks produce mobile expertise, techniques of government and forms of personhood that facilitate international government of distant populations without overt coercion. HIV/AIDs experts promote techniques of peer education, empowerment and community mobilisation to construct women who sell sex as health conscious sex workers. Such techniques make impoverished women responsible for their disease status, obscuring the political and economic contexts that produced that status. In the militarised context of Timor Leste, knowledge of the sexual conduct of sub-populations labelled high risk circulates among global HIV/AIDs knowledge networks, confirming their expert status while obscuring the sexual harm produced by military intervention. HIV/AIDs knowledge networks have recently begun to build Timorese sex worker organisations by contracting an Australian sex worker NGO to train a Timorese NGO tasked with building sex worker identity and community. Such efforts fail to address the needs and priorities of the women supposedly empowered. The paper engages theories of global knowledge networks, mobile technologies of government, and governmentality to analyse policy documents, reports, programmes, official statements, speeches, and journalistic accounts regarding prostitution in Timor Leste.

Harrington C

2011-01-01

239

Health Care Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

... Safety Confined Spaces Construction Safety and Health Correctional Health Care Workers Information for Workers Cross-Contamination Information for ... Crew Research Program at NIOSH Haulage in Mining Health Care Highway Work Zones Construction Equipment Visibility Highway Work ...

240

Conocimientos sobre tuberculosis en trabajadores de la salud en una localidad de Bogotá D. C Conhecimentos sobre tuberculose entre trabalhadores da saúde em uma localidade de Bogotá D.C Knowledge on tuberculosis In health workers in a sector of Bogotá D.C  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente artículo es producto de una monografía de pre-grado para la obtención del título de enfermero-a profesional, el cual tuvo como objetivo identificar los conocimientos sobre tuberculosis en 117 trabajadores de la salud de 12 instituciones de salud públicas y privadas vinculadas al programa de prevención y control de tuberculosis, de la Secretaría Distrital de Salud, en una localidad de Bogotá. Para la recolección de datos se diseñó un instrumento de evaluación, el cual se aplicó a los trabajadores previa lectura y aceptación de participación mediante su consentimiento informado. Se realizó una caracterización general de los trabajadores y se evaluaron conocimientos básicos sobre tuberculosis. Los resultados evidenciaron que un 34% de trabajadores alcanzó un nivel de conocimientos medio, un 32% nivel inferior, un 27% nivel bajo y solo un 7% alcanzó el nivel alto. Se evidenció, en general, déficit de conocimientos sobre la enfermedad, principalmente en temas como diagnóstico, tratamiento, periodo de transmisibilidad y medidas de bioseguridad. Se verifica la necesidad de orientar acciones que amplíen los conocimientos sobre tuberculosis en los trabajadores de la salud, mediante la formación académica, la facilitación de espacios para capacitación, el mejoramiento de las condiciones de trabajo y la articulación de actividades de investigación y extensión entre la academia y el Programa Distrital de Control de Tuberculosis.Este artigo é produto duma monografia de pré-graduação para a obtenção do título de enfermeiro(a) profissional, que objetivou identificar os conhecimentos sobre tuberculose em 177 trabalhadores da saúde de 12 instituições de saúde públicas e particulares vinculadas ao programa de prevenção e controle de tuberculose, da Secretaria Distrital de Saúde, em uma localidade de Bogotá. Para reunir os dados, desenhou-se um instrumento de avaliação que foi administrado entre os trabalhadores com a leitura prévia e aceitação de participação mediante consentimento informado. Realizou-se uma caracterização geral dos trabalhadores e avaliaram-se os conhecimentos básicos sobre tuberculose. Os resultados evidenciaram que um 34% de trabalhadores atingiu um nível de conhecimento médio, um 32% nível inferior, um 27% nível baixo e só um 7% conseguiu um nível alto. Verificou-se, em geral, um déficit de conhecimentos sobre a doença, principalmente, em temas como diagnóstico, tratamento, período de transmissibilidade e medidas de biosseguridade. Verifica-se a necessidade de orientar ações que ampliem os conhecimentos sobre tuberculose nos trabalhadores da saúde, mediante a formação acadêmica, a facilitação de espaços para capacitação, o melhoramento das condições de trabalho e a articulação de atividades de pesquisa e extensão entre a academia e o Programa Distrital de Controle de Tuberculose.This article comes from a pre-graduate monograph to obtain the title of Professional Nurse, whose purpose was to identify the knowledge on tuberculosis in 117 health workers from 12 public and private health institutions connected to the tuberculosis prevention and control program of the District Health Secretariat (Secretaría Distrital de Salud), in a sector of Bogotá. To collect data, an evaluation instrument was designed and applied to workers prior reading and accepting participation through informed consent. A general characterization of workers was carried out and basic knowledge on tuberculosis was assessed. Results showed that 34% of the workers reached a mid level of knowledge, 32% reached a lower level and 27% a low level and only 7% reached the high level. In general, a deficit in knowledge on the disease could be observed, mainly in subjects such as diagnosis, treatment, transmission period and bio-safety measures. The need to take actions to increase the knowledge on tuberculosis among health workers through academic training, facilitating training spaces, improving work conditions and articulating research and exte

Óscar Andrés Cruz Martínez; Érika Liliana Flórez Suancha; Alba Idaly Muñoz Sánchez

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Conocimientos sobre tuberculosis en trabajadores de la salud en una localidad de Bogotá D. C/ Knowledge on tuberculosis In health workers in a sector of Bogotá D.C/ Conhecimentos sobre tuberculose entre trabalhadores da saúde em uma localidade de Bogotá D.C  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo é produto duma monografia de pré-graduação para a obtenção do título de enfermeiro(a) profissional, que objetivou identificar os conhecimentos sobre tuberculose em 177 trabalhadores da saúde de 12 instituições de saúde públicas e particulares vinculadas ao programa de prevenção e controle de tuberculose, da Secretaria Distrital de Saúde, em uma localidade de Bogotá. Para reunir os dados, desenhou-se um instrumento de avaliação que foi adminis (more) trado entre os trabalhadores com a leitura prévia e aceitação de participação mediante consentimento informado. Realizou-se uma caracterização geral dos trabalhadores e avaliaram-se os conhecimentos básicos sobre tuberculose. Os resultados evidenciaram que um 34% de trabalhadores atingiu um nível de conhecimento médio, um 32% nível inferior, um 27% nível baixo e só um 7% conseguiu um nível alto. Verificou-se, em geral, um déficit de conhecimentos sobre a doença, principalmente, em temas como diagnóstico, tratamento, período de transmissibilidade e medidas de biosseguridade. Verifica-se a necessidade de orientar ações que ampliem os conhecimentos sobre tuberculose nos trabalhadores da saúde, mediante a formação acadêmica, a facilitação de espaços para capacitação, o melhoramento das condições de trabalho e a articulação de atividades de pesquisa e extensão entre a academia e o Programa Distrital de Controle de Tuberculose. Abstract in spanish El presente artículo es producto de una monografía de pre-grado para la obtención del título de enfermero-a profesional, el cual tuvo como objetivo identificar los conocimientos sobre tuberculosis en 117 trabajadores de la salud de 12 instituciones de salud públicas y privadas vinculadas al programa de prevención y control de tuberculosis, de la Secretaría Distrital de Salud, en una localidad de Bogotá. Para la recolección de datos se diseñó un instrumento de e (more) valuación, el cual se aplicó a los trabajadores previa lectura y aceptación de participación mediante su consentimiento informado. Se realizó una caracterización general de los trabajadores y se evaluaron conocimientos básicos sobre tuberculosis. Los resultados evidenciaron que un 34% de trabajadores alcanzó un nivel de conocimientos medio, un 32% nivel inferior, un 27% nivel bajo y solo un 7% alcanzó el nivel alto. Se evidenció, en general, déficit de conocimientos sobre la enfermedad, principalmente en temas como diagnóstico, tratamiento, periodo de transmisibilidad y medidas de bioseguridad. Se verifica la necesidad de orientar acciones que amplíen los conocimientos sobre tuberculosis en los trabajadores de la salud, mediante la formación académica, la facilitación de espacios para capacitación, el mejoramiento de las condiciones de trabajo y la articulación de actividades de investigación y extensión entre la academia y el Programa Distrital de Control de Tuberculosis. Abstract in english This article comes from a pre-graduate monograph to obtain the title of Professional Nurse, whose purpose was to identify the knowledge on tuberculosis in 117 health workers from 12 public and private health institutions connected to the tuberculosis prevention and control program of the District Health Secretariat (Secretaría Distrital de Salud), in a sector of Bogotá. To collect data, an evaluation instrument was designed and applied to workers prior reading and accep (more) ting participation through informed consent. A general characterization of workers was carried out and basic knowledge on tuberculosis was assessed. Results showed that 34% of the workers reached a mid level of knowledge, 32% reached a lower level and 27% a low level and only 7% reached the high level. In general, a deficit in knowledge on the disease could be observed, mainly in subjects such as diagnosis, treatment, transmission period and bio-safety measures. The need to take actions to increase the knowledge on tuberculosis among health workers through academic training, f

Cruz Martínez, Óscar Andrés; Flórez Suancha, Érika Liliana; Muñoz Sánchez, Alba Idaly

2011-07-01

242

Knowledge Sharing in Workplace: Motivators and Demotivators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of knowledge sharing in workplace. Based on the review of critical literaturesby the authors, they infer that knowledge sharing in workplace can be influenced by motivators anddemotivators. Activities of knowledge sharing in organizations may be on organization level or individuallevel. Knowledge sharing of both levels is critical to the success or failure of knowledge management insideand outside of organizations. Age, culture, and industry were all found to affect knowledge sharing amongworkers. A common stereotype is that older workers hoard knowledge because they are more insecure andfeel threatened by younger workers. Since older workers have more valuable knowledge, younger workersneeded to entice their older colleagues to share their valuable knowledge with them. The paper focus onmotivators and demotivators to sharing Knowledge in workplace. Theories and research pertaining to whyworkers share knowledge are reviewed. While all industry need knowledge and innovation, it is also truethat the pace of change and the need to innovate differs from industry to industry. Technology wasacknowledged to have a high important role in increasing productivity of knowledge sharing. It plays acritical role in creating, storing and distributing explicit knowledge in an accessible and expeditiousmanner.

Oye.N.D; Mazleena Salleh; Noorminshah.A

2011-01-01

243

Nuclear knowledge management strategies in Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: The Canadian Nuclear Industry recognizes the importance of nuclear knowledge management and has already implemented a number of initiatives to maintain competency, capture and preserve existing knowledge, advance the nuclear technology, develop future nuclear workers, and maintain a critical R and D capability. Although this paper addresses the Canadian scene in general, it will focus on knowledge management from a technology development point of view. Therefore, special emphasis will be placed on activities underway at present at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). Maintaining competency is a high priority issue. With the on-going retirement of nuclear workers, resource management, succession planning and technical training programs are all in place at AECL. For example, a comprehensive assessment was recently completed to identify critical core competencies and the potential and timing of future retirements. Using a risk-based approach, the technology disciplines were prioritized and a plan was developed to address the requirements. The plan is now being implemented to hire, train, mentor and develop a new core of technical experts. Collaboration and knowledge sharing are important success factors in that regard. This is being achieved through cross-functional teamwork, consolidation of expertise, on-going work on nuclear power plant projects (e.g., the just completed units in China and ongoing work on unit 2 at the Romanian Cernavoda site), developing and designing new products (Advanced CANDU Reactor, ACR-700), adopting and improving Quality Management Systems (e.g., ISO 9001:2000 Global Certification and pursuing business excellence through the adoption of the Canadian Framework for Business Excellence). Capturing and preserving existing knowledge as well as advancing nuclear technology have also received significant attention. Fully computerized engineering tools have been developed and used to document the complete design of CANDU plants, and this methodology is being used for the recent build projects. This encompasses all plant design, analysis and licensing knowledge including engineering drawings, design manuals, design reviews, analysis reports and all licensing documentation. The same system is being used today for the development of the ACR. In addition, a comprehensive feedback of experience system documents all operational issues to ensure lessons learned from operating plants are shared widely within AECL and with CANDU owners. AECL has also developed smart technology that transfers knowledge from highly specialized technical experts working in our laboratories to computer systems that can be accessed by plant operators. Such technology enables nuclear operators in monitoring station conditions, converting measured data into useful information, analyzing the information intelligently and providing recommendations to support decision making. In this way, specialized knowledge can be used throughout the nuclear industry. Another essential element in AECL's strategy for preserving knowledge is the on-going design and development of advanced CANDU systems over the years. In this approach, each generation of CANDU reactor is firmly based on incremental advancements in technology, which ensures that future expertise is maintained and based on an extensive existing knowledge base. Development of future nuclear workers received a boost through the University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE) program. This is an alliance of Canadian universities, nuclear power utilities, research and regulatory agencies. The purpose of UNENE is to assure a sustainable supply of qualified nuclear engineers and scientists to meet the current and future needs of the Canadian nuclear industry. In addition to full-time undergraduate and graduate degrees, UNENE, through 5 major Canadian universities also offers part-time programs designed for students already employed in the industry. Courses are offered in flexible formats, generally at nuclear sites for the convenience of the students. More informati

2004-01-01

244

Knowledge crash and knowledge management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article, by including the problem of ?Knowledge Crash? in the more general framework of ?Knowledge Management?, enlarges the concepts of knowledge, generation and knowledge transfer. It proposes a global approach, starting from a strategic analysis of a knowledge capital and ending in the imple...

Ermine, Jean-Louis

245

Capturing Tacit Knowledge for Assessing Employees' Competency and Productivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Organization has to evaluate the competencies of their workers to improve organizational productivity. However, this is difficult because organizations have difficulties to capture and retain knowledge especially tacit knowledge of their employees. Approach: The study reviewed selected literature on management knowledge and employers competencies. It also reviewed existing frameworks in knowledge management focusing on the capturing and storing tacit knowledge. Results: Results of this study will include theoretical concept for capturing tacit knowledge and storing them besides developing a model for measuring employee?s competencies in the organization. Conclusion/Recommendation: This study contributes in assessing knowledge workers performance to improve their productivity in an organization.

M. A. Jabar; F. Sidi; M. H. Selamat; A. A.A. Ghani; H. Ibrahim; S. Baharom

2011-01-01

246

Hepatitis B in Moroccan health care workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To evaluate knowledge and perception of hepatitis B, including prevention, among Moroccan health care workers (HCWs) and to estimate seroprevalence of hepatitis B and vaccine coverage (VC). METHODS: Four hundred and twenty HCWs were randomly selected and stratified by site: 120 in Rabat, 140 in Taza and 160 in Témara-Skhirat. The study included an anonymous questionnaire about knowledge of hepatitis B and its prevention and a serological survey. Oral statements and vaccine registers were used to analyse the VC of the HCWs. Serological testing and VC were analysed according to the occupational exposure. RESULTS: Participation rates in the questionnaire and serological tests were 68% (285/420) and 66% (276/420), respectively. Fifteen (5%) HCWs had a history of hepatitis B. All HCWs considered that hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may be acquired through blood exposure. Vaccination was acknowledged as a necessary means against HBV transmission by 276 (98%) HCWs. Forty-two per cent HCWs had no HBV serological markers. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen was 1%. The mean prevalence of hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) was 28% and was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among nursing auxiliaries (57%), nurses (30%), medical physicians (31%) and midwives (25%) than among laboratory technicians (13%). According to the vaccination registers (available in two sites), VC (> or =3 doses) was 55%. VC was 75% among midwives, 61% among nurses, 53% among nursing auxiliaries and 38% among medical staff. Of the fully vaccinated HCWs without anti-HBc, 51% had serological evidence of protection. CONCLUSION: HBV vaccines should be more readily available for Moroccan HCWs by reinforcing current vaccination programmes.

Djeriri K; Laurichesse H; Merle JL; Charof R; Abouyoub A; Fontana L; Benchemsi N; Elharti E; El Aouad R; Chamoux A; Beytout J

2008-09-01

247

Knowledge Management  

CERN Document Server

This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.

Gerami, Mohsen

2010-01-01

248

Knowledge Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.

Mohsen Gerami

2010-01-01

249

Nuclear knowledge preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear technology has encouraged the world development and brought a number of benefits to society. These benefits occurred in important social sectors such as Agriculture, Industry, Health Sciences, Environmental Sciences and the production of energy. The research in the nuclear area is justified, accordingly, as an important factor for science development, technology and innovation. Despite the importance of nuclear energy, there is a collapse in the generation, transmission and sharing of nuclear knowledge. The threat of regression in this area is evidenced by the difficulty of generating new knowledge and practices regarding the maintenance of some critical areas. This project focuses its attention on studying, specifically, the lack of young engineers and technical professionals to replace the older, considered this, an alarming situation. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and record the key skills of experienced workers, through a set of tools to elicitation (capture) this knowledge, as expertise is mainly with people, and is lost when they leave the organization. Against, the Knowledge Management provides methodologies for the process of stimulating the creation, collection and knowledge dissemination process, in order to achieve strategic objectives. This study aims to contribute to the building of a model for the Brazilian nuclear knowledge preservation and, therefore, contributes to the maintenance and innovation of activities in this area. (author)

2009-10-02

250

Healthy worker effect on the studies of radiation workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When we study the effect on health of a specified population as compared to the general population, the occurrence of a healthy worker effect bias is indicated. In this paper, the healthy worker effect on radiation workers and other industry workers is reviewed, followed by a discussion of the healthy worker effect characteristics and prevention against the bias. (author)

Hisazumi, Shizuyo; Iwasaki, Tamiko; Matsudaira, Hiromichi [Association of Radiation Effects, Chiba (Japan)

1999-11-01

251

Shortened menstrual cycles in LCD manufacturing workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Many chemical agents used in liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacturing have been evaluated in animal studies of female reproductive toxicity. Knowledge of their reproductive toxicity in humans is scant. AIMS: To determine the effect of organic solvents on menstrual cycle characteristics of workers in LCD manufacturing. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of female premenopausal workers in an LCD plant in Taiwan. Menstrual cycle characteristics were assessed from self-administered questionnaires, and chemical exposure was assessed using hand-held volatile organic compound (VOC) monitors with 24h canister sampling. RESULTS: There was a response rate of 94%, and the final study population after exclusions was 288. Canister sampling found many chemical compounds with potential reproductive effects in the fabrication areas of the plant. Concentrations of total VOC were higher in the panel and module fabrication areas than in other areas of the plant. The prevalence of short menstrual cycles (>24 days) was higher in panel workers (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 7.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.51-39.15) and module workers (adjusted OR: 8.38; 95% CI: 1.72-40.95) than in array fabrication workers and office workers. CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence for a possible link between repeated exposure to multiple organic solvents such as ethanol and acetone and increased prevalence of short menstrual cycles in premenopausal women.

Lin CC; Huang CN; Hwang YH; Wang JD; Weng SP; Shie RH; Chen PC

2013-01-01

252

Social Workers’ Interest in Building Individuals’ Financial Capabilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social workers have many opportunities to integrate a focus on personal finance into their practice with mostly lower-income and vulnerable client populations. However, little is known about social workers’ interest in personal finance. Results of a survey of social workers (N = 56) interested in integrating personal finance content into their practice are reported in this paper. Ways in which social workers might further develop knowledge and skills in personal finance are discussed. Professional perspectives that social workers may lend to inform financial education and counseling and the emerging field of financial therapy are also explored. Social workers can offer an understanding of the environmental risks that affect the financial health of low-income individuals and families and resources that can help build financial capability.

Mathieu R. Despard; Gina A. N. Chowa

2010-01-01

253

Lay health worker attrition: important but often ignored.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lay health workers are key to achieving universal health-care coverage, therefore measuring worker attrition and identifying its determinants should be an integral part of any lay health worker programme. Both published and unpublished research on lay health workers has largely focused on the types of interventions they can deliver effectively. This is an imperative since the main objective of these programmes is to improve health outcomes. However, high attrition rates can undermine the effectiveness of these programmes. There is a lack of research on lay health worker attrition. Research that aims to answer the following three key questions would help address this knowledge gap: what is the magnitude of attrition in programmes? What are the determinants of attrition? What are the most successful ways of reducing attrition? With community-based interventions and task shifting high on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals' policy agenda, research on lay health worker attrition and its determinants requires urgent attention. PMID:22271950

Nkonki, Lungiswa; Cliff, Julie; Sanders, David

2011-10-24

254

Lay health worker attrition: important but often ignored.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Lay health workers are key to achieving universal health-care coverage, therefore measuring worker attrition and identifying its determinants should be an integral part of any lay health worker programme. Both published and unpublished research on lay health workers has largely focused on the types of interventions they can deliver effectively. This is an imperative since the main objective of these programmes is to improve health outcomes. However, high attrition rates can undermine the effectiveness of these programmes. There is a lack of research on lay health worker attrition. Research that aims to answer the following three key questions would help address this knowledge gap: what is the magnitude of attrition in programmes? What are the determinants of attrition? What are the most successful ways of reducing attrition? With community-based interventions and task shifting high on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals' policy agenda, research on lay health worker attrition and its determinants requires urgent attention.

Nkonki L; Cliff J; Sanders D

2011-12-01

255

Uncovering tacit knowledge: a pilot study to broaden the concept of knowledge in knowledge translation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: All sectors in health care are being asked to focus on the knowledge-to-practice gap, or knowledge translation, to increase service effectiveness. A social interaction approach to knowledge translation assumes that research evidence becomes integrated with previously held knowledge, and practitioners build on and co-create knowledge through mutual interactions. Knowledge translation strategies for public health have not provided anticipated positive changes in evidence-based practice, possibly due in part to a narrow conceptualization of knowledge. More work is needed to understand the role of tacit knowledge in decision-making and practice. This pilot study examined how health practitioners applied tacit knowledge in public health program planning and implementation. METHODS: This study used a narrative approach, where teams from two public health units in Ontario, Canada were conveniently selected. Respondents participated in individual interviews and focus groups at each site. Questions were designed to understand the role of tacit knowledge as it related to the program planning process. Data were analyzed through a combination of content analysis and thematic comparison. RESULTS: The findings highlighted two major aspects of knowledge that arose: the use of tacit knowledge and the integration of tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge included: past experiences, organization-specific knowledge, community contextual knowledge, and the recognition of the tacit knowledge of others. Explicit knowledge included: research literature, the Internet, popular magazines, formal assessments (surveys and interviews), legislation and regulations. Participants sometimes deliberately combined tacit and explicit knowledge sources in planning. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot demonstrated that front-line public health workers draw upon both tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge in their everyday lived reality. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in practitioners' interpretation and implementation of explicit research findings. This indicates a need to broaden the scope of knowledge translation to include other forms of knowledge beyond explicit knowledge acquired through research. Strategies that recognize and support the use of tacit knowledge, such as communities of practice or networks, may be important components of a comprehensive approach to knowledge translation. This study provides support for further investigation of the role of tacit knowledge in the planning and delivery of effective public health services.

Kothari AR; Bickford JJ; Edwards N; Dobbins MJ; Meyer M

2011-01-01

256

Saberes e práticas do agente comunitário de saúde na atenção à saúde do trabalhador/ Knowledge and practices of community health agents in workers' healthcare/ Saberes y prácticas del agente comunitario de salud en la atención a la salud del trabajador  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os Agentes Comunitários de Saúde (ACS) desempenham papel fundamental na atenção integral à saúde dos trabalhadores, cadastrando e recolhendo informações sobre o perfil sociodemográfico desta população, identificando atividades produtivas desenvolvidas no domicílio e peridomicílio e os possíveis fatores de risco para a saúde dos trabalhadores. Este estudo baseia-se no referencial das competências e busca compreender o processo de trabalho do ACS, valorizand (more) o seu saber fazer e sua percepção sobre as relações trabalho-saúdedoença, para orientar os processos de capacitação. Foi desenvolvido em um município da região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais e utilizada a técnica card colection, que integra o método VIPP (Visualization in Participatory Programmes). Foram identificadas ações nas áreas de competência: promoção da saúde/ prevenção de doenças e organização do cuidado. Os resultados reforçam a importância de novos estudos que considerem as mudanças no processo de trabalho do ACS ao se pretender desenvolver ações de saúde do trabalhador. Abstract in spanish Los Agentes Comunitarios de Salud (ACS) desarrollan un papel fundamental en la atención a los trabajadores. Identifican las características de la poblacion trabajadora, las actividades productivas desarrolladas dentro y cerca de los hogares y los factores de riesgo para la salud relacionados a estos procesos de trabajo. Este estudo orienta los procesos de capacitación para el desarrollo de estas actividades, basado en el modelo de competencias. Fue realizado en una ciu (more) dad metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, y fue utilizada la técnica de tarjetas de colección, buscando entender el proceso de trabajo de los ACS y su percepción sobre las relaciones trabajo-salud-enfermedad. Fueron identificadas acciones en las areas de promoción y prevención en salud y la organización del cuidado, que necesitan ser incorporadas en las capacitaciones. Los resultados refuerzan la importancia de nuevos estudios que consideren cambios en el proceso de trabajo de los agentes al pretenderse desarrollar acciones de la salud del trabajador. Abstract in english Community health agents play a fundamental role in workers' comprehensive healthcare through registering and gathering information on the sociodemographic profile of this population and identifying productive activities developed at home and in the vicinity, along with possible risk factors for workers' health. This study was based on competency reference points and sought to understand community health agents' work processes, placing value on their knowhow and perception (more) s of work-health-illness relationships, in order to guide the capacitation processes. It was developed in a city located at metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais state, and used the card collection technique, which is part of the "Visualization in Participatory Programmes" method. Actions within the fields of competency of health promotion and organization of healthcare were identified. The results stress the importance of new studies that take into consideration the changes in community health agents' work processes when aiming to developing workers' healthcare actions.

Silva, Thais Lacerda e; Dias, Elizabeth Costa; Ribeiro, Eliana Cláudia de Otero

2011-09-01

257

Knowledge management : what can organizational economics contribute?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating and integrationknowledge, rewarding knowledge workers, etc.) , and derive refutable implications that are novelto the knowledge management field from our discussion.

Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

2003-01-01

258

People-focused knowledge management  

CERN Multimedia

The business environment has changed. Sharper competition requires organizations to exhibit greater effectiveness in their operations and services and faster creation of new products and services-all hallmarks of the knowledge economy. Up until now, most of the knowledge management literature has focused on technology, systems, or culture. This book moves to the next stage, to focus on the people-the knowledge workers themselves. Noted expert Karl Wiig synthesizes recent research findings in cognitive science and related fields to describe how people actually work. He focuses on how people lea

Wiig, Karl

2012-01-01

259

Gestión del conocimiento y comunidades de práctica en laboratorios de investigación del Polo Científico Grenoblés en Francia*/ Knowledge management and communities of practice in research laboratories of the scientific center in Grenoble, France  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se analizan algunas de las prácticas relacionadas con la gestión del conocimiento en los laboratorios del Polo de Investigación Científica ubicado en la ciudad de Grenoble (Francia). El polo científico grenoblés se construye a partir del acentuado desarrollo científico e industrial que vive la región desde finales del siglo XIX, ligado a un largo proceso de producción académica, y de compromiso económico y estatal; denso en generación de nuevos conocimientos. (more) Es también un modelo de trabajo colectivo, en el cual cooperan varias ciudades y países. La pregunta fundamental de la investigación es si, efectivamente, en este contexto se puede hablar de la presencia de un modelo de gestión del conocimiento y cuáles serían las condiciones para que esto se de. El análisis se ocupa específicamente del estudio del modelo Nonaka llamado ''Ba'' (conocimiento situado) que estudia el proceso de conversión de conocimientos tácitos en explícitos en los laboratorios de investigación y si éstos funcionan como comunidades de práctica. Los datos que sustentan este trabajo fueron construidos a partir de entrevistas, análisis de componentes principales, observaciones sobre el terreno y el análisis de estudio de caso. Abstract in english Some practices related to knowledge management in the laboratories of the scientific center of Grenoble (France) are analyzed. This center was set up from the great scientific and industrial advance in this region since the 19th Century, which has resulted in a large process of academic production, and economic and governmental commitment. It is also a model of collective work, in which several cities and countries cooperate. The main question of this research is if, in t (more) his context, a knowledge management model really exists, and which would be the conditions of its existence. Particularly, the analysis focuses on the Nonaka's model called ''Ba'' (situated knowledge), which studies the tacit and explicit knowledge conversion process in the research laboratories, and if they work like communities of practice. The data that support this study were gathered from interviews, principal component analysis, field observations, and case study analysis.

Gaviria Velásquez, Margarita María

2008-12-01

260

Knowledge Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 2001, SCK-CEN decided to adopt and implement a practical knowledge management approach. Knowledge management activities were identified within the organisation and a co-ordinated approach to knowledge management was applied. Such an approach requires an efficient reuse of recorded knowledge and an effective transfer of the available knowledge. This approach ensures an added value to our research work and guarantees the long-term preservation of the institutional memory. Principle results and future developments regarding knowledge management at SCK-CEN are summarised.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Advanced worker protection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

1995-12-01

262

Global Knowledge Work Diversity and Relational Perspectives  

CERN Document Server

Global Knowledge Work is an up-to-date account of theoretical approaches and empirical research in the multi-disciplinary topic of global knowledge workers from a relational and diversity perspective. This informative volume includes contributions from international scholars and practitioners who have been working with the concept of global knowledge workers from a number of different perspectives, including personal and academic life trajectories. They reveal that the relational framework of the three dimensions of analysis (macro-meso-micro) is relevant for analyzing the phenomenon of global

Nicolopoulou, Katerina; Tatli, Ahu; Taylor, J

2011-01-01

263

Knowledge Management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knowledge management is an evolving subject area based on two notions: - That knowledge is a fundamental aspect of effective organizational performance; - That specific steps need to be actively taken to promote knowledge creation and use. Two common approaches to knowledge management that are often used in combination include: - Knowledge management focused on the capture of explicit knowledge and sharing this via technology; - Knowledge management focused on managing tacit knowledge without necessarily making it explicit, and creating new knowledge as well as sharing existing knowledge. In the context of human resources development, knowledge management is strongly tied to strategy and is activity oriented. Properly applied knowledge management improves organizational efficiency and productivity through reducing process times, introducing technology to assist finding relevant information and instituting techniques to remedy poor quality outputs. Knowledge management also promotes innovations, which can result from initiatives such as developing social networks for knowledge exchange, providing leadership to encourage risk taking and capturing the lessons learned from past activities. Both of these benefits require openness to change and a drive for continual improvement. Other benefits of knowledge management include improved decision making, retaining organizational memory and organizational learning, as well as improving morale. Knowledge management can be used on its own or in collaboration with other management disciplines and tools to establish an environment that will enable the organization to realize these benefits. Summarizing the effective management of nuclear knowledge includes ensuring the continued availability of qualified personnel. As the nuclear workforce ages and retires, and with support uncertain for university programmes in nuclear science and engineering, this issue has become critical to ensuring safety and security, encouraging innovation and making certain that the benefits of nuclear energy related to different applications including electricity supply remain available for future generations

2011-01-01

264

Special Issue: Rural Workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…

Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others

1995-01-01

265

Chosen aspects of knowledge management in enterprises  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: In this article the important role of knowledge management in enterprises was presented. The knowledge and workers skills are the wealth and success source of organizations on the market.Design/methodology/approach: The paper shows definitions and types of knowledge, systems and models of knowledge management and directions of knowledge acquirement and development.Findings: In this article the analysis of role and function of knowledge management in modern enterprise on the basis of workers opinion poll, documentation review and conducted an interview in organization was carried out.Research limitations/implications: Knowledge management in contemporary enterprise is one of the key factors. It decides about its economic success. Because of that continuous learning, improvement and forming of system functioning in organization are the priority of enterprise.Practical implications: implications Nowadays, organisations achieve competitive supremacy through skilful knowledge management. For knowledge it was the strategic attribute to fulfil three properties. It must be: unique, possible for continuous improvement and difficult to fast copying and imitating.Originality/value: In this article it was shown that knowledge management was the important field in organisation management. It is worth taking steps forward to improve information flow, arrange workers for job completion, work conditions and organisation image and efficiency.

A. Kania; M. Spilka

2010-01-01

266

Knowledge management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The emergence of the Information Age necessitates the need to manage the organisation’s knowledge asset. The competitive advantage of the organisation depends on the quality of the organisation’s knowledge asset and the successful exploitation of it. Knowledge management aims at leveraging this expl...

Breedt, Marlize; Janse van Rensburg, Antonie C.

267

Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Programming, and Knowledge Refinement.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the principal findings and recommendations of a 2-year Rand research project on machine-aided knowledge acquisition and discusses the transfer of expertise from humans to machines, as well as the functions of planning, debugging, kno...

F. Hayes-Roth

1980-01-01

268

Queen activation of lazy workers in colonies of the eusocial naked mole-rat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evolutionary conflicts of interest are expected to arise in genetically diverse social groups. In eusocial insect societies, a potential conflict exists between the queen and her workers over how active the workers should be, and evidence exists that queen aggression increases activity levels of her lazier workers. Here I provide evidence that queen aggression (shoving) in laboratory colonies of the eusocial mammal, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber), is a convergently evolved manifestation of queen-worker conflict over worker activity. Queen-initiated shoves activate inherently lazy workers, which tend to be larger and/or less related to the queen than are infrequently shoved, industrious workers. In addition, queen removal selectively depresses the activity of workers that are larger and less related to her. Finally, queen shoving and worker inactivity are pronounced when colonies are satiated but not when colonies are hungry, indicating that the underlying 'work-conflict' is highly context-specific.

Reeve HK

1992-07-01

269

Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among US construction workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant) material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have elevated serum PCB levels. Methods This project compared serum PCB levels among male workers who installed and/or removed PCB-containing caulking material from buildings in the greater Boston area with reference serum PCB levels from 358 men from the same area. Serum PCB levels were measured in the same laboratory by liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography clean-up and dual capillary column GC/microECD analysis. Results When the congener profiles were compared between the reference population and the construction workers, the serum levels of the more volatile, lighter PCBs (di-, tri-and tetrachloro, sum of IUPAC# 6–74) were substantially higher among the construction workers. One of the youngest workers had the lowest total serum PCB levels (sum of 57 congeners) of all 6 workers, but the contribution of more volatile (less chlorinated) PCB congeners (#16, 26,28,33,74,66, and 60) was markedly higher than in other 5 workers and reference men. Only this worker was working on a job that involved removing PCB caulking at the time of the blood sampling. Conclusion While the results of this pilot study are based upon small numbers (6 construction workers who handled PCB caulking), the serum PCB levels among the construction workers exceed the referents. Comparison of the congener profiles suggests that there are substantial differences between the construction workers and the general population samples. These differences, and the similarities of profiles among the construction workers strongly suggest that occupational contact with caulking material can be a major source of PCB exposure for construction workers.

Herrick Robert F; Meeker John D; Hauser Russ; Altshul Larisa; Weymouth George A

2007-01-01

270

Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among US construction workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant) material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have elevated serum PCB levels. METHODS: This project compared serum PCB levels among male workers who installed and/or removed PCB-containing caulking material from buildings in the greater Boston area with reference serum PCB levels from 358 men from the same area. Serum PCB levels were measured in the same laboratory by liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography clean-up and dual capillary column GC/microECD analysis. RESULTS: When the congener profiles were compared between the reference population and the construction workers, the serum levels of the more volatile, lighter PCBs (di-, tri-and tetrachloro, sum of IUPAC# 6-74) were substantially higher among the construction workers. One of the youngest workers had the lowest total serum PCB levels (sum of 57 congeners) of all 6 workers, but the contribution of more volatile (less chlorinated) PCB congeners (#16, 26,28,33,74,66, and 60) was markedly higher than in other 5 workers and reference men. Only this worker was working on a job that involved removing PCB caulking at the time of the blood sampling. CONCLUSION: While the results of this pilot study are based upon small numbers (6 construction workers who handled PCB caulking), the serum PCB levels among the construction workers exceed the referents. Comparison of the congener profiles suggests that there are substantial differences between the construction workers and the general population samples. These differences, and the similarities of profiles among the construction workers strongly suggest that occupational contact with caulking material can be a major source of PCB exposure for construction workers.

Herrick RF; Meeker JD; Hauser R; Altshul L; Weymouth GA

2007-01-01

271

Laboratory-acquired infections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Laboratory-acquired infections due to a wide variety of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites have been described. Although the precise risk of infection after an exposure remains poorly defined, surveys of laboratory-acquired infections suggest that Brucella species, Shigella species, Salmonella species, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Neisseria meningitidis are the most common causes. Infections due to the bloodborne pathogens (hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus) remain the most common reported viral infections, whereas the dimorphic fungi are responsible for the greatest number of fungal infections. Because of the increasing attention on the role of the laboratory in bioterrorism preparation, I discuss the risk of laboratory-acquired infection with uncommon agents, such as Francisella tularensis and Bacillus anthracis. Physicians who care for a sick laboratory worker need to consider the likelihood of an occupationally acquired infection while advising exposed laboratory workers about postexposure prophylaxis. In addition, physicians should be aware of the importance of alerting the laboratory if infection with a high-risk agent is suspected.

Singh K

2009-07-01

272

Workers' perception of chemical risks: a focus group study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Workers' perceptions with respect to health and safety at work are rarely taken into account when considering the development of prevention programs. The aim of this study was to explore workers' perceptions of chemical risks at the workplace, in order to investigate the prerequisites for a workplace health program. A qualitative study was conducted involving seven focus groups of 5-10 participants (blue-collar workers) each. All groups were homogeneous in terms of sex, work status, language, and company membership. Results showed that several factors have an important influence on workers' perception of chemical risks. Workers assess risks by means of both sensory and empirical diagnosis and are concerned about the long-term health consequences. They perceive the threat of chemical risks as high. Despite this, they are resigned to accepting the risks. Existing formal sources of information are rarely consulted because they are judged to be difficult to understand and not user friendly. Instead, workers tend to obtain information from informal sources. Communication problems with and lack of trust in prevention advisers and hierarchy are frequently mentioned. Workers feel that their specific knowledge of their working conditions and their proposals for practical, cost-effective solutions to improve health and safety at the workplace are insufficiently taken into account. The use of focus groups yielded a useful insight into workers' perceptions of chemical risks. Our findings suggest that training programs for prevention advisers should include topics such as understanding of workers' perceptions, usefulness of a participatory approach, and communication and education skills.

Hambach R; Mairiaux P; François G; Braeckman L; Balsat A; Van Hal G; Vandoorne C; Van Royen P; van Sprundel M

2011-02-01

273

KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.

Ovidiu NICOLESCU

2007-01-01

274

Interactive, Computer-Based Training Program for Radiological Workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is redesigning its Computer-Based Training (CBT) program for radiological workers. The redesign represents a major effort to produce a single, highly interactive and flexible CBT program that will meet the training needs of a wide range of radiological workers--from researchers and x-ray operators to individuals working in tritium, uranium, plutonium, and accelerator facilities. The new CBT program addresses the broad diversity of backgrounds found at a national laboratory. When a training audience is homogeneous in terms of education level and type of work performed, it is difficult to duplicate the effectiveness of a flexible, technically competent instructor who can tailor a course to the express needs and concerns of a course's participants. Unfortunately, such homogeneity is rare. At LLNL, they have a diverse workforce engaged in a wide range of radiological activities, from the fairly common to the quite exotic. As a result, the Laboratory must offer a wide variety of radiological worker courses. These include a general contamination-control course in addition to radioactive-material-handling courses for both low-level laboratory (i.e., bench-top) activities as well as high-level work in tritium, uranium, and plutonium facilities. They also offer training courses for employees who work with radiation-generating devices--x-ray, accelerator, and E-beam operators, for instance. However, even with the number and variety of courses the Laboratory offers, they are constrained by the diversity of backgrounds (i.e., knowledge and experience) of those to be trained. Moreover, time constraints often preclude in-depth coverage of site- and/or task-specific details. In response to this situation, several years ago LLNL began moving toward computer-based training for radiological workers. Today, that CBT effort includes a general radiological safety course developed by the Department of Energy's Hanford facility and a contamination-control program developed by LLNL. A comprehensive study guide and a post-training practical exam supplement the CBT effort. The ''hands-on'' practical is particularly important in that it gives participants not only the opportunity to demonstrate what they've learned, but to ask questions about their individual work situations. The challenge is how to make the CBT program more facility- and task-specific while, at the same time, making the program more in tune with the education and/or experience levels of individual trainees. To that end, they have designed a CBT program, which they refer to as an ''onion''. That is, the course is layered, going from the general to the more and more specific.

Trinoskey, P.A.; Camacho, P.I.; Wells, L.

2000-01-18

275

Health of radiation workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation workers are healthier than the average person in the general population and appear to be as healthy as workers in other ?safe? industries. It is, however, assumed that there is no safe dose of radiation and that any exposure to radiation will cause a small increase in the incidence of cancer, this increase being directly proportional to the total radiation dose. On the basis of the risk estimates given by ICRP, radiation exposures up to 1 rem per year for 47 years are predicted to cause fewer work-related deaths than expected for the average worker in Canadian industry. Radiation exposures of 5 rem per year from age 18 to 65 would result in predicted risk which is about four times higher than that for most workers in Canada and might increase the chances of death before age 75 to nearly the same level as for the average member of the general public. (auth)

1979-01-01

276

External dose estimation for nuclear worker studies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Epidemiological studies of nuclear workers are an important source of direct information on the health effects of exposure to radiation at low doses and low dose rates. These studies have the important advantage of doses that have been measured objectively through the use of personal dosimeters. However, to make valid comparisons of worker-based estimates with those obtained from data on A-bomb survivors or persons exposed for medical reasons, attention must be given to potential biases and uncertainties in dose estimates. This paper discusses sources of error in worker dose estimates and describes efforts that have been made to quantify these errors. Of particular importance is the extensive study of errors in dosimetry that was conducted as part of a large collaborative study of nuclear workers in 15 countries being coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The study, which focused on workers whose dose was primarily from penetrating gamma radiation in the range 100 keV to 3 MeV, included (1) obtaining information on dosimetry practices and radiation characteristics through the use of questionnaires; (2) two detailed studies of exposure conditions, one of nuclear power plants and the other of mixed activity facilities; and (3) a study of dosimeter response characteristics that included laboratory testing of 10 dosimeter designs commonly used historically. Based on these efforts, facility- and calendar year-specific adjustment factors have been developed, which will allow risks to be expressed as functions of organ doses with reasonable confidence.

Gilbert ES; Thierry-Chef I; Cardis E; Fix JJ; Marshall M

2006-07-01

277

Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom

1994-01-01

278

Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom.

Wooten, H.D.

1994-09-01

279

Advanced worker protection system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

1995-01-01

280

Advanced worker protection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-10-01

 
 
 
 
281

Conhecimentos e práticas de trabalhadoras de creches universitárias relativos às infecções respiratórias agudas na infância Conocimientos y prácticas de trabajadoras de guarderías universitarias relativos a las infecciones respiratorias agudas en la infancia Knowledge and practices of university day care center workers relative to acute respiratory infections in childhood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dada a elevada freqüência de infecções respiratórias agudas em creches, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar conhecimentos e práticas de trabalhadoras de creches relativos à prevenção, detecção precoce e manejo desses agravos. Mediante quatorze entrevistas estruturadas em duas creches universitárias da cidade de São Paulo, verificou-se que as trabalhadoras: demonstram familiaridade com diversos agravos; apontam febre e respiração ruidosa como sinais de gravidade; consideram poluição e transmissão como principais causas; referem o cuidado com o ambiente como melhor forma de controle; cuidam mantendo observação contínua da criança e intervenções de higiene e conforto e maior cuidado emocional; consideram educação e cuidado interligados no atendimento infantil, manifestando necessidade de maior preparo para cuidar; têm na prática diária a fonte de seus conhecimentos.Dada la elevada frecuencia de infecciones respiratorias agudas en guarderías, el objetivo en este trabajo fue identificar conocimientos y prácticas de trabajadoras de guarderías relativos a la prevención, detección precoz y manejo de esas afecciones. Mediante catorce entrevistas estructuradas en dos guarderías universitarias de la ciudad de São Paulo, se verificó que las trabajadoras: demuestran familiaridad con las diversas afecciones; señalan fiebre y respiración ruidosa como signos de gravedad; consideran a la polución y transmisión como sus principales causas; refieren al cuidado del ambiente como la mejor forma de control; se preocupan con la observación continua del niño y con acciones de higiene, confort y cuidado emocional; consideran que la educación y el cuidado son necesarios para atender a los niños y desean mayor preparación para cuidar; tienen en la práctica diaria la fuente de sus conocimientos.Given the increasing frequency of acute respiratory infections in day care centers, the objective of this work was to identify knowledge and practices of day care center workers relative to the prevention, precocious detection and management of these illnesses. Through fourteen structured interviews in two university day care centers of the city of São Paulo, it was verified that the workers: demonstrate familiarity with several respiratory illnesses; indicate fever and noisy breath as danger signals; consider pollution and transmission as main causes; refer to environment care as the best form of control; keep continuous observation of the child and interventions of hygiene and comfort, and greater emotional care; consider education and care complementary in child attendance, revealing the need for better preparation for caring; have in daily activities the source of their knowledge.

Roberta Cristiane P. Alves; Maria De Lá Ó Ramallo Veríssimo

2006-01-01

282

Impact of workers’ competence on their performance in the Malaysian private service sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malaysia has to address the challenges of globalization to become a developed nation by year2020. Changing economy to one that is based on knowledge-economy and enhanced importanceof the service sector needs a competitive workforce with high performance and capability. Thisarticle analyses the impact of workers’ competence towards their performance in the privateservice sector. The analysis is based on a sample of 1136 workers who are either executive,manager or professional from three service sub-sectors, namely, education, health andinformation and communication technology (ICT) in Selangor, Federal Territory of KualaLumpur, Penang and Johor collected in 2007/2008. In this analysis, Workers’ Performance Index(WPI) and Workers’ Competence Index (WCI) are developed and subsequently used to analyzefactors determining workers’ performance in the selected service sector. The results show thatworkers’ competence has significant influence towards workers’ performance. Besides that,human capital and workers’ characteristics also determine workers’ performance in the servicesector.

Rahmah Ismail; Syahida Zainal Abidin

2010-01-01

283

Sharing knowledge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The workshop on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies for Arctic Indigenous Communities is one stage in developing positions and providing input from the perspectives of Arctic Peoples in preparation for the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change that will take place in April, 2009, in Anchorage, Alaska. The Summit, organized by the Inuit Circumpolar Council with oversight of an International Steering Committee, will bring together hundreds of indigenous Peoples around the world. This Workshop intended to bring together Arctic Indigenous Peoples to deliver and to share information, academic research, case studies based on traditional knowledge and researchers knowledgeable in traditional knowledge and/or policy issues drawn from traditional knowledge. The following themes were discussed: 1) Traditional knowledge research and education; 2) Laws and lawmaking; 3) Food and health; 4) Organisation; 5) Communications and advocacy. (ln)

2009-07-01

284

Knowledge transfer - Acquiring implicit knowledge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Many organisations have recognised the problem of experts taking home a huge amount of specific knowledge, which they have gathered in their department, when they leave. The successor is capable only of acquiring explicit expertise because implicit experiences are not documented and therefore no more available. That is why we have started this pilot study in order to try to conserve the above mentioned tacit and implicit knowledge and to make it available to other colleagues. Using a semi-standardised interview we elicit tacit knowledge from the expert and summarise it in a report. This interview-guideline forms the basis of in-depth investigation for implicit knowledge. (author)

Fricke, C.; Faust, B. [Division principale de la Securite des Installations Nucleaires, Section Information, Recherche de la Securite et Affiaires Internationales (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Brigitte.faust@hsk.ch

2006-07-01

285

Educational Advantage - E-learning helps companies capture the knowledge of retiring employees and gain competitive edge  

CERN Multimedia

NASA has discovered that 60% of aerospace workers will reach retirement age over the next few years so needed to find a way to capture knowledge from exiting workers and make it available to remaining and future staff (1 page).

Tischelle, G

2003-01-01

286

Pediculose nos centros de educação infantil: conhecimentos e práticas dos trabalhadores/ Pediculosis in children attending day care centers: knowledge and practice of workers/ Infestión de piojos en los centros de educación infantil: conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou identificar e analisar conhecimentos e práticas, acerca da pediculose, dos trabalhadores de Centros de Educação Infantil (CEI) das áreas de abrangência de duas Unidades de Saúde da Família, Londrina, Paraná. Trata-se de estudo descritivo transversal. Foi aplicado formulário com questões sobre mitos, tabus, práticas, dúvidas e dificuldades na interrupção da infestação da pediculose em oito CEI. Posteriormente, realizou-se oficina com (more) materiais educativos. Participaram 60,4% dos funcionários, aqueles que estavam presentes no dia determinado pela instituição. Quase a totalidade referiu infestação pela ectoparasitose, assim como em seus familiares. A problemática é enfrentada cotidianamente nos CEI (72,1%). Práticas adequadas de enfrentamento ainda são limitadas. Muitos mitos e tabus persistem (piolhos pulam, uso de sal, vinagre e querosene, etc.). As principais dúvidas estão relacionadas ao tratamento, e a maior dificuldade é a falta de colaboração dos pais. Ressalta-se, enfim, necessidade e importância de ações intersetoriais, preventivas e sistemáticas, no ambiente escolar. Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar y analizar los conocimientos y prácticas acerca de la pediculosis que tienen los empleados de los Centros de Educación Infantil (CEI), de las áreas que abarcan dos unidades de Salud de la Familia, Londrina, Paraná. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo transversal. Se aplicó un formulario con preguntas acerca de mitos y tabúes, prácticas, dudas y dificultades para poner fin a la infestación de piojos en ocho CEI. Posteriorm (more) ente, se realizó un taller con materiales educativos. Participó el 60,4% de los empleados, los que estaban presentes en el día determinado por la institución. Casi todos reportaron la infestación parasitaria, así como en sus familias. El problema es enfrentado diariamente en los CEI (72,1%). Prácticas adecuadas para hacer frente as este problema aún son limitadas. Persisten muchos mitos y tabúes (que los piojos saltan, el uso de la sal, del vinagre y de la parafina, etc.) Las principales dudas se relacionan con el tratamiento y la mayor dificultad que se presenta es la falta de cooperación de los padres. Por último, cabe señalar la necesidad y la importancia de que se implementen acciones intersectoriales, preventivas y sistemáticas en el ambiente escolar. Abstract in english This study aimed to identify and analyze knowledge and practices, about pediculosis, from employees at Child Day Care Centers at two areas of coverage of the Family Health Units, Londrina, Paraná. It's descriptive transversal study. Form was applied with questions about myths, taboos, practices, doubts and difficulties in stopping the infestation of pediculosis in eight Child Day Care Centers. Subsequently, workshop was held with educational materials. 60.4% of employees (more) participated, those who were present on the day determined by the institution. Almost all indicated the ectoparasitic infestation, as well as their families. The problem is faced daily in Child Day Care Centers (72.1%). Practice appropriate care is still limited. Many myths and taboos persist (lice jump, use salt, vinegar and kerosene, etc). The main questions are related to treatment and the greatest difficulty is the lack of cooperation from parents. It emphasizes, finally, the need and the importance of internal actions, preventive and systematic in the school environment.

Gabani, Flávia Lopes; Maebara, Clarice Martins Lima; Ferrari, Rosângela Aparecida Pimenta

2010-06-01

287

Pediculose nos centros de educação infantil: conhecimentos e práticas dos trabalhadores Infestión de piojos en los centros de educación infantil: conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores Pediculosis in children attending day care centers: knowledge and practice of workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou identificar e analisar conhecimentos e práticas, acerca da pediculose, dos trabalhadores de Centros de Educação Infantil (CEI) das áreas de abrangência de duas Unidades de Saúde da Família, Londrina, Paraná. Trata-se de estudo descritivo transversal. Foi aplicado formulário com questões sobre mitos, tabus, práticas, dúvidas e dificuldades na interrupção da infestação da pediculose em oito CEI. Posteriormente, realizou-se oficina com materiais educativos. Participaram 60,4% dos funcionários, aqueles que estavam presentes no dia determinado pela instituição. Quase a totalidade referiu infestação pela ectoparasitose, assim como em seus familiares. A problemática é enfrentada cotidianamente nos CEI (72,1%). Práticas adequadas de enfrentamento ainda são limitadas. Muitos mitos e tabus persistem (piolhos pulam, uso de sal, vinagre e querosene, etc.). As principais dúvidas estão relacionadas ao tratamento, e a maior dificuldade é a falta de colaboração dos pais. Ressalta-se, enfim, necessidade e importância de ações intersetoriais, preventivas e sistemáticas, no ambiente escolar.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar y analizar los conocimientos y prácticas acerca de la pediculosis que tienen los empleados de los Centros de Educación Infantil (CEI), de las áreas que abarcan dos unidades de Salud de la Familia, Londrina, Paraná. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo transversal. Se aplicó un formulario con preguntas acerca de mitos y tabúes, prácticas, dudas y dificultades para poner fin a la infestación de piojos en ocho CEI. Posteriormente, se realizó un taller con materiales educativos. Participó el 60,4% de los empleados, los que estaban presentes en el día determinado por la institución. Casi todos reportaron la infestación parasitaria, así como en sus familias. El problema es enfrentado diariamente en los CEI (72,1%). Prácticas adecuadas para hacer frente as este problema aún son limitadas. Persisten muchos mitos y tabúes (que los piojos saltan, el uso de la sal, del vinagre y de la parafina, etc.) Las principales dudas se relacionan con el tratamiento y la mayor dificultad que se presenta es la falta de cooperación de los padres. Por último, cabe señalar la necesidad y la importancia de que se implementen acciones intersectoriales, preventivas y sistemáticas en el ambiente escolar.This study aimed to identify and analyze knowledge and practices, about pediculosis, from employees at Child Day Care Centers at two areas of coverage of the Family Health Units, Londrina, Paraná. It's descriptive transversal study. Form was applied with questions about myths, taboos, practices, doubts and difficulties in stopping the infestation of pediculosis in eight Child Day Care Centers. Subsequently, workshop was held with educational materials. 60.4% of employees participated, those who were present on the day determined by the institution. Almost all indicated the ectoparasitic infestation, as well as their families. The problem is faced daily in Child Day Care Centers (72.1%). Practice appropriate care is still limited. Many myths and taboos persist (lice jump, use salt, vinegar and kerosene, etc). The main questions are related to treatment and the greatest difficulty is the lack of cooperation from parents. It emphasizes, finally, the need and the importance of internal actions, preventive and systematic in the school environment.

Flávia Lopes Gabani; Clarice Martins Lima Maebara; Rosângela Aparecida Pimenta Ferrari

2010-01-01

288

A theoretical foundation for building Knowledge-work Support Systems  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we propose a novel approach aimed at building a new class of information system platforms which we call the "Knowledge-work Support Systems" or KwSS. KwSS can play a significant role in enhancing the IS support for knowledge management processes, including those customarily identified as less amenable to IS support. In our approach we try to enhance basic functionalities provided by the computer-based information systems, namely, that of improving the efficiency of the knowledge workers in accessing, processing and creating useful information. The improvement, along with proper focus on cultural, social and other aspects of the knowledge management processes, can enhance the workers' efficiency significantly in performing high quality knowledge works. In order to build the proposed approach, we develop several new concepts. The approach analyzes the information availability and usage from the knowledge workers and their works' perspectives and consequently brings forth more transparency in vario...

Laha, Arijit

2009-01-01

289

Knowledge Fascism  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight.

Hendricks, Vincent Fella

290

Prevention, promotion and restoration of worker´s oral health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the course of history the terms related to workers, their health and work environment have been changed: from Medical Labor Health to Occupational Health through to the Worker’s Health. This aim of this article is to demonstrate the importance of the worker’s oral health, by means of the studies of several authors. This literature review draws attention to the importance of knowing the dental problems that may affect workers, with the intention of analyzing the epidemiology, etiology and pathology in addition to understanding the impact they would cause on the quality of life, oral health promotion and prevention. This goal stems from the dentist’s importance to the Worker’s Health, preventing dental absenteeism, as orofacial pain may alter the conditions of life and work of the individual to a greater extent than other systemic conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure do. Occupational Dentistry has collaborated with worker’s health both in the public and private spheres, because what really is really being sought is a worker with adequate oral health conditions for his/her work activities and an improvement in the worker’s quality of life.

Érica Silva Carvalho; Sandra Regina Hortense; Lívia Maria Vieira Rodrigues; José Roberto de Magalhães Bastos; Arsenio Sales Peres

2009-01-01

291

Demos: Scheduling Hourly Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

In a world of just-in-time production and flexible scheduling, a number of scholars and policy analysts are beginning to examine these specific business practices. In March 2011, the Demos organization published a paper as part of their series with the magazine "The American Prospect" that looks into the world of what is called "workplace flexibility." The 22-page paper is by Nancy K. Cauthen, and it looks at how scheduling flexibility might actually be very problematic for low-wage workers. The paper posits that most low-wage workers would probably benefit from "more predictability and stability within fluid schedules," as they need more advance notice to plan for child care and transportation. The resulting schedule changes may in fact also cause "tremendous chaos and stress" for these workers' children as well. Visitors will find much to think about in this paper, including its concluding remarks, which offer a set of timely policy recommendations.

Cauthen, Nancy K.

292

Mortality of tar workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mortality of a group of 259 male industrial workers employed at four Thomas Ness plants on 1 January 1967 was studied by following up the group from 1 January 1967 to 31 December 1983. Two of the four plants were attached to coke works operated by National Smokeless Fuels Limited, and were engaged in tar distillation. The other two were self-contained tar distillation plants. The results of the comparisons of mortality with that occurring regionally, when considered in conjunction with results from other studies, indicate that tar distillation workers suffer increased risks of lung and bladder cancer as a consequence of their occupation. A further indication of links between tar work and increased mortality rates due to lung cancer and ischaemic heart disease is provided by the proportionally high mortality from these causes found in a group of National Smokeless Fuels maintenance workers.

Maclaren, W.M.; Collins, H.P.R.; Gurr, D.; Henriksen, V.J.B.; Hurley, J.F.; Soutar, C.A.

1986-06-01

293

Social Worker: Paths and identity construction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this text is to understand the paths and the processes of identity construction of Social Workers, based on a phenomenological perspective. The research behind its arguments attempts to produce knowledge about the training (especially self-training) of Social Workers, attempting to ascertain their professional paths, the meanings that are attributed to them and the processes of their identity constructions. Within the scope of this research, still ongoing, exploratory empirical work was carried out, through interviews of a biographical nature with three senior professionals.Simultaneously, an attempt is made to analyse the institutionalisation of the Social Services as a profession, in the historical background whereby humanitarian thinking takes on full professional legitimisation with the establishment of a new relation between the State and Civil Society.Today, as a consequence of the fragmentation caused by the transfer of multiple services from the public sector to the private sector, growing specialisation of the functions of Social Workers and the advances made towards working in closer contact with other professionals, the following question is increasingly pertinent: what exactly does it entail to be a Social Worker?

Isabel Passarinho

2008-01-01

294

Epidemiological study of health hazards among workers handling engineered nanomaterials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20–100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly (p RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose–response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p

2012-01-01

295

Rehumanising Knowledge Work through Fluctuating Support Networks: A grounded theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through the basic social structural process of fluctuating support networks, knowledge workers self-organise to overcome the dehumanising impact of a rapidly changing workplace context. Such networks operate outside the formal organisation. They are epiphenomenal – self-emerging, self-organising, and selfsustaining. Participation is voluntary and intuitive. The growth of fluctuating support networks facilitates a rehumanising process which serves to counterbalance the dehumanisation that knowledge workers experience in the face of persistent and unpredictable change.

Judith A. Holton, Ph.D.

2007-01-01

296

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis with Mycobacterium avium complex among spa workers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The New Mexico Department of Health (NMDOH) investigated the cause of two cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in spa maintenance workers with laboratory confirmed Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). The investigation occurred in tandem with worker protection and swimming pool regulatory investigations by the New Mexico Environment Department at the spa where the workers were employed. OBJECTIVES: The investigation was conducted in order to identify unreported cases, exposure source(s), and to prevent further worker exposure. METHODS: NMDOH surveyed 57 spa employees about symptoms and exposures, categorized jobs according to self-reported exposure to water, and computed odds ratios for symptom reporting by exposure category. Environmental isolates from spa water and filter swabs were cultured and compared to patient isolates by the Environmental and Applied Microbiology Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). RESULTS: Workers with the highest exposure reported more HP-like symptoms (OR = 9.6), as did intermediate exposure workers (OR = 6.5), compared to workers with no aerosolized water exposure. Two of 13 environmental isolates were closely related to one of the patient isolates. CONCLUSIONS: Workers were likely exposed during spray cleaning of cartridge filters in a poorly ventilated work space. Recommendations include inhibiting organism growth in spa systems, assuring the use of respiratory protection, and adequately ventilating work spaces where filters and equipment are cleaned.

Moraga-McHaley SA; Landen M; Krapfl H; Sewell CM

2013-01-01

297

Os trabalhadores do conhecimento num setor tradicional: o caso dos designers do vestuário/ Knowledge workers in a traditional sector: the case of clothes designers/ Les travailleurs de la connaissance dans un secteur traditionnel: le cas des designers de vêtements/ Los trabajadores del conocimiento en un sector tradicional: el caso de los diseñadores de vestuario  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A reestruturação do trabalho no setor da indústria, resultante do desenvolvimento da ?sociedade do conhecimento?, provocou importantes mudanças nas organizações e nos seus trabalhadores. Um dos principais setores que tem vindo a sofrer alterações bruscas nos últimos anos é o da indústria transformadora. O subsetor do vestuário foi dos primeiros a utilizar diferentes formas de flexibilidade com o objetivo de se manter competitivo. Este artigo analisa este pro (more) cesso de mudança e os seus efeitos nas ?profissões do conhecimento? na indústria, nomeadamente a sua aplicação ao grupo profissional dos designers do vestuário. Para compreender o impacto da reestruturação do trabalho no grupo estudado analisam-se as mudanças que ocorreram nas suas condições de trabalho, qualificações e competências, uso do conhecimento, identidade profissional e trajetórias de carreira. Abstract in spanish La reestructuración del trabajo en el sector de la industria, resultante del desarrollo de la ?sociedad del conocimiento?, provocó importantes cambios en las organizaciones y en sus trabajadores. Uno de los principales sectores que han sufrido alteraciones bruscas en los últimos años es el de la industria transformadora. El subsector de vestuario, fue de los primeros en utilizar diferentes formas de flexibilidad con el objetivo de mantenerse competitivo. Éste artí (more) culo analiza este proceso de cambio y sus efectos en las ?profesiones del conocimiento? en la industria, particularmente a su aplicación al grupo profesional de los diseñadores de vestuario. Para comprender el impacto de la reestructuración del trabajo en el grupo estudiado analizaremos los cambios que ocurrieron en sus condiciones de trabajo, grados de estudio y competencias, uso del conocimiento, identidad profesional y trayectorias de carrera. Abstract in english The restructuring of work in the industrial sector brought about by the development of the ?knowledge society? has led important changes in organisations and their workers. The transforming industry is one of the main sectors that have undergone abrupt changes in the last few years. The clothing subsector was one of the first to use different forms of flexibility in order to remain competitive. This article analyses this change process and its effects on the industry's (more) ?knowledge professions?, particularly in terms of its application to the professional group ?clothes designers?. In order to understand the impact that the restructuring of their work has had on this group, the authors analyse the changes that have taken place in their working conditions, qualifications and skills, use of knowledge, professional identity and career trajectories.

Paulos, Margarida Ramires; Moniz, António Brandão

2013-05-01

298

Reducing chemical exposures in nail salons through owner and worker trainings: an exploratory intervention study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Nail salons represent a rapidly growing industry with mainly Vietnamese immigrant workers. Workers routinely handle nail products containing hazardous compounds, yet have limited accessible information to minimize workplace exposures. METHODS: We conducted a culturally appropriate pilot intervention on workplace chemical exposure reduction strategies. We trained eight Vietnamese owners, who then trained Vietnamese workers in their salons. We conducted pre-, mid-, and post-intervention assessments with workers, including an in-person survey and personal air monitoring of volatile compounds. RESULTS: Survey results suggested statistically significant increases for chemical knowledge and behavioral changes in glove and mask use, and a reduced prevalence of nose, throat, and skin irritations. Air monitoring results showed a net reduction for methyl methacrylate and total volatile organic compounds, but not for toluene. CONCLUSIONS: Worker education disseminated through salon owners to their workers can improve work-related knowledge, behavior, health symptoms, and exposures for select air contaminants, although more research is warranted.

Quach T; Varshavsky J; Von Behren J; Garcia E; Tong M; Nguyen T; Tran A; Gunier R; Reynolds P

2013-07-01

299

Knowledge typology for imprecise probabilities.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When characterizing the reliability of a complex system there are often gaps in the data available for specific subsystems or other factors influencing total system reliability. At Los Alamos National Laboratory we employ ethnographic methods to elicit expert knowledge when traditional data is scarce. Typically, we elicit expert knowledge in probabilistic terms. This paper will explore how we might approach elicitation if methods other than probability (i.e., Dempster-Shafer, or fuzzy sets) prove more useful for quantifying certain types of expert knowledge. Specifically, we will consider if experts have different types of knowledge that may be better characterized in ways other than standard probability theory.

Wilson, G. D. (Gregory D.); Zucker, L. J. (Lauren J.)

2002-01-01

300

Rethinking Human Resource Strategies: A Shift in the Treatment of Contingent Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contingent workers fulfill valuable organizational needs and have functioned as knowledge resources fororganizations. Despite their contributions, the literature suggests that a difference in treatment exists betweencontingent and standard workers in terms of onboarding, pay for performance, and training and developmentpractices within organizations. This paper presents an empirically testable framework that argues for a shift inHR strategies that will allow for equality in treatment between standard and contingent workers withinorganizations.

Tekeisha Zimmerman; Mariya Gavrilova-Aguilar; Princess Cullum

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Lead contamination of paint remediation workers' vehicles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exposure to lead has been shown to be harmful to adults; it is a teratogen, it can damage the peripheral nervous system, and it adversely affects the reproductive system. Professional lead-based paint remediation workers are at risk of exposure to lead dust. The authors' study was conducted to determine if these remediation workers transfer lead from their work site to their vehicles and then potentially expose their families. It was hypothesized that remediation workers transported the lead from the remediation work site to the floorboards of their vehicles due to not following required protective equipment use. The laboratory's level of quantitation for lead on the wipe samples, 10 microg/ft2, was used to indicate lead contamination. This level was exceeded in 50% of the floorboards sampled. These results confirm that many vehicle floorboards used by remediation workers are contaminated with lead dust, potentially resulting in transfer of lead dust. The ultimate detrimental outcome could be the transfer of lead particles to other family members, causing the poisoning of a child or other at-risk person.

Boraiko C; Wright EM; Ralston F

2013-03-01

302

A new glove for glovebox workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lead-lined gloves used during the processing of nuclear materials within gloveboxes is an example of a barrier. To help prevent work contamination, current practice includes visual inspection and radiological monitoring of each glove on a regular basis. One administrative control requires radiological workers to monitor their hands upon removal form the glovebox gloves. In reality, either a catastrophic glove failure or the formation of pinholes can cause contamination which is detected after the fact. Real-time monitoring of glove integrity during use would help prevent the spread of contamination, minimize decontamination costs, and protect the glovebox worker. Another benefit of real-time monitoring is remotely alerting proper personnel of a glovebox glove breech. One of the most exciting aspects of this technology is the rapid detection of a breech in the glovebox glove. A puncture to a glove can be detected followed by an alert to a worker in less than a second. The benefits of a real-time monitoring system for glove integrity are immense. Examples of benefits using this new glove are: reducing work stoppage, personnel contamination, glovebox glove replacements, and the filing of costly reports. The primary application of this technology at Los Alamos National Laboratory would be protecting the worker with these newly designed lead-lined gloves.

Macdonald, J.M.; Nekimken, H.L.; Hermes, R.E.; Castro, J.M.; Evans, M.E.

1996-10-01

303

Healthy radiation workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A recent study of health records of the workforce at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), has shown that radiation workers have lower mortality rates from all causes and from all cancers than the general population. The Lucas Heights data cover more than 7000 past and present employees, from 1957-1998. This study was part of a research programme being carried out in conjunction with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in France and its results add to the much larger pool of data already held by IARC. This finding of the Australian study is similar to the findings of epidemiological studies of the health of workers who have been exposed to low levels of ionising radiation in the course of their occupations elsewhere in the world, and has often been explained as the healthy worker effect. According to this argument, it is reasonable to expect that any group of workers should be more healthy than an average group (with the same age and sex distribution) from the general population. After all, they must at least be healthy enough to get out of bed regularly and go to work. The purpose of the present paper is to ask whether this is the whole story.

2002-01-01

304

Upgrade Training for Employed Workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The study focused on upgrade training for nonsupervisory and nonprofessional employees, people whose work falls under a wide range of classifications such as skilled crafts workers, clerical personnel, sales or customer service workers, service employees,...

M. Kane A. S. Meltzer

1990-01-01

305

Knowledge and attitude of medical science students toward hepatitis B and C infections  

Science.gov (United States)

The present survey aimed to determine the knowledge level and attitude of medical students in Guilan University toward Hepatitis B and C viruses’ infections. In a cross-sectional survey, the knowledge and attitude of 424 medical science undergraduate students of nursing, midwifery, operating room technician, laboratory, anesthesiology and radiology in Guilan University of Medical Sciences toward Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were investigated using a standardized questionnaire. The mean (SD) knowledge level of the medical students toward HBV and HCV were 17 ± 5 from 28 and 10.58 ± 6.7 from 29 questions respectively. Females, nursing students, forth year students, those who worked in hospital and those who had needle stick injuries (NSI) history showed significantly higher knowledge scores toward HBV (P< 0.05). Married students, anesthesiology students, those who were in their fourth year of study, and those who worked in hospital had significantly higher mean knowledge scores toward HCV (P< 0.05). Also students’ attitude toward HBV and HCV was positively correlated with their mean knowledge level (r=0.14, p=0.004), (r=0.18, p=0.0001). Education on the nature, symptoms, transmission, prevention and treatment of HBV and HCV infections may increase the willingness of health care workers to care for infected persons.

Mansour-Ghanaei, Roya; Joukar, Farahnaz; Souti, Fatemeh; Atrkar-Roushan, Zahra

2013-01-01

306

Knowledge and attitude of medical science students toward hepatitis B and C infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present survey aimed to determine the knowledge level and attitude of medical students in Guilan University toward Hepatitis B and C viruses' infections. In a cross-sectional survey, the knowledge and attitude of 424 medical science undergraduate students of nursing, midwifery, operating room technician, laboratory, anesthesiology and radiology in Guilan University of Medical Sciences toward Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were investigated using a standardized questionnaire. The mean (SD) knowledge level of the medical students toward HBV and HCV were 17 ± 5 from 28 and 10.58 ± 6.7 from 29 questions respectively. Females, nursing students, forth year students, those who worked in hospital and those who had needle stick injuries (NSI) history showed significantly higher knowledge scores toward HBV (P< 0.05). Married students, anesthesiology students, those who were in their fourth year of study, and those who worked in hospital had significantly higher mean knowledge scores toward HCV (P< 0.05). Also students' attitude toward HBV and HCV was positively correlated with their mean knowledge level (r=0.14, p=0.004), (r=0.18, p=0.0001). Education on the nature, symptoms, transmission, prevention and treatment of HBV and HCV infections may increase the willingness of health care workers to care for infected persons. PMID:23573351

Mansour-Ghanaei, Roya; Joukar, Farahnaz; Souti, Fatemeh; Atrkar-Roushan, Zahra

2013-03-21

307

Knowledge and attitude of medical science students toward hepatitis B and C infections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present survey aimed to determine the knowledge level and attitude of medical students in Guilan University toward Hepatitis B and C viruses' infections. In a cross-sectional survey, the knowledge and attitude of 424 medical science undergraduate students of nursing, midwifery, operating room technician, laboratory, anesthesiology and radiology in Guilan University of Medical Sciences toward Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were investigated using a standardized questionnaire. The mean (SD) knowledge level of the medical students toward HBV and HCV were 17 ± 5 from 28 and 10.58 ± 6.7 from 29 questions respectively. Females, nursing students, forth year students, those who worked in hospital and those who had needle stick injuries (NSI) history showed significantly higher knowledge scores toward HBV (P< 0.05). Married students, anesthesiology students, those who were in their fourth year of study, and those who worked in hospital had significantly higher mean knowledge scores toward HCV (P< 0.05). Also students' attitude toward HBV and HCV was positively correlated with their mean knowledge level (r=0.14, p=0.004), (r=0.18, p=0.0001). Education on the nature, symptoms, transmission, prevention and treatment of HBV and HCV infections may increase the willingness of health care workers to care for infected persons.

Mansour-Ghanaei R; Joukar F; Souti F; Atrkar-Roushan Z

2013-01-01

308

- Construction Workers’ Satisfaction with Work Provision Requirement Dimensions in Ghana’s Construction Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper, sought to empirically assess and analyze workers’ satisfaction with different dimensions of work provision requirement of the construction industry in Ghana. It involved a cross-sectional survey that used a self-administered structured questionnaire administered to five hundred respondents of building construction workers. The findings indicate that though workers are satisfied with some work provision requirement dimension items significantly, most of the workers are very dissatisfied with working environment and work benefit of the work provision requirement in Ghana. The management of construction firms in Ghana and policy makers are called upon to focus and redirect attention and effort to ensuring that work provision requirement that workers are dissatisfied with are improved significantly to meet workers expectations. The paper contributes to the general body of knowledge in the area of workers’ satisfaction in developing countries particularly in Ghana’s construction industry. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

Humphrey Danso

2012-01-01

309

Knowledge about occupational latex allergy amongst Thai nurses and student nurses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glove usage, particularly powdered latex glove is a cause of latex allergy in hospital workers; therefore those workers must have latex allergy knowledge to protect themselves and patients from serious health problems. This study aimed to examine knowledge about latex allergy among nurses and compar...

Chompunuch Supapvanich; Andrew Povey; Frank de Vocht

310

Triggering meaningful change : human resource management and health worker performance in an AIDS-endemic setting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis intends to contribute to building evidence and expanding the knowledge base in the field of Human Resource Management (HRM) and health worker performance in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). It identifies the impact of HIV/AIDS on health workers, explores the factors influencing mo...

Dieleman, M.A.

311

Community Health Worker. Program Manual.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prepared to provide specific and detailed information that can be utilized by persons involved in setting up and/or already involved in the process of providing training for community health workers, the guide is divided into seven sections: (1) Philosophy and Description of Community Health Worker Role; (2) A Community Health Worker Looks at the…

Perales, Aurora, Ed.; And Others

312

Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Farm Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

... DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 2001-111 Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Farm Workers Farm work is hard work, ... workers' bodies workers' earnings growers' profits Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Farm Workers [PDF - 1,521 KB] Email ...

313

Knowledge Channels  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, we present a new framework to extract knowledgefrom today's non-semantic web. It associates semantics with theinformation extracted, which improves agent interoperability; it can alsodeal with changes to the structure of a web page, which improves adaptability;furthermore, it achieves to delegate the knowledge extractionprocedure to specialist agents, easing software development and promotingsoftware reuse and maintainability.

J. L. Arjona; R. Corchuelo; D. Ruiz; J. Pena; M. Toro

314

An Exploratory Study of Mobile Computing Use by Knowledge Workers  

CERN Document Server

This paper describes some preliminary results from a 20-week study on the use of Compaq iPAQ Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) by 10 senior developers, analysts, technical managers, and senior organisational managers. The goal of the study was to identify what applications were used, how and where they were used, the problems and issues that arose, and how use of the iPAQs changed over the study period. The paper highlights some interesting uses of the iPAQs, and identifies some of the characteristics of successful mobile applications.

Prekop, P

2003-01-01

315

O exame preventivo do câncer cérvico-uterino: conhecimento e significado para as funcionárias de uma escola de enfermagem de uma instituição pública El examen preventivo del cancer del cuello uterino: conocimineto y significado para las empleadas de una escuela de enfermería de una institución publica Screening of cervix-uterine cancer: knowledge and meaning for workers from a public nursing school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Trata-se de estudo descritivo exploratório, realizado em uma Escola de Enfermagem, do qual participam 63 funcionárias não docentes. Teve como objetivos verificar seus conhecimentos sobre o exame preventivo do câncer cérvico-uterino e conhecer seus sentimentos e expectativas ao submeterem-se a este exame. Os dados foram coletados por meio de formulário sendo que a última questão foi gravada e analisada segundo o referencial teórico metodológico da fenomenologia social. As respostas obtidas permitem repensar sobre atendimento adequado mediante ações humanizadas que consideram o ser em sua totalidade existencial, pertencente a um contexto socioeconômico e cultural.Se trata de un estudio descriptivo-exploratorio realizado en una escuela de enfermería donde trabajan 63 mujeres no docentes. Tubo como objetivos verificar sus conocimientos sobre el examen preventivo del cáncer del cuello uterino y conocer sus sentimientos y expectativas al someterse a este examen. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio del un formulario, siendo que la última cuestión fue gravado y analisada según el referencial teórico-metodológico da la fenomenologia social. Las respuestas obtenidas permiten el repensar sobre la atención adecuada, con acciones humanizadas que consideran el ser humano en su totalidad existencial, que pertenece a un contexto socioeconómico y cultural.This is an exploratory descriptive study, carried out at a nursing school, in which 63 non-teacher workers participated. Its objectives were to check their knowledge about screening of cervix-uterine cancer and to know their feelings and expectations as they undergo this test. A questionnaire was used to collect data and the last question was recorded and analyzed using the social phenomenology theoretical framework. The answers provided information which made it possoble for us to rethink about adequate assistance guided by humanized actions considering the being in this existential entirety and belonging to a social economical cultural context.

Miriam Aparecida Barbosa Merighi; Lina Hamano; Lubiana Guilherme Cavalcante

2002-01-01

316

MALARIA, KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE & PRACTICE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of people about malaria in a semiurban area near Rawalpindi and Islamabad. DESIGN: Descriptive Cross Sectional Study.SETTING: A cross sectional survey was conducted in a semi urban area of model village Humaknear Rawalpindi and Islamabad. METHOD: Universal questionnaire was used to assess theknowledge, attitude and practices about malaria. The head of family (Male or Female) was interviewed bystructured Questionnaire. RESULTS: In 85% of respondents opinion malaria is a dangerous disease and97% were in favor of protective measures against malaria. Regarding the protective measures 56% were infavor of mosquito net. By the use of mosquito net or repellent 98% of respondents attitude was preventionagainst the mosquito bite. 93% respondents answered that they would like to know about details of malariaproblem. Regarding the practices 72% of respondents, family members suffered from malaria during thepast. 70% of respondents, recognized the malaria on their own by recognizing signs and symptoms ofmalaria, and doctor diagnosed 5%. 70% were planning protection from mosquito bite and 5% were doingself-medication. During malaria season 32% were taking Chemoprophylaxis. 66% were planning tosafeguard their family from mosquito bite and 40% were using mosquito nets. 30% of respondents wereusing mosquito repellents when they were going out of home. Those who were using chemical mat 68%were using regularly and 32% were occasional user. CONCLUSION: The study explores that there is needfor more accurate knowledge transmission from media and health workers and effective health educationprograms and energetic malaria control and eradication steps.

Abida Sultana

2001-01-01

317

Advanced Worker Protection System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs.

1996-01-01

318

Advanced Worker Protection System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs.

NONE

1996-04-01

319

Molecular screening of Plasmodium infections among migrant workers in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objective: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Plasmodiuminfections among migrant workers in Thailand.Methods: A total of 241 migrants at Kanchanaburi, Pathumthani and Nakornpathom provinces of Thailand wererecruited in our surveillance. Blood samples were examined for human malaria parasites by using microscopyand semi-nested multiplex PCR (SnM-PCR).Results: Laboratory diagnosis revealed 6.2% total positive rate. As compared to microscopy (26.7%), SnM-PCRwas more sensitive (93.3%) for malaria. Plasmodium falciparum was predominant than P. vivax (53% : 40%,respectively). The majority of positive cases were from Myanmar workers who had low parasitaemia and withoutsymptoms. The highest prevalence (13.7%) was found among migrant workers from Kanchanaburi province inwestern Thailand.Conclusion: These findings indicate risk of malaria transmission from migrant workers. Malaria surveillanceshould be included in the health-screening program for migrants in Thailand to manage this health risk.

Kanyanan Kritsiriwuthinan , Warunee Ngrenngarmlert

2011-01-01

320

Improving occupational health care for construction workers: a process evaluation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the process of a job-specific workers' health surveillance (WHS) in improving occupational health care for construction workers. METHODS: From January to July 2012 were 899 bricklayers and supervisors invited for the job-specific WHS at three locations of one occupational health service throughout the Netherlands. The intervention aimed at detecting signs of work-related health problems, reduced work capacity and/or reduced work functioning. Measurements were obtained using a recruitment record and questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. The process evaluation included the following: reach (attendance rate), intervention dose delivered (provision of written recommendations and follow-up appointments), intervention dose received (intention to follow-up on advice directly after WHS and remembrance of advice three months later), and fidelity (protocol adherence). The workers scored their increase in knowledge from 0-10 with regard to health status and work ability, their satisfaction with the intervention and the perceived (future) effect of such an intervention. Program implementation was defined as the mean score of reach, fidelity, and intervention dose delivered and received. RESULTS: Reach was 9% (77 workers participated), fidelity was 67%, the intervention dose delivered was 92 and 63%, and the intervention dose received was 68 and 49%. The total programme implementation was 58%. The increases in knowledge regarding the health status and work ability of the workers after the WHS were graded as 7.0 and 5.9, respectively. The satisfaction of the workers with the entire intervention was graded as 7.5. The perceived (future) effects on health status were graded as 6.3, and the effects on work ability were graded with a 5.2. The economic recession affected the workers as well as the occupational health service that enacted the implementation. CONCLUSIONS: Programme implementation was acceptable. Low reach, limited protocol adherence and modest engagement of the workers with respect to the intervention were the most prominent aspects that influenced the intervention process. The increase in the workers' knowledge about their health status and work ability was substantial, and the workers' satisfaction with the intervention was good. The perceived effect of the advised preventive actions on health status was sufficient. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register: http://NTR3012.

Boschman JS; van der Molen HF; Sluiter JK; Frings-Dresen MH

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Workers' perception of chemical risks: a focus group study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Workers' perceptions with respect to health and safety at work are rarely taken into account when considering the development of prevention programs. The aim of this study was to explore workers' perceptions of chemical risks at the workplace, in order to investigate the prerequisites for a workplace health program. A qualitative study was conducted involving seven focus groups of 5-10 participants (blue-collar workers) each. All groups were homogeneous in terms of sex, work status, language, and company membership. Results showed that several factors have an important influence on workers' perception of chemical risks. Workers assess risks by means of both sensory and empirical diagnosis and are concerned about the long-term health consequences. They perceive the threat of chemical risks as high. Despite this, they are resigned to accepting the risks. Existing formal sources of information are rarely consulted because they are judged to be difficult to understand and not user friendly. Instead, workers tend to obtain information from informal sources. Communication problems with and lack of trust in prevention advisers and hierarchy are frequently mentioned. Workers feel that their specific knowledge of their working conditions and their proposals for practical, cost-effective solutions to improve health and safety at the workplace are insufficiently taken into account. The use of focus groups yielded a useful insight into workers' perceptions of chemical risks. Our findings suggest that training programs for prevention advisers should include topics such as understanding of workers' perceptions, usefulness of a participatory approach, and communication and education skills. PMID:20846168

Hambach, Ramona; Mairiaux, Philippe; François, Guido; Braeckman, Lutgart; Balsat, Alain; Van Hal, Guido; Vandoorne, Chantal; Van Royen, Paul; van Sprundel, Marc

2010-09-15

322

INTEGRATING THE NON-ELECTRICAL WORKER INTO THE ELECTRICAL SAFETY PROGRAM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The intent of this paper is to demonstrate an electrical safety program that incorporates all workers into the program, not just the electrical workers. It is largely in response to a paper presented at the 2012 ESW by Lanny Floyd entitled "Facilitating Application of Electrical Safety Best Practices to "Other" Workers" which requested all attendees to review their electrical safety program to assure that non-electrical workers were protected as well as electrical workers. The referenced paper indicated that roughly 50% of electrical incidents involve workers whose primary function is not electrical in nature. It also encouraged all to "address electrical safety for all workers and not just workers whose job responsibilities involve working on or near energized electrical circuits." In this paper, a program which includes specific briefings to non-electrical workers as well as to workers who may need to perform their normal activities in proximity to energized electrical conductors is presented. The program uses a targeted approach to specific areas such as welding, excavating, rigging, chart reading, switching, cord and plug equipment and several other general areas to point out hazards that may exist and how to avoid them. NFPA 70E-2004 was incorporated into the program several years ago and with it the need to include the "other" workers became apparent. The site experience over the years supports the assertion that about half of the electrical incidents involve non-electrical workers and this prompted us to develop specific briefings to enhance the knowledge of the non-electrical worker regarding safe electrical practices. The promotion of "May is Electrical Safety Month" and the development of informative presentations which are delivered to the general site population as well as electrical workers have greatly improved the hazards awareness status of the general worker on site.

Mills, T.; Mcalhaney, J.

2012-08-17

323

Etiological explanation, treatability and preventability of childhood autism: a survey of Nigerian healthcare workers' opinion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their peculiar sociocultural background, healthcare workers in sub-Saharan African subcultures may have various conceptions on different aspects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), such as etiology, treatment and issues of prognosis. These various conceptions, if different from current knowledge in literature about ASD, may negatively influence help-seeking behavior of parents of children with ASD who seek advice and information from the healthcare workers. This study assessed the opinions of healthcare workers in Nigeria on aspects of etiology, treatability and preventability of childhood autism, and relates their opinions to the sociodemographic variables. Methods Healthcare workers working in four tertiary healthcare facilities located in the south-east and south-south regions of Nigeria were interviewed with a sociodemographic questionnaire, personal opinion on etiology, treatability and preventability of childhood autism (POETPCA) questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW) questionnaire to assess their knowledge and opinions on various aspects of childhood autism. Results A total of 134 healthcare workers participated in the study. In all, 78 (58.2%), 19 (14.2%) and 36 (26.9%) of the healthcare workers were of the opinion that the etiology of childhood autism can be explained by natural, preternatural and supernatural causes, respectively. One (0.7%) of the healthcare workers was unsure of the explanation of the etiology. Knowledge about childhood autism as measured by scores on the KCAHW questionnaire was the only factor significantly associated with the opinions of the healthcare workers on etiology of childhood autism. In all, 73 (54.5%) and 43 (32.1%), of the healthcare workers subscribed to the opinion that childhood autism is treatable and preventable respectively. Previous involvement with managing children with ASD significantly influenced the opinion of the healthcare workers in subscribing to treatability of childhood autism, while working experience of less than 6 years among the healthcare workers significantly influenced the opinion of the healthcare workers in admitting to believing in the preventability of childhood autism. Conclusion In designing policies and programs to change negative opinions or beliefs of healthcare workers about childhood autism, there is a need for baseline information such as this survey. Changing the negative opinions or beliefs of the healthcare workers about childhood autism should encourage appropriate help-seeking behavior among parents of children with ASD who may be seeking advice or information from the healthcare workers. This would encourage early interventions, which are essential to prognosis of childhood autism.

Bakare Muideen; Agomoh Ahamefule O; Ebigbo Peter O; Eaton Julian; Okonkwo Kevin O; Onwukwe Jojo U; Onyeama Gabriel M

2009-01-01

324

Workers who stay at work despite chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain: do they differ from workers with sick leave?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Most workers with chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain (CMP) do not take sick leave, nor consult a health care professional or search vocational rehabilitation. Yet, the knowledge of many researchers, clinicians and policy makers is largely based on people with CMP who discontinue work. The aim of this study was to explore characteristics of workers who stay at work despite CMP, and to compare these with sick-listed workers with CMP following vocational rehabilitation. METHODS: The clinical characteristics of workers who stay at work despite CMP (n = 119) and sick-listed workers who follow vocational rehabilitation (n = 122) were described and the differences between these groups were assessed. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess differences between the groups and to determine which variables predicted group status. RESULTS: Workers who stayed at work despite CMP reported significantly lower levels of fear avoidance (OR = 0.94), pain catastrophizing (OR = 0.93), perceived workload (OR = 0.93), and higher pain acceptance (OR = 1.11), life control (OR = 1.62) and pain self-efficacy (OR = 1.09) compared to sick-listed workers following rehabilitation, even after controlling for confounders. The groups did not differ on physical activity level, active coping and work satisfaction. Group status was predicted best by pain intensity, duration of pain, pain acceptance, perceived workload, mental health, and psychological distress (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.87-0.95). CONCLUSIONS: A wide range of characteristics of workers who stay at work despite CMP were explored. Relevant differences from sick-listed workers with CMP were observed in all domains of the bio-psycho-social model. Six main predictors were identified that best discriminate between both groups.

de Vries HJ; Reneman MF; Groothoff JW; Geertzen JH; Brouwer S

2012-12-01

325

IMB model in practice: social workers' intentions to change their practice following HIV mental health training.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We identified predictors of social workers' intentions to integrate HIV and mental health care following Information, Motivation, Behavior Change (IMB) model trainings. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to understand applicability of the IMB model in promoting practice change. Significantly greater intentions to integrate care were found among participants who perceived an increase in knowledge (twofold) or who felt more comfortable (nearly fourfold) or capable (nearly fivefold) working with HIV-infected clients. Training that enhances knowledge and motivation enhanced social workers' intentions to change clinical practice. IMB-based training builds social worker capacity to deliver integrated care. The results support utility of the IMB model in enhancing HIV care.

Hackler D; Pinho V; McKinnon K

2013-05-01

326

Knowledge versus National Security: The Case of Androscoggin High School  

Science.gov (United States)

As instructional leaders, principals often make curriculum decisions that balance their community's need for knowledge with the nation's need for knowledge workers. Across the country, school administrators are searching for funding and effective means of infusing more technology, foreign language learning, and global perspectives instruction into…

Doscher, Stephanie Paul

2008-01-01

327

Tritium and workers in fusion devices-lessons learnt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fusion machines from all over the world have contributed to the knowledge accumulated in fusion science. This knowledge has been applied to design new experimental fusion machines and in particular ITER. Only two fusion devices based on magnetic confinement have used deuterium and tritium fuels to-date-the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, in Princeton, USA, and JET, the European tokamak. These machines have demonstrated that the fusion reaction is achievable with these fuels, and have provided valuable lessons on radioprotection-related issues as concerns tritium and workers. Dedicated tritium installations for fusion research and development have also contributed to this knowledge base.

2009-09-01

328

Robust automated knowledge capture.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

2011-10-01

329

Workers of Acromyrmex echinatior leafcutter ants police worker-laid eggs, but not reproductive workers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nonreproductive workers of many eusocial Hymenoptera 'police' the colony, that is, they attack reproductive sister workers or destroy their eggs (unfertilized; developing into haploid males). Several ultimate causes of policing have been proposed, including (1) an increase in colony productivity, applicable if reproductive workers work less, or (2) an increase in worker-to-male relatedness, applicable if within-colony relatedness is low. To explain the distribution of policing across taxa, the explanatory power of these and other potential ultimate causes should be assessed separately. One of the few species for which this can be done is the leafcutter ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We previously demonstrated that colony productivity incentives (and sex ratio incentives) are minimal here, while relatedness incentives are strong because queens are highly multiply mated. Overcoming technical difficulties peculiar to leafcutter ants, we introduced reproductive versus nonreproductive workers and batches of queen-laidversus worker-laid eggs into experimental colony fragments and observed their fate. Our main finding was that workers policed by selectively destroying worker-laid eggs, but without attacking reproductive workers. We infer that relatedness incentives are the most likely ultimate cause of the evolutionary maintenance of worker-egg policing in A. echinatior. (C) 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

Dijkstra, M.B.; van Zweden, J.S.

2010-01-01

330

"Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge" : Approaches to Knowledge Management Practice  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacitknowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individualsin an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization,and managing key individuals as knowledge creators and carriers. By contrast, theexplicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held byindividuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating new knowledge, andthe development of systems (including information systems) to disseminate articulatedknowledge within an organization. The relative advantages and disadvantages of bothapproaches to knowledge management are summarized. A synthesis of tacit andknowledge management approaches is recommended to create a hybrid design for theknowledge management practices in a given organization.

Sanchez, Ron

2004-01-01

331

Physics for radiological workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The graduate of the undergraduate course "Imaging Methods and Applications of IonizingRadiation" can work as a Radiological assistant (e.g. at the hospitals), a Radiological technologist(e.g. at the nuclear power stations) or a Radiological specialist (e.g. for the municipal authorities).The profile of the graduate will be elaborated on the basis of analytical-synthetic modelling.Analytical-synthetic model of the profile enables to find out the role of physics for radiologicalworkers in the framework of the relevant undergraduate course. It will be presented by means ofseveral illustrations of partial topics of physics for radiological workers.

Premysl Zaskodny

2003-01-01

332

Radiological worker training  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

NONE

1998-10-01

333

Radiological worker training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.

1998-01-01

334

Visual status of industrial workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two hundred and eighty four industrial workers were screened to determine their visual acuity. Significant visual impairment was observed in 21.8% individuals and moderate impairment in 34.5% of cases. Convergence insufficiency was a problem in 9.86% of the workers. Since uncorrected refractive errors are a prelude to disastrous workplace related eye injuries, it is recommended that prior to job placement all workers undergo visual acuity screening and get their refractive errors rectified.

Desai Rajiv; Desai Sanjiv; Desai Navin; Kumar K

1990-01-01

335

[Techniques of communication and information-formation of the workers].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Communication has always had a very important role among human activities. Communication is: a Source sending a Message to an Addressee within a Context through a Contact thanks to a Code. In 1965 Umberto Eco developed the concept of Aberrant Decoding that is the wrong decoding of the message by the addressee. As to communication D.Lgs81/08 e s.m.i. fixes the following rules. Information of workers (Art. 36/1)--The employer is responsible for the workers to have the right information about risks for health and safety in their specific workplaces, etc. Formation of workers (Art 37/1)--The employer is responsible for the workers to have adequate and proper formation as to health and safety with regard to linguistic knowledge. Therefore it is really important for a Company to establish real communication between management and workers and among workers, to have a frequent feedback and to let information circulate in order to have all safety regulations followed properly.

Tomei G; Tomei F; Fiaschetti M; Fantini S; Caciari T; Sancini A

2010-10-01

336

Workers' participation and occupational health: the French experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In France, workers' participation in occupational health was organized for the first time in 1947, when Hygiene and Safety Committees were created. However, these committees remained ineffective in many firms for more than 20 years. Their role and power were greatly extended in 1976; in 1982, the Auroux Laws gave wage-earners new rights, mainly rights of expression. Here too, the way these laws have been put into operation varies a lot. Generally speaking, a great many regulations and laws exist that should give workers very good protection, but control systems are weak, and wage-earners' information on health is insufficient. Workers' participation is generally set up through trade unions, which are more often nationwide than locally organized. Workers' membership in unions is rather weak. The recent creation and development of quality circles in many firms, controlled by the company, give a false impression of workers' freedom of speech and do not really improve participation. But recent social movements have shown that people increasingly wish to express themselves and to deal with their own employers without any go-between. Nevertheless, participation will become effective only if workers' knowledge is taken into account, if they are trained in analysis and expression, and if their suggestions are seriously considered.

Cassou B; Pissarro B

1988-01-01

337

Workers' participation and occupational health: the French experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

In France, workers' participation in occupational health was organized for the first time in 1947, when Hygiene and Safety Committees were created. However, these committees remained ineffective in many firms for more than 20 years. Their role and power were greatly extended in 1976; in 1982, the Auroux Laws gave wage-earners new rights, mainly rights of expression. Here too, the way these laws have been put into operation varies a lot. Generally speaking, a great many regulations and laws exist that should give workers very good protection, but control systems are weak, and wage-earners' information on health is insufficient. Workers' participation is generally set up through trade unions, which are more often nationwide than locally organized. Workers' membership in unions is rather weak. The recent creation and development of quality circles in many firms, controlled by the company, give a false impression of workers' freedom of speech and do not really improve participation. But recent social movements have shown that people increasingly wish to express themselves and to deal with their own employers without any go-between. Nevertheless, participation will become effective only if workers' knowledge is taken into account, if they are trained in analysis and expression, and if their suggestions are seriously considered. PMID:3346114

Cassou, B; Pissarro, B

1988-01-01

338

The Influence of Organizational Culture on Organizational Learning, Worker Involvement and Worker Productivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the probable correspondence among organizational culture, organizational learning, and worker involvement and worker productivity. A qualitative research design was utilized. The author investigated 40 enterprises and 4 structured questionnaires were distributed with enterprises to be filled out. This resulted in 160 responses. There were 63 organizations selected for this study, but only 40 showed interest and participated in the research representing about a 63.49% response rate of the collection of data that we found important for a developing economy like Ivory Coast. A descriptive analysis and econometrics tools were utilized to appreciate the correlation amongst the variables. The findings of this study revealed that there is a significant correlation amongst the different variables. Keywords: Human Resource Management; Organizational Performance; Knowledge Management; Work Environment; Abidjan (Ivory Coast).

Kodjo Joseph

2009-01-01

339

Occupational risk among orchard workers: a descriptive study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Orchard workers are exposed to an array of occupational health and safety hazards that result in injury, illness, and, in some cases, death. The purpose of this qualitative study was to identify and explore factors that contribute to occupational risks related to orchard work. Twenty-five Hispanic orchard workers were interviewed. They reported that the most common type of accident was falls, usually from a ladder; and the most common injuries were strains and sprains. Three broad categories of factors that contributed to the occurrence of such injuries were Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors; Work-Related Factors; and Factors External to Work.

Salazar MK; Keifer M; Negrete M; Estrada F; Synder K

2005-07-01

340

Knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge in school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of school knowledge from the point of view of scientific knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge. The starting point is that neither school nor curricula pay attention to what knowledge is, what types of knowledge there are, and what kind of relationship exists between knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge. The first part offers an answer to the question what knowledge is. In the second part presented are some theoretical viewpoints on knowledge: gnoseological, sociological and psychological. The third part deals with the notions of ignorance and "faulty" knowledge. Pointed out are some forms of mystical ignorance. The forms of faulty knowledge are: erroneous notions, prejudices, illusions. In the final part, the author considers their relationship in school education. The starting point is that ignorance is a predecessor of any knowledge. The difference between knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge exists in every system of school education, but differs in extent and mode when it comes to nature, society, man and art. The author maintains that school should not be defined as an absolute carrier of knowledge, or the system of foolproof knowledge that the student should acquire uncritically. Instead of absolute confidence in scientific knowledge, the paper concludes with suggesting the option of an "elastic form" of school knowledge. This is a type of knowledge which, in its programme, counts on both ignorance and faulty knowledge and their differing roles in studying and real life of students.

Avramovi? Zoran

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify the design, OSS was able to develop and successfully test, in both the lab and in the field, a prototype AWPS. They clearly demonstrated that a system which provides cooling can significantly increase worker productivity by extending the time they can function in a protective garment. They were also able to develop mature outer garment and LCG designs that provide considerable benefits over current protective equipment, such as self donning and doffing, better visibility, and machine washable. A thorough discussion of the activities performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 is presented in the AWPS Final Report. The report also describes the current system design, outlines the steps needed to certify the AWPS, discusses the technical and programmatic issues that prevented the system from being certified, and presents conclusions and recommendations based upon the seven year effort.

2001-01-01

342

ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify the design, OSS was able to develop and successfully test, in both the lab and in the field, a prototype AWPS. They clearly demonstrated that a system which provides cooling can significantly increase worker productivity by extending the time they can function in a protective garment. They were also able to develop mature outer garment and LCG designs that provide considerable benefits over current protective equipment, such as self donning and doffing, better visibility, and machine washable. A thorough discussion of the activities performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 is presented in the AWPS Final Report. The report also describes the current system design, outlines the steps needed to certify the AWPS, discusses the technical and programmatic issues that prevented the system from being certified, and presents conclusions and recommendations based upon the seven year effort.

Judson Hedgehock

2001-03-16

343

Influence of Intangible Motivation Factors on Workers’ Labour Behavior Formation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is an opinion that Ukrainian workers can be motivated only by money, therefore, money is the most important motivation. However more theorists and practical workers in the sphere of personnel management including V. Sladkevych, E. Utkin, Yu. Domin and others do not agree with this statement, but there are often such situations, when quite high payment level and use of various financial factors practically do not influence on the labour intensity of workers.The reason of dependence decline between a financial reward and labour intensity consists in that the workers differ widely from their attitude and perception of the mentioned type of stimuli. It is marked, that with the growth of financial prosperity, age and education the value of money is diminishing among the motivating factors. Another argument in favour of intangible motivation consists in that many existing necessities of people are met exactly by intangible stimuli. Nowadays in accordance with the specialists’ estimations, the number of workers who prefer the intangible motivation is constantly growing. The response to changes in the structure of reasons lead to the appearance of numerous modern concepts which emphasize the necessity of application of new approaches which increase the social and production activity of workers. To these concepts specialists ascribe the theories of labour life quality, enrichment of labour content, labour humanization, participation of workers.The career planning is considered by many authors as the important factor of motivation. The promotion and knowledge of your growth prospects is a necessity which people aim to meet in the process of labour activity. The feeling of dependence between the level of work efficiency and promotion contributes to the labour activity of workers.

I. Hruzina

2010-01-01

344

Illegal Aliens: Influence of Illegal Workers on Wages and Working Conditions of Legal Workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Do illegal alien workers depress wages and worsen working conditions for native or legal workers (Wage data on illegal workers, Findings, Wage data on workers in communities that differed on the presence of international migrants, Case study dat...

1988-01-01

345

Laboratory Reagents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Replaced by WMH-310, Section 4.17. This document outlined the basic methodology for preparing laboratory reagents used in the 222-S Standards Laboratory. Included were general guidelines for drying, weighing, transferring, dissolving, and diluting techniques common when preparing laboratory reagents and standards. Appendix A contained some of the reagents prepared by the laboratory.

CARLSON, D.D.

1999-10-08

346

Do hornets have zombie workers?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Colonies of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, are typically founded by a single queen mated to a single male. From the resulting colony relatedness pattern we predicted strong worker-queen conflict over male production where both the workers and the queen attempt to produce the colony's males. To test for this conflict, male production was studied in 15 hornet nests using a combination of DNA microsatellite analysis (282 males), worker ovary dissections (500 workers from eight nests) and 50 h of observation (four nests). In contrast to our prediction, the data show that hornet males are queens' sons, that workers never attempt to lay eggs, rarely have activated ovaries, and that there is no direct aggression between the queen and the workers. This contrasts with other data for vespine wasps, which support relatedness predictions. Dolichovespula arenaria has the same kin structure as V. crabro and workers produce males in many colonies. The similarity between these two species makes it difficult to explain why workers do not reproduce in V. crabro. Self-restraint is expected if worker reproduction significantly reduces colony productivity but there is no obvious reason why this should be important to V. crabro but not to D. arenaria. Alternatively, queen control may be important. The absence of expressed queen-worker conflict rules out physical control. Indirect pheromonal control is a possibility and is supported by the occurrence of royal courts and queen pheromone in Vespa but not Dolichovespula. Pheromonal queen control is considered evolutionarily unstable, but could result from a queen-worker arms race over reproductive control in which the queen is ahead. The genetic data also revealed diploid males in one colony, the first example in the vespine wasps, and two colonies with double matrilines, suggesting that occasional usurpation by spring queens occurs.

Foster KR; Ratnieks FL; Raybould AF

2000-06-01

347

Collective Learning in the Workplace: Important Knowledge Sharing Behaviours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we identify a set of learning practices adopted by knowledge workers as they learn at work. We examine how key knowledge sharing behaviours: consuming, connecting, creating and contributing knowledge, are associated with these learning practices. Each learning practice brings together a combination of these components to form a distinct learning pathway, providing a baseline for rethinking combinations of practices for more effective learning and development in the workplace.

Anoush Margarayn; Allison Littlejohn; Colin Milligan