An increasing number of countries have shifted, or are shifting, towards the knowledge-based economy. For these countries, including Malaysia, the quality of knowledge workers is extremely important in determining the pace and success of such transition. Thus, training is often carried out to improve the skills of knowledge workers at the workplace. But despite its importance, research on knowledge worker training is extremely limited. This study seeks to partially fill this gap in the litera...
Rutty, G. N.; Honavar, M.; Doshi, B.
In 1989 an increased risk of cancer, with a higher than expected incidence of brain tumours, was reported in laboratory workers at the Pasteur Institute, Paris. Three cases of primary brain tumours occurring in three laboratory workers from one laboratory in a district general hospital also came to light. Although this may have been due to coincidence or geographic clustering, the need for stringent safety standards in all laboratories is reiterated, and it is proposed that a national registe...
Laboratory training is a proven method of providing and evaluating hands on skills and knowledge. In an attempt to maximize the effectiveness of radiation worker training of craft personnel, a program consisting of classroom training coupled with a novel laboratory mock-up was generated utilizing the ingenuity of technical skills trainers while minimizing cost. Program development and the results of trainee feedback are presented
Telemtaev Marat Makhmetovich
Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is the creation of model of knowledge of the worker of the enterprise and the concept of the market of knowledge of the enterprise and the market of knowledge of a society of knowledge. To purpose achievement it is applied complete-approach of Telemtaev M.M. The contradiction between the market in environment of the enterprise and absence of the market in the internal environment of the enterprise is shown. The role of capitalization of knowledge is shown. A number of new results is received. The general model of knowledge of the worker of the enterprise, and three private models of knowledge of the worker entering into it are developed. The Principle of complete-thinking and practice of the worker and the Principle of the organic replenishments of knowledge of the worker are formulated. It is established that a kernel of complete model of knowledge of the worker is set «ability and skill». The concept of technology of the market of knowledge of the enterprise is developed. As a methodological basis of technology of the market of knowledge the Law of industrialization of knowledge, the Law of mechanization of knowledge, the Law technologization knowledge, the Principle of enrichment of knowledge are formulated. Conditions of interaction of the worker and knowledge - PMK-literacy of the worker and FPI-availability of knowledge are established. The received results are sufficient for construction of base models of knowledge of workers and the concept of the market of knowledge of the concrete enterprise that allows the enterprise to create strategy of effective application of knowledge of workers and to develop advancing strategy of occurrence in the market of a society of knowledge.
Wilhelm Jordaan; Margie Sutherland
One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do n...
Roelof, van Staden; Adeline, du Toit.
Full Text Available The demand for knowledge workers is on the increase, yet little is known about their career perceptions and attitudes. The objective of this article is to determine the factors affecting the career development of knowledge workers in South Africa. Part-time learners of a postgraduate course were use [...] d as a purposive sample and 82 completed questionnaires were received. The results of the online survey provide an interesting look at the unique career issues knowledge workers experience from a South African perspective. Issues identified dealt with the lack of importance placed upon organisational training, the lack of interest in temporary work assignments and the low importance placed on learning from mentors. Organisations need to take note of their reward structures as knowledge workers have indicated that promotions and rewards based on their knowledge is insufficient.
Full Text Available One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do not predict knowledge workers’ proposed future length of service.Factor analysis revealed seven underlying dimensions of retention cognitions. Cluster analysis revealed nine distinct clusters of knowledge workers with regard to their retention cognitions. High levels of individualism, need for challenge and focus on personal development were demonstrated. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Een van die eienskappe van kenniswerkers is hulle hoë vlak van mobiliteit. Die koste van arbeidsomset van hierdie sleutelbronne is hoog in beide finansiële en nie-finansiële terme. Daar bestaan dus ’n behoefte om die faktore wat onderliggend is aan die retensiekognisies van kenniswerkers te verstaan. Data is ingesamel van 306 kenniswerkers in voltydse diens wat ’n wye reeks demografiese groeperings verteenwoordig. Die resultate dui daarop dat werktevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid nie die kenniswerkers se verwagte lengte van diens voorspel nie. Faktorontleding het sewe onderliggende dimensies van retensiekognisies blootgelê. ’n Bondelontleding het nege duidelike bondels van kenniswerkers ten opsigte van hulle retensiekognisies onderskei. Hoë vlakke van individualisme, behoefte aan uitdaging en fokus op persoonlike ontwikkeling is aangedui. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.
How do students learn in the classroom? How can teachers best utilize new and emerging technologies in the classroom? What can teachers do to seamlessly incorporate technology into the learning experience? These are all questions that are asked by The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching’s Knowledge Media Laboratory. On their website, users can learn about their work with communities of teachers, faculty, programs, and institutions over the past several years, and also look over some of their informative case studies. The Gallery of Teaching and Learning is a good place to start one’s exploration of the site, as it contains a number of exhibitions that look at how web-based tools can be used in teaching and how scholarship may change as a result of an increasingly networked milieu. One seminal resource on the site is the KEEP Toolkit. With the Toolkit, teachers and others can create engaging knowledge representations on the web for their own use. For visitors who might feel a bit overwhelmed by this, there is also a nice tutorial that explains how the Toolkit can be used.
How to manage knowledge workers effectively is an important project for most managers. Because of knowledge workers’ different characteristics from common workers, the effective management for them should be based on their unique characteristics. Therefore, a systematic, comprehensive, and pertinent management strategy is necessary.
This paper reviews existing literature on motivation and knowledge work, and empirical studies in different environments and industries on knowledge work and worker. It also surveys 150 Nigerian knowledge workers with diverse characteristics. It holds that the optimal strategies for managing and motivating knowledge workers are job redesign to increase the intrinsic motivational value of the jobs; competitive financial rewards, empowerment and flexibility, equity, fairness, respect and regard...
Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at high risk of developing skin cancer. Primary prevention can potentiallyreduce the incidence of skin cancer in this group. This study aimed to determine theknowledge and sun protective behaviour of outdoor workers towards skin cancer. A shortquestionnaire was used to collect data from workers on construction sites during workinghours. Despite workers having knowledge of the risks of skin cancer their use of sun protectionwas less than satisfactory, particularly considering their cumulative exposure.Workplace health education programs for outdoor workers addressing sun protection areindicated, as is further research to increase understanding of issues workers have withsun protection in the workplace.
Mitchell, Rebecca; Meacheam, David
Purpose: The growing prominence of knowledge workers in contemporary organisations has led to a considerable amount of research into their role and activities, however, despite this growing interest, there remains a lack of clarity regarding the relationship of knowledge workers to management. This paper aims to respond by investigating the…
Full Text Available Due to the expansion of crop productions there has been an increase in the fertilizersâ?? use by farmers in Malaysia. Recently Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP is gaining attention within agricultural sector. The Department of Agriculture facilitates regular delivery of SAP knowledge to farmers through extension workers. However extension workersâ?? perceptions and knowledge on SAP is not known well in Malaysia. A survey of extension workers was conducted in peninsular Malaysia to identify their perceptions and knowledge about SAP and determine the extent to which extension workers communicate SAP to the farmers. A descriptive research design was used to collect data from 400 extension workers. Results suggest extension workersâ?? perceptions and knowledge of SAP are favorable. Extension workers indicated that they communicate SAP information to the farmers. Further investigation from farmersâ?? perspectives is required to discover to what extent extension plays significant role in promoting adoption of the program.
Arnetz, Bengt B.; Broadbridge, Carissa L.; Ghosh, Samiran
Objective Increasingly, workers in the service, welfare, and health care sectors suffer adverse effects (ie, depression, burnout, etc) of “low-energy syndromes.” Less is known about energy-based outcomes among knowledge workers. This study aimed to identify determinants of self-rated energy in knowledge workers and examine how these determinants change over time. Methods In collaboration with a large union and employer federation, 317 knowledge workers in Sweden responded to the health and productivity survey three times. Results At each assessment, worry, satisfaction with eating habits, and work-effectiveness were predictive of energy levels; however, only work-effectiveness covaried with energy over time. Conclusions This study suggests that perceived work-effectiveness is an important factor in preventing knowledge workers from experiencing “low-energy syndromes.” Lifestyle factors also play a role. Therefore, multifaceted interventions for increasing energy are needed. PMID:24351892
Full Text Available This paper reviews existing literature on motivation and knowledge work, and empirical studies in different environments and industries on knowledge work and worker. It also surveys 150 Nigerian knowledge workers with diverse characteristics. It holds that the optimal strategies for managing and motivating knowledge workers are job redesign to increase the intrinsic motivational value of the jobs; competitive financial rewards, empowerment and flexibility, equity, fairness, respect and regard; a conducive environment that would enable them to bloom and exercise their intellect unhindered, including making mistakes and learning from it in a connected organisation; leadership practices that are responsive to their peculiarities; a leader that is a coach, mentor and enabler and who should be able to convincingly explain why a knowledge worker should agree to be managed by him, and an organizational structure that is devoid of undue bureaucracy and protocols and frees them for optimal performance.
Full Text Available Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview . Results: The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (?10.7. When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s, all the workers agreed that dye(s will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE such as rubber hand gloves during work. Conclusion: The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.
Khoury, A E
Ulrich in the forward to the Zenger and Folkman (2002) book, ''The Extraordinary Leader'', wrote about the importance of character in leadership stating, ''Everything about great leaders radiates from character. Character improves the probability of exhibiting strong interpersonal skill. Some of this perceived character is innate . . . but more is driven by the leader's self-awareness and interactions with others'' (p. ix). The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership effectiveness and character using leader-managers of knowledge workers as the subject sample. Findings indicated that character, particularly those factors associated with honesty, setting the example, and valuing and strengthening others, were what set the most effective leader-managers apart from their peers. Technical competence and self-efficacy were found to be common characteristics of the study sample as was a drive for results. Who a leader-manager is, his/her substance, was found in this study to differentiate the ''best'' leader-managers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By their character, leader-managers establish the environment in which knowledge workers contribute and grow. As found by Pfeiffer (2000), Leaders of companies that experience smaller gaps between what they know and what they do (to turn knowledge into action), understand that their most important task is not necessarily to make strategic decisions, or, for that matter any decisions at all. Their task is to help build systems of practice that produce a more reliable transformation of knowledge into action. Leaders create environments, reinforce norms, and help set expectations through what they do. (p. 261) In other words, as confirmed by this research study, their task is to model the way. Study results also confirmed Ulrich's (1996) supposition that to create the ''air'' in which employees work, leaders have the personal characteristics that engender trust and commitment. In other words, as study results confirmed, the most effective leader-managers establish trusting relationships and strengthen others--they enable others; and, are just, fair, sincere, and recognize contributions--they encourage the heart. Based on study findings, the leadership development model proposed was founded on the premise that character can be developed, particularly if done so through assessment and challenging assignments, with coaching, mentoring, and peer network support. However, development of character requires a shift in our leadership development programs. What causes this shift is a focus on learning by doing through challenging assignments and teaching others rather than learning through event focused assessment and course work. Character cannot be learned in the classroom; it needs to be developed through experience and then learned by feedback, reflection, coaching, and teaching others. Study findings indicated that knowledge workers want to be encouraged, believed in and lead by those they trust to inspire them to accomplish the goals and objectives of the organization. To cause a workforce to generate intellectual capital for the organization, study findings found that the leader-manager's ''character'' does make a difference.
Kopecka, J.A.; Santema, S.C.; Hultink, H.J.
The paper forms part of a multiple case study in progress that focuses on information relationships, i.e., the exchange of information and knowledge at the micro-social level between supplier and buyer firms in the fuzzy front end of product development. The micro-social level is made up of dyadic information relationships between the Design Engineer of buyer firms and the Sales Engineer of supplier firms. The case study explores the information relationship through the lens of three theoreti...
Paramasivam Parimalam; Raghavan Premalatha; Srinivasan Padmini; Kumar Ganguli
Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and f...
Bolis, Ivan; Brunoro, Claudio; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal
Based on the concepts of sustainability and knowledge management, this article seeks to identify points of contact between the two themes through an exploratory study of existing literature. The first objective is to find, in international literature, the largest number of papers jointly related to the theme of knowledge management and sustainability. In these documents, the authors looked at the kind of relationship existing between the two themes and what the benefits introduced in organizations are. Based on an ergonomic point of view, the second objective of this article is to analyze the role of the worker (whether at the strategic or operational level) and his importance in this context. The results demonstrate that there is very little literature that addresses the two themes together. The few papers found, however, can be said to show the many advantages of introducing sustainability policies supported by adequate knowledge management. Very little has been studied with regards to the role of workers, which could be interpreted as meaning that little importance is given to the proactive role they may play. On the other hand, there is a high potential for future research in these areas, based on the high level of consideration of workers in knowledge management and sustainability literature, as well as in literature in the areas of ergonomics and sociology. PMID:22317131
Bogdanowicz, Maureen S.; Bailey, Elaine K.
Knowledge is increasingly a corporate asset, but it poses a challenges human resource development, especially with workers such as those in Generation X who are concerned with their employability. Companies that value knowledge must value knowledge workers. (Contains 31 references.) (SK)
Jalil Heidary, Dahooie; Abbas, Afrazeh; Seyed Mohammad Moathar, Hosseini; Mohammad Reza Ghezel, Arsalan.
Full Text Available The determination of the difficulty factor in knowledge work can be important for improving the performance of knowledge workers. In this article a regression model for investigating the difficulty of knowledge based activities (KBAs) is proposed. Four factors are considered in the model: Uncertaint [...] y, Variability of information, Amount of information and Level of skill and expertise. An empirical study based on 119 jobs from three different groups of knowledge workers (i.e. managerial, professional and clerical) shows that there are significant differences between the difficulty of the KBAs in managerial, clerical and professional jobs, and that managerial KBAs are more difficult than the KBAs of the other two groups. Furthermore, regression models indicate that Level of skill and expertise is the most influential factor in the difficulty of the KBAs in each of the three groups.
Full Text Available The traditional companies are built on familiar bedrock of buildings, plants, and inventories. Competitive advantage is viewed in terms of scale and volume stemming from high-capacity use of machine-based factories. Such an approach fails to recognize how the leverage of knowledge is becoming a key to long-term success. Nowadays, organizations must recognize that power resides in the minds of their best people, who are diffused throughout the business and the organizations are becoming more dependent on people than ever before. The recruitment and the employment of knowledge workers are becoming very important issues from Romanian managers. The competitiveness is the only chance to deal with a very challenging market, especially after European integration. In this paper we present the results of a survey of the opinions of Romanian managers about the most effective strategies for recruitment, motivation and retention the knowledge workers. The study investigated two groups of managers: the first group included the managers who never were involved in activities related to human resources, and the second, the managers who have been involved. The managers from the first group chose theoretical the strategies they considered most effective; the managers for the second group indicated the strategies they applied.
Sheets, Channing D; Harriman, Kathleen; Zipprich, Jennifer; Louie, Janice K; Probert, William S; Horowitz, Michael; Prudhomme, Janice C; Gold, Deborah; Mayer, Leonard
Occupationally acquired meningococcal disease is rare. Adherence to recommendations for safe handling of Neisseria meningitidis in the laboratory greatly reduces the risk for transmission to laboratory workers. A California microbiologist developed fatal serogroup B meningococcal disease after working with N. meningitidis patient isolates in a research laboratory (laboratory A). The California Department of Public Health (CDPH), the local health department, the California Division of Occupational Safety and Health (CalOSHA), and the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) collaborated on an investigation of laboratory A, which revealed several breaches in recommended laboratory practice for safe handling of N. meningitidis, including manipulating cultures on the bench top. Additionally, laboratory workers had not been offered meningococcal vaccine in accordance with Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations and CalOSHA Aerosol Transmissible Diseases Standard requirements. In accordance with OSHA and CalOSHA regulations, laboratory staff members must receive laboratory biosafety training and use appropriate personal protective equipment, and those who routinely work with N. meningitidis isolates should receive meningococcal vaccine. PMID:25188495
Full Text Available The current study surveyed major studies on the characteristics of motivating factors for knowledge workers, both in the USA and in China. Comparisons were made between studies in the two countries, and new perspectives were offered on the motivating factors for knowledge workers. Future research directions were proposed.
This paper describes the circumstances leading to the notification to the Worker's Compensation Board of Ontario of two cases of cancer, both involving the lymphatic and haematoporetic systems, in employees at Chalk River Nulcear Laboratories. Twenty of these neoplasms are known to have occurred in the CRNL population between 1966 and 1983. The leukemia/lymphoma ratio observed in the twenty neoplasms is similar to that found in populations not occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. The possible relationship between asbestos exposure and lymphoid neoplasms was discussed. 5 refs
As China has appeared only recently as an important knowledge producer with growing global economic significance, little is known internationally about how these processes develop and are managed within China. The rapidly expanding Chinese higher education system is playing an increasingly important role in China's knowledge economy and therefore…
An analysis of cancer incidence among Los Alamos workers was reported at the Sixteenth Mid-Year Topical Symposium of the Health Physics Society. Cancer incidence was especially low among Anglo-American males for cancer of the lung and oral cancer, cancer sites commonly associated with cigarette smoking. No cases of cancer of the lung, oral cavity, pancreas, or bladder were observed among Anglo-American females in the population. Standardized incidence ratios for cancer of the breast and cancer of the uterine corpus exceeded one; however, these findings were not statistically significant. These findings are consistent with expectation for a population of high socioeconomic class, such as the Laboratory work force. Therefore, working conditions at the Laboratory do not appear to have affected cancer incidence in this population. 1 reference, 2 tables
Objective: Objective of the present study is to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of universal work precautions amongst medical laboratory technicians in private hospitals. Methodology: Cross-sectional study of health care workers was conducted using a pretested self-administered questionnaire, which enquired about knowledge, attitude and practices of universal work precautions. The hepatitis B vaccination statuses were also asked. Results: 200 questionnaires were administered t...
Energy use per square foot from science research labs is disproportionately higher than that of other rooms in buildings on campuses across the nation. This is partly due to labs’ use of energy intensive equipment. However, laboratory management and personnel behavior may be significant contributing factors to energy consumption. Despite an apparent increasing need for energy conservation in science labs, a systematic investigation of avenues promoting energy conservation behavior in such labs appears absent in scholarly literature. This paper reports the findings of a recent study into the energy conservation knowledge, attitude and behavior of principle investigators, laboratory managers, and student lab workers at a tier 1 research university. The study investigates potential barriers as well as promising avenues to reducing energy consumption in science laboratories. The findings revealed: (1) an apparent lack of information about options for energy conservation in science labs, (2) existing operational barriers, (3) economic issues as barriers/motivators of energy conservation and (4) a widespread notion that cutting edge science may be compromised by energy conservation initiatives. - Highlights: ? Effective energy conservation and efficiency depend on social systems and human behaviors. ? Science laboratories use more energy per square foot than any other academic and research spaces. ? Time, money, quality control, and convenience overshadow personnel convenience overshadow personnel’s desire to save energy. ? Ignorance of conservation practices is a barrier to energy conservation in labs.
Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward
This study analyzes the linkage between the travel behavior of knowledge workers and car-related job perks. The importance of this issue derives from the tendency of knowledge economy to concentrate in highly populated metropolitan regions. The analyzed data comprise 750 observations, retrieved from a survey among knowledge workers in Tel-Aviv. Results show that car-related job perks are associated with (1) high annual kilometrage, (2) increased commute by car, (3) long commute travel times, (4) high trip chaining frequency, and (5) many long-distance leisure trips. Results suggest that the development of sustainable knowledge-based cities should consider decoupling knowledge workers from car-related job perks. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Advances in neuroscience are providing information about the brain and its development. Some researchers propose that childcare workers need to understand this information because it confirms their importance and their use of developmentally appropriate practice (DAP). Given the fact that childcare workers could benefit from this insight, it seems…
Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical traditionally used in pathology and anatomy laboratories as a tissue preservative. Several epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to FA have indicated an increased risk of nasopharyngeal cancers in industrial workers, embalmers and pathology anatomists. There is also a clear evidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas from inhalation studies in the rat. The postulated mode of action for nasal tumours in rats was considered biologically plausible and considered likely to be relevant to humans. Based on the available data IARC, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, has recently classified FA as a human carcinogen. Although the in vitro genotoxic as well as the in vivo carcinogenic potentials of FA are well documented in mammalian cells and in rodents, evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting thus remains to be more documented. To evaluate the genetic effects of long-term occupational exposure to FA a group of 30 Pathological Anatomy laboratory workers was tested for a variety of biological endpoints, cytogenetic tests (micronuclei, MN; sister chromatid exchange, SCE) and comet assay. The level of exposure to FA was evaluated near the breathing zone of workers, time weighted average of exposure was calculated for each subject. The association between the biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic metabolising and DNA repair enzymes was also assessed. The meA repair enzymes was also assessed. The mean level of exposure was 0.44 ± 0.08 ppm (0.04-1.58 ppm). MN frequency was significantly higher (p = 0.003) in the exposed subjects (5.47 ± 0.76) when compared with controls (3.27 ± 0.69). SCE mean value was significantly higher (p < 0.05) among the exposed group (6.13 ± 0.29) compared with control group (4.49 ± 0.16). Comet assay data showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) of TL in FA-exposed workers (60.00 ± 2.31) with respect to the control group (41.85 ± 1.97). A positive correlation was found between FA exposure levels and MN frequency (r = 0.384, p = 0.001) and TL (r = 0.333, p = 0.005). Regarding the genetic polymorphisms studied, no significant effect was found on the genotoxic endpoints. The results of the present biomonitoring study emphasize the need to develop safety programs
Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon
This study focuses on the linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers in commute and leisure trips. Specifically, this study compares the commuting and leisure travel behavior of knowledge workers who receive either a company-car or car allowance with the travel behavior of workers who do not receive car-related fringe benefits. Data are based on a revealed-preferences survey among knowledge workers in Israel. Results show that car-related fringe benefits are associated with (i) high car ownership and car use intensity, (ii) long commute distances and travel times and non-sustainable transport modes, and (iii) high frequency of long-distance leisure trips. Policy implications include (i) directing policies towards reducing car ownership induced by car-related fringe benefits, (ii) encouraging company-car holders to ‘pay their way’, and (iii) encouraging workers to use sustainable transport modes for commuting and leisure travel.
A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted among employees of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Since 1943, this facility has been the site of energy-related research, including uranium and plutonium recovery and radioisotope production. Historical follow-up conducted for the years 1943 to 1977 for 8681 white males who had been employed for at least one month during the period 1943 to 1972. Vital status was ascertained for 90 percent of the cohort. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were computed to contrast the workers' mortality experience with that of the US white male population. The observed number of 1017 deaths from all causes was 74 percent of that expected, a finding indicative of the healthy worker effect and the relatively high socioeconomic status of the cohort. The SMR for all cancers was 0.75 (195 observed vs. 261.3 expected). Mortality deficits were seen for non-malignant diseases of all major organ groups and for all site-specific malignancies except prostate cancer (SMR = 1.13), leukemia (SMR = 1.16) and Hodgkin's disease (SMR = 1.28). None of the elevations was statistically significant. There were no consistent trends of cause-specific mortality with either external or internal radiation exposure levels
Dul, J.; Ceylan, C.; Jaspers, F. P. H.
ABSTRACT The present study examines the effect of the physical work environment on the creativity of knowledge workers, compared with the effects of creative personality and the social-organizational work environment. Based on data from 274 knowledge workers in 27 SMEs, we conclude that creative personality, the social-organizational work environment, and the physical work environment independently affect creative performance. The relative contribution of the physical work environment is s...
Gauranga Chandra Mohanta; Kaluvan Paraman Thooyamani
Improving productivity of knowledge workers is one of the major challenges in today’s global environment. Through exploratory research, effort has been made to identify various tools & techniques those can improve productivity of knowledge workers. Through survey, effort has been made to find out perception of top level scientists on - usefulness of various tools & techniques; use of these tools & techniques and encouragement given in organisations for acquiring skill in these; trainings gi...
Haji Ali Baba
Anganwadi workers and helpers are engaged by the government to work in the state-operated IntegratedChild Development Scheme (ICDS). This scheme caters to the health and pre-school education needs of childrenfrom birth to six years of age and also to the health and nutrition needs of pregnant women, nursing mothers, andadolescent girls, to study the profile of Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) .To assess knowledge of AWWs & problemsfaced by them while working. The author discussed on “knowledge of A...
Haji Ali Baba
Full Text Available Anganwadi workers and helpers are engaged by the government to work in the state-operated IntegratedChild Development Scheme (ICDS. This scheme caters to the health and pre-school education needs of childrenfrom birth to six years of age and also to the health and nutrition needs of pregnant women, nursing mothers, andadolescent girls, to study the profile of Anganwadi Workers (AWWs .To assess knowledge of AWWs & problemsfaced by them while working. The author discussed on “knowledge of Anganwadi workers and their problems”with special reference to Gadwal (Rural, Mahabubnagar, District .AP.
Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon
As knowledge-based economy is recognized as a powerful engine of economic growth and regional competitiveness, policy makers increasingly invest in branding their cities as knowledge-cities and focus on retaining and attracting knowledge-workers. Consequently, most studies related to the residential choice of knowledge workers focus on the inter-regional level, and empirical evidence regarding the residential choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level remains scarce. This study investigates the linkage between the residential choice of knowledge-workers and their lifestyle encompassing life-cycle stage, work-role and leisure activities, subject to economic and spatial constraints. The importance of this issue derives from the role of housing as key enabler for attracting and retaining knowledge-workers, and from evidence regarding the role of knowledge workers in promoting the contradictory trends of urban sprawl and inner city revitalization. The analysis consists of two stages. First, distinguishable clusters of knowledge-workers according to their lifestyle are identified by means of self-organizing maps (SOM) for pattern recognition and classification of multi-dimensional data. The applied method is a two-stage clustering process that comprises SOM followed by neural gas, Bayesian classification and distance matrix edge analysis. Following, the residential choice of these clusters is analyzed in terms of home ownership, location, building type, location and dwelling size. The analyzed data are retrieved from a custom designed revealed-preferences survey among workers in the high-technology and finance sector, who work and reside in the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area in Israel. Results identify five groups of knowledge workers that significantly differ in terms of lifestyle and residential choice: nest-builders, bon-vivants, careerists, entrepreneurs and laid-back. Bon-vivants and entrepreneurs largely prefer to reside in the metropolitan core, although they differ in terms of home ownership, dwelling size and building type. While bon-vivants rent small apartments, entrepreneurs tend towards owning large dwelling units and single detached houses. Careerists strongly prefer to own large single-detached houses in the middle and outer ring of the metropolitan area. Nest-builders exhibit strong preference for home ownership and large apartments or houses, and their main reason for suburban locating is the ability to reside in larger dwellings and single-detached houses. Laid-back trade-off between location and dwelling characteristics, although they exhibit weaker preferences towards home ownership, large dwellings and single detached houses than nest
Full Text Available Objective: Objective of the present study is to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of universal work precautions amongst medical laboratory technicians in private hospitals. Methodology: Cross-sectional study of health care workers was conducted using a pretested self-administered questionnaire, which enquired about knowledge, attitude and practices of universal work precautions. The hepatitis B vaccination statuses were also asked. Results: 200 questionnaires were administered to laboratory technicians and 154 of them were returned giving a response rate of 77%. All the participants wear gloves during laboratory work but 81.2% wear a single pair. 17.5 % of the participants claimed to know what to do if exposed to infection. 45.6% of the participants eat in the laboratory, 47.0% of them store foods and water in the refrigerators, 31.5% of them put on cosmetics in the laboratory, 12.6% smoke in the laboratory, 10.0% cut their finger nails with teeth in the laboratory. 91.5% are not immunized against hepatitis B virus (HBV. 99.0% of them do not take shower immediately after laboratory work. 82.0% of the participants do not feel that the use of masks is necessary in laboratory. Conclusion: It is concluded that the knowledge, attitude, perception, and compliance with universal work precautions amongst laboratory technicians are poor. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 113-115
Full Text Available Primary vaccine failures can occur after high immunization coverage has been achieved. Healthcare workers’ knowledge and practices are influential factors in preventing vaccine failures. Adequate knowledge and practices in the cold chain system are important to keep potency of vaccines and effectiveness of immunization. This cross-sectional study was performed to assess healthcare workers’ knowledge and practices regarding an expanded program on immunization and the cold chain system in Kalasin, Thailand. Data collection methods included interviews, observations and document audit. Ninety primary care units and 117 respondents were selected. Only 55.6% of respondents provided correct answers for questions regarding the immunization schedule of school children and 59.0% of respondents answered correctly for questions about Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine. Healthcare workers in hospitals had better knowledge than healthcare workers in health centers (P<0.001. Healthcare workers who had sufficient training had better knowledge than healthcare workers who had no training (P<0.001. Only 61.1% of primary care units recorded the temperature in the vaccine refrigerator twice a day and 63.3% of primary care units had a flowchart regarding what to do when there is an electric power failure. About 13% of vaccine refrigerators had temperatures outside the recommended range of 2 to 8°C. Practices in hospitals were also better than those in health centers (P=0.001. Knowledge and practices were significantly different between healthcare workers in hospitals and in health centers. Coverage training and regular supervision on vaccine handling and the cold chain system are recommended, especially for health centers in remote areas.
Full Text Available Communities of Practice (CoPs provide a good medium for effective utilization of knowledge workers and group innovation in an organization. It is also an organizational instrument for developing competitive advantage based on chosen business strategy. For effective operation of CoPs and utilization of organizational resources business strategy and knowledge sharing attributes of knowledge workers play a key role in effective design of CoPs. Furthermore, to enable effective implementation of CoPs, an IT enabled knowledge hub is considered useful. This research combines the above mentioned components to develop a CoPs enabled knowledge hub. This research can help organizations to design and implement CoPs based on business strategy and knowledge sharing attribute fit.
Mathiasen, Lisa; Morley, Katija; Chapman, Benjamin; Powell, Douglas
A training video was produced and evaluated to assess its impact on the food safety knowledge of agricultural workers. Increasing food safety knowledge on the farm may help to improve the safety of fresh produce. Surveys were used to measure workers' food safety knowledge before and after viewing the video. Focus groups were used to determine…
Sunguya, Bruno F.; Poudel, Krishna C; Mlunde, Linda B; Urassa, David P; Yasuoka, Junko; Jimba, Masamine
Medical and nursing education lack adequate practical nutrition training to fit the clinical reality that health workers face in their practices. Such a deficit creates health workers with poor nutrition knowledge and child undernutrition management practices. In-service nutrition training can help to fill this gap. However, no systematic review has examined its collective effectiveness. We thus conducted this study to examine the effectiveness of in-service nutrition training on health worke...
Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Menke, J. Michael; Challakere Ramaswamy, Vasudeva Murthy; Abdul Manaf, Rizal; Alabsi, Aied M.; Al-dubai, Sami Abdo Radman
Background. Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, an ancient malady greatly impairing modern population quality of life, has stimulated global attention to find effective modes of prevention and intervention. Purpose. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) among Malaysian railway workers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 railway workers involving eight major states within Peninsular Malaysia using population-based...
Daniel Olusoji J; Ogunfowora Olusoga B
Abstract Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is still a leading cause of preventable brain damage, physical and mental handicap, and early death among infants in many communities. Greater awareness is needed among all health workers. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge of primary health care workers about the description, causes, effective treatment, and sequelae of NNJ. Methods The setting was a local government area i.e. an administrative district within the south-western...
Wyne, Amjad; Hammad, Nouf; Splieth, Christian
Objective: To determine the oral health knowledge of health care workers in special children’s center. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect following information: demographics, oral hygiene practices, importance of fluoride, dental visits, cause of tooth decay, gingival health, and sources of oral health information. The study was conducted at Riyadh Center for Special Children in Riyadh City from December 2013 to May 2014. Results: All 60 health care workers in the center completed the questionnaire. A great majority (95%) of the workers brushed their teeth twice or more daily. More than two-third (71.7%) of the workers knew that fluoride helps in caries prevention. One in five (21.7%) workers thought that a dental visit only becomes necessary in case of a dental problem. Similarly, 13.3% of the workers thought to “wait till there is some pain in case of a dental cavity” before seeking dental treatment. The workers ranked soft drinks/soda (98.3%), flavored fizzy drinks (60%) and sweetened/flavored milks (43.3%) as top three cariogenic drinks. A great majority (95%) of the workers correctly responded that blood on toothbrush most probably is a sign of “gum disease”. Dentists (50%) and media (45%) were the main source of their oral health information. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in workers’ response in relation to their specific job. Conclusion: The special health care workers in the disabled children’s center generally had satisfactory oral health knowledge and practices. PMID:25878636
Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward
This study investigates the residential location choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level by applying discrete choice models. The models represent housing choices of 833 knowledge-workers in high-technology and financial services and analyze the relative importance of lifestyle and cultural amenities in addition to classic location factors. Hence, the model bridges the gap between the recent lifestyle-oriented and the classical utility-oriented conceptualizations of the residential choice of knowledge-workers. The most important factors are municipal socioeconomic level, housing affordability and commuting time, while substantial secondary factors are cultural and educational land-use and culture-oriented lifestyle. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Erica Ferraz; Luisa Karla de Paula Arruda; Ericson Bagatin; Martinez, Edson Z.; Cetlin, Andrea A; Christian S. Simoneti; Freitas, Amanda S; Martinez, José A B; Borges, Marcos C; Elcio O. Vianna
OBJECTIVE: Subjects exposed to laboratory animals are at a heightened risk of developing respiratory and allergic diseases. These diseases can be prevented by simple measures such as the use of personal protective equipment. We report here the primary findings of the Laboratory Animals and Respiratory Allergies Study regarding the prevalence of allergic diseases among laboratory animal workers, the routine use of preventive measures in laboratories and animal facilities, and the need for prev...
Full Text Available Objective: to identify the knowledge of community health agents (CHA of the city of Passo Fundo on crack and other drugs and to describe their sociodemographic and health profiles. Methods: descriptive study with 78 CHA from Passo Fundo. Data collection occurred through the application of a structured and self-administered questionnaire on demographics and health of CHA, and another on knowledge about crack and other drugs. Descriptive analysis and Tukey´s test, as well as Pearson´s product moment correlation and Spearman´s correlation were performed. Results: all CHA were female, mean age 41.1±9.6 years, with 57.7% of them having completed high school and 69.2% being married. Also, 11.5% were smokers, 93.6% denied alcohol dependence and most had drug addicts in their coverage area. Half of them presented family problems. In relation to health, 29.5% obtained an SRQ score suggesting the possibility of Common Mental Disorders, and 51.3% said that they had chronic diseases. In the knowledge test the average of correct answers was 34.5%, with the highest number of correct answers being among the CHA with more schooling (p = 0.006. Conclusion: the low number of correct answers on the knowledge test shows an urgent need to strengthen the training of CHA. The specific profile of these professionals raises the need for more attention to their health, as well as new research in the area.
T?uclea, Claudia-elena; T?igu, Gabriela
The traditional companies are built on familiar bedrock of buildings, plants, and inventories. Competitive advantage is viewed in terms of scale and volume stemming from high-capacity use of machine-based factories. Such an approach fails to recognize how the leverage of knowledge is becoming a key to long-term success. Nowadays, organizations must recognize that power resides in the minds of their best people, who are diffused throughout the business and the organizations are becoming more d...
Darryn Knobel; Job Wasonga; Gamaliel Omondi; Eric Ogola; Peter Omemo
We sought to determine the knowledge and attitude of public health workers (PHWs) with respect to emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases and the practice of one health approach in the surveillance of zoonoses in the community. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 randomly selected districts of Nyanza province, Kenya. One hundred and ten randomly-selected PHWs were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Data were collected on their knowledge, attitudes and practices about common...
Tang Jie; Gao Xiaohui; Yu Yizhen; Ahmed Niman; Zhu Huiping; Wang Jiaji; Du Yukai
Abstract Background In recent years, many studies have focused on adolescent's sex-related issues in China. However, there have been few studies of unmarried migrant females' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, which is important for sexual health education and promotion. Methods A sample of 5156 unmarried migrant female workers was selected from three manufacturing factories, two located in Shenzhen and one in Guangzhou, China. Demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and behavio...
Lee-Kelley, Liz; Blackman, Deborah A.; Hurst, Jeffrey Peter
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a relationship between learning organisation theory and the potential to retain knowledge workers. It emphasises that human resource (HR) managers must recognise specific relationships between learning organisation elements, job satisfaction facets and turnover intent as they emerge for their…
Ivins, Tiffany Zenith
This dissertation examines localization of Open Educational Resources (OER) in Himalayan community technology centers of Nepal. Specifically, I examine strategies and practices that local knowledge-workers utilize in order to localize educational content for the disparate needs, interests, and ability-levels of learners in rural villages. This…
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, many studies have focused on adolescent's sex-related issues in China. However, there have been few studies of unmarried migrant females' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, which is important for sexual health education and promotion. Methods A sample of 5156 unmarried migrant female workers was selected from three manufacturing factories, two located in Shenzhen and one in Guangzhou, China. Demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the factors associated with premarital sexual intercourse. Results The average age of the unmarried female workers included in the sample was 20.2 years, and majority of them showed a low level of sex-related knowledge. Females from the west of China demonstrated a significant lower level of sex-related knowledge than those from the eastern or central provinces (p p p Conclusion The unmarried migrant female workers lack sexual knowledge and a substantial proportion of them are engaged in premarital sexual behaviors. Interventions aimed at improving their sexual knowledge and related skills are needed.
Objectives: To assess knowledge, attitude and practices about needle stick Injuries in health care workers. Study type, settings and duration: Hospital based study carried out at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, from August 2010 to November 2010. Subjects and Methods: A self administered 19 items questionnaire was prepared which contained information about needle stick injuries, its awareness, frequency of injury and the protocols that were followed after an injury had occurred. These questionnaires were given to 500 health care workers working in different wards and theaters of the hospital after obtaining their informed written consent. The health care workers included doctors, nurses and paramedical staff of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 15. Results: A total of 500 health care workers filled the questionnaire and returned it. Out of these 416(83.2%) reported ever experiencing needle stick injuries in their professional life. Health care workers working in Emergency department were most frequently affected (65%) followed by those working in different wards (27%) and operation theatre (8%). Most (93.6%) workers had knowledge about needle stick injuries and only 6.4% were not aware of it. Needle stick injury occurred from a brand new (unused) syringe in 51.2% cases, while in 32.8% cases, the needle caused an injury after it had been used for an injection. In 5% cases, injury ocd for an injection. In 5% cases, injury occurred with blood stained needles. The commonest reasons for needle injury in stick injuries were heavy work load (36.8%) followed by hasty work (33.6%) and needle recapping (18.6%). About 66% health care workers were already vaccinated against hepatitis B. Only 13% workers followed universal guidelines of needle stick injuries and no case was reported to hospital authorities. Conclusions: Health care workers had inadequate knowledge about the risk associated with needle stick injuries and do not follow standard preventive measures. Policy message: A standard protocol regarding the training and compliance to follow preventive measures should be followed in all health care institutions. (author)
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine knowledge, practice and attitude towards jaundice among hospital health workers in Ayder Referral Hospital. Jaundice is a condition in which a person's skin and the whites of the eyes are discolored yellow due to an increased level of bilirubin in blood it is associated with many myth and Misconception. A study, using self administered questionnaire, was conducted from March 2009 to early May 2009.The result of the study showed that 79% respondents were selected, from which only 4(4% of the respondents select all of the correct options namely Dark colour of the urine, Yellowish colour of skin and eye, Aching and convulsion. 10% knew two manifestation of jaundice, 84% of respondent knew only one manifestation of jaundice. 83%of the respondents knew jaundice is due to high blood concentration of billirubin. 5% answered wrong that is jaundice is due to high blood concentration of urea. 76% of the workers prefers modern medicine for the treatment of jaundice and 8% the traditional medicine. The health workers are fairly clear in some aspects of jaundice and inadequate knowledge in other aspects of jaundice. Most of the health workers have positive perception towards jaundice and prefer modern medicine for treating jaundice. They have totally poor knowledge about traditional medicine for the treatment of jaundice. The health workers need an education and training about jaundice to update their knowledge and other study at community level should be conducted to know more about traditional method of treating jaundice.
Daniel Olusoji J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ is still a leading cause of preventable brain damage, physical and mental handicap, and early death among infants in many communities. Greater awareness is needed among all health workers. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge of primary health care workers about the description, causes, effective treatment, and sequelae of NNJ. Methods The setting was a local government area i.e. an administrative district within the south-western part of Nigeria. Community health workers in this area were interviewed by means of a self-administered questionnaire which focused on awareness and knowledge of neonatal jaundice and its causes, treatment and complications. Results Sixty-six community health workers participated in the survey and male-to-female ratio was 1:5. Their work experience averaged 13.5 (SD 12.7 years. Only 51.5% of the respondents gave a correct definition of NNJ. 75.8 % knew how to examine for this condition while 84.9 % knew at least two of its major causes in our environment. Also, only 54.5 % had adequate knowledge of effective treatment namely, phototherapy and exchange blood transfusion. Rather than referring affected babies to hospitals for proper management, 13.4 %, 10.4 % and 3 % of the participants would treat with ineffective drugs, natural phototherapy and herbal remedies respectively. None of the participants knew any effective means of prevention. Conclusion Primary health care workers may have inadequate knowledge and misconceptions on NNJ which must be addressed concertedly before the impact of the condition on child health and well-being can be significantly reduced. We recommend regular training workshops and seminars for this purpose.
Jaroslava KUBA TOVA
Full Text Available Collective intelligence can be defined, very broadly, as groups of individuals that do things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. Collective intelligence has existed for ages. Families, tribes, companies, countries, etc., are all groups of individuals doing things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. However, over the past two decades, the rise of the Internet has given upturn to new types of collective intelligence. Companies can take advantage from the so-called Webenabled collective intelligence. Web-enabled collective intelligence is based on linking knowledge workers through social media. That means that companies can hire geographically dispersed knowledge workers and create so-called virtual teams of these knowledge workers (members of the virtual teams are connected only via the Internet and do not meet face to face. By providing an online social network, the companies can achieve significant growth of collective intelligence. But to create and use an online social network within a company in a really efficient way, the managers need to have a deep understanding of how such a system works.Thus the purpose of this paper is to share the knowledge about effective use of social networks in companies. The main objectives of this paper are as follows: to introduce some good practices of the use of social media in companies, to analyze these practices and to generalize recommendations for a successful introduction and use of social media to increase collective intelligence of a company.
Pravettoni, G; Cropley, M; Leotta, S N; Bagnara, S
The nature of work has been changing. It is becoming more and more uncertain, complex, cognitively demanding, disperse in space and in time, and diverse for the people involved. It requires diffuse decision making and responsibility. Knowledge and creative work, instead of industrial, currently occupies the majority of workforce. A recent NIOSH report (2002) claims that the changing nature of work asks for new research, tools and methods for evaluating the impact of its transformations on workers' health and safety. Following this claim, the current paper investigates the process of recovery from fatigue. Since it is known that the quality of recovery may be highly impoverished by the presence of persisting and pervasive mental activity, namely, by mental rumination, the investigation focuses on the possible differential characteristics of rumination among industrial and knowledge workers. The results from a field study shows evidence that industrial and knowledge workers are differentially affected by rumination. It is suggested that rumination can be a promising early indicator of stress in knowledge occupations. PMID:17972210
Full Text Available Collective intelligence can be defined, very broadly, as groups of individuals that do things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. Collective intelligence has existed for ages. Families, tribes, companies, countries, etc., are all groups of individuals doing things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. However, over the past two decades, the rise of the Internet has given upturn to new types of collective intelligence. Companies can take advantage from the so-called Web-enabled collective intelligence. Web-enabled collective intelligence is based on linking knowledge workers through social media. That means that companies can hire geographically dispersed knowledge workers and create so-called virtual teams of these knowledge workers (members of the virtual teams are connected only via the Internet and do not meet face to face. By providing an online social network, the companies can achieve significant growth of collective intelligence. But to create and use an online social network within a company in a really efficient way, the managers need to have a deep understanding of how such a system works. Thus the purpose of this paper is to share the knowledge about effective use of social networks in companies. The main objectives of this paper are as follows: to introduce some good practices of the use of social media in companies, to analyze these practices and to generalize recommendations for a successful introduction and use of social media to increase collective intelligence of a company.
Cvjeti?anin Stanko; Segedinac Mirjana
The level of environmental pollution is influenced by the knowledge, behavior and ecological engagement of both the individual and society. The mineral fertilizer industry represents a potential source of pollution. The issue examined in this study is the level of eco-chemical knowledge, behavior and ecological engagement of the workers employed in the mineral fertilizer industry in Novi Sad. We have concluded that the workers hover low level of knowledge, behavior and engagement. The results...
Rus, Razman Mohd; Daud, Aziah; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Naing, Lin
The purpose of this study was to determine the sawmill workers’ knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in relation to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 83 workers from 3 factories in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Questionnaires were distributed to obtain the socio-demography, knowledge, attitude and practice level in relation to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The weak areas identified in the knowledge section were treatment aspects (15.5%), signs a...
Albrecht, James; Den Berg, Gerard J.; Vroman, Susan
The Swedish adult education program called Knowledge Lift is unprecedented in its size and scope, aiming to raise the skill level of all low-skilled workers towards the medium level. This paper evaluates the effects of program participation on individual labor market outcomes, notably employment and annual income, as well as on the labor market equilibrium. For the effects at the individual level we apply fixed effect methods allowing for treatment effect heterogeneity. The data are based on ...
Albrecht, James; Den Berg, Gerard J.; Vroman, Susan
The Swedish adult education program known as the Knowledge Lift is unprecedented in its size and scope, aiming to raise the skill level of all low-skilled workers towards the medium level. This paper evaluates the effects of program participation on individual labor market outcomes, notably employment and annual income, as well as on the labor market equilibrium. For the effects at the individual level, we apply fixed effect methods allowing for treatment effect heterogeneity. The data are ba...
In the past three decades the Asia-Pacific region has experienced amajor wave of immigration despite tighter migration policies andbetter border controls. Southeast Asia has been prominent in thischange, with some countries being important sources and destinationsof skilled and unskilled migrants. Australia has also increased itsmigration quotas, particularly the skilled migration intake. Theemergence of new regional migration patterns, the fast growth in thedemand for knowledge workers and s...
Yongjian Li; Huan Cao
The paper analyzes the limitation of the method to study the competencies. The differences between competencies of knowledge workers exist in the “therbligs” used in information process. Based on 191 questionnaires, advance the 9 common mental operations: metacognition, distinguishing, memory, transforming, imagining, character extracting, character integrating, reasoning and concretization. And the metacognition plays a role on planning, supervising and adjusting to the other mind operations...
Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward
This study investigates the residential location choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level by applying discrete choice models. The models represent housing choices of 833 knowledge-workers in high-technology and financial services and analyze the relative importance of lifestyle and cultural amenities in addition to classic location factors. Hence, the model bridges the gap between the recent lifestyle-oriented and the classical utility-oriented conceptualizations of the residential choice of knowledge-workers. The most important factors are municipal socioeconomic level, housing affordability and commuting time, while substantial secondary factors are cultural and educational land-use and culture-oriented lifestyle.
Full Text Available Introduction: Health workers and medical students are at occupational risk of blood-borne diseases during the accidents, that is, via percutaneous injury or entry of blood or body fluids through the mucosa or injured skin. Objective: to review and analyze the knowledge, attitudes and perception of risks of blood-borne diseases of the clinical course students and health workers as well as the frequency of accidents. Material and methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out among the students of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, and health workers of the Clinical Center of Serbia. The subjects responded anonymously to questionnaire specially designed for the study. Results: Both students and health workers were aware, in a high percentage, of the fact that the risk of hepatitis B spread was about 30%. Significantly more students gave affirmative reply that blood as biological material was a potential hazard of HIV infection spread (p=0.001, and significantly more students knew that HIV would not be spread by sweat (p=0.001. Hepatitis B vaccination was administered only to 24.1% of students and 71.4% of health workers. About 10% of students and 65.5% of health workers experienced some accident. There was no significant difference of accidents between nurses/technicians and physicians (p>0.05, as well as of accidents and a total length of service (p>0.05. The majority of accidents occurred during the use of needle/sharp object (in 27.3% of students and 33.1% of health workers. About 40% of students and slightly over a half of the workers reported the accidents to appropriate authorities. Additional education in this field is considered necessary by 73% of students. Conclusion: During the studies and via continuous medical education it is necessary to upgrade the level of knowledge on prevention of accidents, what would, at least partially, influence their reduction. [Acknowledgment. Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175046
Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations are still structured according to the Industrial Age control model that restricts optimising the expertise of knowledge workers.
Research purpose: The general aim of the research was to explore the organisation design elements and competencies that contribute to optimising the expertise of knowledge workers in a shared services centre.
Motivation for the study: Current organisational design methodologies do not emphasise optimising the expertise of knowledge workers. This research addresses the challenge of how an organisation design can improve the creation and availability of the expertise of knowledge workers.
Research design/approach method: The researcher followed a qualitative case study research design and collected data in six focus group sessions (N = 25.
Main findings: The findings showed that the shared services centre (SSC is not designed to enable its structure, culture and codifying system to optimise the expertise of knowledge workers. In addition, the SSC does not share the knowledge generated with other knowledge workers. Furthermore, it does not use the output of the knowledge workers to improve business processes.
Practical/managerial implications: The expertise of knowledge workers is the basis of competitive advantage. Therefore, managers should create an organisational design that is conducive to optimising knowledge work expertise.
Contribution/value add: This research highlights the important organisational design elements and supportive organisational structures for optimising the expertise of knowledge workers. The research also proposes a framework for optimising the expertise of knowledge workers and helping an organisation to achieve sustainable competitive advantage.
How to cite this article: Ramsey, M, & Barkhuizen, N. (2011. Organisational design elements and competencies for optimising the expertise of knowledge workers in a shared services centre. SA Journal of Human Resource Management/SA Tydskrif vir Menslikehulpbronbestuur, 9(1, Art. #307, 15 pages. doi:10.4102/sajhrm.v9i1.307
Barrientos, Jaime E; Bozon, Michel; Ortiz, Edith; Arredondo, Anabella
This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability. PMID:17653395
Neda Tiraieyari; Azimi Hamzah; Bahaman Abu Samah; Jejak Uli
Sustainable agriculture is relatively new in Malaysia. The Department of Agriculture (DOA) has earmarked agricultural extension workers in the transfer of sustainable agricultural practices (SAP) to farmers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of the attitude, perception, philosophy, and knowledge of extension workers in transferring SAP to Malaysian farmers. A questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of 400 extension workers associated with the DOA i...
Toiviainen, Hanna; Höynalänmaa, Mikko; Lallimo, Jiri; Moen, Anne; Smørdal, Ole; Mørch, Anders; Toikka, Seppo
This deliverable has been produced in the context of the Knowledge-Practice Laboratory (KPLab) project, which is aimed at facilitating innovative practices of working with knowledge in higher education, teacher training, and professional networks. This delverable is a synopsis of the first experiences encountered during the first 6 months of the work in WP10. WP10 focused on tools and practices where elicitation, capturing and creating knowledge in different representational modes aims to mak...
Mark Ramsey; Nicolene Barkhuizen
Orientation: Organisations are still structured according to the Industrial Age control model that restricts optimising the expertise of knowledge workers.
Research purpose: The general aim of the research was to explore the organisation design elements and competencies that contribute to optimising the expertise of knowledge workers in a shared services centre.
Motivation for the study:
Simhon, A.; Rahav, G.; Shapiro, M.; Block, C.
An outbreak of pseudobacteremia due to Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci [GAS]) and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was traced to the venting procedure for aerobic bottles prior to their loading into the incubator of the BacT/Alert analyzer (Organon Teknika). Bacteria shed by a laboratory worker suffering from impetigo and cellulitis contaminated the aerobic bottles of 10 patients. All blood culture isolates, in addition to the isolates from the laboratory work...
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is operated under the USA's Department of Energy (DOE) and is tasked with developing and applying science and technology to ensure the safety and reliability of U.S. nuclear deterrents and solving national problems in defense, energy, environment, and infrastructure. LANL is divided into numerous groups that accomplish various aspects of these overarching goals. An important aspect of this work is to ensure worker safety. To do this LANL has an on-site Industrial Hygiene (IH) Laboratory that is certified by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) that follows International Standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005 guidelines. Following these guidelines facilitates appropriate records retention and knowledge management by the laboratory. Field Industrial Hygienists monitor workers for exposure and generate various swipe and personal breathing zone air samples that are analyzed by the IH Laboratory. The laboratory provides legally defensible data on which health, safety, and environmental decisions are based. Such documentation serves to protect the legal and financial rights of the Laboratory and individuals affected by Laboratory activities. The proper maintenance and filing of this documentation also serves to avoid expensive and unnecessary re-sampling and reanalysis if customers lose reports or if results are requested by regulatory agencies. We will explain how the Sample Management Office (SMO) interacts with customers to determe (SMO) interacts with customers to determine their needs to ensure the appropriate analyses are conducted. Additionally, we will explain our process of sample receipt, sample log in into databases, sample analysis, data validation, and compliance to internal procedures, LANL policies, and DOE regulations. Furthermore, we will outline how the Records Management Custodian processes the laboratory's completed data packages starting from database entry to archival at the Federal Records Center. Many DOE records relating to personnel exposures, contamination, waste, and environmental sampling are kept and are scheduled for long-term retention by National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Records shall include information created and received in the course of conducting Laboratory programs and business. Records management serves to promote the creation, capture, use, and transfer of records and knowledge. It also serves to preserve and protect the Laboratory's archival of historical documents and information. All records are given retention periods of at least 75 years. After outlining some of our various records and documents, we will explain how our records management and document control systems are set up to ensure effective and efficient retrieval of these records for 75 years. In conclusion, we will demonstrate how our and LANL's Records Management Program follows good business practices to ensure the protection of our corporate information assets
Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture is relatively new in Malaysia. The Department of Agriculture (DOA has earmarked agricultural extension workers in the transfer of sustainable agricultural practices (SAP to farmers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of the attitude, perception, philosophy, and knowledge of extension workers in transferring SAP to Malaysian farmers. A questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of 400 extension workers associated with the DOA in west Malaysia. Quantitative data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple linear regressions (MLR. Findings supported a positive relationship between extension workers’ philosophy, attitude, perception, and knowledge in transferring SAP to farmers. MLR results showed that variables selected for this study explained 62.3% of the variance in transferring SAP. Results support the importance of variables among the extension workers who transfer sustainable practices to farmers.
The body burden of I-131 was determined among the radiation workers of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) who are directly involved in I-131 processing and nuclear laboratory technicians of University of Santo Tomas and Veterans Hospital, who handle and dispense I-131 to patients. The routine monitoring was done by urine analysis. The untreated urine samples were counted directly for 4000 seconds using Nal(Tl) scintillation detector coupled to an ND66 microcomputer-based multichannel analyzer. Urine samples of radiation workers of PAEC who are not involved in I-131 processing and non-radiation workers were also assayed for comparison. For radiation workers of PAEC who are directly involved in processing I-131, the estimated body burden of I-131 ranged from <0.055 to 8.53 uCi (282 urine samples). These values were higher than those observed for radiation workers not involved in the handling or processing of I-131 with estimated body burden of I-131 ranging from <0.055 to 0.52 uCi (48 urine samples) or than those observed from non-radiation workers (<0.055 uCi). The maximum permissible burden of I-131 is 0.7 uCi. (author)
Full Text Available The paper analyzes the limitation of the method to study the competencies. The differences between competencies of knowledge workers exist in the “therbligs” used in information process. Based on 191 questionnaires, advance the 9 common mental operations: metacognition, distinguishing, memory, transforming, imagining, character extracting, character integrating, reasoning and concretization. And the metacognition plays a role on planning, supervising and adjusting to the other mind operations. Then the paper designs a mental arithmetic experiment to compare the difference in the brain electric power spectrum and the brain electronic topographic diagram between the subjects of the different performance. And the paper further discusses the feasibility of the method to explore the competencies.
Peate, Wayne F
Because smallpox may be a weapon, immunization programs have been restarted and research continues with vaccinia (smallpox vaccine). Ocular complications occur in 5 to 9% of those who contract smallpox and in 10 to 20 per million vaccinia recipients through self-inoculation or from contact with vaccinated individuals. Both variola virus (smallpox) and vaccinia virus (smallpox vaccine) are orthopoxviruses that can cause conjunctival and eyelid infections, cornea ulceration, keratitis, iritis, optic neuritis, and loss of vision. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for smallpox vaccine-associated reactions in vaccinia researchers, the immunized, and their close contacts. A researcher sprayed vaccinia in her eye. Timely irrigation may have prevented a viral infection. The possibility that this individual had self-immunized herself with smallpox vaccine via the conjunctiva and preventive measures are discussed. Greater precautionary measures need to be taken to prevent laboratory accidents. Antiviral ophthalmic medication and vaccinia-immune globulin medication are treatment options. PMID:17985778
We model the process of knowledge transmission among firms via workers' mobility as a multi-stage game. In our setup an idea to be realized needs that the agent informed about the idea recruits another agent from a pool of uninformed people. This constraint generates a recursive effect of knowledge transmission via players' mobility across firms which affects simultaneously the players' payoffs and the number of active players engaged in market competition. We provide sufficient conditions for the game to possess a unique symmetric subgame perfect equilibrium in which all incumbent players deter the exit of their collaborators. The equilibrium outcome is shown to depend upon the success of the idea over time, expressed by the behaviour of the market demand and on players' time preferences. A few other intuitions are provided on the interplay between technology, market structure and the market value of an innovative idea
Gauranga Chandra Mohanta
Full Text Available Improving productivity of knowledge workers is one of the major challenges in today’s global environment. Through exploratory research, effort has been made to identify various tools & techniques those can improve productivity of knowledge workers. Through survey, effort has been made to find out perception of top level scientists on - usefulness of various tools & techniques; use of these tools & techniques and encouragement given in organisations for acquiring skill in these; trainings given for these tools & techniques and relative importance given by scientists for these tools & techniques. Questionnaires have been designed and given to select scientists at top level to find out their perception on various aspects indicated above, followed by interview where responses were not adequate or further clarifications were required. Scientists have indicated that most of the identified tools & techniques can improve their productivity and these are used in organisations or scientists are encouraged to acquire skill in the same and majority of them are presently not trained in these tools & techniques. They also indicated the relative importance of various tools & techniques. The extensive use of these tools & techniques and provision of trainings to the scientists in these can improve their productivity.
Full Text Available The social work profession has been undergoing a period of change and has been encouraged to prove the effectiveness of clinical interventions by scientific evidence. This study was therefore designed to describe the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of a sample of Romanian social work professionals to evidence-based practice (EBP. 62 social workers were required to complete a 37-item closed ended questionnaire, which collected information on demographic data, practice settings, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding EBP. Respondents agreed that the use of EBP was necessary and that the quality of patient care was better when evidence was used, with the younger physiotherapists at the fore front. About 50% of the respondents had access to online information; the majority of these respondents only had time to access the internet more at home rather than at work place. The primary barrier to implementing EBP was insufficient time. The respondents had a positive attitude towards EBP and were interested in improving the skills necessary to implement EBP. There was a need to increase the use of EBP in clinical practice and decision making among social workers. The respondents who were recently licensed and those with post-graduate education expressed more positive attitudes toward EBP than those who were not. Results also point out the issue of appreciative inquiry (AI as a key-component in successful implementation of EBP in social work clinical settings.
Talsania NJ, Shah Rakesh, Shah Venu, Murugan V
Full Text Available Background: There is growing evidence about the importance of commercial sex workers (CSWs and their clients as bridging groups for the HIV epidemic. In India, the role of CSWs is key to the future trajectory of the epidemic. Objective: To determine the level of knowledge and practices regarding STI/ HIV among CSWs. Study design: A Cross-sectional, community based study. Methodology: The study was conducted in December 2005 among CSWs registered under Jyotisangh. Results: The mean age was 27.5 years and majorities (64.5% of CSWs were below 35 years. Knowledge on some aspects of the diseases was quite low in the study group. A higher proportion of CSWs (73.5% donâ€™t know the relationship between HIV and STI. About 66.3% of CSWs know one or more male STI symptoms. 58% of CSWs were aware of place for HIV testing. Majority (86.3% of CSWs are attending counseling programme at Jyotisangh. 97.5% CSWs were aware about condom still 50.5% CSWs were regularly using condom with regular partner while nearly one fourth (26.5% never used condom. And also 97% of CSWs never practiced anal intercourse with condom and only 25% reported either rarely/ sometimes non-penetrative sexual practice. Conclusion: High-risk behavior was established in the study sample. Safe sex and use of condom have to be energetically promoted among commercial sex workers.
Chen, Shengen; Li, Zifen; Hu, Maohong; Guo, Shuangli; Wu, Jingwen; Wang, Bin; Hu, Wei; Sun, Yanshuang; Li, Hui; Liu, Mingbin; Moore, Justin B; Chen, Haiying
Three cases of avian influenza virus H10N8 were reported in Nanchang, China, as of April 2014. To identify the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to H10N8 among farmers' market workers, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 63 farmers' markets in Nanchang. Using the resulting data, characteristics of poultry and non-poultry workers' knowledge, attitudes, and practice were described. Results suggest that interventions targeting high-risk workers should be developed and implemented by public health agencies to prevent the spread of H10N8. Additionally policies that encourage farmers' market workers to receive influenza vaccine should be developed, adopted, and enforced. PMID:25993111
Guo, Shuangli; Wu, Jingwen; Wang, Bin; Hu, Wei; Sun, Yanshuang; Li, Hui; Liu, Mingbin; Moore, Justin B.; Chen, Haiying
Three cases of avian influenza virus H10N8 were reported in Nanchang, China, as of April 2014. To identify the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to H10N8 among farmers’ market workers, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 63 farmers’ markets in Nanchang. Using the resulting data, characteristics of poultry and non-poultry workers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practice were described. Results suggest that interventions targeting high-risk workers should be developed and implemented by public health agencies to prevent the spread of H10N8. Additionally policies that encourage farmers’ market workers to receive influenza vaccine should be developed, adopted, and enforced. PMID:25993111
Michael G. Prucha
Full Text Available Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153 in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107 completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39% strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%. Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR.
Prucha, Michael G.; Fisher, Susan G.; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C.; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Quiñones de Monegro, Zahíra; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Ossip, Deborah J.
Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107) completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39%) strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%). Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR. PMID:25872018
Prucha, Michael G; Fisher, Susan G; McIntosh, Scott; Grable, John C; Holderness, Heather; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; de Monegro, Zahíra Quiñones; Sánchez, José Javier; Bautista, Arisleyda; Díaz, Sergio; Ossip, Deborah J
Tobacco use is increasing globally, particularly in low and middle-income countries like the Dominican Republic (DR) where data have been lacking. Health care worker (HCW) interventions improve quit rates; asking patients about tobacco use at each visit is an evidence-based first step. This study provides the first quantitative examination of knowledge, attitudes and practices of DR HCWs regarding tobacco use. All HCWs (N = 153) in 7 economically disadvantaged DR communities were targeted with anonymous surveys. Approximately 70% (N = 107) completed the primary outcome item, asking about tobacco use at each encounter. Despite >85% strongly agreeing that they should ask about tobacco use at each encounter, only 48.6% reported doing so. While most (94.39%) strongly agreed that smoking is harmful, knowledge of specific health consequences varied from 98.13% for lung cancer to 41.12% for otitis media. Few received training in tobacco intervention (38.32%). Exploratory analyses revealed that always asking even if patients are healthy, strongly agreeing that tobacco causes cardiac disease, and always advising smoke-free homes were associated with always asking. Overall, results demonstrate a disconnect between HCW belief and practice. Though most agreed that always asking about tobacco was important, fewer than half did so. Gaps in HCW knowledge and practices suggest a need for education and policy/infrastructure support. To our knowledge, this is the first reported survey of DR HCWs regarding tobacco, and provides a foundation for future tobacco control in the DR. PMID:25872018
This report addresses laboratory measurement error in estimates of external doses obtained from personnel dosimeters, and investigates the effects of these errors on linear dose-response analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers. These errors have the distinguishing feature that they are independent across time and across workers. Although the calculations made for this report were based on Hanford data, the overall conclusions are likely to be relevant for other epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to external radiation
Youchun, Zhang; Brown, Jane D.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Xianxiang, Feng; Wenzhen, He
We conducted qualitative interviews with 48 female sex workers (FSW) recruited from entertainment venues in Liuzhou, China. Analyses found that HIV knowledge and sexual health seeking strategies differed by size of venue: (1) Women in smaller venues said they douched before/after sex and used condoms with all but their regular partners and clients. Most found the brochures distributed by Chinese CDC workers “irrelevant” or “boring” and relied on friends for health advice. (2) FSW in m...
The aim of the paper is to investigate the e?ect of previous co-worker experience on the survival of knowledge intensive start-ups. For the empirical analysis I use the Danish Integrated Database of Labor Market Research (IDA). This longitudinal employer-employee database allows me to identify co-worker experience among all members of the ?rm. In addition, I will make a distinction between ordinary start-ups and entrepreneurial spin-o?s. The results show that previous co-worker experien...
This research intends to study on knowledge worker competency development which effected from students who work in company through the university workplace learning program. The new leadership roles and skills of managers and leaders according to learning organization principle will be focused. Data were collected from knowledge workers using questionnaires and telephone interviews. The result found that students’ coming can stimulate knowledge workers to use and develop their competencies....
Hendrina H., Grobbelaar; Carin E., Napier.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Facilities concerned with children 'in need of care' should not only be considered as a last resort for a child's care, but also as an intervention that requires more than addressing a child's basic physical needs. The nutritional needs of children are particularly important to consider [...] as they are a fundamental part of the care provided. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this descriptive quantitative study was to investigate the profile, nutrition knowledge, food safety and hygiene practices of child and youth care workers (CCWs) in residential care settings in order to guide the development of a food preparation and nutrition manual. METHOD: The residential care settings included in this study were three that were selected randomly in Durban. CCWs (N = 40) employed permanently or part-time were included. Convenience purposive sampling of the CCWs was undertaken. A structured self-administered questionnaire, developed and tested for this purpose, was used to gather information on the profile, nutrition knowledge, food safety and hygiene practices. The data were analysed for descriptive statistics (means and frequencies). RESULTS: The majority of CCWs were women aged 18-34 years. Very few had completed a relevant tertiary qualification. The results indicated that the respondents' knowledge was fair on general nutrition guidelines, but there were areas of concern. Specifically, knowledge on recommended fruit and vegetable intake, correct serving sizes and importance of a variety in the diet were lacking. Some knowledge about food safety and hygiene practices was demonstrated, but not in totality. CONCLUSION: The overall findings supported the development of a comprehensive food preparation and nutrition manual for child residential care facilities.
Full Text Available We sought to determine the knowledge and attitude of public health workers (PHWs with respect to emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases and the practice of one health approach in the surveillance of zoonoses in the community. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 randomly selected districts of Nyanza province, Kenya. One hundred and ten randomly-selected PHWs were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Data were collected on their knowledge, attitudes and practices about common zoonotic diseases. Eighty-nine (81% questionnaires were received back. Eighty-seven (98% said they discuss zoonotic diseases with the local villagers during their community health work. The most commonly discussed disease was rabies (n=39. Seventy-six (85% respondents reported ever discussing zoonoses with their veterinary colleagues. Over 85% of the PHWs asked for refresher training on H1N1, and 51% require training on highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1. Despite fair knowledge of rabies among the PHWs in Nyanza province, there is need for improving their attitude of the emerging and reemerging zoonoses. There is also need to improve their practice in terms of collaboration with the veterinarians in zoonoses surveillance in the community.
Full Text Available In the past three decades the Asia-Pacific region has experienced amajor wave of immigration despite tighter migration policies andbetter border controls. Southeast Asia has been prominent in thischange, with some countries being important sources and destinationsof skilled and unskilled migrants. Australia has also increased itsmigration quotas, particularly the skilled migration intake. Theemergence of new regional migration patterns, the fast growth in thedemand for knowledge workers and skilled migrants in specificoccupational categories, and the creation of subregional labourmarkets are all manifestations of the scale and diversity of recentmigratory movements in the region. Key factors accounting for thesedevelopments include disparities in economic growth; income andpoverty levels between countries; labour shortages arising fromdemographic transformations; structural change in labour supply;and the role of social networks and the migration industry as driversof migration.
Full Text Available The primary purpose of the study was to assess the extent of knowledge and perception of extension workers towards ICT utilization and to determine the relationship between the selected characteristics of the respondents and knowledge and perception of extension workers towards ICT utilization in extension service delivery. The study was conducted in Gazipur district and comprised proportionate random sample of 90 extension workers from five upazila of Gazipur district. A pre-tested interview schedule was used to collect data from the respondents. To measure the knowledge on ICT utilization 35 statements were selected regarding 7 ICT with five possible answer of each tools and a score of one was given to the right answer and zero to the wrong answer alternatively to measure the perception of the respondents rated each of 10 statements ICT utilization in agriculture on a 5-point Likert type scale and the total of these ratings formed perception index. The result of the study showed that out of seven ICT tools the knowledge of extension workers was highest in case of MS Word this was followed by internet/ web service and the lowest knowledge was found in case of Geographical Information System. It is observed that an overwhelming majority (88.9% of agricultural extension workers in the study area had low to medium knowledge towards ICT utilization. Findings reveal that the respondents had top most perception on the ICT utilization in respect of ‘Extension work can be greatly enhanced by ICT’ followed by on ‘The benefits of ICT use outweigh the financial burden involved’. The result also indicated that more than fourth-fifth (84.4% of the respondents had medium to high perception towards ICT utilization. There were significant relationship between service experience and use of the information sources of the respondents with their knowledge towards ICT utilization conversely innovativeness, cosmopoliteness and job satisfaction of the respondents showed positive significant relationship with their perception towards ICT utilization.
del Carmen Cabezas, María; Fornasini, Marco; Barmettler, David; Ortuño, Diego; Borja, Teresa; Albert, Adelin
Objective: To develop and assess an innovative educational video package for improving HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices among company workers in Ecuador. Methods: The design and development of the HIV prevention educational video was based on the results of a large-scale survey conducted in 115 companies (commerce, manufacturing and real…
Velez, Lili Fox; Hall, Susan P.
Offers a case study examining what happened when a production worker tried to improve manufacturing documentation, and how her success depended upon both her craft knowledge and the rhetorical skills she attributes to a Writing Across the Curriculum program she experienced in college. (SR)
Erica, Ferraz; Luisa Karla de Paula, Arruda; Ericson, Bagatin; Edson Z., Martinez; Andrea A., Cetlin; Christian S., Simoneti; Amanda S., Freitas; José A.B., Martinez; Marcos C., Borges; Elcio O., Vianna.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Subjects exposed to laboratory animals are at a heightened risk of developing respiratory and allergic diseases. These diseases can be prevented by simple measures such as the use of personal protective equipment. We report here the primary findings of the Laboratory Animals an [...] d Respiratory Allergies Study regarding the prevalence of allergic diseases among laboratory animal workers, the routine use of preventive measures in laboratories and animal facilities, and the need for prevention programs. METHODS: Animal handlers and non-animal handlers from 2 Brazilian universities (University of São Paulo and State University of Campinas) answered specific questionnaires to assess work conditions and symptoms. These subjects also underwent spirometry, a bronchial challenge test with mannitol, and skin prick tests for 11 common allergens and 5 occupational allergens (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and rabbit). RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-five animal handlers (32±10 years old [mean±SD], 209 men) and 387 non-animal handlers (33±11 years old, 121 men) were evaluated. Sensitization to occupational allergens was higher among animal handlers (16%) than non-animal handlers (3%, p
Paul Andrew Bourne
Full Text Available Background: Statistics have shown that since 1988, a significant percentage of males are unwilling to seek medical care. The question is if they had the knowledge, worked in the health system and were educated, would this be any different? Aim: The current study aims to fill this void in the literature by examining the perception of rural male health workers (from the Western Region about prostate examination, and why they are reluctant to inquire about the probability of having, or the likelihood of not having prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: The study utilized primary cross-sectional data that was collected during February and March 2008 from 170 males (ages 29 years and older, health-care workers who were employed in particular rural health institutions in Jamaica (i.e. Western Regional Health Authority. SPSS was used to analyze the data. Results: When the respondents were asked “Have you ever heard about the screening procedure for prostate?” 71.2% indicated yes, but only 27.1% had got their prostate checked by a health practitioner. When respondents were asked to state what influenced their choice of not doing a digital rectal examination, 20.6% indicated comfort level; 9.4% stated the gender of the health practitioner, 5.3% mentioned fear and others did not respond. Of those who had the examination 2 years ago, 96.5% did not state the choice of method. Conclusion: The current study is limited in terms of its generalizability to rural males or rural males in Western Jamaica, but it does provide an insight into the difficulty of men in breaking away from culture.
Full Text Available Introduction: In India, community health workers are the main source of information for family planning services and male population want to interact and discuss with them to clear their doubts about male oriented family planning methods. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and perception of community health workers regarding the modern male sterilization method. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Simdega district of Jharkhand. The target population was the community health workers and randomly selected from four randomly selected from blocks out of total seven in the district. A self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used for data collection comprising questions related to knowledge and perception of community health workers about modern male sterilization method. Results: 43% CHWs didn’t know that this method is different from traditional male sterilization method and around 62% thought man’s sexual performance get affected after NSV and 77% did not have any idea about time required to resume normal work. Conclusions: The poor knowledge and wrong perception could be one of the main reasons for poor male participation in family planning process in India.
Standing, H; Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R
This paper is concerned with how poor populations can obtain access to trusted, competent knowledge and services in increasingly pluralistic health systems where unregulated markets for health knowledge and services dominate. The term "unregulated" here derives from the literature on the development of markets in low income countries and refers to the lack of state enforcement of formal laws and regulations. We approach this question of access through the changing roles and fortunes of community health workers over the last few decades and ask what kind of role they can be expected to play in the future. Community based health agents have been used in many settings as a way of filling gaps in service provision where more skilled personnel are not available. They have also fulfilled a more transformative role in broad based community development. We explore the reasons for the decline of programmes from the 1980s onwards. Using the specific experience of Bangladesh, the paper considers what lessons can be learned from past successes and failures and what needs to change to meet the challenges of 21st century health systems. These challenges are those of establishing credibility and legitimacy in a pluralistic environment and creating a sustainable livelihood strategy. The article concludes with a discussion of four potential models of community based health agents which are not necessarily exclusive: a generic agent that is closely linked to a reputable supervisory agency; a specialist cadre working with particular health conditions; an expert advocate; and a mobiliser or facilitator who can mediate between users and health markets. PMID:18342421
Full Text Available This research intends to study on knowledge worker competency development which effected from students who work in company through the university workplace learning program. The new leadership roles and skills of managers and leaders according to learning organization principle will be focused. Data were collected from knowledge workers using questionnaires and telephone interviews. The result found that students’ coming can stimulate knowledge workers to use and develop their competencies. Competency area that most used and developed is coaching and mentoring which result in knowledge worker’s planning, prioritizing, conducting, monitoring, communicating, and leading skills. The co-learner and model for learning, advocate for learning process and projects, and engage in systems thinking were also used and developed at high level. The study can initial conclude that university workplace learning program is the one of an alternative strategy to drive companies to become learning organization in people perspective.
Hezekiah K., Adesokan; Peter I., Alabi; Judy A., Stack; Simeon I.B., Cadmus.
Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amon [...] gst livestock holders (LH) and livestock marketers (LM) in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interview-based study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5%) of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262). Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p
Guo, Wenchen; Xiao, Hongjun; Yang, Xi
Human capital plays an important part in employability of knowledge workers, also it is the important intangible assets of company. This paper explores the correlation between human capital and career success of knowledge workers. Based on literature retrieval, we identified measuring tool of career success and modified further; measuring human capital with self-developed scale of high reliability and validity. After exploratory factor analysis, we suggest that human capital contents four dimensions, including education, work experience, learning ability and training; career success contents three dimensions, including perceived internal competitiveness of organization, perceived external competitiveness of organization and career satisfaction. The result of empirical analysis indicates that there is a positive correlation between human capital and career success, and human capital is an excellent predictor of career success beyond demographics variables.
Mohammad Reza Mehregan; Nader Seyed Kalali
The purpose of the present research is identification and classification of factors affecting ICT knowledge workers’ turnover in Iran’s mobile communications industry. After reviewing research literature, seeking experts’ opinions and doing statistical analyses, 11 variables were identified as the main turnover precedents; then using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, the aforementioned factors were classified in three categories. Results of the research suggest that the pers...
Azeem Sultan Mir; Raees Malik
Background: Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions. Aims: This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the La...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recognition of the critical shortage of human resources within health services, community health workers have been trained and deployed to provide primary health care in developing countries. However, very few studies have investigated whether these health workers can provide good quality of care. This study investigated the knowledge and performance of health extension workers (HEWs on antenatal and delivery care. The study also explored the barriers and facilitators for HEWs in the provision of maternal health care. Methods In conducting this research, a cross-sectional study was performed. A total of 50 HEWs working in 39 health posts, covering a population of approximately 195,000 people, were interviewed. Descriptive statistics was used and a composite score of knowledge of HEWs was made and interpreted based on the Ethiopian education scoring system. Results Almost half of the respondents had at least 5 years of work experience as a HEW. More than half (27 (54% of the HEWs had poor knowledge on contents of antenatal care counseling, and the majority (44 (88% had poor knowledge on danger symptoms, danger signs, and complications in pregnancy. Health posts, which are the operational units for HEWs, did not have basic infrastructures like water supply, electricity, and waiting rooms for women in labor. On average within 6 months, a HEW assisted in 5.8 births. Only a few births (10% were assisted at the health posts, the majority (82% were assisted at home and only 20% of HEWs received professional assistance from a midwife. Conclusion Considering the poor knowledge of HEWs, poorly equipped health posts, and poor referral systems, it is difficult for HEWs to play a key role in improving health facility deliveries, skilled birth attendance, and on-time referral through early identification of danger signs. Hence, there is an urgent need to design appropriate strategies to improve the performance of HEWs by enhancing their knowledge and competencies, while creating appropriate working conditions.
Full Text Available Background & aim: The most important risk factor for one’s sexual health is high-risk sexual behavior. Implementation of educational programs has been considered as one of the most crucial interventions in the prevention and treatment of these behaviors. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of an educational program on the knowledge and attitude of female sex workers toward preventing high-risk sexual behaviors. Methods:This pretest-posttest, one-group study was conducted on 40 female sex workers, imprisoned in Mashhad Vakil Abad prison in 2013. Data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, as well as knowledge- and attitude-related data. An educational program was designed after the pretest and conducted in four 70-minute sessions. Immediately and four weeks after the educational program, post-test was performed. Data were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxon tests, using SPSS version 16. Results: A positive significant increase was found in the mean scores of knowledge and attitude of female sex workers immediately and four weeks after the program (P
We describe here the standardization of a technique for the estimation of 125I in the thyroid gland of laboratory workers involved with 125I labelling techniques. It is based on a comparison with a standard curve obtained by placing in a thyroid neck phantom various calibrated standard sources of 125I. Its sensitivity was calculated around 0,8 - 1,7 nCi. The precision of our measurements was avaliated in a range of 1.35 - 310.5 nCi and the coefficient of variation obtained varied from 2,2% to 26,3%. The accuracy of our ''in vivo'' measurements was checked by analyzing the influence of the shape and the size of the thyroid in the neck phantom. (author)
Lacaz, Francisco Antonio de Castro
This article discusses the underlying theoretical and operational premises in the fields of workers' health and occupational health, highlighting their respective frameworks and epistemological differences, based on Foucaultian archeology. The theme is particularly relevant, due to: the apparently limited attention to interdisciplinary research approaches in workers' health; various setbacks in public health measures at the social policy level; related weaknesses in the Brazilian trade union movement; and the conceptual misinterpretations drafted into the final report of the 3rd National Workers' Health Conference in November, 2005, convened by the Ministries of Social Security, Health, and Labor. The event resulted from the Workers' Health Conferences held in various States and Municipalities, mobilizing some 100,000 activists throughout Brazil and electing the delegates to the 3rd National Conference. PMID:17435873
Bendit, Edward; Frenkel, Amnon
Attracting firms in knowledge and technology intensive (KTI) sectors is highly sought by national and regional policy makers as a powerful engine of economic growth. Due to fierce competition in the KTI sector, KTI firms often attract employees by offering car-related job perks in addition to wage. This study analyzes the impact of company-cars and car-allowance on the travel behavior of knowledge-workers. The importance of this issue derives from the tendency of knowledge-based economy to concentrate in highly populated metropolitan regions. The analyzed data comprise 750 observations, retrieved from a revealed-preferences survey among KTI workers in the Tel-Aviv metropolitan region in Israel. Results show that car-related job perks are associated with (i) high annual kilometrage, (ii) high propensity of using the car as main commute mode, (iii) long commute distances and travel times, (iv) high trip chaining frequency in commuting trips, and (v) high frequency of long-distance weekend leisure trips. The results suggest that the development of sustainable knowledge-based cities should consider (i) the replacement of car-related job perks by other incentives, (ii) the provision of pedestrian and cyclist friendly infrastructures, and (iii) public transport improvements.
Boley, Harold; Hanschke, Philipp; Hinkelmann, Knut; Meyer, Manfred
Knowledge bases for real-world domains such as mechanical engineering require expressive and efficient representation and processing tools. We pursue a declarative-compilative approach to knowledge engineering. While Horn logic (as implemented in PROLOG) is well-suited for representing relational clauses, other kinds of declarative knowledge call for hybrid extensions: functional dependencies and higher-order knowledge should be modeled directly. Forward (bottom-up) reasoning should be integr...
Johnston, James D; Eggett, Dennis; Johnson, Michele J; Reading, James C
Pathogen transmission in the laboratory is thought to occur primarily through inhalation of infectious aerosols or by direct contact with mucous membranes on the face. While significant research has focused on controlling inhalation exposures, little has been written about hand contamination and subsequent hand-to-face contact (HFC) transmission. HFC may present a significant risk to workers in biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) laboratories where there is typically no barrier between the workers' hands and face. The purpose of this study was to measure the frequency and location of HFC among BSL-2 workers, and to identify psychosocial factors that influence the behavior. Research workers (N = 93) from 21 BSL-2 laboratories consented to participate in the study. Two study personnel measured workers' HFC behaviors by direct observation during activities related to cell culture maintenance, cell infection, virus harvesting, reagent and media preparation, and tissue processing. Following observations, a survey measuring 11 psychosocial predictors of HFC was administered to participants. Study personnel recorded 396 touches to the face over the course of the study (mean = 2.6 HFCs/hr). Of the 93 subjects, 67 (72%) touched their face at least once, ranging from 0.2-16.0 HFCs/hr. Among those who touched their face, contact with the nose was most common (44.9%), followed by contact with the forehead (36.9%), cheek/chin (12.5%), mouth (4.0%), and eye (1.7%). HFC rates were significantly different across laboratories F(20, 72) = 1.85, p = 0.03. Perceived severity of infection predicted lower rates of HFC (p = 0.03). For every one-point increase in the severity scale, workers had 0.41 fewer HFCs/hr (r = -.27, P < 0.05). This study suggests HFC is common among BSL-2 laboratory workers, but largely overlooked as a major route of exposure. Workers' risk perceptions had a modest impact on their HFC behaviors, but other factors not considered in this study, including social modeling and work intensity, may play a stronger role in predicting the behavior. Mucous membrane protection should be considered as part of the BSL-2 PPE ensemble to prevent HFC. PMID:24479417
Robertson, Michelle M; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; O'Neill, Michael J; Schleifer, Lawrence M
A macroergonomics intervention consisting of flexible workspace design and ergonomics training was conducted to examine the effects on psychosocial work environment, musculoskeletal health, and work effectiveness in a computer-based office setting. Knowledge workers were assigned to one of four conditions: flexible workspace (n=121), ergonomics training (n=92), flexible workspace+ergonomics training (n=31), and a no-intervention control (n=45). Outcome measures were collected 2 months prior to the intervention and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Overall, the study results indicated positive, significant effects on the outcome variables for the two intervention groups compared to the control group, including work-related musculoskeletal discomfort, job control, environmental satisfaction, sense of community, ergonomic climate, communication and collaboration, and business process efficiency (time and costs). However, attrition of workers in the ergonomics training condition precluded an evaluation of the effects of this intervention. This study suggests that a macroergonomics intervention is effective among knowledge workers in office settings. PMID:18462704
Rakesh Shah, HK Mehta, Manish Fancy, Sunil Nayak, Bhavesh N. Donga
Full Text Available Health care professionals are exposed to variety of dangers like infections, cuts and needle stick injuries, exposure to anesthetic gases, radiations, dermatitis causing substances, vaccines, serums etc. This study focuses on issues related to some of these risks and possible ways and means on how to overcome these risks. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices among health care workers about needle stick injury. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a teaching hospital in June 2008. Results: Mean age of Health care workers was 33.5 years, majority (50% in the age group of 20-30 years. 61% HCWs had less than 5 year of work experience. 67% HCWs had received hepatitis B vaccination of which only 17.9% had carried out Anti HBs antibody check up. Knowledge about disease transmitted by NSIs was satisfactory. Though 36% had suffered Needle stick injury (NSIs, only 8.3% reported the incident of NSIs. 81% HCWs know about universal precaution guidelines. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for strengthening skills, developing newer competencies and broadening our knowledge in occupational health and safety and disaster management.
Full Text Available Problem statement: An in-house health promotion program aimed at promoting safety and health awareness when handling organic solvents at the workplace was carried out and its effectiveness was evaluated by comparing the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP scores at the pre and post-intervention phase. Approach: A total of 104 workers participated in the program and another 176 workers served as the comparative group. Questionnaire was distributed to respondents for the program evaluation on the KAP as well as to obtain their background information. The program consisted of small group lectures and discussions, a short video show, display of posters and distributions of pamphlets. Results: Pre-intervention data showed poor practice and knowledge scores on solvent hazards (Conclusion: There were improvements in the KAP scores of the intervention group at the post-intervention phase. However, the practice was not significantly correlated to the knowledge, instead, it was influenced by the employment years in the heavily solvent exposed sections in the Painting Department indicating that their job experience and peer group interactions contributed to their work culture and behavior.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Ten to thirty percent of the patients admitted to hospitals in India acquire nosocomial infections as against 5% i n the developed world. The first and foremost principle of Universal Safety Precaution is “HANDWASHING”. But the Health Care Workers often forget to wash their hands before int eracting with the patient. Such contaminated hands plays major role in transmitting infections. HCWs are also at an increased risk of needle stick injuries. According to data fr om EPINet system, hospital workers incur approximately 30 needle stick injuries per 100 beds per year on average – an alarming figure by no exaggeration. (5 OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge and perception of HCWs toward s hand hygiene and to know the incident of NSI and the fac tors associated with it. STUDY METHOD: Cross sectional study with purposive sampling was car ried out in a tertiary care hospital. Out of 275 participants 55 were doctors, 143 nurses and 77 i nterns. Self administered questionnaire was used to collect information. RESULTS : Ninety one percent doctors, 86% interns and 81% nurses had good knowledge about hand hygiene. 73% d octors, 61% interns and 56% nurses knew the duration required for hand rub. The main h indrance for not practicing hand hygiene was due to lack of resources (37%. Knowledge abou t recapping of the needle was poor and incident of injury due to needle stick was 50% amon g nurses. CONCLUSIONS : Study demonstrated adequate knowledge regarding hand hygi ene. The knowledge should be converted into practice. There is a need for educati onal programme about universal precautions especially about handling of the sharps
Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76±11.20, 90.55±8.59, 80.58±11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55±9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed ers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in married and general hospital demonstrated high self-efficacy levels. 3. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management showed statistical differences according to the relationship between the knowledge and the attitude, the knowledge and the behavior, the attitude and the behavior, the attitude and the self-efficacy, and the behavior and the self-efficacy. The relationship between the behavior and the self-efficacy was represented as ? = 0.482, which was the strongest relationship in such factors. Also, the knowledge and self-efficacy didn't show certain relationships
Full Text Available Evidence points to the fact that frequent resignation of project engineers from construction companies is primarily the result of dissatisfaction with the factors that shape the salary scale. This research aims to identify the major influencing factors in merit based salary calculation systems for knowledge-oriented engineers so as to more accurately reflect their contribution to construction projects. Results from a questionnaire sent to managers, engineers and HR professionals throughout the Iranian construction industry revealed that while there was overall agreement on principles to a merit-based approach, engineers in particular identified ‘professional skills’, ‘experience’ and ‘creativity’. Management-oriented parties should take into account engineer perspectives in order to more accurately value the knowledge-oriented contribution of these workers to construction projects. This research provides a basis for understanding the key factors in the merit based salary scale formulation through the construction industry.
Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon
This study investigates the linkage between the lifestyle and the intra-metropolitan residential choice of knowledge-workers in terms of home ownership, location, dwelling size and building type. In order to identify population groups based on their lifestyle, data from a revealed-preferences survey among knowledge-workers in Israel are clustered by means of a two-stage clustering method, consisting of self-organizing maps (SOM) followed by neural gas, Bayesian classification and unified distance matrix edge analysis. The method is embedded in the software Synapse. Five clusters are identified: nest-builders, bon-vivants, careerists, entrepreneurs and laid-back. The clusters significantly differ in terms of their home ownership, location, dwelling size and building type. Bon-vivants and entrepreneurs differ in their dwelling size and home ownership, although both prefer the metropolitan core. Careerists prefer suburban large single-detached houses. Hence, bon-vivants and entrepreneurs bear potential to form part of core revitalization processes, while careerists are the more likely to induce urban sprawl. Nest-builders and laid-back are attracted to central locations, conditional on the provision of affordable medium-size dwellings.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa. The sample included 70 female sex workers from the Tzaneen and Phalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. A modified form of snowball sampling known as “targeted” sampling was used for identifying female sex workers. Results showed an inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention methods and some incorrect beliefs about AIDS transmission. Most sex workers reported condom use with their last sex client, inconsistent condom use with paying partners, and had poor condom use with regular partners. One third were drinking alcohol daily, one quarter had had voluntary HIV tests, and three quarters had been exposed to HIV interventions. Findings are discussed and implications for HIV interventions outlined.
Menicucci, David F.
A growing recognition exists in companies worldwide that, when employees leave, they take with them valuable knowledge that is difficult and expensive to recreate. The concern is now particularly acute as the large ''baby boomer'' generation is reaching retirement age. A new field of science, Knowledge Continuity Management (KCM), is designed to capture and catalog the acquired knowledge and wisdom from experience of these employees before they leave. The KCM concept is in the final stages of being adopted by the Energy, Infrastructure, and Knowledge Systems Center and a program is being applied that should produce significant annual cost savings. This report discusses how the Center can use KCM to mitigate knowledge loss from employee departures, including a concise description of a proposed plan tailored to the Center's specific needs and resources.
Mørch, Anders; Nygård, Kathrine; Andersen, Renate; Mushtaq, Shazia; Nedic,Damir; Olsen, Espen; Hauge, Trond Eiliv; Vedøy, Gunn; Norenes, Svein Olav; Moen, Anne; Nes, Sturle; S. Olsen, Dorothy; Ludvigsen, Sten; Toiviainen, Hanna; Lallimo, Jiri
This deliverable has been produced in the context of the Knowledge- Practice Laboratory (KP-Lab) project. KP-Lab focuses on innovative practices of working with knowledge in higher education, teacher training, and workplaces. Participants of WP10 are University of Helsinki, University of Oslo and Pöyry Forest Industry representing both researchers and practitioners. WP10 explores knowledge practices in workplaces to understand more of the ways professionals create, use, communicate, and embed...
Wen, Yi; Guan, Jihui; Wu, Zunyou; Li, Li; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Lin, Chunqing; Detels, Roger
Background Pharmacies play a special role in providing treatment services for patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in China. There is a need to study the STD/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge among pharmacy workers in retail pharmacies. Method A total of 200 pharmacy workers were recruited from 120 randomly selected retail pharmacies in Fuzhou, China. A self-administrated questionnaire was used to collect information of demographics, working experience, pharmacy structure and clientele profile, and pharmacy workers’ attitudes toward traditional Chinese folk remedies and their STD/HIV knowledge. Results Work-related training during the past 6 months, holding pharmacist license, and years of being a pharmacy worker showed significant association with STD/HIV knowledge. Work-related training also significantly associated with provision of consultation. Years of education and medical training, however, failed to show significant association with STD/HIV knowledge. Conclusions In order to improve service quality and avoid misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment of STD/HIV, on-the-job training or continuous education for pharmacy workers should be required, implemented, and monitored as part of the national effort for STD control and treatment. PMID:19265742
Hon, Chun-Yip; Barzan, Cris; Astrakianakis, George
We have been examining the issue of healthcare workers' exposure to antineoplastic drugs for nearly a decade and have observed that there appears to be more publications on the subject matter originating from Europe than from North America. The concern is that findings from Europe may not be generalizable to North America because of differences in handling practices, regulatory requirements, and training. Our objective was to perform a literature review to confirm our observation and, in turn, identify gaps in knowledge that warrants addressing in North America. Using select keywords, we searched for publications in PubMed and Web of Science. All papers were initially classified according to the originating continent and then categorized into one or more subject categories (analytical methods, biological monitoring, occupational exposure, surface contamination, and probability of risk/exposure). Our review identified 16 papers originating from North America and 55 papers from Europe with surface contamination being the subject matter most often studied overall. Based on our results, we are of the opinion that North American researchers need to further conduct dermal and/or urinary drug contamination studies as well as assess the exposure risk faced by healthcare workers who handle antineoplastic drugs. Trends in exposure levels should also be explored. PMID:25516807
Datta, S S; Kuppuraman, D; Boratne, A V; Abraham, S B; Singh, Z
Para-medical workers (PMWs) are first contacts for suspected Swine flu patients and also the media to spread key messages regarding its prevention and control strategies. Present study was conducted to ascertain knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Swine flu among para-medical workers in a tertiary care hospital. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among PMWs during May-July, 2010. KAP regarding Swine flu was collected through pre-designed questionnaire and information on attitude towards Swine flu was also collected through FGD-free list analysis. Data was analysed using Epi_Info and Anthropac software. A total of 237 PMWs responded. Majority of the PMWs knew about signs and symptoms (89.03%), mode of transmission (91.56%) and route of transmission (91.98%) of Swine flu. Television (67.51%) was the major source of information. 75.53% and 58.65% PMWs respectively knew about organ of the body chiefly affected and type of specimen to be collected during Swine flu. 196 (82.7%) and 191 (80.59%) PMWs respectively knew about availability of vaccine and treatment against Swine flu. 94.09% PMWs stated that extra precautions such as use of face mask, frequent handwashing, use of gloves etc. should be taken while handling any suspected Swine flu case and 73.84% PMWs do take such precautions. 80.17% PMWs opined that epidemic of Swine flu can be halted at current stage. In the present study, PMWs possessed good knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Swine flu and this fact should be utilized while designing and guiding containment strategies against existing Swine flu epidemic. PMID:23785876
Notes that life-saving advances in medicine have created difficult ethical and legal dilemmas for health care professionals. Presents beginning knowledge base for bioethical practice, especially in hospital neonatal units. Outlines key elements of bioethical decision making and examines potential social work role from clinical and organizational…
Purvi Parikh, Kavita Sharma
Full Text Available Objective: To assess ICDS anganwadi workersâ€™ knowledge and perception regarding promotion and enhance community based complementary feeding practices. Methodology: Total 17 anganwadi workersâ€™ (AWWs from one semi tribal sector (covering approximately 850 children under three two years of Vadodara district in Gujarat state, India were purposely selected. This study employed interview with AWWs as a principal method of data collection using a pretested semi-structured interview schedule. The entire interview was divided into 8 themes. Results: The knowledge of AWWs with regard to key IYCF practices was average. None of the AWWs knew the complete rationale for promoting breastfeeding till 2 years and beyond. Merely 65% AWWs recommended food with thick consistency while 47% recommended liquid diets for children. These practices in fact are one of the primary reasons which can be attributed to low energy and protein intake during complementary feeding. As low as 18% AWWs advised giving small frequent feeds during illness and only 6% advised additional meal after illness. None of the AWWs recommended persistence in feeding the child with required quantity of food. Total 41% listed sickness as key reason for child not feeling hungry, missing out on the other two imperative reasons i.e. micronutrient deficiency and mouth lesion. Conclusion: Overall knowledge and perceptions for promoting of community based CF practices was average amongst the ICDS AWWs with a percent score of 40%. The AWWs were aware of key IYCF practices, however the AWWs perceptions and knowledge with regard to the rationale applicable to the appropriate recommended CF practices being promoted was rather poor. This is noted to be a critical gap and needs to be addressed for equipping the ICDS frontline workers for effectively promoting successful adoptions of CF practices by community.
Norizzati Azudin; Mohd Nor Ismail; Zainab Taherali
Malaysia, being a multi-racial society, faces the challenges of creating knowledge sharing capability in organisations, as cultural values are often reflected in the workplace by individual employees. For organisations, it is not clear whether this diversity has resulted in any form of competitive advantage. Studies have shown that various communities in Malaysia do not bring their respective cultures to work, and as such the company values prevail. This research is based on the demographic s...
Vartika Saxena; Ranjeeta Kumari
Introduction: Promotion and support of breastfeeding is a global priority and an important child-survival intervention. Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) can play a significant role in the promotion of breast-feeding. Present research paper reviews their knowledge & practices with respect to Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) issues. Further, it also analyzes difficulties being faced by them in promoting positive IYCF practices so that necessary support can be provided for car...
Kinsella, William J.
Extends a Foucauldian view of power/knowledge to the archetypical knowledge-intensive organization, the scientific research laboratory. Describes the discursive production of power/knowledge at the "big science" laboratory conducting nuclear fusion research and illuminates a critical incident in which the fusion research "discipline" imposes…
Lin, Chiou-Fen; Yang, Chyn-Yng; Lu, Meei-Shiow; Kao, Ching-Chiu
Nosocomial infection represents an important indicator of healthcare quality and patient safety. Based on the experience gained during the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Taiwan in 2003, we gained greater awareness of the potential threat from patient-hired attendants and outsourced workers as bacteria carriers and transmitters. This study built a training model and evaluated training effectiveness in terms of improved knowledge. The training model included nosocomial infection control guidelines, a training CD, training program, evaluation form, and descriptive procedures for conducting training and evaluation. The training course for this study was conducted in 17 hospitals in Taiwan, with a total of 1,467 participants attending 27 seminars and 1,265 effective samples (return rate = 86.2%). Results of the study showed a statistical difference of Advantages of applying this training model include knowledge enhancement and reduced implementation time, manpower input and budget outlay. In addition to greater flexibility, the model can also positively influence clinical practice, improve patient safety and reduce hospital nosocomial infection rates. This program is worth promoting in hospitals and other healthcare institutions. PMID:18792888
Liu, T I; So, R
A survey of female commercial sex workers (CSW) in Iloilo City, Philipines, was conducted in October and November 1995 to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding HIV/AIDS to guide future education programs. CSWs in the Philippines were categorized as registered or freelance. Registered CSWs included "hospitality girls" from licensed bars, night clubs, and massage parlors who have registered with the local social hygiene clinic (SHC). Freelance CSWs are not registered. 110 registered and 46 freelance CSWs were surveyed. We compared demographic data, scores from a basic knowledge test, and preventive practices between registered and freelance CSWs. Demographic data indicate that registered CSWs often originate from provinces outside of the Visayan Islands (25%) and most have never been married (93%). Freelance CSWs included more married (11%) and separated (11%) women from nearby cities. Knowledge test scores of registered and freelance CSWs were not significantly different. 90-96% of CSWs correctly answered questions regarding modes of transmission. However, 25% still believed it is possible to contract AIDS from using a public restroom. Registered and freelance CSWs believed their risks for AIDS to be equally great. However, 38% of freelance CSWs admit to never or almost never using condoms compared to 15% of registered CSWs. Licensed establishments and a support staff at the social hygiene clinic may provide a relatively structured working environment, giving registered CSWs security and confidence to insist on condom use. In most cases, condom use seems to depend on male customer compliance, and CSWs, especially freelancers, cannot afford to insist on condom use. The CSWs indicated that they learned most about AIDS through health personnel and television. PMID:9253869
Campbell, Natalie; Schiffer, Eva; Buxbaum, Ann; McLean, Elizabeth; Perry, Cary; Sullivan, Tara M
In Malawi, where the majority of the population resides in rural areas, community health workers (CHWs) are the first, and often only, providers of health services. An assessment of health information needs, however, found that these frontline workers often lacked essential health information. A pilot project, implemented in 2 rural districts of Malawi between 2010 and 2011, introduced a mobile phone system to strengthen knowledge exchange within networks of CHWs and district staff. To evaluate the mobile phone intervention, a participatory evaluation method called Net-Map was used, an approach built on traditional social network analysis. Together, CHWs and district personnel discussed information needs and gaps and the roles of different actors in their information networks. They then used drawings and 3-dimensional objects to create baseline and endline maps showing the linkages and levels of influence among members of the information network. Net-Map provided them with powerful evidence of differences before and after the mobile phone initiative. At baseline, CHWs were not mentioned as actors in the information network, while at endline they were seen to have significant connections with colleagues, beneficiaries, supervisors, and district health facilities, as both recipients and providers of information. Focus groups with CHWs complemented the Net-Map findings with reports of increased self-confidence and greater trust by their communities. These qualitative results were bolstered by surveys that showed decreases in stockouts of essential medicines, lower communication costs, wider service coverage, and more efficient referrals. As an innovative, participatory form of social network analysis, Net-Map yielded important visual, quantitative, and qualitative information at reasonable cost. PMID:25276560
Ezedinachi, E N U; Ross, M W; Meremiku, M; Essien, E J; Edem, C B; Ekure, E; Ita, O
The aim of the study was to improve health workers' skills and confidence in dealing with patients with HIV disease and increase attention to patients' human rights. A longitudinal controlled trial was carried out in which one Nigerian state served as the intervention site and the adjacent state served as the control site for an intervention and dissemination of training in clinical management, health education, and attitudinal change toward patients with HIV disease. The intervention group n=1072, control group n=480. Following initial questionnaire-defining focus groups, nurses, laboratory technologists and physicians in all base hospitals in the intervention state were trained by influential role models who attended the initial training. Data were collected in all sites pre-training and 1 y later. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis controlling for baseline data, and orthogonal factor analysis to define scales were used. Data showed significant positive changes after 1 y in the intervention group on perception of population risk assessment, attitudes and beliefs about people with HIV disease, less fear and more sympathy for and responsibility toward HIV patients, and an increase in self-perceived clinical skills. There was increased willingness to treat and teach colleagues about people with HIV. Clinician fear and discrimination were significantly reduced, and the climate of fear that was associated with HIV was replaced with a professional concern. There was increased understanding of appropriate psychosocial, clinical and human rights issues associated with HIV treatment and prevention. This intervention, targeting health workers in an entire state and using HIV/AIDS information, role modeling, diffusion of training and discussions of discrimination and human rights, significantly affected the perception of risk groups and behaviors, perceived skills in treatment and counseling, reduced fears and increased concern for people with HIV disease, and improved the climate of treatment and prevention of HIV disease compared with a control state. PMID:11961679
Ahmad Filza Ismail; Aziah Daud; Zaliha Ismail; Baharudin Abdullah
Objectives: Noise is known to be one of the environmental and occupational hazards listed in the Factory and Machinery Act 1967. Quarries with loud deafening sounds from trucks and machineries pose the risk of noise-induced hearing loss to workers. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards noise-induced hearing loss and to determine the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss and its associated factors among quarry workers in a north-eastern state of Mala...
Full Text Available Abstract Background This survey assessed knowledge, attitudes, and compliance regarding standard precautions about health care-associated infections (HAIs and the associated determinants among healthcare workers (HCWs in emergency departments in Italy. Methods An anonymous questionnaire, self-administered by all HCWs in eight randomly selected non-academic acute general public hospitals, comprised questions on demographic and occupational characteristics; knowledge about the risks of acquiring and/or transmitting HAIs from/to a patient and standard precautions; attitudes toward guidelines and risk perceived of acquiring a HAI; practice of standard precautions; and sources of information. Results HCWs who know the risk of acquiring Hepatitis C (HCV and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV from a patient were in practice from less years, worked fewer hours per week, knew that a HCW can transmit HCV and HIV to a patient, knew that HCV and HIV infections can be serious, and have received information from educational courses and scientific journals. Those who know that gloves, mask, protective eyewear, and hands hygiene after removing gloves are control measures were nurses, provided care to fewer patients, knew that HCWs' hands are vehicle for transmission of nosocomial pathogens, did not know that a HCW can transmit HCV and HIV to a patient, and have received information from educational courses and scientific journals. Being a nurse, knowing that HCWs' hands are vehicle for transmission of nosocomial pathogens, obtaining information from educational courses and scientific journals, and needing information were associated with a higher perceived risk of acquiring a HAI. HCWs who often or always used gloves and performed hands hygiene measures after removing gloves were nurses, provided care to fewer patients, and knew that hands hygiene after removing gloves was a control measure. Conclusions HCWs have high knowledge, positive attitudes, but low compliance concerning standard precautions. Nurses had higher knowledge, perceived risk, and appropriate HAIs' control measures than physicians and HCWs answered correctly and used appropriately control measures if have received information from educational courses and scientific journals.
Patil, Meru A; Bhaumik, Sandip; Paul, Soubhik; Bissoyi, Swarupananda; Roy, Raj; Ryu, Seungwoo
In this paper, we introduce a Concept Graph Engine (CG-Engine) that generates patient specific personalized disease ranking based on the laboratory test data. CG-Engine uses the Unified Medical Language System database as medical knowledge base. The CG-Engine consists of two concepts namely, a concept graph and its attributes. The concept graph is a two level tree that starts at a laboratory test root node and ends at a disease node. The attributes of concept graph are: Relation types, Semantic types, Number of Sources and Symmetric Information between nodes. These attributes are used to compute the weight between laboratory tests and diseases. The personalized disease ranking is created by aggregating the weights of all the paths connecting between a particular disease and contributing abnormal laboratory tests. The clinical application of CG-Engine improves physician's throughput as it provides the snapshot view of abnormal laboratory tests as well as a personalized disease ranking. PMID:24109927
Shelton, Thomas G; Mulrooney, Joseph E; Wagner, Terence L
The potential for transfer of chlorfenapyr among subterranean termites was investigated using a donor-recipient (5:95 ratio) experiment. In one experiment, workers of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) were exposed to treated sand at 0, 50, 100, 250, and 500 ppm chlorfenapyr (wt [AI]/wt sand). Exposed workers were allowed to interact with untreated nestmates for 14 d, after which mortality was assessed. The three colonies responded differently to the treatments in this experiment. For two colonies, donor exposure rates of 500 ppm (as well as 250 ppm for colony B) chlorfenapyr resulted in significantly greater recipient mortality than controls. For colony C, donor chlorfenapyr exposure did not significantly influence recipient mortality. In a second experiment examining donor mortality over time, donor termites exposed to all test concentrations of chlorfenapyr (except for 0 ppm) suffered 100% mortality within 5 d. Analysis of donor termite body washes using gas chromatography indicated a linear uptake of chlorfenapyr by termites over the concentration range studied. Thus, for this concentration range, no upper limit (saturation plateau) of termite uptake for chlorfenapyr was reached. PMID:16813326
This paper describes the operations that generate Radioisotope Production Waste at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the improved techniques used to handle and dispose of this waste. Historically, these wastes have produced high worker exposure during processing, packaging and disposal. The waste is made up of accelerator-produced nuclides of short to mid-length half-lives with a few longer-lived nuclides. However, because radiopharmaceutical research and treatment requires a constant supply of radioisotopes, the waste must be processed and disposed of in a timely manner. Since the waste cannot be stored for long periods of time to allow for adequate decay, engineering processes were implemented to safely handle the waste routinely and with ALARA principles in mind
Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward
This study investigates the linkage between the lifestyle and the intra-metropolitan residential choice of knowledge-workers in terms of home-ownership, location, dwelling size and building type. Data are retrieved from a revealed-preferences survey among knowledge-workers in the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area and are analyzed with self-organizing maps for pattern recognition and classification. Five clusters are identified: nest-builders, bon-vivants, careerists, entrepreneurs and laid-back. Bon-vivants and entrepreneurs differ in their dwelling size and home-ownership, although both prefer the metropolitan core. Careerists prefer suburban large detached houses. Nest-builders and laid-back are attracted to central locations, conditional on the provision of affordable medium-size dwellings.
Benedict Nwogoh; Usimenahon Aigberadion; Alexander Ikenna Nwannadi
Introduction. Adequate and safe blood supply has remained a challenge in developing countries like ours. There is a high dependency on family replacement and remunerated blood donors in our environment which carries an attendant increased risk of transfusion transmissible infection. Objectives. The objectives of this study were to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary blood donation among healthcare workers (nonphysicians) and to identify and recruit potential voluntary bl...
Prescott, Dana E
The graduate school curriculum for social workers requires that students learn to critically distinguish between opinion-based knowledge and evidence-based practices, or empirically-supported interventions. Once graduated, licensed social workers are often called upon to offer diagnostic and predictive opinions as experts in a variety of macro-environments. When the family courts are that "host" environment, social workers proffer expert opinions that may categorize and label parents or children for purposes of a judge's allocation of physical or legal custody. In this article, it is suggested that the social work profession, within all three domains of education, practice, and research, should more precisely link the design and fidelity of an evidence-based practice (EBP) with its potential misapplication or warping when proffered as science in "host" environments like family courts. As Foucault and other scholars warn, the failure to verify that an intervention is applied correctly may actually enhance the risk of social injustice by interpreting and translating EBP knowledge in the non-empirical form of authority-by-license. This article, therefore, proposes that the social work profession, from the classroom to the field, has an obligation to thoroughly understand and engage interdisciplinary practices that assure respect for the strengths and limits of social work knowledge. PMID:24066636
Nwogoh, Benedict; Aigberadion, Usimenahon; Nwannadi, Alexander Ikenna
Introduction. Adequate and safe blood supply has remained a challenge in developing countries like ours. There is a high dependency on family replacement and remunerated blood donors in our environment which carries an attendant increased risk of transfusion transmissible infection. Objectives. The objectives of this study were to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary blood donation among healthcare workers (nonphysicians) and to identify and recruit potential voluntary blood donors. Methodology. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. A total of 163 staffs were recruited. Pretest questionnaires were used to assess their knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary blood donation. Statistical Analysis. The responses were collated and analyzed with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 16. The association between blood donation practice and gender of respondents, category of staff, and level of education was tested using Chi-square and Fisher's tests where appropriate. P donation; however, only 22.1% (36) have donated blood with 41.7% (15) of these being voluntary. Male workers were more likely to donate (P blood donation and level of education. Conclusion. There is a strong disparity between the knowledge, attitude, and practice of voluntary donation amongst healthcare workers. PMID:24222890
International mobility trends of highly skilled workers: an analysis of the transnational migration of highly skilled immigrants for both receiving and sending countries and their role on innovation in a knowledge-based economy
Yan, Victor Andrew
In a knowledge-based economy, innovation has become a key driver of economic growth. The return migration of highly skilled workers to traditional sending countries such as Taiwan, China, and India has increased the international mobility of highly skilled workers in the Science and Technology sector. As a result, this will change transnational migration patterns of highly skilled workers in the future and will affect recruitment strategies of traditional receiving countries such as Canada. T...
Full text: Introduction. In the autumn of 2006, the UK government made a commitment to establish a National Nuclear Laboratory based around Nexia Solutions and its 'state of the art' facility at Sellafield in Cumbria. The initial phase of the work to establish the laboratory is now complete and it has a remit for the following roles: to play a key role in supporting the UK's strategic R and D requirements; to operate world-class facilities; to ensure key skills are safeguarded and enhanced; to play a key role in the development of the UK's R and D supply base. It is evident that to be successful the National Nuclear Laboratory will need a strong capability in knowledge management to underpin its activities. Our origins in the R and D communities of BNFL and UKAEA have given us a broad portfolio of capabilities which range from reactor technology through fuel cycle technology to waste management and the knowledge held by our people is one of our major strengths. However, the capabilities and knowledge do need to be maintained and developed, for which we have a four part strategy: Strengthen internal systems and processes; Undertake strategic R and D programmes; Build networks with the nuclear industry across the world; Build links and partnerships with academic institutions. Systems and Processes. Internal systems and processes need to be strengthened to make the capture and sharing of knowledge and information more efficient. A key element will be succession planning A key element will be succession planning for more experienced technologists. R and D programmes. Work is proceeding to develop a robust portfolio of R and D programmes. As well as fulfilling our remit to play a key role in the UK's strategic R and D requirements, this will also ensure that skills maintenance goes beyond formal training. Involvement in R and D programmes will develop capabilities in our younger scientists and engineers, particularly, to generate solutions relevant to the industrial-scale application of nuclear technology. We aim to use our R and D programmes to facilitate skills transfer from experienced practitioners across a wide range of disciplines. Industry Networks. Building networks across the nuclear industry needs to complement the R and D portfolio. We recognise that a creative approach is needed, and one example is that Nexia Solutions has created roles called Senior Fellows. Senior Fellows are leading technologists who are expected to 'act as ambassadors'. That is to say that they will develop links between technologists inside the laboratory with those in academia or other industries. In this context, knowledge management is to work with the 'tacit' knowledge held by experts in a variety of organisations. Establishing the correct links ensures the knowledge is more complete than it would otherwise be and enables it to be focused more effectively on real issues. Each senior fellow role is based around a fundamental technical discipline which provides the theme for the development of technical links. Currently we have roles in the following areas:- Materials behaviour; Corrosion; Actinide chemistry; Criticality; Reactor Systems. Senior Fellows are nationally and internationally known and respected in their field and are expected to maintain their specialist support role within Nexia Solutions in addition to interacting extensively with key research organisations, academia and relevant other industries. Academic links. The National Nuclear Laboratory will aim to maximise the value of its work for the UK and therefore must find ways of increasing the synergies between its own capabilities and those in universities. One example of how the National Laboratory may work is Nexia Solutions' existing initiative called University Research Alliances (URA). The knowledge management aspect is similar to that for industrial networks, i.e. dealing with 'tacit' knowledge. Academic and industrial knowledge can complement each other if the right links are established. Equally, important is the role that universities can play in renewing the knowle
Maia Butsashvili, Wayne Triner
Background: Avian influenza has been documented in over 331 humans since 2003 with 203 associated deaths. Health Care Workers (HCWs) have been shown to be at personal risk during other highly virulent outbreaks with a high attack rate. This study aimed to determine the magnitude and factors associated with absenteeism of hospital based health care workers (HCWs) in Georgia associated with a potential highly virulent influenza pandemic.Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study of how HCWs ...
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintains an in vivo measurement program designed to identify and evaluate the activity of radionuclides deposited in the body. Two types of systems are primarily used for the routine monitoring of radiation workers, the lung counting system and the scanning bed whole body counting system. The lung counting system is comprised of two Canberra ACTII detector sets. Each ACTII set contains two planar germanium detectors with carbon composite end windows optimized to measure low energy photon emitting radionuclides. The ACTII detectors are placed on the upper torso over the lungs for the direct measurement of internally deposited radionuclides in the lungs that emit low energy photons. A correction for the thickness of the chest wall is applied to the efficiency. Because the thickness of the chest wall is a key factor in the measurement of low energy photon emitting radionuclides in the lung, the minimum detectable activity is a function of the chest wall thickness. The scanning bed whole body counting system is comprised of a thin air mattress on top of a carbon fiber bed that slowly scans over four high purity germanium detectors. The scanning system is designed to minimize variations in detected activity due to radionuclide distribution in the body. The scanning bed detection system is typically used for the measurement of internally deposited radionuclides that emit photons above 100 to 200 keV. MDAs have been generated for radio00 keV. MDAs have been generated for radionuclides that provide energies above 80 keV since the lowest calibration energy for the system is approximately 86 keV. The following charts and table provide best determination of minimum detectable activity using human subjects as controls for the background contributions. A wide variety of radionuclides are used throughout the laboratory and the following pages represent several of the radionuclides that have been encountered at the Whole Body and Spectroscopy Laboratories within Hazards Control
Hickman, D P
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintains an in vivo measurement program designed to identify and evaluate the activity of radionuclides deposited in the body. Two types of systems are primarily used for the routine monitoring of radiation workers, the lung counting system and the scanning bed whole body counting system. The lung counting system is comprised of two Canberra ACTII detector sets. Each ACTII set contains two planar germanium detectors with carbon composite end windows optimized to measure low energy photon emitting radionuclides. The ACTII detectors are placed on the upper torso over the lungs for the direct measurement of internally deposited radionuclides in the lungs that emit low energy photons. A correction for the thickness of the chest wall is applied to the efficiency. Because the thickness of the chest wall is a key factor in the measurement of low energy photon emitting radionuclides in the lung, the minimum detectable activity is a function of the chest wall thickness. The scanning bed whole body counting system is comprised of a thin air mattress on top of a carbon fiber bed that slowly scans over four high purity germanium detectors. The scanning system is designed to minimize variations in detected activity due to radionuclide distribution in the body. The scanning bed detection system is typically used for the measurement of internally deposited radionuclides that emit photons above 100 to 200 keV. MDAs have been generated for radionuclides that provide energies above 80 keV since the lowest calibration energy for the system is approximately 86 keV. The following charts and table provide best determination of minimum detectable activity using human subjects as controls for the background contributions. A wide variety of radionuclides are used throughout the laboratory and the following pages represent several of the radionuclides that have been encountered at the Whole Body and Spectroscopy Laboratories within Hazards Control.
Knowledge about childhood autism and opinion among healthcare workers on availability of facilities and law caring for the needs and rights of children with childhood autism and other developmental disorders in Nigeria
Igwe Monday N; Onwukwe Jojo U; Okonkwo Kevin O; Onyeama Gabriel M; Eaton Julian; Agomoh Ahamefule O; Ebigbo Peter O; Bakare Muideen O; Orovwigho Andrew O; Aguocha Chinyere M
Abstract Background In designing programs to raise the community level of awareness about childhood autism in sub-Saharan Africa, it is logical to use the primary healthcare workers as contact point for education of the general public. Tertiary healthcare workers could play the role of trainers on childhood autism at primary healthcare level. Assessing their baseline knowledge about childhood autism to detect areas of knowledge gap is an essential ingredient in starting off such programs that...
In persons professionally exposed to ionizing radiation a factor analysis of the results of hematological, biochemical and immunological examination of the blood was carried out. On the basis of an assumption about the correlation between the time of employment under hazardous conditions and cumulated ionizing radiation doses, a very weak factor was found, affecting less than 4% of the total variance of laboratory examination results in the group of persons exposed to minimal radiation load. This factor leads to an increase of eosinophils, to a decrease of thrombocytes and to an increase of the serum lactate dehydrogenase activity. It is probable that this factor expresses unspecific changes resulting from a chronic load. The use of the factor in practice depends on experimental checking its existence and determining dose and time dependence of its changes following the action of different stress agents. (author)
Worker Safety and Health Issues Associated with the DOE Environmental Cleanup Program: Insights From the DOE Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public health Standards Steering Group
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Laboratory Directors' Environmental and Occupational/Public Health Standards Steering Group (or ''SSG'') was formed in 1990. It was felt then that ''risk'' could be an organizing principle for environmental cleanup and that risk-based cleanup standards could rationalize clean up work. The environmental remediation process puts workers engaged in cleanup activities at risk from hazardous materials and from the more usual hazards associated with construction activities. In a real sense, the site remediation process involves the transfer of a hypothetical risk to the environment and the public from isolated contamination into real risks to the workers engaged in the remediation activities. Late in its existence the SSG, primarily motivated by its LANL representative, Dr. Harry Ettinger, actively investigated issues associated with worker health and safety during environmental remediation activities. This paper summarizes the insights noted by the SSG. Most continue to be pertinent today
Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel
Full Text Available Este estudo analisa o conhecimento dos agentes comunitários de saúde no controle da tuberculose e a autopercepção do seu nível de conhecimento e de sua importância no enfrentamento da doença, no Município de Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brasil. Tratou-se de um estudo de corte transversal. Um questionário semi-estruturado, auto-aplicável e pré-testado foi preenchido por 105 agentes comunitários de saúde randomicamente selecionados. A comparação das proporções entre os grupos formados pela estratificação por tempo de serviço foi realizada usando-se o teste qui-quadrado com nível de significância de 5%. A idade média foi de 34,5 (± 9,7 anos. Atuavam há três anos ou menos 66 agentes comunitários de saúde (62,9%. Observou-se que um maior tempo de atividade está relacionado com um aumento do nível de compreensão em torno da doença, bem como das atividades efetivamente realizadas no controle da tuberculose. Contudo, de maneira geral, os conhecimentos e as ações do agente comunitário de saúde mostraram-se muito falhos. Entende-se que com melhorias na educação permanente desses profissionais seria possível uma maior contribuição deles para o aumento da detecção de novos casos na comunidade e para maior adesão dos pacientes ao tratamento.This study analyzes the knowledge of community health workers in tuberculosis control and their self-perceived knowledge and the importance they ascribe to their role in fighting the disease, in Vitória, Espírito Santo State, Brasil. The study adopted a cross-sectional design, with a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire completed by 105 randomly selected health workers. The comparison of proportions between the groups formed by stratification according to time-on-the-job used the chi-squared test with 5% significance. Mean age was 34.5 (±9.7 years. Sixty-six community health workers (62.9% had worked on the job for three years or less. Longer time on the job was positively associated with increased understanding of the disease and activities actually performed in TB control. Still, numerous flaws were observed in TB knowledge and control measures among community health workers. Improvements in continuing education for these workers could foster a more effective contribution to detecting new TB cases in the community and improved treatment adherence by patients.
K J, Ramphoma; S, Naidoo.
Full Text Available Lesotho has the third highest prevalence of HIV In the world with an estimated 23% of the adult population infected. At least 70% of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have presented with oral manifestation of HIV as the first sign of the disease. Oral health workers regularly encounter patients pr [...] esenting with oral lesions associated with HIV disease and therefore need to have adequate knowledge of these conditions for diagnosis and management. The aim of the present study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of oral health care workers (OHCW) of Lesotho regarding the management of oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on all 46 OHCW in 26 public and private care facilities in all ten districts of Lesotho. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather information. The response rate was 100%. Nearly all (94.7%) agreed that oral lesions are common in people living with HIV and/or AIDS. The majority (91.3%) named oral candidiasis (OC) as the most common lesion found in PLWHA while Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) (34.7%) and Oral Hairy Leukoplakia (OHL) (32.6%) were mentioned as the least common oral lesions of HIV. Most correctly identified the images of oral candidiasis (97.8%), angular cheilitis (86.9%) and herpes zoster (80.4%). Only 16.7% felt they had comprehensive knowledge of oral HIV lesions, although 84.8% reported having previously received training. Almost three quarters (71%) reported that there was no need to treat HIV positive patients differently from HIV negative patients. OHCW in Lesotho demonstrated high confidence levels in their competence in managing dental patients with oral lesions associated with HIV, however, they lacked an in-depth knowledge in this regard. Amongst this group there is a need for comprehensive training with regards to diagnosis and management of oral lesions of HIV including the training of other cadres of health care workers together with nurses and community health workers.
Campbell, Natalie; Schiffer, Eva; Buxbaum, Ann; Mclean, Elizabeth; Perry, Cary; Sullivan, Tara M.
A participatory evaluation process called Net-Map showed that providing community health workers (CHWs) with mobile phones and essential technical information changed CHWs, from passive recipients of information with little influence to active information agents who sought and provided information to improve health services.
Full Text Available Background: Pandemic influenza A H1N1 has had a rapid worldwide spread and has killed many people so far. For these reasons, it is necessary that health professionals have enough knowledge to prevent high mortality for this overwhelming pandemic. Objective: To determine the level of knowledge about transmission, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and preventive measures in health professionals and to identify factors that can be associated with an adequate level of knowledge. Methods: A transversal study wasperformed in physicians, residents, nurses and medical interns working at Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza (HNAL, whom were selected by a quota sampling and responded a self administerquestionnaire. Results: The level of knowledge was adequate in a 60.6% of workers. The bivariate analysis showed that the associated factors to adequate knowledge were being physician [OR=2.33 (1.42-3.82; p=0.0009] or resident [OR=2.75 (1.5-5.04; p=0.001]. Multivariate analysis showed that none of the factors was associated with an adequate level of knowledge, however the associated factors with an inadequate level of knowledge were: having selected press media as the main source of information [OR=2.15 (1.32-4.78; p=0.005] and working as a nurse [OR=2.603 (1.105 - 6.129; p=0.029].Conclusions: 60.6% of the health professionals from HNAL have an adequate level of knowledge about influenza A H1N1 and being a physician o a resident is associated with this.
Maria Inês, Rosa.
Full Text Available As atuais mudanças na divisão e organização do trabalho capitalista colocam, como uma das exigências ao trabalhador, o acesso a novos conhecimentos. Buscamos compreender o que é o novo nestas mudanças, e o fazemos através de duas hipóteses. A primeira concerne à mudança de governo do trabalho, ou se [...] ja, dos homens como trabalhadores. Este governo não mais se escora na forma taylorista, porém repropõe seu ideal político. A segunda refere-se à vivência pelo trabalhador do acesso aos conhecimentos enquanto profissionalização e/ou qualificação de sua força de trabalho. Desenvolvemos nossas reflexões tanto em nível teórico quanto empírico. Em nível teórico discutimos a política reduzida à instrumentalização, no exercício do governo dos homens, na situação de trabalho. Relacionamos este governo com a concepção do trabalho como uso de si, do homem, como trabalhador. Esta concepção colocou como necessário ouvir os trabalhadores sobre suas atividades de trabalho através de entrevistas. Articulamos este nível empírico e o teórico com as questões do sujeito e do agente social presentes nessas hipóteses. Abstract in english The changes on the division and organisation of capitalistic labour demand that workers have access to new knowledge. We try in this article to understand such changes and what is new about them. We do it through the examination of two hypothesis. The first concerns the change on the government of w [...] ork, that is, the government of men as workers. This new government does not assume a tayloristic form anymore, but it reproposes its political-ideal. The second one refers to the worker's experience regarding the access to knowledge considered a crucial part of his qualification. Our study has been developed both on the theoretical and on the empirical levels. Theoreticaly we discuss politics in it's reducionistic connotation, that is, as an expression of the government of some men over others in the work situation. We related this government to the conception of work in which men as whole being, are used by others as workers. This conception made it necessary to hear workers about their work activities through enterviews. We articulated both the theoretical and the empirical level of the study through the categories of subject and of social agent, which are part of our hypothesis.
Maria Inês Rosa
Full Text Available As atuais mudanças na divisão e organização do trabalho capitalista colocam, como uma das exigências ao trabalhador, o acesso a novos conhecimentos. Buscamos compreender o que é o novo nestas mudanças, e o fazemos através de duas hipóteses. A primeira concerne à mudança de governo do trabalho, ou seja, dos homens como trabalhadores. Este governo não mais se escora na forma taylorista, porém repropõe seu ideal político. A segunda refere-se à vivência pelo trabalhador do acesso aos conhecimentos enquanto profissionalização e/ou qualificação de sua força de trabalho. Desenvolvemos nossas reflexões tanto em nível teórico quanto empírico. Em nível teórico discutimos a política reduzida à instrumentalização, no exercício do governo dos homens, na situação de trabalho. Relacionamos este governo com a concepção do trabalho como uso de si, do homem, como trabalhador. Esta concepção colocou como necessário ouvir os trabalhadores sobre suas atividades de trabalho através de entrevistas. Articulamos este nível empírico e o teórico com as questões do sujeito e do agente social presentes nessas hipóteses.The changes on the division and organisation of capitalistic labour demand that workers have access to new knowledge. We try in this article to understand such changes and what is new about them. We do it through the examination of two hypothesis. The first concerns the change on the government of work, that is, the government of men as workers. This new government does not assume a tayloristic form anymore, but it reproposes its political-ideal. The second one refers to the worker's experience regarding the access to knowledge considered a crucial part of his qualification. Our study has been developed both on the theoretical and on the empirical levels. Theoreticaly we discuss politics in it's reducionistic connotation, that is, as an expression of the government of some men over others in the work situation. We related this government to the conception of work in which men as whole being, are used by others as workers. This conception made it necessary to hear workers about their work activities through enterviews. We articulated both the theoretical and the empirical level of the study through the categories of subject and of social agent, which are part of our hypothesis.
Camila Sartori, Martins; Michele Thaís, Sartori; Helena Luiza Douat, Dietrich; Fabiane Barbero, Klem; Camilo, Dallagnol; Guilherme Souza Cavalcanti de, Albuquerque; Paulo de Oliveira, Perna; Samya, Mehanna.
Full Text Available A criação de um espaço democrático de participação na condução do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) constituiu indubitável conquista dos brasileiros. O pleno exercício deste direito implica, no entanto, no conhecimento do próprio direito, dos espaços e dos mecanismos de participação, que permitam uma açã [...] o autônoma. No presente trabalho avalia-se o grau de conhecimento nos diversos segmentos sociais acerca da questão. Foram entrevistados usuários e trabalhadores do SUS, além de membros dos Conselhos de Saúde. Os resultados demonstram grande desinformação dos usuários, dos novos conselheiros e da maioria dos trabalhadores, em contraste com os gestores e os conselheiros com mais tempo no cargo. Abstract in english The creation of a democratic space for participation in the conduction of the Sistema Único de Saúde ( SUS) - Brazilian Public Health Care System - was undoubtedly an achievement for Brazilians. Full exercise of this right implies, however, knowledge of the right itself, spaces and mechanisms for pa [...] rticipation, allowing for autonomous action. The present study evaluates the degree of knowledge in the various social segments on this issue. Users and workers of SUS health care units were interviewed as well as members of Health Councils. Results show misinformation from most councilors and health workers when compared to managers and advisors who have worked longer in their positions.
Ismail, Nazir Ahmed; Hoosen, Anwar Ahmed; Mehtar, Shaheen
Latex allergy is an important concern from an occupational safety aspect and affects compliance of glove usage, which directly influences infection control practices aimed at providing safe medical care for both the health care worker (HCW) and patient. The Dr George Mukhari Hospital (DGM) in Pretoria has a staff complement of 1500 doctors and nurses who use latex gloves occasionally or regularly. The objective for this study was to evaluate the current prevalence of latex allergies and st...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a recognized occupational risk for health care workers (HCWs). This study aimed to assess the knowledge and beliefs of HCWs regarding HBV transmission and needle stick injuries (NSIs). A cross-sectional questionnaire based KAP study was conducted at Civil Hospital, Karachi, during the period of January to September 2006. HCWs were inquired about possible modes of HBV transmission and association with NSIs. Data were entered using EpiInfo 6.04d software. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.5 software. A total of 343 HCWs participated, and those answered at least 5 correct modes of HBV transmission were considered knowledgeable. Knowledgeable group was more likely to report NSIs (p < 0.006), more vaccinated (p < 0.001) and were also more likely to attend awareness session (p < 0.009). Overall knowledge were inadequate and behaviour and attitude towards clinical practices were found compromised. To reduce the occupational risk, effort should be focused to establish effective infection control program and training of staff. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unsafe injection practices and injection overuse are widespread in developing countries harming the patient and inviting risks to the health care workers. In Nepal, there is a dearth of documented information about injection practices so the present study was carried out: a to determine whether the selected government health facilities satisfy the conditions for safe injections in terms of staff training, availability of sterile injectable equipment and their proper disposal after use and b to assess knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers in these health care facilities with regard to injection safety. Methodology A descriptive cross-sectional mixed type (qualitative and quantitative survey was carried out from 18th May to 16th June 2012. In-depth interviews with the in-charges were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Observation of the health facilities using a structured observation tool was done. The data were analysed manually by summarizing, tabulating and presenting in various formats. Results The in-charges (eight males, two females who participated in the study ranged in age from 30 to 50?years with a mean age of 37.8?years. Severe infection followed by pain was the most important cause for injection use with injection Gentamicin being most commonly prescribed. New single use (disposable injections and auto-disable syringes were used to inject curative drugs and vaccines respectively. Sufficient safety boxes were also supplied to dispose the used syringe. All health care workers had received full course of Hepatitis B vaccine and were knowledgeable about at least one pathogen transmitted through unsafe injection practices. Injection safety management policy and waste disposal guideline was not available for viewing in any of the facilities. The office staff who disposed the bio-medical wastes did so without taking any safety measures. Moreover, none of these staff had received any formal training in waste management. Conclusions Certain safe injection practices were noticed in the studied health care facilities but there remain a number of grey areas where unsafe practices still persists placing patient and health workers at risk of associated hazards. Training concentrating on injection safety, guidelines to dispose biomedical waste and monitoring of the activity is needed.
Knowledge about childhood autism and opinion among healthcare workers on availability of facilities and law caring for the needs and rights of children with childhood autism and other developmental disorders in Nigeria
Igwe Monday N
Full Text Available Abstract Background In designing programs to raise the community level of awareness about childhood autism in sub-Saharan Africa, it is logical to use the primary healthcare workers as contact point for education of the general public. Tertiary healthcare workers could play the role of trainers on childhood autism at primary healthcare level. Assessing their baseline knowledge about childhood autism to detect areas of knowledge gap is an essential ingredient in starting off such programs that would be aimed at early diagnosis and interventions. Knowledge of the healthcare workers on availability of facilities and law that would promote the required interventions is also important. This study assessed the baseline knowledge about childhood autism and opinion among Nigerian healthcare workers on availability of facilities and law caring for the needs and rights of children with childhood autism and other developmental disorders. Method A total of one hundred and thirty four (134 consented healthcare workers working in tertiary healthcare facilities located in south east and south-south regions of Nigeria were interviewed with Socio-demographic, Knowledge about Childhood Autism among Health Workers (KCAHW and Opinion on availability of Facilities and Law caring for the needs and rights of children with Childhood Autism and other developmental disorders (OFLCA questionnaires. Results The total mean score of participated healthcare workers on KCAHW questionnaire was 12.35 ± 4.40 out of a total score of 19 possible. Knowledge gap was found to be higher in domain 3 (symptoms of obsessive and repetitive pattern of behavior, followed by domains 1 (symptoms of impairments in social interaction, 4 (type of disorder autism is and associated co-morbidity and 2 (symptoms of communication impairments of KCAHW respectively among the healthcare workers. Knowledge about childhood autism (KCA as measured by scores on KCAHW questionnaire was significantly associated with age group distribution of the healthcare workers, with those age group of fourth decades and above more likely to have higher mean score (p = 0.004 and previous experience of managing children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD (p = 0.000. KCA showed near significant association with area of specialty, with those healthcare workers in psychiatry compared to pediatrics having higher mean score (p = 0.071 and also with years of working experience of the healthcare workers (p = 0.056. More than half of the healthcare workers subscribed to the opinion that facilities and law caring for the needs and rights of children with childhood autism and other developmental disorders are lacking in Nigeria. Conclusion The correlates of KCA may help in selection of those tertiary healthcare workers that would best fit the role of trainers. It is important to update the knowledge gaps of those healthcare workers who scored low in different domains of KCAHW questionnaire. It is imperative for policy makers in Nigeria to advocate and implement multidisciplinary healthcare service system that would ensure early diagnosis and interventions. Nationally representative baseline epidemiological data that would guide policy and planning are also desirable.
Miriam Maraninchi Alam
Full Text Available Este texto trata da análise, no processo de trabalho em saúde, das características do conhecimento adquirido e produzido pelos trabalhadores, acerca da prevenção e controle de acidentes com materiais perfurocortantes e fluidos biológicos no ambiente hospitalar. Verifica a presença ou não de uma visão integrada de saúde entre trabalhador e instituição. Caracteriza-se como uma pesquisa quantitativa, com progressiva análise contextualizada e, portanto, com um enfoque qualitativo do problema, apoiada em conceitos de educação ambiental, trabalho e saúde. Um total de 130 trabalhadores, em dois Hospitais Universitários da Região Sul do extremo sul do Rio Grande do Sul, em setores de clínica médica, cirúrgica e de pronto atendimento. A análise dos dados foi realizada por meio do cruzamento dos ambientes institucionais e das categorias profissionais com variáveis que caracterizam o processo de trabalho. Entre os dois ambientes institucionais estudados, o Ambiente Institucional "B" apresentou um trabalho educativo, de prevenção e controle mais atuante do que no Ambiente Institucional "A" e, conseqüentemente, uma maior aderência de seus trabalhadores sobre a necessidade de trabalharem com mais segurança.This work intents to analyse, on the health-care work environment, the characteristics of the knowledge acquired and produced by the workers, about accidents prevention and control with cutting material and biological fluids in the hospital environment. It verifies the presence or not of an integrated vision of health between the worker and the institution. It can be described as a quantitative research, in combination with a progressive and contextualized analysis that, therefore, brings a qualitative approach of the problem, supported in concepts as ambiental education, work and health. A total of 130 workers, in two college hospitals situated on the extreme south of the South region of the Rio Grande do Sul, of medical pratice, cirurgical clinic and emergency take part on this research. The data analysis was made through and the "cross tabulation" between the institutional environments and the professional cathegories together with variables, which characterize the health-care work. As a matter of fact, we can see that in the Institutional Environment "B" we see the existence of an educational work, the more active presence of control procedures on accidents preventions than in the Institutional Environment "A" and consequently a major educational level of its workers about the necessity of working with more safety.
Nathália de Carvalho, Lopes; Gleice Ane Scariot Silva, Vieira; Suelle Regina Bese, Pena; Stela Maris Aguiar, Lemos.
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: mapear o conhecimento de agentes comunitários de saúde antes e após participação em oficinas de instrumentalização sobre aspectos fonoaudiológicos e verificar as mudanças de percepção segundo o tempo de trabalho na Estratégia de Saúde da Família. MÉTODOS: o estudo foi realizado em um mun [...] icípio a 170 km da capital de Minas Geraise com 74.409 habitantes. A rede de Atenção Primária a Saúde do município é composta por 10 unidades de Estratégia de Saúde da Família que alocam 60 agentes de saúde. Os dados foram coletados em todas as unidades e consistiu em três etapas: a) aplicação de questionário auto-aplicável acerca de aspectos fonoaudiológicos; b) processo de instrumentalização; c) reaplicação do questionário. RESULTADOS: participaram do estudo 51 agentes de saúde. Após a instrumentalização, tornou-se maior o número de agentes de saúde que deram relevância a fatores que sugerem a ocorrência de distúrbio da comunicação nas diferentes faixas etárias e que passaram a conhecer as quatro áreas que englobam a atuação fonoaudiológica. Não houve relação estatística entre o desempenho dos agentes nas respostas e a unidade de trabalho. Quanto ao tempo de trabalho Estratégia de Saúde da Família, na pré-instrumentalização, o melhor desempenho nas respostas foi dos agentes que trabalham há menos de um ano na atenção primária. CONCLUSÃO: ainstrumentalização favoreceu as respostas dos agentes comunitários de saúde. Houve relação entre o processo de instrumentalização e o tempo de atuação no Programa de Saúde da Família. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to map the knowledge of community health workers before and after the participation in training workshops on phonoaudiological aspects and to verify changes in the perception according to the working time in the Family Health Strategy. METHODS: the study was conducted in a municipality wit [...] h 74,409 inhabitants, 170 km from Belo Horizonte, the capital of the State of Minas Gerais. Its Primary Health Care network is composed of 10 units of Family Health Strategy that allocate 60 health workers. The information was collected from all units and the process consisted of three stages: a) application of a questionnaire about phonoaudiological aspects; b) training process; c) reapplication of the questionnaire. RESULTS: 51 health workers participated in the study. After the training, the number of health workers who started to give importance to factors that may indicate communication disorders in different age groups and that became aware of the four areas of the phonoaudiology became greater. There was no statistical relationship between the answers of the workers and the work unit. Regarding the working time in the Family Health Strategy, those who work for less than a year in the primary care gave the best answers before the training. CONCLUSION: the training favored the responses of the community health workers. There was a relationship between the training process and the working time in the Family Health Program.
Mehrdad Arashpour; Majeed Shabanikia; Mohammadreza Arashpour
Evidence points to the fact that frequent resignation of project engineers from construction companies is primarily the result of dissatisfaction with the factors that shape the salary scale. This research aims to identify the major influencing factors in merit based salary calculation systems for knowledge-oriented engineers so as to more accurately reflect their contribution to construction projects. Results from a questionnaire sent to managers, engineers and HR professionals throughout th...
HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile
Jaime E. Barrientos; Michel Bozon; Edith Ortiz; Anabella Arredondo
This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW ...
Conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores de un hospital sobre el manejo de residuos hospitalarios, Chocó, Colombia, 2012 / Knowledge and practices of workers of a Hospital about handling of hospital waste, Chocó Colombia, 2012
Yulenny, Quinto-Mosquera; Luz Marina, Jaramillo-Pérez; Jaiberth Antonio, Cardona-Arias.
Full Text Available Introducción: los residuos hospitalarios y similares constituyen un grave problema de salud por el riesgo de contaminación biológica y química, y sus impactos negativos sobre la calidad de vida humana y el ambiente. Objetivo: describir los conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores de una Empresa [...] Social del Estado de Chocó-Colombia sobre el manejo de residuos hospitalarios y su asociación con sexo, edad, área de servicios y tiempo de labor en la Institución. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal, en 67 empleados de seis áreas de trabajo de un hospital de Colombia. Se aplicó una escala sobre conocimientos y prácticas relacionadas con el manejo de residuos hospitalarios. Los datos se almacenaron y analizaron en Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows, software SPSS 20, con medidas de resumen, frecuencias, chi cuadrado y Anova. Resultados: en los conocimientos el 40% presentó un grado insatisfactorio, en las prácticas el 17,9% fue regular y solo 3% excelente. Los conocimientos no presentaron asociación estadística con el sexo, el área de servicios, la edad y el tiempo laborado en la Institución Prestadora de Servicios de Salud, excepto en el personal del laboratorio clínico, donde 89% presentaron un conocimiento entre bueno y excelente. Las prácticas no presentaron asociación estadística con el sexo, el área de servicio, la edad y el tiempo de servicio. Conclusión: se observó una elevada proporción de conocimientos y prácticas inadecuadas o insatisfactorias frente al manejo de residuos, independiente del sexo, la edad, el área de trabajo y el tiempo de servicio; esto implica que el problema es generalizado en la Institución y evidencia la necesidad de mejorar los programas de educación y capacitación. (MÉD.UIS. 2013;26(1)9:20) Abstract in english Introduction: hospital waste and similar are relevant health problem for the biological and chemicals risk, and negative impacts on the human quality of life and the environment. Objective: to describe the knowledge and practices of the workers of a Empresa Social del Estado from Chocó, Colombia abo [...] ut the handle of the hospital waste. Materials and methods: cross sectional study in 67 workers of six work areas of a hospital from Colombia. A scale about knowledge and practices about hospital waste was applied. The data is stored and analyzed in SPSS 20, with summary measures, frequencies, chi2 and Anova. Results: in knowledge 40% presented an unsatisfactory grade, in practice 17.9% was regular and only 3.0% excellent. The knowledge do not presented statistical association with sex, area of service, age and the time worked in the IPS, except in clinical laboratory staff, where 89% had a good knowledge. Practices showed no statistical association with sex, area of service, age and length of service. Conclusion: there was a high proportion of practices and knowledge unsatisfactory related with waste management, independent of gender, age, work area and service time, this implies that the problem is widespread in the institution and highlights the need to improve education programs and training. (MÉD.UIS. 2013;26(1)9:20).
Domingo Ojer Tsakiridu
Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir el conocimiento de los métodos contraceptivos y el uso que hacen de ellos las mujeres que ejercen la prostitución en Asturias. Métodos: Estudio transversal mediante cuestionario autoadministrado a 212 mujeres. Resultados: El 61,2% refería tener información suficiente sobre métodos contraceptivos, aunque el conocimiento real es menor. En su última relación comercial en un 2,4% no tuvo una actitud eficaz para prevenir el embarazo y en la última privada, el 20,4%. El método más usado fue el preservativo y el 52,2% de quienes lo usaron en la última relación comercial añadieron otro método eficaz. En caso de rotura, el 40% de las encuestadas no tuvo una actitud eficaz para evitar el embarazo. Conclusiones: El conocimiento contraceptivo en estas mujeres es menor del que cabría esperar por la actividad que realizan. El uso de otro método eficaz asociado al preservativo es escaso para evitar embarazos no deseados. Muchas mujeres no tienen una actitud eficaz para evitarlos en caso de rotura del preservativo.Objective: To describe the knowledge and use of contraceptive methods among female sex workers in Asturias (Spain. Methods: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study of 212 female sex workers by means of a self-completed questionnaire. Results: 61.2% of the women claimed to have sufficient information about contraceptive methods, although the real knowledge measured was much lower. Effective contraception was not used by 2.4% of the women in their last commercial relationship and by 20.4% in their private relationships. The most commonly employed method was the condom, but only 52.2% of the women who had used one in their previous commercial relationships did so together with another effective method. In the event of breakage, 40% of women did not have an attitude that would be effective in avoiding pregnancy. Conclusions: Knowledge about contraceptive methods among these women is lower than might be expected from their occupation. The use of another effective method together with the condom is insufficient to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Many of the women do not have an attitude that would be effective in avoiding pregnancy in the event of condom breakage.
Domingo, Ojer Tsakiridu; Amalia, Franco Vidal; José Antonio, Varela Uría; Carmen, López Sánchez; María Luisa, Junquera Llaneza; Mar, Cuesta Rodríguez; Margarita, Busto Folgosa; María Jesús, Fernández Ollero.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir el conocimiento de los métodos contraceptivos y el uso que hacen de ellos las mujeres que ejercen la prostitución en Asturias. Métodos: Estudio transversal mediante cuestionario autoadministrado a 212 mujeres. Resultados: El 61,2% refería tener información suficiente sobre método [...] s contraceptivos, aunque el conocimiento real es menor. En su última relación comercial en un 2,4% no tuvo una actitud eficaz para prevenir el embarazo y en la última privada, el 20,4%. El método más usado fue el preservativo y el 52,2% de quienes lo usaron en la última relación comercial añadieron otro método eficaz. En caso de rotura, el 40% de las encuestadas no tuvo una actitud eficaz para evitar el embarazo. Conclusiones: El conocimiento contraceptivo en estas mujeres es menor del que cabría esperar por la actividad que realizan. El uso de otro método eficaz asociado al preservativo es escaso para evitar embarazos no deseados. Muchas mujeres no tienen una actitud eficaz para evitarlos en caso de rotura del preservativo. Abstract in english Objective: To describe the knowledge and use of contraceptive methods among female sex workers in Asturias (Spain). Methods: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study of 212 female sex workers by means of a self-completed questionnaire. Results: 61.2% of the women claimed to have sufficient i [...] nformation about contraceptive methods, although the real knowledge measured was much lower. Effective contraception was not used by 2.4% of the women in their last commercial relationship and by 20.4% in their private relationships. The most commonly employed method was the condom, but only 52.2% of the women who had used one in their previous commercial relationships did so together with another effective method. In the event of breakage, 40% of women did not have an attitude that would be effective in avoiding pregnancy. Conclusions: Knowledge about contraceptive methods among these women is lower than might be expected from their occupation. The use of another effective method together with the condom is insufficient to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Many of the women do not have an attitude that would be effective in avoiding pregnancy in the event of condom breakage.
Markkanen, Hannu; Aunimo, Lili; Bauters, Merja; Tchoumatchenko, Vassiliy; Furnadjiev, Ivan; Vasileva, Tania; Scapolla, A. M.; Poggi, Arianna; Paralic, Jan; Babic, Frantisek; Wagner, Jozeph; Dayre, Pascal; Batatia, Hadj; Fotis, Thanasis
This deliverable presents the high-level specification for the first release (M12) of the shared space for knowledge practices software, including the requirements, the functionality, as well as the service-oriented software architecture of the system. The requirements section describes the requirements process and the resulting high-level functional requirements. The functionality of the software is presented from the end-user perspective and divided into parts that form the major components...
Berling, Trine Villumsen
Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus on the interrelationship between theory and practice in specific domains, while at the same time foregrounding the own position of the researcher. The transformation of European security in the 1990s is taken as an example of how an IR analysis changes focus when seeing knowledge as Bourdieu.
Martina S. Jiménez Suárez
Full Text Available Background: Human toxocariasis is one of the most worldwide extended zoonosis. It mainly affects children and it is not always well known by medical staff. Objective: To assess knowledge of Cienfuegos´s health workers on human toxocariasis. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was developed from May to September 2005 and a survey was applied to a total sample of 51 doctors through a randomized, stratified sampling. In addition to consider professional category, years of experience and knowledge on zoonosis, we analyzed different aspects the form the variable general knowledge on human toxocariasis. Findings: We could develop a knowledge assessment on toxocariasis in Cienfuegos´ doctors. These findings were compared with surveys in other countries. There is not history of this kind of research in Cuba. Conclusions: Cienfuegos´ doctors knowledge on toxocariasis diagnosis, transmission, and prevention and not satisfactory except for clinic and treatment.Fundamento: La toxocariosis humana es una de las zoonosis más extendidas a escala mundial. Afecta principalmente a la población infantil y no siempre es bien conocida por el personal médico. Objetivo: Evaluar los conocimientos sobre toxocariosis humana del personal médico del municipio Cienfuegos. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal de mayo a septiembre del 2005 y se aplicó una encuesta a una muestra total de 51 médicos a través de un muestreo aleatorio y estratificado por los diferentes consejos populares. Además de considerar categoría profesional, años de experiencia de la especialidad y capacitación o no sobre zoonosis, se analizaron varios aspectos que conforman la variable conocimiento general sobre toxocariosis humana. Resultados: Se logró con esta investigación realizar una evaluación del conocimiento sobre toxocariosis que tienen los médicos de diferentes categorías del municipio de Cienfuegos. Estos resultados fueron comparados con encuestas de otros países y no hay antecedentes de este tipo trabajo en Cuba. Conclusiones: Los conocimientos que tienen los médicos del municipio Cienfuegos, relacionados con la transmisión, diagnóstico y prevención de la toxocariosis son insuficientes, excepto en la clínica y en el tratamiento.
Romero, L.L.; Hoffman, J.M.; Foltyn, E.M.; Buhl, T.E.
Personnel neutron dosimetry continues to be a difficult science due to the lack of availability of robust passive dosimeters that exhibit tissue- or near-tissue- equivalent response. This paper is an operational study that compares the use of albedo thermoluminescent dosimeters with bubble dosimeters to determine whether bubble dosimeters do provide a useful daily ALARA tool that can yield measurements close to the dose-of-record. A group of workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) working on the Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) for the NASA Cassini space mission wore both bubble dosimeters and albedo dosimeters over a period from 1993 through 1996. The personal albedo dosimeter was processed on a monthly basis and used as the dose-of-record. The results of this study indicated that cumulative daily bubble dosimetry results agreed with whole-body albedo dosimetry results within about 37% on average.
Personnel neutron dosimetry continues to be a difficult science due to the lack of availability of robust passive dosimeters that exhibit tissue- or near-tissue- equivalent response. This paper is an operational study that compares the use of albedo thermoluminescent dosimeters with bubble dosimeters to determine whether bubble dosimeters do provide a useful daily ALARA tool that can yield measurements close to the dose-of-record. A group of workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) working on the Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) for the NASA Cassini space mission wore both bubble dosimeters and albedo dosimeters over a period from 1993 through 1996. The personal albedo dosimeter was processed on a monthly basis and used as the dose-of-record. The results of this study indicated that cumulative daily bubble dosimetry results agreed with whole-body albedo dosimetry results within about 37% on average
Vehmas, T.; Huuskonen, M.S. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland); Kivisaari, L. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, M.S. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland); University of Birmingham, Institute of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom)
We studied the effects of age, body mass index (BMI) and some common laboratory test results on several pulmonary CT/HRCT signs. Five hundred twenty-eight construction workers (age 38-80, mean 63 years) were imaged with spiral and high resolution CT. Images were scored by three radiologists for solitary pulmonary nodules, signs indicative of fibrosis and emphysema, ground glass opacities, bronchial wall thickness and bronchiectasis. Multivariate statistical analyses were adjusted for smoking and asbestos exposure. Increasing age, blood haemoglobin value and erythrocyte sedimentation rate correlated positively with several HRCT signs. Increasing BMI was associated with a decrease in several signs, especially parenchymal bands, honeycombing, all kinds of emphysema and bronchiectasis. The latter finding might be due to the suboptimal image quality in obese individuals, which may cause suspicious findings to be overlooked. Background data, including patient's age and body constitution, should be considered when CT/HRCT images are interpreted. (orig.)
Andreou, Dimitris; Christophides, Vassilis; Flouris, Giorgos; Kotzinos, Dimitris; Pediaditis, Panagiotis; Tsialiamanis, Petros
This deliverable reports the technical and research development performed until M36 (January 2009) within tasks T5.2 and T5.4 of WP5 in the KP-Lab project, per the latest Description of Work (DoW) 3.2 [DoW3.2]. The described components are included in the KP-Lab Semantic Web Knowledge Middleware (SWKM) Prototype Release 3.0 software that takes place in M36. This release builds on the Prototype Release 2.0 that was presented in [D5.4]. The present deliverable includes both the specification, a...
Existing techniques for in vitro rearing honey bees and Varroa involve brood manipulation. In this laboratory study, we used larvae that were naturally developing in a comb as Varroa- and virus-inoculation hosts. In Trial 1, we used L4 larvae and newly sealed larvae (NSL) as hosts which were inocula...
Ahde, Ahti; Ahola, Toni; Alm, Olli; Astrouskaja, Maryna; Ausderau, Patrick; Bauters, Merja; Holi, Markus; Ha?ma?la?inen, Antti; Lo?yto?la?inen, Juha; Markkanen, Hannu; Mertoniemi, Joni; Raja, Ilari; Saarivesi, Eini; Baurens, Benoit; Racaru, Florin
This deliverable describes the releases of KP-Lab end user applications and tools made during the DoW4 period of the project (M37-M48). These are as follows: KPE: Shared Space Views and Common, Support and Optional Tools provide the major functionality for the Knowledge Practices Environment. The Shared Space Views visualize the knowledge artefacts and their relations from different perspective, allowing users to view and access the information contained in a shared space in flexible manners....
Knowledge and practices about multidrug-resistant tuberculosis amongst healthcare workers in Maseru / Connaissances et pratiques du personnel de santé de Maseru au sujet de la tuberculose multi-résistante
Ntambwe, Malangu; Omotayo D., Adebanjo.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To date, no study has been found that described the knowledge and practices of healthcare workers surrounding multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Lesotho. AIM AND SETTING: This study was conducted to fill this gap by investigating the knowledge level and practices surrounding MD [...] R-TB amongst healthcare workers at Botsabelo Hospital in Maseru, Lesotho METHOD: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by means of a questionnaire designed specifically for this study. Data collected included sociodemographic and professional details; and responses to questions about knowledge and practices regarding MDR-TB. The questions ranged from the definition of MDR-TB to its treatment. Respondents' practices such as the use of masks, guidelines and patient education were also assessed RESULTS: A response rate of 84.6% (110 out of 130) was achieved. The majority of participants were women (60%), married (71.8%) and nursing staff (74.5%). Overall, less than half (47.3%) of the participants had a good level of knowledge about MDR-TB. With regard to practice, about 83% of participants stated that they used protective masks whilst attending to MDR-TB patients. About two-thirds (66.4%) reported being personally involved in educating patients about MDR-TB; whilst about 55% stated that they referred to these guidelines CONCLUSION: The level of knowledge about MDR-TB amongst healthcare workers at the study site was not at an acceptable level. Unsafe practices, such as not wearing protective masks and not referring to the MDR-TB treatment guidelines, were found to be associated with an insufficient level of knowledge about MDR-TB. An educational intervention is recommended for all healthcare providers at this facility
Maria Euridéa de Castro
Full Text Available A prevenção da hipertensão arterial torna-se difícil devido às dificuldades de acesso ao sistema de saúde. Foram objetivos deste estudo: averiguar o conhecimento dos trabalhadores acerca da pressão arterial, da hipertensão e, ainda, a prática da verificação da pressão arterial. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, realizado em uma Universidade Pública Estadual em Fortaleza-Ceará, Brasil. O universo do estudo foi constituído por 35 trabalhadores a partir de uma amostra aleatória simples. Depreendeu-se que há déficit de conhecimento acerca da pressão arterial e da hipertensão e que as questões culturais entre profissionais e usuários do sistema de saúde estão em desacordo com o processo ensino-aprendizagem. Concluiu-se que urgem estratégias que permitam maior adesão aos programas e às campanhas de hipertensão. O início dessa mudança tem como fundamento a atenção primária, que leve a população, dentro de uma posição crítica, a tomar atitudes que possibilitem adequar-se a uma condição de vida saudável.La prevención de la hipertensión arterial es difícil por el acceso al sistema de salud. El objetivo fue: averiguar el conocimiento de trabajadores sobre la tensión arterial y de la hipertensión y, además, la práctica de la verificación de la tensión arterial. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, realizado en la Universidad Pública en Fortaleza-Ceará-Brasil. Fueron seleccionados 35 individuos. Se concluyó que hay déficit de conocimiento de la tensión arterial y de la hipertensión, que los planteamientos culturales entre profesionales y usuarios del sistema están en desacuerdo con el proceso enseñanza/aprendizaje. Urgen estrategias que permitan una mayor adhesión al programa y comunicación efectiva al nivel de entendimiento de las personas. El inicio de ese cambio tiene como fundamento la atención primaria, llevando a la población, dentro de una posición crítica, tomar actitudes que posibiliten adecuarse a una condición de vida sana.The prevention of arterial hypertension has not been an easy task, due to the difficulties of access to the health system. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the amount of worker's knowledge concerning blood pressure and hypertension as well as about the practice of measuring blood pressure. This descriptive study was done at the State University in Fortaleza-Ceará. The universe was a simple random sample of 35 workers. A lack of knowledge about blood pressure and hypertension was found, as well as cultural issues between professionals and system users not being in agreement with the teaching-learning process. It was concluded that strategies which allow for a wider participation in the program and in hypertension campaigns are needed. The beginning of this change has as a basis primary care, which allows the population to make choices which fit a healthy life-style, from a critical position.
Full Text Available Recently, various computer networking courses have included additional laboratory classes in order to enhance students’ learning achievement. However, these classes need to establish a suitable laboratory where each student can connect network devices to configure and test functions within different network topologies. In this case, the Linux operating system can be used to operate network devices and the virtualization technique can include multiple OSs for supporting a significant number of students. In previous research, the virtualization application was successfully applied in a laboratory, but focused only on individual assignments. The present study extends previous research by designing the Networking Virtualization-Based Laboratory (NVBLab, which requires collaborative learning among the experimental students. The students were divided into an experimental group and a control group for the experiment. The experimental group performed their laboratory assignments using NVBLab, whereas the control group completed them on virtual machines (VMs that were installed on their personal computers. Moreover, students using NVBLab were provided with an online synchronous discussion (OSD feature that enabled them to communicate with others. The laboratory assignments were divided into two parts: Basic Labs and Advanced Labs. The results show that the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group in two Advanced Labs and the post-test after Advanced Labs. Furthermore, the experimental group’s activities were better than those of the control group based on the total average of the command count per laboratory. Finally, the findings of the interviews and questionnaires with the experimental group reveal that NVBLab was helpful during and after laboratory class.
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to establish the extent of dermal and respiratory exposure at selected locations at a South African platinum mine. The study included exposure to lead oxide fumes in an assay laboratory, nickel sulfate powder at a nickel sulfate crystallizer circuit and packing site and metallic copper dust whilst executing copper stripping. Methods: In an availability study, the dermal metal exposures were measured before, during and at the end of ...
Characterization of transuranic waste from the LANL Plutonium Facility for certification and transportation to WIPP includes the use of acceptable knowledge as specified in the WIPP Quality Assurance Program Plan. In accordance with a site specific procedure, documentation of acceptable knowledge for retrievably stored and currently generated transuranic waste streams is in progress at LANL. A summary overview of the TRU waste inventory is complete and documented in the Sampling Plan. This document also includes projected waste generation, facility missions, waste generation processes, flow diagrams, times, and material inputs. The second part of acceptable knowledge documentation consists of assembling more detailed acceptable knowledge information into auditable records and is expected to require several years to complete. These records for each waste stream must support final assignment of waste matrix parameters, EPA hazardous waste numbers, and radionuclide characterization. They must also include a determination whether waste streams are defense waste streams for compliance with the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act. The LANL Plutonium Facility's mission is primarily plutonium processing in basic special nuclear material (SNM) research activities to support national defense and energy programs. It currently has about 100 processes ranging from SNM recovery from residues to development of plutonium 238 heat sources for space applications. Its challenge is to characterize and certify waste streams from such diverse and dynamic operations using acceptable knowledge. This paper reports the progress on the certification of the first of these waste streams to the WIPP WAC
Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983
Discusses a new German law to encourage foreign workers to return to their home countries, employment exchanges for young foreigners in Germany, and a training program for migrant workers in India. (SK)
Paralic, Jan; Furdik, Karol; Bednar, Peter; Babic, Frantisek; Wagner, Jozeph; Schmidt, Marek; Smrz, Pavel; Spyratos, Nicolas; Simonenko, Ekaterina; Christophides, Vassilis; Flouris, Giorgos; Kotzinos, Dimitris; Rousakis, Yannis
This deliverable presents specifications of three components responsible for advanced manipulation with the knowledge stored in the KP-Lab Semantic Web Knowledge Middleware (SWKM). It starts with motivating scenarios defined within various Working Knots (WKs), extracting relevant functional requirements and mapping them on the high-level requirements, of particular driving objectives and user tasks (described in deliverable [D2.4]). The first component is Knowledge Matchmaker (V2.0), which ut...
This paper is an operational study that compares the use of albedo thermoluminescent dosimeters with bubble dosimeters to determine whether bubble dosimeters do provide a useful daily ALARA tool that can yield measurements close to the dose-of-record. A group of workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) working on the Radioactive Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) for the NASA Cassini space mission wore both bubble dosimeters and albedo dosimeters over a period from 1993 through 1996. The bubble dosimeters were issued and read on a daily basis and the data were used as an ALARA tool. The personnel albedo dosimeter was processed on monthly basis and used as the dose-of-record. The results of this study indicated that cumulative bubble dosimetry results agreed with whole-body albedo dosimetry results within about 37% on average. However it was observed that there is a significant variability of the results on an individual basis both month-to-month and from one individual to another
Manzotti, E.; Vaitkunaite, Evelina
Offshore wind turbines are increasing in both efficiency and size. More economical foundations for such light structures are under investigation, and suction caisson was shown to be particularly suitable for this purpose. In multi-pod foundation configuration, the overturning moment given by loads on the structure is resisted by push-pull loads on the vertical axis of each suction caisson. Relevant works where this situation is examined by means of laboratory testing are summarized in this article, then different conclusions are followed by discussion and comparison. In the initial theoretical section, an overview of phenomena related with the case of study is presented. Drained and undrained condition, liquefaction and suction are examined from the theoretical point of view for mechanisms related to the case of study.
Intervención educativa para elevar nivel de conocimiento sobre brucelosis en trabajadores expuesto a riesgo: municipio Camagüey / Educational intervention to elevate the level of knowledge on brucellosis in workers exposed to risk: Camagüey municipality
Cristina, Casado Rodríguez; Odalys, Rodríguez Heredia; Magalys, Mena Fernández; Gloria, García González.
Full Text Available Fundamento: La brucelosis es una importante zoonosis que puede ser transmitida por animales al hombre, según la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), esta enfermedad es uno de los principales problemas sanitarios en muchos países; con alrededor de medio millón de nuevos casos cada año. Objetivo: A [...] plicar una intervención educativa para elevar el nivel de conocimiento sobre brucelosis en trabajadores expuesto a riesgo. Método: Se realizó un estudio experimental de intervención en el matadero sanitario de Guanavaquilla y en el Combinado cárnico, dirigido a elevar el nivel de conocimientos de los trabajadores expuestos a riesgo acerca de la brucelosis, durante el período del 1ro de enero al treinta y uno de diciembre del 2007. El universo estuvo conformado por todos los trabajadores expuesto al riesgo de brucelosis de los centros Guanavaquilla con setenta y seis expuestos y Combinado cárnico con ciento sesenta expuestos, la muestra quedó conformada por sesenta y seis trabajadores seleccionados a través de un muestreo aleatorio simple a los que se les aplicó un cuestionario. Resultados: Se observó que antes de recibir las labores educativas se consideraron escasos los conocimientos que poseen los trabajadores acerca, de la forma en que se adquiere la brucelosis, la importancia del uso de los medios de protección personal y que estos estén en perfecto estado. El por qué es necesario la higiene personal y un ambiente adecuado, así como los riesgos para adquirir una brucelosis y las medidas de prevención. Conclusiones: Al inicio de la investigación los trabajadores tenían poco conocimiento sobre la brucelosis, luego de la intervención se logró un aumento significativo del mismo, por lo que se consideró efectiva la intervención. Abstract in english Background: The brucellosis is an important zoonosis of man acquired from an animal source, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), this disease is one of the main sanitary problems in many countries; about half million of new cases every year. Objective: To apply an educational interventi [...] on to elevate the level of knowledge on brucellosis in workers exposed to risk. Method: An intervention experimental study in the sanitary slaughterhouse of Guanavaquilla and in the meat processing factory, guided to elevate the level of knowledge of workers exposed to risk about brucellosis, from January 1st to December 31st, 2007. The universe was conformed by all the workers exposed to risk of brucellosis of the center Guanavaquilla with seventy six exposed workers and meat processing factory with one-hundred sixty ones, the sample was conformed by 66 workers selected through a random simple sampling to those were applied a questionnaire. Results: It was observed that before receiving the educational works were considered scarce the knowledge that the workers possess about, in the way brucellosis is acquired, the importance of the use of personal protection means and that these are in perfect state. Also why it is personal hygiene and an appropriate atmosphere necessary, as well as the risks to acquire brucellosis and the prevention measures. Conclusions: At the beginning of the investigation workers had little knowledge on brucellosis, after the intervention a significant increase was achieved, for what the intervention was considered effective.
Heloisa Helena T. de Souza Martins
Full Text Available O artigo tem como objetivo analisar as percepções de jovens trabalhadores metálurgicos, entre 18 a 25 anos, sobre as mudanças organizacionais e tecnológicas que estão sendo introduzidas no processo produtivo de oito indústrias dos setores metalúrgico e eletroeletrônico do município de Osasco. Considerando que essas mudanças no trabalho redefinem o perfil do trabalhador e colocam novas exigências quanto à escolaridade, formação profissional, participação e compromisso com os objetivos da empresa, o texto discute a relação dos jovens com a escola, o trabalho, a empresa e o sindicato. Na análise do jovem trabalhador é retomada a perspectiva de autores europeus que acentua a heterogeneidade da juventude. Portanto, mesmo com identidade comum definida pela condição operária, os jovens entrevistados avaliam e interpretam de diversas maneiras as condições de trabalho e situam-se diferentemente diante das modificações feitas.The aim of this article is to analyze the perceptions of young metal workers, between 18 and 25 years of age, of organizational and technological changes being introduced in the productive process in eight industries of the metal works and electro-electronic sectors in the Osasco area. Considering that these changes in labor redefine the profile of the worker and bring about new demands as to schooling, professional development, participation and commitment to the companies' objectives, the text discusses the young workers' relationship with school, work, industry and union. In the analysis of the young laborer, the perspective of European authors that accentuate youth heterogeneity is taken up. Thus, in spite of the common identity defined by the condition of being a worker, the young workers interviewed evaluate and interpret differently working conditions and situate themselves in a diverse manner in face of the changes.
The population of radium-dial workers, which has now been studied for more than half a century, constitutes a resource of considerable value. More than 1,100 workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions
Mbutho, Nozuko P; Gqaleni, Nceba; Korporaal, Charmaine M
Traditional complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) has been reported to be commonly used among individuals with HIV and AIDS disease. However a lack of communication between health care workers (HCWs) and patients as well as between HCWs and TCAM practitioners has been identified as one of the challenges that may adversely affect treatment of HIV and AIDS patients. With improved and sustained communication HCWs, patients and TCAM practitioners would be able to make informed decisions w...
Conocimiento y actitud en prevención de trabajadores lesionados de una empresa metalmecánica en México / Knowledge and attitudes towards prevention among occupationally injured workers at a Mexican metal-mechanic company
Benito, Zamorano González; Víctor, Parra Sierra; Fabiola, Peña Cárdenas; Yolanda, Castillo Muraira.
Full Text Available Se investigan a 51 trabajadores que sufrieron algún tipo de accidentes de trabajo durante el año de 2007, en una empresa metalmecánica, no importando la región anatómica de la lesión con la finalidad de determinar el nivel de conocimiento y actitud en prevención de riesgos laborales que existe entre [...] ellos. Tal información servirá para mejorar la administración de la seguridad en la empresa. La investigación es de tipo no experimental, descriptiva y transversal. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó, un cuestionario integrado por 30 ítems, divididos en tres apartados: datos demográficos y las variables: conocimiento y actitud en prevención de riesgos laborales. La validez del instrumento obtuvo un valor de alfa de Cronbach del 0,74. Con respecto a las variables de estudio, los resultados obtenidos nos indican que, los trabajadores presentan un nivel bajo de conocimiento en prevención de riesgos laborales. En relación con la variable actitud, estos se ubicaron en un nivel bajo también. Por lo que se concluye que, el conocimiento en prevención de riesgos laborales y la actitud de los trabajadores, están directamente relacionados. Abstract in english 51 workers that suffered some type of work accident were investigated during 2007, at a metal-mechanic company; the lesion’s anatomic region is not an issue, in order to determine the knowledge and attitude level on occupational risks prevention. Such information will enhance safety management at th [...] e company. The investigation is descriptive, transverse and non-experimental. For data collection was used a questionnaire of 30 multiple-choice, divided into three sections: demographics data, and the variables knowledge and attitude on occupational risk prevention. The validity of the instrument got a Cronbach´s alpha of 0,74. With respect to the variables, the results indicate that workers have a low level in prevention knowledge occupational risk. Regarding the attitude variable, these were located at a low level also. As it is concluded that knowledge on occupational risk prevention and the attitude of workers are directly related.
Conocimiento y actitud en prevención de trabajadores lesionados de una empresa metalmecánica en México Knowledge and attitudes towards prevention among occupationally injured workers at a Mexican metal-mechanic company
Benito Zamorano González
Full Text Available Se investigan a 51 trabajadores que sufrieron algún tipo de accidentes de trabajo durante el año de 2007, en una empresa metalmecánica, no importando la región anatómica de la lesión con la finalidad de determinar el nivel de conocimiento y actitud en prevención de riesgos laborales que existe entre ellos. Tal información servirá para mejorar la administración de la seguridad en la empresa. La investigación es de tipo no experimental, descriptiva y transversal. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó, un cuestionario integrado por 30 ítems, divididos en tres apartados: datos demográficos y las variables: conocimiento y actitud en prevención de riesgos laborales. La validez del instrumento obtuvo un valor de alfa de Cronbach del 0,74. Con respecto a las variables de estudio, los resultados obtenidos nos indican que, los trabajadores presentan un nivel bajo de conocimiento en prevención de riesgos laborales. En relación con la variable actitud, estos se ubicaron en un nivel bajo también. Por lo que se concluye que, el conocimiento en prevención de riesgos laborales y la actitud de los trabajadores, están directamente relacionados.51 workers that suffered some type of work accident were investigated during 2007, at a metal-mechanic company; the lesion’s anatomic region is not an issue, in order to determine the knowledge and attitude level on occupational risks prevention. Such information will enhance safety management at the company. The investigation is descriptive, transverse and non-experimental. For data collection was used a questionnaire of 30 multiple-choice, divided into three sections: demographics data, and the variables knowledge and attitude on occupational risk prevention. The validity of the instrument got a Cronbach´s alpha of 0,74. With respect to the variables, the results indicate that workers have a low level in prevention knowledge occupational risk. Regarding the attitude variable, these were located at a low level also. As it is concluded that knowledge on occupational risk prevention and the attitude of workers are directly related.
The relationship between knowledge of HIV, self-perceived vulnerability and sexual risk behavior among community clinic workers in Chile / Relación entre conocimientos sobre VIH, percepción de vulnerabilidad y conductas sexuales de riesgo en trabajadores de salud primaria en Chile
Baltica, Cabieses; Lilian, Ferrer; Luis, Villarroel; Helena, Tunstall; Kathleen, Norr.
Full Text Available Objetivo Probar la asociación entre conductas sexuales de riesgo (CSR) y conocimiento de VIH en trabajadores de salud primaria en Chile, y el posible efecto de confusión de auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad hacia VIH en dicha relación. Métodos Estudio transversal anidado en estudio cuasi-experimenta [...] l de 720 trabajadores de salud de Santiago. Score de CSR combinó número de parejas sexuales y uso de condón. Conocimiento de VIH fue medido mediante índice de 25 preguntas. Percepción de vulnerabilidad hacia VIH fue medida como "alta"/"moderada"/ "baja". Variables socio-demográficas, religiosidad y nivel educativo sirvieron de control. Análisis descriptivo, de asociación y confusión fueron desarrollados mediante estimación de proporciones/medias, prueba de Chi-cuadrado y regresión logística. Resultados El 78,2 % de encuestados era mujer, el 46,8 % estaba casado y el 67,6 % era católico. Promedio de edad de 38,9 aÃƒÂ±os (DS=10,5) y el 69 % tenía formación universitaria/técnica. La auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad fue "baja" en el 71,5 % de los trabajadores. Se observó una asociación negativa entre conocimiento y CSR (OR=0,55, IC=0,35-0,86) y la vulnerabilidad percibida no fue factor de confusión. La asociación se mantuvo tras ajustar por edad, sexo, tipo de centro primario, educación y religiosidad. Conclusiones Algunos trabajadores de salud comunitaria tenían conocimiento inadecuado de VIH, que se asoció a CSR. La auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad no fue factor de confusión, pero estudios futuros podrían analizar riesgos laborales de VIH como posible mediador en la percepción de riesgo. Programas de entrenamiento en conocimientos básicos de VIH y CSR debieran implementarse en trabajadores de salud primaria. Abstract in english Objective Testing the hypothesis of an association between knowledge and sexual risk behaviour (SRB) amongst community-clinic workers in Chile, explained by the confounding effect of self-perceived vulnerability to HIV. Methods A cross-sectional survey was analyzed; it was nested within a quasiexper [...] imental study of 720 community-clinic workers in Santiago. The SRB score combined the number of sexual partners and condom use (coded as "high"/"low" SRB). Knowledge of HIV (a 25-item index) was coded as "inadequate"/"adequate" knowledge. Self-perceived vulnerability to HIV was categorised as being "high"/ "moderate"/"low". Control variables included socio-demographics, religiousness and educational level. Percentages/averages, Chi-square tests and logistic regression (OR-estimations) were used for descriptive, association and confounding analysis. Results Respondents were 78.2 % female, 46.8 % married and 67.6 % Catholic. Mean age was 38.9 (10.5 SD) and 69 % had university/diploma level. Self-perceived HIV vulnerability was "low" in 71.5 % cases. A negative association between knowledge and SRB was found (OR=0.55;CI=0.35-0.86), but self-perceived vulnerability did not have a confounding effect on this relationship. This relationship also persisted after being adjusted for multiple control variables (e.g. age, sex, type of primary centre, educational level, and religiousness). Conclusions Some community-clinic workers had inaccurate knowledge of HIV, which was associated with SRB. Self-perceived vulnerability did not have a confounding effect; however, future studies should further analyze occupational risk of HIV as a possible driving factor in health workers' perception of their risk. Focused training programmes should be developed to enhance basic knowledge of HIV in this group.
The relationship between knowledge of HIV, self-perceived vulnerability and sexual risk behavior among community clinic workers in Chile Relación entre conocimientos sobre VIH, percepción de vulnerabilidad y conductas sexuales de riesgo en trabajadores de salud primaria en Chile
Full Text Available Objective Testing the hypothesis of an association between knowledge and sexual risk behaviour (SRB amongst community-clinic workers in Chile, explained by the confounding effect of self-perceived vulnerability to HIV. Methods A cross-sectional survey was analyzed; it was nested within a quasiexperimental study of 720 community-clinic workers in Santiago. The SRB score combined the number of sexual partners and condom use (coded as "high"/"low" SRB. Knowledge of HIV (a 25-item index was coded as "inadequate"/"adequate" knowledge. Self-perceived vulnerability to HIV was categorised as being "high"/ "moderate"/"low". Control variables included socio-demographics, religiousness and educational level. Percentages/averages, Chi-square tests and logistic regression (OR-estimations were used for descriptive, association and confounding analysis. Results Respondents were 78.2 % female, 46.8 % married and 67.6 % Catholic. Mean age was 38.9 (10.5 SD and 69 % had university/diploma level. Self-perceived HIV vulnerability was "low" in 71.5 % cases. A negative association between knowledge and SRB was found (OR=0.55;CI=0.35-0.86, but self-perceived vulnerability did not have a confounding effect on this relationship. This relationship also persisted after being adjusted for multiple control variables (e.g. age, sex, type of primary centre, educational level, and religiousness. Conclusions Some community-clinic workers had inaccurate knowledge of HIV, which was associated with SRB. Self-perceived vulnerability did not have a confounding effect; however, future studies should further analyze occupational risk of HIV as a possible driving factor in health workers' perception of their risk. Focused training programmes should be developed to enhance basic knowledge of HIV in this group.Objetivo Probar la asociación entre conductas sexuales de riesgo (CSR y conocimiento de VIH en trabajadores de salud primaria en Chile, y el posible efecto de confusión de auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad hacia VIH en dicha relación. Métodos Estudio transversal anidado en estudio cuasi-experimental de 720 trabajadores de salud de Santiago. Score de CSR combinó número de parejas sexuales y uso de condón. Conocimiento de VIH fue medido mediante índice de 25 preguntas. Percepción de vulnerabilidad hacia VIH fue medida como "alta"/"moderada"/ "baja". Variables socio-demográficas, religiosidad y nivel educativo sirvieron de control. Análisis descriptivo, de asociación y confusión fueron desarrollados mediante estimación de proporciones/medias, prueba de Chi-cuadrado y regresión logística. Resultados El 78,2 % de encuestados era mujer, el 46,8 % estaba casado y el 67,6 % era católico. Promedio de edad de 38,9 aÃƒÂ±os (DS=10,5 y el 69 % tenía formación universitaria/técnica. La auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad fue "baja" en el 71,5 % de los trabajadores. Se observó una asociación negativa entre conocimiento y CSR (OR=0,55, IC=0,35-0,86 y la vulnerabilidad percibida no fue factor de confusión. La asociación se mantuvo tras ajustar por edad, sexo, tipo de centro primario, educación y religiosidad. Conclusiones Algunos trabajadores de salud comunitaria tenían conocimiento inadecuado de VIH, que se asoció a CSR. La auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad no fue factor de confusión, pero estudios futuros podrían analizar riesgos laborales de VIH como posible mediador en la percepción de riesgo. Programas de entrenamiento en conocimientos básicos de VIH y CSR debieran implementarse en trabajadores de salud primaria.
Upon completion of this training course, the participant will have the knowledge to work safely in areas controlled for radiological purposes using proper radiological practices. Radiological Worker H Training, for the worker whose job assignment involves entry into Radiological Buffer Areas and all types of Radiation Contamination and Airborne Radioactivity Areas. This course is designed to prepare the worker to work safely in and around radiological areas and present methods to use to ensure individual radiation exposure is maintained As Low As Reasonably Achievable
Attitudes, knowledge and practices of healthcare workers regarding occupational exposure of pulmonary tuberculosis / Attitudes, connaissances et pratiques des membres du personnel soignant relatives à l'exposition du personnel soignant à la tuberculose pulmonaire
Lesley T., Bhebhe; Cornel, Van Rooyen; Wilhelm J., Steinberg.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated tuberculosis (TB) has become a major occupational hazard for healthcare workers (HCWs). HCWs are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Whenever there is a possibility of exposure, implemen [...] tation of infection prevention and control (IPC) practices is critical. OBJECTIVE: Following a high incidence of TB among HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital in Lesotho, a study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of HCWs regarding healthcare-associated TB infection and infection controls. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study performed in June 2011; it involved HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital who were involved with patients and/or sputum. Stratified sampling of 140 HCWs was performed, of whom, 129 (92.0%) took part. A self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was used. RESULTS: Most respondents (89.2%) had appropriate knowledge of transmission, diagnosis and prevention of TB; however, only 22.0% of the respondents knew the appropriate method of sputum collection. All of the respondents (100.0%) were motivated and willing to implement IPC measures. A significant proportion of participants (36.4%) reported poor infection control practices, with the majority of inappropriate practices being the administrative infection controls (> 80.0%). Only 38.8% of the participants reported to be using the appropriate N-95 respirator. CONCLUSION: Poor infection control practices regarding occupational TB exposure were demonstrated, the worst being the first-line administrative infection controls. Critical knowledge gaps were identified; however, there was encouraging willingness by HCWs to adapt to recommended infection control measures. Healthcare workers are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Implementation of infection prevention and control practices is critical whenever there is a possibility of exposure.
VOLUNTARY LIFESTYLE CHANGES AND KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HEALTHY LIFESTYLES OF CHILEAN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE WORKERS / CAMBIOS DE ESTILO DE VIDA Y CONOCIMIENTOS SOBRE ALIMENTACIÓN SALUDABLE Y ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA EN PROFESIONALES DE ATENCIÓN PRIMARIA EN CHILE
Svenja, Jungjohann; Isabel, Zacarías; Ingrid, Keller.
Full Text Available Se evaluaron los cambios en los estilos de vida y conocimientos en alimentación saludable y actividad física en profesionales de atención primaria de salud. Se aplicó una encuesta a 194 profesionales (médicos, enfermeras, nutricionistas, matronas y asistentes sociales), de los cuales el 86% eran muj [...] eres. Se observó que durante el último año, la mayoría de los profesionales modificó sus hábitos hacia estilos de vida mas saludables. Alrededor del 80% señalaron que consumen menos grasas y consumen mas verduras, dos tercios indicaron consumir menos azúcar, alrededor de la mitad menos alcohol y un 45% hacen más actividad física. La gente mas joven es la que ha hecho las mayores modificaciones, a pesar que aumentaron el consumo de bebidas gaseosas, alcohol y tabaco. Un 80% de los profesionales respondió correctamente las preguntas relacionadas con alimentación y actividad física. Se encontró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los diferentes grupos de profesionales. Se concluye que muchos profesionales han efectuado cambios hacia estilos de vida mas saludable, tienen un buen conocimiento de hábitos alimentarios y actividad física. Estos resultados indican la importancia del trabajo en equipo para contribuir a la prevención de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles Abstract in english This study aimed at assessing life style changes and knowledge regarding healthy diet and physical activity among Chilean primary health care (PHC) professionals. The sample of 194 PHC workers was composed of physicians, nurses, nutritionists, midwives and social workers, of which 86% were women.The [...] majority reported to have made positive changes in their lifestyle: more than 80% stated that they consumed less fat and ate more vegetables; two-thirds said they ate less sugar; around half reported that they drank less alcohol and 45% that they were more physically active. Negative changes like increasing the consumption of soft drinks, alcohol and tobacco were highest in the youngest of all the age groups. Eighty percents correctly answered the knowledge questions about healthy diet and physical activity. Significant differences among the professionals could be identified. Most of the PHC professionals show a positive change in their lifestyle and have a high knowledge level about healthy diet and physical activity. It has to be emphasized that good teamwork among nutritionists, physicians, nurses and other PHC workers is a necessary pre-condition to improve the effectiveness of a heath care team dealing with non-communicable disease prevention
VOLUNTARY LIFESTYLE CHANGES AND KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HEALTHY LIFESTYLES OF CHILEAN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE WORKERS CAMBIOS DE ESTILO DE VIDA Y CONOCIMIENTOS SOBRE ALIMENTACIÓN SALUDABLE Y ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA EN PROFESIONALES DE ATENCIÓN PRIMARIA EN CHILE
Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing life style changes and knowledge regarding healthy diet and physical activity among Chilean primary health care (PHC professionals. The sample of 194 PHC workers was composed of physicians, nurses, nutritionists, midwives and social workers, of which 86% were women.The majority reported to have made positive changes in their lifestyle: more than 80% stated that they consumed less fat and ate more vegetables; two-thirds said they ate less sugar; around half reported that they drank less alcohol and 45% that they were more physically active. Negative changes like increasing the consumption of soft drinks, alcohol and tobacco were highest in the youngest of all the age groups. Eighty percents correctly answered the knowledge questions about healthy diet and physical activity. Significant differences among the professionals could be identified. Most of the PHC professionals show a positive change in their lifestyle and have a high knowledge level about healthy diet and physical activity. It has to be emphasized that good teamwork among nutritionists, physicians, nurses and other PHC workers is a necessary pre-condition to improve the effectiveness of a heath care team dealing with non-communicable disease preventionSe evaluaron los cambios en los estilos de vida y conocimientos en alimentación saludable y actividad física en profesionales de atención primaria de salud. Se aplicó una encuesta a 194 profesionales (médicos, enfermeras, nutricionistas, matronas y asistentes sociales, de los cuales el 86% eran mujeres. Se observó que durante el último año, la mayoría de los profesionales modificó sus hábitos hacia estilos de vida mas saludables. Alrededor del 80% señalaron que consumen menos grasas y consumen mas verduras, dos tercios indicaron consumir menos azúcar, alrededor de la mitad menos alcohol y un 45% hacen más actividad física. La gente mas joven es la que ha hecho las mayores modificaciones, a pesar que aumentaron el consumo de bebidas gaseosas, alcohol y tabaco. Un 80% de los profesionales respondió correctamente las preguntas relacionadas con alimentación y actividad física. Se encontró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los diferentes grupos de profesionales. Se concluye que muchos profesionales han efectuado cambios hacia estilos de vida mas saludable, tienen un buen conocimiento de hábitos alimentarios y actividad física. Estos resultados indican la importancia del trabajo en equipo para contribuir a la prevención de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles
Full Text Available Conformism was studied among 46 workers with different kinds of occupations by means of two modified scales measuring conformity by Santor, Messervey, and Kusumakar (2000 – scale for perceived peer pressure and scale for conformism in antisocial situations. The hypothesis of the study that workers’ conformism is expressed in a medium degree was confirmed partly. More than a half of the workers conform in a medium degree for taking risk, and for the use of alcohol and drugs, and for sexual relationships. More than a half of the respondents conform in a small degree for anti-social activities (like a theft. The workers were more inclined to conform for risk taking (10.9%, then – for the use of alcohol, drugs and for sexual relationships (8.7%, and in the lowest degree – for anti-social activities (6.5%. The workers who were inclined for the use of alcohol and drugs tended also to conform for anti-social activities.
This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where direct measurement is not technically feasible, from accumulated PK of the excavated materials
At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the radiation protection worker aids in protecting personnel and their surrounding environment from the hazards of radiation. These individuals use their technical knowledge, skills, and abilities to survey and monitor various project-related activities. They must also provide guidance in project design, development, and implementation. These combined efforts assure that protective measures are taken in accordance with applicable standards. The ORNL performance-based training program enhances the skills of the worker. The program incorporates job specific information on the diverse facilities and activities monitored with basic fundamentals of radiation protection. Successful completion of this program includes passing both a qualification exam and an on-the-job skills review. This paper details the structure of such a program and explains the strategies taken to reach the program's goals. 4 refs., 2 tabs
Susel Pardo Montañez
Full Text Available Se realizó una intervención educativa en 30 trabajadoras con factor de riesgo de cáncer de mamas en el Policlínico Universitario "Ramón López Peña" de Santiago de Cuba, desde septiembre del 2008 hasta marzo del 2009, con vista a incrementar algunos conocimientos al respecto. Se conformaron 2 subgrupos con 15 participantes cada uno para desarrollar las diferentes actividades del proyecto educativo, las cuales serían valoradas antes de la acción instructiva y 6 meses después de efectuada. Para validar la información se usó la prueba de Mc Nemar y se obtuvo una modificación significativa de los conocimientos sobre el tema.An educative intervention of 30 workers with risk factors for breast cancer was carried out in "Ramón López Peña" University Polyclinic in Santiago de Cuba, from September 2008 to March 2009, in order to increase some knowledge on the topic. Two subgroups with 15 participants each were created to develop the different activities of the educative project, which will be assessed before the instructive action and 6 months after its onset. A Mc Nemar text was used to validate the information and a significant modification to knowledge on the topic was obtained.
Modificación de conocimientos sobre cáncer de mama en trabajadoras con factores de riesgo de la enfermedad / Modification to knowledge on breast cancer in the workers with risk factors for this disease
Susel, Pardo Montañez; Ileana, Ramírez Alemán; Ana, Selva Capdesuñer; Manuel, Cuza Palácios.
Full Text Available Se realizó una intervención educativa en 30 trabajadoras con factor de riesgo de cáncer de mamas en el Policlínico Universitario "Ramón López Peña" de Santiago de Cuba, desde septiembre del 2008 hasta marzo del 2009, con vista a incrementar algunos conocimientos al respecto. Se conformaron 2 subgrup [...] os con 15 participantes cada uno para desarrollar las diferentes actividades del proyecto educativo, las cuales serían valoradas antes de la acción instructiva y 6 meses después de efectuada. Para validar la información se usó la prueba de Mc Nemar y se obtuvo una modificación significativa de los conocimientos sobre el tema. Abstract in english An educative intervention of 30 workers with risk factors for breast cancer was carried out in "Ramón López Peña" University Polyclinic in Santiago de Cuba, from September 2008 to March 2009, in order to increase some knowledge on the topic. Two subgroups with 15 participants each were created to de [...] velop the different activities of the educative project, which will be assessed before the instructive action and 6 months after its onset. A Mc Nemar text was used to validate the information and a significant modification to knowledge on the topic was obtained.
Aral, Sinan; Brynjolfsson, Erik; Alstyne, Marshall
We econometrically evaluate information worker productivity at a midsize executive recruiting firm and assess whether the knowledge that workers accessed through their electronic communication networks enabled them to multitask more productively. We estimate dynamic panel data models of multitasking, knowledge networks, and productivity using several types of micro-level data: (a) direct observation of more than 125,000 email messages over a period of 10 months; (b) detailed accounting data o...
Conhecimento sobre produtos fitofarmacêuticos de agricultores e trabalhadores agrícolas da região do Douro que frequentaram cursos de aplicação / Knowledge of farmers and farm workers from douro region who attended courses of plant protection products application
Alberto Manuel de Araújo Ribeiro de, Carvalho; António Luís da Costa, Araújo; Maria José Moreno da, Cunha.
Full Text Available O estudo pretendeu avaliar a informação e as atitudes relativas à utilização dos produtos fitofarmacêuticos pelos agricultores e trabalhadores agrícolas da Região do Douro, após a frequência de cursos de aplicação de produtos fitofarmacêuticos, entre 2002 e 2006, no âmbito do QCA III. Um inquérito r [...] ealizado, sob a forma de entrevista directa com questionário escrito, abrangeu o universo de 1565 indivíduos que frequentaram 120 cursos de aplicação. A amostra foi de 100 inquiridos, seleccionados de forma aleatória. O inquérito incluiu questões estruturadas e abertas, de índole pessoal, profissional e sobre atitudes e conhecimentos no uso de produtos fitofarmacêuticos. Foram obtidos dados sobre as características da população agrícola, agricultores e trabalhadores agrícolas, sobre o uso dos produtos fitofarmacêuticos e do equipamento de protecção individual e a motivação para a frequência do curso. Abstract in english To assess the information and attitudes concerning the use of pesticides by farmers and agricultural workers of the Douro region, after the frequency of application courses of plant protection products, between 2002 and 2006, under the QCA III, an investigation was carried out in the form of a direc [...] t interview, with a written questionnaire, of 100 individuals which covered the universe of 1565 individuals who attended 120 courses. The sample was randomly selected. The questionnaire included structured and open issues of personal and professional nature and on attitudes and knowledge in the use of pesticides. Data were obtained on the characteristics of the farming population, farmers and farm workers, on the use of plant protection products and personal protective equipment and motivation for the course.
Leadership development, a component of HRD, is becoming an area of increasingly important practice for all organizations. When companies such as Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory rely on knowledge workers for success, leadership becomes even more important. This research paper tests the hypothesis that leadership credibility and the courage…
Relation Between Organizational Climate and its Dimensions and Knowledge-sharing Behavior among Knowledge Workers / Relación entre el Clima Organizacional y sus Dimensiones y Comportamiento del Conocimiento Compartido entre Trabajadores del Conocimiento
Milena Margarita, Villamizar Reyes; Delio Ignacio, Castañeda Zapata.
Full Text Available La presente investigación buscó identificar la relación del clima organizacional y sus dimensiones desde el instrumento prueba de medición de clima organizacional PMCO (Cárdenas y Villamizar, 2008, citado por Cardenas, Arciniegas y Barrera, 2009), en la conducta de compartir conocimiento, la cual fu [...] e medida desde la prueba Variables psicosociales y condiciones organizacionales de la conducta de compartir conocimiento (Castañeda y Fernandez, 2007). Los participantes fueron 100 trabajadores del conocimiento de dos organizaciones: una de carácter privado y otra pública. Se encontró una correlación del 0,578 entre el clima organizacional y la conducta de compartir conocimiento. Al realizar el análisis por entidades se encontró que en la pública el nivel de correlación entre clima y compartir conocimiento es altamente significativa con un nivel de confianza superior al 99%. En la entidad privada se encontró que no hay correlación entre las dos variables estudiadas con un r de 0,093 a un 95%. En cuanto a las dimensiones de clima y compartir conocimiento en la universidad pública se encuentra que todas incluyendo nivel de trabajo que presento la relación más baja son estadísticamente significativas al 99.9%. En la universidad privada solo se encontró relación con la dimensión crecimiento personal al 95%. Abstract in english This study aimed at identifying the relation of organizational climate and its dimensions from the PMCO measuring test for organizational climate (Cardenas & Villamizar, 2008, as cited in Cardenas, Arciniegas y Barrera, 2009) - in knowledge-sharing behavior, which was measured from the psychosocial [...] variables and organizational conditions of knowledge-sharing behavior test (Castañeda y Fernandez, 2007). 100 participants from two types of organizations participated on this study: one of private nature and one public. A correlation of 0.578 between organizational climate and knowledge-sharing behavior was found. When carrying out an analysis of each organization, it was evident that the level of correlation between climate and knowledge-sharing behavior was highly significant in the public organization: There was a reliability level higher to 99%. There was no correlation found between the two variables studied in the private organization -with an r of 0.093 to 95%. As for the dimensions of climate and knowledge-sharing behavior, the results showed that in all public universities (including level of work, which got the lowest relation) these are statistically significant to 99.9%. In the private university only a relation to the personal growth dimension of 95% was found.
Keating, Gordon N.; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Miller, Elizabeth D.
The integration of available information on the volcanic history of the region surrounding Los Alamos National Laboratory indicates that the Laboratory is at risk from volcanic hazards. Volcanism in the vicinity of the Laboratory is unlikely within the lifetime of the facility (ca. 50–100 years) but cannot be ruled out. This evaluation provides a preliminary estimate of recurrence rates for volcanic activity. If further assessment of the hazard is deemed beneficial to reduce risk uncertainty, the next step would be to convene a formal probabilistic volcanic hazards assessment.
As workers exposed to ionizing radiations in France are submitted to an individual dosimetric control by the IRSN or by registered laboratories, this report outlines the improvements obtained in the field of radioprotection of these workers, particularly because of a better analysis of exposure levels and of incidents. Some drawbacks still remain, notably due to the increase of subcontracting, short duration contracts, and temporary employment. It briefly comments the French assessment for 2007 with respect to three indicators (the number of controlled workers, the evolution of average individual doses, and the exceeding of the annual limit) and outlines the monitoring performed on researchers. It briefly describes the various components of prevention (legal context, regulatory controls, inspections and visits, regulatory files, workstation studies, reference documents and education), of control (external and internal dosimetry), and follow-up. It evokes how the IRSN deals with anomalies and crisis, contributes to the elaboration of standard at the French and international levels. It finally comments the drastic changes which have been noticed in veterinary practices
HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile
Jaime E. Barrientos
Full Text Available This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%, although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%. The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.Este artículo examina la prevalencia del VIH, los conocimientos respecto a su infección y, además, describe el uso del condón en mujeres que ejercen el comercio sexual en Santiago de Chile y que son atendidas en cinco centros especializados de enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Se aplicó una encuesta que indagaba sobre las características sociodemográficas, el conocimiento sobre el VIH/SIDA y el uso del condón a 626 mujeres. La prevalencia del VIH fue evaluada mediante un examen de ELISA. La prevalencia del VIH fue 0. El conocimiento del VIH fue bueno e, incluso, mejor que en población general, en algunos indicadores. El uso del condón con los clientes fue alto, aunque su uso regular con las parejas estables fue bajo. La prevalencia cero del VIH y el uso consistente de condones con los clientes confirma el impacto positivo que han tenido las estrategias de intervención implementadas para estos grupos, incrementando el conocimiento adecuado sobre el SIDA y el uso del condón con los clientes, contribuyendo a la disminución de la vulnerabilidad de estas mujeres hacia el.
HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile / Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile
Jaime E., Barrientos; Michel, Bozon; Edith, Ortiz; Anabella, Arredondo.
Full Text Available Este artículo examina la prevalencia del VIH, los conocimientos respecto a su infección y, además, describe el uso del condón en mujeres que ejercen el comercio sexual en Santiago de Chile y que son atendidas en cinco centros especializados de enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Se aplicó una encues [...] ta que indagaba sobre las características sociodemográficas, el conocimiento sobre el VIH/SIDA y el uso del condón a 626 mujeres. La prevalencia del VIH fue evaluada mediante un examen de ELISA. La prevalencia del VIH fue 0. El conocimiento del VIH fue bueno e, incluso, mejor que en población general, en algunos indicadores. El uso del condón con los clientes fue alto, aunque su uso regular con las parejas estables fue bajo. La prevalencia cero del VIH y el uso consistente de condones con los clientes confirma el impacto positivo que han tenido las estrategias de intervención implementadas para estos grupos, incrementando el conocimiento adecuado sobre el SIDA y el uso del condón con los clientes, contribuyendo a la disminución de la vulnerabilidad de estas mujeres hacia el. Abstract in english This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was a [...] dministered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.
Práticas e nível de conhecimento sobre doença cerebrovascular em um hospital universitário: Parte 1. Educação do corpo de enfermagem: prioridade para o tratamento do infarto cerebral Knowledge and attitudes regarding stroke in a Brazilian teaching hospital: Part 1. Results in health care workers and non-health care workers
Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVOS: Em um hospital universitário, entrevista direta de amostras estratificadas dos 3587 funcionários, visando determinar o nível de conhecimento e a conduta prática do corpo social diante do acidente vascular cerebral ou encefálico (AVE. Estabelecer prioridades para esforços educacionais. MÉTODO: Pré-teste para otimização do instrumento e cálculo amostrai. Entrevista de 309 funcionários sorteados. Inquérito consistindo em 32 questões sobre fisiopatologia, epidemiologia e mortalidade, clínica, fatores de risco, evolução e tratamento, comportamento pessoal diante da doença. Teste de Kruskal-Wallis para múltiplas comparações de dados não-paramétricos. RESULTADOS: O corpo social do hospital exibiu baixo nível de conhecimento teórico sobre o AVE e atitudes errôneas diante da doença. A performance dos enfermeiros foi superior à de auxiliares, técnicos e atendentes de enfermagem. O corpo de enfermagem, apesar de pontuar melhor na entrevista que a população leiga, mantém-se desinformado sobre as novas possibilidades terapêuticas e dissemina mitos sobre a doença. Entre os grupos profissionais leigos, o nível de educação formal não influenciou a performance na entrevista. CONCLUSÕES: A comunidade leiga e de saúde do HUCFF não reconhece adequadamente os sintomas típicos, a evolução provável dos pacientes e a necessidade de intervir rapidamente diante da doença cerebrovascular. O corpo de enfermagem não está preparado para a tarefa de difundir conceitos corretos sobre a doença. Somente programas específicos de educação continuada podem reverter este quadro, e devem ser considerados prioritários.BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to evaluate professionals working at a university hospital as to their knowledge and attitudes towards stroke. METHODS: Individuals working in the hospital were divided in two groups, health care workers (HCW and non-health care workers (NHCW, and further subdivided according to level of schooling, resulting in seven strata. A closed questionnaire addressing epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, typical symptoms, treatment, clinical course and personal attitudes towards smoking and blood pressure control, was applied to a random sample of each stratum (total n = 309. Kruskal-Wallis test for multiple comparisons of non-parametric data was used. RESULTS: Significant differences between the seven groups were found. Knowledge was strongly associated with being a HCW and with level of formal education (p<0.001, even after excluding physicians from the analysis (p<0.001. In NHCW groups, knowledge was not associated with level of education (p=0.421. In these groups, personal fear of suffering a stroke was the only variable predictive of knowledge. Smoking and poor monitoring of blood pressure levels were also more common in strata with the lowest levels of education and among NHCW. CONCLUSION: Poor knowledge and wrong attitudes towards stroke are frequent among individuals working in a Brazilian university hospital. Although these results are not necessarily applicable to the general population, they will certainly be useful for the development of educational programs on stroke.
Percepción y conocimientos de los profesionales sanitarios de una unidad de Nefrología sobre la higiene de manos: estudio comparativo / Hand hygiene perceptions and knowledge of healthcare workers in a Nephrology Unit: a comparative study
José Luis, Cobo Sánchez; Raquel, Pelayo Alonso; Raquel, Menezo Viadero; Elena, Incera Setién; Magdalena, Gándara Revuelta; Luis Mariano, López López.
Full Text Available Un conocimiento adecuado sobre la higiene de las manos por parte de los profesionales sanitarios, es el primer paso para la adherencia a cualquier programa de disminución de infección relacionada con la asistencia sanitaria. Objetivo: Evaluar el nivel de conocimientos y percepciones respecto a la hi [...] giene de manos entre los profesionales sanitarios de nuestra unidad de Nefrología, y compararlos con los de otra unidad de nuestro centro (Traumatología). Material y método: Estudio prospectivo descriptivo comparativo en 69 profesionales sanitarios. Para evaluar los conocimientos y percepciones respecto a la higiene de manos se utilizó un cuestionario de 26 ítems basado en cuestionarios desarrollados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados: 73% utiliza regularmente preparados de base alcohólica para higiene de manos (Traumatología 96,9%, p=0,007). 94% piensa que las manos de los profesionales sanitarios cuando no están limpias son la principal vía de transmisión de gérmenes patógenos (Traumatología: 87,1%, p=NS). 75,7% piensan que el entorno/superficies del hospital es la principal fuente de gérmenes patógenos (Traumatología: 68,8%) y 16% que son los microrganismos ya presentes en el paciente (Traumatología: 25%) (p=NS). Percepciones: 89% consideran alta la repercusión de las infecciones relacionadas con la asistencia sanitaria en el desenlace de la enfermedad (Traumatología: 59,4%, p=0,009). Respecto a las medidas más efectivas para mejorar la higiene de manos destacan la formación de los profesionales sanitarios, recibir retroalimentación regularmente sobre cómo realizar la higiene de manos y que exista un preparado de base alcohólica en cada punto de atención. Conclusiones: Los profesionales sanitarios de Nefrología, al igual que los de Traumatología, en general tienen conocimientos y percepciones adecuados sobre la higiene de manos. Abstract in english Adequate knowledge about hand hygiene (Hh) by healthcare workers (HCW), is the first step for adhering to any decreased infection related with healthcare (IRHC) program. Aim: To evaluate Hh perceptions and knowledge of HCW in a Nephrology Unit and compare it with another unit in our hospital (Trauma [...] ). Methodology: Comparative prospective study in 69 HCW. A 26-item questionnaire, based on questionnaires developed by WHO to assess knowledge and perceptions of Hh in HCW was used. Results: 73% regularly use alcohol-based preparations for Hh (Trauma 96.9%, p = 0.007). 94% think that the hands of the HCW when they are not clean are the main route of transmission of pathogens (Trauma: 87.1%, p = NS). 75.7% think that the environment / hospital surfaces is the main source of pathogens (Trauma: 68.8%) and 16% which are the microorganisms already present in the patient (Trauma: 25%) (p = NS). Perceptions: 89% consider the impact of high IRHC in the outcome of the disease (Trauma: 59.4%, p = 0.009). Regarding the most effective measures to improve the Hh include the formation of HCW, receive regular feedback on how to make the Hh and that a alcohol-based handrub is present at each point of care. Conclusions: All healthcare workers have adequate knowledge and perceptions about Hh.
Chowa, Gina A. N.; Despard, Mathieu R.
Social workers have many opportunities to integrate a focus on personal finance into their practice with mostly lower-income and vulnerable client populations. However, little is known about social workers’ interest in personal finance. Results of a survey of social workers (N = 56) interested in integrating personal finance content into their practice are reported in this paper. Ways in which social workers might further develop knowledge and skills in personal finance are discussed....
Full Text Available Improving productivity of knowledge workers is one of the major challenges in today’s global environment. Information technology-related technologies have given a new fillip to increase the productivity of those who are working in a knowledge-intensive organisation. This paper discusses the perspective of scientists of Hyderabad-based Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO laboratories on usefulness of IT-related technologies on their performance.
Full text: Previous studies realized by our group have demonstrated radio-induction of genotoxic damage in peripheral blood of hospital workers exposed to chronic X-ray. The cytogenetic and cytomolecular damage was significant in the radiologists evaluated. Accordingly, we have researched the knowledge of risk radiation in 57 workers to different health centres, private and public, in La Plata city. Most of respondents (96.4%) answered to know the risk of working with radiation ionizing, but a large portion do not carry out with the appropriate safety rules. The workers have not interest in this rules, it is evidenced by negligence in the use of protective clothing and personal dosimeters. These results suggested that individuals could be sensitising to minimize their risk. For this purpose we are working in scientific literacy conferences which are organized by 'Asociacion de Tecnicos Radiologos y de Diagnostico por Imagenes de La Plata (ASTEDIRLP)'. (author)
Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.
The Bioscience Industry Skills Standards Project (BISSP) is developing national, voluntary skill standards for technical jobs in biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and clinical laboratories in hospitals, universities, government, and independent settings. Research with employees and educators has pinpointed three issues underscoring the…
Klein, Roy L.
The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge-usefulness to organizational managers. The determination of the level of usefulness provided organizational managers with a reliable measure of their decision-making. Organizational workers' perceptions of knowledge accessibility, quality of knowledge content, timeliness, and user…
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is redesigning its Computer-Based Training (CBT) program for radiological workers. The redesign represents a major effort to produce a single, highly interactive and flexible CBT program that will meet the training needs of a wide range of radiological workers--from researchers and x-ray operators to individuals working in tritium, uranium, plutonium, and accelerator facilities. The new CBT program addresses the broad diversity of backgrounds found at a national laboratory. When a training audience is homogeneous in terms of education level and type of work performed, it is difficult to duplicate the effectiveness of a flexible, technically competent instructor who can tailor a course to the express needs and concerns of a course's participants. Unfortunately, such homogeneity is rare. At LLNL, they have a diverse workforce engaged in a wide range of radiological activities, from the fairly common to the quite exotic. As a result, the Laboratory must offer a wide variety of radiological worker courses. These include a general contamination-control course in addition to radioactive-material-handling courses for both low-level laboratory (i.e., bench-top) activities as well as high-level work in tritium, uranium, and plutonium facilities. They also offer training courses for employees who work with radiation-generating devices--x-ray, accelerator, and E-beam operators, for instance. However, even with the number and variety However, even with the number and variety of courses the Laboratory offers, they are constrained by the diversity of backgrounds (i.e., knowledge and experience) of those to be trained. Moreover, time constraints often preclude in-depth coverage of site- and/or task-specific details. In response to this situation, several years ago LLNL began moving toward computer-based training for radiological workers. Today, that CBT effort includes a general radiological safety course developed by the Department of Energy's Hanford facility and a contamination-control program developed by LLNL. A comprehensive study guide and a post-training practical exam supplement the CBT effort. The ''hands-on'' practical is particularly important in that it gives participants not only the opportunity to demonstrate what they've learned, but to ask questions about their individual work situations. The challenge is how to make the CBT program more facility- and task-specific while, at the same time, making the program more in tune with the education and/or experience levels of individual trainees. To that end, they have designed a CBT program, which they refer to as an ''onion''. That is, the course is layered, going from the general to the more and more specific
Information and communication tools (ICTs) have become a major influencer of how modern work is carried out. Methods of user-centered design do not however take into account the full complexity of technology and the user interface context the users live in. User interface culture analysis aims providing to designers new ways and strategies to better take into account the current user interface environment when designing new products. This paper describes the reasons behind user interface cult...
Smith, Alan D.; Rupp, William T.
One major purpose of performance appraisals is to determine individual merit, especially where pay for performance systems are employed. Based upon expectancy theory, high performance ratings should entail high merit increases while low performance ratings result in low merit increases. However, it appears that decoupling performance ratings and…
The population of radium dial workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions. Finally, the question of the effect of fetal irradiation on the offspring of these women remains to be resolved. No evidence exists to suggest that any effects have occurred, but there is no question that a chronic irradiation of the developing fetus did take place. No formal follow-up of these children has yet been initiated
An Ohio vocational school Small Animal Care program prepares students for entry level employment as veterinary assistants, pet shop salesmen, kennel workers, animal groomers, Humane Society workers, laboratory animal assistants, and riding stable assistants. (EA)
Capacitações perecíveis do trabalhador: a busca de saberes comportamentais e técnicos no novo capitalismo / Les formations périssables du travailleur: la recherche de savoirs comportamentaux et techniques dans le nouveau capitalisme / Perishable worker training: the search for behavioral and technical knowledge in the new capitalism
Maurício dos Santos, Ferreira.
Full Text Available Este artigo problematiza as estratégias pelas quais a atualização permanente de saberes se impôs como imprescindível ao perfil profissional contemporâneo. Para tanto, opero com os conceitos foucaultianos de discurso, cuidados de si e tecnologias do eu, bem como trabalho imaterial, de Lazzarato e Neg [...] ri - articulados a uma crítica ao capital humano - , a fim de analisar o caderno Empregos & Oportunidades do jornal Zero Hora. Centrando-me nas exigências comportamentaise técnicas, destaco algumas implicações: o autoconhecimento torna-se a resposta à trivialidade do trabalho, orientando o sujeito a estabelecer relações superficiais consigo e com o outro; a busca por conhecimento técnico gera contingentes de trabalhadores capacitados que se mantêm em defasagem; a inovação faz-se "dobradiça" entre o mercado e a exigência de novos saberes. Hoje, a condição perecível das capacitações dá o tom à formação do trabalhador. Abstract in english This paper problematizes the strategies through which the permanent updating of knowledge has been imposed as indispensable to the contemporary professional profile. In order to do that, I have worked with the Foucauldian concepts of discourse, care of the self and technologies of the self, as well [...] as Lazzarato and Negri's concept of immaterial work - articulated with a criticism of human capital - to analyze the supplement called Jobs & Opportunities of Zero Hora newspaper. Focused on behavioral and technical requirements, I have highlighted some implications: self-knowledge has become the answer to work triviality, leading the subjects to establish superficial relationships with themselves and the others; the search for technical knowledge has generated contingents of skilled workers that lag behind; innovation has become a "hinge" between the market and the requirement for new knowledge. Nowadays, the perishable situation of worker training dominates worker learning.
Protecting workers from potential effects of pesticides is an important role of EPA's Pesticide Program. Workers in several occupations may be exposed to pesticides when they: Prepare pesticides for ...
Anger, W Kent; Patterson, Lindsey; Fuchs, Martha; Will, Liliana L; Rohlman, Diane S
Worker Protection Standard (WPS) training is one of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) primary methods for preventing pesticide exposure in agricultural workers. Retention of the knowledge from the training may occasionally be tested by state Occupational Safety and Health Administrations (state OSHAs) during a site visit, but anecdotal evidence suggests that there is no consistent testing of knowledge after WPS training. EPA's retraining requirements are at 5-year intervals, meaning the knowledge must be retained for that long. Vineyard workers completed a test of their baseline WPS knowledge, computer-based training on WPS, a post-test immediately after training and a re-test 5 months later. Pre-test performance suggested that there was a relatively high level of baseline knowledge of WPS information on two-answer multiple choice tests (74% to 75%) prior to training. Training increased the knowledge to 85% on the post-test with the same questions, a significant increase (p < .001, 1-tailed) and a large effect size (d) of .90. Re-test performance (78%) at 5 months revealed a return towards but not back to the pre-test levels. Better test performance was significantly correlated with higher education and to a lesser extent with younger ages. Whether this level of knowledge is sufficient to protect agricultural workers remains an open question, although an increase in the proportion of people in a work group who know the critical WPS information may be the most important impact of training. PMID:19657883
... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Disaster Rescue and Response Workers Disaster Rescue and Response Workers Bruce H. Young, LCSW, ... psychological problems can result for rescue workers following disaster experiences? The psychological problems for workers that may ...
Schild, Susie A.
Knowledge management thinking has resulted in the perception that the organization is the relevant beneficiary of knowledge. Individual approaches to and experiences with personal knowledge management are not well documented in empirical studies, which uncovered the specific problem that the situatedness of knowledge worker contemporaries within…
Gottschalk, Petter; Holgersson, Stefan; Karlsen, Jan Terje
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize detectives in police investigations as knowledge workers. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a literature review covering knowledge organizations, police organizations, police investigations, and detectives as knowledge workers. Findings: The paper finds that the changing role…
Ferguson, W. J.; Lemay, C. A.; Hargraves, J. L.; Gorodetsky, T.; Calista, J.
We designed, implemented and evaluated a 48-hour training program for community health workers (CHWs) deployed to diabetes care teams in community health centers (CHCs). The curriculum included core knowledge/skills with diabetes content to assist CHWs in developing patient self-management goals. Our qualitative evaluation included…
Kania, A.; Spilka, M.
Purpose: In this article the important role of knowledge management in enterprises was presented. The knowledge and workers skills are the wealth and success source of organizations on the market.Design/methodology/approach: The paper shows definitions and types of knowledge, systems and models of knowledge management and directions of knowledge acquirement and development.Findings: In this article the analysis of role and function of knowledge management in modern enterprise on the basis of ...
Johnson, Teresa A.
This viewgraph presentation reviews the issues surrounding the management of knowledge in regards to safety and mission assurance. The JSC workers who were hired in the 1960's are slated to retire in the next two to three years. The experiences and knowledge of these NASA workers must be identified, and disseminated. This paper reviews some of the strategies that the S&MA is developing to capture that valuable institutional knowledge.
Conhecimentos, práticas e percepções de profissionais de saúde sobre o tratamento de malária não complicada em municípios de alto risco da Amazônia Legal Uncomplicated malaria treatment in the Brazilian Amazon: knowledge, practices and perceptions of health workers in high-incidence municipalities
Claudia Garcia Serpa Osorio-de-Castro
Full Text Available O controle da malária no Brasil conta com diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado e oportuno como estratégia para cura rápida e duradoura. Consequências clínicas e resistência aos antimaláricos podem resultar de falhas na prescrição, dispensação e aceitação dos profissionais aos esquemas terapêuticos propostos. Objetivou-se avaliar conhecimentos, práticas, percepções e atitudes de profissionais envolvidos na assistência farmacêutica à malária, frente ao protocolo oficial e a possíveis falhas na terapêutica. Entrevistaram-se profissionais em seis municípios na Amazônia Legal. Utilizou-se técnica de análise do discurso para determinação de categorias analíticas e sistematização. Dos 63 entrevistados, houve apenas um médico. Os demais, de nível médio, atuavam no diagnóstico, indicação e dispensação do tratamento antimalárico. O tempo de formação e de treinamento foi variável. Houve falhas na adesão ao protocolo nacional, perpassando indicação, dispensação e orientação aos pacientes. Os profissionais carecem de conhecimento para lidar com as especificidades da doença e do tratamento. A responsabilização de profissionais que não possuem o preparo necessário para a atenção sugere necessidade de políticas para a adequada capacitação e incorporação de recursos humanos.Malaria control in Brazil is based on early diagnosis and adequate and timely treatment as strategies for a rapid and long-lasting cure. Clinical consequences and resistance to antimalarials may arise from problems in prescribing, dispensing and in acceptance of therapeutic regimens by healthcare workers. We studied knowledge and practices, perceptions and attitudes of health workers participating in pharmaceutical services for malaria, regarding the official protocol and the possible flaws in therapy. Health workers from six municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon were interviewed. Speech analysis was employed as a technique to determine analytical categories and to organize data. There was only 1 physician among the 63 interviewees, the others were health technicians carrying out diagnosis, therapy indication and dispensing of antimalarial treatment. Training time and period since course completion varied. Flaws in the adherence to the national protocol included therapy indication, dispensing and counseling. Health workers need knowledge to face disease and treatment specificities. Holding accountable health workers that are unprepared and unfit for the job may indicate the need for adequacy in policies regarding adequate training and hiring of human resources.
Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)
This chapter explores the potential of Fairtrade in hired labour situations in terms of improving conditions for agricultural workers. The chapter will address various aspects including the contentious issue of Fairtrade and trade union organisation as well as on issues of worker empowerment. At a local level, analysis focuses on the implications of Fairtrade certification for large enterprises and workers, drawing on a field-based studies of certified flower farms in Ecuador and Kenya.
... Regulations Enforcement Data & Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation Home Workers Regulations Enforcement Data & Statistics Training Publications Newsroom Small Business Anti-Retaliation versión ...
O campo Saúde do Trabalhador: resgatando conhecimentos e práticas sobre as relações trabalho-saúde The Workers' Health field: reclaiming knowledge and practices in the interface between work and health
Francisco Antonio de Castro Lacaz
Full Text Available O artigo discute pressupostos teórico-operacionais do campo Saúde do Trabalhador e os formulados pela Saúde Ocupacional. Refere-se às categorias teórico-conceituais que sustentam ambas as abordagens, visando a demonstrar as diferentes matrizes que as embasam e suas diferenças epistêmicas, considerando as formulações de Foucault relativas à Arqueologia. Justifica-se tal empreitada pela constatação de que a abordagem interdisciplinar que caracterizou as pesquisas em Saúde do Trabalhador está sendo abandonada, ao lado da involução programática das ações de Saúde Pública em nível das políticas sociais, da fragilidade do movimento sindical e dos equívocos conceituais observados no Relatório Final da 3ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde do Trabalhador realizada em novembro de 2005 e convocada pelos Ministérios da Previdência Social, da Saúde e do Trabalho e Emprego. Tal evento representou o resultado das Conferências de Saúde do Trabalhador realizadas nos Estados e municípios, que mobilizaram cerca de 100 mil militantes pelo Brasil, representados pelos delegados a 3ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde do Trabalhador.This article discusses the underlying theoretical and operational premises in the fields of workers' health and occupational health, highlighting their respective frameworks and epistemological differences, based on Foucaultian archeology. The theme is particularly relevant, due to: the apparently limited attention to interdisciplinary research approaches in workers' health; various setbacks in public health measures at the social policy level; related weaknesses in the Brazilian trade union movement; and the conceptual misinterpretations drafted into the final report of the 3rd National Workers' Health Conference in November, 2005, convened by the Ministries of Social Security, Health, and Labor. The event resulted from the Workers' Health Conferences held in various States and Municipalities, mobilizing some 100,000 activists throughout Brazil and electing the delegates to the 3rd National Conference.
Conocimientos sobre tuberculosis en trabajadores de la salud en una localidad de Bogotá D. C Conhecimentos sobre tuberculose entre trabalhadores da saúde em uma localidade de Bogotá D.C Knowledge on tuberculosis In health workers in a sector of Bogotá D.C
Óscar Andrés Cruz Martínez
Full Text Available El presente artículo es producto de una monografía de pre-grado para la obtención del título de enfermero-a profesional, el cual tuvo como objetivo identificar los conocimientos sobre tuberculosis en 117 trabajadores de la salud de 12 instituciones de salud públicas y privadas vinculadas al programa de prevención y control de tuberculosis, de la Secretaría Distrital de Salud, en una localidad de Bogotá. Para la recolección de datos se diseñó un instrumento de evaluación, el cual se aplicó a los trabajadores previa lectura y aceptación de participación mediante su consentimiento informado. Se realizó una caracterización general de los trabajadores y se evaluaron conocimientos básicos sobre tuberculosis. Los resultados evidenciaron que un 34% de trabajadores alcanzó un nivel de conocimientos medio, un 32% nivel inferior, un 27% nivel bajo y solo un 7% alcanzó el nivel alto. Se evidenció, en general, déficit de conocimientos sobre la enfermedad, principalmente en temas como diagnóstico, tratamiento, periodo de transmisibilidad y medidas de bioseguridad. Se verifica la necesidad de orientar acciones que amplíen los conocimientos sobre tuberculosis en los trabajadores de la salud, mediante la formación académica, la facilitación de espacios para capacitación, el mejoramiento de las condiciones de trabajo y la articulación de actividades de investigación y extensión entre la academia y el Programa Distrital de Control de Tuberculosis.Este artigo é produto duma monografia de pré-graduação para a obtenção do título de enfermeiro(a profissional, que objetivou identificar os conhecimentos sobre tuberculose em 177 trabalhadores da saúde de 12 instituições de saúde públicas e particulares vinculadas ao programa de prevenção e controle de tuberculose, da Secretaria Distrital de Saúde, em uma localidade de Bogotá. Para reunir os dados, desenhou-se um instrumento de avaliação que foi administrado entre os trabalhadores com a leitura prévia e aceitação de participação mediante consentimento informado. Realizou-se uma caracterização geral dos trabalhadores e avaliaram-se os conhecimentos básicos sobre tuberculose. Os resultados evidenciaram que um 34% de trabalhadores atingiu um nível de conhecimento médio, um 32% nível inferior, um 27% nível baixo e só um 7% conseguiu um nível alto. Verificou-se, em geral, um déficit de conhecimentos sobre a doença, principalmente, em temas como diagnóstico, tratamento, período de transmissibilidade e medidas de biosseguridade. Verifica-se a necessidade de orientar ações que ampliem os conhecimentos sobre tuberculose nos trabalhadores da saúde, mediante a formação acadêmica, a facilitação de espaços para capacitação, o melhoramento das condições de trabalho e a articulação de atividades de pesquisa e extensão entre a academia e o Programa Distrital de Controle de Tuberculose.This article comes from a pre-graduate monograph to obtain the title of Professional Nurse, whose purpose was to identify the knowledge on tuberculosis in 117 health workers from 12 public and private health institutions connected to the tuberculosis prevention and control program of the District Health Secretariat (Secretaría Distrital de Salud, in a sector of Bogotá. To collect data, an evaluation instrument was designed and applied to workers prior reading and accepting participation through informed consent. A general characterization of workers was carried out and basic knowledge on tuberculosis was assessed. Results showed that 34% of the workers reached a mid level of knowledge, 32% reached a lower level and 27% a low level and only 7% reached the high level. In general, a deficit in knowledge on the disease could be observed, mainly in subjects such as diagnosis, treatment, transmission period and bio-safety measures. The need to take actions to increase the knowledge on tuberculosis among health workers through academic training, facilitating training spaces, improving work conditions and articulating research and extens
Conocimientos sobre tuberculosis en trabajadores de la salud en una localidad de Bogotá D. C / Knowledge on tuberculosis In health workers in a sector of Bogotá D.C / Conhecimentos sobre tuberculose entre trabalhadores da saúde em uma localidade de Bogotá D.C
Óscar Andrés, Cruz Martínez; Érika Liliana, Flórez Suancha; Alba Idaly, Muñoz Sánchez.
Full Text Available Este artigo é produto duma monografia de pré-graduação para a obtenção do título de enfermeiro(a) profissional, que objetivou identificar os conhecimentos sobre tuberculose em 177 trabalhadores da saúde de 12 instituições de saúde públicas e particulares vinculadas ao programa de prevenção e control [...] e de tuberculose, da Secretaria Distrital de Saúde, em uma localidade de Bogotá. Para reunir os dados, desenhou-se um instrumento de avaliação que foi administrado entre os trabalhadores com a leitura prévia e aceitação de participação mediante consentimento informado. Realizou-se uma caracterização geral dos trabalhadores e avaliaram-se os conhecimentos básicos sobre tuberculose. Os resultados evidenciaram que um 34% de trabalhadores atingiu um nível de conhecimento médio, um 32% nível inferior, um 27% nível baixo e só um 7% conseguiu um nível alto. Verificou-se, em geral, um déficit de conhecimentos sobre a doença, principalmente, em temas como diagnóstico, tratamento, período de transmissibilidade e medidas de biosseguridade. Verifica-se a necessidade de orientar ações que ampliem os conhecimentos sobre tuberculose nos trabalhadores da saúde, mediante a formação acadêmica, a facilitação de espaços para capacitação, o melhoramento das condições de trabalho e a articulação de atividades de pesquisa e extensão entre a academia e o Programa Distrital de Controle de Tuberculose. Abstract in spanish El presente artículo es producto de una monografía de pre-grado para la obtención del título de enfermero-a profesional, el cual tuvo como objetivo identificar los conocimientos sobre tuberculosis en 117 trabajadores de la salud de 12 instituciones de salud públicas y privadas vinculadas al programa [...] de prevención y control de tuberculosis, de la Secretaría Distrital de Salud, en una localidad de Bogotá. Para la recolección de datos se diseñó un instrumento de evaluación, el cual se aplicó a los trabajadores previa lectura y aceptación de participación mediante su consentimiento informado. Se realizó una caracterización general de los trabajadores y se evaluaron conocimientos básicos sobre tuberculosis. Los resultados evidenciaron que un 34% de trabajadores alcanzó un nivel de conocimientos medio, un 32% nivel inferior, un 27% nivel bajo y solo un 7% alcanzó el nivel alto. Se evidenció, en general, déficit de conocimientos sobre la enfermedad, principalmente en temas como diagnóstico, tratamiento, periodo de transmisibilidad y medidas de bioseguridad. Se verifica la necesidad de orientar acciones que amplíen los conocimientos sobre tuberculosis en los trabajadores de la salud, mediante la formación académica, la facilitación de espacios para capacitación, el mejoramiento de las condiciones de trabajo y la articulación de actividades de investigación y extensión entre la academia y el Programa Distrital de Control de Tuberculosis. Abstract in english This article comes from a pre-graduate monograph to obtain the title of Professional Nurse, whose purpose was to identify the knowledge on tuberculosis in 117 health workers from 12 public and private health institutions connected to the tuberculosis prevention and control program of the District He [...] alth Secretariat (Secretaría Distrital de Salud), in a sector of Bogotá. To collect data, an evaluation instrument was designed and applied to workers prior reading and accepting participation through informed consent. A general characterization of workers was carried out and basic knowledge on tuberculosis was assessed. Results showed that 34% of the workers reached a mid level of knowledge, 32% reached a lower level and 27% a low level and only 7% reached the high level. In general, a deficit in knowledge on the disease could be observed, mainly in subjects such as diagnosis, treatment, transmission period and bio-safety measures. The need to take actions to increase the knowledge on tuberculosis among health workers through academic training, facilitating training spaces
Autonomous robots are becoming more and more skilled in performing human-scale manipulation tasks, and will soon become common co-workers in our homes. In this work, we describe a framework for representing the knowledge that an autonomous robot needs for performing household tasks, for automated reasoning on this knowledge, and for acquiring new knowledge from sources on the Internet and from observations of human activities. The developed methods allow programmers to write more general and ...
Liou, Saou-Hsing, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lai, Ching-Huang [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Public Health, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling [Fu Jen Catholic University, Department of Chemistry, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong [Council of Labor Affairs, Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Taiwan (China); Shih, Tung-Sheng [College of Public Health, China Medical University and Hospital, Institute of Environmental Health, Taiwan (China); Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China)
The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20-100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in control workers. A significantly decreasing gradient was found for SOD (control > RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose-response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of workers handling engineered nanomaterials.
This thesis intends to contribute to building evidence and expanding the knowledge base in the field of Human Resource Management (HRM) and health worker performance in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). It identifies the impact of HIV/AIDS on health workers, explores the factors influencing motivation of health workers, and examines the evidence on the effectiveness of HRM on health workers’ motivation and performance. In addition, it discusses whether HRM could contribute effectively...
The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration
Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.
This document contains skills standards for concrete construction workers that are designed for the following purposes: to inform prospective construction workers about the type of work and the skills required so that they can make informed career decisions; to inform educators about how academic, workplace, and life skills are applied in…
Roces, Flavio; Kleineidam, Christoph
The hygropreference of gardening workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa was investigated in the laboratory using a gradient of relative humidity. Gardening workers were placed, together with pieces of fungus garden, in small, interconnected nest chambers offering four different relative humidities: 33%, 75%, 84% and 98% RH. Workers were allowed to move freely between them and to relocate the fungus following their humidity preference. While workers distributed themselv...
The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20–100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly (p RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose–response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower iem backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of workers handling engineered nanomaterials.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have elevated serum PCB levels. Methods This project compared serum PCB levels among male workers who installed and/or removed PCB-containing caulking material from buildings in the greater Boston area with reference serum PCB levels from 358 men from the same area. Serum PCB levels were measured in the same laboratory by liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography clean-up and dual capillary column GC/microECD analysis. Results When the congener profiles were compared between the reference population and the construction workers, the serum levels of the more volatile, lighter PCBs (di-, tri-and tetrachloro, sum of IUPAC# 6–74 were substantially higher among the construction workers. One of the youngest workers had the lowest total serum PCB levels (sum of 57 congeners of all 6 workers, but the contribution of more volatile (less chlorinated PCB congeners (#16, 26,28,33,74,66, and 60 was markedly higher than in other 5 workers and reference men. Only this worker was working on a job that involved removing PCB caulking at the time of the blood sampling. Conclusion While the results of this pilot study are based upon small numbers (6 construction workers who handled PCB caulking, the serum PCB levels among the construction workers exceed the referents. Comparison of the congener profiles suggests that there are substantial differences between the construction workers and the general population samples. These differences, and the similarities of profiles among the construction workers strongly suggest that occupational contact with caulking material can be a major source of PCB exposure for construction workers.
Royce, S; Rosenberg, J
Occupational lead overexposure remains a major problem. To evaluate the settings in which physicians appropriately prescribe chelation therapy for lead exposure, 7 cases were identified from physician phone calls and mandatory laboratory reporting of elevated blood lead levels to the California Department of Health Services. In the 2 workers with the highest blood lead levels (both of whom had severe symptoms), treatment was indicated. Physicians inappropriately prescribed chelating agents to workers with ongoing lead exposure as prophylaxis against rising blood lead levels and to treat atherosclerotic heart disease. Workers' personal physicians identified lead overexposure in 5 of the 7 cases. Workplace lead medical surveillance programs mandated by the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration were inadequate in all 5 of the workplaces where information was available. PMID:8317123
This thesis is centered around two empirical questions. The first question deals with the paradox that the ICT revolution does not pay off with higher productivity growth for the ICT- users. The interaction between production and knowledge accumulation and the ¿general- purpose' nature of the ICT revolution is examined to explain the paradoxical finding. The second question ¿ what explains the increase in wage inequality between high-skilled and low-skilled workers over the last two decades...
I study a model where Information Technology, while typically increasing overall inequality, is likely to harm some people at intermediate and high levels of the distribution of income but to benefit people at the bottom. Within a given occupation it may harm some workers while benefitting others; and it may either reduce or increase the proportion of knowledge workers in employment. In my model, knowledge (in a broad sense) is an input into the production function of human capital, and is al...
Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of knowledge sharing in workplace. Based on the review of critical literaturesby the authors, they infer that knowledge sharing in workplace can be influenced by motivators anddemotivators. Activities of knowledge sharing in organizations may be on organization level or individuallevel. Knowledge sharing of both levels is critical to the success or failure of knowledge management insideand outside of organizations. Age, culture, and industry were all found to affect knowledge sharing amongworkers. A common stereotype is that older workers hoard knowledge because they are more insecure andfeel threatened by younger workers. Since older workers have more valuable knowledge, younger workersneeded to entice their older colleagues to share their valuable knowledge with them. The paper focus onmotivators and demotivators to sharing Knowledge in workplace. Theories and research pertaining to whyworkers share knowledge are reviewed. While all industry need knowledge and innovation, it is also truethat the pace of change and the need to innovate differs from industry to industry. Technology wasacknowledged to have a high important role in increasing productivity of knowledge sharing. It plays acritical role in creating, storing and distributing explicit knowledge in an accessible and expeditiousmanner.
Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom
Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom.
This file gathers contributions and points of view from different actors of the workers radiation protection, included two foreign contributions making reference to Spanish and British practices. (N.C.)
Radiation workers are healthier than the average person in the general population and appear to be as healthy as workers in other ?safe? industries. It is, however, assumed that there is no safe dose of radiation and that any exposure to radiation will cause a small increase in the incidence of cancer, this increase being directly proportional to the total radiation dose. On the basis of the risk estimates given by ICRP, radiation exposures up to 1 rem per year for 47 years are predicted to cause fewer work-related deaths than expected for the average worker in Canadian industry. Radiation exposures of 5 rem per year from age 18 to 65 would result in predicted risk which is about four times higher than that for most workers in Canada and might increase the chances of death before age 75 to nearly the same level as for the average member of the general public. (auth)
Full text: The Canadian Nuclear Industry recognizes the importance of nuclear knowledge management and has already implemented a number of initiatives to maintain competency, capture and preserve existing knowledge, advance the nuclear technology, develop future nuclear workers, and maintain a critical R and D capability. Although this paper addresses the Canadian scene in general, it will focus on knowledge management from a technology development point of view. Therefore, special emphasis will be placed on activities underway at present at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). Maintaining competency is a high priority issue. With the on-going retirement of nuclear workers, resource management, succession planning and technical training programs are all in place at AECL. For example, a comprehensive assessment was recently completed to identify critical core competencies and the potential and timing of future retirements. Using a risk-based approach, the technology disciplines were prioritized and a plan was developed to address the requirements. The plan is now being implemented to hire, train, mentor and develop a new core of technical experts. Collaboration and knowledge sharing are important success factors in that regard. This is being achieved through cross-functional teamwork, consolidation of expertise, on-going work on nuclear power plant projects (e.g., the just completed units in China and ongoing work on unit 2 at the Romanian Cernavoda site), developinat the Romanian Cernavoda site), developing and designing new products (Advanced CANDU Reactor, ACR-700), adopting and improving Quality Management Systems (e.g., ISO 9001:2000 Global Certification and pursuing business excellence through the adoption of the Canadian Framework for Business Excellence). Capturing and preserving existing knowledge as well as advancing nuclear technology have also received significant attention. Fully computerized engineering tools have been developed and used to document the complete design of CANDU plants, and this methodology is being used for the recent build projects. This encompasses all plant design, analysis and licensing knowledge including engineering drawings, design manuals, design reviews, analysis reports and all licensing documentation. The same system is being used today for the development of the ACR. In addition, a comprehensive feedback of experience system documents all operational issues to ensure lessons learned from operating plants are shared widely within AECL and with CANDU owners. AECL has also developed smart technology that transfers knowledge from highly specialized technical experts working in our laboratories to computer systems that can be accessed by plant operators. Such technology enables nuclear operators in monitoring station conditions, converting measured data into useful information, analyzing the information intelligently and providing recommendations to support decision making. In this way, specialized knowledge can be used throughout the nuclear industry. Another essential element in AECL's strategy for preserving knowledge is the on-going design and development of advanced CANDU systems over the years. In this approach, each generation of CANDU reactor is firmly based on incremental advancements in technology, which ensures that future expertise is maintained and based on an extensive existing knowledge base. Development of future nuclear workers received a boost through the University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE) program. This is an alliance of Canadian universities, nuclear power utilities, research and regulatory agencies. The purpose of UNENE is to assure a sustainable supply of qualified nuclear engineers and scientists to meet the current and future needs of the Canadian nuclear industry. In addition to full-time undergraduate and graduate degrees, UNENE, through 5 major Canadian universities also offers part-time programs designed for students already employed in the industry. Courses are offered in flexible formats, generally at nuclear sites for the c
Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)
The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.
The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment
Trabajadores de conocimiento: predictores de la agregación de valor a la organización / Travailleurs de la connaissance: prédicteurs de la valeur ajoutée de l'organisation / Knowledge workers: predictors of added value for an organization / Trabalhadores de conhecimento: indicativos da agragação de valor à organização
Rosa Araceli, Cortés Mendoza; Ricardo, Flores Zambada.
Full Text Available Em uma amostra por conveniência de 220 trabalhadores de conhecimento, explorou-se a relação multivariante entre a motivação, aprendizagem, pensamento e escuta, gestão da informação, atitudes, e nível de conhecimento com a variável agregação de valor. O modelo estrutural encontrado representa de mane [...] ira aceitável e nos dá evidência empírica, sobre algumas das variáveis que a literatura propõe dentro do perfil do trabalhador de conhecimento, e como aquelas incidem de maneira direta e indireta na agregação de valor por parte destes. Este último aspecto é muito importante, encontra-se evidência de que há traços intrapessoais e atitudinais que favorecem a acumulação de conhecimento e o uso do mesmo para gerar valor. Abstract in spanish En una muestra por conveniencia de 220 trabajadores de conocimiento, se exploró la relación multivariante entre motivación, aprendizaje, pensamiento y escucha, manejo de la información, actitudes, y nivel de conocimiento con la variable agregación de valor. El modelo estructural encontrado represent [...] a de manera aceptable, y da evidencia empírica, sobre algunas de las variables que la literatura propone dentro del perfil del trabajador de conocimiento, y cómo estas inciden de manera directa e indirecta en la agregación de valor por parte de estos. Este último aspecto es muy importante; se encuentra evidencia de que hay rasgos intrapersonales y actitudinales que favorecen la acumulación de conocimiento y el uso del mismo para generar valor. Abstract in english In a convenient sample of 220 knowledge workers, the multi-variant relationship between motivation, learning, thinking and listening, handling information, attitudes, and the level of knowledge of the added value variable was explored. The structural model that was found provides an acceptable repre [...] sentation along with empirical evidence regarding some of the values that the literature proposes within the profile of the knowledge worker, and how these directly and indirectly influence their added value. This last aspect is very important and it was found that there are intrapersonal and attitudinal characteristics that favor the generation of knowledge and its use to create value.
Syahida Zainal Abidin
Full Text Available Malaysia has to address the challenges of globalization to become a developed nation by year2020. Changing economy to one that is based on knowledge-economy and enhanced importanceof the service sector needs a competitive workforce with high performance and capability. Thisarticle analyses the impact of workers’ competence towards their performance in the privateservice sector. The analysis is based on a sample of 1136 workers who are either executive,manager or professional from three service sub-sectors, namely, education, health andinformation and communication technology (ICT in Selangor, Federal Territory of KualaLumpur, Penang and Johor collected in 2007/2008. In this analysis, Workers’ Performance Index(WPI and Workers’ Competence Index (WCI are developed and subsequently used to analyzefactors determining workers’ performance in the selected service sector. The results show thatworkers’ competence has significant influence towards workers’ performance. Besides that,human capital and workers’ characteristics also determine workers’ performance in the servicesector.
Rob Collins; Merryl Hammond; Carry, Catherine L.; Dianne Kinnon; Joan Killulark; Janet Nevala
Background . Tobacco reduction is a major priority in Canadian Inuit communities. However, many Inuit frontline health workers lacked the knowledge, confidence and support to address the tobacco epidemic. Given vast distances, high costs of face-to-face training and previous successful pilots using distance education, this method was chosen for a national tobacco reduction course. Objective . To provide distance education about tobacco reduction to at least 25 frontline health workers from al...
This study ha been conducted in the Radiopharmacy Laboratories of Nuclear Medicine departments of various hospitals and private nuclear medicine laboratories. A total of 35 laboratories from 7 regions of Turkey have been selected by layered sampling method from 131 Radiopharmacy Laboratories located in 30 different cities. During the study, a GRP investigation list with 67 questions and direct communication technique have been used. The aim was determine the current status of the Radiopharmacy Laboratories in general and the administration of radiopharmaceuticals on patients, and good practices in radiopharmacy and conformance with quality assurance systems. In this respect, questions have been asked to determine a) General status, b) Information level of lab workers regarding to the GRP and ISO concepts (i-Status of lab managers, ii- Responsibilities and knowledge of lab workers and iii- regarding to GRP and ISO-9000), c) Conditions of infrastructure, and lab services and its quality, d) Status of organizations. Results showed that only two of the 35 managers of laboratories were radiopharmacists, the rest were Nuclear Medicine specialists. There were less knowledge on GRP than ISO, the labs holding ISO certificate were in minority even though ISO is known concept, radiopharmacist were more knowledgeable in GRP while nuclear medicine specialists were in ISO, the labs with better GRP knowledge have better infrastructure, the GRP knowledge were better in the university and armed forces hospitals while ISO knowledge and certificates were more in private labs and hospitals, the armed forces hospitals better paraphernalia, practically almost all radiopharmaceutical kits were imported goods and there were important problems in quality control
Holley, Jessica; Gillard, Steve; Gibson, Sarah
New peer worker roles are being introduced into mental health services internationally. This paper addresses a lack of research exploring issues of risk in relation to the role. In-depth interviews were carried out with 91 peer workers, service users, staff and managers. A grounded analysis revealed protective practice in minimising risk to peer worker well-being that restricted the sharing of lived experience, and a lack of insight into how peer workers might be involved in formal risk management. Alternatively, analysis revealed potential new understandings of risk management based on the distinctive, experiential knowledge that peer workers brought to the role. PMID:25690153
Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas frente a la tuberculosis en trabajadores del sector salud en municipios prioritarios de la Costa Pacífica colombiana / Health Workers' Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Towards Tuberculosis in Priority Municipalities of the Colombian Pacific Coast / Conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas perante a tuberculose em trabalhadores da saúde em municipalidades prioritárias do litoral pacífico sul da Colômbia
Rocío, Carvajal-Barona; María Teresa, Varela-Arévalo; Paula Andrea, Hoyos; Eliana Sofía, Angulo-Valencia; Carolina, Duarte-Alarcón.
Full Text Available Objectivo: caracterizar os conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas perante a tuberculose em trabalhadores da saúde que participam dos programas de controle em municipalidades prioritárias do litoral pacífico colombiano. Materiais e métodos: Realizou-se um estudo descritivo de corte transversal com 38 tra [...] balhadores da Saúde, os quais correspondem a maior parte da população de pessoas com funções nos programas de TBC em 10 municipalidades prioritárias num departamento do sul da Colômbia. Usou-se um questionário estruturado, previamente validado através de entrevistas cognitivas realizadas em pessoas com caraterísticas similares as da população de estudo e realizadas previamente à coleta da informação. Resultados: Os trabalhadores disseram ter conhecimentos sobre a TBC e saber como tratar os pacientes com a doença seguindo as normatividades estabelecidas. Porém, identificaram-se algumas práticas de risco relacionadas com o cumprimento das medidas do plano de controle de infecções e atitudes que refletem o estigma perante a doença. Conclusão: O estudo confere informação a respeito dos conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas das equipes de saúde no pacífico sul da Colômbia, a qual se pode converter em insumo de consulta no momento do planejamento de estratégias de intervenção que possibilitem o fortalecimento do programa de controle de TB com enfoque cultural nesta região. Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Caracterizar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas frente a la tuberculosis (TB) en los trabajadores de la salud que participan en los programas de control en municipios prioritarios de la Costa Pacífica colombiana. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transv [...] ersal en 38 trabajadores de la salud, que corresponden a la mayor parte de la población del personal con funciones en los programas de TB de 10 municipios prioritarios en Nariño, Colombia. El instrumento utilizado fue un cuestionario estructurado, previamente validado a través de entrevistas cognitivas a personas con características similares a la población estudio, realizadas previamente a la recolección de información. Resultados: Los trabajadores reportan tener conocimientos sobre TB y su manejo de acuerdo a las normas de control establecidas. No obstante, se identificaron algunas prácticas de riesgo relacionadas con el cumplimiento de las medidas del plan de control de infecciones y actitudes que reflejan estigma frente a la enfermedad. Conclusiones: El estudio aporta información referente a los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas del personal de salud en el pacífico nariñense, que se puede convertir en insumo de consulta al momento del diseño de estrategias de intervención que posibiliten el fortalecimiento del programa de control de TB con enfoque cultural en esta región. Abstract in english Purpose: To describe knowledge, attitudes and practices of health workers of tuberculosis (TB) programs in priority municipalities of the Colombian Pacific coast. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 38 health workers, corresponding to the entire population of [...] people working at the TB programs in ten priority municipalities of Nariño, Colombia. A structured interview, previously validated trough cognitive interviews, was used. Results: Health workers report to have knowledge about TB and its management according to the established control guidelines. Nevertheless, some risk practices concerning biosecurity standards of infection control were found, that show some stigmatizing attitudes towards the illness. Conclusions: The study provides information about the health workers' knowledge, attitudes and practices towards TB in Nariño that can be used as input to the design of intervention strategies to strengthen the TB programs with local and cultural approach.
A comparative analysis of two cross-sectional surveys of healthcare workers' hand hygiene knowledge, intentions, access and product preferences between two university hospitals, one in Norway and one in Canada
Mediå, Anne Kristine
Objective: Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) and The University Hospital of Northern Norway in Tromsø (UNN-Tromsø) were compared for self-reported differences in level of knowledge and intentions to comply with the hand hygiene guidelines. Hand hygiene products were also assessed for preference of use, access, gentleness and promotion of hand hygiene compliance. Methods: A cross-sectional quality assurance staff survey was made available at UNN- Tromsø and at VGH in both print and in electr...
A comparative analysis of two cross-sectional surveys of healthcare workers' hand hygiene knowledge, intentions, access and product preferences between two university hospitals, one in Norway and one in Canada
Mediå, Anne Kristine
Objective: Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) and The University Hospital of Northern Norway in Tromsø (UNN-Tromsø) were compared for self-reported differences in level of knowledge and intentions to comply with the hand hygiene guidelines. Hand hygiene products were also assessed for preference of use, access, gentleness and promotion of hand hygiene compliance. Methods: A cross-sectional quality assurance staff survey was made available at UNN- Tromsø and at VGH in both print and in ele...
Conocimiento de las vías de transmisión de las zoonosis y de las especies afectadas entre los trabajadores rurales / Knowledge of zoonoses transmission routes and of the species concerned among rural workers
Ana I, Molineri; Marcelo L, Signorini; Héctor D, Tarabla.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el grado de conocimiento que tienen los trabajadores rurales sobre las zoonosis a las que se encuentran expuestos en su trabajo y su asociación con factores socio-demográficos. Se efectuó un estudio observacional transversal basado en la realización de encuest [...] as (N = 110, n = 94), utilizando un cuestionario estructurado. El análisis incluyó c², t de Student y correlación de Pearson y de Spearman. Las zoonosis más conocidas fueron la triquinosis, la rabia y la sarna. En el caso de la brucelosis, la tuberculosis y el carbunco, fueron muy conocidas las especies que las transmiten, pero no así las formas de transmisión. Las enfermedades menos conocidas en ambos sentidos fueron la toxocariasis y la hidatidosis, seguidas por la leptospirosis y la toxoplasmosis. Para todas las zoonosis estudiadas se encontró correlación significativa (p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of awareness of zoonoses among rural workers and their potential associations with socio-demographic factors. A cross-sectional study was performed by holding personal interviews (N = 110, n = 94) using a structured questionnaire. The statistical analy [...] sis included the c² test, the Student's t test and Pearson and Spearman correlations. The highest level of awareness was found for trichinosis, rabies and scabies. Species transmitting brucellosis, tuberculosis and anthrax were well known, but not their modes of transmission. The least known diseases were toxocariasis and hydatidosis, followed by leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis. Significant associations were found (p
Knowledge Management Systems have been actively promoted for decades within organizations but have frequently failed to be used. Recently, deployments of enterprise social networking platforms used for knowledge management have become commonplace. These platforms help harness the knowledge of workers by serving as repositories of knowledge as well…
“Umm-el-Fahem is not fit to be a city at all. It does not have the basic ingredients of a modern city because of racist planning policies. Where are the facilities in the city?! It may tick some of the cities’ criteria, such as population size, but where are the facilities?! The streets?!... It is one big refugee camp. It does not provide work for the bulk of its work force. Workers still have to leave the city at the crack of dawn to travel 80km and sometimes 300km each way to go to wor...
The level of knowledge and radiation safety practice amongst cardiovascular technology, medical assistant, nursing and diagnostic radiography students and dose monitoring in radiography laboratory of Kolej Islam Sains dan Teknologi, Kelantan
Full-text: This study investigated the knowledge level and practices regarding radiation safety among the cardiovascular technology, medical assistant nursing and radiography diagnostic students of Kolej Islam Sains dan Teknologi (KIST). The objectives of this study are to monitor the dose rate at radiography lab and to propose the guideline on radiation safety topics to improve the syllabus. 274 respondents including 30 psychology students acting as the control group were asked to answer questions from the questionnaires which cover the topics of basic knowledge of radiation and radiation safety practice. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the correct answers and courses for 18 questions except for the question 4. There was a significant different (p < 0.05) between the correct answers and year of study for the questions 4, 5, 7, 12 to 15 and 18 to 20. There was a significance different (p < 0.05) between the correct answers and gender for questions 7, 11 and 19. For area dose monitoring in the radiography diagnostic lab, the assessment report on film batches of 4 walls in the lab were recorded and Victoreen451-RYR survey meter was used to monitor the dose rate for 7 selected areas with the exposure factors set for the chest, abdomen, upper extremity, lower extremity and skull radiography examinations. The dose rates at area 1 to 4, area 5 during the examination of chest, abdomen and skull, area 6 during the examination of abdomen and area 7 during the examination of abdomen, had exceeded the dose limit for radiation worker. The dose rate at the area 1 and 4 are slightly higher than the other areas. The contributing factors are the distance, tube potential, collimation and X-ray tube angulation. This study had shown that the cardiovascular technology and diagnostic radiography students have better knowledge and radiation safety practice level than the medical assistant and nursing students. In general, the level of knowledge and radiation safety practices were below satisfactory with the mean values of correct answers percentage was 42.74 % ± 0.91. As a result, a guideline to improve the syllabus is proposed because of the needs for the students to have better basic knowledge on radiation safety. (author)
Conocimientos y riesgo ocupacional de VIH/SIDA en trabajadores de salud primaria chilenos / HIV/AIDS knowledge and occupational risk in primary care health workers from Chile / Conhecimentos e risco ocupacional de HIV/SIDA em trabalhadores de saúde primária chilenos
Baltica, Cabieses Valdés; Lilian, Ferrer Lagunas; Luis Antonio, Villarroel; Rosina, Cianelli Acosta; Sarah, Miner; Margarita, Bernales Silva.
Full Text Available Objetivo. Explorar a relação entre nível de conhecimentos e risco de exposição ocupacional a HIV/AIDS em trabalhadores de saúde de atendimento primário Metodologia. Estudo observacional analítico de corte transversal; 720 trabalhadores de saúde de Santiago responderam um questionário a respeito de H [...] IV/AIDS, incluindo conhecimentos (inadequado ou adequado), risco ocupacional (com ou sem risco) e variáveis de controle (idade, sexo, centro de saúde, educação e estado civil). Fizeram-se análises descritivas e de associação. Estimou-se a Odds Ratio (OR) mediante regressão logística simples e múltipla. Resultados. O 58.7% dos participantes reportou risco ocupacional de HIV/AIDS. Um 63.8% do grupo com exposição apresentou um nível de conhecimentos adequado, contra o 36.1% do grupo sem exposição (OR ajustado de 3.1, IC95%OR: 2.0-4.8, p Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Explorar la relación entre nivel de conocimientos y riesgo de exposición ocupacional a VIH en trabajadores de salud de atención primaria. Metodología. Estudio analítico de corte transversal; 720 trabajadores de salud de Santiago respondieron un cuestionario acerca de VIH/SIDA, incluyendo c [...] onocimientos (inadecuado o adecuado), riesgo ocupacional (con o sin riesgo) y variables de control (edad, sexo, centro de salud, educación y estado civil). Se hicieron análisis descriptivos y de asociación. Se estimó la Odds Ratio (OR) mediante regresión logística simple y múltiple. Resultados. El 58.7% de los participantes reportó riesgo ocupacional de VIH. Un 63.8% del grupo con exposición presentó un nivel de conocimientos adecuado, versus el 36.1% del grupo sin exposición (OR ajustado de 3.1, IC95%OR: 2.0-4.8, p Abstract in english Objective. To explore the relationship between knowledge level and occupational risk exposure to HIV/AIDS in primary care health workers. Methodology. Analytical cross-sectional study. 720 health workers from Santiago answered a survey about HIV/AIDS that included: knowledge level (appropriate, inap [...] propriate), occupational risk (with or without risk), and control variables (age, gender, health center, education and marital status). Descriptive and association analysis were performed. Odds Ratio (OR) was estimated through simple and multiple regressions logistics. Results. 58.7% of the participants reported HIV occupational risk. 63.8% of the participants from the exposed group reported an appropriate level of knowledge, versus 36.1% of the non-exposed group (Adjusted OR of 3.1, IC95%OR: 2.0-4.8, p
Érica Silva Carvalho
Full Text Available In the course of history the terms related to workers, their health and work environment have been changed: from Medical Labor Health to Occupational Health through to the Worker’s Health. This aim of this article is to demonstrate the importance of the worker’s oral health, by means of the studies of several authors. This literature review draws attention to the importance of knowing the dental problems that may affect workers, with the intention of analyzing the epidemiology, etiology and pathology in addition to understanding the impact they would cause on the quality of life, oral health promotion and prevention. This goal stems from the dentist’s importance to the Worker’s Health, preventing dental absenteeism, as orofacial pain may alter the conditions of life and work of the individual to a greater extent than other systemic conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure do. Occupational Dentistry has collaborated with worker’s health both in the public and private spheres, because what really is really being sought is a worker with adequate oral health conditions for his/her work activities and an improvement in the worker’s quality of life.
This article, by including the problem of ?Knowledge Crash? in the more general framework of ?Knowledge Management?, enlarges the concepts of knowledge, generation and knowledge transfer. It proposes a global approach, starting from a strategic analysis of a knowledge capital and ending in the implementation of socio-technical devices for inter-generational knowledge transfer.
VonSeggern, Marilyn; Jourdain, Janet M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.
Research in recent decades has identified the varied information needs of engineers versus scientists. While most of that research looked at the differences among organizations, we surveyed engineers and scientists within a single Air Force research and development laboratory about their information gathering, usage, and production practices. The results of the Phillips Laboratory survey confirm prior assumptions about distinctions between engineering and science. Because military employees responded at a much higher rate than civilian staff, the survey also became an opportunity to profile a little-known segment of the engineer/scientist population. In addition to the effect Phillips Laboratory's stated mission may have on member engineers and scientists, other factors causing variations in technical communication and information-related activities are identified.
Full Text Available nowadays, knowledge management is considered an essential part of any organization to prepare and develop its vision for the future. Knowledge management allows better utilization of the organization expertise, resources, and bright ideas. The science of knowledge management started when the technology revolution reached every organization. The ease and availability of information, major advancements in communication technologies, the emergence of knowledge worker, and the knowledge economy are the reasons of knowledge management development.
Abuazoum, Abdusalam A. A.; Nurdiana Azizan; Nursilah Ahmad
This study investigates the causes of resistance or support by knowledge workers to the sharing of knowledge. Today, banks are starting to understand the relevance and importance of knowledge sharing. They are also beginning to appreciate knowledge as the most significant and valued asset that leads to organizational performance. Hence, promising motivational factors are expected to be helpful in emphasizing the need for employees to share not only crucial knowledge but also new knowledge to ...
Lauder, Hugh, Ed.; Young, Michael, Ed.; Daniels, Harry, Ed.; Balarin, Maria, Ed.; Lowe, John, Ed.
The promise, embraced by governments around the world, is that the knowledge economy will provide knowledge workers with a degree of autonomy and permission to think which enables them to be creative and to attract high incomes. What credence should we give to this promise? The current economic crisis is provoking a reappraisal of both economic…
Gödert, Winfried; Nagelschmidt, Matthias
This book covers the basics of semantic web technologies and indexing languages, and describes their contribution to improve languages as a tool for subject queries and knowledge exploration. The book is relevant to information scientists, knowledge workers and indexers. It provides a suitable combination of theoretical foundations and practical applications.
Conocimientos y prácticas sobre la nueva influenza A (H1N1) en trabajadores de salud y pacientes ambulatorios, Perú (mayo 2009) / Knowledge and practices about novel influenza A (H1N1) in health workers and ambulatory patients, peru (may 2009)
Jeannette, Ávila; César V., Munayco; Jorge, Gomez; Juan, Nunura; Jerónimo, Canahuiri.
Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar el nivel de conocimientos, las actitudes y prácticas de los pacientes y del personal de salud a inicios de la pandemia de la nueva Influenza A H1N1, desarrollamos un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en establecimientos del Ministerio de Salud del Perú (MINSA) so [...] bre 313 usuarios y 244 trabajadores de 4 ciudades del país. El 38% de los pacientes encuestados asocia la nueva Influenza A (H1N1) con los cerdos o aves, un 17% no reconoce que la transmisión es de persona a persona, asimismo, entre el 35% a 50% utiliza la mano para cubrirse nariz y boca al estornudar o toser y no tiene práctica de higiene de manos. En el caso del personal de salud, el 99% advierte la transmisión humana y el 86% conoce la definición de caso sospechoso de Influenza A (H1N1). Entre el 83% y 95% de los trabajadores encuestados reconocen las medidas de protección individual recomendadas por el MINSA. En ambos grupos la televisión es el medio más visto (60%) y por dónde recibe mayor información sobre Influenza A (H1N1), además, en los trabajadores de salud, un medio frecuente de información sobre el tema también es el internet (11%). Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices of patients and health personnel at the beginning of the pandemic of novel Influenza A (H1N1), we did a cross sectional survey appliying a questionnaire in health facilities of Ministry of Health (MoH). 313 patients and 244 he [...] alth workers were interviewed in 4 Peruvian cities. 38% of surveyed patients linked Influenza A (H1N1) with pigs or poultry, 17% do not recognize that the transmission is from person to person, between 35% to 50% used the hand to cover nose and mouth when sneezing or coughing and does not practice hand hygiene. 99% and 86% of health personnel recognizes human transmission and knows the case definition of suspected case of Influenza A (H1N1), respectively. Between 83% and 95% of workers surveyed understand the individual protection measures recommended by the MoH. In both groups, television is the most seen (60%) and where to get more information on Influenza A (H1N1). An important way of information, through health care workers get information is internet (11%).
... Vaccines for Adults Share Compartir Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers On this Page Published Recommendations State Immunization ... for More Information Resources for Those Vaccinating HCWs Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk for exposure to ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background All sectors in health care are being asked to focus on the knowledge-to-practice gap, or knowledge translation, to increase service effectiveness. A social interaction approach to knowledge translation assumes that research evidence becomes integrated with previously held knowledge, and practitioners build on and co-create knowledge through mutual interactions. Knowledge translation strategies for public health have not provided anticipated positive changes in evidence-based practice, possibly due in part to a narrow conceptualization of knowledge. More work is needed to understand the role of tacit knowledge in decision-making and practice. This pilot study examined how health practitioners applied tacit knowledge in public health program planning and implementation. Methods This study used a narrative approach, where teams from two public health units in Ontario, Canada were conveniently selected. Respondents participated in individual interviews and focus groups at each site. Questions were designed to understand the role of tacit knowledge as it related to the program planning process. Data were analyzed through a combination of content analysis and thematic comparison. Results The findings highlighted two major aspects of knowledge that arose: the use of tacit knowledge and the integration of tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge included: past experiences, organization-specific knowledge, community contextual knowledge, and the recognition of the tacit knowledge of others. Explicit knowledge included: research literature, the Internet, popular magazines, formal assessments (surveys and interviews, legislation and regulations. Participants sometimes deliberately combined tacit and explicit knowledge sources in planning. Conclusions This pilot demonstrated that front-line public health workers draw upon both tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge in their everyday lived reality. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in practitioners' interpretation and implementation of explicit research findings. This indicates a need to broaden the scope of knowledge translation to include other forms of knowledge beyond explicit knowledge acquired through research. Strategies that recognize and support the use of tacit knowledge, such as communities of practice or networks, may be important components of a comprehensive approach to knowledge translation. This study provides support for further investigation of the role of tacit knowledge in the planning and delivery of effective public health services.
Full Text Available Contingent workers fulfill valuable organizational needs and have functioned as knowledge resources fororganizations. Despite their contributions, the literature suggests that a difference in treatment exists betweencontingent and standard workers in terms of onboarding, pay for performance, and training and developmentpractices within organizations. This paper presents an empirically testable framework that argues for a shift inHR strategies that will allow for equality in treatment between standard and contingent workers withinorganizations.
The nuclear technology has encouraged the world development and brought a number of benefits to society. These benefits occurred in important social sectors such as Agriculture, Industry, Health Sciences, Environmental Sciences and the production of energy. The research in the nuclear area is justified, accordingly, as an important factor for science development, technology and innovation. Despite the importance of nuclear energy, there is a collapse in the generation, transmission and sharing of nuclear knowledge. The threat of regression in this area is evidenced by the difficulty of generating new knowledge and practices regarding the maintenance of some critical areas. This project focuses its attention on studying, specifically, the lack of young engineers and technical professionals to replace the older, considered this, an alarming situation. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and record the key skills of experienced workers, through a set of tools to elicitation (capture) this knowledge, as expertise is mainly with people, and is lost when they leave the organization. Against, the Knowledge Management provides methodologies for the process of stimulating the creation, collection and knowledge dissemination process, in order to achieve strategic objectives. This study aims to contribute to the building of a model for the Brazilian nuclear knowledge preservation and, therefore, contributes to the maintenance and innovation of activities in this area. (author)
Conocimientos y riesgo ocupacional de VIH/SIDA en trabajadores de salud primaria chilenos Conhecimentos e risco ocupacional de HIV/SIDA em trabalhadores de saúde primária chilenos HIV/AIDS knowledge and occupational risk in primary care health workers from Chile
Baltica Cabieses Valdés
Full Text Available Objetivo. Explorar la relación entre nivel de conocimientos y riesgo de exposición ocupacional a VIH en trabajadores de salud de atención primaria. Metodología. Estudio analítico de corte transversal; 720 trabajadores de salud de Santiago respondieron un cuestionario acerca de VIH/SIDA, incluyendo conocimientos (inadecuado o adecuado, riesgo ocupacional (con o sin riesgo y variables de control (edad, sexo, centro de salud, educación y estado civil. Se hicieron análisis descriptivos y de asociación. Se estimó la Odds Ratio (OR mediante regresión logística simple y múltiple. Resultados. El 58.7% de los participantes reportó riesgo ocupacional de VIH. Un 63.8% del grupo con exposición presentó un nivel de conocimientos adecuado, versus el 36.1% del grupo sin exposición (OR ajustado de 3.1, IC95%OR: 2.0-4.8, p Objetivo. Explorar a relação entre nível de conhecimentos e risco de exposição ocupacional a HIV/AIDS em trabalhadores de saúde de atendimento primário Metodologia. Estudo observacional analítico de corte transversal; 720 trabalhadores de saúde de Santiago responderam um questionário a respeito de HIV/AIDS, incluindo conhecimentos (inadequado ou adequado, risco ocupacional (com ou sem risco e variáveis de controle (idade, sexo, centro de saúde, educação e estado civil. Fizeram-se análises descritivas e de associação. Estimou-se a Odds Ratio (OR mediante regressão logística simples e múltipla. Resultados. O 58.7% dos participantes reportou risco ocupacional de HIV/AIDS. Um 63.8% do grupo com exposição apresentou um nível de conhecimentos adequado, contra o 36.1% do grupo sem exposição (OR ajustado de 3.1, IC95%OR: 2.0-4.8, p Objective. To explore the relationship between knowledge level and occupational risk exposure to HIV/AIDS in primary care health workers. Methodology. Analytical cross-sectional study. 720 health workers from Santiago answered a survey about HIV/AIDS that included: knowledge level (appropriate, inappropriate, occupational risk (with or without risk, and control variables (age, gender, health center, education and marital status. Descriptive and association analysis were performed. Odds Ratio (OR was estimated through simple and multiple regressions logistics. Results. 58.7% of the participants reported HIV occupational risk. 63.8% of the participants from the exposed group reported an appropriate level of knowledge, versus 36.1% of the non-exposed group (Adjusted OR of 3.1, IC95%OR: 2.0-4.8, p <0.0001. Technicians and cleaning staff reported a lower proportion of appropriate level of knowledge compared to the employees with college education (p <0.0001. Conclusion. The level of HIV/AID occupational risk is directly associated with the level of knowledge of the disease.
Jonas, Albert M.
Design of laboratory animal facilities must be functional. Accordingly, the designer should be aware of the complex nature of animal research and specifically the type of animal research which will be conducted in a new facility. The building of animal-care facilities in research institutions requires special knowledge in laboratory animal…
... Safety and Health (NIOSH) Share Compartir Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Farm Workers February 2001 DHHS (NIOSH) Publication ... workers' bodies workers' earnings growers' profits Simple Solutions: Ergonomics for Farm Workers [PDF - 1,521 KB] Print ...
A good occupational health programme for radiation workers should include medical surveillance, personnel dosimetry monitoring, accident investigation and medical intervention, where necessary. This requires a co-ordinated approach by the safety professional, the health physicist, the occupational physician and other health workers and the radiation workers themselves
An increasing proportion of the work force is aging at the same time that the workplace is changing in ways that are detrimental to older workers. Attitudes and beliefs about older workers appear to be ambivalent. Studies show that employers and managers stereotype older workers as loyal and possessing good work habits but inflexible and difficult…
Conhecimentos e práticas de trabalhadoras de creches universitárias relativos às infecções respiratórias agudas na infância / Knowledge and practices of university day care center workers relative to acute respiratory infections in childhood / Conocimientos y prácticas de trabajadoras de guarderías universitarias relativos a las infecciones respiratorias agudas en la infancia
Roberta Cristiane P., Alves; Maria De Lá Ó Ramallo, Veríssimo.
Full Text Available Dada a elevada freqüência de infecções respiratórias agudas em creches, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar conhecimentos e práticas de trabalhadoras de creches relativos à prevenção, detecção precoce e manejo desses agravos. Mediante quatorze entrevistas estruturadas em duas creches universit [...] árias da cidade de São Paulo, verificou-se que as trabalhadoras: demonstram familiaridade com diversos agravos; apontam febre e respiração ruidosa como sinais de gravidade; consideram poluição e transmissão como principais causas; referem o cuidado com o ambiente como melhor forma de controle; cuidam mantendo observação contínua da criança e intervenções de higiene e conforto e maior cuidado emocional; consideram educação e cuidado interligados no atendimento infantil, manifestando necessidade de maior preparo para cuidar; têm na prática diária a fonte de seus conhecimentos. Abstract in spanish Dada la elevada frecuencia de infecciones respiratorias agudas en guarderías, el objetivo en este trabajo fue identificar conocimientos y prácticas de trabajadoras de guarderías relativos a la prevención, detección precoz y manejo de esas afecciones. Mediante catorce entrevistas estructuradas en dos [...] guarderías universitarias de la ciudad de São Paulo, se verificó que las trabajadoras: demuestran familiaridad con las diversas afecciones; señalan fiebre y respiración ruidosa como signos de gravedad; consideran a la polución y transmisión como sus principales causas; refieren al cuidado del ambiente como la mejor forma de control; se preocupan con la observación continua del niño y con acciones de higiene, confort y cuidado emocional; consideran que la educación y el cuidado son necesarios para atender a los niños y desean mayor preparación para cuidar; tienen en la práctica diaria la fuente de sus conocimientos. Abstract in english Given the increasing frequency of acute respiratory infections in day care centers, the objective of this work was to identify knowledge and practices of day care center workers relative to the prevention, precocious detection and management of these illnesses. Through fourteen structured interviews [...] in two university day care centers of the city of São Paulo, it was verified that the workers: demonstrate familiarity with several respiratory illnesses; indicate fever and noisy breath as danger signals; consider pollution and transmission as main causes; refer to environment care as the best form of control; keep continuous observation of the child and interventions of hygiene and comfort, and greater emotional care; consider education and care complementary in child attendance, revealing the need for better preparation for caring; have in daily activities the source of their knowledge.
Nagarajaiah,; Reddamma, K.; Chandrashekar, C. R.; Isaac, Mohan K.; Srinivasamurthy, R.
Training of multipurpose workers in mental health is an essential component in the implementation of the National Mental Health Program. This study examines the efficacy of a six day training program and the changes in knowledge, management skills and attitudes of multipurpose workers with regard to mental disorders.
Moen, Espen R.; Yashiv, Eran
This paper studies the value of firms and their hiring and firing decisions in an environment where the productivity of the workers depends on how well they match with their co-workers and the firm acts as a coordinating device. Match quality derives from a production technology whereby workers are randomly located on the Salop circle, and depends negatively on the distance between the workers. It is shown that a worker's contribution in a given firm changes over time in a nontrivial way as c...
NASA has discovered that 60% of aerospace workers will reach retirement age over the next few years so needed to find a way to capture knowledge from exiting workers and make it available to remaining and future staff (1 page).
Henningsson, Stefan; Øhrgaard, Christian
The IT integration of acquisitions consists an important challenge for the many acquiring organizations. Complementing existing research, this paper searches for explanation to differences in acquirers’ abilities for acquisition IT integration in the external of the acquirer, by a study of the use of temporary agency workers. Following an analytic induction approach, theoretically grounded in the re-source-based view of the firm, we identify the complimentary and supplementary roles consultants can assume in acquisition IT integration. Through case studies of three acquirers, we investigate how the acquirers appropriate the use of agency workers as part of its acquisition strategy. For the investigated acquirers, assigning roles to agency workers is contingent on balancing the needs of knowledge induction and knowledge retention, as well as experience richness and in-depth under-standing. Composition of the acquisition IT integration team should consider the balance of these, in practice, commonly mutually excluding needs.
POPESCU, Dan; Iulia CHIVU
Knowledge is increasingly claimed to be a key critical resource and source of competitive advantage in the modern global economy, especially with the rise of the service economy, the growth in the number of 'knowledge workers', the increasingly rapid flow of global information, and the growing recognition of the importance of intellectual capital and intellectual property rights. Knowledge, with its intangible aspects, is becoming a defining characteristic of economic activities, as opposed t...
Full Text Available One hundred and ten anganwadi workers in Jawan block of district Aligarh were contacted and interviewed. Their socio- cultural characteristics as well as their knowledge and attitude towards common health problems were studies.
Hepatite B: conhecimento e medidas de biossegurança e a saúde do trabalhador de enfermagem / Hepatitis B: knowledge and measures of biosafety and the health of the nursing worker / Hepatitis B: conocimiento y medidas de bioseguranza y la salud del trabajador de enfermería
Joziane, Pinheiro; Regina Célia Gollner, Zeitoune.
Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivos: descrever o conhecimento dos profissionais de enfermagem acerca da doença hepatite B; analisar as medidas de biossegurança com relação à hepatite B utilizadas pelos profissionais de enfermagem; e discutir as implicações do conhecimento acerca da hepatite B e as medidas [...] de biossegurança para a saúde do trabalhador de enfermagem. O estudo teve amostra de 44 funcionários, representando 100% dos profissionais de enfermagem do setor de clínica médica de um hospital militar do Município do Rio de janeiro. Constatou-se que a maioria dos profissionais de enfermagem desconhecia as formas de transmissão da hepatite B; um número significativo de profissionais de enfermagem não havia recebido treinamento de como proceder caso houvesse um acidente com material perfurocortante; o conhecimento das medidas de biossegurança não estava presente em toda equipe, nem todos as usavam de forma rotineira. Concluímos que os resultados indicam que alguns profissionais estariam expostos ao risco de contrair a hepatite B caso ocorresse acidente com material perfurocortante. Abstract in spanish El estudio tubo como objetivo describir el conocimiento de los profesionales de enfermería acerca de la enfermedad hepatitis B; analizar las medidas de bioseguranza con relación a la hepatitis B usada por los profesionales de enfermería; y discutir las implicaciones del conocimiento acerca de la hep [...] atitis B y las medidas de bioseguranza para la salud del trabajador de enfermería. El estudio tubo una muestra de 44 funcionarios, representando 100% de los profesionales de enfermería del sector de clínica médica de un hospital militar de la Ciudad del Rio de Janeiro. Las variables usadas fueran: conocimiento sobre hepatitis B y medidas de bioseguranza. Resultados: la mayoría de los profesionales de enfermería desconocía las formas de transmisión de la hepatitis B; un número significativo de profesionales de enfermería no recibió entrenamiento de cómo proceder si hubiera un accidente con material perforocortante; el conocimiento de las medidas de bioseguranza no estuvo presente en todo el equipo, ni todos las usaban de forma rutinera. Conclusión: los resultados indican que algunos profesionales estarían expuestos al risco de contraer hepatitis B caso ocurriese accidente con material perforocortante. Abstract in english The Study has as purpose to describe the knowledge of nursing professionals about the hepatitis B disease; to analyze the biosafety measures about hepatitis B used by the nursing professionals; and to argue the knowledge implications about hepatitis B and the biosafety measures for the health of the [...] nursing worker. The study has as sample 44 workers, represented 100% of the nursing professionals in the medical clinic sector in a military hospital of Rio de Janeiro City. The variables used were: knowledge about hepatitis B and the biosafety measures. Results: the majority of the nursing professionals didn’t know the ways of hepatitis B transmission; a significant number of nursing professionals didn’t had received training about how to proceed in case of accident with perforating material; the knowledge of the biosafety measures weren’t present in the whole staff, neither everybody used it in a routine way. Conclusion: the results indicated that some professionals would be exposed to the risk to acquire hepatitis B in case of accident with perforating material.
Hepatite B: conhecimento e medidas de biossegurança e a saúde do trabalhador de enfermagem Hepatitis B: conocimiento y medidas de bioseguranza y la salud del trabajador de enfermería Hepatitis B: knowledge and measures of biosafety and the health of the nursing worker
Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivos: descrever o conhecimento dos profissionais de enfermagem acerca da doença hepatite B; analisar as medidas de biossegurança com relação à hepatite B utilizadas pelos profissionais de enfermagem; e discutir as implicações do conhecimento acerca da hepatite B e as medidas de biossegurança para a saúde do trabalhador de enfermagem. O estudo teve amostra de 44 funcionários, representando 100% dos profissionais de enfermagem do setor de clínica médica de um hospital militar do Município do Rio de janeiro. Constatou-se que a maioria dos profissionais de enfermagem desconhecia as formas de transmissão da hepatite B; um número significativo de profissionais de enfermagem não havia recebido treinamento de como proceder caso houvesse um acidente com material perfurocortante; o conhecimento das medidas de biossegurança não estava presente em toda equipe, nem todos as usavam de forma rotineira. Concluímos que os resultados indicam que alguns profissionais estariam expostos ao risco de contrair a hepatite B caso ocorresse acidente com material perfurocortante.El estudio tubo como objetivo describir el conocimiento de los profesionales de enfermería acerca de la enfermedad hepatitis B; analizar las medidas de bioseguranza con relación a la hepatitis B usada por los profesionales de enfermería; y discutir las implicaciones del conocimiento acerca de la hepatitis B y las medidas de bioseguranza para la salud del trabajador de enfermería. El estudio tubo una muestra de 44 funcionarios, representando 100% de los profesionales de enfermería del sector de clínica médica de un hospital militar de la Ciudad del Rio de Janeiro. Las variables usadas fueran: conocimiento sobre hepatitis B y medidas de bioseguranza. Resultados: la mayoría de los profesionales de enfermería desconocía las formas de transmisión de la hepatitis B; un número significativo de profesionales de enfermería no recibió entrenamiento de cómo proceder si hubiera un accidente con material perforocortante; el conocimiento de las medidas de bioseguranza no estuvo presente en todo el equipo, ni todos las usaban de forma rutinera. Conclusión: los resultados indican que algunos profesionales estarían expuestos al risco de contraer hepatitis B caso ocurriese accidente con material perforocortante.The Study has as purpose to describe the knowledge of nursing professionals about the hepatitis B disease; to analyze the biosafety measures about hepatitis B used by the nursing professionals; and to argue the knowledge implications about hepatitis B and the biosafety measures for the health of the nursing worker. The study has as sample 44 workers, represented 100% of the nursing professionals in the medical clinic sector in a military hospital of Rio de Janeiro City. The variables used were: knowledge about hepatitis B and the biosafety measures. Results: the majority of the nursing professionals didn’t know the ways of hepatitis B transmission; a significant number of nursing professionals didn’t had received training about how to proceed in case of accident with perforating material; the knowledge of the biosafety measures weren’t present in the whole staff, neither everybody used it in a routine way. Conclusion: the results indicated that some professionals would be exposed to the risk to acquire hepatitis B in case of accident with perforating material.
Uragoda, C G
Spices are widely used for flavouring food and are mostly grown in the tropics. Twenty-eight workers in a store processing cloves, pepper, nutmeg, mace and cardamom for export were studied. They were exposed to the dust of these products for short periods, in rotation. Seventy-six per cent of the workers experienced symptoms such as smarting of the nostrils and eyes, cough, sneezing and running nose while handling cloves. Similar symptoms occurred less frequently with pepper (44%). These symptoms were all temporary and lasted only during exposure. Nutmeg, mace and cardamom did not induce any untoward effects. These symptoms, which were absent in a control group, were attributable to irritation of the mucus membranes by the active principles of the spices. A comparison with two other spices, namely chilli and cinnamon, suggests a spectrum in which the frequency of symptoms is proportional to the pungency of the spice. PMID:1560483
The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs
This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.
For what purposes are public libraries established? Who do the founders intend to reach with the activities of the libraries? How does the question of goals of public library work develop over time? These are important questions to analyse but first we have to demarcate. The paper treats public libraries and their forerunners in Sweden. The focus is on class and libraries and especially workers and libraries. Three phases are studied. The first is the founding phase of the modern public ...
Breedt, Marlize; Janse van Rensburg, Antonie C.
The emergence of the Information Age necessitates the need to manage the organisation’s knowledge asset. The competitive advantage of the organisation depends on the quality of the organisation’s knowledge asset and the successful exploitation of it. Knowledge management aims at leveraging this explicit and tacit knowledge asset to the collective benefit of the organisation by developing an infrastructure to facilitate knowledge processes. Elements such as company know-how, employee competenc...
Francis, J.; Roche, M.; Mant, D.; JONES, L; Fullard, E
The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the dietary knowledge of primary health care workers and on their ability to apply this knowledge in practice. A total of 128 primary health care workers (53 general practitioners and 61 nurses) in 12 practices and 14 primary care facilitators were surveyed by questionnaire between December 1987 and June 1988. All of the practices were participating in a project to promote prevention in primary care and offered health checks designed to i...
Full text: In his letter published in the previous issue of the Journal (pages 71-2), Barrie Skelcher recognises the fact that radiation workers are not a true cross section of the general population because they are selected, and that they have to pass a medical examination. He then infers, despite his own experience of staff recruitment, that it is the medical examination that is responsible 'for weeding out those unfortunate enough to die of cancer in the coming decades'. Typically, the reject percentage from pre-medicals is between 1% and 5%. Thus, in a statistical sense, rejection on medical grounds is unusual, and this concurs with the experience of Barrie Skelcher. One would be rightly sceptical that this in itself could be the explanation for the 'healthy worker effect' so often cited. Though Barrie Skelcher mentions selection he does not consider this aspect further. Three different aspects of the selection process may be considered: (i) self-selection by the employee to apply for work; (ii) employer selection of those that apply; and (iii) selection out of work. An individual will apply for a job that he or she is physically capable of pursuing. As William Ogle observed in 1885, 'Some occupations may repel, while others attract, the unfit at the age of starting work.' Radiation work may repel the unfit; those that apply to work in this industry are self-selected fit. The employer then selects from this self-selected pool of potential recruits. This selectionpool of potential recruits. This selection process includes the pre-medical. However, as the pool of recruits are already self-selected fit, the reject percentage is small. Having been selected into the workforce, there is then a selection process that removes people from the workforce. Whilst in employment, the occupational health departments monitor the employees' health. If an individual's health has deteriorated then 'those occupations that attract the unfit' may appear attractive. Others may take ill-health retirement. Workers that remain in employment tend to be healthier than those that leave. The occupational health departments also promote healthy lifestyles. The reduction in the number of cancers and heart diseases may also be a consequence of the effective promotion of these healthy lifestyles (such as encouraging smokers to refrain) to those in employment. In summary, the pre-medical has only a minor effect and the other components of the selection process dominate the 'healthy worker effect'. Assuming that employees are not exposed to health hazards in their working environment then, whilst employees are in employment, they benefit health-wise from employment and this further reinforces the 'healthy worker effect'. (author). Letter-to-the-editor
Gestión del conocimiento y comunidades de práctica en laboratorios de investigación del Polo Científico Grenoblés en Francia* / Knowledge management and communities of practice in research laboratories of the scientific center in Grenoble, France
Margarita María, Gaviria Velásquez.
Full Text Available Se analizan algunas de las prácticas relacionadas con la gestión del conocimiento en los laboratorios del Polo de Investigación Científica ubicado en la ciudad de Grenoble (Francia). El polo científico grenoblés se construye a partir del acentuado desarrollo científico e industrial que vive la regió [...] n desde finales del siglo XIX, ligado a un largo proceso de producción académica, y de compromiso económico y estatal; denso en generación de nuevos conocimientos. Es también un modelo de trabajo colectivo, en el cual cooperan varias ciudades y países. La pregunta fundamental de la investigación es si, efectivamente, en este contexto se puede hablar de la presencia de un modelo de gestión del conocimiento y cuáles serían las condiciones para que esto se de. El análisis se ocupa específicamente del estudio del modelo Nonaka llamado ''Ba'' (conocimiento situado) que estudia el proceso de conversión de conocimientos tácitos en explícitos en los laboratorios de investigación y si éstos funcionan como comunidades de práctica. Los datos que sustentan este trabajo fueron construidos a partir de entrevistas, análisis de componentes principales, observaciones sobre el terreno y el análisis de estudio de caso. Abstract in english Some practices related to knowledge management in the laboratories of the scientific center of Grenoble (France) are analyzed. This center was set up from the great scientific and industrial advance in this region since the 19th Century, which has resulted in a large process of academic production, [...] and economic and governmental commitment. It is also a model of collective work, in which several cities and countries cooperate. The main question of this research is if, in this context, a knowledge management model really exists, and which would be the conditions of its existence. Particularly, the analysis focuses on the Nonaka's model called ''Ba'' (situated knowledge), which studies the tacit and explicit knowledge conversion process in the research laboratories, and if they work like communities of practice. The data that support this study were gathered from interviews, principal component analysis, field observations, and case study analysis.
Mills, T. David; McAlhaney, John H.
The intent of this paper is to demonstrate an electrical safety program that incorporates all workers into the program, not just the electrical workers. It is largely in response to a paper presented at the 2012 ESW by Lanny Floyd entitled "Facilitating Application of Electrical Safety Best Practices to "Other" Workers" which requested all attendees to review their electrical safety program to assure that non-electrical workers were protected as well as electrical workers. The referenced paper indicated that roughly 50% of electrical incidents involve workers whose primary function is not electrical in nature. It also encouraged all to "address electrical safety for all workers and not just workers whose job responsibilities involve working on or near energized electrical circuits." In this paper, a program which includes specific briefings to non-electrical workers as well as to workers who may need to perform their normal activities in proximity to energized electrical conductors is presented. The program uses a targeted approach to specific areas such as welding, excavating, rigging, chart reading, switching, cord and plug equipment and several other general areas to point out hazards that may exist and how to avoid them. NFPA 70E-2004 was incorporated into the program several years ago and with it the need to include the "other" workers became apparent. The site experience over the years supports the assertion that about half of the electrical incidents involve non-electrical workers and this prompted us to develop specific briefings to enhance the knowledge of the non-electrical worker regarding safe electrical practices. The promotion of "May is Electrical Safety Month" and the development of informative presentations which are delivered to the general site population as well as electrical workers have greatly improved the hazards awareness status of the general worker on site.
Ahlin, Karin; Saarikko, Ted
Long-term preservation of organisational knowledge gives the business opportunities to reusestored knowledge. This preservation of knowledge is present both in the organisation as such,found explicitly in the organisational stock, and also in the individual workers, implicit intheir flow of action. Theoretically have the reuse of knowledge been named organisationalmemory and also been addressed in knowledge management. In a single case-study of amanufacturing company, the authors study the ut...
nowadays, knowledge management is considered an essential part of any organization to prepare and develop its vision for the future. Knowledge management allows better utilization of the organization expertise, resources, and bright ideas. The science of knowledge management started when the technology revolution reached every organization. The ease and availability of information, major advancements in communication technologies, the emergence of knowledge worker, and the knowledge economy a...
Cowley-Durst, Barbara; Christensen, Hal D.; Degler, Duane; Weidner, Douglas; Feldstein, Michael
Five knowledge management (KM) experts discuss answers to six fundamental issues of KM that address: a definition of knowledge and KM; relationship between business and KM; whether technology has helped the knowledge worker; relationship between learning, performance, knowledge, and community; the promise of knowledge ecology or ecosystem and…
Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools are available? What are the main issues?). The book is aimed at students, researchers and practitioners interested in Knowledge Management, Artificial Intelligence, Design Engineering and Web Technologies. During the 1990s, Nick worked at the University of Nottingham on the application of AI techniques to knowledge management and on various knowledge acquisition projects to develop expert systems for military applications. In 1999, he joined Epistemics where he worked on numerous knowledge projects and helped establish knowledge management...
The first three sections of this report concern general understanding of radiation protection, basic concepts for all workers, and practical problems common to all users of radiation in medicine and dentistry. The remaining sections cover specialist topics covering practical aspects in diagnostic radiology, dental radiography, the use of unsealed radionuclides (in the laboratory, diagnostic and therapeutic uses) balneotherapy, brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy. (author)
The first three sections of this report concern general understanding of radiation protection, basic concepts for all workers, and practical problems common to all users of radiation in medicine and dentistry. The remaining sections cover specialist topics covering practical aspects in diagnostic radiology, dental radiography, the use of unsealed radionuclides (in the laboratory, diagnostic and therapeutic uses) balneotherapy, brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy. (author).
Knowledge management is an evolving subject area based on two notions: - That knowledge is a fundamental aspect of effective organizational performance; - That specific steps need to be actively taken to promote knowledge creation and use. Two common approaches to knowledge management that are often used in combination include: - Knowledge management focused on the capture of explicit knowledge and sharing this via technology; - Knowledge management focused on managing tacit knowledge without necessarily making it explicit, and creating new knowledge as well as sharing existing knowledge. In the context of human resources development, knowledge management is strongly tied to strategy and is activity oriented. Properly applied knowledge management improves organizational efficiency and productivity through reducing process times, introducing technology to assist finding relevant information and instituting techniques to remedy poor quality outputs. Knowledge management also promotes innovations, which can result from initiatives such as developing social networks for knowledge exchange, providing leadership to encourage risk taking and capturing the lessons learned from past activities. Both of these benefits require openness to change and a drive for continual improvement. Other benefits of knowledge management include improved decision making, retaining organizational memory and organizational learning, as well as improving morale. Knowledge management can be used onorale. Knowledge management can be used on its own or in collaboration with other management disciplines and tools to establish an environment that will enable the organization to realize these benefits. Summarizing the effective management of nuclear knowledge includes ensuring the continued availability of qualified personnel. As the nuclear workforce ages and retires, and with support uncertain for university programmes in nuclear science and engineering, this issue has become critical to ensuring safety and security, encouraging innovation and making certain that the benefits of nuclear energy related to different applications including electricity supply remain available for future generations
Jorgana Fernanda Soares
Full Text Available Worker’s Health, a new field in Public Health, requires professionals capable of dealing with the hazards workers are exposed to in their environment. These professionals in the health area, mainly nurses, need to understand the meaning of the concept of hazard to the worker’s health. An interdisciplinary work with the workers may effectively change the work and health conditions of the Brazilian people. Therefore, this paper aims at providing better understanding of the concept of hazard to the worker’s health for professionals in health, mainly for nurses. This is done through a literature review based on all journals on health published in the Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO Brazil and some books whose authors approach the theme hazard. A hazard is something uncertain, a possibility, a socio-historical construct, thus, it is fundamental that professionals in health, including nurses, know what a hazard to workers’ health is and how it can be minimized.
Conhecimento e atitudes de trabalhadores de um serviço público de emergência sobre adoção de precauções padrão / Knowledge and attitudes of workers from a public emergency service about the adoption of standard precautions / Conocimientos y actitudes de trabajadores de un servicio de emergencia pública en relación con la adopción de precauciones estándar
Maria Henriqueta Rocha Siqueira, Paiva; Adriana Cristina de, Oliveira.
Full Text Available Estudo transversal realizado em um serviço de atendimento pré-hospitalar de Minas Gerais, com o qual se objetivou avaliar a adoção das medidas de precaução, por meio de conhecimento e atitudes da equipe mutiprofissional. Utilizou-se análise univariada e multivariada dos dados. Verificou-se que enfer [...] meiros e condutores apresentaram o maior e o menor nível de conhecimento em relação às precauções padrão, respectivamente. A não adoção das medidas de precaução foi 3,76 (IC 95%: 1,48 - 9,53) vezes maior entre profissionais com idade superior a 31 anos e 6,7 (IC 95%: 1,81 - 24,75) vezes maior entre trabalhadores de unidade de suporte básico. Diante destes resultados, torna-se imprescindível implantar um programa de educação continuada para melhorar o conhecimento do profissional em relação ao controle de infecção e recomendações da biossegurança. Abstract in spanish Estudio transversal, realizado en un servicio de atención pre-hospitalaria de Minas Gerais, cuyo objetivo fue evaluar la adopción de medidas de precaución, por medio del conocimiento y de las actitudes del equipo multiprofesional. Se utilizó el análisis univariada y multivariada de los datos. Se enc [...] ontró que los enfermeros y los conductores han tenido el nivel más alto y el más bajo e conocimiento en relación a las precauciones estándar, respectivamente. La no adopción de medidas de precaución fue de 3,76 (IC 95%: 1,48 a 9,53) veces mayor para los profesionales de 31 años y 6,7 (IC 95%: 1,81 a 24,75) veces superior entre los trabajadores en la unidad de soporte básico. Teniendo en cuenta estos resultados, es esencial establecer un programa de educación continuada para mejorar los conocimientos profesionales en relación con el control de infecciones y las recomendaciones de bioseguridad. Abstract in english The aims of the study were to evaluate the adoption of the precaution measures, assessing knowledge and attitude of multiprofessional team. This is a transversal study, accomplished in an Emergency Medical Service of Minas Gerais. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used. The results showed th [...] at nurses and drivers had the highest and lowest level of knowledge regarding the standard precautions, respectively. The possibility of non-adoption of the precautionary measures was 3.76 (95% CI: 1.48 to 9.53) times higher among professionals aged over 31 years and 6.7 (95% CI: 1.81 to 24,75) times greater among workers in crowded unit of basic support. The conclusion is that is essential to implement strategies in order to improve the professional's knowledge related to infection control and safety recommendations.
Os trabalhadores do conhecimento num setor tradicional: o caso dos designers do vestuário / Les travailleurs de la connaissance dans un secteur traditionnel: le cas des designers de vêtements / Knowledge workers in a traditional sector: the case of clothes designers / Los trabajadores del conocimiento en un sector tradicional: el caso de los diseñadores de vestuario
Margarida Ramires, Paulos; António Brandão, Moniz.
Full Text Available A reestruturação do trabalho no setor da indústria, resultante do desenvolvimento da “sociedade do conhecimento”, provocou importantes mudanças nas organizações e nos seus trabalhadores. Um dos principais setores que tem vindo a sofrer alterações bruscas nos últimos anos é o da indústria transformad [...] ora. O subsetor do vestuário foi dos primeiros a utilizar diferentes formas de flexibilidade com o objetivo de se manter competitivo. Este artigo analisa este processo de mudança e os seus efeitos nas “profissões do conhecimento” na indústria, nomeadamente a sua aplicação ao grupo profissional dos designers do vestuário. Para compreender o impacto da reestruturação do trabalho no grupo estudado analisam-se as mudanças que ocorreram nas suas condições de trabalho, qualificações e competências, uso do conhecimento, identidade profissional e trajetórias de carreira. Abstract in spanish La reestructuración del trabajo en el sector de la industria, resultante del desarrollo de la “sociedad del conocimiento”, provocó importantes cambios en las organizaciones y en sus trabajadores. Uno de los principales sectores que han sufrido alteraciones bruscas en los últimos años es el de la ind [...] ustria transformadora. El subsector de vestuario, fue de los primeros en utilizar diferentes formas de flexibilidad con el objetivo de mantenerse competitivo. Éste artículo analiza este proceso de cambio y sus efectos en las “profesiones del conocimiento” en la industria, particularmente a su aplicación al grupo profesional de los diseñadores de vestuario. Para comprender el impacto de la reestructuración del trabajo en el grupo estudiado analizaremos los cambios que ocurrieron en sus condiciones de trabajo, grados de estudio y competencias, uso del conocimiento, identidad profesional y trayectorias de carrera. Abstract in english The restructuring of work in the industrial sector brought about by the development of the “knowledge society” has led important changes in organisations and their workers. The transforming industry is one of the main sectors that have undergone abrupt changes in the last few years. The clothing sub [...] sector was one of the first to use different forms of flexibility in order to remain competitive. This article analyses this change process and its effects on the industry's “knowledge professions”, particularly in terms of its application to the professional group “clothes designers”. In order to understand the impact that the restructuring of their work has had on this group, the authors analyse the changes that have taken place in their working conditions, qualifications and skills, use of knowledge, professional identity and career trajectories.
Full Text Available A domestic worker is a person who works within the employer's household. Domestic workers perform a variety of household services for an individual or a family, from providing care for children and elderly dependents to cleaning and household maintenance, known as housekeeping. Responsibilities may also include cooking, doing laundry and ironing, food shopping and other household errands. Some domestic workers live within the household where they work. In the course of twentieth-century movements for labour rights, women's rights and immigrant rights, the conditions faced by domestic workers and the problems specific to their class of employment have come to the fore. In 2011, the International Labour Organization adopted the Convention Concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers which covers decent work conditions for domestic workers.
Ulang N. Md
Full Text Available Construction sector is an important sector and contributed significantly to national development. However, this sector poses higher risk to accident. This is due to fact that construction site can be considered as a dangerous zone to workers and to the public. Due to the variety of cases occurs on site, the contractor will usually have to pay the cost related to accidents in the form of higher insurance premium. Despite various measures, accidents still occur at construction sites. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE is one of the important means to protect the wearer from hazards in the workplace. Since this equipment is the last frontier of the wearer from worksite hazards, it is important to select it based on the job scope and the intended protection. Therefore, this study was formulated to find out the level of knowledge and awareness of construction workers on PPE usage. It was also important to know what make the workers would want or do not want to use the PPE. It was found in this study that the level of awareness and knowledge among workers on the proper use of PPE is moderate. Construction sites accident can be further be reduced with proper implementation of PPE voluntarily by all workers.
Dijkstra, M.B.; van Zweden, J.S.
Nonreproductive workers of many eusocial Hymenoptera 'police' the colony, that is, they attack reproductive sister workers or destroy their eggs (unfertilized; developing into haploid males). Several ultimate causes of policing have been proposed, including (1) an increase in colony productivity, applicable if reproductive workers work less, or (2) an increase in worker-to-male relatedness, applicable if within-colony relatedness is low. To explain the distribution of policing across taxa, the explanatory power of these and other potential ultimate causes should be assessed separately. One of the few species for which this can be done is the leafcutter ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We previously demonstrated that colony productivity incentives (and sex ratio incentives) are minimal here, while relatedness incentives are strong because queens are highly multiply mated. Overcoming technical difficulties peculiar to leafcutter ants, we introduced reproductive versus nonreproductive workers and batches of queen-laidversus worker-laid eggs into experimental colony fragments and observed their fate. Our main finding was that workers policed by selectively destroying worker-laid eggs, but without attacking reproductive workers. We infer that relatedness incentives are the most likely ultimate cause of the evolutionary maintenance of worker-egg policing in A. echinatior. (C) 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance
A recent study of health records of the workforce at ANSTO's Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre (formerly the AAEC Research Establishment) has shown that radiation workers have lower mortality rates from all causes and from all cancers than the general population. The Lucas Heights data cover more than 7000 past and present employees, from 1957-1998. This study was part of a research programme being carried out in conjunction with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in France and its results add to the much larger pool of data already held by IARC. Copyright (2002) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc
This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.
An increased risk for coronary heart disease among shift workers is earlier shown in the epidemiological literature. The aim of this thesis has been to penetrate metabolic disturbances and obesity among shift workers compared to day workers, and to compare if there are differences in total mortality or cause specific mortality of coronary heart disease (CHD), diabetes or ischaemic stroke in between the two groups. In an intervention study on female nurses (N=11), on night schedules in Umeå h...
Desai Rajiv; Desai Sanjiv; Desai Navin; Kumar K.
Two hundred and eighty four industrial workers were screened to determine their visual acuity. Significant visual impairment was observed in 21.8% individuals and moderate impairment in 34.5% of cases. Convergence insufficiency was a problem in 9.86% of the workers. Since uncorrected refractive errors are a prelude to disastrous workplace related eye injuries, it is recommended that prior to job placement all workers undergo visual acuity screening and get their refractiv...
Full Text Available Two hundred and eighty four industrial workers were screened to determine their visual acuity. Significant visual impairment was observed in 21.8% individuals and moderate impairment in 34.5% of cases. Convergence insufficiency was a problem in 9.86% of the workers. Since uncorrected refractive errors are a prelude to disastrous workplace related eye injuries, it is recommended that prior to job placement all workers undergo visual acuity screening and get their refractive errors rectified.
Boice, J.D.,Jr.; Marano, D. E.; Fryzek, J. P.; Sadler, C. J.; McLaughlin, J K
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of cancer and other diseases among workers engaged in aircraft manufacturing and potentially exposed to compounds containing chromate, trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and mixed solvents. METHODS: A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted of workers employed for at least 1 year at a large aircraft manufacturing facility in California on or after 1 January 1960. The mortality experience of these workers was determined by examin...
Full Text Available This essay is about the ensuing problem that in general it is nothelpful to talk about non-standard knowledge practices as modeled after our Western ideas of what knowledge is. It negotiates this problem by arguing that artisanal knowledge is an independent and self-contained mode of knowledge and is arranged in three parts. In the first part an outline is given of the key assumptions of the interactionist conception of knowledge that needs to be put in place as an alternative to the basically Kantian mixture of empiricist and rationalist assumptions of the folk model of Western academic thinking about knowledge. In this interactionist conception of knowledgeartisanal knowledge gets center stage. In the second part, the notion of craftknowledge is opened up as much as possible. The third and final part takes upthe question whether craft knowledge is a cultural universal.
In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed an...
A paper on "Violence against Women Migrant Workers in Thailand" will show the situation of women migrant workers in Thailand, why they have to come to Thailand, what kind of job they do, how they are abused and exploited by employer in many types of violence and how the Thai government manages to solve the problems and assist them. The term or definition of "violence against women-VAW" and "discrimination against women" is provided and based on the definition stated in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Readers will see that violence against women is a form of discrimination committed on a basis of sex. In other words, VAW is a clear violation of women's inherent human rights including the rights to life, liberty, and security of person, equality, equal protection under the law and freedom from all forms of discrimination. More than one hundred thousands of women illegal migrant workers work in Thailand. They come from countries in the Mekong Sub-region namely Myanmar Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and China (Yunnan province). As they come illegally and have low level of education and working skills, they are vulnerable to exploitation, abuse or face violence. In general, they work in small factories, domestic work and restaurant. They are forced begging, forced prostitution or work in a slavery-like condition. Root causes of illegal migration and VAW are interrelated and occur in both sending and receiving countries of migrant workers. Poverty, demand and supply sides of labor, level of education, no knowledge of their own rights, impact of capitalism and gender issues, are mentioned as original factors of migration and VAW. The Thai government has national policy, plan, instrument and measures to cope with in- migration of illegal workers. Not only government agencies are active to solve the problems and assist the women migrant workers, but also non-government and international organizations as well as the UN agencies are working seriously to assist them and protect their rights. PMID:21218599
Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools ...
Harikrishnan A and Leena Grace B*
Full Text Available The industry categories identified vinyl chloride is the chemical used in synthesis for the plastics industry. It is an industrial intermediate chemical that is converted to polyvinyl chloride (PVC polymer and associated copolymers. It is also used for production of chlorinated solvents, primarily 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane. PVC is used in most industrial sectors and accounts for around one fifth of plastic material usage worldwide. Vinyl chloride liquid is fed to polymerization reactors where it is converted from a monomer to a polymer PVC. The final product of the polymerization process is PVC in either a flake or pellet form. The manufacturing plastics often create large quantities of toxic chemical pollutants such as dioxin, hydrochloric acid, and vinyl chloride. This poses a severe health risks to humans during the PVC life cycle. These toxins can produce severe illness like cancer, diabetes, neurological damage, reproductive and birth defects. Dioxin is a persistent Organic Pollutant (POP, these are chemical substances that persist in the environment, bio-accumulate through the food chain, and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. The focal aim of the present study was to identify the genetic effect of PVC workers who were chronically exposed to PVC manufacturing industry in Coimbatore & Tirupur districts. The exposed workers were categorized based on the duration of exposure to PVC chemicals. Moreover, both the exposed subjects and controls were divided according to age wise manner. The groups were divided into four categories namely group. To the best of our knowledge; this is the first kind of study in PVC industry workers in Coimbatore and Tirupur district. The present investigation will definitely gain the consequence of the better resolution to prevent the effects from chemicals entering into the occupationally exposed workers with protection and prevention strategies.
In 1999, new standard, ANSI 13.36 'Radiation Safety Training for Workers,' was completed. The standard is unique in that it emphasizes establishing a training program and performance-based training, rather than simply prescribing objectives. The standard includes a comprehensive list of topics to be addressed, as applicable, and also addresses basic criteria, including instructor qualifications. The standard is based on input from a wide array of regulatory agencies, universities, national laboratories, and nuclear power entities. The standard allows for a graded approach to the development and implementation of the training program. The working group that developed the new standard was reluctant to establish a broad program of specific course objectives because of the diversity of radiation workers and because of a concern that knowledge-based training might be misapplied. In conformance with performance-based training, the working group felt that the length of training should not be arbitrarily prescribed, but derived from the training system development and process. Similarly, passing scores should not be arbitrarily established, but based on specified goals and the characteristics of test questions. The standard shall apply to radiation workers likely to receive in a year an occupational whole-body dose in excess of 100 mrem, 2% of any applicable dose limit, or whose dose could be significant if the person did not receive training. 'Likely to receive' includes evatraining. 'Likely to receive' includes evaluation of normal and abnormal situations, but not accidents or emergencies. The standard should apply to radiation workers who operate radiation-generating devices or handle radioactive materials whose dose is likely to be less than 100 mrem per year or 2% of any applicable annual dose limit. It should also apply to individuals whose duties may occasionally bring them into areas where radiation exposures could occur and where it is possible that an occupational dose in excess of 100 mrem per year could be received. Such individual might include shipping clerks, secretaries, nurses, or janitors. This presentation addresses the philosophy behind the requirements in the standard and an implementation approach by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that minimizes unnecessary expenditures of time and resources. We developed a matrix to ensure that applicable topics were addressed and to justify the exclusion of topics. Based on the new list, existing courses were evaluated. An informal job evaluation was performed incorporating the requirements of the standard. In addition to radiation safety courses, the overall training program was revised. Exemptions, deferments, and instructor qualifications, as detailed in the standard, were incorporated into the existing training program. The result has been revitalized training program with emphasis on performance. (author)
Fusion machines from all over the world have contributed to the knowledge accumulated in fusion science. This knowledge has been applied to design new experimental fusion machines and in particular ITER. Only two fusion devices based on magnetic confinement have used deuterium and tritium fuels to-date-the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, in Princeton, USA, and JET, the European tokamak. These machines have demonstrated that the fusion reaction is achievable with these fuels, and have provided valuable lessons on radioprotection-related issues as concerns tritium and workers. Dedicated tritium installations for fusion research and development have also contributed to this knowledge base.
Kirkeby, Inge Mette
Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge– including research-based knowledge – do practicing architects make use of when designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners found their primary support in context-dependent knowledge, whereas context-independent knowledge was criticised as being too prescriptive. Further, they tended to ask for assistance from the researcher in person rather than reading research publications. The findings challenge research in two ways – first to produce context-dependent knowledge to structure the first steps of the design process, second to develop new ways to ensure a knowledge flow between research and practice.
Preventing the loss of nuclear knowledge has become an important concern for the atomic energy industry. A great number of nuclear workers are getting close to the retirement age and there are not enough young qualified people to replace them. It is necessary to identify the key skills to replace senior engineers, managers and experienced workers. This paper proposes a matrix for capturing the strategic nuclear knowledge obtained from plants operation in the past decades. (author)
Rebecca Smith, J D
Foreign-born workers in the United States suffer high rates of workplace injuries and accidents. Both for workers who are unauthorized to work in the United States and for those who are present legally under guest worker programs, access to workers' compensation benefits presents nearly insurmountable barriers. Some of these are longstanding, such as employer retaliation and aggressive litigation of claims. Some are more recent and related to the increasingly transnational character of the workforce and to barriers put in place by administrators. This is a legal overview of the cases, statutes, and policies that act as barriers to access for immigrant workers, conducted by reviewing case law and basic compensation statutes in all fifty states. Where these are known, policies that keep workers locked out of workers' compensation are also discussed. It concludes that reform of the system is needed in order to ensure its standing as an insurance program with universal application. As part of that reform, further state by state research and advocacy would discover specific administrative practices in each state that keep immigrant workers from receiving the benefits to which they are entitled. PMID:22457221
Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma
The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…
Full text: I hope that it is not symptomatic of the radiological protection business that I am making a last minute unscheduled intervention of behalf of the workers. I wonder too whether the Conference should consider the fact that there are no facilities for organized labour or indeed the public to comment during the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) consultation process regarding its recommendations. I have just a few points to make. As a non-scientific participant I can see that we have available accurate dosimetry which can be applied everywhere. This is a most important point. But a problem for the Conference is the different position of developed and developing countries and I would say straight away that I could not accept lower national standards of radiological protection simply to allow that State to catch up economically. We have heard a lot during the Conference about the application of ALARA. Perhaps I could introduce something different, that standards should be 'AHARA' - as high as reasonably achievable. There is no point, however, in imposing criteria that will be ignored, so there may have to be a period of optimization between developing and developed countries. There is every evidence to show that we are here at this Conference to help each other and this may provide an example. But I did not see the causation probability calculations yesterday distinguishing between developing and non-developed countries in relation to thenon-developed countries in relation to the effect of dosages on the human being. Those same calculations also made no distinction between human-made and what I have come to recognize this week as NORM radiation exposure, so it follows again that the worker in a western State's nuclear power plant should have the same standards as underground workers in other countries. This is just an example but at least the same philosophy driving those standards should be applied. No one will argue against the protection of the unborn child and I am not sure that we have a complete answer to this - providing equal opportunities and at the same time ensuring that there is no harm even before a pregnancy is noticed let alone reported. I think more work is needed on this particular subject. I liked the comment made earlier this week that few managers - or even chief executives - expect to receive a radiation dose in their office. I don't think anything was intended here by my scientific colleague but the need to consult, listen and take note of the radiation worker should be obvious. If it is not, then it should be written into the regulatory procedure as being necessary. After all, for each pair of hands engaged by an employer or an operator there is a free brain as well. If the intention is to 'simplify' and to 'unify' the present system of ICRP recommendations and to 'focus on real problems' we can finish here today satisfied only if the situation of the worker, worldwide, in coal mine, nuclear plant, hospital, or wherever, is such that they leave their family at home and go to work and return to them safely day after day after day and without harm whatsoever. If that then needs major changes to the ICRP recommendations then so be it. (author)
From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify the design, OSS was able to develop and successfully test, in both the lab and in the field, a prototype AWPS. They clearly demonstrated that a system which provides cooling can significantly increase worker productivity by extending the time they can function in a protective garment. They were also able to develop mature outer garment and LCG designs that provide considerable benefits over current protective equipment, such as self donning and doffing, better visibility, and machine washable. A thorough discussion of the activities performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 is presented in the AWPS Final Report. The report also describes the current system design, outlines the steps needed to certify the AWPS, discusses the technical and programmatic issues that prevented the system from being certified, and presents conclusions and recommendations based upon the seven year effort
From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify the design, OSS was able to develop and successfully test, in both the lab and in the field, a prototype AWPS. They clearly demonstrated that a system which provides cooling can significantly increase worker productivity by extending the time they can function in a protective garment. They were also able to develop mature outer garment and LCG designs that provide considerable benefits over current protective equipment, such as self donning and doffing, better visibility, and machine washable. A thorough discussion of the activities performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 is presented in the AWPS Final Report. The report also describes the current system design, outlines the steps needed to certify the AWPS, discusses the technical and programmatic issues that prevented the system from being certified, and presents conclusions and recommendations based upon the seven year effort.
Chest radiography and pulmonary function tests were recently performed in 120 spouses of asbestos workers in a screening program of a local pipefitters union. To our knowledge, characterization of these findings, including radiographic manifestations, prevalence, and correlation with epidemiologic data, has been limited. In 20 women, (17%) classic pleural plaques consistent with asbestos exposure were found. No parenchymal abnormalities were detected. All women with pleural changes claimed at least a 20-year history of intimate exposure. Correlation with epidemiologic and pulmonary function data is made, and guidelines are suggested for screening and following up spouses of asbestos workers
Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.
Foster, K R; Ratnieks, F L; Raybould, A F
Colonies of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, are typically founded by a single queen mated to a single male. From the resulting colony relatedness pattern we predicted strong worker-queen conflict over male production where both the workers and the queen attempt to produce the colony's males. To test for this conflict, male production was studied in 15 hornet nests using a combination of DNA microsatellite analysis (282 males), worker ovary dissections (500 workers from eight nests) and 50 h of observation (four nests). In contrast to our prediction, the data show that hornet males are queens' sons, that workers never attempt to lay eggs, rarely have activated ovaries, and that there is no direct aggression between the queen and the workers. This contrasts with other data for vespine wasps, which support relatedness predictions. Dolichovespula arenaria has the same kin structure as V. crabro and workers produce males in many colonies. The similarity between these two species makes it difficult to explain why workers do not reproduce in V. crabro. Self-restraint is expected if worker reproduction significantly reduces colony productivity but there is no obvious reason why this should be important to V. crabro but not to D. arenaria. Alternatively, queen control may be important. The absence of expressed queen-worker conflict rules out physical control. Indirect pheromonal control is a possibility and is supported by the occurrence of royal courts and queen pheromone in Vespa but not Dolichovespula. Pheromonal queen control is considered evolutionarily unstable, but could result from a queen-worker arms race over reproductive control in which the queen is ahead. The genetic data also revealed diploid males in one colony, the first example in the vespine wasps, and two colonies with double matrilines, suggesting that occasional usurpation by spring queens occurs. PMID:10849289
Full Text Available There is an opinion that Ukrainian workers can be motivated only by money, therefore, money is the most important motivation. However more theorists and practical workers in the sphere of personnel management including V. Sladkevych, E. Utkin, Yu. Domin and others do not agree with this statement, but there are often such situations, when quite high payment level and use of various financial factors practically do not influence on the labour intensity of workers.The reason of dependence decline between a financial reward and labour intensity consists in that the workers differ widely from their attitude and perception of the mentioned type of stimuli. It is marked, that with the growth of financial prosperity, age and education the value of money is diminishing among the motivating factors. Another argument in favour of intangible motivation consists in that many existing necessities of people are met exactly by intangible stimuli. Nowadays in accordance with the specialists’ estimations, the number of workers who prefer the intangible motivation is constantly growing. The response to changes in the structure of reasons lead to the appearance of numerous modern concepts which emphasize the necessity of application of new approaches which increase the social and production activity of workers. To these concepts specialists ascribe the theories of labour life quality, enrichment of labour content, labour humanization, participation of workers.The career planning is considered by many authors as the important factor of motivation. The promotion and knowledge of your growth prospects is a necessity which people aim to meet in the process of labour activity. The feeling of dependence between the level of work efficiency and promotion contributes to the labour activity of workers.
Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)
The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.
Elaine Drehmer de Almeida Cruz
Full Text Available The carrier state of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is pointed as infection predictor among hospitalized patients, and factor for environmental and person to person dissemination, including health service workers, when colonized are commonly associate to outbreaks1. Prevention of professional colonization risk is associated to behavior and dependent of knowledge and beliefs in health. Objective: analyze the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva of workers of the nursing, medical, physiotherapist, occupational therapist and cleaning teams, at a big university hospital. Method: epidemiologic longitudinal study carried out with 486 workers between April 2006 and June 2008, three saliva samples were collected and a data collection instrument with open and closed questions was applied. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the clinical specimen and characterized by phenotypes; the methicillin-resistant were submitted to mecA gene detection and SCCmec chromosome cassette identification. Quantitative data from the instrument and the laboratory results were organized and processed with EPI-Info software and analyzed by descriptive statistics. Data from the open questions were submitted to quantitative discourse analysis and analyzed according to the categories which emerged from the answer subjects. The ethics principles in research were observed. Results: among the researched workers, 60,9% were colonized by Staphylococcus aureus in saliva, of those 67,9% were transitory carriers and 32,1% persistent carriers; the prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among the isolated was 15,7%. The average prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 12,7% and higher among nurses’ aides (21,4% and cleaning aides (20,6% and lower among nurses (4,5% and doctors (5,9%. The mecA gene was detected in 36,9% of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The most valorized preventive measures were the use of individual protective devices and adoption of basic hygiene and isolation measures. Workers understand their susceptibility to colonization and see it as dependent of their health conditions. The consequences of colonization and the benefits of adopting preventive attitudes were associated to the patient, family and workers themselves; knowledge and working conditions were referred to as the main interventions in adopting control and prevention measures. Conclusions: workers presented high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva, indicating mouth as an important body site to investigate colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and potential source to its dissemination2. The phenotypic profile revealed differences on the antimicrobial sensibility profile between isolated resistant and meticillin-resistant; as well as the multi-resistance of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to the other antimicrobials tested. The study of workers’ knowledge and beliefs allowed a better comprehension of the professional behavior and contributed to the planning of educational actions3;4, targeting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention and control.
Elaine Drehmer de Almeida Cruz
Full Text Available The carrier state of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is pointed as infection predictor among hospitalized patients, and factor for environmental and person to person dissemination, including health service workers, when colonized are commonly associate to outbreaks1. Prevention of professional colonization risk is associated to behavior and dependent of knowledge and beliefs in health. Objective: analyze the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva of workers of the nursing, medical, physiotherapist, occupational therapist and cleaning teams, at a big university hospital. Method: epidemiologic longitudinal study carried out with 486 workers between April 2006 and June 2008, three saliva samples were collected and a data collection instrument with open and closed questions was applied. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the clinical specimen and characterized by phenotypes; the methicillin-resistant were submitted to mecA gene detection and SCCmec chromosome cassette identification. Quantitative data from the instrument and the laboratory results were organized and processed with EPI-Info software and analyzed by descriptive statistics. Data from the open questions were submitted to quantitative discourse analysis and analyzed according to the categories which emerged from the answer subjects. The ethics principles in research were observed. Results: among the researched workers, 60,9% were colonized by Staphylococcus aureus in saliva, of those 67,9% were transitory carriers and 32,1% persistent carriers; the prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among the isolated was 15,7%. The average prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 12,7% and higher among nurses’ aides (21,4% and cleaning aides (20,6% and lower among nurses (4,5% and doctors (5,9%. The mecA gene was detected in 36,9% of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The most valorized preventive measures were the use of individual protective devices and adoption of basic hygiene and isolation measures. Workers understand their susceptibility to colonization and see it as dependent of their health conditions. The consequences of colonization and the benefits of adopting preventive attitudes were associated to the patient, family and workers themselves; knowledge and working conditions were referred to as the main interventions in adopting control and prevention measures. Conclusions: workers presented high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva, indicating mouth as an important body site to investigate colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and potential source to its dissemination2. The phenotypic profile revealed differences on the antimicrobial sensibility profile between isolated resistant and meticillin-resistant; as well as the multi-resistance of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to the other antimicrobials tested. The study of workers’ knowledge and beliefs allowed a better comprehension of the professional behavior and contributed to the planning of educational actions3;4, targeting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention and control.
The Internal radiation dosimetry calculations are very important to estimate the benefit and the risk of radiation in nuclear medicine field for both patient and worker. MIRD scheme and ICRP model have valid methods in this type of calculations. In this work, a new program called WIRDST the Workers Internal Radiation Dosimetry Simulation for Thyroid gland has been built up by using the Monte Carlo (MC) method to simulate the internal exposure of sodium iodide by inhalation for workers. The working conditions have been taken as the same as found in the hot laboratory of nuclear medicine unit in the National Cancer Institute in Cairo University. The point source equivalent model as a parameterization equation has developed newly by using the fitting model of MC method for uniform distribution of radioactive sodium iodide in the thyroid gland. This model is used for the first time in this type of calculation, and then applied on 3 D coordinates of mathematical geometry for the adult phantom of the reference man. The latest parameters (anatomical data and inhalation metabolic data) of ICRP pamphlets and recommendations have been used in this purpose. Moreover, the latest scheme for iodine decay mode and the latest geometry model for thyroid gland are used also. The results showed that the specific effective energy and the effective dose decrease from the thyroid gland to the nearest organs then decrease gradually until terminated in the organs that have large distance from the thyroid. The Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) has been calculated for a wide range of thyroid uptake (5%, 15%, 25%, 35%, 45%, and 55%) in addition to change of the working time order per week in one year. The results showed that the critical point of intake limits are decreased when the thyroid uptake is increased and/or the number of working time in the hot laboratory per week is increased
The Personal Radiation Monitoring Service operated by the Australian Radiation Laboratory is outlined and the types of monitors used for assessment of doses received by radiation workers are described. The distribution of doses received by radiation workers in different occupational categories is determined. From these distributions, the average doses received have been assessed and the maximum likely additional increase in cancer deaths in Australia as a result of occupational exposure estimated. This increase is shown to be very small. There is, however, a considerable spread of doses received by individuals within occupational groups
The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997. After excluding current workers, construction workers, and deceased workers, the total estimated number of former workers eligible for screening was 72,611. By September, 2006, 53,010 workers had been contacted, 20,298 responded, 2,835 were eligible and authorized, and 2,773 workers were ultimately screened. The cohort was 80% male, 85% white, and had a mean age of 63 years (range 24-96 years) at the time of first exam. Participants completed an occupational health history survey prior to the medical exam. Former Hanford workers were considered eligible for an exam if they reported exposure to asbestos, beryllium, or noise, or if a review of their Hanford work history indicated possible or probable exposure to one of these three hazards. We also invited any former Hanford worker who requested an exam to participate, regardless of documentation of exposure. The screening exam included a problem-focused physical exam, along with screening tests for one or more of three specific medical conditions: asbestosis (chest X-ray and spirometry), berylliosis (chest X-ray, spirometry, and beryllium-induced lymphocyte proliferation test), and NIHL (audiometry). We assisted ill workers in filing appropriate workers’ compensation claims, and facilitated appropriate follow-up medical care. This program has made an important contribution to the health of former DOE contractor workers at the Hanford defense nuclear site.
Martinez, Anthony Bert [Los Alamos National Laboratory
People are experts when it comes to the work they do; unfortunately their expertise is not utilized as frequently as it could be. More opportunities need to be provided that allow people to participate in the design of their work including: accident investigations, job planning, and process improvements. Many employers use some form of job hazard analysis process to identify and document hazards and controls, but the front line worker is rarely involved. This presentation will show the core principles supporting employee involvement, provide examples where workers had brilliant ideas but no one listened, and provide examples where workers were given the opportunity to use their expertise to improve occupational safety. According to Abraham Maslow's Hierarch of Needs model, one essential human need is to be innovative and solve problems. Advances in brain science have proven, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, the brain reward pathway is activated when people are recognized for their intellectual contributions. As people contribute their expertise to improve occupational safety more frequently they will feel a sense of gratification. In addition, safety professionals will have more time to spend on strategic planning of emerging occupational safety issues. One effect of the current global recession is that SH&E professionals are asked to do more with less. Therefore, to be successful it is essential that SH&E professionals incorporate worker expertise in job planning. This will be illustrated in the presentation through an example where a worker had the answer to a difficult decision on appropriate personal protective equipment for a job but no one asked the worker for his idea during the job planning phase. Fortunately the worker was eventually consulted and his recommendation for the appropriate personal protective equipment for the job was implemented before work began. The goal of this presentation is to expand the awareness and knowledge of SH&E professionals on the benefits and opportunities for leveraging brain science. This will include an overview of the components of the brain reward pathway and the biological mechanisms that make workers feel a sense of gratification when they contribute their ideas toward improving occupational safety. On-the-job examples where it is hypothesized that the brain reward pathway was activated in workers will be provided. Finally, the presentation will include a model illustrating the importance of empowering workers to participate in occupational safety programs. SH&E professionals can use this model to maintain a robust safety and health program with limited resources. The model will also help SH&E professionals prepare for challenges in the SH&E fields by showing them how to allocate more time for strategic planning of emerging issues. Many recent best selling business books such as Wikinomics, Crowdsourcing, and Sway, illustrate how the benefit of harnessing the collective knowledge of employees is a key to company success. Companies like Google and Pixar have mastered the ability to capture empFoyee knowledge in terms of technology. Why should occupational safety be any different? Workers know how to improve safety in their workplace. SH&E professionals can harness this collective safety knowledge just as top companies do with technology, and workers will feel grateful for contributing.
Alves, Lisandra; Jardim, Marta; Pedrosa, Sofia; Mendes, Sónia; Nogueira, Tiago; Souza, Juliana de; Ferro-Lebres, Vera
It has been demonstrated that greater nutritional knowledge leads to better eating habits, but there are no studies on the relationship between nutritional knowledge and calcium intake. To verify if the calcium intake of health professionals is influenced by their nutritional knowledge. 103 workers from three Oporto hospitals completed two previously validated questionnaires: Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), General Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire(GNKQ) and a question...
Urbancová, Hana; K?íž, Josef
In the current knowledge economy the workers are the key competitive advantage and their knowledge is the most important asset in the various business processes. If people leave the organization they will take their knowledge with them and it can jeopardize the quality of the processes. This paper focuses on the topic of the ensuring the knowledge continuity as a tool for fluent improvement of processes in organizations. The processes and the areas were identified within the organizatio...
The semestral statistical results, according to the ESOREX evaluation model, regarding the collective professional exposure, for the years 2009 and 2010, are presented in the paper. The individual monitoring is accomplished by the Laboratory for Personnel and Environment Dosimetry. The measurements are performed with two parallel dosimetric systems: thermoluminescent and dosimetric film based detectors, or with one of them. The surveyed workers are from IFIN-HH and from external units. When both dosimetric systems were used in parallel, the results are comparable. For the units using a single dosimeter, the semestral survey obtained result is: for 90% of workers, the dose equivalent Hp (10) was within the interval 0.5 - 1.0 mSv, with a value of collective dose of (160-180) mSv. For the remaining 10% of workers, a relatively uniform distribution was found. (authors)
Wilson, G. D. (Gregory D.); Zucker, L. J. (Lauren J.)
When characterizing the reliability of a complex system there are often gaps in the data available for specific subsystems or other factors influencing total system reliability. At Los Alamos National Laboratory we employ ethnographic methods to elicit expert knowledge when traditional data is scarce. Typically, we elicit expert knowledge in probabilistic terms. This paper will explore how we might approach elicitation if methods other than probability (i.e., Dempster-Shafer, or fuzzy sets) prove more useful for quantifying certain types of expert knowledge. Specifically, we will consider if experts have different types of knowledge that may be better characterized in ways other than standard probability theory.
Leng, Mary; Potter, Michael
What is the nature of mathematical knowledge? Is it anything like scientific knowledge or is it sui generis? How do we acquire it? Should we believe what mathematicians themselves tell us about it? Are mathematical concepts innate or acquired? Eight new essays offer answers to these and many other questions. - ;What is the nature of mathematical knowledge? Is it anything like scientific knowledge or is it sui generis? How do we acquire it? Should we believe what mathematicians themselves tell us about it? Are mathematical concepts innate or acquired? Eight new essays offer answers to these and many other questions. Written by some of the world''s leading philosophers of mathematics, psychologists, and mathematicians, Mathematical Knowledge gives a lively sense of the. current state of debate in this fascinating field. -
Hassan, Moshood Ayinde
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which workers patronize distance learning approach to further their education. Other purposes include: determine problems facing workers in the process of improving their knowledge and skills through distance learning approach; establish the level of attainment of manpower development objectives of Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba-Akoko and Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, both in Ondo State, Nigeria; and find out the relationship between manpower development and job performance effectiveness of workers in both institutions. Survey research was used in order to carry out the study. One hundred and seventy five (175 respondents were selected from Adekunle Ajasin University. However, one hundred and ninety five (195 respondents came from Rufus Giwa Polytechnic. Four (4 research questions were generated from the literature review. Questionnaire items on manpower development through distance education and the responses elicited from respondents were numerically quantified, tabulated and analyzed using Likert scale and percentage. The analyses showed that: opportunity for training and development was given to all workers in both institutions; most Nigerian Universities do not provide distance learning programmes to citizens; respondents of both institutions reported occasional frustration from colleagues and management in a bid to pursue further education; respondents in the two institutions held that the objectives of floating manpower development for workers were achieved; and they reported that there was relationship between acquisition of manpower development and job performance at workplace. Based on the findings, it is recommended that workers should be encouraged to patronize distance learning system to further their education; information and communication technology should form part of manpower development programmes in tertiary institutions; and workers who have stayed long away from classroom should be properly counseled whenever they are on for further studies.
Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, from the current study, of how systems theory can be applied in order to analyse interviews. Using a difference-theoretical approach means looking at the distinctions the informants make when talking about their experiences. These main guiding distinctions can be summarised as immigrant background/competence as well as advantage/competence. Using the guiding distinction of inclusion/exclusion when interpreting the interviewees’ statements, the interdependencies of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in newsrooms related to ethnic background can be examined.
Fissile and high-level radioactive wastes are currently transported over long distances by truck and by rail transportation systems. The primary form of fissile material is spent reactor fuel. Transportation operations within DOE are controlled through the Transportation Operations and Management System. DOE projected increases in the rate of shipments have generated concern by railroad companies that railroad workers may be exposed to levels of radiation sufficiently high that a radiation protection program may need to be implemented. To address railroad company concerns, the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has estimated doses to railroad workers for two exposure scenarios that were constructed using worker activity data obtained from CSX Transportation for crew and maintenance workers. This characterization of railroad worker activity patterns includes a quantitative evaluation of the duration and rate of exposure. These duration and exposure rate values were evaluated using each of three exposure rate vs. distance models to generate exposure estimates. 14 refs., 1 tab
Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE
Full Text Available NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan
This report presents the contribution of CEPN (study center on protection evaluation in nuclear area) to the Days of the French Radiation Protection Society (SFRP) on optimization of workers radiation protection in electronuclear, industrial and medical areas
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Recent experiences with severe acute respiratory syndrome and the US smallpox vaccination program have demonstrated the vulnerability of healthcare workers to occupationally acquired infectious diseases. However, despite acknowledgment of risk, the occupational death rate for healthcare workers is unknown. In contrast, the death rate for other professions with occupational risk, such as police officer or firefighter, has been well defined. With available information from federal sources and calculating the additional number of deaths from infection by using data on prevalence and natural history, we estimate the annual death rate for healthcare workers from occupational events, including infection, is 17–57 per 1 million workers. However, a much more accurate estimate of risk is needed. Such information could inform future interventions, as was seen with the introduction of safer needle products. This information would also heighten public awareness of this often minimized but essential aspect of patient care. PMID:16022771
... Home Workplace Safety & Health Topics NIOSH Share Compartir HEAT STRESS Infographic: Protect your workers from HEAT STRESS ... and how it can be prevented. Types of Heat Stress Heat Stroke | Heat Exhaustion | Heat Syncope | Heat ...
Everett, Donna R.; O'Neil, Sharon Lund
Through survey research using the DACUM approach and the Delphi technique, 8 broad skill categories and 278 competencies were determined to have some degree of importance for information systems workers. (Author)
This presentation is about developing the next generation of nuclear workers at Ontario Power Generation (OPG). Industry developments are creating urgent need to hire, train and retain new staff. OPG has an aggressive hiring campaign. Training organization is challenged to accommodate influx of new staff. Collaborating with colleges and universities is increasing the supply of qualified recruits with an interest in nuclear. Program for functional and leadership training have been developed. Knowledge retention is urgently required
Veloso, Ana Luísa de Oliveira Marques
There are different perspectives about Human Resource Management (HRM) function, which emphasises (1) specific knowledge that typifies some interventions _ HRM practices such as recruitment or training; (2) the role of a regulator of relations and (3) the capability of intervention which is dependable of the degree of credibility attributed by organizational actors. This credibility is often built in turn of the organizational actors (e.g. workers) perceptions of HRM involvement on the organi...
This essay's subject matter is part of the labour market problem. As for all markets the equilibrium position is characterized by two aspects: what price will prevail and what is the volume transacted? For a complex of markets the prices and transactions of each compartment characterize equilibrium. In this essay only the transactions aspect will be discussed; it may also be called the allocation problem: which worker will be allocated which job? The number of workers will b...
Sepkowitz, Kent A.; Eisenberg, Leon
Recent experiences with severe acute respiratory syndrome and the US smallpox vaccination program have demonstrated the vulnerability of healthcare workers to occupationally acquired infectious diseases. However, despite acknowledgment of risk, the occupational death rate for healthcare workers is unknown. In contrast, the death rate for other professions with occupational risk, such as police officer or firefighter, has been well defined. With available information from federal sources and c...
Sherertz, R. J.; Bassetti, S.; Bassetti-wyss, B.
Certain bacteria dispersed by health-care workers can cause hospital infections. Asymptomatic health-care workers colonized rectally, vaginally, or on the skin with group A streptococci have caused outbreaks of surgical site infection by airborne dispersal. Outbreaks have been associated with skin colonization or viral upper respiratory tract infection in a phenomenon of airborne dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus called the "cloud" phenomenon. This review summarizes the data supporting the e...
Stein, David; Rocco, Tonette S.
Although workplaces are searching for ways to increase productivity, older workers asking for increased career development opportunities are neglected by most workplaces. Age alone may not be a defining characteristic of an older worker. Perhaps becoming an older worker is more situational than chronological. Retirement for future older workers is…
Chompunuch Supapvanich; Frank de Vocht; Andrew Povey
Glove usage, particularly powdered latex glove is a cause of latex allergy in hospital workers; therefore those workers must have latex allergy knowledge to protect themselves and patients from serious health problems. This study aimed to examine knowledge about latex allergy among nurses and compare their performance with student nurses in Thailand. A knowledge ques-tionnaire was administered to a random sample of 30 nurses and 30 student nurses who worked in hospitals where powdered latex g...
Andersen, Lotte BØgh; Kristensen, Nicolai
Command systems are widely used to monitor public service provision, but little is known about unintended effects on individual workers’ motivation and work effort. Using insights from motivation crowding theory, we estimate a SEM model that captures how Danish childcare assistants and social/healthcare assistants perceive documentation requirements. We analyze how this perception relates to intrinsic motivation measured in a survey and sickness absence as reported in administrative registers and find that individuals who perceive documentation requirements as controlling have lower intrinsic motivation and higher sickness absence. The association is statistically significant, but very small in substantive terms. The result is nevertheless consistent with the expectation in motivation crowding theory and contributes to the literature by including a new reliable behavioral variable, sickness absence, and by drawing attention to possible downsides of command-and-control. Even though command systems can also have positive disciplining effects, knowledge about potential drawbacks is important for public managers.
Hendricks, Vincent Fella
Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight
Pan, Xia; Zhou, Qiang
Knowledge of statistical analysis is increasingly important for professionals in modern business. For example, hypothesis testing is one of the critical topics for quality managers and team workers in Six Sigma training programs. Delivering the knowledge of hypothesis testing effectively can be an important step for the incapable learners or…
Information and communication technologies (ICT) and domestic work are the two sectors that Germany has recently lifted its general recruitment ban. The recruitment of migrant women and men, either as a domestic or an ICT worker, provides solutions to the alleged "deficit" in care and in the knowledge economy. In addition, they send remittances back home. Despite these commonalities the existing literature tends to treat these two groups of migrants as separate subjects of research, resulting...
Ditmore, Melissa Hope; Allman, Dan
After premature closures in 2004 of biomedical human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention trials involving sex workers in Africa and Asia, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and Global Advocacy for HIV Prevention (AVAC) undertook consultations to establish better participatory guidelines for such trials in order to address ethical concerns. This study investigated sex workers’ knowledge and beliefs about research ethics and good participatory practices (GPP) and the ...
Gooch, B F; Cardo, D M; Marcus, R; McKibben, P S; Cleveland, J L; Srivastava, P U; Culver, D H; Bell, D M
The authors found that 19 percutaneous exposures among dental workers occurred both during and after use of instruments such as syringe needles and scalers. Specific information about the device and action associated with an exposure is important for prevention efforts, including safer instruments and work practices. Most of these exposures probably involved smaller, rather than larger, amounts of blood infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. To our knowledge, none of the exposures resulted in HIV transmission to an enrolled dental worker. PMID:7560583
Inspired by a vision to build knowledge on how to implement high quality health care in low income contexts, Chr Michelsen Institute (CMI), Health Economics Bergen and the Centre for International Health (CIH) at the University of Bergen hosted an international workshop on Interventions for improved health worker performance on 14-15 May 2009. This report summarises key messages from the workshop. It presents a call for research for improved health worker performance, an agenda for action f...
Kelen Gabor D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although training and education have long been accepted as integral to disaster preparedness, many currently taught practices are neither evidence-based nor standardized. The need for effective evidence-based disaster training of healthcare staff at all levels, including the development of standards and guidelines for training in the multi-disciplinary health response to major events, has been designated by the disaster response community as a high priority. We describe the application of systematic evidence-based consensus building methods to derive educational competencies and objectives in criteria-based preparedness and response relevant to all hospital healthcare workers. Methods The conceptual development of cross-cutting competencies incorporated current evidence through a systematic consensus building process with the following steps: (1 review of peer-reviewed literature on relevant content areas and educational theory; (2 structured review of existing competencies, national level courses and published training objectives; (3 synthesis of new cross-cutting competencies; (4 expert panel review; (5 refinement of new competencies and; (6 development of testable terminal objectives for each competency using similar processes covering requisite knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Results Seven cross-cutting competencies were developed: (1 Recognize a potential critical event and implement initial actions; (2 Apply the principles of critical event management; (3 Demonstrate critical event safety principles; (4 Understand the institutional emergency operations plan; (5 Demonstrate effective critical event communications; (6 Understand the incident command system and your role in it; (7 Demonstrate the knowledge and skills needed to fulfill your role during a critical event. For each of the cross-cutting competencies, comprehensive terminal objectives are described. Conclusion Cross-cutting competencies and objectives developed through a systematic evidence-based consensus building approach may serve as a foundation for future hospital healthcare worker training and education in disaster preparedness and response.
Efi Yuliati Yovi
Full Text Available Timber harvesting activities are unquestionably related with high risk of work accidents and health disorders.Such activities were not only burdened the workers with heavy physical workloads due to uneasy workingenvironment, and massive work materials and tools, but also physiopsychologically burdened workers as theywere imposed with both mechanical and acoustic vibrations (noise produced by the chainsaw. However, it is acommon practice that most of the workers still ignored the importance of the use of noise reduction devices suchas earmuff or ear plug. This study was aimed to reveal the factual effects of noise on work concentration of theworkers to provide a scientific basis in supporting efforts in improving workers’ attitude. The results confirmedthat chainsaw might produce noise during operation. Noise intensities received by both right and left ears werenot significantly different, indicating that left-handed and normal workers received similar degree of noise inboth side of ears. Further, results also showed that there was a significant difference on the perception and workconcentration of chainsaw operators versus sedentary people to the noise. These findings proved that hearingability of chainsaw operators had declined due to frequent noise exposure.Keywords: timber harvesting, physio-psychological disorder, noise, chainsaw
Heide, Mats; Simonsson, Charlotte
The status of co-workers has increased due to the expansion of post-bureaucratic and knowledge-intensive organizations. In organization studies the importance of co-workers has for a rather long time been acknowledged. Remarkably has co-workers more or less been neglected in research as well as in practice within the field of strategic communication. In research the overall focus is mainly on the practice of communication pro-fessionals or at a management or strategic level. In practice many ...
Maria Regina Maciel
Full Text Available The farm workers of the sugar cane agroindustry are subject to the social, economic and environmental impacts coming from that plantation, especially by the existing working conditions which fall upon their life quality and health. Using a methodology of qualitative nature, this study aimed to investigate aspects relative to the life, work and health conditions of the temporary worker of the sugar cane agroindustry of Lagoa da Prata, town of Minas Gerais. For the data collection, the semi-structured interview was used, the sample being limited through the informational redundancy criteria and the information were dealt through the Bardin content analysis. The predominance of young and male workers and the presence of migrant workers and recurrent from of other crops were found. Women seem to perform the working activities mostly in the same way that men, logically within their physical limitations. The worker’s purchasing power seems to be insufficient, an evident escape of capitals coming from the sugar-cane cutting with the migrant temporary workers. There was no apparent evidence of expropriation of small farms to the urban area increasing rural exodus. Informal work was present in these worker’s every day, which at the off-season time made use of different opportunities to meet their needs. Although, the workers showed to be aware of the importance of the utilization of the equipment for individual protection, the need of an improved knowledge as far as the health risks and problems to which they were exposed due to their working conditions are concerned was found.
Full Text Available The strategic importance of knowledge in today’s organisation has been discussed extensively and research has looked at various issues in developing knowledge management systems. Both the characterisation of knowledge and alternate models for understanding the acquisition and use of such knowledge have taken on significant prominence. This is due to the complexities associated with acquiring and representing knowledge, and the varied nature of its use in knowledge work. However, the role of the knowledge workers and the processes that guide their knowledge work as they meet the knowledge goals of an organisation have received little attention. This paper proposes a knowledge audit (an assessment of the way knowledge processes meet an organisation’s knowledge goals methodology to understand the “gaps” in the needs of a knowledge worker before one develops KM systems. The methodology also uses “process change” research to help build a socio-technical environment critical for knowledge work. The audit methodology is applied to a particular case and the implementation of the audit recommendations is discussed. Future implications of such an audit are also discussed.
Mach, Maria A.; Owoc, Mieczyslaw L.
Knowledge granularity, usually identified with the size of knowledge granules, seems to be real challenge for knowledge consumers as well as for knowledge creators. In this paper, relationships between knowledge granularity as a result of different ways of a knowledge representation are considered. The paper deals with the problem of developing knowledge grid in the context of encapsulation of knowledge including different dimensions and measures. The origin of the problem is discussed in the...
Lowe, Christopher F; Showler, Adrienne J; Perera, Suzette; McIntyre, Susan; Qureshi, Roohi; Patel, Samir N; Allen, Vanessa; Devlin, H Roslyn; Muller, Matthew P
Brucella melitensis was identified in an aspirate obtained from a patient's hip joint during a procedure at a hospital in Canada. We conducted an investigation into possible exposures among hospital workers; 1 worker who assisted with the procedure tested positive for B. melitensis. Aerosol-generating procedures performed outside the laboratory may facilitate transmission of this bacterium. PMID:25531198
Foley, Michael; Ruser, John; Shor, Glenn; Shuford, Harry; Sygnatur, Eric
The growth of the contingent workforce presents many challenges in the occupational safety and health arena. State and federal laws impose obligations and rights on employees and employers, but contingent work raises issues regarding responsibilities to maintain a safe workplace and difficulties in collecting and reporting data on injuries and illnesses. Contingent work may involve uncertainty about the length of employment, control over the labor process, degree of regulatory, or statutory protections, and access to benefits under workers' compensation. The paper highlights differences in regulatory protections and benefits among various types of contingent workers and how these different arrangements affect safety incentives. It discusses challenges caused by contingent work for accurate data reporting in existing injury and illness surveillance and benefit programs, differences between categories of contingent work in their coverage in various data sources, and opportunities for overcoming obstacles to effectively using workers' compensation data. PMID:24464742
AN INTENSE academic review of knowledge management is provided by this book, covering the nature of knowledge-sharing environments, insights from healthcare workers, and advice on how to initiate and measure knowledge sharing. While many of the contributors are academic leaders in the US, it will translate to the UK and NHS. PMID:25355116
Modificación de conocimientos sobre medio ambiente en jóvenes del Laboratorio de Anticuerpos y Biomodelos Experimentales / Modification to knowledge of environment in young people from Laboratory of Antibodies and Experimental Biomodels
Rosa Iris, García Céspedes; Yaimarelis, Saumell Nápoles; Maria Eugenia, García Céspedes; Osmany, Harteman Ávila.
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de intervención educativa para modificar los conocimientos sobre la conservación del medioambiente en 16 jóvenes del Laboratorio de Anticuerpos y Biomodelos Experimentales de Santiago de Cuba, seleccionados mediante un muestreo aleatorio simple desde abril hasta junio del 2008. [...] Para lograr ese objetivo, la población escogida participó en un programa de clases con 4 sesiones de trabajo, luego de las cuales se comprobó que la insuficiente o errónea información que poseían sobre la necesidad de cuidar responsablemente el entorno por su influencia sobre la salud y calidad de vida, fue modificada favorablemente mediante técnicas participativas y discusiones grupales, de modo que hubo una gran diferencia entre lo que sabían antes del estudio y lo que aprendieron en favor del ambiente después de su ejecución. Abstract in english A study on educational intervention was conducted to modify the knowledge of the environment conservation in 16 young people from Laboratory of Antibodies and Experimental Biomodels in Santiago de Cuba, selected by means of a simple random sampling from April to June, 2008. To achieve that goal the [...] chosen population participated in a program of classes with 4 working sessions, after which it was verified that their inadequate or erroneous information about the necessity of taking care of the environment responsibly because of its influence on the health and quality of life, was modified favorably by means of participatory techniques and group discussions, so that there was a great difference between what they knew before the study and what they learned in favor of the enviroment after it.
Modificación de conocimientos sobre medio ambiente en jóvenes del Laboratorio de Anticuerpos y Biomodelos Experimentales Modification to knowledge of environment in young people from Laboratory of Antibodies and Experimental Biomodels
Rosa Iris García Céspedes
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de intervención educativa para modificar los conocimientos sobre la conservación del medioambiente en 16 jóvenes del Laboratorio de Anticuerpos y Biomodelos Experimentales de Santiago de Cuba, seleccionados mediante un muestreo aleatorio simple desde abril hasta junio del 2008. Para lograr ese objetivo, la población escogida participó en un programa de clases con 4 sesiones de trabajo, luego de las cuales se comprobó que la insuficiente o errónea información que poseían sobre la necesidad de cuidar responsablemente el entorno por su influencia sobre la salud y calidad de vida, fue modificada favorablemente mediante técnicas participativas y discusiones grupales, de modo que hubo una gran diferencia entre lo que sabían antes del estudio y lo que aprendieron en favor del ambiente después de su ejecución.A study on educational intervention was conducted to modify the knowledge of the environment conservation in 16 young people from Laboratory of Antibodies and Experimental Biomodels in Santiago de Cuba, selected by means of a simple random sampling from April to June, 2008. To achieve that goal the chosen population participated in a program of classes with 4 working sessions, after which it was verified that their inadequate or erroneous information about the necessity of taking care of the environment responsibly because of its influence on the health and quality of life, was modified favorably by means of participatory techniques and group discussions, so that there was a great difference between what they knew before the study and what they learned in favor of the enviroment after it.
Full Text Available The most common hazards in the forestry that may induce disorders of the musculoskeletal system are vibrations, unfavorable microclimatic conditions, noise, over-time working hours, work load and long-term repeated movements. The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases and its difference among workers engaged in various jobs in the forestry. Two groups of workers were selected: woodcutters operating with chain-saw (N=33 and other loggers (N=32. Selected workers were of the similar age and had similar total length of employment as well as the length of service in the forestry. Both groups of workers employed in the forestry had the high prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases (woodcutters 69.7% and other loggers 62.5%, respectively. Degenerative diseases of spinal column were very frequent, in dependently of the type of activity in the forestry. Non-significantly higher risk of carpal tunnel syndrome was found in woodcutters with chain-saw compared to workers having other jobs in the forestry (OR=3.09; 95%CI=0.64-19.72. The lateral epicondylitis was found only in woodcutters operating with chain-saw with the prevalence of 18.2%.
People in Japan have expressed great anxiety about possible radiation and radioactivity after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company's (TEPCO), due to the great earthquake and tsunami in eastern Japan on 11 March 2011. A large number of workers were engaged in response and recovery operations, and they were possibly exposed to high doses of radiation as compared to the general population. In the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986, high doses of radiation to 134 plant staff and emergency personnel resulted in acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which proved fatal for 28 of them. In the Fukushima accident, six workers were exposed to more than 250 mSv of radiation during the initial response phase, but no one showed ARS. It is necessary to continue registration of radiation doses for all workers who were exposed to radiation to facilitate suitable healthcare management in the future. In addition to radiation exposure, a group of workers were also exposed to other health hazards. Frequent occurrence of heat disorders has been a concern for the workers wearing protective clothing with poor ventilation. A comprehensive program to prevent heat illness was implemented by TEPCO under the guidance of the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. It is important to provide effective systems not only for prevention of radiation exposure but also for general management of other health risks including heat disorders her health risks including heat disorders and infection. (author)
Hirsch, Barry T.
The wages of part-time workers are considerably lower than are those of full-time workers. Measurable worker and job characteristics, including occupational skill requirements, account for much of the part-time penalty. Longitudinal analysis indicates that much of the remaining gap reflects worker heterogeneity, evidenced by small wage gains and losses among workers switching between part-time and full-time jobs. The lower skills of part-time than fulltime workers result primarily from limite...
Harpur, Brock A; Kent, Clement F; Molodtsova, Daria; Lebon, Jonathan M D; Alqarni, Abdulaziz S; Owayss, Ayman A; Zayed, Amro
Most theories used to explain the evolution of eusociality rest upon two key assumptions: mutations affecting the phenotype of sterile workers evolve by positive selection if the resulting traits benefit fertile kin, and that worker traits provide the primary mechanism allowing social insects to adapt to their environment. Despite the common view that positive selection drives phenotypic evolution of workers, we know very little about the prevalence of positive selection acting on the genomes of eusocial insects. We mapped the footprints of positive selection in Apis mellifera through analysis of 40 individual genomes, allowing us to identify thousands of genes and regulatory sequences with signatures of adaptive evolution over multiple timescales. We found Apoidea- and Apis-specific genes to be enriched for signatures of positive selection, indicating that novel genes play a disproportionately large role in adaptive evolution of eusocial insects. Worker-biased proteins have higher signatures of adaptive evolution relative to queen-biased proteins, supporting the view that worker traits are key to adaptation. We also found genes regulating worker division of labor to be enriched for signs of positive selection. Finally, genes associated with worker behavior based on analysis of brain gene expression were highly enriched for adaptive protein and cis-regulatory evolution. Our study highlights the significant contribution of worker phenotypes to adaptive evolution in social insects, and provides a wealth of knowledge on the loci that influence fitness in honey bees. PMID:24488971
Swart, Juani; Kinnie, Nicholas
Knowledge-intensive firms need to leverage their individual knowledge assets via knowledge sharing to create collective knowledge resources. This process is, however, in the control of the knowledge worker. We explore this personal and emotive quality of knowledge sharing by asking: ‘How does employee commitment impact on knowledge sharing?’ We study professional service firms operating in cross-boundary environments and examine the impact of commitment to the organisation, profession, team and client on knowledge sharing. The article contributes directly to our understanding of the interrelationship between (a) the types and foci of commitment and (b) bidirectional knowledge sharing.
The possibility of worker exposure to radioactive materials during accidents at nuclear facilities is a principal concern of the DOE. The KBERT software has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories under DOE support to address this issue by assisting in the estimation of risks posed by accidents at chemical and nuclear facilities. KBERT is an acronym for Knowledge-Based system for Estimating hazards of Radioactive material release Transients. The current prototype version of KBERT focuses on calculation of doses and consequences to in-facility workers due to accidental releases of radioactivity. This report gives detailed instructions on how a user who is familiar with the design, layout and potential hazards of a facility can use KBERT to assess the risks to workers in that facility. KBERT is a tool that allows a user to simulate possible accidents and observe the predicted consequences. Potential applications of KBERT include the evaluation of the efficacy of evacuation practices, worker shielding, personal protection equipment and the containment of hazardous materials
After having recalled some characteristics of the electro-nuclear sector in terms of employment (direct and indirect jobs, average age, number of persons controlled on the radiological level, exposure with respect to work location), the author outlines that workers of this sector are seldom evoked whereas investments, incidents and accidents are generally the main evoked and commented topics. He proposes some explanations about this image of the nuclear sector. He reports an incident which occurred in Marcoule and outlines how a set of imperfectly managed events resulted in this incident. He also outlines the importance of the role of workers and the difficulty to make the right choice in such situations. As a conclusion, the author draws some lessons, and particularly outlines that the commitment of workers should be put forward
As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is a simple concept that has come to be a complicated and expensive regulatory goal. There are essentially three factors that can be manipulated to achieve ALARA: (1) radionuclide inventory (source), (2) physical arrangement (primarily distance and shielding); (3) radiation worker performance (radiation safety responsibilities and functions). Of these three elements, item 3 is utilized the least and yet has the greatest potential for reducing exposure per dollar expended. By establishing a relationship with radiation workers consisting of credible leadership and expecting the radiation workers to be responsible for specific elements of radiological safety. Health Physics can gain a degree of cooperation and performance that will provide significant ALARA gains at a very small expense
Truss, C.; Conway, Edel; D'amato, A.; Kelly, G.; Monks, K; Hannon, E; Flood, P.C.
Knowledge-intensive firms (KIFs) have been the subject of growing interest from researchers. However, investigations into the comparative experiences of men and women in KIFs remain sparse, and little is known about women’s participation in the processes of innovation and knowledge exchange and combination that are core features of KIFs. We report on the findings of a study in the UK and Ireland involving 498 male and female knowledge workers in KIFs. Despite equal levels of qualification ...
This work analyses main features that should be present in knowledge representation. It suggests a model for representation and a way to implement this model in software. Representation takes care of both low-level sensor information and high-level concepts.
BrintzenhofeSzoc, Karlynn; Davis, Cindy; Kayser, Karen; Lee, Hee Yun; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances; Oktay, Julianne S; Zabora, James; Zebrack, Bradley J
Oncology social workers are the primary providers of psychosocial care for cancer patients, thus they are well positioned to implement and oversee psychosocial distress screening. A national survey of members of the Association of Oncology Social Work was conducted to examine screening knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and perceived competency. The findings indicated that most participants screened for psychosocial distress using a standardized instrument and identified institutional and individual barriers to implementing screening. Analyses revealed that social workers who perceived patient benefits from screening and were knowledgeable about guidelines were significantly more likely to implement screening procedures and use a standardized instrument. PMID:25420574
The former laboratory was situated at a research centre in Hamburg and used between the 1970s and late 1980s for research on living animals and biological material. The two-storey laboratory was shut down at the end of the 1980s and was partially demolished. Most of removable laboratory equipment had been removed and also all of the radioactive materials. The rest of equipment like glove boxes, exhaust fumes and fixed installed furniture (e.g. a shielded source safe made of lead) and the major items remaining were three contaminated tanks in the cellar, contaminated mainly with 241Am, 137Cs and 152Eu. The whole building complex in which the laboratory was located is now scheduled for demolition. Decontamination of the residual contamination in the laboratory to achieve free release of the building was required prior to demolition. The owner decided to appoint a specialist contractor to carry out the decommissioning project. The first step of the contractor was to make a site visit to get an overview of what the laboratory decommissioning would require, including taking pictures, measuring dose rates and performing contamination measurements and collecting samples from several materials such as the sediment of the tanks. The main problem was that the competent radiation protection officer for this site had minimal knowledge of the history of this laboratory. No historical documents were available for the laboratory to identify the type e for the laboratory to identify the type of work performed in the past, and no former workers were available. Only some measurement values relating to the general contamination status of the laboratory, which had been made by the owner, were provided to the contractor. After collecting and reviewing all of the information, the contractor made an offer to the owner to undertake the work. The project included removal and transport of some materials off site to a decontamination facility. The decontamination of other materials (e.g. PVC pipes, pumps, valves, etc.) was not attempted because no benefit could be foreseen. The three tanks could not be transported to the decontamination facility because of their geometry and the radioactive contamination level. It was decided to decontaminate the tanks at the site by first removing the contaminated sediment as waste and then to clean the inner surface of the tanks using a scrubbing method. The end state of this project is to be the free release of the laboratory inventory (including the tanks) and the building structure. The regulator informed that he wished to inspect the site at the end of the decommissioning project.
Full text: Serbia and Montenegro legislation concerning with radiation protection was upgrading after publication ICRP- 60 and B.S.S., No.115. Present Law on the Protection against Ionizing Radiation is in force from 1996. Among quite new issues in radiation protection regulations there was article relate to obligatory refresher training. Due to adverse political and economic situation through many years radiation protection regulations were not fulfill completely. The aim of this investigation was to get real view to education level of professional exposed workers. In Serbia and Montenegro the most of ionizing radiation sources are in medical use and the most exposed workers are radiographers and radiologists. The test was passed by 200 radiographers and 50 radiologists. Main groups of questions were: Radiation protection and safety; difference between safety and security; legislation: law and regulations; incidents, accidents and operational failures: recording, learning. Usually, knowledge from school pales. New quantities (as ambient and personal dose equivalent) are mostly unknown. It is easier to understand the real difference between safety and security than to understand linguistic differences. Discussing regulations workers are more interesting in syndicate regulations than radiation protection ones. Operational failures and incidents are hidden. Better to say: nobody dare to speak about them. The results imposed conclusion that regulatory body has to pay more attention to upraise safety culture and radiation protection education level of professional exposed workers. (authors)
India's National Knowledge Commission (NKC) established by the prime minister is focused on building institutions and infrastructure in Education, Science and Technology, Innovation etc. to meet the challenges of the knowledge economy in the 21st century and increase India's competitive advantage in the global market. India today stands poised to reap the benefits of a rapidly growing economy and a major demographic advantage, with 550 million young people below the age of 25 years, the largest in the world. The NKC is focused on five critical areas of knowledge related to access, concepts, creation, applications and services. This includes a variety of subject areas such as language, translations, libraries, networks, portals, affirmative action, distance learning, intellectual property, Entrepreneurship, application in Agriculture, health, small and medium scale industries, e-governance etc. One of the keys to this effort is to build a national broadband gigabit of networks of 500 nodes to connect universities, Libraries, Laboratories, Hospitals, Agriculture institutions etc. to share resources and collaborate on multidisciplinary activities. This presentation will introduce the NKC, discuss methodology, subject areas, specific recommendation and outline a plan to build knowledge networks and specifics on network architecture, applications, and utilities.
Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt
This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.
Biophysics is the application of physical principles to medicine and biology. The benefits and knowledge for medicine resulting from South African research using biophysical principles are widespread. These include the study of single molecules and viruses with the electron microscope; the use of immunocytochemistry to examine molecular structure, protein and other molecular functions; the detection of small, otherwise invisible cancers and other lesions within the living human by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging; and laboratory studies to improve the treatment of cancer, by means of a deeper understanding of radiobiological principles and actions. 2 figs
Full Text Available Acrylamide (ACR is a water-soluble chemical used in different industrial and laboratory processes. ACR monomer is neurotoxic in humans and laboratory animals. Subchronic exposure to this chemical causes neuropathies, hands and feet numbness, gait abnormalities, muscle weakness, ataxia, skin and in some cases, cerebellar alterations. ACR neurotoxicity involves mostly the peripheral but also the central nervous system, because of damage to the nerve terminal through membrane fusion mechanisms and tubulovescicular alterations. Nevertheless, the exact action mechanism is not completely elucidated. In this paper we have reviewed the current literature on its neurotoxicity connected to work-related ACR exposure. We have analyzed not only the different pathogenetic hypotheses focusing on possible neuropathological targets, but also the critical behavior of ACR poisoning. In addition we have evaluated the ACR-exposed workers case studies. Despite all the amount of work which have being carried out on this topic more studies are necessary to fully understand the pathogenetic mechanisms, in order to propose suitable therapies.
Evers, Hans-Dieter; Nordin, Ramli; Nienkemper, Pamela
Knowledge clusters are central places within an epistemic landscape, i.e. in a wider structure of knowledge production and dissemination. They have the organisational capability to drive innovations and create new industries. Examples of such organisations in knowledge clusters are universities and colleges, research institutions, think tanks, government research agencies and knowledge-intensive firms with their respective knowledge workers. The following paper will look at Malaysia and it...
Lizette de Jager; Buitendag, Albertus A. K.; Walt, Jacobus S.
Background: The background to this study showed that many communities, countries and continents are only now realising the importance of discovering innovative collaborative knowledge. Knowledge management (KM) enables organisations to retain tacit knowledge. It has many advantages, like competitiveness, retaining workers’ knowledge as corporate assets and assigning value to it. The value of knowledge can never depreciate. It can only grow and become more and mo...
Full Text Available Job stress is a great problem in developed countries of the world, but in Yugoslavia, it is increased due to additional reasons associated with economic crisis in the society. Health services and health workers are in particulary difficult conditions. The aim of this paper was to examine sources and causes of job stress in health workers. Material and methods The research was undertaken among health workers treated at Health Centre "Hospital" in Novi Sad. The study group included health workers - doctors nurses and laboratory workers, and the control group included the rest of non-medical staff. Adapted Siegrist questionnaire was used. Three factors were examined: extrinsic efforts (disturbances at work, sense of great job responsibility and the need for overtime work; intrinsic efforts (major criticism, thinking about the job from the early morning, getting nervous because of minor problems, discontentment because of unsolved problems at work, relaxation at home and so on, and low reward (respect from the superiors and colleagues, support and security at workplace. Answers were scored indicating intensity (high, moderate, low, not at alt. Statistic analysis included testing the level of significance in health workers in relation to non-medical staff (t test and Fisher's exact test. Results Applying the scoring system it has been established that health workers are exposed to greater job stress, great sense of very high job responsibility and frequent overtime work (p<0,001 than the control group. In regard to answers from the second group - intrinsic effort and low reward, there was no statistical significance between the study and control group. Generally high level of risk factors was established, especially presence of one or more risk factors. Discussion Job stress increases absenteeism, reduces work productivity, causes higher expenses of medical treatment, rehabilitation and staff retraining. It is of great importance to identify factors which cause job dissatisfaction in order to decrease them to the lowest level. Conclusion High sense of responsibility in health workers is a source of job stress.
... Safety and Health (NIOSH) Share Compartir Simple Solutions Ergonomics for Construction Workers October 2006 DHHS (NIOSH) Publication ... the needs of the human body. Simple Solutions Ergonomics for Construction Workers [PDF 9.6MB] Print page ...
Full Text Available Workplace violence is a threatening worldwide public health problem. Healthcare workers have under particular risk of workplace violence, and they are being exposed to violence 4-16 times more than other service workers. The frequency of violence in the health sector in the world has indicated in different range of results since there is no consistent definition of workplace violence and differences in research methodology (any type of violence: 22,0% - 60,0%; physical violence: 2,6% - 57,0%; verbal violence: 24,3% - 82,0%; sexual harassment: %1,9 - 10,5%. All healthcare workers have right to work in a safe working place. The safety of healthcare workers should deserve the same priority as patient safety. Various risk factors including social, cultural, environmental, organizational and personal elements play a role in the formation of workplace violence that is very important for our country. Considering all those factors, the workplace violence in health sector should be seriously handled and the strategies and policies must be developed for prevention. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 315-326
Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.
This document identifies skill standards for lead abatement in a manner that is easy to understand, useful, and meaningful to workers, educators, trainers, labor leaders, contractors, and project owners. To meet the needs of the various users of this document who will have a different application of the standards and seek different information,…
Gerhardsson, M R; Norell, S E; Kiviranta, H J; Ahlbom, A
In a 19 year follow up study of 8141 furniture workers nasal adenocarcinoma was 63 X 4 times more common than expected. The findings also indicate an excess risk of adenocarcinoma of the maxillary sinus. No increase in risk was found for laryngeal cancer, lung cancer, or sinonasal cancers other than adenocarcinoma.
Missner, Emily D.
Yesterday, hundreds of thousands of South African public workers held a one-day strike, demanding wage increases. The strike left many public offices and schools with minimal staffing and forced others to close. Participating in the largest labor protest in South Africa since the end of apartheid, workers marched in cities across the country including Pretoria, Cape Town, Durban, and Johannesburg. Twelve unions, representing over one million teachers, police and prison workers, hospital personnel, and other public workers, held the strike after seven months of negotiations between the unions and government led to no agreement on pay increases. The unions had demanded a 7.3 percent increase in wages, in line with inflation. Due to difficulties in the economy, however, the government was only able to offer an increase of 6.3 percent. The unions consider the strike successful because the government promised to return to the negotiating table within the next several days. This week's In the News looks at the strike and the economy of South Africa under the leadership of President Thabo Mbeki, who was inaugurated just two months ago. The following ten sources provide background on the South African government as well as news and information about the strike.
Touted as "your portal to today's most prominent business," INSEAD Knowledge is a publication of INSEAD business school, which is based in France with campuses in Europe and Asia. INSEAD Knowledge prides itself on its easy-to-use format including simple, intuitive navigation, quick-reading abstracts of working papers and case studies, professors' insights into a variety of business-related issues, and in-depth examinations of business research. Along the left side of the Website, users will find eighteen themes including globalization, Asia focus, corporate development, and marketing. Each theme links to a variety of articles and related research sites. Users must complete the short free registration in order to view the full text of articles.
Provide population estimates for variables that represent knowledge about certain cancer risk factors, screening tests, and resources. The data are sourced from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). The HINTS data collection program was created to monitor changes in the rapidly evolving field of health communication. Survey researchers are using the data to understand how adults 18 years and older use different communication channels, including the Internet, to obtain vital health information for themselves and their loved ones.
O Leary, Christopher J.
American employment policy for displaced workers started in the Great Depression with programs for the employment service, unemployment insurance, work experience, and direct job creation. Assistance for workers displaced by foreign competition emerged in the 1960s along with formalized programs for occupational job skill training. The policy focus on displaced workers was sharpened in the 1980s through the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act and the Economic Dislocation and Wor...
Islam, M Mofizul; Conigrave, Katherine M; Miah, Md Shahjahan; Kalam, Kazi Abul
Female migrant workers face a growing scale of unsafe migration, which increases their risk of HIV. Despite this, increasing numbers of women are migrating from Bangladesh to other countries as contractual workers. The aim of the study is to establish a baseline for the socio-demographic status of female migrant workers and the extent of their HIV/AIDS awareness along with the factors that determine it, and to discuss the need for effective HIV awareness programmes. During June-July 2008 data were collected by a questionnaire from 123 participants by approaching a cross section of women at the airport who were ready to fly to take up an overseas job. A total of 87% had heard of HIV/AIDS. Participants who had completed an education level of year ?8 were more likely to have been informed about HIV than others. The average score in correct identification of modes of HIV infection was 1.6 (out of 4) and for preventive measures 1.8 (out of 5). Television and health workers were the major sources of HIV related knowledge. HIV-knowledge among the potential female migrant workers seems to be poor. As growing numbers of female workers are moving overseas for work, government and other concerned agencies must take a pro-active role to raise their awareness of HIV/AIDS infection and of effective preventive measures. PMID:20155324
Full Text Available Wynn Peterson,1 Raywat Deonandan,1 Shobha Arole,2 Ramaswamy Premkumar2 1Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2Comprehensive Rural Health Project, Jamkhed, Maharashtra, India Background: By analyzing the perspectives of village health worker/trainers with the Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP, this study aimed to investigate their level of knowledge of treatment, risks, and prevention of complications of labor and delivery and to evaluate current teaching methods. Methods: Three focus groups of six village health workers/trainers were conducted and divided according to level of experience. The resulting semistructured discussion was analyzed according to grounded theory. Results: Participants displayed strong content retention with respect to clinically relevant knowledge. Village health workers experienced barriers, including lack of education and casteism, which affected their ability to establish trust in the community. Clinical observation was perceived to be the most effective learning method and is recommended for teaching village health workers about the treatment and prevention of the complications of labor and delivery. Conclusion: When implementing this training model in comparable global communities, local culture and its impact on establishing trust is an important factor to consider. Keywords: postpartum hemorrhage, rural health, women's health, village health workers, village health worker training, India
Full Text Available We conduct an artefactual field experiment to compare the individual preferences and propensity to cooperate of three pools of subjects: Undergraduate students, temporary workers and permanent workers. We find that students are more selfish and contribute less than workers. Temporary and permanent contract workers have similar other-regarding preferences and display analogous contribution patterns in an anonymous Public Good Game.
The U.S. Department of Labor is the only national information source on the demographics, and working and living conditions of U.S. farm workers. Since the NAWS began surveying farm workers in 1988, it has collected information from over 25,000 workers. The survey samples all cro...
An investigation was carried out within the frame of occupational medicine on the psychological attitudes of workers in the nuclear industry towards ionizing radiations. Three aspects were considered: awareness of the danger; feeling of safety in the working environment; workers' feelings following incidents or accidents; satisfaction level felt by the workers in the plant
Jairo Ernesto Luna García
Full Text Available The health of workers in Colombia traverses multiple challenges and difficulties, starting from the national, political and economic context, crossroads living social security system and the trends in the world of work. Faced with this situation, the ergonomics as a field of knowledge and action has multiple possibilities of contribution, which depend on not to see this disciplined reduced to a technical dimension, but encourage their contribution within a framework of action located and contextualized. Although it has emphasized the action of ergonomics in its contribu-tion to the prevention of muscle-skeletal disorders, their contribution to the health of workers can be very important, in a setting of search of the labor and social welfare as a complement to the prevention of occupational risks.
This paper explains two fundamental approaches to knowledge management. The tacitknowledge approach emphasizes understanding the kinds of knowledge that individualsin an organization have, moving people to transfer knowledge within an organization,and managing key individuals as knowledge creators and carriers. By contrast, theexplicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held byindividuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating new knowledge, andthe development of systems (including information systems) to disseminate articulatedknowledge within an organization. The relative advantages and disadvantages of bothapproaches to knowledge management are summarized. A synthesis of tacit andknowledge management approaches is recommended to create a hybrid design for theknowledge management practices in a given organization.
Full text: Knowledge identification, acquisition, sharing, preservation and measurement are some of the desired habits and processes necessary for knowledge management to be effective and contributes to increased innovation, organizational value, competitiveness and sustainability. The knowledge workers in the K-economic era are expected to be an innovative knowledge professional who are capable of managing their own work as well as their own competency development. Organizations however need to provide an environment, tools and policies to support and encourage learning and knowledge acquisition in all forms, methods and approaches beyond what is traditionally done. For an ordinary knowledge professional, he is only interested in developing the necessary competency to complete his assigned tasks and progress in his career. He would not be interested to learn and be lectured on knowledge management or learning principles and concepts. But for the organization it is not only important that its staff members understand and able to go through the process of acquiring the necessary skills to carry out their current and future tasks at the right time, but it has to ensure that what they learn or their individual knowledge is converted into organizational knowledge, utilised, shared and preserved. Hence it is important that tools are provided and policies are set in place to ensure that staff identify, acquire, utilise, share and preserve knowledge necessary for organizational sustainability and growth. A Competency Development Information System was recently developed to address the issue of inculcating the habit of identifying, acquiring, utilising, sharing, preserving and measuring knowledge among staff members hands-on by doing and repeating without having to learn the theory first. Besides that it helps organization manage competency development processes from analysis to planning, implementing and right through to evaluation. The process starts from capturing information on business or division level mission, vision, objectives, strategies, projects and activities. From here the desired competencies are identified and broken down into knowledge and knowledge content. From this process the organization knowledge taxonomy is derived. The next process is the knowledge needs analysis conducted at group level and then at individual level. The level of all identified knowledge necessary to carryout planned projects and activities are assessed at group and individual level on a scale of 1-10. This process is conducted in a group lead by the group leader or manager. The knowledge profile that results is presented graphically and the knowledge gap that has to be filled through some learning initiatives is clearly portrayed Having identified the gap, the next task is to identify the knowledge sources in the form of books, journal articles, websites, laboratories, experts, vendors, electronic media and organised training and these are keyed into the system. At this stage individual staff would have enough information to plan his learning and knowledge acquisition. He would then plan his learning using the training plan module. He can learn through self directed learning or go for courses, seminars, attachments, scientific visit, or Masters and PhD. The time, place, budget and source of fund need to be determined. The staff biodata and development plan is also captured by the system. After implementing the training, the staff must submit a report and lessons learnt to the system. The system requires that the supervisor evaluates the training effectiveness, reviews recommendations and lessons learnt that was submitted and support and facilitate application of learning and implementation of any useful recommendations as a result of the training All the learning initiatives should increase the knowledge and competency level. This assessment is conducted on a regular basis to evaluate the effectiveness of learning initiatives and investment in human resource development. This system assess competency level on a scale of 1-6, 6 bein g ex
After a short review of the present knowledge on uranium (metabolism, toxicity, principles of radiotoxicological monitoring), the authors' experience in the surveillance of workers exposed to natural non-transferable uranium compounds (oxides, tetrafluorides) is presented. When setting up urinary controls in a workers' population, a number of difficulties were met in the way of collecting urine samples, obtaining samples free of exogen contribution, interpreting results. The working environment was also studied: three types of pollution measurements were carried out: on the atmosphere at fixed places by measuring the radioactivity of air sample, on work-places and workers by chemical analysis and counting of uranium. Original graphs on work-place monitoring are up-dated regularly. Workers' surveillance by urinary and working condition controls are now well codified. However, further studies will be carried out on man, on working atmospheres, and on the substances handled. The surveillance will then cover working conditions from all points of view
Kimani, Joshua; McKinnon, Lyle R; Wachihi, Charles; Kusimba, Judith; Gakii, Gloria; Birir, Sarah; Muthui, Mercy; Kariri, Anthony; Muriuki, Festus K; Muraguri, Nicholas; Musyoki, Helgar; Ball, T Blake; Kaul, Rupert; Gelmon, Lawrence
Accurate program planning for populations most at risk for HIV/STI acquisition requires knowledge of the size and location where these populations can best be reached. To obtain this information for sex workers operating at 137 hotspots in the central business district (CBD) in Nairobi, Kenya, we utilized a combined mapping and capture-recapture enumeration exercise. The majority of identified hotspots in this study were bars. Based on this exercise, we estimate that 6,904 male and female sex workers (95% confidence intervals, 6690 and 7118) were working nightly in the Nairobi CBD in April 2009. Wide ranges of captures per spot were obtained, suggesting that relatively few hot spots (18%) contain a relatively high proportion of the area's sex workers (65%). We provide geographic data including relatively short distances from hotspots to our dedicated sex worker outreach program in the CBD (meanimportant practical and policy implications for enhancing HIV/STI prevention efforts. PMID:23372713
Full Text Available The burden of exposure to blood-borne pathogens (such as hepatitis B and C viruses is considerable for health care workers. Hepatitis virus transmission requires a non-immune host, an infectious source, and skin or mucous membrane injury. These three aspects are the main fields for preventional interventions. We reviewed major recent studies on this topic to identify precautions health care workers should take to avoid hepatitis B (HBV and C virus (HCV infections. Accordingly, this review looks at aspects of epidemiology, risk factors, economy, knowledge, attitudes, practice, and ethics of HBV and HCV that affect health care workers. The risk of transmission depends on the load of pathogen, infectious characteristics and exposure frequency. Health care workers skill levels and the specific hospital department involved appear to be the most important factors in the exposure of health care workers to blood-borne pathogens. However, many health care workers surveyed, believed that educational programs about standard precautions in their setting were not adequate. Obviously, more detailed studies will be needed to clarify risks and opportunities for health care workers precautions aimed at avoiding HBV and HCV infection, especially in emerging health research communities.
Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.
...Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural Fields, and Pesticides with No Food Uses; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental...Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural Fields, and Pesticides with No Food...
In an effort to understand the nature and extent of worker risk encountered during environmental restoration activities, the Center for Risk Management at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory characterized remedial worker risk resulting from remediation activities at 17 radiologically contaminated U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites found at a variety of DOE installations across the United States. These sites varied in the type of contamination, geographical setting, and waste unit configuration. Site types included a waste pit, silo, settling basin, two seepage basins, trench, creeks, drums, a landfill, a holding pond, canals, contaminated groundwater, and two uranium mill tailings piles. Of the 17 sites evaluated, 4 of the sites were decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) sites. The D ampersand D sites consisted of a contaminated building, a liquid-waste processing area, a buried reactor, and reactor building and its components
Full Text Available Purpose: The scope of the paper is to present effects of creating the laboratory support for the didactic process of automatic control of engineering processes.Design/methodology/approach: The discussed laboratory framework is a complex system, flexible in terms of further development, operating on four basic levels: rudimental- serving general introductory classes to the subject, advanced level- suitable for specialisation classes, hardware and software for individual or team work assignments completed in the course of self-studies, semester projects, BSc and MSc. theses, and the sophisticated level designed for PhD and DSc research workers.Findings: Close cooperation with industry and practical implementation of joint research projects play a crucial role in the functioning of the laboratory framework.Practical implications: The education of modern engineers and Masters of Science in automatic control and robotics is a challenging task which may be successfully accomplished only if faced with industrial reality. Continuously advancing industrial companies demand graduates who can quickly adjust to the workflow and who can instantly utilize the knowledge and skills acquired in the complex, interdisciplinary field of mechatronics.Originality/value: The discussed laboratory framework successfully couples software and hardware, providing a complex yet flexible system open for further development, enabling teaching and research into the design and operation of modern control systems, both by means of virtual construction and testing in simulation programs, as well as on real industrial structures configured in laboratory workstations.
In order to manage radiological hazards in the workplace, it is necessary to have reliable measurements of workplace radiation levels and estimates of exposures and doses to workers. Over the past several years there have been many changes not only to the science of monitoring and dose assessment, but also to the regulatory framework. New International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations on dose in ICRP Publication 60 (1991) and the implications of the ICRP's new respiratory tract model in ICRP Publication 66 (1994) are of particular importance. In addition, triggered by the act establishing the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which will replace the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), there is considerable activity in the review and development of regulatory guidance. Concurrent with these activities is the introduction of innovative mining procedures in Saskatchewan in order to extract uranium ore of particularly high grade. In view of these developments, the ACRP considered that a formal review of current monitoring practices would benefit both the CNSC and its licensees. In this report, 'uranium workers' refers to workers at uranium mines and mills, and workers at natural-uranium refineries, conversion, and fuel fabrication facilities; issues relating to long-term tailings management and to the handling of enriched materials are not addressed in this document. The report will have some relevance to workers in non-uranium mines anlevance to workers in non-uranium mines and in industries handling naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) since, in some circumstances, these activities can present similar workplace radiation hazards. The report outlines the radiological hazards encountered in the Canadian uranium industry, and reviews current radiological monitoring practices and options; appendices include a glossary, a more technical discussion of monitoring methods, and an examination of errors and uncertainties in measurements of radon progeny and long-lived radioactive dust (LLRD). Current methods of monitoring external (beta-gamma) radiation exposures involve well-developed technology and are capable of demonstrating compliance with the lower exposure limits proposed in ICRP Publication 60. However, monitoring technology, and the relationship between exposure and risk, is less well established for radon progeny and LLRD, and it is strongly recommended that the management of these hazards be reviewed on a continuing basis. It is also recommended that careful attention be given to archiving monitoring data relating to radon progeny and LLRD so that these data are available for future epidemiological studies. (author)
Carter Keith H.
Full Text Available A study of 108 female sex workers engaged in prostitution in Georgetown, Guyana, was made in April 1993. Based on interviews and procurement of blood samples, the study investigated relationships between HIV seroprevalences and AIDS knowledge, risk behaviors, client characteristics, and condom use. Street-walkers--as distinct from sex workers in bars, hotels, and Port Georgetown--tended to charge less, be worse off socioeconomically, and have clients who were similarly disadvantaged; they were therefore classified as belonging to a "lower" socioeconomic stratum, while the other workers were classified as belonging to a "higher" stratum. The overall HIV seroprevalence found among the sex workers was 25% (95%CI: 17%-33%. But the 50 subjects in the lower stratum had a relatively high seroprevalence (42%, as compared to 10% among those in the higher stratum, accounting for 21 of the 27 HIV-seropositive subjects. Reported patterns of client origins (Guyanese or foreign, worker willingness to have sex without a condom, and condom use by clients differed by stratum. Participants in the higher stratum were more disposed to having sex without a condom. The workers' knowledge of what causes AIDS and how HIV is transmitted was low in both strata; substantial numbers of workers said they had contracted a sexually transmitted disease within the past two years or were users of illicit drugs. Condom use is reportedly less common among Guyanese than foreign clients, suggesting a greater risk of contracting HIV from Guyanese clients or infecting Guyanese clients with it. The HIV seroprevalence among workers who said they had only Guyanese clients was statistically greater than the rate among those who said they had only foreign clients. The HIV seroprevalence among those reporting more than five clients per week was statistically greater than among those reporting fewer. HIV seropositivity was relatively high among the 12 workers who said they used cocaine. Overall, the findings supported the view that interventions targeted at female sex workers and their clients should be strengthened--more specifically, that concerted efforts should be made to intensify condom promotion, distribution, and social marketing; to improve STD services that provide treatment and counseling for female sex workers; and to increase educational activities among the workers' Guyanese clients.
Fleisher, Belton M.; Mcguire, William H.; Smith, Adam Nicholas; Zhou, Mi
Intangible knowledge capital (IKC) ? technology produced by workers but not embodied in them ? can offset the middle income trap as China exhausts the benefits of international technology transfer. IKC is productivity-enhancing among Chinese enterprises ? more so in domestically owned than in foreign invested enterprises. Consistent with other research, we find that China's IKC generates patents in China, but fewer than in major industrialized economies. Among domestically owned enterprise...
Full Text Available The paper studied the factors that made the new generation of migrant workers transform in to the industrial workers by the questionnaire for them in china. On the basis of analyzing the characteristics of the new generation of migrant worker groups, the implementation approaches of their industrialization has been researched from the following four aspects: their on quality, psychological identity, economic base and social environment with the help of structural equation modle. Measures that transformed the new generation of migrant workers into industrial workers had been proposed according to the result of this study.
This HSE information sheet is aimed at employers of outside workers, managers of contractors, health physics staff, appointed safety representatives, radiation protection advisers (RPA) and radiation protection supervisors (RIPS), employers in control of controlled areas which outside workers may enter, and outside workers themselves. This guidance supplements that in the Approved Code of Practice (ACOP) supporting the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (IRR99) available from HSE Books, ISBN 0 7176 1746 7. IRR99 include provisions for outside workers that were previously required under the Ionising Radiations (Outside Workers) Regulations 1993 (OWR), which were revoked when IRR99 came into effect
Wong, M L; Chan, R K; Chua, W L; Wee, S
This study compares the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), condom use, and health-screening behavior between freelance and brothel-based sex workers in Singapore. A total of 111 female freelance sex workers arrested from November 1996 to March 1997 for illicit prostitution were interviewed; 333 brothel-based sex workers served as the comparison group for the analysis. STD test results revealed that freelance sex workers (34.8%) have higher STD rates than brothel-based sex workers (24%). The two most common STDs in both groups were chlamydial cervicitis and syphilis. Moreover, condom use was significantly lower among freelance sex workers than brothel-based sex workers and was associated with younger age (25 years old), decreasing number of clients, and perception of non-condom use among peers. In addition, freelance workers were more educated and had equally high knowledge on STDs and AIDS. Since most of these freelance workers practice high-risk behaviors and poor health screening behaviors such as not going for regular medical check-ups, STD services and education programs should target this group. PMID:10560725
Full Text Available An analysis and generalization of knowledge of features of origin and motion of situations of the armed collision of employees of law enforcement authorities and offenders is conducted. 82 workers of practical subdivisions of internal affairs organs took part in research between workers, who have already necessary to clash and detain criminals with a plain weapon. Canvassed on the specially developed questionnaire. It is set that for the workers of militia the insufficient level of the special theoretical knowledge of features of conduct of offenders and abilities of determination of degree of danger is formed. The aggregate of factors, influencing on a decision-making by an offender in relation to attacking militiaman is certain. It is found out that on a decision to accomplish an attack determining influence is rendered by internal factors: psychological state of offender in the moment of collision, his preparedness and level of motivation.
Alswaidi, F M; Memish, Z A; Al-Hakeem, R F; Atlam, S A
Expatriate workers must be medically examined in their country of origin at accredited centres prior to their arrival in any Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) country and are reexamined when they enter the country. This review investigated the epidemiological profile of registered expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia who were found medically unfit to work. A descriptive analysis was performed on 4,272,480 records of a Ministry of Health database from 1997 to 2010. The greatest proportion of workers was from Indonesia (34.3%). The total proportion of unfit expatriate workers was low (0.71%). The highest rate of unfitness was among workers from Ethiopia (4.06%), followed by Somalia (2.41%). Hepatitis B infection was the most common cause (57.5%), followed by noncommunicable diseases (21.2%) and hepatitis C infection (17.4%). This review suggests that the total number of workers registered in the Saudi Ministry of Health was underestimated, and the rate of unfit workers was lower than for other GCC countries, suggesting that standards and quality assurance in Saudi laboratories require revision. PMID:24975313
Elhosary, Naema; Maklad, Aisha; Soliman, Eman; El-Ashmawy, Nahla; Oreby, Merfat
In Egypt, workers have potentially high exposure levels to chromium (VI) in the cement production and construction industry and to chromium (III) in the leather tanning industry. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chromium exposure on lipoperoxidation, thiol antioxidants and DNA in cement and tannery workers. This study was conducted on 65 adult male volunteers. These subjects were divided into three groups: Group I (control group); 23 normal healthy volunteers, Group II; 22 cement workers and Group III; 20 tannery workers. All participants were subjected to thorough history, clinical examination and laboratory determination of total blood and urinary chromium, plasma malondialdehyde and total thiol in plasma and assessment of oxidative DNA damage through p53 overexpression. About one third of cement and tannery workers had severe skin and chest manifestations and severe nasal manifestations were observed in 22.7% and 20% of cement and tannery workers, respectively. The blood and urinary Cr and plasma malondialdehyde levels of cement and tannery were significantly higher than control group. Additionally, there was a significant increase of total thiol in control group compared to exposed groups. About half of cement and one third of tannery groups expressed high grade of p53 expression. The blood chromium revealed significant negative correlation with thiol, but, positive correlation with malondialdehyde and p53 expression. Cement and tannery workers should be subjected to frequent clinical examination and blood or urine chromium analysis level to keep guard against its toxic consequences. PMID:24617565
Bundi, Martin; Miring’u, Gabriel; Inoue, Shingo; Muriithi, Betty; Ashur, Salame; Wandera, Ernest; Kathiiko, Cyrus; Odoyo, Erick; Narita, Chika; Kwalla, Allan; Galata, Amina; Makumi, Angela; Huka, Sora; Shah, Mohammed; Karama, Mohammed
Pathogens handled in a Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) containment laboratory pose significant risks to laboratory staff and the environment. It is therefore necessary to develop competency and proficiency among laboratory workers and to promote appropriate behavior and practices that enhance safety through biosafety training. Following the installation of our BSL-3 laboratory at the Center for Microbiology Research-Kenya Medical Research Institute in 2006, a biosafety training program was develope...
Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; JØrgensen, Marie Birk
PURPOSE: Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector. The questions concerned usual working hours, quality of leadership, and self-reported implementation of workplace activities aimed at stress reduction, reorganization of the working hours, and participation in improvements of working procedures or qualifications. RESULTS: Compared with day workers, shift workers were less likely to be reached by workplace interventions. For example, night workers less frequently reportedthat they had got more flexibility (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7) or that they had participated in improvements of the working procedures (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8). Quality of leadership to some extent explained the lack of reach of interventions especially among fixed evening workers. CONCLUSIONS: In the light of the evidence of shift workers' stressful working conditions, we suggest that future studies focus on the generalizability of results of the present study and on how to reach this group and meet their needs when designing and implementing workplace interventions.
We investigate the effects of job-specific knowledge for individual labor earnings of workers in the German economy. The results indicate a positive effect for earnings stemming in particular from high-knowledge in the areas of sales and marketing, computers and electronics, mathematics, biology and law and government. Investigating the geographical concentration of employment reveals, for example, that workers with highknowledge in the field of communication and media are concentrated in jus...
Silver, Ken; Bird, Rick; Smith, Alex; Valerio, Daniel; Romero, Hilario
Harriet Hardy, protégé of Alice Hamilton, spent 1948 in the Health Division of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The contemporary campaign for federal legislation to compensate nuclear workers brought to the fore living retirees in whose cases of occupational illness Hardy had a role in diagnosis or case management. A third case is documented in archival records. Methods of participatory action research were used to better document the cases and strategize in light of the evidence, thereby assisting the workers with compensation claims. Medical and neuropsychological exams of the mercury case were conducted. Hardy's diary entries and memoirs were interpreted in light of medicolegal documentation and workers' recollections. Through these participatory research activities, Harriet Hardy's role and influence both inside and outside the atomic weapons complex have been elucidated. An important lesson learned is the ongoing need for a system of protective medical evaluations for nuclear workers with complex chemical exposures. PMID:25261024
Two independent studies of the incidence of chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes in radiation workers who are regularly exposed but below the current recommended limit of 50 mSv (5 rem) per year are discussed. One study examined blood samples over a ten-year period from 200 men engaged in servicing nuclear-powered submarines. The other study was performed by NRPB and 146 radiation workers and 50 unexposed controls were examined. The results of the two studies were in close agreement both concluding that exposure to permitted doses of radiation over a period of years increases the incidence of chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes and that the dose-response relationship at these low doses appears to be linear. The implications of these findings in relation to the induction of cancer and serious hereditary disorders are discussed. (U.K.)
Autor, David H.; Dorn, David; Hanson, Gordon H.; Song, Jae
We analyze the effect of exposure to international trade on earnings and employment of U.S. workers from 1992 through 2007 by exploiting industry shocks to import competition stemming from China?s spectacular rise as a manufacturing exporter paired with longitudinal data on individual earnings by employer spanning close to two decades. Individuals who in 1991 worked in manufacturing industries that experienced high subsequent import growth garner lower cumulative earnings, face elevated risk...
The issue of illegal aliens has received considerable attention in recent years. Concern over the problem of illegal aliens has promulgated an array of efforts by the federal government to examine and revise immigration statutes and practices. Indeed, much debate has arisen over the possibility of instituting a large scale temporary foreign worker program in the United States. The book by professors Miller and Martin addresses some of the basic problems that must be taken into consideration ...
Phanprasit, Wantanee; Sujirarat, Dusit; Musigapong, Pirutchada; Sripaiboonkij, Penpatra; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai
The objectives are to compare the airborne asbestos concentrations resulted from mitering of abestos cement roof sheets by a high-speed motor and a hand saw, and to monitor whether other workers near the test sites are vulnerable to the fibers exceeding the occupational exposure limit. Four test cases were carried out and altogether 7 personal and 4 area air samples were collected. The NIOSH method 7400 was employed for the air samplings and analysis. Using the phase contrast microscopy, fibe...
The first part of this volume describes the effects of radiation on living organism, both at the overall and at the molecular level. Special attention is paid to the metabolism and toxicity of radioactivity substances. The second part deals with radiological exposure, natural, medical and occupational. The third part provides data on radiological protection standards, and the fourth part addresses the health supervision of workers exposed to ionizing radiation, covering both physical and medical control.
Abdusalam A. A. Abuazoum
Full Text Available This study investigates the causes of resistance or support by knowledge workers to the sharing of knowledge. Today, banks are starting to understand the relevance and importance of knowledge sharing. They are also beginning to appreciate knowledge as the most significant and valued asset that leads to organizational performance. Hence, promising motivational factors are expected to be helpful in emphasizing the need for employees to share not only crucial knowledge but also new knowledge to further ensure that the banking industry possesses the competitive edge they seek. This study investigates and thoroughly examines the intrinsic (trust, learning, behavior and extrinsic (organization culture, reward system information technology motivational factors that encourage widespread knowledge sharing among bank employees, especially in the dynamic and ever-growing Islamic banking sector in Malaysia. The research findings provide useful information and help deepen the understanding of banks about motivating their employees’ tendencies to engage in knowledge sharing practices.
Coelho, Ana Cláudia; García Díez, Juan
Advances and research in biotechnology have applications over a wide range of areas, such as microbiology, medicine, the food industry, agriculture, genetically modified organisms, and nanotechnology, among others. However, research with pathogenic agents, such as virus, parasites, fungi, rickettsia, bacterial microorganisms, or genetic modified organisms, has generated concern because of their potential biological risk - not only for people, but also for the environment due to their unpredictable behavior. In addition, concern for biosafety is associated with the emergence of new diseases or re-emergence of diseases that were already under control. Biotechnology laboratories require biosafety measures designed to protect their staff, the population, and the environment, which may be exposed to hazardous organisms and materials. Laboratory staff training and education is essential, not only to acquire a good understanding about the direct handling of hazardous biological agents but also knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenicity, and human susceptibility to the biological materials used in research. Biological risk can be reduced and controlled by the correct application of internationally recognized procedures such as proper microbiological techniques, proper containment apparatus, adequate facilities, protective barriers, and special training and education of laboratory workers. To avoid occupational infections, knowledge about standardized microbiological procedures and techniques and the use of containment devices, facilities, and protective barriers is necessary. Training and education about the epidemiology, pathogenicity, and biohazards of the microorganisms involved may prevent or decrease the risk. In this way, the scientific community may benefit from the lessons learned in the past to anticipate future problems. PMID:25973418
The Power Workers' Union represents workers at Ontario Hydro's nuclear stations and AECL operators at Chalk River. Although labour relations are far from perfect, the union does its best to protect the industry. Avoiding confrontation as much as possible, this union is happy to be regarded as a partner in the business. The union is impressed by the consultants' report on Ontario Hydro's nuclear operations. Whatever the future may bring, the present is not really pleasant for nuclear workers generally, in that the work itself is very demanding technically, and must be performed with great diligence because the responsibility for safety is enormous. Considering the actual safety record, some caricatures or ''cheap shots'' from antinuclear politicians and special interest groups seem quite offensive. As a partner in public relations, the union has produced draft fact sheets on topics such as: transporting radioactive material; the burning of plutonium from dismantled weaponry; deep geological storage of nuclear waste; the sale of Candu reactors to China. The author closes with some advice on how to improve industrial relations, based on the union's experience
Broussard, C. Anne
Article uses literature that addresses lack of family diversity content in teacher training as a springboard to encourage dialogue about new ways school social workers might use their theoretical knowledge of ecological and family systems and family diversity and strengths to collaborate with schools, families, and communities. Implications for…
Ambrose-Smith, Neal; Smith, Janue Quick-to-See
This Instructional Resource relates the experiences of Native American artist Neal Ambrose-Smith, who views himself not only as an artist with a studio practice, but also as an "Arts Worker" who pursues learning new knowledge with his arts-related jobs. Painting, sculpting, and printmaking are only three areas of his studio practice. He…
Mukherjee Shuvankar; Samanta Amrita; Ghosh Santanu
Background: Automobile repair workers may run high risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS infection owing to their socio cultural background. A cross- sectional study was conducted among them in Chetla, Kolkata to assess knowledge, attitude and practices related to HIV/AIDS and to find out difference in knowledge status based on different socio-demographic variables. Materials and Methods: Both qualitative and quantitative methods were adopted. A total of 114 male workers were interviewed from randomly s...
Full Text Available Background: In urban area link workers are playing key role in implementing anti-larval measures and behaviour change communication at community level to prevent and control mosquito borne diseases. Objectives: To check baseline knowledge of link workers regarding mosquito borne diseases and control measures and assess their knowledge 14 days after single educational interventional training. Methodology: All 274 link workers of 17 selected UHCs out of total 57 UHCs were taken as study population and their baseline knowledge regarding mosquito borne diseases and mosquito control measures was assessed by questionnaire. Single educational training for 45 minutes was given to groups of link workers and their post– intervention knowledge for same was assessed after 14 days. Mean, Wilcoxon sign-rank test were applied. Results: Mean age of link workers was 31.3 + 4.8 years. The knowledge regarding Chikungunya, Dengue and Malaria was mosquito borne diseases was respectively 55.5%, 87.9% and 95.5% which was increase after intervention to 100%. But 14.4% did not know filariasis is mosquito borne disease even after training. All link workers know about the chemical (Temephos used for mosquito control (100% but knowledge of proper temephos dose for different volume of water containers was significantly improved after intervention. The overall knowledge regarding mosquito & mosquito control measures was significantly improved after intervention (p value <0.05. Conclusion: Even though link workers were involved in anti-larval activities since from many years, many link workers had poor knowledge regarding the mosquito borne diseases and control measures.
Musk, A. W.; Peach, S.; Ryan, G.
An epidemic of symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma in workers in a mineral analysis laboratory necessitating exposure to vapours of hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, nitric, perchloric, and sulphuric acid solutions was investigated. Variable airflow obstruction was confirmed by serial measurement of FEV1 in two subjects who showed 18% and 22% fall in FEV1 during a workshift. Of a workforce of 21 laboratory staff, 20 took part in a study of ventilatory capacity and bronchial reactivity. All b...
Venables, Km; Upton, JL; Hawkins, ER; Tee, RD; Longbottom, JL; Newman Taylor, AJ
This study examined data from three cross sectional surveys of 296 laboratory workers exposed to small mammals. Four indices of laboratory animal allergy were studied: symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma, symptoms suggestive of any occupational allergy, skin weals to animal urine extracts, and serum binding in radioallergosorbent tests with urine extracts. Pooled data from the three surveys showed an association between smoking and all indices except radioallergosorbent tests; the asso...
Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli; Hernández, Gerardo; Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica; Maldonado-Vega, María; Rosas-Flores, Margarita; Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor
Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8?g/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2?g/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less ?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (?ALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i and 1.6 times higher ?-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. PMID:25448684
Elaine Drehmer De Almeida Cruz; Elucir Gir
The carrier state of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is pointed as infection predictor among hospitalized patients, and factor for environmental and person to person dissemination, including health service workers, when colonized are commonly associate to outbreaks1. Prevention of professional colonization risk is associated to behavior and dependent of knowledge and beliefs in health. Objective: analyze the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva of workers of the nursing, ...
Based on theory regarding mobile communication in general, this essay relates the experiences of migrant workers from both rural and urban areas in Fuzhou, who used mobile phones to stay in contact with the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, to how these contacts supported and encouraged migrant workers to persist in gathering Olympic Games information. In other words, does the relationship between demographics and knowledge about the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games differ according to the use of mobile ...
Malatji, Hlamalane Queen
Sexual offence against children is a complex issue and a major problem in South Africa. Trained and skilled social workers as expert witnesses are needed to help the courts deal with this problem in our courts. A specialised knowledge in the field of forensic expert witnessing in sexual offence cases is a must. Since a University degree in Social Work does not adequately prepare social workers to be effective expert witnesses the Social Work Profession receives much criticism in this regard. ...
Oria Hussein; Muhwezi Wilson; Nabirye Rose C; Okullo Isaac; Mbalinda Scovia N; Chang Larry W; Burnham Gilbert; Mwanika Andrew; Kaye Dan; Kijjambu Stephen; Atuyambe Lynn; Aryeija Warren
Abstract Background Community-based education (CBE) is part of the training curriculum for most health workers in Uganda. Most programs have a stated purpose of strengthening clinical skills, medical knowledge, communication skills, community orientation of graduates, and encouragement of graduates to work in rural areas. This study was undertaken to assess the scope and nature of community-based education for various health worker cadres in Uganda. Methods Curricula and other materials on CB...
Gammelgaard, Jens; Ritter, Thomas
AbstractPrevious discussions of knowledge transfer within multinational corporations tended tofocus on the process as an isolated phenomenon and on the factors that impede the process.Less attention has been given to how the individual knowledge worker retrieves or identifies,and then decodes knowledge accessed from the corporate memory. We suggest thatmultinational companies (MNCs) solve knowledge retrieval problems by implementingvirtual communities of practice - intranet-based collaborative forums. Codification andpersonalization strategies have previously been emphasized as an either-or solution. Thesevirtual communities of practice combine the codification and personalization strategies,simultaneously utilizing the advantages of two approaches.
Full Text Available Knowledge management was introduced to law firms to help create, share, and use knowledge more effectively. Information technology can play an important role in successful knowledge management initiatives. In this paper, information technology support for knowledge management is linked to stages of growth. A model of growth stages is proposed consisting of four stages. The first stage is end-user tools that are made available to knowledge workers, the second stage is information about who knows, the third stage is information from knowledge workers, and the final stage is information systems solving knowledge problems. The model can be used to empirically assess the growth stage of law firms as well as indicate future evolution of law firms in the area of knowledge management technology.
A hot vial manipulator for bottles containing radiopharmaceuticals was designed in order to give better protection to the laboratory workers at the apothecary of the combined hospitals in The Hague (Netherlands). The construction and working is described and the exposure dose reduction calculated. (Auth.)
The purpose of the Nuclear Energy Knowledge Portal is to offer professionals in the nuclear field a direct and efficient access path to scientific and technical expert knowledge. Knowledge ultimately resides with people, it comprises the information and skills that a knowledgeable person commands. In complex systems, knowledge may also exist in a distributed form: A group may be able to succeed in tasks, which exceed the knowledge of every one individual member of the group. In the latter case, there must be at least one person who has the additional organizational knowledge of where key subject knowledge resides within the group. Individual experts may gain knowledge in three ways: - by studying (reading and understanding documented information); - by example and explanation from an expert (on-the-job training, tutoring); - by research (observation, discovery, reasoning). Research is the only way of creating original knowledge which is either truly novel or has existed before, but was lost without sufficient record. It is also the slowest, most expensive and in some cases (failed experiments) the most dangerous way. However, given time and resources, research work will always enable mankind to regain lost knowledge, how ever expensive that may be. While the IAEA has been actively coordinating and fostering nuclear research and development for many years, there are other aspects of nuclear knowledge management, which are now gaining in importance, too. In particular taining in importance, too. In particular the stimulation of interest in the nuclear field in the younger generation and activities associated with succession planning are increasingly recognized as important aspects of knowledge management. Experts who are presently leaving the nuclear field due to retirement or because of professional re-orientation have in many cases gained their knowledge by direct research (scientists) or have been instructed by the original researchers (engineers). Ideally, they should now pass their knowledge on to the next generation of nuclear workers. However, because of the generally reduced interest in the nuclear field, the nuclear workforce is shrinking in a number of countries and it becomes therefore more and more difficult to extend or even to maintain humankind's present knowledge in the nuclear field. The main function of the proposed nuclear knowledge portal is therefore to support and enhance the existing infrastructure for knowledge transmission. The portal will facilitate access to archived materials (on-line and off-line) and foster professional contacts in academic and industrial contexts by identifying centers of excellence (universities, institutes, industries) where nuclear knowledge presently resides
Khanfour-armale?, Rita; Le Mare?chal, Jean-franc?ois
The aim of this research project is to better understand the way knowledge is at work during the postlab sessions during which teachers have the opportunity to point out the relevant knowledge that has been used during the laboratory session. We agree with Polman's claim (1999) that to foster science learning through projects and inquiry, teachers must play a complex role. But which role? Once we will be able to describe the postlab sessions, it will be possible to make hypothesis on their im...
Nuclear power plants have recognized the importance of preserving critical knowledge due to many nuclear experts retiring simultaneously in the near future. The different characteristics of explicit and tacit knowledge have implications on how these types of knowledge can and should be preserved and transferred from the retiring experts to the novices in the NPPs. This paper provides a literature review of the characteristics of tacit knowledge. In addition the DIAMOND model of tacit knowledge in NPP maintenance is presented. In conclusion: In addition to knowing how to perform maintenance tasks (having procedural tacit knowledge), the maintenance workers have to understand the 'what' and 'why' perspectives of the work, e.g. have appropriate cognitive tacit knowledge on the NPP systems, processes and devices as well as knowledge on the reasons and backgrounds for different behaviors. We need to take into account the various aspects of the tacit knowledge when we are determining the methods and aims for sharing tacit knowledge between the employees and especially between experts and novices. Sharing tacit knowledge is not a new invention but observation and imitation (i.e. apprenticeship) is probably the oldest method for teaching and learning. The current emphasis on workplace learning, however, further emphasizes this and the idea that people should become more aware and reflective, and hence, potentially more in control of what and how they learn (Alred aontrol of what and how they learn (Alred and Garvey, 2000). Therefore, as learners and experts are not passive but actively shape their cognitive and procedural tacit knowledge (mainly unconsciously), we need to actively involve them into designing employee training programs and competence development efforts. (authors)
Simone De Bruim Babisk, Mezadre; Monica de Fátima, Bianco.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the work situations and highlight aspects of the knowledge invested by workers when performing marble and granite processing activities. The survey is qualitative and was based on the reality of a small industrial company that deals with processing activities [...] . The case study was based on theoretical and analytical ergology tools by analyzing the organizational documents and safety and health standards that regulate activity. It involved conducting individual interviews with nine workers, organizing a focus group with these workers, and directly observing work for four months while recording a field notebook. The workers’ experiences in the renormalization of working processes, or the introduction of improvements guided by singular aspects of the local work organization, were identified. The workers, through use of oneself, place more importance on meeting deadlines and production targets than on their own safety. Worker competency is directly related to the professional training obtained on the job and is associated with working experience in the absence of an a priori formal education. This article contributes to the field of organizational studies and human resource management because there is a lack of studies on workers from this field that describe the competencies used in actual work. Thus it may guide theoretical and practical management aspects in such working environments and small businesses regarding safer work organization.
Natti, Jouko; Anttila, Timo; Tammelin, Mia
The industrial working-time regime is dissolving--not dramatically, but rather as a trend. A new trend is that those in dynamic sectors and in a good labor market position work long hours: Demanding knowledge work appears to require the marginalization of private life. This study investigates the family situation of knowledge workers, the…
The members states of union have in common the Community directives, transposed by each country in their national legislations.In practice organizations, and even regulations are different from one country to another for more historical and cultural reasons than strictly technical ones. Common objectives and necessity of exchange appeared more strongly because of increase mobility of exposed workers in the European Union and the necessity to facilitate their entry in the European nuclear power plant s respecting quality of medical and dosimetric follow-up, the promotion of the creation of an European worker passport, the strict respect of the European regulations, the necessity of common references for crisis trans-bordering radiological injured persons, the interest of exchanges about good medical or technical practices or specific knowledge's in subject such as therapeutic and follow-up, internal contamination, skin dose..., the interest of exchanges about the technical quality process in laboratories or occupational health services. This group could be integrated in radiation protection society of each country for example. this group will be able to exchange by meetings, technical groups, publications, specific workshops. The different country actually represented are France, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Spain. (N.C.)
Rusli, B. N.; Edimansyah, B. A.; Naing, L.
Several studies on job stress have been conducted among nurses, teachers, clerks, lecturers, laboratory technicians, petroleum and automotive workers and the calculated prevalences ranged from 20-35%; associated factors identified include high job demand, low job control and poor social support. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and associated factors of stress in dental healthcare workers of an institution of higher learning in Kelantan. A cross-sectional stu...
Ferro-Lebres, Vera; Almeida de Souza, Juliana; Alves, Lisandra; Jardim, Marta; Pedrosa, Sofia; Mendes, Sónia; Nogueira, Tiago
It is demonstrated that a better knowledge leads to better eating habits but there are no studies on the relation between NK* and calcium intake. Verify if calcium intake of health professionals is influenced by their NK. 103 workers of the three Hospitals of Oporto filled two previously validated questionnaires Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), General Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire(GNKQ) and a questionnaire about Socio-demographic data. The relation between NK and c...
V. Arakali; E. Faillace
The purpose of this design calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel in the Remediation Facility performing operations to receive, prepare, open, repair, recover, disposition, and correct off-normal and non-standard conditions with casks, canisters, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies, and waste packages (WP). The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the Remediation Facility and provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application.
The purpose of this design calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel in the Remediation Facility performing operations to receive, prepare, open, repair, recover, disposition, and correct off-normal and non-standard conditions with casks, canisters, spent nuclear fuel (SNF) assemblies, and waste packages (WP). The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the Remediation Facility and provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application
Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ), Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (...
McCoy, John L.; Iams, Howard M.
Data from the 1982 New Beneficiary Survey (NBS) were matched with 5 years (1984-88) of Social Security and Medicare data to analyze disabled workers' probability of death and inpatient care. Fifteen percent of the disabled workers died within 18-24 months of initial eligibility; 34 percent died within 5 years. Older disabled workers had higher probabilities of death and hospitalization. Males were two times as likely to die as females, but no more likely to be hospitalized. Black persons also...
Mohammad Reza Iravani
Motivation is one of the most important factors influencing workers' productivity. An increase in workers' motivation could add more value to organizations' structure and influence the profitability, significantly. In this paper, we study different factors on demotivating workers using questionnaire consist of various questions. The questionnaire is distributed among some employees who work for rubber production units located in Esfahan, Iran. The results of this survey indicate that discrimi...
Elwood, P.C.; Sweetnam, P M; Bevan, C; Saunders, M.J.
A high proportion of textile workers handling cotton and flax complain of respiratory symptoms and show a loss in lung function. These effects are reversible in the early stages but the degree to which they lead to permanent respiratory disability is unknown. Two surveys were therefore conducted in which respiratory function and symptoms were compared in ex-textile workers and in control subjects who had never been exposed to textile dusts. One survey was of ex-flax workers in Northern Irelan...
Wang Weixin; Wang Xu; Deng Lei; Gao Jia
The paper studied the factors that made the new generation of migrant workers transform in to the industrial workers by the questionnaire for them in china. On the basis of analyzing the characteristics of the new generation of migrant worker groups, the implementation approaches of their industrialization has been researched from the following four aspects: their on quality, psychological identity, economic base and social environment with the help of structural equation modle. Measures that...
Introduction. This article returns to a theme addressed in Vol. 8(1) October 2002 of the journal: knowledge management and the problem of managing tacit knowledge. Method. The article is primarily a review and analysis of the literature associated with the management of knowledge. In particular, it focuses on the works of a group of economists who have studied the transformation of knowledge into information through the process of codification and the knowledge transaction topography they...
Montoni, Mariella A.; Galotta, Catia; Rocha, Ana Regina; Rabelo, A?lvaro; Rabelo, Lisia
Knowledge management supports decision-making by capturing and analyzing key performance indicators, providing visibility into the effectiveness of the business model, and by concentrating collaborative work and employee knowledge reviews on critical business problems. CardioKnowledge is a knowledge management environment based on the business and process requirements of a health care organization in Cardiology. CardioKnowledge supports organizational processes in order to facilitate the comm...
Background for NKM Course: • A basic level of nuclear knowledge is a part of the general human culture. • An intermediate level of nuclear knowledge is a part of general scientific-technical culture and is taught at university. • An advanced level of nuclear knowledge has been accumulated by many experienced workers in both power and non-power applications. • KM in the last 20 years has established itself as a key strategic approach for management of intellectual assets and knowledge that can improve efficiency and safety, increase innovation and help preserve and enhance current nuclear knowledge. • Considering the critical importance of nuclear knowledge for power generation, medicine, agriculture, it is timely to introduce the concept of managing knowledge at the university level
Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene
OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie, fixed day work (reference) and shift work (four categories), psychosocial work factors, and health behaviors. We conducted binary logistic regression analyses both in the total sample (N=7555) and in a sub-sample consisting of job groups with representatives in all shift work categories (N=2064). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion. Within job groups undertaking shift work, we found few differences between day and shift workers, and these few differences appear to favor shift workers. Day workers and shift workers did not differ significantly with respect to their participation in health promotion. CONCLUSIONS: The present study could not confirm that shift workers in general report a lower availability of and participation in workplace health promotion.
Full Text Available AIM: As the influence of the variations in demographics, average incomes, and living conditions in the length of time, health systems sometimes need to be revised (e.g. size, comprehension, organization, etc. to meet health problems. As a consequence of these changes Model of Family Medicine (MFM has implemented in Sivas Province. This study, therefore, was done to evaluate the current knowledge of this model (MFM of the healthcare workers in inner city of Sivas. METHODS: This descriptive study was performed by face to face interview with 224 people (64,2% out of 349 healthcare workers in 19 primary care units in Sivas city. RESULTS: Nearly half of (49,1% healthcare workers affirmed that the project (MFM was pertaining to the Ministry of Health. Overall, 47,8% of healthcare workers did not suppose the MFM will be efficiently improve the health service. Additionally, healthcare workers believed that MFM will not improve the employees personal rights (60,7%, 73,2% of them declared that they worry about competitive pressure of their employment and scared of unemployment, and finally, 62,1% of them did not want to be a MFM personal in the future. CONCLUSION: Healthcare workers seemed to be poorly-informed about MFM, and they seemed worried about the application of the model. These problems should be taken into account by health system planners. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(1.000: 13-16
European Directive 90/641/Euratom established specific responsibilities regarding training of outside workers. The Spanish transposition of this Directive, through Royal Decree 413/97, distributed the responsibility for outside workers radiation protection training between the outside undertaking (basic training course) and the nuclear and no nuclear installations (e specific training course). The Spanish nuclear Safety Council, (regulatory body in matter of nuclear safety and radiation protection), started in year 2001 the development of a Technical Instruction for official recognition of this issue through publication in the Official State Bulletin. The drawing up of this document has finished at the beginning of 2003. The requirements included in this document will be compulsorily for outside workers involved in tasks carried out it controlled areas in nuclear and fuel cycle installations. This document includes requirements regarding following points: . Requirements needed by the trainers who may teach any basic or specific training course, based on their technical and scientific expertise. . Programme of basic and specific training course, including a description of the contents and the stablished length in hours of each course. . Evaluation of knowledge acquired by means of a test. . Accreditation of successful completion of the course by means of information which should be included in the personal Radiation Passbook. . Validity of the basic and specific traini Validity of the basic and specific training course. . Requirements and proceedings in case of losing the personal Radiation Passbook . Inspection by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council . Requirements for accreditation of training in radiation protection in case of foreigners working as outside exposed workers in Spanish nuclear power plants. (Author) 3 refs
B L Chawada
Full Text Available Background: With the rapid increase in construction sector, the number of female construction workers is increased. The problems of women worker is still not addressed adequately by health sector. Aims and objective: The present study is aimed to explore problems of female workers at construction sites in working environment and to document issues like gender bias, living conditions, vulnerability and slackness of health among female working in construction field. Methodology: This was a Cross sectional study conducted in May 2011in which all females working at the randomly selected construction site were enrolled. The pre-designed semi-structured questionnaire was prepared to study the participant’s response. In-depth interview technique was also used to strengthen the findings. Results: Total of 118 female construction workers participated in the study with mean age found to be 22 years with SD of 6 years. Mean daily wages of female was 120 Rs while for male it was 245 Rs which is double than what female getting. Major health complaints were fatigue/weakness (61 %, backache (30 %, cough (17.5 %, fever (17 %, skin itching (10.5 % and diarrhoea (7 %. They were not even using the government medical facility due to lack of awareness and knowledge about this. No safety measures provided to female as compare to male except at 2 sites where female were provided ‘gloves’. Some (6% of the working females has abuse of chewing tobacco daily or smoking ‘bidi’. The living condition was merely enough to provide any privacy for female. Conclusion: As migratory and floating population, female working in construction field needs attention. Lack of social security and family support make them a vulnerable group for addiction and violence. Alternate way for providing healthcare for these women should be sort out early.
Knowledge workers in software firms solve client problems in sequential and cyclical work processes. Sequential and cyclical work takes place in the value configuration of a value shop. While typical examples of value chains are manufacturing industries such as paper and car production, typical examples of value shops are law firms and medical…
Against the backdrop of intensified migration linked to globalisation, this article considers the implications of knowledge migration for future digital workers. It draws empirically on a socio-material analysis of the international software localisation industry. Localisers' work requires linguistic, cultural and software engineering skills…
An effective knowledge management strategy must encompass three basic elements; a sound resource management and training strategy to maintain nuclear competency in the face of accelerated retirements of current generation of experts and the development of advanced products, effective engineering tools to preserve the current technology and design basis and effective information management systems to facilitate pooling and sharing of information amongst different entities. The Canadian Nuclear Industry and its regulatory agency, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) recognized the importance of nuclear knowledge management and have already implemented a number of initiatives, in order to maintain competency, capture and preserve existing knowledge, advance the nuclear technology, develop future nuclear workers and maintain a critical R and D capability. The paper describes activities and initiatives undertaken or in progress in Canada in order to ensure a smooth transition of nuclear knowledge to the next generation of nuclear workers. Although this paper intends to address the Canadian scene in general, special emphasis will be placed on activities currently underway at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) as the design authority and guardian of the CANDU technology. (author)
This paper dwells upon the financial dimension of workers’ remittances as this issue has assumed significant policy attention across the spectrum of developing countries. Specifically, it addresses the following: i) Literature on workers’’ remittances in a macro economic framework; ii) Stability of workers’ remittances as a sustainable source of external finance; iii) Channels through the workers’ remittances flows into India and the issue of high transaction cost entailed in transm...