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Maximising the value of knowledge workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article focuses on the role of knowledge workers and their contribution to the achievement of an enterprise's objectives. Knowledge workers do not have enough time to keep abreast of new knowledge and need more than motivation to assist with the capturing of tacit knowledge. The purpose of the empirical survey was to determine the role and contribution of knowledge workers to the objectives of a South African technology-oriented
company. A high percentage of respondents indicated a positive relationship between a worker's position on the organisational hierarchy and the opportunities for the worker to make knowledge contributions. The metrics applied to measuring the contribution of knowledge workers need to be considered carefully.

piet Steyn

2010-02-01

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Correlates of Innovation in Knowledge Worker Teams  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability to constantly produce innovations has become the major driver of corporate success and economic growth. Within the workforce, knowledge workers are in the key position to create renewals that produce competitive advantage. This research examined antecedents of innovation in knowledge worker teams. The aim was to find out how knowledge worker team innovation is related with team diversity, within-team interaction and collaboration with external parties. As the subject of know...

Po?yho?nen, Aino

2001-01-01

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Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do n...

2004-01-01

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Document Management for the Knowledge Worker System.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge workers are personnel who perform business processes that involve the use of information resources to generate a product that is itself some form of manipulated information. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Construction Engineering Research Lab...

S. Kappes W. J. Schmidt D. D. Sears

1995-01-01

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Factors Affecting The Retention Of Knowledge Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One of the characteristics of knowledge workers is their high level of mobility. The cost of labour turnover of these key resources is high in both financial and non financial terms. There is thus a need to understand what the factors are that underpin the retention cognitions of knowledge workers. Data was collected from 306 knowledge workers in full time employment representing a wide range of demographic groupings. The results showed that job satisfaction and organisational commitment do not predict knowledge workers’ proposed future length of service.Factor analysis revealed seven underlying dimensions of retention cognitions. Cluster analysis revealed nine distinct clusters of knowledge workers with regard to their retention cognitions. High levels of individualism, need for challenge and focus on personal development were demonstrated. The implications of these findings are discussed. Opsomming
Een van die eienskappe van kenniswerkers is hulle hoë vlak van mobiliteit. Die koste van arbeidsomset van hierdie sleutelbronne is hoog in beide finansiële en nie-finansiële terme. Daar bestaan dus ’n behoefte om die faktore wat onderliggend is aan die retensiekognisies van kenniswerkers te verstaan. Data is ingesamel van 306 kenniswerkers in voltydse diens wat ’n wye reeks demografiese groeperings verteenwoordig. Die resultate dui daarop dat werktevredenheid en organisasieverbondenheid nie die kenniswerkers se verwagte lengte van diens voorspel nie. Faktorontleding het sewe onderliggende dimensies van retensiekognisies blootgelê. ’n Bondelontleding het nege duidelike bondels van kenniswerkers ten opsigte van hulle retensiekognisies onderskei. Hoë vlakke van individualisme, behoefte aan uitdaging en fokus op persoonlike ontwikkeling is aangedui. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

Wilhelm Jordaan

2004-11-01

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Cyborgs and Knowledge Workers? Gendered Constructions of Workers in Vocational Education and Training.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discussions of knowledge workers are gender blind and ignore or devalue women's work. A more useful conception of the worker as cyborg illuminates questions of ownership of skills and knowledge and the blurring of boundaries between humans and technologies. (SK)

Connole, Helen

1996-01-01

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Motivating & Managing Knowledge Workers: Evidences from Diverse Industries & Cultures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reviews existing literature on motivation and knowledge work, and empirical studies in different environments and industries on knowledge work and worker. It also surveys 150 Nigerian knowledge workers with diverse characteristics. It holds that the optimal strategies for managing and motivating knowledge workers are job redesign to increase the intrinsic motivational value of the jobs; competitive financial rewards, empowerment and flexibility, equity, fairness, respect and reg...

2013-01-01

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Outdoor Workers and Sun Protection: Knowledge and Behaviour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at high risk of developing skin cancer. Primary prevention can potentiallyreduce the incidence of skin cancer in this group. This study aimed to determine theknowledge and sun protective behaviour of outdoor workers towards skin cancer. A shortquestionnaire was used to collect data from workers on construction sites during workinghours. Despite workers having knowledge of the risks of skin cancer their use of sun protectionwas less than satisfactory, particularly considering their cumulative exposure.Workplace health education programs for outdoor workers addressing sun protection areindicated, as is further research to increase understanding of issues workers have withsun protection in the workplace.

Jane Cioffi

2012-11-01

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Outdoor Workers and Sun Protection: Knowledge and Behaviour  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Outdoor workers are at high risk of developing skin cancer. Primary prevention can potentiallyreduce the incidence of skin cancer in this group. This study aimed to determine theknowledge and sun protective behaviour of outdoor workers towards skin cancer. A shortquestionnaire was used to collect data from workers on construction sites during workinghours. Despite workers having knowledge of the risks of skin cancer their use of sun protectionwas less than satisfactory, particularly consideri...

Jane Cioffi; Lesley Wilkes; Brien, Jess O.

2012-01-01

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Corpi di knowledge workers forzatamente a disposizione  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nel contesto di analisi delle condizioni di lavoro nell’era della conoscenza e delle tecnologie digitali, il nostro contributo vuole mettere l’attenzione sulle rappresentazioni dei/lle knowledge workers sulla progressiva ridefinizione dell’esperienza corporea, in direzione della perdita di rapporto con il corpo concreto, a favore di un corpo astrattamente inteso. Il discorso si colloca nella logica del “capitalismo tecno-nichilista”, inteso come “un sistema che, sfruttando la sistematica separazione tra le funzioni e i significati, si è progressivamente affermato quale modello di riferimento nel corso degli ultimi decenni”. La domanda di ricerca che ci poniamo in questo contributo è: in qual modo la precarizzazione del lavoro modifica le percezioni dei soggetti, e nello specifico dei lavoratori e delle lavoratrici della conoscenza, nella relazione con il proprio corpo? Nel discutere tale questione, intendiamo concentrarci non solo sugli effetti, ma anche sui processi e sulle relazioni sociali in cui i soggetti – e in varie forme anche le loro esperienze corporee – sono coinvolte.

Annalisa Murgia

2011-07-01

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KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTIONS OF EXTENSION WORKERS ON SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the expansion of crop productions there has been an increase in the fertilizersâ?? use by farmers in Malaysia. Recently Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP is gaining attention within agricultural sector. The Department of Agriculture facilitates regular delivery of SAP knowledge to farmers through extension workers. However extension workersâ?? perceptions and knowledge on SAP is not known well in Malaysia. A survey of extension workers was conducted in peninsular Malaysia to identify their perceptions and knowledge about SAP and determine the extent to which extension workers communicate SAP to the farmers. A descriptive research design was used to collect data from 400 extension workers. Results suggest extension workersâ?? perceptions and knowledge of SAP are favorable. Extension workers indicated that they communicate SAP information to the farmers. Further investigation from farmersâ?? perspectives is required to discover to what extent extension plays significant role in promoting adoption of the program.

Jegak Uli

2013-01-01

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Knowledge workers & knowledge utilization. Professionalizing interchange of knowledge between practice and science  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the era of "Knowledge Societies" innovations and expertise are often called the most important resources (Daniel Bell; Peter Drucker) especially for organizations, and the knowledge worker becomes a famous object of sociological research (e.g. Helmut Willke). In theories of organizational learning (e.g. Agyris and Schön) the individual actor and his attitudes aren't in the focus of interest. Here we will present a qualitative research on practitioners from different professions an...

2005-01-01

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KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTIONS OF EXTENSION WORKERS ON SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the expansion of crop productions there has been an increase in the fertilizersâ?? use by farmers in Malaysia. Recently Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP) is gaining attention within agricultural sector. The Department of Agriculture facilitates regular delivery of SAP knowledge to farmers through extension workers. However extension workersâ?? perceptions and knowledge on SAP is not known well in Malaysia. A survey of extension workers was conducted in peni...

2013-01-01

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Knowledge and practices regarding injury care among stone quartz workers.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study designed as cross sectional study was carried out to study the knowledge and practice regarding injury care among stone quartz workers of Chhotaudepur. A total of 137 stone quartz workers were included in the study, which consisted of 54.7% males and 45.3% females. 85.4% of the workers were illiterate and almost all the workers belonged to lower socio-economic strata according to the Modified Kuppuswamy?s socio-economic scale. Majority of the subjects (56.2% responded that they would consult doctor if they get injured while 32.2% responded that they would neglect the wound, as it will heal spontaneously. Thus the present study suggests that the knowledge regarding injury care among stone quartz workers was poor. Even the attitude and practice regarding injury care was also inappropriate.

Tiwari R

2003-07-01

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All power to the knowledge worker  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper looks at the effects of deregulation and restructuring in the United States electric power industry. This capital intensive industry has poured huge dollar investments in power generation, transmission and distribution in the past. This trend has started to decline and successful utilities are beginning to invest in human-capital-intensive, employing traders, marketers, strategists and other financial experts. This shift from blue-collar workers to ``knowledgworker`` is described and explained. (UK)

McCaughey, John

1997-03-01

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Organizational Learning through Knowledge Workers and Infomediaries  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge management is defined and compared to information management and the institutional research function. In order to promote learning, new tools such as learning histories are needed, mistakes must be valued, and dissatisfaction recognized as part of the learning process.

Milam, John

2005-01-01

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Knowledge, attitude, and practice of dyeing and printing workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview . Results: The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (?10.7. When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s, all the workers agreed that dye(s will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE such as rubber hand gloves during work. Conclusion: The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.

Paramasivam Parimalam

2010-01-01

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Ubiquitous consultation tool for decentral knowledge workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The special issue of this initial study is to examine the current work situation of consulting companies, and to elaborate a concept for supporting decentralized working consultants. The concept addresses significant challenges of decentralized work processes by deploying the Peer-to-Peer methodology to decentralized expert and Knowledge Management, cooperation, and enterprise resource planning.

Nazari Shirehjini, A. A.; Ru?hl, C.; Noll, S.

2003-01-01

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Knowledge sharing in electronic working environments - experiences and practices of knowledge workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective of the Study The objective of the study was to discover how knowledge workers use electronic working environments (EWEs) to share and communicate knowledge and what are the perceived benefits using EWEs. The case company is a knowledge intensive company operating in sales consulting. Knowledge sharing practices were studied within the case company in order to answer the following research questions 1) How do the employees use EWEs? 2) How do they share knowledge using the EWE...

Merilehto, Antti

2010-01-01

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Shareholders Should Welcome Knowledge Workers as Directors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"The most influential approach of corporate governance, the view of shareholders supremacyndoes not take into consideration that the key task of modern corporations is to generate andntransfer firm-specific knowledge. It proposes that, in order to overcome the widespreadncorporate scandals, the interests of top management and directors should be increasinglynaligned to shareholder interests by making the board more responsible to shareholders, andnmonitoring of top management by independent o...

Osterloh, Margit; Frey, Bruno S.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Supplier's sales engineer as a knowledge worker:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper forms part of a multiple case study in progress that focuses on information relationships, i.e., the exchange of information and knowledge at the micro-social level between supplier and buyer firms in the fuzzy front end of product development. The micro-social level is made up of dyadic information relationships between the Design Engineer of buyer firms and the Sales Engineer of supplier firms. The case study explores the information relationship through the lens of three theoreti...

Kopecka, J. A.; Santema, S. C.; Hultink, H. J.

2012-01-01

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The workers role in knowledge management and sustainability policies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the concepts of sustainability and knowledge management, this article seeks to identify points of contact between the two themes through an exploratory study of existing literature. The first objective is to find, in international literature, the largest number of papers jointly related to the theme of knowledge management and sustainability. In these documents, the authors looked at the kind of relationship existing between the two themes and what the benefits introduced in organizations are. Based on an ergonomic point of view, the second objective of this article is to analyze the role of the worker (whether at the strategic or operational level) and his importance in this context. The results demonstrate that there is very little literature that addresses the two themes together. The few papers found, however, can be said to show the many advantages of introducing sustainability policies supported by adequate knowledge management. Very little has been studied with regards to the role of workers, which could be interpreted as meaning that little importance is given to the proactive role they may play. On the other hand, there is a high potential for future research in these areas, based on the high level of consideration of workers in knowledge management and sustainability literature, as well as in literature in the areas of ergonomics and sociology. PMID:22317131

Bolis, Ivan; Brunoro, Claudio; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal

2012-01-01

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In Search of Influence - Leading Knowledge Workers with Care  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Managers in Research and development (R&D are in search of influence because knowledge workers valueautonomy and dislike direct supervision. The purpose of this article is to explore if and how leadership support isconnected to influence. Through interviews with knowledge workers, it is evident that they expect their managerto be supportive and take an interest in them as complete persons. Observations and interviews with managersreveal that they fulfill these expectations by engaging in listening and chatting. In addition, the data alsoillustrates that managers care about their employees. The analysis shows that manager’s activities of care canindeed be a source of social influence, illustrating close connection between emotion and influence. Thisintertwinement should inspire future research to look deeper and broader for potential sources of influence in theleadership process, but also to acknowledge the importance of leadership in the setting of innovation.

Ola Edvin Vie

2012-10-01

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Transformational leadership and employee engagement amongst knowledge workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study attempts to add to the previous research conducted on the relationship between specific leadership styles and employee engagement in the workplace. There are numerous studies of factors influencing organisational and team performance and these have attempted to find relationships amongst numerous key variables in order to predict organisational success. A significant contributor towards organisational performance identified, particularly within knowledge worker companies, is the vi...

2013-01-01

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Acquiring career capital components for knowledge workers across different industries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The competitive nature of the world of work today and the resultant opportunities in global career mobility for knowledge workers is gaining momentum across industries. This emergence of the global economy has prompted the need to investigate the differences or similarities of career capital components and methods of acquisition and accrual across industries.The research was conducted in two phases. The first quantitative phase was set out to investigate career capital components and m...

2012-01-01

26

Knowledge work difficulty factors: an empirical study based on different groups of knowledge workers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The determination of the difficulty factor in knowledge work can be important for improving the performance of knowledge workers. In this article a regression model for investigating the difficulty of knowledge based activities (KBAs) is proposed. Four factors are considered in the model: Uncertaint [...] y, Variability of information, Amount of information and Level of skill and expertise. An empirical study based on 119 jobs from three different groups of knowledge workers (i.e. managerial, professional and clerical) shows that there are significant differences between the difficulty of the KBAs in managerial, clerical and professional jobs, and that managerial KBAs are more difficult than the KBAs of the other two groups. Furthermore, regression models indicate that Level of skill and expertise is the most influential factor in the difficulty of the KBAs in each of the three groups.

Jalil Heidary, Dahooie; Abbas, Afrazeh; Seyed Mohammad Moathar, Hosseini; Mohammad Reza Ghezel, Arsalan.

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The linkage between the lifestyle of knowledge workers and their intra-metropolitan residential choice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As knowledge-based economy is recognized as a powerful engine of economic growth and regional competitiveness, policy makers increasingly invest in branding their cities as knowledge-cities and focus on retaining and attracting knowledge-workers. Consequently, most studies related to the residential choice of knowledge workers focus on the inter-regional level, and empirical evidence regarding the residential choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level remains scarce.

2011-01-01

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Relationship of stress and knowledge workers productivity in Mess-Sarcheshmeh Company  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background and aims   the stress is creating from high density, complexity and long hours of work. Stress is higher among Knowledge workers because of the nature of knowledge work based on the complexity and high focus, aside from the Millennium Challenge is the productivity of   Knowledge workers. The aim of this study reviews the relationship between stress and productivity of Knowledge workers at the Mess-Sarcheshmeh company.     Methods   in this cross sectional study was studied 12...

2010-01-01

29

Guidelines for Biosafety Training Programs for Workers Assigned to BSL-3 Research Laboratories.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Guidelines for Biosafety Training Programs for Workers Assigned to BSL-3 Research Laboratories were developed by biosafety professionals who oversee training programs for the 2 national biocontainment laboratories (NBLs) and the 13 regional biocontainment laboratories (RBLs) that participate in the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) NBL/RBL Network. These guidelines provide a general training framework for biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) high-containment laboratories, identify key training concepts, and outline training methodologies designed to standardize base knowledge, understanding, and technical competence of laboratory personnel working in high-containment laboratories. Emphasis is placed on building a culture of risk assessment-based safety through competency training designed to enhance understanding and recognition of potential biological hazards as well as methods for controlling these hazards. These guidelines may be of value to other institutions and academic research laboratories that are developing biosafety training programs for BSL-3 research. PMID:23477631

Homer, Lesley C; Alderman, T Scott; Blair, Heather Ann; Brocard, Anne-Sophie; Broussard, Elaine E; Ellis, Robert P; Frerotte, Jay; Low, Eleanor W; McCarthy, Travis R; McCormick, Jessica M; Newton, JeT'Aime M; Rogers, Francine C; Schlimgen, Ryan; Stabenow, Jennifer M; Stedman, Diann; Warfield, Cheryl; Ntiforo, Corrie A; Whetstone, Carol T; Zimmerman, Domenica; Barkley, Emmett

2013-03-01

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An Analysis on the Knowledge Workers’ Turnover: A Psychological Contract Perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge workers are gradually becoming the most valuable and productive part of employees, but their intrinsic characters lead to their high turnover rate. As viewed from the theory of psychological contract, this article analyzes the flow process of knowledge workers, establishes the employee satisfaction model and finds out that one important reason inducing knowledge workers’ high turnover rate is to ignore and breach their psychological expectations. Based on that, this article also p...

Yumei Wang; Zhen Zhu; Qing Cong

2009-01-01

31

An Analysis on the Knowledge Workers’ Turnover: A Psychological Contract Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge workers are gradually becoming the most valuable and productive part of employees, but their intrinsic characters lead to their high turnover rate. As viewed from the theory of psychological contract, this article analyzes the flow process of knowledge workers, establishes the employee satisfaction model and finds out that one important reason inducing knowledge workers’ high turnover rate is to ignore and breach their psychological expectations. Based on that, this article also puts forward the countermeasures to reduce knowledge workers’ turnover rate by managing their psychological contracts.

Yumei Wang

2009-02-01

32

Clinical laboratory results of vanadium-exposed workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vanadium pentoxide exposure and its effect on select hematologic and chemical laboratory tests for workers exposed to 0.2 to 0.5 mg/m/sup 3/ vanadium was studied. No assocation was found between vanadium exposure and the results of laboratory tests. The values of some chemical laboratory tests differed from those of controls. These findings, however, were not considered to be clinically significant because the mean values differed only slightly from each other. Hematologic tests showed no abnormalities when the concentration of vanadium in the factory air was 0.01 to 0.04 mg/m/sup 3/.

Kiviluoto, M. (Health Center of Otanmaeki Mine of Rautaruukki Co., Finland); Pakarinen, A.; Lauripyy, L.

1981-05-01

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Energy conservation attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors in science laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy use per square foot from science research labs is disproportionately higher than that of other rooms in buildings on campuses across the nation. This is partly due to labs’ use of energy intensive equipment. However, laboratory management and personnel behavior may be significant contributing factors to energy consumption. Despite an apparent increasing need for energy conservation in science labs, a systematic investigation of avenues promoting energy conservation behavior in such labs appears absent in scholarly literature. This paper reports the findings of a recent study into the energy conservation knowledge, attitude and behavior of principle investigators, laboratory managers, and student lab workers at a tier 1 research university. The study investigates potential barriers as well as promising avenues to reducing energy consumption in science laboratories. The findings revealed: (1) an apparent lack of information about options for energy conservation in science labs, (2) existing operational barriers, (3) economic issues as barriers/motivators of energy conservation and (4) a widespread notion that cutting edge science may be compromised by energy conservation initiatives. - Highlights: ? Effective energy conservation and efficiency depend on social systems and human behaviors. ? Science laboratories use more energy per square foot than any other academic and research spaces. ? Time, money, quality control, and convenience overshadow personnel’s desire to save energy. ? Ignorance of conservation practices is a barrier to energy conservation in labs.

2012-11-01

34

Contributing Knowledge and Knowledge Workers: The Role of Chinese Universities in the Knowledge Economy  

Science.gov (United States)

As China has appeared only recently as an important knowledge producer with growing global economic significance, little is known internationally about how these processes develop and are managed within China. The rapidly expanding Chinese higher education system is playing an increasingly important role in China's knowledge economy and therefore…

Chen, Shuang-Ye

2012-01-01

35

The role of the psychological contract amongst knowledge workers in the reinsurance industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The core assets of reinsurance organisations lie in the knowledge, skills and experience of knowledge workers. The source of competitive advantage within the reinsurance industry lies in managers’ ability to harness and foster discipline, willingness and innovation amongst knowledge workers. Innovation is a key challenge in knowledge intensive firms and it is therefore critical that executives find ways of encouraging an environment that is conducive to sharing ideas, building trust and mot...

2004-01-01

36

Knowledge and communication needs assessment of community health workers in a developing country: a qualitative study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Primary health care is a set of health services that can meet the needs of the developing world. Community health workers act as a bridge between health system and community in providing this care. Appropriate knowledge and communication skills of the workers are key to their confidence and elementary for the success of the system. We conducted this study to document the perceptions of these workers on their knowledge and communication needs, image buildin...

Haq Zaeem; Hafeez Assad

2009-01-01

37

KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICE OF LABORATORY TECHNICIANS REGARDING UNIVERSAL WORK PRECAUTION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Objective of the present study is to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of universal work precautions amongst medical laboratory technicians in private hospitals. Methodology: Cross-sectional study of health care workers was conducted using a pretested self-administered questionnaire, which enquired about knowledge, attitude and practices of universal work precautions. The hepatitis B vaccination statuses were also asked. Results: 200 questionnaires were administered t...

Jitendra Zaveri

2012-01-01

38

Cancer and workers' compensation at Chalk River nuclear laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes the circumstances leading to the notification to the Worker's Compensation Board of Ontario of two cases of cancer, both involving the lymphatic and haematoporetic systems, in employees at Chalk River Nulcear Laboratories. Twenty of these neoplasms are known to have occurred in the CRNL population between 1966 and 1983. The leukemia/lymphoma ratio observed in the twenty neoplasms is similar to that found in populations not occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. The possible relationship between asbestos exposure and lymphoid neoplasms was discussed. 5 refs

1985-08-01

39

Genotoxic damage in pathology anatomy laboratory workers exposed to formaldehyde  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical traditionally used in pathology and anatomy laboratories as a tissue preservative. Several epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to FA have indicated an increased risk of nasopharyngeal cancers in industrial workers, embalmers and pathology anatomists. There is also a clear evidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas from inhalation studies in the rat. The postulated mode of action for nasal tumours in rats was considered biologically plausible and considered likely to be relevant to humans. Based on the available data IARC, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, has recently classified FA as a human carcinogen. Although the in vitro genotoxic as well as the in vivo carcinogenic potentials of FA are well documented in mammalian cells and in rodents, evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting thus remains to be more documented. To evaluate the genetic effects of long-term occupational exposure to FA a group of 30 Pathological Anatomy laboratory workers was tested for a variety of biological endpoints, cytogenetic tests (micronuclei, MN; sister chromatid exchange, SCE) and comet assay. The level of exposure to FA was evaluated near the breathing zone of workers, time weighted average of exposure was calculated for each subject. The association between the biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic metabolising and DNA repair enzymes was also assessed. The mean level of exposure was 0.44 ± 0.08 ppm (0.04-1.58 ppm). MN frequency was significantly higher (p = 0.003) in the exposed subjects (5.47 ± 0.76) when compared with controls (3.27 ± 0.69). SCE mean value was significantly higher (p < 0.05) among the exposed group (6.13 ± 0.29) compared with control group (4.49 ± 0.16). Comet assay data showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) of TL in FA-exposed workers (60.00 ± 2.31) with respect to the control group (41.85 ± 1.97). A positive correlation was found between FA exposure levels and MN frequency (r = 0.384, p = 0.001) and TL (r = 0.333, p = 0.005). Regarding the genetic polymorphisms studied, no significant effect was found on the genotoxic endpoints. The results of the present biomonitoring study emphasize the need to develop safety programs

2008-10-30

40

Knowledge workers' creativity and the role of the physical work environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

ABSTRACT The present study examines the effect of the physical work environment on the creativity of knowledge workers, compared with the effects of creative personality and the social-organizational work environment. Based on data from 274 knowledge workers in 27 SMEs, we conclude that creative personality, the social-organizational work environment, and the physical work environment independently affect creative performance. The relative contribution of the physical work environment is s...

Dul, J.; Ceylan, C.; Jaspers, F. P. H.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Passion at work: blogging practices of knowledge workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

While experiments with blogging are underway in many businesses, research that could inform them is limited. In this dissertation early adopters of weblogs are studied to provide an understanding of uses of weblogs in relation to work and insights relevant for introducing blogging in knowledge-intensive environments. The study is guided by the knowledge work framework that integrates task-based and personal knowledge management views on knowledge work, including both tasks, as the essence of ...

Efimova, La

2009-01-01

42

Evaluation of Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior of Workers towards Occupational Health and Safety  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"nBackground: Studies show that about 90% of accidents occur because of unsafe behavior and human errors. Even if workers do not have the right knowledge, attitude and behavior toward safety measures in a safe workplace, all efforts for an accident-free workplace will be in vain. This study aims to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior of workers toward occupational health and safety."nMethods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on workers in Ma...

2009-01-01

43

A knowledge and awareness level survey of radiation protection among the radiation workers in Henan Province  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Objective: To reveal the knowledge and awareness level of radiation protection among radiation workers in Henan province and to explore the methods to improve it. Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out among 208 radiation workers. Results: The correct rate of the answer to radiation protection knowledge from radiation workers in Henan province is 53.78%. Most of them (88.9%) realized that it is important to protect patients and their companions. They adhere to the principles of justification of medial exposure and optimization of radiation protection and follow the management system of radiation protection. However, a few workers didn't follow the principles strictly. Sometime, during the radio diagnosis and radiotherapy services, the patients and their companions were not well protected from the radiation, and some patients were given unnecessary X-ray examine. Even worse, some workers did not attach importance to the regulations of radiation protection and disobey them frequently. Again, some hospital leaders disregard the regulation of radiation protection and didn't follow the regulation of health surveillance and radiation protection monitoring properly. And those behaviors and attitude, in fact, influence some workers' attitude to radiation protection. Conclusion: The level of radiation protection knowledge and awareness among the radiation workers in Henan province needs to be improved. It is necessary to strengthen radiation protection knowledge by strengthening training, and to improve safety awareness among the radiation staff, and, more important, the hospital leaders as well. (author)

2008-10-19

44

KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICE OF LABORATORY TECHNICIANS REGARDING UNIVERSAL WORK PRECAUTION  

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Full Text Available Objective: Objective of the present study is to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of universal work precautions amongst medical laboratory technicians in private hospitals. Methodology: Cross-sectional study of health care workers was conducted using a pretested self-administered questionnaire, which enquired about knowledge, attitude and practices of universal work precautions. The hepatitis B vaccination statuses were also asked. Results: 200 questionnaires were administered to laboratory technicians and 154 of them were returned giving a response rate of 77%. All the participants wear gloves during laboratory work but 81.2% wear a single pair. 17.5 % of the participants claimed to know what to do if exposed to infection. 45.6% of the participants eat in the laboratory, 47.0% of them store foods and water in the refrigerators, 31.5% of them put on cosmetics in the laboratory, 12.6% smoke in the laboratory, 10.0% cut their finger nails with teeth in the laboratory. 91.5% are not immunized against hepatitis B virus (HBV. 99.0% of them do not take shower immediately after laboratory work. 82.0% of the participants do not feel that the use of masks is necessary in laboratory. Conclusion: It is concluded that the knowledge, attitude, perception, and compliance with universal work precautions amongst laboratory technicians are poor. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 113-115

Jitendra Zaveri

2012-02-01

45

Knowledge of Normal and Pathological Memory Aging in College Students, Social Workers, and Health Care Professionals  

Science.gov (United States)

The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of normal memory changes and pathological memory deficits in adulthood. In Experiment 1, undergraduate and graduate social work students and social work practitioners completed the KMAQ. Social workers and graduate students were more accurate on the pathological than…

Cherry, Katie E.; Allen, Priscilla D.; Jackson, Erin M.; Hawley, Karri S.; Brigman, Susan

2010-01-01

46

Knowledge and communication needs assessment of community health workers in a developing country: a qualitative study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary health care is a set of health services that can meet the needs of the developing world. Community health workers act as a bridge between health system and community in providing this care. Appropriate knowledge and communication skills of the workers are key to their confidence and elementary for the success of the system. We conducted this study to document the perceptions of these workers on their knowledge and communication needs, image building through mass media and mechanisms for continued education. Methods Focus group discussions were held with health workers and their supervisors belonging to all the four provinces of the country and the Azad Jammu & Kashmir region. Self-response questionnaires were also used to obtain information on questions regarding their continued education. Results About four fifths of the respondents described their communication skills as moderately sufficient and wanted improvement. Knowledge on emerging health issues was insufficient and the respondents showed willingness to participate in their continued education. Media campaigns were successful in building the image of health workers as a credible source of health information. Conclusion A continued process should be ensured to provide opportunities to health workers to update their knowledge, sharpen communication skills and bring credibility to their persona as health educators.

Hafeez Assad

2009-07-01

47

Strategic Knowledge Workers Features in the Context of Communities of Practice  

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Full Text Available Communities of Practice (CoPs provide a good medium for effective utilization of knowledge workers and group innovation in an organization. It is also an organizational instrument for developing competitive advantage based on chosen business strategy.  For effective operation of CoPs and utilization of organizational resources business strategy and knowledge sharing attributes of knowledge workers play a key role in effective design of CoPs. Furthermore, to enable effective implementation of CoPs, an IT enabled knowledge hub is considered useful. This research combines the above mentioned components to develop a CoPs enabled knowledge hub.  This research can help organizations to design and implement CoPs based on business strategy and knowledge sharing attribute fit. 

Mei-Tai Chu

2012-11-01

48

Knowledge and Practice Assessment of Workers in a Pharmaceutical Company about Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coronary artery disease is one of the most common reasons of death around the world. Also, according to previous studies, the incidence of coronary artery disease is rapidly increasing in developing countries such as Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and practice of pharmaceutical company workers towards the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In this cross sectional study that was conducted in Tehran, 1223 workers of a pharmaceutical company were enrolled. Data was ...

Mirsaeed Attarchi; Saber Mohammadi; Marzieh Nojomi; Yasser Labbafinejad

2012-01-01

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Risk Perception, Knowledge and Safety Attitude and Hearing Protector Use in Petrochemical Industry Workers  

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Background and Aim: Hearing protectors (HP) are widely employed as the only measure against noise exposure. However, it is well known that unless do workers wear HP continuously, its efficacy will be very low. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of risk perception, knowledge and safety attitude on hearing protection use in petrochemical industry's workers.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study a structural questionnaire was administrated to 236 randomly se...

2008-01-01

50

A mental health training program for community health workers in India: impact on knowledge and attitudes  

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Abstract Background Unmet needs for mental health treatment in low income countries are pervasive. If mental health is to be effectively integrated into primary health care in low income countries like India then grass-roots workers need to acquire relevant knowledge and skills to be able to recognise, refer and support people experiencing mental disorders in their own communities. This study aims to provide a mental health training intervention to community health workers in...

Armstrong Gregory; Kermode Michelle; Raja Shoba; Suja Sujatha; Chandra Prabha; Jorm Anthony F

2011-01-01

51

Risk Perception, Knowledge and Safety Attitude and Hearing Protector Use in Petrochemical Industry Workers  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing protectors (HP are widely employed as the only measure against noise exposure. However, it is well known that unless do workers wear HP continuously, its efficacy will be very low. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of risk perception, knowledge and safety attitude on hearing protection use in petrochemical industry's workers.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study a structural questionnaire was administrated to 236 randomly selected workers in Iranian petrochemical industry who had been to 85 dBA noise and some influencing factors including risk perception, knowledge and general attitude to safety on using of HP had been investigated.Results: This study showed that only 20.3% of employees claimed to wear hearing protection all the time when they exposed to noise. There was a significant relationship between use of hearing protector and worker's risk perception (p=0.048 and also their knowledge about hearing protection(p=0.009. Also, the relationship between general attitude of workers to safety and risk perception was statistically significant (p=0.046. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that for promoting the use of hearing protectors, two main strategy should be followed. First, removing the barriers to make hearing protectors compliant, and second enhancing the workers’ risk perception about hearing loss and proper use of ear protectors.

Mahdi Jahangiri

2008-06-01

52

Knowledge and Practice Assessment of Workers in a Pharmaceutical Company about Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease  

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Full Text Available Coronary artery disease is one of the most common reasons of death around the world. Also, according to previous studies, the incidence of coronary artery disease is rapidly increasing in developing countries such as Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and practice of pharmaceutical company workers towards the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In this cross sectional study that was conducted in Tehran, 1223 workers of a pharmaceutical company were enrolled. Data was collected using a questionnaire that assessed the level of knowledge and practice of the participants towards coronary artery disease. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between study variables and the workers knowledge level. The results of this study showed that 49% of the workers were in a good level of knowledge and according to the regression analysis, the female gender, age above 28, education level higher than high school diploma, body mass index above 25 kilograms per square meters, history of hyperlipidemia, history of diabetes, history of hypertension, history of myocardial infarction, daily activity and exercise, were significantly related to a good knowledge towards coronary artery disease. In addition, the mean score of the participants' performance in preventing coronary artery disease was 4.66 out of 9. The results of this study showed that increasing level of knowledge of labors in order to prevent missing specialized work force, leads to imposition of health costs to the industry and the labor society.

Yasser Labbafinejad

2012-10-01

53

Residential location choice of knowledge-workers: The role of amenities, workplace and lifestyle  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study investigates the residential location choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level by applying discrete choice models. The models represent housing choices of 833 knowledge-workers in high-technology and financial services and analyze the relative importance of lifestyle and cultural amenities in addition to classic location factors. Hence, the model bridges the gap between the recent lifestyle-oriented and the classical utility-oriented conceptualizations of the residential choice of knowledge-workers. The most important factors are municipal socioeconomic level, housing affordability and commuting time, while substantial secondary factors are cultural and educational land-use and culture-oriented lifestyle. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Kaplan, Sigal

2013-01-01

54

Knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire: description, reliability and internal consistency  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low among health workers and the general community in Nigeria and other Sub-Saharan African countries. Poor knowledge and awareness about childhood autism, especially among health workers can compromise early recognition and interventions which had been known to improve prognosis in children with autism. In formulating policy and designing interventions for these children, there is need to develop a reliable tool that can be used in assessing baseline knowledge about childhood autism among health workers and the impact that future continued education and awareness campaign may have on such baseline knowledge. Knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire was designed for this purpose. Methods The KCAHW questionnaire is a nineteen (19 item self-administered questionnaire that is divided into four domains. KCAHW questionnaires were distributed to fifty (50 psychiatric nurses involved in community mental health services in South-Eastern Nigeria to complete. After two weeks period, the KCAHW questionnaires were re-administered to the same fifty (50 psychiatric nurses to assess their knowledge about childhood autism and to assess the test-retest reliability and internal consistency of this questionnaire. Results KCAHW questionnaire showed good test-retest reliability when the mean domain and total scores at first and second time administration were compared. The four mean domain scores and the mean total scores at first and second time administration were significantly correlated. The questionnaire also had a good overall internal consistency when the mean scores of the four domains were correlated with mean total scores (Cronbach's alpha = 0.97. Conclusion The KCAHW questionnaire is a reliable tool for assessing knowledge of health workers about childhood autism. It would be a useful tool in improving early recognition of features of autism among affected children in Sub-Saharan African and other developing countries of the world where knowledge and awareness about childhood autism is low.

Agomoh Ahamefule O

2008-06-01

55

Knowledge and Attitudes of Healthcare Workers in Umraniye, Turkey Regarding Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever  

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Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers in primary health care centres regarding Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF in Umraniye.Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from July-August 2008 in 18 primary healthcare centres in the Umraniye Provincial Health Directorate. The study sample was not selected and we approached 229 healthcare workers working in these primary health care centres; 144 participants (62.8% completed the study. Study data were collected using a three-part questionnaire including 35 questions. The data were evaluated by descriptive statistics and t-tests.Results: Of the participants (72.2% women, 68.7% thought they had sufficient knowledge about the disease. 99.3% knew the aetiological factor of CCHF is a virus, and 92.4% specified that people who go picnicking and camping without protection are a risk group. The mean CCHF knowledge points was 17.48±3.37; the mean score of doctors (18.31±3.24 was significantly higher that that of nurses (17.01±3.36, p<0.05. 72.2% thought caring for a CCHF patient was a high risk task. Conclusion: The knowledge level of healthcare workers was found to be low compared to other studies performed in Turkey. The knowledge level of doctors was higher than that of nurses. In general, the answers of healthcare workers on the attitude questions were negative.

Seyhan H?d?ro?lu

2012-06-01

56

Study of Profile, Knowledge and Problems of Anganwadi Workers in ICDS Blocks: A Cross Sectional Study  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To study the profile of Anganwadi Workers (AWWs. To assess knowledge of AWWs & problems faced by them while working. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: Anganwadi centres were selected by stratified sampling technique. From each block 10% AWWs were enrolled into study. The functioning of AWWs was assessed by interviewing Anganwadi workers for their literacy status, years of experience, their knowledge about the services rendered by them and problems faced by them. Result: Most of AWWs were from the age group of between 41-50 years; more than half of them were matriculate and 34(69.38% workers had an experience of more than 10 years. Majority (81.63 % of AWWs had a knowledge assessment score of above 50%. They had best knowledge about nutrition and health education (70%. Of the workers 87.7% complained of inadequate honorarium, 28.5% complained of lack of help from community and other problems reported were infrastructure related supply, excessive work overload and record maintenance. Conclusions: Majority of AWWs were beyond 40 years of age, matriculate, experienced, having more than 50% of knowledge related to their job. Complaints mentioned by them were chiefly honorarium related and excessive workload.

Sandip B. Patil

2013-08-01

57

Level and Determinants of Knowledge of Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis among Railway Workers in Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Symptomatic knee osteoarthritis, an ancient malady greatly impairing modern population quality of life, has stimulated global attention to find effective modes of prevention and intervention. Purpose. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) among Malaysian railway workers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 513 railway workers involving eight major states within Peninsular Malaysia using population-based sampling. The assessment instrument was a face-validated, prepiloted, self-administered instrument with sociodemographics and knowledge items on knee OA. Results. Mean (±SD) age of the respondents was 41.4 (±10.7), with the majority aged 50 years or older (34.9%). Of the total respondents, 53.6% had low levels of knowledge of knee OA disease. Multivariate analysis found that four demographic predictors, age ?50 years, family history of knee OA, self-awareness, and clinical diagnosis of the disease entity, were significantly associated with knowledge scores. Conclusion. The finding of a low level knee OA knowledge among Malaysian railway workers points to an urgent need for massive information to be disseminated among the workers at risk to foster primary prevention and self-care.

Menke, J. Michael; Challakere Ramaswamy, Vasudeva Murthy; Abdul Manaf, Rizal; Alabsi, Aied M.; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman

2014-01-01

58

Reduction of sperm motility in a male laboratory worker exposed to solvents: a case study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 34-year-old male laboratory worker suffered from asthenospermia and fertility problems. He was suspected of having been exposed to solvents used at work due to a malfunction of the ventilation system in his laboratory from August 1996 to April 1997. A laboratory walk-through and air and bulk sample collection were performed to determine the possible exposure levels of chemical hazards in his job. The scenario was reconstructed to simulate the worker's previous exposure during the ventilatio...

Chang, H. Y.; Lin, Y. M.; Hsu, P. C.; Guo, Y. L.

2001-01-01

59

Knowledge about General Health Insurance of Health Workers Working in the Primary Health Care in Umraniye  

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Full Text Available AIM: The aim of our study was to determine the knowledge of general health insurance of health workers working in the primary health care in Umraniye. METHODS: This descriptive research performed on health workers working in 18 primary health care centers and Province Health Dirocterate in Umraniye, between September-November 2006. Study sample didn?t select and we included 250 health workers working in the primary health care centers. Study performed at 197 participants (78.8%. Study data collected by a three part questionnaire which had 43 questions. For estimating the knowledge point of general health insurance we gived one point for each of the correct answer. The data evaluated by descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskall Wallis Variance Analysis. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 35.2±7.18 (min. 22, max. 55. 36.5% of participants had knowledge about general health system. The most important knowledge source was media. There were significant differences between sex, group of career and knowledge point of general health insurance (p<0.05. The participants generally thought general health insurance made no effect (39.2% for their families and it would be a negative effect (39.1% for society. CONCLUSION: In this study we confirmed that health workers had lacking knowledge about general health insurance. Also health workers generally thought that general health insurance would be harmful effects on their families and society or same effects as current system. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(3.000: 245-250

M. Fatih Onsuz

2009-06-01

60

Knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning HIV prevention among Burmese migrant workers in Thailand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Good knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of HIV prevention are essential in order not to acquire HIV infection and to prevent the disease from spreading. A proper and well functioning prevention of HIV requires clear and relevant information and instructions from health care givers. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning HIV prevention among Burmese migrant workers in Thailand and compare these between genders. Meth...

Nylander, Elisabeth

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Sexual Knowledge, attitudes and behaviors among unmarried migrant female workers in China: a comparative analysis  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, many studies have focused on adolescent's sex-related issues in China. However, there have been few studies of unmarried migrant females' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, which is important for sexual health education and promotion. Methods A sample of 5156 unmarried migrant female workers was selected from three manufacturing factories, two located in Shenzhen and one in Guangzhou, China. Demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the factors associated with premarital sexual intercourse. Results The average age of the unmarried female workers included in the sample was 20.2 years, and majority of them showed a low level of sex-related knowledge. Females from the west of China demonstrated a significant lower level of sex-related knowledge than those from the eastern or central provinces (p p p Conclusion The unmarried migrant female workers lack sexual knowledge and a substantial proportion of them are engaged in premarital sexual behaviors. Interventions aimed at improving their sexual knowledge and related skills are needed.

Tang Jie

2011-12-01

62

An Exploration of the Relationship between Learning Organisations and the Retention of Knowledge Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a relationship between learning organisation theory and the potential to retain knowledge workers. It emphasises that human resource (HR) managers must recognise specific relationships between learning organisation elements, job satisfaction facets and turnover intent as they emerge for their…

Lee-Kelley, Liz; Blackman, Deborah A.; Hurst, Jeffrey Peter

2007-01-01

63

Knowledge of tuberculosis-treatment prescription of health workers: a systematic review  

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Treating tuberculosis (TB) patients with inappropriate treatment regimens can lead to treatment failure and, thus, patients who have not been cured and/or to the development of (multi)-drug resistance. A systematic review was performed to assess the knowledge of appropriate TB drug regimens among all categories of healthcare workers (HCWs).

Werf, Marieke J.; Langendam, Miranda W.; Huitric, Emma; Manissero, Davide

2012-01-01

64

Laboratory animals and respiratory allergies: The prevalence of allergies among laboratory animal workers and the need for prophylaxis  

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OBJECTIVE: Subjects exposed to laboratory animals are at a heightened risk of developing respiratory and allergic diseases. These diseases can be prevented by simple measures such as the use of personal protective equipment. We report here the primary findings of the Laboratory Animals and Respiratory Allergies Study regarding the prevalence of allergic diseases among laboratory animal workers, the routine use of preventive measures in laboratories and animal facilities, and the need for prev...

Erica Ferraz; Luisa Karla de Paula Arruda; Ericson Bagatin; Martinez, Edson Z.; Cetlin, Andrea A.; Simoneti, Christian S.; Freitas, Amanda S.; Martinez, Jose? A. B.; Borges, Marcos C.; Vianna, Elcio O.

2013-01-01

65

Impact of managers on the retention of knowledge workers from different race groups within the manufacturing sector  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Literature has also shown that how long an employee stays in an organisation is determined by their relationship with their manager. By identifying the key managerial behaviours that are considered by knowledge workers to be important for retention, organisations will stand a greater chance of retaining these individuals. This research investigated what impact the knowledge worker’s perception of his manager’s behaviour has on his intention to stay with the organisation. The research also...

2009-01-01

66

Employee Satisfaction Management on Job?related Stress : The mechanism between middle level manager’s leadership and knowledge worker’s autonomy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Resource-based view emphasizes that the competitive advantage of organization is built on two elements: resources and capabilities/competences, which are related to employees within it. And job-related stress is a phenomenon in workplace and a problem in employee satisfaction management. Aim: How are decision-making latitude in terms of autonomy, as the need of knowledge worker, and his/her job-related stress related? How is knowledge worker autonomy affected by middle level manag...

Yiou, Gong; Shaolin, Ye

2011-01-01

67

KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION TOWARDS JAUNDICE AMONG AYDER REFERAL HOSPITAL HEALTH WORKERS  

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Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine knowledge, practice and attitude towards jaundice among hospital health workers in Ayder Referral Hospital. Jaundice is a condition in which a person's skin and the whites of the eyes are discolored yellow due to an increased level of bilirubin in blood it is associated with many myth and Misconception. A study, using self administered questionnaire, was conducted from March 2009 to early May 2009.The result of the study showed that 79% respondents were selected, from which only 4(4% of the respondents select all of the correct options namely Dark colour of the urine, Yellowish colour of skin and eye, Aching and convulsion. 10% knew two manifestation of jaundice, 84% of respondent knew only one manifestation of jaundice. 83%of the respondents knew jaundice is due to high blood concentration of billirubin. 5% answered wrong that is jaundice is due to high blood concentration of urea. 76% of the workers prefers modern medicine for the treatment of jaundice and 8% the traditional medicine. The health workers are fairly clear in some aspects of jaundice and inadequate knowledge in other aspects of jaundice. Most of the health workers have positive perception towards jaundice and prefer modern medicine for treating jaundice. They have totally poor knowledge about traditional medicine for the treatment of jaundice. The health workers need an education and training about jaundice to update their knowledge and other study at community level should be conducted to know more about traditional method of treating jaundice.

Selahudin Alemu

2011-12-01

68

GROWTH OF COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE BY LINKING KNOWLEDGE WORKERS THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA  

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Full Text Available Collective intelligence can be defined, very broadly, as groups of individuals that do things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. Collective intelligence has existed for ages. Families, tribes, companies, countries, etc., are all groups of individuals doing things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. However, over the past two decades, the rise of the Internet has given upturn to new types of collective intelligence. Companies can take advantage from the so-called Webenabled collective intelligence. Web-enabled collective intelligence is based on linking knowledge workers through social media. That means that companies can hire geographically dispersed knowledge workers and create so-called virtual teams of these knowledge workers (members of the virtual teams are connected only via the Internet and do not meet face to face. By providing an online social network, the companies can achieve significant growth of collective intelligence. But to create and use an online social network within a company in a really efficient way, the managers need to have a deep understanding of how such a system works.Thus the purpose of this paper is to share the knowledge about effective use of social networks in companies. The main objectives of this paper are as follows: to introduce some good practices of the use of social media in companies, to analyze these practices and to generalize recommendations for a successful introduction and use of social media to increase collective intelligence of a company.

Jaroslava KUBA TOVA

2012-06-01

69

Designing and explaining the model of knowledge workers’ retention with emphasis on HRM practices  

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Full Text Available This study identifies the relationship between human resource management practices and job satisfaction, organizational commitment, trust in management and intention to stay of knowledge workers and to investigate the predictability of their intent to stay with HRM practices through the intermediary variables of job satisfaction, organizational commitment and trust in management in surveyed organizations. Standard questionnaires are used to measure the variables. In addition, to gather data, stratified random sampling of faculty members in colleges and higher education institutions in South Khorasan province of Iran, was accomplished. The results obtained in method of path analysis with AMOS software show that HRM practices including the development of skills, compensation, opportunity to participate, organizational support and procedural justice are able to anticipate intend to stay through job satisfaction, organizational commitment and trust in management. Among them, organizational support has a direct effect and the strongest indirect effect on the intention to stay of knowledge workers.

Reza Rasouli

2013-04-01

70

The knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among healthcare workers in Kayseri, Turkey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Breast cancer is the most common cancer type and cause of death among women in many countries. Monthly breast self-examination (BSE) is an effective diagnostic method for breast cancer. This study aimed to determine the knowledge level and practice frequency of BSE among healthcare workers in Kayseri, Turkey. Data were collected via a questionnaire that was prepared based on information in the literature. The questionnaire was composed of 2 sections: sociodemographic characteristics and practice and knowledge related to BSE. The sample group included 246 healthcare workers. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis H, (post hoc) Dunn, and chi tests were used in the analyses of data. The mean (SD) age of the respondents was 29.0 (5.6) years. Most (58.1%) were married, and a family history of breast cancer was reported by 12.2%. Of the respondents, 35% stated that they did not know how to conduct an examination of their breasts. Although 52.4% (n = 129) of the women reported that they performed BSE, only 17.0% (n = 22) reported doing so on a monthly basis. The practice of BSE was significantly associated with older, more educated medical secretaries; a positive personal history of breast problems; and a positive family history of breast cancer (P < .05). Healthcare workers had a low mean level of knowledge about the practice of BSE (mean [SD] score, 11.70 [10.07]; range, 0-40). The scores of the women who stated that they practiced BSE were significantly higher (P = .000) than those who reported that they did not. Healthcare workers need to improve their knowledge of and sensitivity toward BSE. PMID:19661791

Güleser, Gülsüm Nihal; Unalan, Demet; Akyldz, Hzr Yakup

2009-01-01

71

Bidding for brains: Intellectual property rights and the international migration of knowledge workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce international mobility of knowledge workers into a model of Nash equilibrium IPR policy choice among countries. We show that governments have incentives to use IPRs in a bidding war for global talent, resulting in Nash equilibrium IPRs that can be too high, rather than too low, from a global welfare perspective. These incentives become stronger as developing countries grow in size and wealth, thus allowing them to prevent the 'poaching' of their 'brains' by larger, wealthier mark...

2010-01-01

72

HIV related knowledge and prevention among Thai female commercial sex workers in Japan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A survey of 87 Thai female commercial sex workers (TCSW) was conducted in Tokyo and surrounding areas to investigate their: 1) living conditions, 2) knowledge about HIV/AIDS and sources of information, and 3) working conditions and dealings with clients. Data were mainly collected by “snowballing” with semi-structured interviews. The results showed a majority of participants knew HIV could be contracted through sexual intercourse and that condom use could protect against HIV infection. Ho...

1999-01-01

73

Modification to knowledge on breast cancer in the workers with risk factors for this disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An educative intervention of 30 workers with risk factors for breast cancer was carried out in 'Ramon Lopez Penna' University Polyclinic in Santiago de Cuba, from September 2008 to March 2009, in order to increase some knowledge on the topic. Two subgroups with 15 participants each were created to develop the different activities of the educative project, which will be assessed before the instructive action and 6 months after its onset. A Mc Nemar text was used to validate the information and a significant modification to knowledge on the topic was obtained. (author)

2011-01-01

74

Records/knowledge management in a nuclear facility's Industrial Hygiene Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is operated under the USA's Department of Energy (DOE) and is tasked with developing and applying science and technology to ensure the safety and reliability of U.S. nuclear deterrents and solving national problems in defense, energy, environment, and infrastructure. LANL is divided into numerous groups that accomplish various aspects of these overarching goals. An important aspect of this work is to ensure worker safety. To do this LANL has an on-site Industrial Hygiene (IH) Laboratory that is certified by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) that follows International Standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005 guidelines. Following these guidelines facilitates appropriate records retention and knowledge management by the laboratory. Field Industrial Hygienists monitor workers for exposure and generate various swipe and personal breathing zone air samples that are analyzed by the IH Laboratory. The laboratory provides legally defensible data on which health, safety, and environmental decisions are based. Such documentation serves to protect the legal and financial rights of the Laboratory and individuals affected by Laboratory activities. The proper maintenance and filing of this documentation also serves to avoid expensive and unnecessary re-sampling and reanalysis if customers lose reports or if results are requested by regulatory agencies. We will explain how the Sample Management Office (SMO) interacts with customers to determine their needs to ensure the appropriate analyses are conducted. Additionally, we will explain our process of sample receipt, sample log in into databases, sample analysis, data validation, and compliance to internal procedures, LANL policies, and DOE regulations. Furthermore, we will outline how the Records Management Custodian processes the laboratory's completed data packages starting from database entry to archival at the Federal Records Center. Many DOE records relating to personnel exposures, contamination, waste, and environmental sampling are kept and are scheduled for long-term retention by National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Records shall include information created and received in the course of conducting Laboratory programs and business. Records management serves to promote the creation, capture, use, and transfer of records and knowledge. It also serves to preserve and protect the Laboratory's archival of historical documents and information. All records are given retention periods of at least 75 years. After outlining some of our various records and documents, we will explain how our records management and document control systems are set up to ensure effective and efficient retrieval of these records for 75 years. In conclusion, we will demonstrate how our and LANL's Records Management Program follows good business practices to ensure the protection of our corporate information assets

2007-06-01

75

Organisational design elements and competencies for optimising the expertise of knowledge workers in a shared services centre  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations are still structured according to the Industrial Age control model that restricts optimising the expertise of knowledge workers.

Research purpose: The general aim of the research was to explore the organisation design elements and competencies that contribute to optimising the expertise of knowledge workers in a shared services centre.

Motivation for the study: Current organisational design methodologies do not emphasise optimising the expertise of knowledge workers. This research addresses the challenge of how an organisation design can improve the creation and availability of the expertise of knowledge workers.

Research design/approach method: The researcher followed a qualitative case study research design and collected data in six focus group sessions (N = 25.

Main findings: The findings showed that the shared services centre (SSC is not designed to enable its structure, culture and codifying system to optimise the expertise of knowledge workers. In addition, the SSC does not share the knowledge generated with other knowledge workers. Furthermore, it does not use the output of the knowledge workers to improve business processes.

Practical/managerial implications: The expertise of knowledge workers is the basis of competitive advantage. Therefore, managers should create an organisational design that is conducive to optimising knowledge work expertise.

Contribution/value add: This research highlights the important organisational design elements and supportive organisational structures for optimising the expertise of knowledge workers. The research also proposes a framework for optimising the expertise of knowledge workers and helping an organisation to achieve sustainable competitive advantage.

How to cite this article: Ramsey, M, & Barkhuizen, N. (2011. Organisational design elements and competencies for optimising the expertise of knowledge workers in a shared services centre. SA Journal of Human Resource Management/SA Tydskrif vir Menslikehulpbronbestuur, 9(1, Art. #307, 15 pages. doi:10.4102/sajhrm.v9i1.307

Mark Ramsey

2011-02-01

76

The Importance of the Philosophy, Attitude, Perception, and Knowledge of Extension Workers in Transferring Sustainable Agricultural Practices to Malaysian Farmers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sustainable agriculture is relatively new in Malaysia. The Department of Agriculture (DOA) has earmarked agricultural extension workers in the transfer of sustainable agricultural practices (SAP) to farmers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of the attitude, perception, philosophy, and knowledge of extension workers in transferring SAP to Malaysian farmers. A questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of 400 extension workers associated with the DOA i...

2013-01-01

77

The Importance of Philosophy, Attitude, Perception, and Knowledge of Extension Workers in Transferring Sustainable Agricultural Practices to Malaysian Farmers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sustainable Agriculture is relatively new in Malaysia. The Department of Agriculture (DOA) has earmark agricultural extension workers to transfer Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP) to the farmers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of attitude, perception, philosophy, and knowledge of extension workers in transferring the SAP to Malaysian farmers. A questionnaire used to collect data from a random sample of 400 extension workers at DOA in west Malaysia. Quantitat...

2013-01-01

78

Effect of knowledge of community health workers on essential newborn health care: a study from rural India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background This study explored the relationship between the knowledge of community health workers (CHWs)—anganwadi workers (AWWs) and auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs)—and their antenatal home visit coverage and effectiveness of the visits, in terms of essential newborn health care practices at the household level in rural India.

Agrawal, Praween K.; Agrawal, Sutapa; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Darmstadt, Gary L.; Williams, Emma K.; Rosen, Heather E.; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Kiran, Usha; Ahuja, Ramesh C.; Srivastava, Vinod K.; Santosham, Mathuram; Black, Robert E.; Baqui, Abdullah H.

2012-01-01

79

Evaluation of the internal contamination risk for isotope laboratory workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation covered 484 workers. Altogether 1787 determinations have been made, in this - 1648 internal contaminations and 139 contaminations of air, hand skin and working surfaces. The internal contaminations (22% of results) resulted mainly from deviation from radiological protection rules and were reduced by certain changes. Those were tritium contaminations (application of tritium radioluminescence dyes) and 125, 131J. The highest levels of which were 20 mSv and 0.25% ALI respectively. The results of 238Pu air contamination measurements indicates that the dust arising during the production of smoke detectors (with 238PuO2 sources) probably has no respirable fraction properties, what confines its absorption in lower parts of the respiratory tract. It has been demonstrated that in Poland is no need of a central system of permanent internal contamination control. (author)

1985-01-01

80

Organisational design elements and competencies for optimising the expertise of knowledge workers in a shared services centre  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Orientation: Organisations are still structured according to the Industrial Age control model that restricts optimising the expertise of knowledge workers.

Research purpose: The general aim of the research was to explore the organisation design elements and competencies that contribute to optimising the expertise of knowledge workers in a shared services centre.

Motivation for the study:

Mark Ramsey; Nicolene Barkhuizen

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Knowledge, attitudes and practice pertaining to depression among primary health care workers in Tanzania  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Examination of consultation data in a variety of primary care settings in Tanzania shows that, while psychoses are routinely diagnosed and treated at primary care level, depression is rarely recorded as a reason for consultation. Since, epidemiological studies elswhere show that depression is a much more common disorder than psychosis, a series of studies were undertaken to elucidate this apparent paradox in Tanzania and inform mental health policy; firstly, a household prevalence study to ascertain the prevalence of common mental disorders at community level in Tanzania; secondly, a study to ascertain the prevalence of common mental disorders in primary care attenders; and thirdly, a study to ascertain the current status of the knowledge, attitude and practice pertaining to depression among primary health care workers. This paper reports the findings of the latter study. Methods All the primary health care workers (N = 14 in four primary health care centres in Tanzania were asked to complete the Depression Attitude Questionnaire, which assesses the health worker's knowledge and attitude towards the causes, consequences and treatment of depression. Results The majority of respondents felt that rates of depression had increased in recent years, believed that life events were important in the aetiology of depression, and generally held positive views about pharmacological and psychological treatments of depression, prognosis and their own involvement in the treatment of depressed patients. However, the majority of respondents felt that becoming depressed is a way that people with poor stamina deal with life difficulties. Conclusion The findings suggest a need to strengthen the training of primary health care workers in Tanzania about the detection of depression, pharmacological and psychological treatments, and psychosocial interventions.

Shah Ajit

2009-02-01

82

Evaluation of knowledge of healthcare workers in hospitals of Zabol city on proper methods of blood and components transfusion  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and Aims: Blood and components are more frequently used in surgery and non-surgical procedures. In medical procedures blood transfusion is important and needs adequate expertise and practice, thus adequate knowledge in healthcare workers of this procedure is essential. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study is designed to assess the knowledge of healthcare workers about proper methods of blood transfusion, and how to promote their knowledge for proper performance if their knowledge is inadequate. Data were collected with aimed questionnaire and analyzed by statistics software. Result: The study population mainly comprised 122 healthcare workers (HCWs). The main findings from this study showed that 26.2% of healthcare workers (HCWs) had low-level knowledge, 22.1% moderate and 51.6% acceptable knowledge. We did not find any significant correlation between knowledge of HCWs and years in profession, participation in training, number of blood transfusions per day, age, gender, etc. (P < 0.05). Discussion and Conclusion: Results strongly emphasized the need for a curriculum to promote knowledge of HCWs about blood transfusion because we found low and moderate level of knowledge in approximately half our samples and on the importance of blood transfusion procedure, suggesting that more attempts should be made to build up knowledge about blood transfusion.

Reza, Piri Ali; Aziz, Shahraki Vahed; Ali, Moien Abbas; Marjan, Mardani Hamuleh; Reza, Taghavi Mohammad

2009-01-01

83

The Importance of the Philosophy, Attitude, Perception, and Knowledge of Extension Workers in Transferring Sustainable Agricultural Practices to Malaysian Farmers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture is relatively new in Malaysia. The Department of Agriculture (DOA has earmarked agricultural extension workers in the transfer of sustainable agricultural practices (SAP to farmers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of the attitude, perception, philosophy, and knowledge of extension workers in transferring SAP to Malaysian farmers. A questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of 400 extension workers associated with the DOA in west Malaysia. Quantitative data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple linear regressions (MLR. Findings supported a positive relationship between extension workers’ philosophy, attitude, perception, and knowledge in transferring SAP to farmers. MLR results showed that variables selected for this study explained 62.3% of the variance in transferring SAP. Results support the importance of variables among the extension workers who transfer sustainable practices to farmers.

Neda Tiraieyari

2013-10-01

84

Experiences and Management of Pregnant Radiation Workers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation workers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are divided into two classes based on whether or not they can encounter radioactive contamination in the normal course of their work. Level I workers primarily handle sealed radioactive materials such as those used to calibrate detectors. Level II workers perform benchtop chemistry. The U.S. Department of Energy has strict guidelines on the management of pregnant radiation workers. Staff members may voluntarily notify their line managers of a pregnancy and be subjected to stringent radiation exposure limits for the developing fetus. The staff member and manager develop a plan to limit and monitor radiation dose for the remainder of the pregnancy. Several examples of dose management plans and case examples of the impact of pregnancy on staff member's technical work and projects will be presented

2001-03-06

85

Experiences and Management of Pregnant Radiation Workers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation workers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory are divided into two classes based on whether or not they can encounter radioactive contamination in the normal course of their work. Level I workers primarily handle sealed radioactive materials such as those used to calibrate detectors. Level II workers perform benchtop chemistry. The U.S. Department of Energy has strict guidelines on the management of pregnant radiation workers. Staff members may voluntarily notify their line managers of a pregnancy and be subjected to stringent radiation exposure limits for the developing fetus. The staff member and manager develop a plan to limit and monitor radiation dose for the remainder of the pregnancy. Several examples of dose management plans and case examples of the impact of pregnancy on staff member?s technical work and projects will be presented.

Bliss, Mary; Bowyer, Sonya M.; Bryant, Janet L.; Lipton, Mary S.; Wahl, Karen L.

2001-03-06

86

Skin Disease Presenting as an Outbreak of Pseudobacteremia in a Laboratory Worker  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An outbreak of pseudobacteremia due to Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci [GAS]) and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was traced to the venting procedure for aerobic bottles prior to their loading into the incubator of the BacT/Alert analyzer (Organon Teknika). Bacteria shed by a laboratory worker suffering from impetigo and cellulitis contaminated the aerobic bottles of 10 patients. All blood culture isolates, in addition to the isolates from the laboratory work...

Simhon, A.; Rahav, G.; Shapiro, M.; Block, C.

2001-01-01

87

A mental health training program for community health workers in India: impact on knowledge and attitudes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Unmet needs for mental health treatment in low income countries are pervasive. If mental health is to be effectively integrated into primary health care in low income countries like India then grass-roots workers need to acquire relevant knowledge and skills to be able to recognise, refer and support people experiencing mental disorders in their own communities. This study aims to provide a mental health training intervention to community health workers in Bangalore Rural District, Karnataka, India, and to evaluate the impact of this training on mental health literacy. Methods A pre-test post-test study design was undertaken with assessment of mental health literacy at three time points; baseline, completion of the training, and three month follow-up. Mental health literacy was assessed using the interviewer-administered Mental Health Literacy Survey. The training intervention was a four day course based on a facilitator's manual developed specifically for community health workers in India. Results 70 community health workers from Doddaballapur, Bangalore Rural District were recuited for the study. The training course improved participants' ability to recognize a mental disorder in a vignette, and reduced participants' faith in unhelpful and potentially harmful pharmacological interventions. There was evidence of a minor reduction in stigmatizing attitudes, and it was unclear if the training resulted in a change in participants' faith in recovery following treatment. Conclusion The findings from this study indicate that the training course demonstrated potential to be an effective way to improve some aspects of mental health literacy, and highlights strategies for strengthening the training course.

Armstrong Gregory

2011-08-01

88

A Study of Knowledge and Practices among Commercial Sex Workers Registered Under Jyotisangh STD Clinic, Ahmedabad  

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Full Text Available Background: There is growing evidence about the importance of commercial sex workers (CSWs and their clients as bridging groups for the HIV epidemic. In India, the role of CSWs is key to the future trajectory of the epidemic. Objective: To determine the level of knowledge and practices regarding STI/ HIV among CSWs. Study design: A Cross-sectional, community based study. Methodology: The study was conducted in December 2005 among CSWs registered under Jyotisangh. Results: The mean age was 27.5 years and majorities (64.5% of CSWs were below 35 years. Knowledge on some aspects of the diseases was quite low in the study group. A higher proportion of CSWs (73.5% don’t know the relationship between HIV and STI. About 66.3% of CSWs know one or more male STI symptoms. 58% of CSWs were aware of place for HIV testing. Majority (86.3% of CSWs are attending counseling programme at Jyotisangh. 97.5% CSWs were aware about condom still 50.5% CSWs were regularly using condom with regular partner while nearly one fourth (26.5% never used condom. And also 97% of CSWs never practiced anal intercourse with condom and only 25% reported either rarely/ sometimes non-penetrative sexual practice. Conclusion: High-risk behavior was established in the study sample. Safe sex and use of condom have to be energetically promoted among commercial sex workers.

Talsania NJ, Shah Rakesh, Shah Venu, Murugan V

2010-12-01

89

Bioassay program: determination of I-131 body burden among radiation workers and nuclear medicine laboratory technicians  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The body burden of I-131 was determined among the radiation workers of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) who are directly involved in I-131 processing and nuclear laboratory technicians of University of Santo Tomas and Veterans Hospital, who handle and dispense I-131 to patients. The routine monitoring was done by urine analysis. The untreated urine samples were counted directly for 4000 seconds using Nal(Tl) scintillation detector coupled to an ND66 microcomputer-based multichannel analyzer. Urine samples of radiation workers of PAEC who are not involved in I-131 processing and non-radiation workers were also assayed for comparison. For radiation workers of PAEC who are directly involved in processing I-131, the estimated body burden of I-131 ranged from <0.055 to 8.53 uCi (282 urine samples). These values were higher than those observed for radiation workers not involved in the handling or processing of I-131 with estimated body burden of I-131 ranging from <0.055 to 0.52 uCi (48 urine samples) or than those observed from non-radiation workers (<0.055 uCi). The maximum permissible burden of I-131 is 0.7 uCi. (author)

1984-01-01

90

A Study on Knowledge, Attitude And Practice of Laboratory Safety Measures Among Paramedical Staff of Laboratory Services  

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Purpose: A lot of accidents occur in the laboratory due to lack of proper knowledge regarding laboratory safety measures, indifferent attitude & improper implementation of safe laboratory practices. In view of this, the present study on knowledge, Attitude & Practice (KAP) of laboratory safety measures was carried out among paramedical staff of laboratory services of tertiary care teaching hospital, western India. Method: This was a comparative study which used a standardized, structu...

2011-01-01

91

Knowledge, attitudes and practices on cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago Hospital, Uganda  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the commonest cancer of women in Uganda. Over 80% of women diagnosed in Mulago national referral and teaching hospital, the biggest hospital in Uganda, have advanced disease. Pap smear screening, on opportunistic rather than systematic basis, is offered free in the gynaecological outpatients clinic and the postnatal/family planning clinics. Medical students in the third and final clerkships are expected to learn the techniques of screening. Objectives of this study were to describe knowledge on cervical cancer, attitudes and practices towards cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago hospital. Methods In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a weighted sample of 310 medical workers including nurses, doctors and final year medical students were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. We measured knowledge about cervical cancer: (risk factors, eligibility for screening and screening techniques, attitudes towards cervical cancer screening and practices regarding screening. Results Response rate was 92% (285. Of these, 93% considered cancer of the cervix a public health problem and knowledge about Pap smear was 83% among respondents. Less than 40% knew risk factors for cervical cancer, eligibility for and screening interval. Of the female respondents, 65% didn't feel susceptible to cervical cancer and 81% had never been screened. Of the male respondents, only 26% had partners who had ever been screened. Only 14% of the final year medical students felt skilled enough to use a vaginal speculum and 87% had never performed a pap smear. Conclusion Despite knowledge of the gravity of cervical cancer and prevention by screening using a Pap smear, attitudes and practices towards screening were negative. The medical workers who should be responsible for opportunistic screening of women they care for are not keen on getting screened themselves. There is need to explain/understand the cause of these attitudes and practices and identify possible interventions to change them. Medical students leave medical school without adequate skills to be able to effectively screen women for cervical cancer wherever they go to practice. Medical students and nurses training curricula needs review to incorporate practical skills on cervical cancer screening.

Weiderpass Elisabete

2006-03-01

92

The Implications of a Health Promotion Program on the Knowledge and Practice of Automotive Workers Exposed To Solvent  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: An in-house health promotion program aimed at promoting safety and health awareness when handling organic solvents at the workplace was carried out and its effectiveness was evaluated by comparing the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) scores at the pre and post-intervention phase. Approach: A total of 104 workers participated in the program and another 176 workers served as the comparative group. Questionnaire was distributed to respondents for the progr...

Rumaizah Ruslan; Zailina Hashim; Ismail, Ismi A.; Lin Naing; Rusli Nordin

2010-01-01

93

High Risk Behavior, Knowledge and Attitude of HIV/AIDS among Workers in Factories Manufacturing Alcohol in Mandalay, Myanmar  

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Analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in Mandalay, Myanmar to identify high risk sexual behavior, knowledge and attitude regarding HIV/AIDS and prevention practice related to HIV/AIDS among male workers in factories manufacturing alcohol. Participants included male workers (n = 219) from 10 alcohol factories in Industrial Zone (A). Data were collected through face to face interviews using pretested structured questionnaire. Results showed that 38.8% of the resp...

Khin Thiri Maung; Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe; Nan Nitra Than; Simerjit Singh Madan; Senthil Kumar P.

2013-01-01

94

Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice of Tabriz's school health workers about oral and dental health  

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"nBackground and Aim: School health workers have an important role in education and prevention of common oral and dental diseases. An organized program can be helpful in training and shaping the proper behavior. This study has evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practice of schools health workers in Tabriz about oral and dental health in 2007-2008."nMaterials and Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was performed in primary schools in Tabriz. Questionnaires were sen...

Taghizadeh Ganji A.; Jafari A.; Poorgholi N.; Iranizadeh H.

2009-01-01

95

Knowledge, attitude and practice towards zoonoses among public health workers in Nyanza province, Kenya  

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Full Text Available We sought to determine the knowledge and attitude of public health workers (PHWs with respect to emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases and the practice of one health approach in the surveillance of zoonoses in the community. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 randomly selected districts of Nyanza province, Kenya. One hundred and ten randomly-selected PHWs were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Data were collected on their knowledge, attitudes and practices about common zoonotic diseases. Eighty-nine (81% questionnaires were received back. Eighty-seven (98% said they discuss zoonotic diseases with the local villagers during their community health work. The most commonly discussed disease was rabies (n=39. Seventy-six (85% respondents reported ever discussing zoonoses with their veterinary colleagues. Over 85% of the PHWs asked for refresher training on H1N1, and 51% require training on highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1. Despite fair knowledge of rabies among the PHWs in Nyanza province, there is need for improving their attitude of the emerging and reemerging zoonoses. There is also need to improve their practice in terms of collaboration with the veterinarians in zoonoses surveillance in the community.

Darryn Knobel

2012-10-01

96

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to mold exposure among residents and remediation workers in posthurricane New Orleans.  

Science.gov (United States)

To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to mold exposure in postflood New Orleans, the authors surveyed 159 residents and 76 remediation workers, using logistic regression to explore associations. Nearly all answered "yes" to the questionnaire item, "Do you think mold can make people sick?" and most knew respirators were recommended for cleaning mold. Residents (87%) and workers (47%) said they believed that television or radio were the best ways to communicate information about mold. Workers (24%) also suggested employers provided the best means for communication of this information. Few participants reliably used all recommended protective equipment. Residents cited respirator discomfort and unavailability as reasons for noncompliance; workers cited discomfort and inadequate training, with 50% reporting respirator fit testing. Spanish-speaking workers relied on employers for information. Self-employed workers used protective equipment infrequently. The authors recommend that information on postflood mold exposure be disseminated through media and employers, that protective equipment be made readily available for residents, and that workers receive better training and fit testing. In addition, they suggest that targeted approaches may benefit Spanish-speaking workers and the self-employed. PMID:17672351

Cummings, Kristin J; Van Sickle, David; Rao, Carol Y; Riggs, Margaret A; Brown, Clive M; Moolenaar, Ronald L

2006-01-01

97

Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice of Tabriz's school health workers about oral and dental health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: School health workers have an important role in education and prevention of common oral and dental diseases. An organized program can be helpful in training and shaping the proper behavior. This study has evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practice of schools health workers in Tabriz about oral and dental health in 2007-2008."nMaterials and Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was performed in primary schools in Tabriz. Questionnaires were sent to the schools that had health workers. Levels of the knowledge, attitude and practice of the health workers who had answered this questionnaire were evaluated. SPSS software and independent T-Test and Paired- Sample T-Test were used for analyzing the results."nResults: Fifty eight out of 64 school health workers were women. Mean age of school health workers was 45 years. Forty four of school health workers had passed special course about oral health and dental health. 49 of them had passed special educational course the mean of acquired knowledge score was 6.77 out of 10 and women's scores were significantly higher. Also women had more work experience than men. The mean of acquired attitude and practice scores were 7.42 and 7.14 out of 10, respectively."nConclusion: Findings show that performing of the educational courses during work and experience has an effective role in the scales of the health workers. Progress in this situation can be achieved by retraining programs and accessible pamphlets.

Taghizadeh Ganji A.

2009-12-01

98

Radiation, work experience, and cause specific mortality among workers at an energy research laboratory.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted among 8375 white male employees who had worked at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for at least one month between 1943 and 1972. This plant has been the site of energy related research, including uranium and plutonium reactor technology and radioisotope production. Radiation doses, primarily from gamma rays, were generally low; the median cumulative exposure for workers was 0.16 rems. Historical follow up was conducted for the years 1943-7...

Checkoway, H.; Mathew, R. M.; Shy, C. M.; Watson, J. E.; Tankersley, W. G.; Wolf, S. H.; Smith, J. C.; Fry, S. A.

1985-01-01

99

Syndromic versus laboratory-based diagnosis of cervical infections among female sex workers in Benin  

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BACKGROUND: The syndromic diagnostic approach is the most realistic and cost-effective strategy for controlling sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the developing world. Its potential advantages should be evaluated. GOAL: The goal of the current study was to examine whether the syndromic approach might diagnose more cases of cervicitis due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis than laboratory tests. STUDY DESIGN: The participants were 481 female sex workers in Benin, screene...

Mukenge-tshibaka, L.; Alary, M.; Lowndes, C. M.; Dyck, E.; Gue?dou, A.; Geraldo, N.; Anagonou, S.; Lafia, E.; Joly, J. R.

2002-01-01

100

Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to avian influenza among poultry workers in Nepal: a cross sectional study  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza is a considerable threat to global public health. Prevention and control depend on awareness and protective behaviours of the general population as well as high risk-groups. This study aims to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to avian influenza among poultry workers in Nepal. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional study design, using a structured questionnaire administered in face-to-face interviews with 96 poultry workers age 15 and above from the Rupandehi district in Nepal. Results The majority of respondents were male (80%, mean age was 35 (SD = 11.6. Nearly everybody was aware that AI cases had been detected in Nepal and that poultry workers were at risk for infection. The major sources of AI information were radio, TV and newspapers. Knowledge about preventive measures was high with regard to some behaviours (hand washing, but medium to low with regard to others (using cleaning and disinfecting procedures or protective clothing. Poultry workers who got their information from TV and newspapers and those who were more afraid of contracting AI had higher knowledge than those who did not. Being employed as compared to being an owner of a poultry farm as well as having a high level of knowledge was associated with practising more preventive behaviours. While on one hand many specific government control measures found a high degree of acceptance, a majority of study participants also thought that government control and compensation measures as a whole were insufficient. Conclusions The study provides information about knowledge and practices regarding avian influenza among poultry workers in Nepal. It highlights the importance of targeting lack of knowledge as well as structural-material barriers to successfully build preparedness for a major outbreak situation.

Neupane Dinesh

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

Effects of a mental health training program on health care worker's knowledge and attitude and practice in Belize   

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ABSTRACT This study was conducted to assess mental health knowledge, attitude and practices among health care workers in Belize before and immediately after a competency based training program in mental health. A baseline Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) survey was given to health personnel, mainly nurses, working primary and secondary care. The intervention was a 13-week face-to-face training course for health care professionals with the objective of increasing their competency in me...

Bennett, Eleanor Davis 

2012-01-01

102

Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of community health workers about hypertension in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa  

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Full Text Available This article explores the perceptions and attitudes of community health workers (CHWs about hypertension. The level of knowledge of hypertension, as well as their personal attitude towards this is crucial in the style and quality of their interventions. CHWs, whose role in health promotion is being increasingly recognised, can help contain or reduce the prevalence of hypertension by influencing the community to adopt healthy lifestyles. Forty-three CHWs employed by Zanempilo in two study areas, Sites B and C in Khayelitsha in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, were included in the study. Firstly, focus group discussions were conducted with 17 purposively selected CHWs to explore attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of hypertension. Secondly, interviews were conducted to assess their basic knowledge about causes, prevention and control of hypertension. The focus group discussions revealed that CHWs were uncertain about the causes of hypertension. They also found it difficult to grasp the fact that people without risk factors, such as overweight or a family history of hypertension, could be hypertensive. Many CHWs believe in traditional medicines and home-brewed beer as the best treatment for hypertension. They believe that people who take medical treatment become sicker and that their health deteriorates rapidly. Risk factors of hypertension mentioned during the structured interviews include inheritance, lack of physical activity, consuming lots of salty and fatty food. Conclusions drawn from the findings of the CHWs’ responses highlighted their insufficient knowledge about hypertension as a chronic disease of lifestyle. Meanwhile they are expected to play a role in stimulating community residents’ interest in the broad principle of preventive health maintenance and follow-up. Data obtained from this research can be used for the planning of health-promotion programmes. These should include preventing hypertension and improving primary management of individual sufferers. Because of their working relations and close link with CHWs, community nurses in primary health-care facilities need to recognise these beliefs and attitudes since these may differ from their own.

M.J. Sengwana

2004-09-01

103

How Social Relationships Influence Academic Health in the "Enterprise University": An Insight into Productivity of Knowledge Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

The comparatively poor mental health status of academics at Australian universities compared with the general Australian workforce poses a public health challenge. Productivity of knowledge workers is a key issue for the new economy. Using the case of one university, I interviewed employees stratified by level of employment and showed that their…

Ditton, Mary J.

2009-01-01

104

Bidding for Brains: Intellectual Property Rights and the International Migration of Knowledge Workers. NBER Working Paper No. 15486  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce international mobility of knowledge workers into a model of Nash equilibrium IPR policy choice among countries. We show that governments have incentives to use IPRs in a bidding war for global talent, resulting in Nash equilibrium IPRs that can be too high, rather than too low, from a global welfare perspective. These incentives…

McAusland, Carol; Kuhn, Peter J.

2009-01-01

105

Rural male health workers in Western Jamaica: Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward prostate cancer screening  

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Full Text Available Background: Statistics have shown that since 1988, a significant percentage of males are unwilling to seek medical care. The question is if they had the knowledge, worked in the health system and were educated, would this be any different? Aim: The current study aims to fill this void in the literature by examining the perception of rural male health workers (from the Western Region about prostate examination, and why they are reluctant to inquire about the probability of having, or the likelihood of not having prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: The study utilized primary cross-sectional data that was collected during February and March 2008 from 170 males (ages 29 years and older, health-care workers who were employed in particular rural health institutions in Jamaica (i.e. Western Regional Health Authority. SPSS was used to analyze the data. Results: When the respondents were asked “Have you ever heard about the screening procedure for prostate?” 71.2% indicated yes, but only 27.1% had got their prostate checked by a health practitioner. When respondents were asked to state what influenced their choice of not doing a digital rectal examination, 20.6% indicated comfort level; 9.4% stated the gender of the health practitioner, 5.3% mentioned fear and others did not respond. Of those who had the examination 2 years ago, 96.5% did not state the choice of method. Conclusion: The current study is limited in terms of its generalizability to rural males or rural males in Western Jamaica, but it does provide an insight into the difficulty of men in breaking away from culture.

Paul Andrew Bourne

2010-01-01

106

Laboratory animals and respiratory allergies: The prevalence of allergies among laboratory animal workers and the need for prophylaxis  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Subjects exposed to laboratory animals are at a heightened risk of developing respiratory and allergic diseases. These diseases can be prevented by simple measures such as the use of personal protective equipment. We report here the primary findings of the Laboratory Animals and Respiratory Allergies Study regarding the prevalence of allergic diseases among laboratory animal workers, the routine use of preventive measures in laboratories and animal facilities, and the need for prevention programs. METHODS: Animal handlers and non-animal handlers from 2 Brazilian universities (University of São Paulo and State University of Campinas answered specific questionnaires to assess work conditions and symptoms. These subjects also underwent spirometry, a bronchial challenge test with mannitol, and skin prick tests for 11 common allergens and 5 occupational allergens (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and rabbit. RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-five animal handlers (32±10 years old [mean±SD], 209 men and 387 non-animal handlers (33±11 years old, 121 men were evaluated. Sensitization to occupational allergens was higher among animal handlers (16% than non-animal handlers (3%, p<0.01. Accessibility to personal protective equipment was measured at 85% (median, considering 73 workplaces of the animal handler group. Nineteen percent of the animal handlers indicated that they wear a respirator at all times while handling animals or working in the animal room, and only 25% of the animal handlers had received an orientation about animal-induced allergies, asthma, or rhinitis. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our data indicate that preventive programs are necessary. We suggest providing individual advice to workers associated with institutional programs to promote a safer work environment.

Erica Ferraz

2013-06-01

107

KP-LAB Knowledge Practices Laboratory -- Specification of the SWKM Knowledge Evolution, Recommendation, and Mining services  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This deliverable presents the deep-level specification for the second release (M24) of the components responsible for advanced manipulation with the knowledge stored in the KP-Lab Semantic Web Knowledge Middleware (SWKM). The two components were defined in [D5.1] as Knowledge Mediator and Knowledge Matchmaker. The Knowledge Mediator services (change, comparison, versioning and registry) aim at providing functionalities to support evolving ontologies and RDF Knowledge Bases (KBs). Upon a chang...

Smrz, Pavel; Sklenak, Vilem; Svatek, Vojtech; Kavalec, Martin; Svihla, Martin; Paralic, Jan; Furdik, Karol; Bednar, Peter; Smatana, Peter; Spyratos, Nicolas; Belhajfrej, Hanen; Nguer, Mamadou; Christophides, Vassilis; Kotzinos, Dimitris; Tzitzikas, Yannis

2007-01-01

108

A Profile of Knowledge and Sexual Behaviours Among Textile Workers in Context of HIV and AIDS in Surat City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

HIV infection and AIDS is more prevalent in India and occurs in all states.2 Today, there are around 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS in India.1 Surat city in the western state of Gujarat attracts a very large migrant population. As most of them belong to sexually active age group, their exposure to sex workers or having multiple sexual partnerships is very high. The aim of this study was to explore the sexual behavior among textile factory workers in Surat and assess the knowledge and...

Bhautik Modi, Jay Padodara

2010-01-01

109

A Study on Knowledge, Attitude And Practice of Laboratory Safety Measures Among Paramedical Staff of Laboratory Services  

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Full Text Available Purpose: A lot of accidents occur in the laboratory due to lack of proper knowledge regarding laboratory safety measures, indifferent attitude & improper implementation of safe laboratory practices. In view of this, the present study on knowledge, Attitude & Practice (KAP of laboratory safety measures was carried out among paramedical staff of laboratory services of tertiary care teaching hospital, western India. Method: This was a comparative study which used a standardized, structured self-administered questionnaire to survey knowledge, attitude and practice of paramedical staff. The KAP study enrolled 81 respondents. Results: Regarding knowledge- the majority knew the very important issues related with laboratory safety like Post Exposure Prophylaxis (96.55% & discarding of blood samples (93.10% etc. In regard to attitude towards the scientific process, all are very much aware about importance of protective devices (i.e. Wearing Gloves and Biomedical waste management. In regard to the practice in laboratory, the entire study subject group (100% replied “YES” in each question that shows the good quality work of the laboratory. Conclusion: The induction training on Laboratory safety is very important and motivating exercise for improving the laboratory safety measures.

Hansa M Goswami, Sumeeta T Soni, Sachin M Patel, Mitesh K Patel

2011-01-01

110

The Student?s Workplace Learning Program as a Strategy to Enhance Knowledge Worker Competency: An Alternative Way to Build Learning Organization  

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Full Text Available This research intends to study on knowledge worker competency development which effected from students who work in company through the university workplace learning program. The new leadership roles and skills of managers and leaders according to learning organization principle will be focused. Data were collected from knowledge workers using questionnaires and telephone interviews. The result found that students’ coming can stimulate knowledge workers to use and develop their competencies. Competency area that most used and developed is coaching and mentoring which result in knowledge worker’s planning, prioritizing, conducting, monitoring, communicating, and leading skills. The co-learner and model for learning, advocate for learning process and projects, and engage in systems thinking were also used and developed at high level. The study can initial conclude that university workplace learning program is the one of an alternative strategy to drive companies to become learning organization in people perspective.

Worawit Janchai

2013-04-01

111

An Empirical Research on the Correlation between Human Capital and Career Success of Knowledge Workers in Enterprise  

Science.gov (United States)

Human capital plays an important part in employability of knowledge workers, also it is the important intangible assets of company. This paper explores the correlation between human capital and career success of knowledge workers. Based on literature retrieval, we identified measuring tool of career success and modified further; measuring human capital with self-developed scale of high reliability and validity. After exploratory factor analysis, we suggest that human capital contents four dimensions, including education, work experience, learning ability and training; career success contents three dimensions, including perceived internal competitiveness of organization, perceived external competitiveness of organization and career satisfaction. The result of empirical analysis indicates that there is a positive correlation between human capital and career success, and human capital is an excellent predictor of career success beyond demographics variables.

Guo, Wenchen; Xiao, Hongjun; Yang, Xi

112

A study of HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitude and behaviors among female sex workers in Shanghai China  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background China is currently facing a rapid and widespread increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The activities of female sex workers (FSWs) have contributed to the mounting epidemic of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitude and risk behaviors among FSWs operating in Shanghai China. Methods A cross-section...

Cai Yong; Shi Rong; Shen Tian; Pei Bei; Jiang Xueqin; Ye Xiuxia; Xu Gang; Li Shenghui; Huang Hong; Shang Meili

2010-01-01

113

Sickle cell knowledge, premarital screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: In Nigeria, as in the rest of equatorial Africa, sickle cell disease (SCD) has its highest incidence and continues to cause high morbidity and early death. The condition is a major public health problem among the black race. The aim of this survey is to determine the level of knowledge about SCD and the factors associated with its prevention among local government workers in Ile- Ife.

Method: This is a cross-section...

Abioye-kuteyi, Emmanuel A.; Olanrewaju Oyegbade; Ibrahim Bello; Chiddude Osakwe

2009-01-01

114

Knowledge, attitudes and anxiety towards influenza A/H1N1 vaccination of healthcare workers in Turkey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the factors associated with knowledge and attitudes about influenza A (H1N1) and vaccination, and possible relations of these factors with anxiety among healthcare workers (HCW). Methods The study used a cross-sectional descriptive design, and it was carried out between 23 November and 4 December 2009. A total of 300 HCW from two hospitals completed a questionnaire. Data collection tools comprised a questionnaire a...

2010-01-01

115

The relationship between Chinese construction workers' HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour: a structural equation model.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in migrant urban construction workers using structural equation modelling (SEM). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 428 male subjects on three building sites in Shenyang City. The SEM model of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour was built using LISREL version 8.5 and it fitted the data well, as shown by an adjusted goodness of fit index of 0.82 and a root mean square error of approximation of 0.094. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS was closely correlated with attitudes and behaviour. Age was an important factor affecting HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour. These findings suggest that increasing HIV/AIDS-related knowledge could improve the attitude and behaviour of migrant urban construction workers, enabling them to avoid high-risk behaviour that increases the spread of HIV/AIDS. Any intervention used will need to take the important factor of age into consideration. PMID:19761705

Qu, B; Guo, H Q; Liu, J; Zuo, T M; Zhang, Y; Sun, G

2009-01-01

116

A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface  

Science.gov (United States)

A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface Keira Quinn (1), Dr Max Hope (1), Professor John McCloskey (1). (1)University of Ulster Peer-reviewed science has the potential to guide policy-makers and practitioners in developing robust responses to social problems and issues. Despite advances in hazard-related science, it can often be a challenge to translate findings into useful social applications. With natural hazards affecting 2.9 billion people between 2000 and 2012 the need for hazard science to be effectively communicated is undeniable. This is particularly so in humanitarian contexts as non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play a key role in the poorer nations most affected by natural disasters. Past methods of 'knowledge transfer' have tended to lead to misinterpretations and misrepresentations of science to the extent that it is often used incorrectly or not at all. 'Knowledge exchange' is currently heralded as a more effective means of bringing about successful communication and understanding, and is characterised by the presence of shared learning. Central to a knowledge exchange approach is an understanding of the social and organisational contexts within which learning takes place. Here we use Etienne Wenger's social-learning approach to analyse selected aspects of the social context influencing knowledge exchange across the geoscience-humanitarian interface. For Wenger (2000) Communities of Practice (CoP) are bounded organisational and social groups united by their own distinct values, goals and ways of working. The boundaries surrounding CoPs can act as barriers to knowledge exchange but can also create opportunities for new shared learning by challenging existing perspectives and practice. Drawing on the findings of ongoing qualitative research into communication and learning between earthquake scientists and humanitarian NGOs in UK/Ireland, this paper outlines a number of key features of geoscience and humanitarian Communities of Practice. It focuses on the barriers to and enablers of learning on the boundaries between CoPs and explores the important role played by boundary workers/brokers at this interface. Wenger's (2000) typology of knowledge brokers is used to analyse the different forms this role can take and identify the challenges that hinder it. For example, boundary workers often find themselves in a 'no man's land' between CoP, where their efforts are not recognised or rewarded by either community of practice. We conclude by drawing out wider conclusions on the potential for boundary workers to bridge the science-policy-practice interface particularly ways of developing appropriate boundary infrastructure (for example, recognised career paths, funding mechanisms and organisational support structures).

Quinn, Keira; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John

2014-05-01

117

A knowledge continuity management program for the energy, infrastructure and knowledge systems center, Sandia National Laboratories.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A growing recognition exists in companies worldwide that, when employees leave, they take with them valuable knowledge that is difficult and expensive to recreate. The concern is now particularly acute as the large ''baby boomer'' generation is reaching retirement age. A new field of science, Knowledge Continuity Management (KCM), is designed to capture and catalog the acquired knowledge and wisdom from experience of these employees before they leave. The KCM concept is in the final stages of being adopted by the Energy, Infrastructure, and Knowledge Systems Center and a program is being applied that should produce significant annual cost savings. This report discusses how the Center can use KCM to mitigate knowledge loss from employee departures, including a concise description of a proposed plan tailored to the Center's specific needs and resources.

Menicucci, David F.

2006-07-01

118

Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards pandemic influenza among cases, close contacts, and healthcare workers in tropical Singapore: a cross-sectional survey  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective influenza pandemic management requires understanding of the factors influencing behavioral changes. We aim to determine the differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices in various different cohorts and explore the pertinent factors that influenced behavior in tropical Singapore. Methods We performed a cross-sectional knowledge, attitudes and practices survey in the Singapore military from mid-August to early-October 2009, among 3054 personnel in four exposure groups - laboratory-confirmed H1N1-2009 cases, close contacts of cases, healthcare workers, and general personnel. Results 1063 (34.8% participants responded. The mean age was 21.4 (SE 0.2 years old. Close contacts had the highest knowledge score (71.7%, p = 0.004 while cases had the highest practice scores (58.8%, p Conclusion Knowledge is a significant influence on attitudes and practices in a pandemic, and personal experience influences practice behaviors. Efforts should be targeted at educating the general population to improve practices in the current pandemic, as well as for future epidemics.

Lee Vernon J

2010-07-01

119

[The Workers' Health field: reclaiming knowledge and practices in the interface between work and health].  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the underlying theoretical and operational premises in the fields of workers' health and occupational health, highlighting their respective frameworks and epistemological differences, based on Foucaultian archeology. The theme is particularly relevant, due to: the apparently limited attention to interdisciplinary research approaches in workers' health; various setbacks in public health measures at the social policy level; related weaknesses in the Brazilian trade union movement; and the conceptual misinterpretations drafted into the final report of the 3rd National Workers' Health Conference in November, 2005, convened by the Ministries of Social Security, Health, and Labor. The event resulted from the Workers' Health Conferences held in various States and Municipalities, mobilizing some 100,000 activists throughout Brazil and electing the delegates to the 3rd National Conference. PMID:17435873

Lacaz, Francisco Antonio de Castro

2007-04-01

120

Knowledge-workers and the sustainable city: the travel consequences of car-related job-perks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Attracting firms in knowledge and technology intensive (KTI) sectors is highly sought by national and regional policy makers as a powerful engine of economic growth. Due to fierce competition in the KTI sector, KTI firms often attract employees by offering car-related job perks in addition to wage. This study analyzes the impact of company-cars and car-allowance on the travel behavior of knowledge-workers. The importance of this issue derives from the tendency of knowledge-based economy to concentrate in highly populated metropolitan regions. The analyzed data comprise 750 observations, retrieved from a revealed-preferences survey among KTI workers in the Tel-Aviv metropolitan region in Israel. Results show that car-related job perks are associated with (i) high annual kilometrage, (ii) high propensity of using the car as main commute mode, (iii) long commute distances and travel times, (iv) high trip chaining frequency in commuting trips, and (v) high frequency of long-distance weekend leisure trips. The results suggest that the development of sustainable knowledge-based cities should consider (i) the replacement of car-related job perks by other incentives, (ii) the provision of pedestrian and cyclist friendly infrastructures, and (iii) public transport improvements.

Bendit, Edward; Frenkel, Amnon

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

A thyroid measurement method for monitoring laboratory workers exposed to I125  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We describe here the standardization of a technique for the estimation of 125I in the thyroid gland of laboratory workers involved with 125I labelling techniques. It is based on a comparison with a standard curve obtained by placing in a thyroid neck phantom various calibrated standard sources of 125I. Its sensitivity was calculated around 0,8 - 1,7 nCi. The precision of our measurements was avaliated in a range of 1.35 - 310.5 nCi and the coefficient of variation obtained varied from 2,2% to 26,3%. The accuracy of our ''in vivo'' measurements was checked by analyzing the influence of the shape and the size of the thyroid in the neck phantom. (author)

1988-01-01

122

Sister chromatid exchange analysis and chromosoma aberration studies in interventional cardiology laboratory workers. One year follow up study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Invasive cardiology laboratory workers are occupationally exposed to chronic ionizing radiation. It is known that ionizing radiation has a damaging effect on chromosomes. In present study, we investigated the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations in 11 invasive cardiology laboratory workers and 11 healthy controls. After a vacation period, we took blood samples for chromosome analysis in months 0, 4, 8 and 12 (last two month period was the nonradiation time). The SCE frequencies did not change significantly after exposure to ionizing radiation in any worker. Our study has revealed that non-specific structural chromosome aberrations such as gaps, isogaps, acentric chromosomes, chromatids and chromosome breakage could be in the 4th and 8th months after ionizing radiation exposure in the metaphase plaques. All abnormal chromosomal effects had disappeared by the end of the two month non-exposure period in each worker. In conclusion, the results suggest that SCE frequencies are not significantly affected in invasive cardiology laboratory workers who are exposed occupationally to ionizing radiation, although some degree of reversible chromosomal aberrations did appear. (author)

2002-03-01

123

Exploring AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Female Mexican Migrant Workers.  

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AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were assessed among female migrant laborers (N=32). Results are reported regarding knowledge and beliefs about AIDS transmission, knowledge and beliefs about condom use, and actual use of condoms. Needs for health education and services, sexual power, and other implications of findings are…

Organista, Pamela Balls; Organista, Kurt C.; Soloff, Pearl R.

1998-01-01

124

The Implications of a Health Promotion Program on the Knowledge and Practice of Automotive Workers Exposed To Solvent  

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Full Text Available Problem statement: An in-house health promotion program aimed at promoting safety and health awareness when handling organic solvents at the workplace was carried out and its effectiveness was evaluated by comparing the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP scores at the pre and post-intervention phase. Approach: A total of 104 workers participated in the program and another 176 workers served as the comparative group. Questionnaire was distributed to respondents for the program evaluation on the KAP as well as to obtain their background information. The program consisted of small group lectures and discussions, a short video show, display of posters and distributions of pamphlets. Results: Pre-intervention data showed poor practice and knowledge scores on solvent hazards (Conclusion: There were improvements in the KAP scores of the intervention group at the post-intervention phase. However, the practice was not significantly correlated to the knowledge, instead, it was influenced by the employment years in the heavily solvent exposed sections in the Painting Department indicating that their job experience and peer group interactions contributed to their work culture and behavior.

Rumaizah Ruslan

2010-01-01

125

[Biosafety profile of laboratory workers at three education hospitals in Izmir, Turkey].  

Science.gov (United States)

The laboratory personnel in hospitals are at risk in terms of transmission of various infectious diseases. The aim of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, behavior and attitude of the health personnel who work in one university and two state hospitals in Izmir, Turkey, about biosafety. The study is an observational-sectional study. Participants were selected via random sampling method. The hospitals were visited on workdays determined by the random selection method and all of the personnel (doctor, technician, cleaning-staff) were included to the study. The data were analyzed statistically using Chi square test. Of the 183 participants included in the study, 106 were from Dokuz Eylül University School of Medicine Central Laboratory and 77 were from state hospitals. 62.8% of the participants were female, 37.2% were male and mean age of all was 32.8 +/- 6.9 years. 23.5% of the participants stated that they had previously taken education about biosafety (p= 0.002). It was determined that 91.3% of the participants were wearing gloves and 87.4% of them were wearing lab-coat during laboratory studies. A significant difference was observed between the hospitals in terms of use of gloves (p= 0.004). All the participants stated that they wash their hands and 43% of them indicated that their daily hand wash rate was > or = 10 times. It was determined that 38.3% of the participants consumed food or drinks in the laboratory, however, this rate was statistically significantly less in the university hospital laboratory (p= 0.000). The rate of participants who had been subjected to a microorganism in the last six months was 6.6%. Obedience to the biosafety rules in laboratory will not only provide a safer environment but also improve the quality of work. We believe that the results of this study will serve as a guide for future studies on laboratory biosafety. PMID:18822891

Aksoy, Umit; Ozdemir, M Hakan; Usluca, Selma; Toprak Ergönen, Akça

2008-07-01

126

The influence of risk perception on biosafety level-2 laboratory workers' hand-to-face contact behaviors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathogen transmission in the laboratory is thought to occur primarily through inhalation of infectious aerosols or by direct contact with mucous membranes on the face. While significant research has focused on controlling inhalation exposures, little has been written about hand contamination and subsequent hand-to-face contact (HFC) transmission. HFC may present a significant risk to workers in biosafety level-2 (BSL-2) laboratories where there is typically no barrier between the workers' hands and face. The purpose of this study was to measure the frequency and location of HFC among BSL-2 workers, and to identify psychosocial factors that influence the behavior. Research workers (N = 93) from 21 BSL-2 laboratories consented to participate in the study. Two study personnel measured workers' HFC behaviors by direct observation during activities related to cell culture maintenance, cell infection, virus harvesting, reagent and media preparation, and tissue processing. Following observations, a survey measuring 11 psychosocial predictors of HFC was administered to participants. Study personnel recorded 396 touches to the face over the course of the study (mean = 2.6 HFCs/hr). Of the 93 subjects, 67 (72%) touched their face at least once, ranging from 0.2-16.0 HFCs/hr. Among those who touched their face, contact with the nose was most common (44.9%), followed by contact with the forehead (36.9%), cheek/chin (12.5%), mouth (4.0%), and eye (1.7%). HFC rates were significantly different across laboratories F(20, 72) = 1.85, p = 0.03. Perceived severity of infection predicted lower rates of HFC (p = 0.03). For every one-point increase in the severity scale, workers had 0.41 fewer HFCs/hr (r = -.27, P prevent HFC. PMID:24479417

Johnston, James D; Eggett, Dennis; Johnson, Michele J; Reading, James C

2014-09-01

127

Sickle cell knowledge, premarital screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: In Nigeria, as in the rest of equatorial Africa, sickle cell disease (SCD has its highest incidence and continues to cause high morbidity and early death. The condition is a major public health problem among the black race. The aim of this survey is to determine the level of knowledge about SCD and the factors associated with its prevention among local government workers in Ile- Ife.

Method: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of the knowledge about SCD, attitude towards premarital sickle cell screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, using a self-administered questionnaire.

Results: 69% of study subjects had poor knowledge of SCD, while attitude towards premarital screening was favourable in 95% of the study subjects. Knowledge and attitude were significantly better among subjects with tertiary education. There was a strong positive association between attitude towards sickle cell screening and a history of undergoing screening or partner screening. Most (86.7% of the respondents and 74.0% of their partners have had sickle cell screening. One-quarter of married and engaged respondents did not know their partner’s sickle cell status. One-third to two-thirds of study subjects will continue the relationship with their partner when either or both have haemoglobinopathy.

Conclusion: This study showed poor knowledge of SCD among the studied subjects. There is a need for more emphasis on health education through programmes promoting sickle cell education. In addition, the development of multifaceted patient and public health education programmes, the intensification of screening for the control of SCD by heterozygote detection, particularly during routine preplacement and premarital medical examinations, and the provision of genetic counselling to all SCD patients and carriers are vital to the identification and care of the couples at risk. These will enhance the capacity of the intending couples to make informed decisions and be aware of the consequences of such decisions. Policies are needed to ensure easily accessible community-wide sickle cell screening and premarital and genetic counselling to achieve the desired decline in new births of children with SCD.

How to cite this article: Abioye-Kuteyi EA, Oyegbade O, Bello I, Osakwe C. Sickle cell knowledge, premarital screening and marital decisions among local government workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2009;1(1, Art. #22, 5 pages. DOI:10.4102/phcfm.v1i1.22

Ibrahim Bello

2009-04-01

128

Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76{+-}11.20, 90.55{+-}8.59, 80.58{+-}11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55{+-}9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in married and general hospital demonstrated high self-efficacy levels. 3. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management showed statistical differences according to the relationship between the knowledge and the attitude, the knowledge and the behavior, the attitude and the behavior, the attitude and the self-efficacy, and the behavior and the self-efficacy. The relationship between the behavior and the self-efficacy was represented as {gamma} = 0.482, which was the strongest relationship in such factors. Also, the knowledge and self-efficacy didn't show certain relationships.

Han, Eun Ok [Daegu Health College, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2007-06-15

129

Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management of radiation workers in medical institutions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation safety managements in medical institutions are needed to protect certain radiation damages as a part of National Coalition. This study investigates the characteristics of self-efficacy that become the major factor on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior on the radiation safety management of radiation workers as an approach of educational aspects and analyzes the relationship between such factors to provide basic materials for improving the activity level of radiation safety managements. In order to implement the goal of this study, a survey was performed for 1,200 workers who were engaged in radiation treatments in medical centers, such as general hospital, university hospital, private hospital, and public health center for 42 days from July 23, 2006. Then, the results of the analysis can be summarized as follows: 1. Average scores on knowledge, attitude, and behavior in the radiation safety management were presented as 75.76±11.20, 90.55±8.59, 80.58±11.70, respectively. Also, the average score of self-efficacy was recorded as 73.55±9.82. 2. Knowledge levels in the radiation safety management showed significant differences according to the sex, age, marriage, education, and experience. Also, males of married, older, highly educated, and largely experienced represented high knowledge levels. Attitude levels in the radiation safety management showed certain significant differences according to the type of medical centers in which private hospitals showed a relatively low level compared to that of high levels in university hospitals. Behavior levels in the radiation safety management also represented significant differences according to the age, marriage, education, experience, and types of medical centers. Factors in married, general hospital, older, highly educated, and largely experienced showed high behavior levels. In addition, the self-efficacy showed certain differences according to the marriage and types of medical centers. Factors in married and general hospital demonstrated high self-efficacy levels. 3. Relationship between knowledge, attitude, behavior, and self-efficacy on the radiation safety management showed statistical differences according to the relationship between the knowledge and the attitude, the knowledge and the behavior, the attitude and the behavior, the attitude and the self-efficacy, and the behavior and the self-efficacy. The relationship between the behavior and the self-efficacy was represented as ? = 0.482, which was the strongest relationship in such factors. Also, the knowledge and self-efficacy didn't show certain relationships

2007-06-01

130

Valuing the contribution of knowledge-oriented workers to projects: a merit based approach in the construction industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Evidence points to the fact that frequent resignation of project engineers from construction companies is primarily the result of dissatisfaction with the factors that shape the salary scale. This research aims to identify the major influencing factors in merit based salary calculation systems for knowledge-oriented engineers so as to more accurately reflect their contribution to construction projects. Results from a questionnaire sent to managers, engineers and HR professionals throughout the Iranian construction industry revealed that while there was overall agreement on principles to a merit-based approach, engineers in particular identified ‘professional skills’, ‘experience’ and ‘creativity’. Management-oriented parties should take into account engineer perspectives in order to more accurately value the knowledge-oriented contribution of these workers to construction projects. This research provides a basis for understanding the key factors in the merit based salary scale formulation through the construction industry.

Mehrdad Arashpour

2012-12-01

131

The multi-dimensional effects of reciprocity on worker effort: Evidence from a hybrid field-laboratory labor market experiment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examine the gift exchange hypothesis on both the quantity and quality of output using a hybrid field-laboratory labor market experiment. We recruited participants to enter survey data for a well-known charitable organization. Workers were paid either a high or low wage. We find that although the total number of surveys entered did not vary with the wage, high wage workers made fewer errors and entered more surveys after controlling for errors. We further find that for low costs associated ...

Kim, Min-taec; Slonim, Robert

2012-01-01

132

Behavior, knowledge, attitude, and other characteristics of men who had sex with female commercial sex workers in Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

We examined sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge, behavior, and attitude of men who had sex with commercial sex workers (CSWs) in Kenya. About 15% of the men had sex with CSWs. Men who had two or more partners, were away from home five or more times in the past year, and used condoms consistently with their last three partners were likely to have had sex with CSWs (odds ratio [OR] = 2.70, p = .000; OR = 1.43, p = .044; OR = 2.50, p = .000, respectively). Men with better knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were likely to have had sex with CSWs (OR = 1.62, p = .004). As expected, having had sex with CSWs was associated with higher risk of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 3.62, p = .000). This unexpected association between knowledge and behavior could be bidirectional or reverse causality. Nonetheless, knowledge in prevention has not been translated to practice and change in behavior. These processes require continuous efforts, including assertive campaigns on sexual practices and behaviors. PMID:19477766

Hong, Rathavuth

2008-03-01

133

Company-Wiki as a knowledge transfer instrument for reducing the shortage of skilled workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The problem of the shortage of skilled workers in the manufacturing sector of the metal and electrical industry is a central topic in many areas in Europe. Different factors and impacts cause the specialist situation, which gradually has manifested itself on the skilled work level. These circumstances are described in detail in a synthesis report as well as in a good-practice report (ITB research reports 36/2008 and 37/2008). The available report is based on the necessity of SMEs for a knowle...

Schulz, Judith

2009-01-01

134

The knowledge, attitude and practices of the reporting of notifiable diseases among health workers in Yobe State, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective surveillance is the key to effective disease control in the community. In Nigeria, it is weak with duplication of data collection and multiple reporting channels. There is also lack of clarity with regards to data submission responsibilities. However, the knowledge of reporting requirements and responsibilities among health personnel has not been examined adequately as a cause of under reporting. This study was designed to assess the knowledge of health workers about disease surveillance. A cross sectional study was conducted in six randomly selected local government areas in Yobe State, North Eastern Nigeria. A total of 144 health personnel from 88 health facilities were administered a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire and a checklist by trained research assistants. The result showed that only fifty-five (38.2%) of the respondents were aware of the national disease surveillance system. Their mean score regarding immediate notifiable diseases was 0.8 +/- 1.23 SD (maximum of 10). Thirty nine (70.9%) reported to have ever reported, while 16 (29.1%) have never reported any of the notifiable conditions. Only 12 (21.8%) of the respondents claimed to have ever received feedback on the reports they forward to higher authorities and more than 92% of the health facilities lack the DSN 001 and 002 forms. Most of the respondents 47 (85.5%) that were aware of the reporting requirements listed lack of training on disease surveillance as one of the factors affecting disease reporting. This shows that lack of knowledge of reporting requirement was identified as a major factor affecting disease surveillance among the respondents. The training and retraining of health workers responsible for data generation, collection and forwarding in health facilities on disease notification, regular feedback on diseases reported and provision of forms were recommended in order to improve the disease surveillance system. PMID:15030066

Bawa, S B; Olumide, E A A; Umar, U S

2003-03-01

135

Social integration, AIDS knowledge and factors related to HIV prevention among migrant workers in Thailand.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research on migrant health indicates that social integration may exert a strong influence on health behavior. However, to our knowledge, this factor has not been integrated into models for HIV prevention. Drawing constructs from the Health Belief Model, the objective of this paper was to determine whether social integration, demographic, relationship and other factors were related to migrants' ability to prevent HIV infection through AIDS knowledge and condom use. Data for the study were drawn from a survey of 3,405 male and female migrant laborers from Myanmar, Cambodia and Laos who were working in Thailand in 2010. Regression analysis showed that social integration, participation in an AIDS prevention program, self efficacy, demographic and relationship factors increased AIDS knowledge and condom use with regular and nonregular partners. The social integration of migrants into the Thai community strengthened HIV prevention efforts. PMID:23325377

Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Apipornchaisakul, Kanya; Panichapak, Promboon; Pinyosinwat, Thongphit

2014-02-01

136

Promoting community knowledge and action for malaria control in rural Cambodia: potential contributions of Village Malaria Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cambodia has been investing in Village Malaria Workers (VMWs to improve malaria case management in rural areas. This study assessed the quality of the VMWs’ services compared to those by a government-run health center from the perspective of community members. We focused on VMWs’ contribution to promote their action to control malaria. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kampot province in 2009. Interviews were conducted at every accessible household in a village with VMWs (n?=?153 and a village with a health center (n?=?159, using interviewer administered questionnaire. Preference of the interview was given to female household head. Multiple regression analyses were run to compare knowledge about malaria, preventive measures taken, and time before first malaria treatment between the two villages. Findings The villagers perceived the VMWs’ services equally as good as those provided by the health center. After controlling for confounding factors, the following indicators did not show any statistical significance between two villages: community members’ knowledge about malaria transmission (AOR?=?0.60, 95% CI?=?0.30-1.22 and government-recommended antimalarial (AOR?=?0.55, 95% CI?=?0.25-1.23, preventive measures taken (Beta?=??0.191, p?=?0.315, and time before the first treatment (Beta?=?0.053, p?=?0.721. However, knowledge about malaria symptoms was significantly lower in the village with VMWs than the village with a health center (AOR?=?0.40, 95% CI?=?0.19-0.83. Conclusions VMWs played an equivalent role as the health center in promoting malaria knowledge, action, and effective case management. Although VMWs need to enhance community knowledge about malaria symptoms, the current government policy on VMWs is reasonable and should be expanded to other malaria endemic villages.

Lim Sachiko

2012-08-01

137

Contestations over knowledge production or ideological bullying?: a response to Legassick on the workers' movement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The key characteristic of the vast amount of literature on the South African workers' movement in the post-1973 period is the denial that the class and national struggles were closely intertwined. This denial is underpinned by a strong 'antinationalist current' which dismisses the national liberation struggle as 'populist and nationalist' and therefore antithetical to socialism. This article cautions against uncritical endorsement of these views. It argues that they are the work of partisan and intolerant commentators who have dominated the South African academy since the 1970s and who have a tendency to suppress all versions of labour history which highlight these linkages in favour of those which portray national liberation and socialism as antinomies. The article also points out that these commentators use history to mobilise support for their rigidly held ideological positions and to wage current political struggles under the pretext of advancing objective academic arguments.

Jabulani Sithole

2009-11-01

138

Contestations over knowledge production or ideological bullying?: a response to Legassick on the workers' movement  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The key characteristic of the vast amount of literature on the South African workers' movement in the post-1973 period is the denial that the class and national struggles were closely intertwined. This denial is underpinned by a strong 'antinationalist current' which dismisses the national liberatio [...] n struggle as 'populist and nationalist' and therefore antithetical to socialism. This article cautions against uncritical endorsement of these views. It argues that they are the work of partisan and intolerant commentators who have dominated the South African academy since the 1970s and who have a tendency to suppress all versions of labour history which highlight these linkages in favour of those which portray national liberation and socialism as antinomies. The article also points out that these commentators use history to mobilise support for their rigidly held ideological positions and to wage current political struggles under the pretext of advancing objective academic arguments.

Jabulani, Sithole.

139

An evaluation of knowledge and awareness of disinfection and sterilization among health care workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Awareness of the disinfection and sterilization policy among hospital staff and their knowledge in basic principles and methods of disinfection and sterilization were studied before and after intervention using a self-administered questionnaire. Survey results showed that awareness (56.2%) before intervention was unsatisfactory. The nurses were more aware of the policy than other groups of medical personnel. Those unaware of the policy perform duties from memory or verbal instructions. A significant increase in awareness to 73.3% was observed after intervention (p < 0.05). Knowledge on methods of decontamination, disinfection and sterilization of equipment varies widely from 28.8% to 90.1%. 23.1% were unaware of the temperature used for sterilization while 72.4% did not know how containers of disinfectant should be refill. Only 14.7% knew the recommended method for washing containers. With education improvement was observed. The average knowledge improved from 44.4% to 57.3%. Our results indicated that continuous in-service education is needed to improve, supplement and update knowledge in this field after basic training. In addition orientation programs for new staff should also be aimed at creating awareness and providing information on guidelines and policies related to their duties. PMID:8525420

Keah, K C; Jegathesan, M; Tan, S C; Chan, S H; Che, O M; Cheong, Y M; Suleiman, A B

1995-03-01

140

77 FR 4368 - Abbott Laboratories, Diagnostics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Collins Consulting and On Assignment, Irving, Texas. The workers are engaged in activities related to the production of immunoassay diagnostic analyzers, associated accessories, and spare parts. The notice was published in the Federal Register on...

2012-01-27

 
 
 
 
141

Knowledge & Perceptions of ICDS Anganwadi Workers with Reference To Promotion of Community Based Complementary Feeding Practices in Semi Tribal Gujarat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To assess ICDS anganwadi workers’ knowledge and perception regarding promotion and enhance community based complementary feeding practices. Methodology: Total 17 anganwadi workers’ (AWWs from one semi tribal sector (covering approximately 850 children under three two years of Vadodara district in Gujarat state, India were purposely selected. This study employed interview with AWWs as a principal method of data collection using a pretested semi-structured interview schedule. The entire interview was divided into 8 themes. Results: The knowledge of AWWs with regard to key IYCF practices was average. None of the AWWs knew the complete rationale for promoting breastfeeding till 2 years and beyond. Merely 65% AWWs recommended food with thick consistency while 47% recommended liquid diets for children. These practices in fact are one of the primary reasons which can be attributed to low energy and protein intake during complementary feeding. As low as 18% AWWs advised giving small frequent feeds during illness and only 6% advised additional meal after illness. None of the AWWs recommended persistence in feeding the child with required quantity of food. Total 41% listed sickness as key reason for child not feeling hungry, missing out on the other two imperative reasons i.e. micronutrient deficiency and mouth lesion. Conclusion: Overall knowledge and perceptions for promoting of community based CF practices was average amongst the ICDS AWWs with a percent score of 40%. The AWWs were aware of key IYCF practices, however the AWWs perceptions and knowledge with regard to the rationale applicable to the appropriate recommended CF practices being promoted was rather poor. This is noted to be a critical gap and needs to be addressed for equipping the ICDS frontline workers for effectively promoting successful adoptions of CF practices by community.

Purvi Parikh, Kavita Sharma

2011-01-01

142

Wage increases in the clinical laboratory: how are workers faring against inflation and in comparison to other health professions?  

Science.gov (United States)

High vacancy rates in the clinical laboratory profession have led to the use of wage increases and financial incentives to attract and retain workers. American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) surveys indicate that wages for Medical Technologists and Medical Laboratory Technicians have been steadily rising in the past few years following years of little or no increases. When adjusted for inflation, the real wage increases have even modestly exceeded the inflation rate. However, wages in the clinical laboratory remain lower than in several other allied health professions with comparable educational preparation. Achieving competitive wages will be important in addressing the long-term need to attract more students to the clinical laboratory. PMID:16045820

Chapman, Susan A; McClory, Vasey; Ward-Cook, Kory

2005-01-01

143

Infant and Young Child Feeding – Knowledge and Practices of ASHA workers of Doiwala Block, Dehradun District  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Promotion and support of breastfeeding is a global priority and an important child-survival intervention. Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs can play a significant role in the promotion of breast-feeding. Present research paper reviews their knowledge & practices with respect to Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF issues. Further, it also analyzes difficulties being faced by them in promoting positive IYCF practices so that necessary support can be provided for carrying out their desired role. Material and Methods: It was a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted in the block Doiwala of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand. All 168 ASHAs were included in the study for the assessment of knowledge and practices by interview technique based on predesigned and pre-tested questionnaire. Results: 98% ASHAs had complete and correct information about exclusive breast feeding, however only 38% ASHAs were aware that breastfeeding should be started within 4 hours in children delivered by caesarean section. Only 18% ASHAs reported to be able to motivate mothers to practice exclusive breast feeding. Insufficient mother’s milk (55.4%, Caesarean sections (20.2%, coercion from elders in the family to start top milk were among the important factors attributed for failure of exclusive breastfeeding. Regarding complementary feeding, only 45% ASHAs knew the correct timing of initiation of complementary feeding; however 58% ASHAs had introduced the complementary feeding at 7th month in their children. 83.9% ASHAs knew that complementary food should be semisolid in consistency, while 87.5% and 32.7% ASHAs were aware that egg and non-vegetarian food items can be given as complementary food to the child. Bottle feeding had been practiced by about 33% of ASHAs in the past; however no ASHA had reported bottle feeding currently. Conclusion: Present research paper concludes that although knowledge level of ASHAs is high regarding IYCF practices but it does not match with the actual practices. They require skill building especially in the area of breastfeeding options for working women as well as complementary feeding.

Vartika Saxena

2014-03-01

144

A Laboratory Study Designed for Reducing the Gap between Information Security Knowledge and Implementation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Companies often have the knowledge on procedures to prevent or mitigate against information technology security risks. Yet these companies may not take adequate measures to implement these procedures, and instead, leave themselves vulnerable to security breaches. Potential reasons for this gap between information security knowledge and implementation are provided based on interviews with information technology managers at a global automobile sales and marketing company. Four mechanisms to reduce this gap are proposed, along with a new approach to conduct a laboratory experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of these mechanisms, applied independently and in combinations.

Revital Elitzur

2010-06-01

145

Are Care Takers of Link WorkerAND#8217;s Scheme of HIV/AIDS Knowledgeable Enouth? Assessment Study of Link Workers Scheme in Surat District  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Gujarat State AIDS Control Society with support from UNICEF Gujarat has initiated as unique project for prevention of HIV /AIDS at rural set up since 2008, which is known as Link Workers’ scheme. Link Workers (LWs) are working in each cluster of villages around a 5,000+ population village which will serve as the node for intervention. They are supported in their work by village level volunteers selected from the available groups in the community. Methodology: 140 Link work...

Parmar Rohit; Desai Binita; Jk, Kosambiya; Solanky Priti; Prajapati Shailesh; Sl, Kantharia

2012-01-01

146

Mobile talent or privileged sites? Making sense of biotech knowledge worker mobility and performance in Sweden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Great hope is currently put in biotechnological innovation to create economic growth and ensure future competitiveness or firms, regions and nations. For some years, economic geography and economics have been focusing on privileged sites when explaining geographical variances in actors' ability to innovate: e.g. regional innovation systems, clusters, industrial districts, creative milieus, etc. In such explanations, the basic notion is that certain sites, as a result of their privileged configuration, relative position and history, tend to support innovation to a higher degree than other milieus. Lately, however, there has been a shift in focus within some research communities towards what could be called a "talented people" explanation. The problem for those interested in biotech innovation policy and in the larger question about exactly how biotechnological knowledge production takes place, is that this debate offers two diametrically different understandings of (i the geography of innovation and, in turn, (ii how to actually design innovative spaces or increase rates of innovation. According to the talented people argument, innovation policy should be focusing on designing attractive spaces in which creative people want to live, while the privileged sites argument instead focuses on figuring out how to design creative spaces. In this paper, a unique dataset is used to attempt to determine which of the two rivalling explanatory concepts, privileged sites or talented people, that does best describe what is going on in biotech landscapes in Sweden.

H. Mattsson

2007-01-01

147

Mobile talent or privileged sites? Making sense of biotech knowledge worker mobility and performance in Sweden  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Great hope is currently put in biotechnological innovation to create economic growth and ensure future competitiveness of regions and nations. For some years, economic geography and economics have been focusing on privileged sites when explaining geographical variances in actors' ability to innovate: e.g. regional innovation systems, clusters, industrial districts and creative milieus. In such explanations, the basic notion is that certain sites, as a result of their privileged configuration, relative position and history, tend to support innovation to a higher degree than other milieus. Lately, however, there has been a shift in focus within some research communities towards what could be called a "talented people" explanation. The problem for those interested in biotech innovation policy and in the larger question about exactly how biotechnological knowledge production takes place, is that this debate offers two diametrically different understandings of (i the geography of innovation and, in turn, (ii how to actually design innovative spaces or increase rates of innovation. According to the talented people argument, innovation policy should be focusing on designing attractive spaces in which creative people want to live, while the privileged sites argument instead focuses on figuring out how to design creative spaces. In this paper, a unique dataset is used to explore to what extent the two debating concepts, privileged sites and talented people, can explain what is going on in biotech landscapes in Sweden.

H. Mattsson

2007-12-01

148

Covert leadership: notes on managing professionals. Knowledge workers respond to inspiration, not supervision.  

Science.gov (United States)

The orchestra conductor is a popular metaphor for managers today--up there on the podium in complete control. But that image may be misleading, says Henry Mintzberg, who recently spent a day with Bramwell Tovey, conductor of the Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra, in order to explore the metaphor. He found that Tovey does not operate like an absolute ruler but practices instead what Mintzberg calls covert leadership. Covert leadership means managing with a sense of nuances, constraints, and limitations. When a manager like Tovey guides an organization, he leads without seeming to, without his people being fully aware of all that he is doing. That's because in this world of professionals, a leader is not completely powerless--but neither does he have absolute control over others. As knowledge work grows in importance, the way an orchestra conductor really operates may serve as a good model for managers in a wide range of businesses. For example, Mintzberg found that Tovey does a lot more hands-on work than one might expect. More like a first-line supervisor than a hands-off executive, he takes direct and personal charge of what is getting done. In dealing with his musicians, his focus is on inspiring them, not empowering them. Like other professionals, the musicians don't need to be empowered--they're already secure in what they know and can do--but they do need to be infused with energy for the tasks at hand. This is the role of the covert leader: to act quietly and unobtrusively in order to exact not obedience but inspired performance. PMID:10187244

Mintzberg, H

1998-01-01

149

Investigating Hong Kong's Filipino domestic workers' healthcare behavior, knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards cervical cancer and cervical screening.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate Hong Kong Filipino domestic workers health behaviors, knowledge, beliefs and attitudes about cervical screening and cancer. A concurrent cross sectional survey design used a snowball method of recruitment was used because of the acknowledged problematic access to a random sample of immigrant women. A total of 98 female domestic helpers were actively recruited through designated recreation centers. The women were between 24-45 years old (mean = 37.9, SD = 7.7). The majority of these women were employed as full-time domestic helpers (91%), were earning less than dollar 4000 Hong Kong dollars/month (92%), were married (82%), with children (91%), were non-smokers (88%), and had at least a secondary level of education (100%), with 66% of these women having completed post-secondary education. While the majority of women had previously heard about cervical smears (78%) more than half (53%) reported never having a cervical smear taken. Women who had a prior cervical smear had significantly more knowledge about cervical smears and cervical cancer (mean = 51.34, SD = 2.5) than those who never had a cervical smear (mean = 49.72, SD = 3.2). Recommendations are made for culturally tailored mass screening programmers out of office hours and health information to be provided in both written and oral Tagalong. Doctors and nurse ideally of Filipino origin should be used to deliver health messages that prioritize the importance of self protection for the family and future fertility issues, culturally prized within Filipino society. PMID:14535607

Holroyd, Eleanor A; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Twinn, Sheila F

2003-01-01

150

Knowledge, attitudes and anxiety towards influenza A/H1N1 vaccination of healthcare workers in Turkey  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to analyze the factors associated with knowledge and attitudes about influenza A (H1N1 and vaccination, and possible relations of these factors with anxiety among healthcare workers (HCW. Methods The study used a cross-sectional descriptive design, and it was carried out between 23 November and 4 December 2009. A total of 300 HCW from two hospitals completed a questionnaire. Data collection tools comprised a questionnaire and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results Vaccination rate for 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1 among HCW was low (12.7%. Most of the respondents believed the vaccine was not safe and protective. Vaccination refusal was mostly related to the vaccine's side effects, disbelief to vaccine's protectiveness, negative news about the vaccine and the perceived negative attitude of the Prime Minister to the vaccine. State anxiety was found to be high in respondents who felt the vaccine was unsafe. Conclusions HCW considered the seriousness of the outbreak, their vaccination rate was low. In vaccination campaigns, governments have to aim at providing trust, and media campaigns should be used to reinforce this trust as well. Accurate reporting by the media of the safety and efficacy of influenza vaccines and the importance of vaccines for the public health would likely have a positive influence on vaccine uptake. Uncertain or negative reporting about the vaccine is detrimental to vaccination efforts.

Tanriverdi Derya

2010-09-01

151

Attitudes, Skills and Knowledge Change in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Workers Following AOD Screening and Brief Intervention Training  

Science.gov (United States)

Adolescent mental health workers are generally poor at identifying and treating co-existing alcohol and other drug (AOD) disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the utility and acceptability of an AOD screening and brief intervention (BI) training package delivered to child and adolescent mental health workers and its impact on relevant attitudes,…

Christie, Grant; Black, Stella; Dunbar, Lucy; Pulford, Justin; Wheeler, Amanda

2013-01-01

152

Future chemistry teachers use of knowledge dimensions and high-order cognitive skills in pre-laboratory concept maps  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This poster describes a pilot case study, which aim is to study how future chemistry teachers use knowledge dimensions and high-order cognitive skills (HOCS) in their pre-laboratory concept maps to support chemistry laboratory work. The research data consisted of 168 pre-laboratory concept maps that 29 students constructed as a part of their chemistry laboratory studies. Concept maps were analyzed by using a theory based content analysis through Anderson & Krathwohls' learning taxonomy (2001)...

Pernaa, Johannes; Aksela, Maija Katariina

2010-01-01

153

First imported coccidioidomycosis in Turkey: A potential health risk for laboratory workers outside endemic areas?  

Science.gov (United States)

Coccidioidomycosis caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii is endemic in arid climate zones in America, travel-related cases have been reported. We report the first documented case of coccidioidomycosis in Turkey, overviewing reported cases in Europe and underlying difficulties of differential diagnosis outside endemic regions. The patient was an otherwise healthy 41-year-old man who travelled endemic areas. Laboratory diagnosis was based on direct microscopy of two subsequent subcutaneous biopsy specimens and culture and confirmed molecularly. Laboratory personnel should become aware that BioSafety Level-3 organisms may become more frequent and widespread.

Kantarcioglu, A. Serda; Sandoval-Denis, M.; Aygun, Gokhan; Kiraz, Nuri; Akman, Canan; Apaydin, Hulya; Karaman, Emin; Guarro, Josep; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Gurel, M.S.

2014-01-01

154

International mobility trends of highly skilled workers: an analysis of the transnational migration of highly skilled immigrants for both receiving and sending countries and their role on innovation in a knowledge-based economy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a knowledge-based economy, innovation has become a key driver of economic growth. The return migration of highly skilled workers to traditional sending countries such as Taiwan, China, and India has increased the international mobility of highly skilled workers in the Science and Technology sector. As a result, this will change transnational migration patterns of highly skilled workers in the future and will affect recruitment strategies of traditional receiving countries such as Canada. T...

Yan, Victor Andrew

2009-01-01

155

The Role Biomedical Science Laboratories Can Play in Improving Science Knowledge and Promoting First-Year Nursing Academic Success  

Science.gov (United States)

The need for additional nursing and health care professionals is expected to increase dramatically over the next 20 years. With this in mind, students must have strong biomedical science knowledge to be competent in their field. Some studies have shown that participation in bioscience laboratories can enhance science knowledge. If this is true, an…

Arneson, Pam

2011-01-01

156

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory?s Book of Minimum Detectable Activity for Direct Measurement of Internally Deposited Radionuclides in Radiation Workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintains an in vivo measurement program designed to identify and evaluate the activity of radionuclides deposited in the body. Two types of systems are primarily used for the routine monitoring of radiation workers, the lung counting system and the scanning bed whole body counting system. The lung counting system is comprised of two Canberra ACTII detector sets. Each ACTII set contains two planar germanium detectors with carbon composite end windows optimized to measure low energy photon emitting radionuclides. The ACTII detectors are placed on the upper torso over the lungs for the direct measurement of internally deposited radionuclides in the lungs that emit low energy photons. A correction for the thickness of the chest wall is applied to the efficiency. Because the thickness of the chest wall is a key factor in the measurement of low energy photon emitting radionuclides in the lung, the minimum detectable activity is a function of the chest wall thickness. The scanning bed whole body counting system is comprised of a thin air mattress on top of a carbon fiber bed that slowly scans over four high purity germanium detectors. The scanning system is designed to minimize variations in detected activity due to radionuclide distribution in the body. The scanning bed detection system is typically used for the measurement of internally deposited radionuclides that emit photons above 100 to 200 keV. MDAs have been generated for radionuclides that provide energies above 80 keV since the lowest calibration energy for the system is approximately 86 keV. The following charts and table provide best determination of minimum detectable activity using human subjects as controls for the background contributions. A wide variety of radionuclides are used throughout the laboratory and the following pages represent several of the radionuclides that have been encountered at the Whole Body and Spectroscopy Laboratories within Hazards Control

2008-01-01

157

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory?s Book of Minimum Detectable Activity for Direct Measurement of Internally Deposited Radionuclides in Radiation Workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintains an in vivo measurement program designed to identify and evaluate the activity of radionuclides deposited in the body. Two types of systems are primarily used for the routine monitoring of radiation workers, the lung counting system and the scanning bed whole body counting system. The lung counting system is comprised of two Canberra ACTII detector sets. Each ACTII set contains two planar germanium detectors with carbon composite end windows optimized to measure low energy photon emitting radionuclides. The ACTII detectors are placed on the upper torso over the lungs for the direct measurement of internally deposited radionuclides in the lungs that emit low energy photons. A correction for the thickness of the chest wall is applied to the efficiency. Because the thickness of the chest wall is a key factor in the measurement of low energy photon emitting radionuclides in the lung, the minimum detectable activity is a function of the chest wall thickness. The scanning bed whole body counting system is comprised of a thin air mattress on top of a carbon fiber bed that slowly scans over four high purity germanium detectors. The scanning system is designed to minimize variations in detected activity due to radionuclide distribution in the body. The scanning bed detection system is typically used for the measurement of internally deposited radionuclides that emit photons above 100 to 200 keV. MDAs have been generated for radionuclides that provide energies above 80 keV since the lowest calibration energy for the system is approximately 86 keV. The following charts and table provide best determination of minimum detectable activity using human subjects as controls for the background contributions. A wide variety of radionuclides are used throughout the laboratory and the following pages represent several of the radionuclides that have been encountered at the Whole Body and Spectroscopy Laboratories within Hazards Control.

Hickman, D P

2008-10-08

158

Knowledges  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus on the interrelationship between theory and practice in specific domains, while at the same time foregrounding the own position of the researcher. The transformation of European security in the 1990s is taken as an example of how an IR analysis changes focus when seeing knowledge as Bourdieu.

Berling, Trine Villumsen

2012-01-01

159

Promoting community knowledge and action for malaria control in rural Cambodia: potential contributions of Village Malaria Workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Cambodia has been investing in Village Malaria Workers (VMWs) to improve malaria case management in rural areas. This study assessed the quality of the VMWs’ services compared to those by a government-run health center from the perspective of community members. We focused on VMWs’ contribution to promote their action to control malaria. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kampot province in 2009. Interviews were conducted at every ...

Lim Sachiko; Yasuoka Junko; Poudel Krishna C; Ly Po; Nguon Chea; Jimba Masamine

2012-01-01

160

Traditional complementary and alternative medicine: knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care workers in HIV and AIDS clinics in Durban hospitals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditional complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) has been reported to be commonly used among individuals with HIV and AIDS disease. However a lack of communication between health care workers (HCWs) and patients as well as between HCWs and TCAM practitioners has been identified as one of the challenges that may adversely affect treatment of HIV and AIDS patients. With improved and sustained communication HCWs, patients and TCAM practitioners would be able to make informed decisions with regards to best treatment practices based on the knowledge of what is safe, effective and what is not. In order to establish a baseline understanding of the current status of interaction and communication between HCWs and TCAM profession in Durban, South Africa, the purpose of the study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of HCWs in the HIV and AIDS clinics towards TCAM professions. Data was collected by means of anonymous self-administered questionnaire which was distributed to HCWs in the HIV and AIDS clinics. Out of 161 HCWs in the HIV and AIDS clinics 81 HCWs returned the questionnaires resulting in 50% response rate. The results showed that participants did not possess a basic knowledge of TCAM. Out of 81 participants 23 (28%) scored zero in a true or false knowledge assessment question. PMID:23983356

Mbutho, Nozuko P; Gqaleni, Nceba; Korporaal, Charmaine M

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Healthcare workers and prevention of hepatitis C virus transmission: exploring knowledge, attitudes and evidence-based practices in hemodialysis units in Italy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence exists regarding the full prevention of HCV transmission to hemodialysis patients by implementing universal precaution. However, little information is available regarding the frequency with which hospitals have adopted evidence-based practices for preventing HCV infection among hemodialysis patients. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted among nurses in Calabria region (Italy in order to acquire information about the level of knowledge, the attitudes and the frequencies of evidence-based practices that prevent hospital transmission of HCV. Methods All 37 hemodialysis units (HDU of Calabria were included in the study and all nurses were invited to participate in the study and to fill in a self-administered questionnaire. Results 90% of the nurses working in HDU participated in the study. Correct answers about HCV pattern of transmission ranged from 73.7% to 99.3% and were significantly higher in respondents who knew that isolation of HCV-infected patients is not recommended and among those who knew that previous bloodstream infections should be included in medical record and among nurses with fewer years of practice. Most correctly thought that evidence-based infection control measures provide adequate protection against transmission of bloodborne pathogens among healthcare workers. Positive attitude was significantly higher among more knowledgeable nurses. Self-reporting of appropriate handwashing procedures were significantly more likely in nurses who were aware that transmission of bloodborne pathogens among healthcare workers may be prevented through adoption of evidence-based practices and with a correct knowledge about HCV transmission patterns. Conclusions Behavior changes should be aimed at abandoning outdated practices and adopting and maintaining evidence-based practices. Initiatives focused at enabling and reinforcing adherence to effective prevention practices among nurses in HDU are strongly needed.

Bianco Aida

2013-02-01

162

Study of status of safe injection practice and knowledge regarding injection safety among primary health care workers in Baglung district, western Nepal  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Unsafe injection practices and injection overuse are widespread in developing countries harming the patient and inviting risks to the health care workers. In Nepal, there is a dearth of documented information about injection practices so the present study was carried out: a to determine whether the selected government health facilities satisfy the conditions for safe injections in terms of staff training, availability of sterile injectable equipment and their proper disposal after use and b to assess knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers in these health care facilities with regard to injection safety. Methodology A descriptive cross-sectional mixed type (qualitative and quantitative survey was carried out from 18th May to 16th June 2012. In-depth interviews with the in-charges were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Observation of the health facilities using a structured observation tool was done. The data were analysed manually by summarizing, tabulating and presenting in various formats. Results The in-charges (eight males, two females who participated in the study ranged in age from 30 to 50?years with a mean age of 37.8?years. Severe infection followed by pain was the most important cause for injection use with injection Gentamicin being most commonly prescribed. New single use (disposable injections and auto-disable syringes were used to inject curative drugs and vaccines respectively. Sufficient safety boxes were also supplied to dispose the used syringe. All health care workers had received full course of Hepatitis B vaccine and were knowledgeable about at least one pathogen transmitted through unsafe injection practices. Injection safety management policy and waste disposal guideline was not available for viewing in any of the facilities. The office staff who disposed the bio-medical wastes did so without taking any safety measures. Moreover, none of these staff had received any formal training in waste management. Conclusions Certain safe injection practices were noticed in the studied health care facilities but there remain a number of grey areas where unsafe practices still persists placing patient and health workers at risk of associated hazards. Training concentrating on injection safety, guidelines to dispose biomedical waste and monitoring of the activity is needed.

Gyawali Sudesh

2013-01-01

163

Outbreak of Transient Conversions of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube Test in Laboratory Health Care Worker Screenings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gamma interferon release assays were recently introduced in health care worker (HCWs) screenings for tuberculosis surveillance. In longitudinal surveys, conversions and reversions are seen, and yet whether these changes are unspecific or are an expression of new infections and microbial clearance remains unclear. In order to further elucidate these changes, we analyzed an outbreak of 15 transient conversions in 53 HCWs who operate in the same laboratory and handle specimens potentially contai...

Zanetti, Caterina; Peracchi, Marta; Zorzi, Diego; Fiorio, Silvia; Fallico, Loredana; Palu?, Giorgio

2012-01-01

164

Reversal of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 IIIB to a Neutralization-Resistant Phenotype in an Accidentally Infected Laboratory Worker with a Progressive Clinical Course  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of humoral immunity in controlling human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is still controversial. The resistance of primary HIV-1 variants to neutralization by antibodies, sera from HIV-1-infected patients, and soluble CD4 protein has been suggested to be a prerequisite for the virus to establish persistence in vivo. To further test this hypothesis, we studied the neutralization sensitivity of two IIIB/LAV variants that were isolated from a laboratory worker who accidentally was...

Beaumont, Tim; Nuenen, Ad; Broersen, Silvia; Blattner, William A.; Lukashov, Vladimir V.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

2001-01-01

165

VOLUNTARY LIFESTYLE CHANGES AND KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HEALTHY LIFESTYLES OF CHILEAN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE WORKERS CAMBIOS DE ESTILO DE VIDA Y CONOCIMIENTOS SOBRE ALIMENTACIÓN SALUDABLE Y ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA EN PROFESIONALES DE ATENCIÓN PRIMARIA EN CHILE  

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This study aimed at assessing life style changes and knowledge regarding healthy diet and physical activity among Chilean primary health care (PHC) professionals. The sample of 194 PHC workers was composed of physicians, nurses, nutritionists, midwives and social workers, of which 86% were women.The majority reported to have made positive changes in their lifestyle: more than 80% stated that they consumed less fat and ate more vegetables; two-thirds said they ate less sugar; around half repor...

Svenja Jungjohann; Isabel Zacarías; Ingrid Keller

2002-01-01

166

Handbook of laboratory health and safety measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of radioactive isotopes and various scientific instruments based on different ionizing and non-ionizing radiation have brought new safety problems to laboratory workers today. Therefore, there is a need to revise present knowledge of safety measures to deal with new hazards, thus broadening the outlook towards health and safety measures for contemporary laboratory staff. This handbook presents a series of articles on current knowledge regarding laboratory safety

1985-01-01

167

Educação ambiental e o conhecimento do trabalhador em saúde sobre situações de risco / Environmental education and health workers' knowledge on risk situations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este texto trata da análise, no processo de trabalho em saúde, das características do conhecimento adquirido e produzido pelos trabalhadores, acerca da prevenção e controle de acidentes com materiais perfurocortantes e fluidos biológicos no ambiente hospitalar. Verifica a presença ou não de uma visã [...] o integrada de saúde entre trabalhador e instituição. Caracteriza-se como uma pesquisa quantitativa, com progressiva análise contextualizada e, portanto, com um enfoque qualitativo do problema, apoiada em conceitos de educação ambiental, trabalho e saúde. Um total de 130 trabalhadores, em dois Hospitais Universitários da Região Sul do extremo sul do Rio Grande do Sul, em setores de clínica médica, cirúrgica e de pronto atendimento. A análise dos dados foi realizada por meio do cruzamento dos ambientes institucionais e das categorias profissionais com variáveis que caracterizam o processo de trabalho. Entre os dois ambientes institucionais estudados, o Ambiente Institucional "B" apresentou um trabalho educativo, de prevenção e controle mais atuante do que no Ambiente Institucional "A" e, conseqüentemente, uma maior aderência de seus trabalhadores sobre a necessidade de trabalharem com mais segurança. Abstract in english This work intents to analyse, on the health-care work environment, the characteristics of the knowledge acquired and produced by the workers, about accidents prevention and control with cutting material and biological fluids in the hospital environment. It verifies the presence or not of an integrat [...] ed vision of health between the worker and the institution. It can be described as a quantitative research, in combination with a progressive and contextualized analysis that, therefore, brings a qualitative approach of the problem, supported in concepts as ambiental education, work and health. A total of 130 workers, in two college hospitals situated on the extreme south of the South region of the Rio Grande do Sul, of medical pratice, cirurgical clinic and emergency take part on this research. The data analysis was made through and the "cross tabulation" between the institutional environments and the professional cathegories together with variables, which characterize the health-care work. As a matter of fact, we can see that in the Institutional Environment "B" we see the existence of an educational work, the more active presence of control procedures on accidents preventions than in the Institutional Environment "A" and consequently a major educational level of its workers about the necessity of working with more safety.

Miriam Maraninchi, Alam; Marta Regina, Cezar-Vaz; Tabajara, Almeida.

168

Educação ambiental e o conhecimento do trabalhador em saúde sobre situações de risco / Environmental education and health workers' knowledge on risk situations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este texto trata da análise, no processo de trabalho em saúde, das características do conhecimento adquirido e produzido pelos trabalhadores, acerca da prevenção e controle de acidentes com materiais perfurocortantes e fluidos biológicos no ambiente hospitalar. Verifica a presença ou não de uma visã [...] o integrada de saúde entre trabalhador e instituição. Caracteriza-se como uma pesquisa quantitativa, com progressiva análise contextualizada e, portanto, com um enfoque qualitativo do problema, apoiada em conceitos de educação ambiental, trabalho e saúde. Um total de 130 trabalhadores, em dois Hospitais Universitários da Região Sul do extremo sul do Rio Grande do Sul, em setores de clínica médica, cirúrgica e de pronto atendimento. A análise dos dados foi realizada por meio do cruzamento dos ambientes institucionais e das categorias profissionais com variáveis que caracterizam o processo de trabalho. Entre os dois ambientes institucionais estudados, o Ambiente Institucional "B" apresentou um trabalho educativo, de prevenção e controle mais atuante do que no Ambiente Institucional "A" e, conseqüentemente, uma maior aderência de seus trabalhadores sobre a necessidade de trabalharem com mais segurança. Abstract in english This work intents to analyse, on the health-care work environment, the characteristics of the knowledge acquired and produced by the workers, about accidents prevention and control with cutting material and biological fluids in the hospital environment. It verifies the presence or not of an integrat [...] ed vision of health between the worker and the institution. It can be described as a quantitative research, in combination with a progressive and contextualized analysis that, therefore, brings a qualitative approach of the problem, supported in concepts as ambiental education, work and health. A total of 130 workers, in two college hospitals situated on the extreme south of the South region of the Rio Grande do Sul, of medical pratice, cirurgical clinic and emergency take part on this research. The data analysis was made through and the "cross tabulation" between the institutional environments and the professional cathegories together with variables, which characterize the health-care work. As a matter of fact, we can see that in the Institutional Environment "B" we see the existence of an educational work, the more active presence of control procedures on accidents preventions than in the Institutional Environment "A" and consequently a major educational level of its workers about the necessity of working with more safety.

Miriam Maraninchi, Alam; Marta Regina, Cezar-Vaz; Tabajara, Almeida.

169

Valuing the contribution of knowledge-oriented workers to projects: a merit based approach in the construction industry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Evidence points to the fact that frequent resignation of project engineers from construction companies is primarily the result of dissatisfaction with the factors that shape the salary scale. This research aims to identify the major influencing factors in merit based salary calculation systems for knowledge-oriented engineers so as to more accurately reflect their contribution to construction projects. Results from a questionnaire sent to managers, engineers and HR professionals throughout...

2012-01-01

170

The intelligence worker as a knowledge activist : An alternative view on intelligence by the use of Burke’s pentad  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As society and business is becoming more complex, the creation and management of knowledge attracts more attention. For intelligence research it offers an alternative perspective on the art and science of intelligence that challenges a previous dominance of strategy and decision-making theories. The article is based on semi-structured interviews with intelligence personnel in four different multinational companies. Through the use of Burke’s pentad this article gives an account of important...

Hoppe, Magnus

2013-01-01

171

Knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers in Chinese intensive care units regarding 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background To describe the knowledge and attitudes of critical care clinicians during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. Methods A survey conducted in 21 intensive care units in 17 provinces in China. Results Out of 733 questionnaires distributed, 695 were completed. Three hundred and fifty-six respondents (51.2%) reported their experience of caring for H1N1 patients. Despite the fact that 88.5% of all respondents ultimately finished an H1N...

Ma Xiaochun; He Zhenyang; Wang Yushan; Jiang Li; Xu Yuan; Qian Chuanyun; Sun Rongqing; Chen Erzhen; Hu Zhenjie; Zhou Lihua; Zhou Fachun; Qin Tiehe; Cao Xiangyuan; An Youzhong; Sun Renhua

2011-01-01

172

Conhecimento e atitudes dos profissionais de saúde em relação à violência de gênero Knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers towards gender based violence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Várias são as políticas públicas no Brasil para o enfrentamento da violência contra a mulher. Registra-se na literatura que os profissionais de saúde acham o tema de difícil abordagem. Para melhorar o atendimento no SUS em Ribeirão Preto, realizou-se um estudo para avaliar o conhecimento e a atitude dos profissionais de saúde em relação à violência de gênero. MÉTODOS: Contataram-se 278 profissionais de saúde, dos quais 221 foram entrevistados utilizando-se um questionário estruturado. RESULTADOS: 51 (23,0% eram enfermeiras e 170 (77,0% médicos; 119 (53,8% homens e 102 (46,2% mulheres, com idade média de 38,6 anos; 200 (90,5% consideravam-se brancos ou asiáticos e 21 (9,5% pretos e pardos. Tinham em média 12,5 anos de vida profissional e 158 (68,8% eram oriundos de universidade pública. Apenas pouco mais da metade (58,7% mostrou conhecimento geral adequado (bom e alto sobre a violência de gênero, o que indica a necessidade de capacitar os profissionais para este atendimento. Em relação às barreiras para averiguar a violência, os profissionais citaram a falta de uma política institucional e o silêncio da mulher que não revela a violência. Os entrevistados, em particular as mulheres jovens, apresentaram atitudes mais favoráveis para o acolhimento da mulher em situação de violência. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos entrevistados demonstrou atitudes positivas e podemos inferir que há bom potencial para o manejo adequado dos casos, se receberem capacitação.OBJECTIVES: There are several public policies to deal with violence against women in Brazil. The literature has reported that healthcare workers find this subject difficult to approach. To improve care in the public health system (SUS of Ribeirão Preto, a study was conducted aiming to assess knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers regarding gender violence. METHODS: A total 278 healthcare workers were contacted and 221 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: 51 (23.0% were nurses and 170 (77.0% physicians, 119 (53.8% males and 102 (46.2% females, with a mean age of 38.6 years; 200 (90.5% considered themselves to be white or Asian and 21 (9.5% black or mulattos. They had an average of 12.5 years of professional practice and 158 (68.8% had graduated from a public university. About 58.7% had an adequate general knowledge (good and high about gender violence, which indicates the need to train healthcare workers. Regarding the barriers to identify violence, healthcare workers mentioned the lack of an institutional policy and the silence of women who do not reveal violence. Respondents, especially young women, presented more favorable attitudes towards women living in violence situation. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, most of them show positive attitudes toward women living in violence and we infer that they present good potential for appropriate case management if they receive training.

Elisabeth Meloni Vieira

2009-12-01

173

Enhancing the Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Teachers by Using an Evidence-based Inquiry Approach in the Chemistry Laboratory  

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Full Text Available In this paper we will present an evidence-based model for the continuous professional development (CPD of chemistry teachers, using the inquiry approach in the chemistry laboratory. The teachers had to fill protocols assembled in a portfolio that can be used to demonstrate evidence-based practice in chemistry teaching in the inquiry laboratory. Seven experienced chemistry teachers participated in a workshop, coordinated by three CPD providers from the Department of Science Teaching, at the Weizmann Institute of Science. The meetings, lasting about three hours, were conducted once a month. Of the seven teachers, some were videotaped while conducting inquiry-type experiments in their classes, and were interviewed immediately afterwards. Based on the findings, we concluded that the teachers became more reflective and more aware of their practice. In addition, we observed a change in their pedagogical knowledge and content knowledge regarding the inquiry teaching.

Rachel Mamlok-Naaman

2012-12-01

174

KP-LAB Knowledge Practices Laboratory -- Release of end-user tools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This deliverable describes the releases of KP-Lab end user applications and tools made during the DoW4 period of the project (M37-M48). These are as follows: KPE: Shared Space Views and Common, Support and Optional Tools provide the major functionality for the Knowledge Practices Environment. The Shared Space Views visualize the knowledge artefacts and their relations from different perspective, allowing users to view and access the information contained in a shared space in flexible manners....

Ahde, Ahti; Ahola, Toni; Alm, Olli; Astrouskaja, Maryna; Ausderau, Patrick; Bauters, Merja; Holi, Markus; Ha?ma?la?inen, Antti; Lo?yto?la?inen, Juha; Markkanen, Hannu; Mertoniemi, Joni; Raja, Ilari; Saarivesi, Eini; Baurens, Benoit; Racaru, Florin

2010-01-01

175

Labor productivity of the knowledge worker La productividad del trabajo del trabajador del conocimiento A produtividade do trabalho do trabalhador do conhecimento  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Considerations are made about the concept of labor productivity and its incrementation, as developed by Marx, since it is entirely valid to determine labor productivity of those who work with knowledge. Noteworthy is the attachment of this productivity of the knowledge worker with a singular organization of work and the continued education inherent in an organization of constant learning.Se realizan consideraciones acerca de la concepción de la productividad del trabajo y su aumento desarrollada por Marx, la cual tiene total validez en la determinación de la productividad del trabajo del trabajador del conocimiento. Y se destaca la vinculación de esa productividad del trabajador del conocimiento con una singular organización del trabajo y una formación continua inmanente a una organización de aprendizaje permanente.Realizam-se, neste artigo, considerações acerca da concepção de produtividade do trabalho e seu aumento desenvolvida por Marx, a qual tem total validade na determinação da produtividade do trabalho do trabalhador do conhecimento. Destaca-se a vinculação dessa produtividade do trabalhador do conhecimento com uma singular organização do trabalho e uma formação contínua inerente a uma organização de aprendizagem permanente.

Armando Cuesta Santos

2010-12-01

176

Conhecimento e atitudes dos profissionais de saúde em relação à violência de gênero / Knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers towards gender based violence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Várias são as políticas públicas no Brasil para o enfrentamento da violência contra a mulher. Registra-se na literatura que os profissionais de saúde acham o tema de difícil abordagem. Para melhorar o atendimento no SUS em Ribeirão Preto, realizou-se um estudo para avaliar o conhecimento [...] e a atitude dos profissionais de saúde em relação à violência de gênero. MÉTODOS: Contataram-se 278 profissionais de saúde, dos quais 221 foram entrevistados utilizando-se um questionário estruturado. RESULTADOS: 51 (23,0%) eram enfermeiras e 170 (77,0%) médicos; 119 (53,8%) homens e 102 (46,2%) mulheres, com idade média de 38,6 anos; 200 (90,5%) consideravam-se brancos ou asiáticos e 21 (9,5%) pretos e pardos. Tinham em média 12,5 anos de vida profissional e 158 (68,8%) eram oriundos de universidade pública. Apenas pouco mais da metade (58,7%) mostrou conhecimento geral adequado (bom e alto) sobre a violência de gênero, o que indica a necessidade de capacitar os profissionais para este atendimento. Em relação às barreiras para averiguar a violência, os profissionais citaram a falta de uma política institucional e o silêncio da mulher que não revela a violência. Os entrevistados, em particular as mulheres jovens, apresentaram atitudes mais favoráveis para o acolhimento da mulher em situação de violência. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos entrevistados demonstrou atitudes positivas e podemos inferir que há bom potencial para o manejo adequado dos casos, se receberem capacitação. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: There are several public policies to deal with violence against women in Brazil. The literature has reported that healthcare workers find this subject difficult to approach. To improve care in the public health system (SUS) of Ribeirão Preto, a study was conducted aiming to assess knowle [...] dge and attitudes of healthcare workers regarding gender violence. METHODS: A total 278 healthcare workers were contacted and 221 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: 51 (23.0%) were nurses and 170 (77.0%) physicians, 119 (53.8%) males and 102 (46.2%) females, with a mean age of 38.6 years; 200 (90.5%) considered themselves to be white or Asian and 21 (9.5%) black or mulattos. They had an average of 12.5 years of professional practice and 158 (68.8%) had graduated from a public university. About 58.7% had an adequate general knowledge (good and high) about gender violence, which indicates the need to train healthcare workers. Regarding the barriers to identify violence, healthcare workers mentioned the lack of an institutional policy and the silence of women who do not reveal violence. Respondents, especially young women, presented more favorable attitudes towards women living in violence situation. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, most of them show positive attitudes toward women living in violence and we infer that they present good potential for appropriate case management if they receive training.

Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni; Perdona, Gleici de Castro Silva; Almeida, Ana Maria de; Nakano, Ana Márcia Spano; Santos, Manoel Antônio dos; Daltoso, Daniela; Ferrante, Fernanda Garbelini De.

177

Conhecimento e atitudes dos profissionais de saúde em relação à violência de gênero / Knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers towards gender based violence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Várias são as políticas públicas no Brasil para o enfrentamento da violência contra a mulher. Registra-se na literatura que os profissionais de saúde acham o tema de difícil abordagem. Para melhorar o atendimento no SUS em Ribeirão Preto, realizou-se um estudo para avaliar o conhecimento [...] e a atitude dos profissionais de saúde em relação à violência de gênero. MÉTODOS: Contataram-se 278 profissionais de saúde, dos quais 221 foram entrevistados utilizando-se um questionário estruturado. RESULTADOS: 51 (23,0%) eram enfermeiras e 170 (77,0%) médicos; 119 (53,8%) homens e 102 (46,2%) mulheres, com idade média de 38,6 anos; 200 (90,5%) consideravam-se brancos ou asiáticos e 21 (9,5%) pretos e pardos. Tinham em média 12,5 anos de vida profissional e 158 (68,8%) eram oriundos de universidade pública. Apenas pouco mais da metade (58,7%) mostrou conhecimento geral adequado (bom e alto) sobre a violência de gênero, o que indica a necessidade de capacitar os profissionais para este atendimento. Em relação às barreiras para averiguar a violência, os profissionais citaram a falta de uma política institucional e o silêncio da mulher que não revela a violência. Os entrevistados, em particular as mulheres jovens, apresentaram atitudes mais favoráveis para o acolhimento da mulher em situação de violência. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos entrevistados demonstrou atitudes positivas e podemos inferir que há bom potencial para o manejo adequado dos casos, se receberem capacitação. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: There are several public policies to deal with violence against women in Brazil. The literature has reported that healthcare workers find this subject difficult to approach. To improve care in the public health system (SUS) of Ribeirão Preto, a study was conducted aiming to assess knowle [...] dge and attitudes of healthcare workers regarding gender violence. METHODS: A total 278 healthcare workers were contacted and 221 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: 51 (23.0%) were nurses and 170 (77.0%) physicians, 119 (53.8%) males and 102 (46.2%) females, with a mean age of 38.6 years; 200 (90.5%) considered themselves to be white or Asian and 21 (9.5%) black or mulattos. They had an average of 12.5 years of professional practice and 158 (68.8%) had graduated from a public university. About 58.7% had an adequate general knowledge (good and high) about gender violence, which indicates the need to train healthcare workers. Regarding the barriers to identify violence, healthcare workers mentioned the lack of an institutional policy and the silence of women who do not reveal violence. Respondents, especially young women, presented more favorable attitudes towards women living in violence situation. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, most of them show positive attitudes toward women living in violence and we infer that they present good potential for appropriate case management if they receive training.

Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni; Perdona, Gleici de Castro Silva; Almeida, Ana Maria de; Nakano, Ana Márcia Spano; Santos, Manoel Antônio dos; Daltoso, Daniela; Ferrante, Fernanda Garbelini De.

178

Knowledge assessment of Cienfuegos´ health workers on human toxocariasis. Evaluación de los conocimientos sobre la toxocariosis humana del personal médico del municipio de Cienfuegos.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Human toxocariasis is one of the most worldwide extended zoonosis. It mainly affects children and it is not always well known by medical staff. Objective: To assess knowledge of Cienfuegos´s health workers on human toxocariasis. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was developed from May to September 2005 and a survey was applied to a total sample of 51 doctors through a randomized, stratified sampling. In addition to consider professional category, years of experience and knowledge on zoonosis, we analyzed different aspects the form the variable general knowledge on human toxocariasis. Findings: We could develop a knowledge assessment on toxocariasis in Cienfuegos´ doctors. These findings were compared with surveys in other countries. There is not history of this kind of research in Cuba. Conclusions: Cienfuegos´ doctors knowledge on toxocariasis diagnosis, transmission, and prevention and not satisfactory except for clinic and treatment.Fundamento: La toxocariosis humana es una de las zoonosis más extendidas a escala mundial. Afecta principalmente a la población infantil y no siempre es bien conocida por el personal médico. Objetivo: Evaluar los conocimientos sobre toxocariosis humana del personal médico del municipio Cienfuegos. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal de mayo a septiembre del 2005 y se aplicó una encuesta a una muestra total de 51 médicos a través de un muestreo aleatorio y estratificado por los diferentes consejos populares. Además de considerar categoría profesional, años de experiencia de la especialidad y capacitación o no sobre zoonosis, se analizaron varios aspectos que conforman la variable conocimiento general sobre toxocariosis humana. Resultados: Se logró con esta investigación realizar una evaluación del conocimiento sobre toxocariosis que tienen los médicos de diferentes categorías del municipio de Cienfuegos. Estos resultados fueron comparados con encuestas de otros países y no hay antecedentes de este tipo trabajo en Cuba. Conclusiones: Los conocimientos que tienen los médicos del municipio Cienfuegos, relacionados con la transmisión, diagnóstico y prevención de la toxocariosis son insuficientes, excepto en la clínica y en el tratamiento.

Martina S. Jiménez Suárez

179

Relationships among process skills development, knowledge acquisition, and gender in microcomputer-based chemistry laboratories  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated how instruction in MBL environments can be designed to facilitate process skills development and knowledge acquisition among high school chemistry students. Ninety-eight college preparatory chemistry students in six intact classes were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: MBL with enhanced instruction in Macroscopic knowledge, MBL with enhanced instruction in Microscopic knowledge, and MBL with enhanced instruction in Symbolic knowledge. Each treatment group completed a total of four MBL titrations involving acids and bases. After the first and third titrations, the Macroscopic, Microscopic and Symbolic groups received enhanced instruction in the Macroscopic, Microscopic and Symbolic modes, respectively. During each titration, participants used audiotapes to record their verbal interactions. The study also explored the effects of three potential covariates (age, mathematics background, and computer usage) on the relationships among the independent variables (type of enhanced instruction and gender) and the dependent variables (science process skills and knowledge acquisition). Process skills were measured via gain scores on a standardized test. Analysis of Covariance eliminated age, mathematics background, and computer usage as covariates in this study. Analysis of Variance identified no significant effects on process skills attributable to treatment or gender. Knowledge acquisition was assessed via protocol analysis of statements made by the participants during the four titrations. Statements were categorized as procedural, observational, conceptual/analytical, or miscellaneous. Statement category percentages were analyzed for trends across treatments, genders, and experiments. Instruction emphasizing the Macroscopic mode may have increased percentages of observational and miscellaneous statements and decreased percentages of procedural and conceptual/analytical statements. Instruction emphasizing the Symbolic mode may have increased percentages of procedural and conceptual/analytical statements and decreased percentages of observational and miscellaneous statements. Instruction emphasizing the Microscopic mode may have increased percentages of conceptual/analytical and miscellaneous statements. Males made higher percentages of procedural comments than did females, while females made higher percentages of conceptual/analytical comments than did males. The use of insoluble unknowns may have increased percentages of procedural and miscellaneous statements and decreased percentages of observational and conceptual/analytical statements. The exploratory nature of the fourth titration may have decreased percentages of observational statements across all treatments.

Krieger, Carla Repsher

180

KP-LAB Knowledge Practices Laboratory -- Specifications for the Knowledge Matchmaker (V.2.0), the Knowledge Synthesizer (V.1.0) and the Analytical and Knowledge Mining Services (V.1.0)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This deliverable presents specifications of three components responsible for advanced manipulation with the knowledge stored in the KP-Lab Semantic Web Knowledge Middleware (SWKM). It starts with motivating scenarios defined within various Working Knots (WKs), extracting relevant functional requirements and mapping them on the high-level requirements, of particular driving objectives and user tasks (described in deliverable [D2.4]). The first component is Knowledge Matchmaker (V2.0), which ut...

Paralic, Jan; Furdik, Karol; Bednar, Peter; Babic, Frantisek; Wagner, Jozeph; Schmidt, Marek; Smrz, Pavel; Spyratos, Nicolas; Simonenko, Ekaterina; Christophides, Vassilis; Flouris, Giorgos; Kotzinos, Dimitris; Rousakis, Yannis

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Knowledge and attitudes of health care workers from intensive care units regarding nosocomial transmission of influenza: a study on the immediate pre-pandemic period  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The transmission of influenza in health care settings is a major threat to patients, especially those with severe diseases. The attitude of health care workers (HCWs) may influence the transmission of countless infections. The current study aimed to quantify knowledge and identify attitudes of HCWs [...] involved in intensive care units (ICUs) regarding the risk of nosocomial influenza transmission. A questionnaire was applied through interviews to HCWs who worked in one of the five ICUs from a teaching hospital. Questions about influenza were deliberately dispersed among others that assessed several infectious agents. Forty-two HCWs were interviewed: nine physicians, ten nurses and 23 nursing technicians or auxiliaries. Among the 42 HCWs, 98% were aware of the potential transmission of influenza virus in the ICUs, but only 31% would indicate droplet precautions for patients with suspected infection. Moreover, only 31% of them had been vaccinated against influenza in the last campaign (2008). Nursing technicians or auxiliaries were more likely to have been vaccinated, both by univariate and multivariable analysis. When asked about absenteeism, only 10% of the study subjects stated that they would not go to work if they had an influenza-like illness. Those findings suggest that, in non-pandemic periods, influenza control in hospitals requires strategies that combine continuous education with changes in organizational culture.

CR, Fortaleza; CMCB, Fortaleza.

182

Conhecimento e estereótipo de trabalhadores acerca da hipertensão Conocimiento y estereotipo de trabajadores respecto a la hipertensión Knowledge and stereotypes of workers concerning hypertension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A prevenção da hipertensão arterial torna-se difícil devido às dificuldades de acesso ao sistema de saúde. Foram objetivos deste estudo: averiguar o conhecimento dos trabalhadores acerca da pressão arterial, da hipertensão e, ainda, a prática da verificação da pressão arterial. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, realizado em uma Universidade Pública Estadual em Fortaleza-Ceará, Brasil. O universo do estudo foi constituído por 35 trabalhadores a partir de uma amostra aleatória simples. Depreendeu-se que há déficit de conhecimento acerca da pressão arterial e da hipertensão e que as questões culturais entre profissionais e usuários do sistema de saúde estão em desacordo com o processo ensino-aprendizagem. Concluiu-se que urgem estratégias que permitam maior adesão aos programas e às campanhas de hipertensão. O início dessa mudança tem como fundamento a atenção primária, que leve a população, dentro de uma posição crítica, a tomar atitudes que possibilitem adequar-se a uma condição de vida saudável.La prevención de la hipertensión arterial es difícil por el acceso al sistema de salud. El objetivo fue: averiguar el conocimiento de trabajadores sobre la tensión arterial y de la hipertensión y, además, la práctica de la verificación de la tensión arterial. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, realizado en la Universidad Pública en Fortaleza-Ceará-Brasil. Fueron seleccionados 35 individuos. Se concluyó que hay déficit de conocimiento de la tensión arterial y de la hipertensión, que los planteamientos culturales entre profesionales y usuarios del sistema están en desacuerdo con el proceso enseñanza/aprendizaje. Urgen estrategias que permitan una mayor adhesión al programa y comunicación efectiva al nivel de entendimiento de las personas. El inicio de ese cambio tiene como fundamento la atención primaria, llevando a la población, dentro de una posición crítica, tomar actitudes que posibiliten adecuarse a una condición de vida sana.The prevention of arterial hypertension has not been an easy task, due to the difficulties of access to the health system. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the amount of worker's knowledge concerning blood pressure and hypertension as well as about the practice of measuring blood pressure. This descriptive study was done at the State University in Fortaleza-Ceará. The universe was a simple random sample of 35 workers. A lack of knowledge about blood pressure and hypertension was found, as well as cultural issues between professionals and system users not being in agreement with the teaching-learning process. It was concluded that strategies which allow for a wider participation in the program and in hypertension campaigns are needed. The beginning of this change has as a basis primary care, which allows the population to make choices which fit a healthy life-style, from a critical position.

Maria Euridéa de Castro

2006-08-01

183

Conhecimento e estereótipo de trabalhadores acerca da hipertensão / Knowledge and stereotypes of workers concerning hypertension / Conocimiento y estereotipo de trabajadores respecto a la hipertensión  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A prevenção da hipertensão arterial torna-se difícil devido às dificuldades de acesso ao sistema de saúde. Foram objetivos deste estudo: averiguar o conhecimento dos trabalhadores acerca da pressão arterial, da hipertensão e, ainda, a prática da verificação da pressão arterial. Trata-se de um estudo [...] descritivo, realizado em uma Universidade Pública Estadual em Fortaleza-Ceará, Brasil. O universo do estudo foi constituído por 35 trabalhadores a partir de uma amostra aleatória simples. Depreendeu-se que há déficit de conhecimento acerca da pressão arterial e da hipertensão e que as questões culturais entre profissionais e usuários do sistema de saúde estão em desacordo com o processo ensino-aprendizagem. Concluiu-se que urgem estratégias que permitam maior adesão aos programas e às campanhas de hipertensão. O início dessa mudança tem como fundamento a atenção primária, que leve a população, dentro de uma posição crítica, a tomar atitudes que possibilitem adequar-se a uma condição de vida saudável. Abstract in spanish La prevención de la hipertensión arterial es difícil por el acceso al sistema de salud. El objetivo fue: averiguar el conocimiento de trabajadores sobre la tensión arterial y de la hipertensión y, además, la práctica de la verificación de la tensión arterial. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, real [...] izado en la Universidad Pública en Fortaleza-Ceará-Brasil. Fueron seleccionados 35 individuos. Se concluyó que hay déficit de conocimiento de la tensión arterial y de la hipertensión, que los planteamientos culturales entre profesionales y usuarios del sistema están en desacuerdo con el proceso enseñanza/aprendizaje. Urgen estrategias que permitan una mayor adhesión al programa y comunicación efectiva al nivel de entendimiento de las personas. El inicio de ese cambio tiene como fundamento la atención primaria, llevando a la población, dentro de una posición crítica, tomar actitudes que posibiliten adecuarse a una condición de vida sana. Abstract in english The prevention of arterial hypertension has not been an easy task, due to the difficulties of access to the health system. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the amount of worker's knowledge concerning blood pressure and hypertension as well as about the practice of measuring blood press [...] ure. This descriptive study was done at the State University in Fortaleza-Ceará. The universe was a simple random sample of 35 workers. A lack of knowledge about blood pressure and hypertension was found, as well as cultural issues between professionals and system users not being in agreement with the teaching-learning process. It was concluded that strategies which allow for a wider participation in the program and in hypertension campaigns are needed. The beginning of this change has as a basis primary care, which allows the population to make choices which fit a healthy life-style, from a critical position.

Maria Euridéa de, Castro; Maysa Oliveira, Rolim.

184

Analyses of combined mortality data on workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An important objective of studies of workers exposed occupationally to chronic low doses of ionizing radiation is to provide a direct assessment of health risks resulting from this exposure. This objective is most effectively accomplished by conducting combined analyses that allow evaluation of the totality of evidence from all study populations. In this paper, combined analyses of mortality in workers at the Hanford Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant are presented. These combined analyses provide no evidence of a correlation between radiation exposure and mortality from all cancer or from leukemia. Of 11 other specific types of cancer analyzed, multiple myeloma was the only cancer found to exhibit a statistically significant correlation with radiation exposure. Estimates of the excess risk of all cancer and of leukemia, based on the combined data, were negative. Upper confidence limits based on the combined data were lower than for any single population, and were similar to estimates obtained from recent analyses of A-bomb survivor data. These results strengthen support for the conclusion that estimates obtained through extrapolation from high-dose data do not seriously underestimate risks of low-dose exposure, but leave open the possibility that extrapolation may overestimate risks

1989-01-01

185

Operational comparison of bubble (super heated drop) dosimetry with routine albedo TLD for a selected group of Pu-238 workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Personnel neutron dosimetry continues to be a difficult science due to the lack of availability of robust passive dosimeters that exhibit tissue- or near-tissue- equivalent response. This paper is an operational study that compares the use of albedo thermoluminescent dosimeters with bubble dosimeters to determine whether bubble dosimeters do provide a useful daily ALARA tool that can yield measurements close to the dose-of-record. A group of workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) working on the Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) for the NASA Cassini space mission wore both bubble dosimeters and albedo dosimeters over a period from 1993 through 1996. The personal albedo dosimeter was processed on a monthly basis and used as the dose-of-record. The results of this study indicated that cumulative daily bubble dosimetry results agreed with whole-body albedo dosimetry results within about 37% on average.

Romero, L.L.; Hoffman, J.M.; Foltyn, E.M.; Buhl, T.E.

1998-09-01

186

Operational comparison of bubble (super heated drop) dosimetry with routine albedo TLD for a selected group of Pu-238 workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Personnel neutron dosimetry continues to be a difficult science due to the lack of availability of robust passive dosimeters that exhibit tissue- or near-tissue- equivalent response. This paper is an operational study that compares the use of albedo thermoluminescent dosimeters with bubble dosimeters to determine whether bubble dosimeters do provide a useful daily ALARA tool that can yield measurements close to the dose-of-record. A group of workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) working on the Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) for the NASA Cassini space mission wore both bubble dosimeters and albedo dosimeters over a period from 1993 through 1996. The personal albedo dosimeter was processed on a monthly basis and used as the dose-of-record. The results of this study indicated that cumulative daily bubble dosimetry results agreed with whole-body albedo dosimetry results within about 37% on average

1998-03-23

187

Aspects of programme of accreditation of laboratories for providing TLD monitoring service to medical radiation workers in India  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A programme for accreditation of laboratories was taken up with the consent of the regulatory authority. To encourage technological development in the country, it was decided that the scope of the accreditation programme would be limited to the use of indigenously developed technology

2000-11-09

188

A Text Analysis Approach to Motivate Knowledge Sharing via Microsoft SharePoint  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Creating incentives for knowledge workers to share their knowledge within an organization continues to be a challenging task. Strong, innate behaviors of the knowledge worker, such as self-preservation and self- advancement, are difficult to overcome, regardless of the level of knowledge. Many incentive policies simply focus on providing external pressure to promote knowledge sharing. This work describes a technical approach to motivate sharing. Utilizing text analysis and machine learning techniques to create an enhanced knowledge sharing experience, a prototype system was developed and tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that reduces the overhead cost of sharing while providing a quick, positive payoff for the knowledge worker. This work describes the implementation and experiences of using the prototype in a corporate production environment.

Patton, Robert M [ORNL; McNair, Wade [ORNL; Symons, Christopher T [ORNL; Treadwell, Jim N [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL

2012-01-01

189

Comparison of maintenance worker's human error events occurred at United States and domestic nuclear power plants. The proposal of the classification method with insufficient knowledge and experience and the classification result of its application  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Human errors by maintenance workers in U.S. nuclear power plants were compared with those in Japanese nuclear power plants for the same period in order to identify the characteristics of such errors. As for U.S. events, cases which occurred during 2006 were selected from the Nuclear Information Database of the Institute to Nuclear Safety System while Japanese cases that occurred during the same period, were extracted from the Nuclear Information Archives (NUCIA) owned by JANTI. The most common cause of human errors was insufficient knowledge or experience' accounting for about 40% for U.S. cases and 50% or more of cases in Japan. To break down 'insufficient knowledge', we classified the contents of knowledge into five categories; method', 'nature', 'reason', 'scope' and 'goal', and classified the level of knowledge into four categories: 'known', 'comprehended', 'applied' and analytic'. By using this classification, the patterns of combination of each item of the content and the level of knowledge were compared. In the U.S. cases, errors due to 'insufficient knowledge of nature and insufficient knowledge of method' were prevalent while three other items', 'reason', scope' and 'goal' which involve work conditions among the contents of knowledge rarely occurred. In Japan, errors arising from 'nature not being comprehended' were rather prevalent while other cases were distributed evenly for all categories including the work conditions. For addressing insufficient knowledge or experience', we consider that the following approaches are valid: according to the knowledge level which is required for the work, the reflection of knowledge on the procedure or education materials, training and confirmation of understanding level, virtual practice and instruction of experience should be implemented. As for the knowledge on the work conditions, it is necessary to enter the work conditions in the procedure and education materials while conducting training or education. (author)

2008-10-01

190

Investigación cualitativa del conocimiento del neurodesarrollo en padres y profesionales de salud en la unidad de cuidado intensivo neonatal / A qualitative research about neurodevelopment knowledge in parents and health workers at the newborn care unit  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. Existe escasa evidencia sobre el conocimiento, las percepciones y las prácticas sobre herramientas para la estimulación sensoriomotora, en pacientes en la unidad de cuidado intensivo neonatal. Objetivo. Facilitar herramientas de desarrollo sensoriomotor a padres y profesionales de salu [...] d de acuerdo a sus conocimientos y prácticas, para el manejo de los recién nacidos en riesgo. Material y Métodos. Investigación cualitativa que describe las experiencias manifiestas en grupos focales de profesionales de salud y padres sobre conocimientos y prácticas del desarrollo sensoriomotor. Resultados. El personal de salud y los padres tenían conocimientos, limitados sobre el desarrollo sensoriomotor. Se apropiaron de las estrategias de estimulación sensoriomotoras. Los profesionales iniciaron el cambio con la implementación de las estrategias brindadas. Conclusiones. El recién nacido en riesgo en una UCIN se beneficia de la creación de programas de atención sensoriomotora dirigidos a padres y profesionales de salud. Abstract in english Introduction: There is limited evidence about knowledge, perceptions and practice on tools used for sensori-motor stimulation at the newborn care unit. Objective: To provide parents and helth workers with tools aimed to sensorimotor development in patients admited to the newborn care unit. Methods: [...] Qualitative research describing experiences in focal groups made by health workers and parents about knowledges and practices on sensorimotor development. Results: Parents and health workers had limited knowledges about sensorimotor development. They empowered the strategies about sensorimotor stimulation changing work scheemes at the unit. Conclusions: Patients at risk in the newborn care unit get benefit from sensorimotor programs pointed to healths workers and parents.

María Helena, Rubio-Grillo; Nilia Matilde, Perdomo-Oliver; Jaime, Orrego-Gaviria.

191

Developing a Behavioral Health Screening Program for BSL-4 Laboratory Workers at the National Institutes of Health  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To ensure that biomedical research is performed in the safest and most responsible manner possible, the NIH established the Biological Surety Program (BSP) in 2006 to reflect the unique human and security factors associated with biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories. The program sets forth control measures to ensure there is a trained, responsible, and reliable workforce, with rigorous procedures to protect employee health and maintain a safe work environment.

Skvorc, Casey; Wilson, Deborah E.

2011-01-01

192

Evaluation of the safety and immunogenicity in United Kingdom laboratory workers of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b and meningococcal capsular group C conjugate vaccine  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Although a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)/meningococcal capsular group C (MenC) conjugate vaccine with a tetanus toxoid carrier protein (Hib/MenC-TT) is not licensed for use in those above 2 years of age due to lack of data on safety and efficacy, certain patient groups at high risk of MenC and/or Hib disease are recommended to receive it. Laboratory workers working with Hib and/or MenC cultures may be at a potentially increased risk of acquiring infectious diseases and vaccination is therefore an important safety consideration. We undertook a clinical trial to investigate the safety and immunogenicity of Hib/MenC-TT vaccine in this cohort. Methods A total of 33 subjects were recruited to the trial, all of whom were vaccinated. Serology was completed on samples taken at baseline and four weeks following vaccination to determine MenC specific IgG, MenC serum bactericidal antibody (SBA), anti-Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) IgG and anti-tetanus toxoid IgG responses. Results At baseline, high proportions of subjects had protective antibody concentrations against MenC, Hib and tetanus due to previous vaccination and/or natural exposure. Vaccination induced?>?3, 10 and 220 fold increases in geometric mean concentrations for MenC SBA, anti-tetanus toxoid IgG and anti-Hib PRP IgG, respectively. Following vaccination, 97% of subjects had putative protective SBA titres???8, 100% had short term protective anti-Hib PRP IgG concentrations???0.15 ?g/mL and 97% had protective anti-tetanus toxoid concentrations???0.1 IU/mL. No safety concerns were reported with minor local reactions being reported by 21% of subjects. Conclusions Immunological responses determined in this trial are likely a combination of primary and secondary responses due to previous vaccination and natural exposure. Subjects were a representative cross-section of laboratory workers, enabling us to conclude that a single dose of Hib/MenC-TT was safe and immunogenic in healthy adults providing the evidence that this vaccine may be used for providing protection in an occupational setting.

2014-01-01

193

Intervención educativa para elevar nivel de conocimiento sobre brucelosis en trabajadores expuesto a riesgo: municipio Camagüey / Educational intervention to elevate the level of knowledge on brucellosis in workers exposed to risk: Camagüey municipality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: La brucelosis es una importante zoonosis que puede ser transmitida por animales al hombre, según la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), esta enfermedad es uno de los principales problemas sanitarios en muchos países; con alrededor de medio millón de nuevos casos cada año. Objetivo: A [...] plicar una intervención educativa para elevar el nivel de conocimiento sobre brucelosis en trabajadores expuesto a riesgo. Método: Se realizó un estudio experimental de intervención en el matadero sanitario de Guanavaquilla y en el Combinado cárnico, dirigido a elevar el nivel de conocimientos de los trabajadores expuestos a riesgo acerca de la brucelosis, durante el período del 1ro de enero al treinta y uno de diciembre del 2007. El universo estuvo conformado por todos los trabajadores expuesto al riesgo de brucelosis de los centros Guanavaquilla con setenta y seis expuestos y Combinado cárnico con ciento sesenta expuestos, la muestra quedó conformada por sesenta y seis trabajadores seleccionados a través de un muestreo aleatorio simple a los que se les aplicó un cuestionario. Resultados: Se observó que antes de recibir las labores educativas se consideraron escasos los conocimientos que poseen los trabajadores acerca, de la forma en que se adquiere la brucelosis, la importancia del uso de los medios de protección personal y que estos estén en perfecto estado. El por qué es necesario la higiene personal y un ambiente adecuado, así como los riesgos para adquirir una brucelosis y las medidas de prevención. Conclusiones: Al inicio de la investigación los trabajadores tenían poco conocimiento sobre la brucelosis, luego de la intervención se logró un aumento significativo del mismo, por lo que se consideró efectiva la intervención. Abstract in english Background: The brucellosis is an important zoonosis of man acquired from an animal source, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), this disease is one of the main sanitary problems in many countries; about half million of new cases every year. Objective: To apply an educational interventi [...] on to elevate the level of knowledge on brucellosis in workers exposed to risk. Method: An intervention experimental study in the sanitary slaughterhouse of Guanavaquilla and in the meat processing factory, guided to elevate the level of knowledge of workers exposed to risk about brucellosis, from January 1st to December 31st, 2007. The universe was conformed by all the workers exposed to risk of brucellosis of the center Guanavaquilla with seventy six exposed workers and meat processing factory with one-hundred sixty ones, the sample was conformed by 66 workers selected through a random simple sampling to those were applied a questionnaire. Results: It was observed that before receiving the educational works were considered scarce the knowledge that the workers possess about, in the way brucellosis is acquired, the importance of the use of personal protection means and that these are in perfect state. Also why it is personal hygiene and an appropriate atmosphere necessary, as well as the risks to acquire brucellosis and the prevention measures. Conclusions: At the beginning of the investigation workers had little knowledge on brucellosis, after the intervention a significant increase was achieved, for what the intervention was considered effective.

Casado Rodríguez, Cristina; Rodríguez Heredia, Odalys; Mena Fernández, Magalys; García González, Gloria.

194

Operational comparison of bubble (super heated drop) dosimetry with routine albedo thermoluminescent dosimetry for a selected group of Pu-238 workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is an operational study that compares the use of albedo thermoluminescent dosimeters with bubble dosimeters to determine whether bubble dosimeters do provide a useful daily ALARA tool that can yield measurements close to the dose-of-record. A group of workers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) working on the Radioactive Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) for the NASA Cassini space mission wore both bubble dosimeters and albedo dosimeters over a period from 1993 through 1996. The bubble dosimeters were issued and read on a daily basis and the data were used as an ALARA tool. The personnel albedo dosimeter was processed on monthly basis and used as the dose-of-record. The results of this study indicated that cumulative bubble dosimetry results agreed with whole-body albedo dosimetry results within about 37% on average. However it was observed that there is a significant variability of the results on an individual basis both month-to-month and from one individual to another

1999-01-20

195

Workers' Page  

Science.gov (United States)

... in working conditions rather than just relying on masks, gloves, ear plugs or other types of personal ... a worker for using their rights under the law. Your right to report injuries As a worker ...

196

Evolution of a Corporate Knowledge Management and Knowledge Building Effort: A Case Study of Just-In-Time Training and Support of Laboratory Robotic Workstations Driven Through Online Community Portals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is a case study of the evolution of how a successful knowledge management initiative was achieved in a corporate learning organization. The initiative was centered on providing training tools and documentation of automated laboratory workstations that are utilized by scientists in a drug discovery environment. The case study will address the software tools, processes for content building, and the organizational dynamics that either assisted or blocked the progression of the initiative. O...

Karen Kearns

2005-01-01

197

Increased Sensitivity to CD4 Binding Site-Directed Neutralization following In Vitro Propagation on Primary Lymphocytes of a Neutralization-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus IIIB Strain Isolated from an Accidentally Infected Laboratory Worker  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We previously described the adaptation of the neutralization-sensitive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain IIIB to a neutralization-resistant phenotype in an accidentally infected laboratory worker. During long-term propagation of this resistant isolate, designated FF3346, on primary peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro, an HIV-1 variant appeared that had regained sensitivity to neutralization by soluble CD4 (sCD4) and the broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody b12. When an e...

Beaumont, Tim; Quakkelaar, Esther; Nuenen, Ad; Pantophlet, Ralph; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

2004-01-01

198

Conocimiento y actitud en prevención de trabajadores lesionados de una empresa metalmecánica en México Knowledge and attitudes towards prevention among occupationally injured workers at a Mexican metal-mechanic company  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se investigan a 51 trabajadores que sufrieron algún tipo de accidentes de trabajo durante el año de 2007, en una empresa metalmecánica, no importando la región anatómica de la lesión con la finalidad de determinar el nivel de conocimiento y actitud en prevención de riesgos laborales que existe entre ellos. Tal información servirá para mejorar la administración de la seguridad en la empresa. La investigación es de tipo no experimental, descriptiva y transversal. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó, un cuestionario integrado por 30 ítems, divididos en tres apartados: datos demográficos y las variables: conocimiento y actitud en prevención de riesgos laborales. La validez del instrumento obtuvo un valor de alfa de Cronbach del 0,74. Con respecto a las variables de estudio, los resultados obtenidos nos indican que, los trabajadores presentan un nivel bajo de conocimiento en prevención de riesgos laborales. En relación con la variable actitud, estos se ubicaron en un nivel bajo también. Por lo que se concluye que, el conocimiento en prevención de riesgos laborales y la actitud de los trabajadores, están directamente relacionados.51 workers that suffered some type of work accident were investigated during 2007, at a metal-mechanic company; the lesion’s anatomic region is not an issue, in order to determine the knowledge and attitude level on occupational risks prevention. Such information will enhance safety management at the company. The investigation is descriptive, transverse and non-experimental. For data collection was used a questionnaire of 30 multiple-choice, divided into three sections: demographics data, and the variables knowledge and attitude on occupational risk prevention. The validity of the instrument got a Cronbach´s alpha of 0,74. With respect to the variables, the results indicate that workers have a low level in prevention knowledge occupational risk. Regarding the attitude variable, these were located at a low level also. As it is concluded that knowledge on occupational risk prevention and the attitude of workers are directly related.

Benito Zamorano González

2009-06-01

199

Conocimiento y actitud en prevención de trabajadores lesionados de una empresa metalmecánica en México / Knowledge and attitudes towards prevention among occupationally injured workers at a Mexican metal-mechanic company  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se investigan a 51 trabajadores que sufrieron algún tipo de accidentes de trabajo durante el año de 2007, en una empresa metalmecánica, no importando la región anatómica de la lesión con la finalidad de determinar el nivel de conocimiento y actitud en prevención de riesgos laborales que existe entre [...] ellos. Tal información servirá para mejorar la administración de la seguridad en la empresa. La investigación es de tipo no experimental, descriptiva y transversal. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó, un cuestionario integrado por 30 ítems, divididos en tres apartados: datos demográficos y las variables: conocimiento y actitud en prevención de riesgos laborales. La validez del instrumento obtuvo un valor de alfa de Cronbach del 0,74. Con respecto a las variables de estudio, los resultados obtenidos nos indican que, los trabajadores presentan un nivel bajo de conocimiento en prevención de riesgos laborales. En relación con la variable actitud, estos se ubicaron en un nivel bajo también. Por lo que se concluye que, el conocimiento en prevención de riesgos laborales y la actitud de los trabajadores, están directamente relacionados. Abstract in english 51 workers that suffered some type of work accident were investigated during 2007, at a metal-mechanic company; the lesion’s anatomic region is not an issue, in order to determine the knowledge and attitude level on occupational risks prevention. Such information will enhance safety management at th [...] e company. The investigation is descriptive, transverse and non-experimental. For data collection was used a questionnaire of 30 multiple-choice, divided into three sections: demographics data, and the variables knowledge and attitude on occupational risk prevention. The validity of the instrument got a Cronbach´s alpha of 0,74. With respect to the variables, the results indicate that workers have a low level in prevention knowledge occupational risk. Regarding the attitude variable, these were located at a low level also. As it is concluded that knowledge on occupational risk prevention and the attitude of workers are directly related.

Benito, Zamorano González; Víctor, Parra Sierra; Fabiola, Peña Cárdenas; Yolanda, Castillo Muraira.

200

The relationship between knowledge of HIV, self-perceived vulnerability and sexual risk behavior among community clinic workers in Chile / Relación entre conocimientos sobre VIH, percepción de vulnerabilidad y conductas sexuales de riesgo en trabajadores de salud primaria en Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo Probar la asociación entre conductas sexuales de riesgo (CSR) y conocimiento de VIH en trabajadores de salud primaria en Chile, y el posible efecto de confusión de auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad hacia VIH en dicha relación. Métodos Estudio transversal anidado en estudio cuasi-experimenta [...] l de 720 trabajadores de salud de Santiago. Score de CSR combinó número de parejas sexuales y uso de condón. Conocimiento de VIH fue medido mediante índice de 25 preguntas. Percepción de vulnerabilidad hacia VIH fue medida como "alta"/"moderada"/ "baja". Variables socio-demográficas, religiosidad y nivel educativo sirvieron de control. Análisis descriptivo, de asociación y confusión fueron desarrollados mediante estimación de proporciones/medias, prueba de Chi-cuadrado y regresión logística. Resultados El 78,2 % de encuestados era mujer, el 46,8 % estaba casado y el 67,6 % era católico. Promedio de edad de 38,9 aÃ?±os (DS=10,5) y el 69 % tenía formación universitaria/técnica. La auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad fue "baja" en el 71,5 % de los trabajadores. Se observó una asociación negativa entre conocimiento y CSR (OR=0,55, IC=0,35-0,86) y la vulnerabilidad percibida no fue factor de confusión. La asociación se mantuvo tras ajustar por edad, sexo, tipo de centro primario, educación y religiosidad. Conclusiones Algunos trabajadores de salud comunitaria tenían conocimiento inadecuado de VIH, que se asoció a CSR. La auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad no fue factor de confusión, pero estudios futuros podrían analizar riesgos laborales de VIH como posible mediador en la percepción de riesgo. Programas de entrenamiento en conocimientos básicos de VIH y CSR debieran implementarse en trabajadores de salud primaria. Abstract in english Objective Testing the hypothesis of an association between knowledge and sexual risk behaviour (SRB) amongst community-clinic workers in Chile, explained by the confounding effect of self-perceived vulnerability to HIV. Methods A cross-sectional survey was analyzed; it was nested within a quasiexper [...] imental study of 720 community-clinic workers in Santiago. The SRB score combined the number of sexual partners and condom use (coded as "high"/"low" SRB). Knowledge of HIV (a 25-item index) was coded as "inadequate"/"adequate" knowledge. Self-perceived vulnerability to HIV was categorised as being "high"/ "moderate"/"low". Control variables included socio-demographics, religiousness and educational level. Percentages/averages, Chi-square tests and logistic regression (OR-estimations) were used for descriptive, association and confounding analysis. Results Respondents were 78.2 % female, 46.8 % married and 67.6 % Catholic. Mean age was 38.9 (10.5 SD) and 69 % had university/diploma level. Self-perceived HIV vulnerability was "low" in 71.5 % cases. A negative association between knowledge and SRB was found (OR=0.55;CI=0.35-0.86), but self-perceived vulnerability did not have a confounding effect on this relationship. This relationship also persisted after being adjusted for multiple control variables (e.g. age, sex, type of primary centre, educational level, and religiousness). Conclusions Some community-clinic workers had inaccurate knowledge of HIV, which was associated with SRB. Self-perceived vulnerability did not have a confounding effect; however, future studies should further analyze occupational risk of HIV as a possible driving factor in health workers' perception of their risk. Focused training programmes should be developed to enhance basic knowledge of HIV in this group.

Cabieses, Baltica; Ferrer, Lilian; Villarroel, Luis; Tunstall, Helena; Norr, Kathleen.

 
 
 
 
201

The relationship between knowledge of HIV, self-perceived vulnerability and sexual risk behavior among community clinic workers in Chile / Relación entre conocimientos sobre VIH, percepción de vulnerabilidad y conductas sexuales de riesgo en trabajadores de salud primaria en Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish Objetivo Probar la asociación entre conductas sexuales de riesgo (CSR) y conocimiento de VIH en trabajadores de salud primaria en Chile, y el posible efecto de confusión de auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad hacia VIH en dicha relación. Métodos Estudio transversal anidado en estudio cuasi-experimenta [...] l de 720 trabajadores de salud de Santiago. Score de CSR combinó número de parejas sexuales y uso de condón. Conocimiento de VIH fue medido mediante índice de 25 preguntas. Percepción de vulnerabilidad hacia VIH fue medida como "alta"/"moderada"/ "baja". Variables socio-demográficas, religiosidad y nivel educativo sirvieron de control. Análisis descriptivo, de asociación y confusión fueron desarrollados mediante estimación de proporciones/medias, prueba de Chi-cuadrado y regresión logística. Resultados El 78,2 % de encuestados era mujer, el 46,8 % estaba casado y el 67,6 % era católico. Promedio de edad de 38,9 aÃ?±os (DS=10,5) y el 69 % tenía formación universitaria/técnica. La auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad fue "baja" en el 71,5 % de los trabajadores. Se observó una asociación negativa entre conocimiento y CSR (OR=0,55, IC=0,35-0,86) y la vulnerabilidad percibida no fue factor de confusión. La asociación se mantuvo tras ajustar por edad, sexo, tipo de centro primario, educación y religiosidad. Conclusiones Algunos trabajadores de salud comunitaria tenían conocimiento inadecuado de VIH, que se asoció a CSR. La auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad no fue factor de confusión, pero estudios futuros podrían analizar riesgos laborales de VIH como posible mediador en la percepción de riesgo. Programas de entrenamiento en conocimientos básicos de VIH y CSR debieran implementarse en trabajadores de salud primaria. Abstract in english Objective Testing the hypothesis of an association between knowledge and sexual risk behaviour (SRB) amongst community-clinic workers in Chile, explained by the confounding effect of self-perceived vulnerability to HIV. Methods A cross-sectional survey was analyzed; it was nested within a quasiexper [...] imental study of 720 community-clinic workers in Santiago. The SRB score combined the number of sexual partners and condom use (coded as "high"/"low" SRB). Knowledge of HIV (a 25-item index) was coded as "inadequate"/"adequate" knowledge. Self-perceived vulnerability to HIV was categorised as being "high"/ "moderate"/"low". Control variables included socio-demographics, religiousness and educational level. Percentages/averages, Chi-square tests and logistic regression (OR-estimations) were used for descriptive, association and confounding analysis. Results Respondents were 78.2 % female, 46.8 % married and 67.6 % Catholic. Mean age was 38.9 (10.5 SD) and 69 % had university/diploma level. Self-perceived HIV vulnerability was "low" in 71.5 % cases. A negative association between knowledge and SRB was found (OR=0.55;CI=0.35-0.86), but self-perceived vulnerability did not have a confounding effect on this relationship. This relationship also persisted after being adjusted for multiple control variables (e.g. age, sex, type of primary centre, educational level, and religiousness). Conclusions Some community-clinic workers had inaccurate knowledge of HIV, which was associated with SRB. Self-perceived vulnerability did not have a confounding effect; however, future studies should further analyze occupational risk of HIV as a possible driving factor in health workers' perception of their risk. Focused training programmes should be developed to enhance basic knowledge of HIV in this group.

Cabieses, Baltica; Ferrer, Lilian; Villarroel, Luis; Tunstall, Helena; Norr, Kathleen.

202

Knowledge, attitudes and practices towards pandemic influenza among cases, close contacts, and healthcare workers in tropical Singapore: a cross-sectional survey  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Effective influenza pandemic management requires understanding of the factors influencing behavioral changes. We aim to determine the differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices in various different cohorts and explore the pertinent factors that influenced behavior in tropical Singapore. Methods We performed a cross-sectional knowledge, attitudes and practices survey in the Singapore military from mid-August to early-October 2009, among...

2010-01-01

203

Contingent workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contingent workers compose a large portion of the U.S. work force. Contingent workers include temporary employees, contracted employees, day laborers, and freelancers. The skill level and educational requirements for their jobs vary from basic to highly advanced. Construction, housekeeping, engineering, and nursing have such positions. U.S. contingent workers are more likely to engage in occupations associated with increased risk of injury, and a variety of factors increase their risk of work injuries, particularly those leading to death. This article focuses on select occupational health and safety issues affecting contingent workers and their implications for occupational health nurses. PMID:21366200

Guerrina, Ryan T; Burns, Candace M; Conlon, Helen

2011-03-01

204

VOLUNTARY LIFESTYLE CHANGES AND KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HEALTHY LIFESTYLES OF CHILEAN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE WORKERS CAMBIOS DE ESTILO DE VIDA Y CONOCIMIENTOS SOBRE ALIMENTACIÓN SALUDABLE Y ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA EN PROFESIONALES DE ATENCIÓN PRIMARIA EN CHILE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing life style changes and knowledge regarding healthy diet and physical activity among Chilean primary health care (PHC professionals. The sample of 194 PHC workers was composed of physicians, nurses, nutritionists, midwives and social workers, of which 86% were women.The majority reported to have made positive changes in their lifestyle: more than 80% stated that they consumed less fat and ate more vegetables; two-thirds said they ate less sugar; around half reported that they drank less alcohol and 45% that they were more physically active. Negative changes like increasing the consumption of soft drinks, alcohol and tobacco were highest in the youngest of all the age groups. Eighty percents correctly answered the knowledge questions about healthy diet and physical activity. Significant differences among the professionals could be identified. Most of the PHC professionals show a positive change in their lifestyle and have a high knowledge level about healthy diet and physical activity. It has to be emphasized that good teamwork among nutritionists, physicians, nurses and other PHC workers is a necessary pre-condition to improve the effectiveness of a heath care team dealing with non-communicable disease preventionSe evaluaron los cambios en los estilos de vida y conocimientos en alimentación saludable y actividad física en profesionales de atención primaria de salud. Se aplicó una encuesta a 194 profesionales (médicos, enfermeras, nutricionistas, matronas y asistentes sociales, de los cuales el 86% eran mujeres. Se observó que durante el último año, la mayoría de los profesionales modificó sus hábitos hacia estilos de vida mas saludables. Alrededor del 80% señalaron que consumen menos grasas y consumen mas verduras, dos tercios indicaron consumir menos azúcar, alrededor de la mitad menos alcohol y un 45% hacen más actividad física. La gente mas joven es la que ha hecho las mayores modificaciones, a pesar que aumentaron el consumo de bebidas gaseosas, alcohol y tabaco. Un 80% de los profesionales respondió correctamente las preguntas relacionadas con alimentación y actividad física. Se encontró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los diferentes grupos de profesionales. Se concluye que muchos profesionales han efectuado cambios hacia estilos de vida mas saludable, tienen un buen conocimiento de hábitos alimentarios y actividad física. Estos resultados indican la importancia del trabajo en equipo para contribuir a la prevención de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles

Svenja Jungjohann

2002-12-01

205

Preliminary volcanic hazards evaluation for Los Alamos National Laboratory Facilities and Operations : current state of knowledge and proposed path forward  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The integration of available information on the volcanic history of the region surrounding Los Alamos National Laboratory indicates that the Laboratory is at risk from volcanic hazards. Volcanism in the vicinity of the Laboratory is unlikely within the lifetime of the facility (ca. 50–100 years) but cannot be ruled out. This evaluation provides a preliminary estimate of recurrence rates for volcanic activity. If further assessment of the hazard is deemed beneficial to reduce risk uncertainty, the next step would be to convene a formal probabilistic volcanic hazards assessment.

Keating, Gordon N.; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Miller, Elizabeth D.

2010-09-01

206

???????????? Empirical Research on Incentive Factors for Knowledge Employee  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Based on literature review and research hypothesis, a model of the relationship between knowledge workers’ working attitude and performance is proposed. According to the empirical research on knowledge workers of the knowledge-based enterprises in Shenyang, Liaoning, PRC, it is concluded that knowledge workers’ working attitude is correlated with their performance positively. Furthermore, knowledge workers’ individual differences, such as sex, age, education, work experience, salary level and job type can affect their working attitude and performance significantly.

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2011-07-01

207

Radium-dial workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The population of radium-dial workers, which has now been studied for more than half a century, constitutes a resource of considerable value. More than 1,100 workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions

1984-01-01

208

Integrating knowledge-based systems into operations at the McMaster University FN tandem accelerator laboratory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The introduction of computer-based expertise in accelerator operations has resulted in the development of an Accelerator Operators' Companion which incorporates a knowledge-based front-end that is tuned to user operational expertise. The front-end also provides connections to traditional software packages such as database and spreadsheet programs. During work on the back-end, that is, real-time expert system control development, the knowledge engineering phase has revealed the importance of modifying expert procedures when a multitasking environment is involved

1989-10-01

209

Radiological Worker Training: Radiological Worker 2 study guides  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Upon completion of this training course, the participant will have the knowledge to work safely in areas controlled for radiological purposes using proper radiological practices. Radiological Worker H Training, for the worker whose job assignment involves entry into Radiological Buffer Areas and all types of Radiation Contamination and Airborne Radioactivity Areas. This course is designed to prepare the worker to work safely in and around radiological areas and present methods to use to ensure individual radiation exposure is maintained As Low As Reasonably Achievable

1992-01-01

210

Conhecimento sobre produtos fitofarmacêuticos de agricultores e trabalhadores agrícolas da região do Douro que frequentaram cursos de aplicação / Knowledge of farmers and farm workers from douro region who attended courses of plant protection products application  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo pretendeu avaliar a informação e as atitudes relativas à utilização dos produtos fitofarmacêuticos pelos agricultores e trabalhadores agrícolas da Região do Douro, após a frequência de cursos de aplicação de produtos fitofarmacêuticos, entre 2002 e 2006, no âmbito do QCA III. Um inquérito r [...] ealizado, sob a forma de entrevista directa com questionário escrito, abrangeu o universo de 1565 indivíduos que frequentaram 120 cursos de aplicação. A amostra foi de 100 inquiridos, seleccionados de forma aleatória. O inquérito incluiu questões estruturadas e abertas, de índole pessoal, profissional e sobre atitudes e conhecimentos no uso de produtos fitofarmacêuticos. Foram obtidos dados sobre as características da população agrícola, agricultores e trabalhadores agrícolas, sobre o uso dos produtos fitofarmacêuticos e do equipamento de protecção individual e a motivação para a frequência do curso. Abstract in english To assess the information and attitudes concerning the use of pesticides by farmers and agricultural workers of the Douro region, after the frequency of application courses of plant protection products, between 2002 and 2006, under the QCA III, an investigation was carried out in the form of a direc [...] t interview, with a written questionnaire, of 100 individuals which covered the universe of 1565 individuals who attended 120 courses. The sample was randomly selected. The questionnaire included structured and open issues of personal and professional nature and on attitudes and knowledge in the use of pesticides. Data were obtained on the characteristics of the farming population, farmers and farm workers, on the use of plant protection products and personal protective equipment and motivation for the course.

Alberto Manuel de Araújo Ribeiro de, Carvalho; António Luís da Costa, Araújo; Maria José Moreno da, Cunha.

211

Workers’ Conformism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Conformism was studied among 46 workers with different kinds of occupations by means of two modified scales measuring conformity by Santor, Messervey, and Kusumakar (2000 – scale for perceived peer pressure and scale for conformism in antisocial situations. The hypothesis of the study that workers’ conformism is expressed in a medium degree was confirmed partly. More than a half of the workers conform in a medium degree for taking risk, and for the use of alcohol and drugs, and for sexual relationships. More than a half of the respondents conform in a small degree for anti-social activities (like a theft. The workers were more inclined to conform for risk taking (10.9%, then – for the use of alcohol, drugs and for sexual relationships (8.7%, and in the lowest degree – for anti-social activities (6.5%. The workers who were inclined for the use of alcohol and drugs tended also to conform for anti-social activities.

Nikolay Ivantchev

2013-10-01

212

Percepción y conocimientos de los profesionales sanitarios de una unidad de Nefrología sobre la higiene de manos: estudio comparativo / Hand hygiene perceptions and knowledge of healthcare workers in a Nephrology Unit: a comparative study  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Un conocimiento adecuado sobre la higiene de las manos por parte de los profesionales sanitarios, es el primer paso para la adherencia a cualquier programa de disminución de infección relacionada con la asistencia sanitaria. Objetivo: Evaluar el nivel de conocimientos y percepciones respecto a la hi [...] giene de manos entre los profesionales sanitarios de nuestra unidad de Nefrología, y compararlos con los de otra unidad de nuestro centro (Traumatología). Material y método: Estudio prospectivo descriptivo comparativo en 69 profesionales sanitarios. Para evaluar los conocimientos y percepciones respecto a la higiene de manos se utilizó un cuestionario de 26 ítems basado en cuestionarios desarrollados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados: 73% utiliza regularmente preparados de base alcohólica para higiene de manos (Traumatología 96,9%, p=0,007). 94% piensa que las manos de los profesionales sanitarios cuando no están limpias son la principal vía de transmisión de gérmenes patógenos (Traumatología: 87,1%, p=NS). 75,7% piensan que el entorno/superficies del hospital es la principal fuente de gérmenes patógenos (Traumatología: 68,8%) y 16% que son los microrganismos ya presentes en el paciente (Traumatología: 25%) (p=NS). Percepciones: 89% consideran alta la repercusión de las infecciones relacionadas con la asistencia sanitaria en el desenlace de la enfermedad (Traumatología: 59,4%, p=0,009). Respecto a las medidas más efectivas para mejorar la higiene de manos destacan la formación de los profesionales sanitarios, recibir retroalimentación regularmente sobre cómo realizar la higiene de manos y que exista un preparado de base alcohólica en cada punto de atención. Conclusiones: Los profesionales sanitarios de Nefrología, al igual que los de Traumatología, en general tienen conocimientos y percepciones adecuados sobre la higiene de manos. Abstract in english Adequate knowledge about hand hygiene (Hh) by healthcare workers (HCW), is the first step for adhering to any decreased infection related with healthcare (IRHC) program. Aim: To evaluate Hh perceptions and knowledge of HCW in a Nephrology Unit and compare it with another unit in our hospital (Trauma [...] ). Methodology: Comparative prospective study in 69 HCW. A 26-item questionnaire, based on questionnaires developed by WHO to assess knowledge and perceptions of Hh in HCW was used. Results: 73% regularly use alcohol-based preparations for Hh (Trauma 96.9%, p = 0.007). 94% think that the hands of the HCW when they are not clean are the main route of transmission of pathogens (Trauma: 87.1%, p = NS). 75.7% think that the environment / hospital surfaces is the main source of pathogens (Trauma: 68.8%) and 16% which are the microorganisms already present in the patient (Trauma: 25%) (p = NS). Perceptions: 89% consider the impact of high IRHC in the outcome of the disease (Trauma: 59.4%, p = 0.009). Regarding the most effective measures to improve the Hh include the formation of HCW, receive regular feedback on how to make the Hh and that a alcohol-based handrub is present at each point of care. Conclusions: All healthcare workers have adequate knowledge and perceptions about Hh.

Cobo Sánchez, José Luis; Pelayo Alonso, Raquel; Menezo Viadero, Raquel; Incera Setién, Elena; Gándara Revuelta, Magdalena; López López, Luis Mariano.

213

Turning Blue-Collar Workers into Knowledge Workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A training approach developed by Management Technology Strategies makes blue-collar employees responsible for their own learning. The adaptable system follows three phases: (1) data and design; (2) documentation; and (3) training. The organization provides trainers, tools, and resources, but employees must be proactively involved in using them.…

Cusimano, James M.

1995-01-01

214

Knowledge Management: Usefulness of Knowledge to Organizational Managers  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge-usefulness to organizational managers. The determination of the level of usefulness provided organizational managers with a reliable measure of their decision-making. Organizational workers' perceptions of knowledge accessibility, quality of knowledge content, timeliness, and user…

Klein, Roy L.

2010-01-01

215

Migrant Workers and the Changing Psychological Contract  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The influx of migrant workers in the UK has widespread interest. This group's experience of the British work place has evoked considerable debate ranging from the potential to be exploited through unscrupulous practices to allegations about taking away jobs from British workers. The purpose of this paper is to extend knowledge about the…

Morgan, Arthur; Finniear, Jocelyn

2009-01-01

216

TRAINING METHODS FOR OLDER WORKERS. EMPLOYMENT OF OLDER WORKERS, 2.  

Science.gov (United States)

A SURVEY WAS PRESENTED OF SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE ON AGE CHANGES IN HUMAN CAPACITIES, ESPECIALLY IN LEARNING ABILITY AND ADAPTABILITY, AND DESCRIBED VARIOUS METHODS USED TO TRAIN WORKERS OVER 40. THE ROLE OF MEMORY, MOTIVATION, RIGIDITY, AND INTELLIGENCE IN DETERMINING THE LEARNING EFFICIENCY OF MATURE ADULTS WAS ASSESSED, ALSO DIFFICULTIES CAUSED BY…

BELBIN, R.M.

217

The role and limitation of underground research laboratories to foster development of expertise, information exchange, transfer of knowledge, and confidence building through international co-operation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rationale for constructing and operating underground rock laboratories (URL) is basically the need for carrying out Research and Technical Development (RTD) work under realistic conditions in realistic environments. Full scale experiments and tests are possible. Because of the limited number of existing URLs in each type of considered repository host rock, see Figure 1, and the high costs for large scale experiments international co-operation and networking have become a fruitful as well as traditional way of conducting the work in the URLs. This co-operation and networking have progressively developed into other areas than pure RTD work, and show that added value may be achieved in URLs in also many other areas. The paper gives examples of good experience and points out future ways of enhancing this kind of added. value within four areas: development of expertise; information exchange; transfer of knowledge, and confidence building. (author)

2005-01-01

218

Preparing the radiation protection worker to meet multiple needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the radiation protection worker aids in protecting personnel and their surrounding environment from the hazards of radiation. These individuals use their technical knowledge, skills, and abilities to survey and monitor various project-related activities. They must also provide guidance in project design, development, and implementation. These combined efforts assure that protective measures are taken in accordance with applicable standards. The ORNL performance-based training program enhances the skills of the worker. The program incorporates job specific information on the diverse facilities and activities monitored with basic fundamentals of radiation protection. Successful completion of this program includes passing both a qualification exam and an on-the-job skills review. This paper details the structure of such a program and explains the strategies taken to reach the program's goals. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

Abercrombie, J.S.; Thorpe, B.C.

1987-01-01

219

The radioprotection of workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As workers exposed to ionizing radiations in France are submitted to an individual dosimetric control by the IRSN or by registered laboratories, this report outlines the improvements obtained in the field of radioprotection of these workers, particularly because of a better analysis of exposure levels and of incidents. Some drawbacks still remain, notably due to the increase of subcontracting, short duration contracts, and temporary employment. It briefly comments the French assessment for 2007 with respect to three indicators (the number of controlled workers, the evolution of average individual doses, and the exceeding of the annual limit) and outlines the monitoring performed on researchers. It briefly describes the various components of prevention (legal context, regulatory controls, inspections and visits, regulatory files, workstation studies, reference documents and education), of control (external and internal dosimetry), and follow-up. It evokes how the IRSN deals with anomalies and crisis, contributes to the elaboration of standard at the French and international levels. It finally comments the drastic changes which have been noticed in veterinary practices

2010-01-01

220

Knowledge about knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Social Workers’ Interest in Building Individuals’ Financial Capabilities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Social workers have many opportunities to integrate a focus on personal finance into their practice with mostly lower-income and vulnerable client populations. However, little is known about social workers’ interest in personal finance. Results of a survey of social workers (N = 56) interested in integrating personal finance content into their practice are reported in this paper. Ways in which social workers might further develop knowledge and skills in personal finance are discussed....

Despard, Mathieu R.; Chowa, Gina A. N.

2010-01-01

222

Coal Mine Workers' Compensation  

Science.gov (United States)

... Forms | About DOL | Contact Us | Español Office of Workers' Compensation Programs DOL Home > OWCP > DCMWC > DCMWC TOC Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation (DCMWC) Division of Coal Mine Workers' Compensation Home ...

223

Scientific literacy in hospital workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Previous studies realized by our group have demonstrated radio-induction of genotoxic damage in peripheral blood of hospital workers exposed to chronic X-ray. The cytogenetic and cytomolecular damage was significant in the radiologists evaluated. Accordingly, we have researched the knowledge of risk radiation in 57 workers to different health centres, private and public, in La Plata city. Most of respondents (96.4%) answered to know the risk of working with radiation ionizing, but a large portion do not carry out with the appropriate safety rules. The workers have not interest in this rules, it is evidenced by negligence in the use of protective clothing and personal dosimeters. These results suggested that individuals could be sensitising to minimize their risk. For this purpose we are working in scientific literacy conferences which are organized by 'Asociacion de Tecnicos Radiologos y de Diagnostico por Imagenes de La Plata (ASTEDIRLP)'. (author)

2008-10-19

224

Capacitações perecíveis do trabalhador: a busca de saberes comportamentais e técnicos no novo capitalismo / Les formations périssables du travailleur: la recherche de savoirs comportamentaux et techniques dans le nouveau capitalisme / Perishable worker training: the search for behavioral and technical knowledge in the new capitalism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo problematiza as estratégias pelas quais a atualização permanente de saberes se impôs como imprescindível ao perfil profissional contemporâneo. Para tanto, opero com os conceitos foucaultianos de discurso, cuidados de si e tecnologias do eu, bem como trabalho imaterial, de Lazzarato e Neg [...] ri - articulados a uma crítica ao capital humano - , a fim de analisar o caderno Empregos & Oportunidades do jornal Zero Hora. Centrando-me nas exigências comportamentaise técnicas, destaco algumas implicações: o autoconhecimento torna-se a resposta à trivialidade do trabalho, orientando o sujeito a estabelecer relações superficiais consigo e com o outro; a busca por conhecimento técnico gera contingentes de trabalhadores capacitados que se mantêm em defasagem; a inovação faz-se "dobradiça" entre o mercado e a exigência de novos saberes. Hoje, a condição perecível das capacitações dá o tom à formação do trabalhador. Abstract in english This paper problematizes the strategies through which the permanent updating of knowledge has been imposed as indispensable to the contemporary professional profile. In order to do that, I have worked with the Foucauldian concepts of discourse, care of the self and technologies of the self, as well [...] as Lazzarato and Negri's concept of immaterial work - articulated with a criticism of human capital - to analyze the supplement called Jobs & Opportunities of Zero Hora newspaper. Focused on behavioral and technical requirements, I have highlighted some implications: self-knowledge has become the answer to work triviality, leading the subjects to establish superficial relationships with themselves and the others; the search for technical knowledge has generated contingents of skilled workers that lag behind; innovation has become a "hinge" between the market and the requirement for new knowledge. Nowadays, the perishable situation of worker training dominates worker learning.

Maurício dos Santos, Ferreira.

225

Knowledge management in project-base organizations: the interplay of time orientations and knowledge interventions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The common perception is that all types of work and work organizations appear to involve knowledge: knowledge intensive work, knowledge workers, knowledge products, customerrelated knowledge and knowledge intensive organizations. Therefore, as organizations increasingly organize their activities in the form of projects, effective ways of knowledge management are needed to deliver successful and timely outcomes. However, little research has been done in the area that integrates time orientatio...

2007-01-01

226

How Knowledge Organizations Work: The Case of Detectives  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conceptualize detectives in police investigations as knowledge workers. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a literature review covering knowledge organizations, police organizations, police investigations, and detectives as knowledge workers. Findings: The paper finds that the changing role…

Gottschalk, Petter; Holgersson, Stefan; Karlsen, Jan Terje

2009-01-01

227

Interactive, Computer-Based Training Program for Radiological Workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is redesigning its Computer-Based Training (CBT) program for radiological workers. The redesign represents a major effort to produce a single, highly interactive and flexible CBT program that will meet the training needs of a wide range of radiological workers--from researchers and x-ray operators to individuals working in tritium, uranium, plutonium, and accelerator facilities. The new CBT program addresses the broad diversity of backgrounds found at a national laboratory. When a training audience is homogeneous in terms of education level and type of work performed, it is difficult to duplicate the effectiveness of a flexible, technically competent instructor who can tailor a course to the express needs and concerns of a course's participants. Unfortunately, such homogeneity is rare. At LLNL, they have a diverse workforce engaged in a wide range of radiological activities, from the fairly common to the quite exotic. As a result, the Laboratory must offer a wide variety of radiological worker courses. These include a general contamination-control course in addition to radioactive-material-handling courses for both low-level laboratory (i.e., bench-top) activities as well as high-level work in tritium, uranium, and plutonium facilities. They also offer training courses for employees who work with radiation-generating devices--x-ray, accelerator, and E-beam operators, for instance. However, even with the number and variety of courses the Laboratory offers, they are constrained by the diversity of backgrounds (i.e., knowledge and experience) of those to be trained. Moreover, time constraints often preclude in-depth coverage of site- and/or task-specific details. In response to this situation, several years ago LLNL began moving toward computer-based training for radiological workers. Today, that CBT effort includes a general radiological safety course developed by the Department of Energy's Hanford facility and a contamination-control program developed by LLNL. A comprehensive study guide and a post-training practical exam supplement the CBT effort. The ''hands-on'' practical is particularly important in that it gives participants not only the opportunity to demonstrate what they've learned, but to ask questions about their individual work situations. The challenge is how to make the CBT program more facility- and task-specific while, at the same time, making the program more in tune with the education and/or experience levels of individual trainees. To that end, they have designed a CBT program, which they refer to as an ''onion''. That is, the course is layered, going from the general to the more and more specific

2000-05-14

228

Acidentes de trabalho e doença ocupacional: estudo sobre o conhecimento do trabalhador hospitalar dos riscos à saúde de seu trabalho / Labour accidents and occupational sckness: study about the knowledge degree of the hospitalar worker in a private hospital / Accidentes de trabajo y enfermedad ocupacional: estudio sobre el conocimiento del trabajador hospitalario, en relación con los riesgos de su trabajo para la salud  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo busca levantar o conhecimento dos trabalhadores de saúde hospitalar quanto a sua própria saúde no desenvolvimento de suas atividades. Foi realizado em um hospital geral, de médio porte, com serviço de medicina ocupacional funcionante. O caminho percorrido é a apresentação do objeto em es [...] tudo e a fundamentação teórica como forma de embasar a análise dos dados, colhidos através de um formulário com questões norteadoras e agrupados por categorias de análise, com a finalidade de apreender o saber do trabalhador sobre a relação trabalho-saúde-doença. O resultado evidenciou conhecimento genérico dos trabalhadores acerca da prevenção de acidentes e doenças ocupacionais. Abstract in spanish Este estudio busca levantar el conocimiento de los trabajadores de salud hospitalaria en relación con su propia salud en el desarrollo de sus actividades. Fue realizado en un hospital general de medio porte, con servicio de medicina ocupacional en funcionamiento. El camino recorrido es la presentaci [...] ón del objeto en estudio y la fundamentación teórica como forma de sustentar el análisis de los datos recogidos a través de un formulario con preguntas orientadoras y agrupadas por categorías de análisis, con la finalidad de aprehender el saber del trabajador sobre la relación trabajo-salud-enfermedad. El resultado evidenció conocimiento genérico de los trabajadores acerca de la prevención de accidentes y enfermedades ocupacionales. Abstract in english This study searches to gather the knowledge of the hospitalar health workers in relationship their own health in the development of their activities. The study was accomplished in a general hospital, of medium load, with medicine service occupational functioning. The way gone through is the presenta [...] tion of the subject in study and the theoretical foundation as a way of basing the analysis of the datas, gathered through the questionaire, to apprehend the worker's knowledge about the relationship work-health-disease. The result evidenced the workers' generic knowledge concernig the prevention of accidents and occupational diseases.

Beatriz Rosana Gonçalves de, Oliveira; Neide Tiemi, Murofuse.

229

Classification of knowledge-intensive organizations  

Science.gov (United States)

Managing knowledge workers in knowledge-intensive organizations has become important because knowledge itself is emerging as a primary sustainable competitive advantage. This dissertation traces the development of two important items related to knowledge-intensive organizations. First, it documents a careful study of the literature which allows for the construction of a Knowledge-Intensity Continuum. This continuum then forms the basis for the development of a Knowledge-Intensity Assessment survey instrument which allows an organization to be placed along this continuum. A cross-section of research, consulting, and manufacturing organizations was surveyed using this instrument. The findings provided evidence that supports the validity of the Knowledge-Intensity Continuum. Additionally, onsite interviews provided evidence that the Knowledge-Intensity Assessment survey can be used as a tool to locate any organization on this continuum. Using this survey to clearly identify knowledge-intensive organizations will allow for further research into effective management systems for knowledge workers in these organizations.

Marquart, Edward J.

230

Conhecimentos, práticas e percepções de profissionais de saúde sobre o tratamento de malária não complicada em municípios de alto risco da Amazônia Legal Uncomplicated malaria treatment in the Brazilian Amazon: knowledge, practices and perceptions of health workers in high-incidence municipalities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O controle da malária no Brasil conta com diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado e oportuno como estratégia para cura rápida e duradoura. Consequências clínicas e resistência aos antimaláricos podem resultar de falhas na prescrição, dispensação e aceitação dos profissionais aos esquemas terapêuticos propostos. Objetivou-se avaliar conhecimentos, práticas, percepções e atitudes de profissionais envolvidos na assistência farmacêutica à malária, frente ao protocolo oficial e a possíveis falhas na terapêutica. Entrevistaram-se profissionais em seis municípios na Amazônia Legal. Utilizou-se técnica de análise do discurso para determinação de categorias analíticas e sistematização. Dos 63 entrevistados, houve apenas um médico. Os demais, de nível médio, atuavam no diagnóstico, indicação e dispensação do tratamento antimalárico. O tempo de formação e de treinamento foi variável. Houve falhas na adesão ao protocolo nacional, perpassando indicação, dispensação e orientação aos pacientes. Os profissionais carecem de conhecimento para lidar com as especificidades da doença e do tratamento. A responsabilização de profissionais que não possuem o preparo necessário para a atenção sugere necessidade de políticas para a adequada capacitação e incorporação de recursos humanos.Malaria control in Brazil is based on early diagnosis and adequate and timely treatment as strategies for a rapid and long-lasting cure. Clinical consequences and resistance to antimalarials may arise from problems in prescribing, dispensing and in acceptance of therapeutic regimens by healthcare workers. We studied knowledge and practices, perceptions and attitudes of health workers participating in pharmaceutical services for malaria, regarding the official protocol and the possible flaws in therapy. Health workers from six municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon were interviewed. Speech analysis was employed as a technique to determine analytical categories and to organize data. There was only 1 physician among the 63 interviewees, the others were health technicians carrying out diagnosis, therapy indication and dispensing of antimalarial treatment. Training time and period since course completion varied. Flaws in the adherence to the national protocol included therapy indication, dispensing and counseling. Health workers need knowledge to face disease and treatment specificities. Holding accountable health workers that are unprepared and unfit for the job may indicate the need for adequacy in policies regarding adequate training and hiring of human resources.

Claudia Garcia Serpa Osorio-de-Castro

2011-01-01

231

Knowledge and Economic Growth  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis is centered around two empirical questions. The first question deals with the paradox that the ICT revolution does not pay off with higher productivity growth for the ICT- users. The interaction between production and knowledge accumulation and the ¿general- purpose' nature of the ICT revolution is examined to explain the paradoxical finding. The second question ¿ what explains the increase in wage inequality between high-skilled and low-skilled workers over the last two decades...

Nahuis, R.

2000-01-01

232

Center of Psychosocial Attention (CAPS: worker’s mental health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The professional that is facing changes in the mental health attention has been constituted himself in the confront of Psychiatric Reform discourse, which defends that the medical/psychiatric knowledge must change its place for the multidisciplinarity, it must start using the notion health instead of using illness, city’s circulation instead of asylum, person in psychic suffering instead of person with mental illness, citizen instead of incapable one. This shock can be characterized as a factor of stress in the mental health teams’ work. This is a qualitative research, case study, and has the purpose of evaluating the strategies used by a CAPS’ (Center of Psychosocial Attention health team in promoting the worker’s mental health. Data collection was carried through during November and December 2006, in Foz do Iguaçu City, Parana State, Brazil. Data treatment will be done from the thematic analysis.

Cecília Helena Glanzner

2007-12-01

233

O campo Saúde do Trabalhador: resgatando conhecimentos e práticas sobre as relações trabalho-saúde The Workers' Health field: reclaiming knowledge and practices in the interface between work and health  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O artigo discute pressupostos teórico-operacionais do campo Saúde do Trabalhador e os formulados pela Saúde Ocupacional. Refere-se às categorias teórico-conceituais que sustentam ambas as abordagens, visando a demonstrar as diferentes matrizes que as embasam e suas diferenças epistêmicas, considerando as formulações de Foucault relativas à Arqueologia. Justifica-se tal empreitada pela constatação de que a abordagem interdisciplinar que caracterizou as pesquisas em Saúde do Trabalhador está sendo abandonada, ao lado da involução programática das ações de Saúde Pública em nível das políticas sociais, da fragilidade do movimento sindical e dos equívocos conceituais observados no Relatório Final da 3ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde do Trabalhador realizada em novembro de 2005 e convocada pelos Ministérios da Previdência Social, da Saúde e do Trabalho e Emprego. Tal evento representou o resultado das Conferências de Saúde do Trabalhador realizadas nos Estados e municípios, que mobilizaram cerca de 100 mil militantes pelo Brasil, representados pelos delegados a 3ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde do Trabalhador.This article discusses the underlying theoretical and operational premises in the fields of workers' health and occupational health, highlighting their respective frameworks and epistemological differences, based on Foucaultian archeology. The theme is particularly relevant, due to: the apparently limited attention to interdisciplinary research approaches in workers' health; various setbacks in public health measures at the social policy level; related weaknesses in the Brazilian trade union movement; and the conceptual misinterpretations drafted into the final report of the 3rd National Workers' Health Conference in November, 2005, convened by the Ministries of Social Security, Health, and Labor. The event resulted from the Workers' Health Conferences held in various States and Municipalities, mobilizing some 100,000 activists throughout Brazil and electing the delegates to the 3rd National Conference.

Francisco Antonio de Castro Lacaz

2007-04-01

234

The Older Worker's Stake in Workers' Compensation  

Science.gov (United States)

State Workers' Compensation programs can add another barrier for older workers to surmount at the hiring gate. State programs do not furnish adequate or equitable protection, and the National Commission on State Workmen's Compensation Laws has made recommendations to improve coverage; new standards must be met by July, 1975. (Author)

Berkowitz, Monroe

1975-01-01

235

Pesticides: Protecting Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

Protecting workers from potential effects of pesticides is an important role of EPA's Pesticide Program. Workers in several occupations may be exposed to pesticides when they: Prepare pesticides for ...

236

State Workers' Compensation Laws.  

Science.gov (United States)

Table of Contents: Type of Law and Insurance Requirements for Private Employment; Numerical Exemptions; Coverage of Agricultural Workers; Jurisdictions in Which Workers' Compensation Laws Aply to Domestic Employment; Medical Benefits and Methods of Physic...

1990-01-01

237

Disaster Rescue and Response Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Disaster Rescue and Response Workers Disaster Rescue and Response Workers Bruce H. Young, LCSW, ... psychological problems can result for rescue workers following disaster experiences? The psychological problems for workers that may ...

238

Monitoring of workers exposed to neutrons. Information note  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document briefly indicates who are the workers exposed to neutrons in nuclear facilities, what is the peculiarity of neutron radiation, what is the evolution of scientific knowledge about neutrons, which are the technical evolutions in neutron dosimetry, which are the regulatory evolutions about neutron dosimetry, and how the monitoring of workers exposed to neutrons has been performed in 2011

2011-01-01

239

Accredited Laboratories  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: 1. Laboratory for Calibration of Radiation Protection Instruments (NLW) Head: Pawel Bilski, Ph.D. Laboratory personnel: 7 people. Accreditation certificate No. AP-029 from the Polish Centre for Accreditation obtained December 21, 2001. Activities: calibration of individual and environmental dosemeters in terms of kerma in air, HP(10) and HP(0.07), calibration of radiation protection survey meters in terms of operational quantities using ?-rays from 137Cs source and in terms of surface emission (?-particles from 239Pu and 241Am and ?-particles from 90Sr/90Y, 36Cl and 14C). 2. Laboratory of Individual and Environmental Dosimetry (NLD). Head: Maciej Budzanowski, Ph.D. Laboratory personnel: 10 people. Accreditation certificate No. AP-049 from Polish Centre for Accreditation obtained December 30, 2002. Activities: dosimetric service for IFJ personnel and 12000 radiation workers all over Poland. LADIS has written agreements with 1280 institutions over Poland and for CERN. Measurements: personal dose equivalent HP(10) and HP(0,07) from photons and neutrons, air kerma and ambient dose equivalent H*(10) using thermoluminescent dosimeters. 3. Laboratory of Radiometric Expertise (NLR). Head: Krzysztof Kozak, Ph.D. Laboratory personnel of 5 people. Accreditation certificate No. AB-788 from Polish Centre for Accreditation obtained in January, 2007. Activities: determination of concentration of natural radioactive elements in environmental samples [Bq/kg] using gamma spectroscopic measurements; determination of radon and thoron concentration in air, soil gas and water [Bq/m3] using professional radon monitors AlphaGUARD (alpha spectrometry). (author)

2007-01-01

240

Information Technology and the Knowledge Elites  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

I study a model where Information Technology, while typically increasing overall inequality, is likely to harm some people at intermediate and high levels of the distribution of income but to benefit people at the bottom. Within a given occupation it may harm some workers while benefitting others; and it may either reduce or increase the proportion of knowledge workers in employment. In my model, knowledge (in a broad sense) is an input into the production function of human capital, and is al...

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Conhecimentos, práticas e percepções de profissionais de saúde sobre o tratamento de malária não complicada em municípios de alto risco da Amazônia Legal / Uncomplicated malaria treatment in the Brazilian Amazon: knowledge, practices and perceptions of health workers in high-incidence municipalities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O controle da malária no Brasil conta com diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado e oportuno como estratégia para cura rápida e duradoura. Consequências clínicas e resistência aos antimaláricos podem resultar de falhas na prescrição, dispensação e aceitação dos profissionais aos esquemas terapêuti [...] cos propostos. Objetivou-se avaliar conhecimentos, práticas, percepções e atitudes de profissionais envolvidos na assistência farmacêutica à malária, frente ao protocolo oficial e a possíveis falhas na terapêutica. Entrevistaram-se profissionais em seis municípios na Amazônia Legal. Utilizou-se técnica de análise do discurso para determinação de categorias analíticas e sistematização. Dos 63 entrevistados, houve apenas um médico. Os demais, de nível médio, atuavam no diagnóstico, indicação e dispensação do tratamento antimalárico. O tempo de formação e de treinamento foi variável. Houve falhas na adesão ao protocolo nacional, perpassando indicação, dispensação e orientação aos pacientes. Os profissionais carecem de conhecimento para lidar com as especificidades da doença e do tratamento. A responsabilização de profissionais que não possuem o preparo necessário para a atenção sugere necessidade de políticas para a adequada capacitação e incorporação de recursos humanos. Abstract in english Malaria control in Brazil is based on early diagnosis and adequate and timely treatment as strategies for a rapid and long-lasting cure. Clinical consequences and resistance to antimalarials may arise from problems in prescribing, dispensing and in acceptance of therapeutic regimens by healthcare wo [...] rkers. We studied knowledge and practices, perceptions and attitudes of health workers participating in pharmaceutical services for malaria, regarding the official protocol and the possible flaws in therapy. Health workers from six municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon were interviewed. Speech analysis was employed as a technique to determine analytical categories and to organize data. There was only 1 physician among the 63 interviewees, the others were health technicians carrying out diagnosis, therapy indication and dispensing of antimalarial treatment. Training time and period since course completion varied. Flaws in the adherence to the national protocol included therapy indication, dispensing and counseling. Health workers need knowledge to face disease and treatment specificities. Holding accountable health workers that are unprepared and unfit for the job may indicate the need for adequacy in policies regarding adequate training and hiring of human resources.

Claudia Garcia Serpa, Osorio-de-Castro; Elaine Silva, Miranda; Ângela, Esher; Mônica Rodrigues de, Campos; Juliana de Castro, Brasil; Ana Cristina Soares, Ferreira; Isabel Cristina Martins, Emmerick.

242

Conhecimentos, práticas e percepções de profissionais de saúde sobre o tratamento de malária não complicada em municípios de alto risco da Amazônia Legal / Uncomplicated malaria treatment in the Brazilian Amazon: knowledge, practices and perceptions of health workers in high-incidence municipalities  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O controle da malária no Brasil conta com diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado e oportuno como estratégia para cura rápida e duradoura. Consequências clínicas e resistência aos antimaláricos podem resultar de falhas na prescrição, dispensação e aceitação dos profissionais aos esquemas terapêuti [...] cos propostos. Objetivou-se avaliar conhecimentos, práticas, percepções e atitudes de profissionais envolvidos na assistência farmacêutica à malária, frente ao protocolo oficial e a possíveis falhas na terapêutica. Entrevistaram-se profissionais em seis municípios na Amazônia Legal. Utilizou-se técnica de análise do discurso para determinação de categorias analíticas e sistematização. Dos 63 entrevistados, houve apenas um médico. Os demais, de nível médio, atuavam no diagnóstico, indicação e dispensação do tratamento antimalárico. O tempo de formação e de treinamento foi variável. Houve falhas na adesão ao protocolo nacional, perpassando indicação, dispensação e orientação aos pacientes. Os profissionais carecem de conhecimento para lidar com as especificidades da doença e do tratamento. A responsabilização de profissionais que não possuem o preparo necessário para a atenção sugere necessidade de políticas para a adequada capacitação e incorporação de recursos humanos. Abstract in english Malaria control in Brazil is based on early diagnosis and adequate and timely treatment as strategies for a rapid and long-lasting cure. Clinical consequences and resistance to antimalarials may arise from problems in prescribing, dispensing and in acceptance of therapeutic regimens by healthcare wo [...] rkers. We studied knowledge and practices, perceptions and attitudes of health workers participating in pharmaceutical services for malaria, regarding the official protocol and the possible flaws in therapy. Health workers from six municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon were interviewed. Speech analysis was employed as a technique to determine analytical categories and to organize data. There was only 1 physician among the 63 interviewees, the others were health technicians carrying out diagnosis, therapy indication and dispensing of antimalarial treatment. Training time and period since course completion varied. Flaws in the adherence to the national protocol included therapy indication, dispensing and counseling. Health workers need knowledge to face disease and treatment specificities. Holding accountable health workers that are unprepared and unfit for the job may indicate the need for adequacy in policies regarding adequate training and hiring of human resources.

Claudia Garcia Serpa, Osorio-de-Castro; Elaine Silva, Miranda; Ângela, Esher; Mônica Rodrigues de, Campos; Juliana de Castro, Brasil; Ana Cristina Soares, Ferreira; Isabel Cristina Martins, Emmerick.

243

COMPARISON OF CERTAIN ABILITIES NEEDED BY WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES AND LICENSED ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES.  

Science.gov (United States)

THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DETERMINE THE EXTENT TO WHICH WORKERS WITH THE JOB TITLES OF GENERAL DIRECTORS, SALESMEN, SUPERVISORS, AND FIELD WORKERS IN LICENSED NURSERIES NEEDED AGRICULTURALLY ORIENTED KNOWLEDGE OF THE SAME KIND AND LEVEL AS WORKERS IN COMPARABLE JOB TITLES IN ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE BUSINESSES. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY PERSONAL…

DILLON, ROY D.

244

Fair Trade & Worker Organizations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This chapter explores the potential of Fairtrade in hired labour situations in terms of improving conditions for agricultural workers. The chapter will address various aspects including the contentious issue of Fairtrade and trade union organisation as well as on issues of worker empowerment. At a local level, analysis focuses on the implications of Fairtrade certification for large enterprises and workers, drawing on a field-based studies of certified flower farms in Ecuador and Kenya.

Riisgaard, Lone

2014-01-01

245

Knowledge Management.  

Science.gov (United States)

The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual framework for…

1999

246

Social Workers’ Interest in Building Individuals’ Financial Capabilities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Social workers have many opportunities to integrate a focus on personal finance into their practice with mostly lower-income and vulnerable client populations. However, little is known about social workers’ interest in personal finance. Results of a survey of social workers (N = 56 interested in integrating personal finance content into their practice are reported in this paper. Ways in which social workers might further develop knowledge and skills in personal finance are discussed. Professional perspectives that social workers may lend to inform financial education and counseling and the emerging field of financial therapy are also explored. Social workers can offer an understanding of the environmental risks that affect the financial health of low-income individuals and families and resources that can help build financial capability.

Gina A. N. Chowa

2010-10-01

247

Nuclear knowledge preservation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nuclear technology has encouraged the world development and brought a number of benefits to society. These benefits occurred in important social sectors such as Agriculture, Industry, Health Sciences, Environmental Sciences and the production of energy. The research in the nuclear area is justified, accordingly, as an important factor for science development, technology and innovation. Despite the importance of nuclear energy, there is a collapse in the generation, transmission and sharing of nuclear knowledge. The threat of regression in this area is evidenced by the difficulty of generating new knowledge and practices regarding the maintenance of some critical areas. This project focuses its attention on studying, specifically, the lack of young engineers and technical professionals to replace the older, considered this, an alarming situation. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and record the key skills of experienced workers, through a set of tools to elicitation (capture) this knowledge, as expertise is mainly with people, and is lost when they leave the organization. Against, the Knowledge Management provides methodologies for the process of stimulating the creation, collection and knowledge dissemination process, in order to achieve strategic objectives. This study aims to contribute to the building of a model for the Brazilian nuclear knowledge preservation and, therefore, contributes to the maintenance and innovation of activities in this area. (author)

Bettencourt, Marcia Pires da Luz [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Planejamento e Avaliacao. Div. Comercial], e-mail: mpires@cnen.gov.br

2009-07-01

248

Nuclear knowledge preservation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The nuclear technology has encouraged the world development and brought a number of benefits to society. These benefits occurred in important social sectors such as Agriculture, Industry, Health Sciences, Environmental Sciences and the production of energy. The research in the nuclear area is justified, accordingly, as an important factor for science development, technology and innovation. Despite the importance of nuclear energy, there is a collapse in the generation, transmission and sharing of nuclear knowledge. The threat of regression in this area is evidenced by the difficulty of generating new knowledge and practices regarding the maintenance of some critical areas. This project focuses its attention on studying, specifically, the lack of young engineers and technical professionals to replace the older, considered this, an alarming situation. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and record the key skills of experienced workers, through a set of tools to elicitation (capture) this knowledge, as expertise is mainly with people, and is lost when they leave the organization. Against, the Knowledge Management provides methodologies for the process of stimulating the creation, collection and knowledge dissemination process, in order to achieve strategic objectives. This study aims to contribute to the building of a model for the Brazilian nuclear knowledge preservation and, therefore, contributes to the maintenance and innovation of activities in this area. (author)

2009-10-02

249

Advanced worker protection system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

1995-12-01

250

Advanced worker protection system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration

1995-10-03

251

A comparative analysis of two cross-sectional surveys of healthcare workers' hand hygiene knowledge, intentions, access and product preferences between two university hospitals, one in Norway and one in Canada  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) and The University Hospital of Northern Norway in Tromsø (UNN-Tromsø) were compared for self-reported differences in level of knowledge and intentions to comply with the hand hygiene guidelines. Hand hygiene products were also assessed for preference of use, access, gentleness and promotion of hand hygiene compliance. Methods: A cross-sectional quality assurance staff survey was made available at UNN- Tromsø and at VGH in both print and in electr...

Media?, Anne Kristine

2008-01-01

252

Uncovering Tacit Knowledge: A Pilot Study to Broaden the Concept of Knowledge in Knowledge Translation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background All sectors in health care are being asked to focus on the knowledge-to-practice gap, or knowledge translation, to increase service effectiveness. A social interaction approach to knowledge translation assumes that research evidence becomes integrated with previously held knowledge, and practitioners build on and co-create knowledge through mutual interactions. Knowledge translation strategies for public health have not provided anticipated positive changes in evidence-based practice, possibly due in part to a narrow conceptualization of knowledge. More work is needed to understand the role of tacit knowledge in decision-making and practice. This pilot study examined how health practitioners applied tacit knowledge in public health program planning and implementation. Methods This study used a narrative approach, where teams from two public health units in Ontario, Canada were conveniently selected. Respondents participated in individual interviews and focus groups at each site. Questions were designed to understand the role of tacit knowledge as it related to the program planning process. Data were analyzed through a combination of content analysis and thematic comparison. Results The findings highlighted two major aspects of knowledge that arose: the use of tacit knowledge and the integration of tacit and explicit knowledge. Tacit knowledge included: past experiences, organization-specific knowledge, community contextual knowledge, and the recognition of the tacit knowledge of others. Explicit knowledge included: research literature, the Internet, popular magazines, formal assessments (surveys and interviews, legislation and regulations. Participants sometimes deliberately combined tacit and explicit knowledge sources in planning. Conclusions This pilot demonstrated that front-line public health workers draw upon both tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge in their everyday lived reality. Further, tacit knowledge plays an important role in practitioners' interpretation and implementation of explicit research findings. This indicates a need to broaden the scope of knowledge translation to include other forms of knowledge beyond explicit knowledge acquired through research. Strategies that recognize and support the use of tacit knowledge, such as communities of practice or networks, may be important components of a comprehensive approach to knowledge translation. This study provides support for further investigation of the role of tacit knowledge in the planning and delivery of effective public health services.

Edwards Nancy

2011-08-01

253

Stigma to Sage: Learning and Teaching Safer Sex Practices Among Canadian Sex Trade Workers. NALL Working Paper.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study interviewed 37 Canadian sex workers in 4 cities to determine how they acquire a working knowledge of safer sex practices and what that knowledge constituted. Findings indicated the vast majority exhibited high levels of knowledge and efficacy regarding safer sex practices; sex workers took the initiative to obtain information and engage in…

Meaghan, Diane

254

Culture in global knowledge societies : knowledge cultures and epistemic cultures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper explores the concepts of knowledge culture and epistemic culture against the background of contemporary transformations in global society. Studies of knowledge culture came to prominence in the 1970s, with the trend towards laboratory fieldwork and direct observation in the new sociology of science. If the focus in such early studies was on knowledge construction, the focus in an epistemic culture approach by contrast is on the construction of the machineries of knowledge construct...

Knorr-cetina, Karin D.

2007-01-01

255

Knowledge Technologies  

CERN Multimedia

Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools are available? What are the main issues?). The book is aimed at students, researchers and practitioners interested in Knowledge Management, Artificial Intelligence, Design Engineering and Web Technologies. During the 1990s, Nick worked at the University of Nottingham on the application of AI techniques to knowledge management and on various knowledge acquisition projects to develop expert systems for military applications. In 1999, he joined Epistemics where he worked on numerous knowledge projects and helped establish knowledge management...

Milton, Nick

2008-01-01

256

People-focused knowledge management  

CERN Multimedia

The business environment has changed. Sharper competition requires organizations to exhibit greater effectiveness in their operations and services and faster creation of new products and services-all hallmarks of the knowledge economy. Up until now, most of the knowledge management literature has focused on technology, systems, or culture. This book moves to the next stage, to focus on the people-the knowledge workers themselves. Noted expert Karl Wiig synthesizes recent research findings in cognitive science and related fields to describe how people actually work. He focuses on how people lea

Wiig, Karl

2012-01-01

257

Epidemiological study of health hazards among workers handling engineered nanomaterials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20-100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in control workers. A significantly decreasing gradient was found for SOD (control > RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose-response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of workers handling engineered nanomaterials.

Liou, Saou-Hsing, E-mail: shliou@nhri.org.tw; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lai, Ching-Huang [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Public Health, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling [Fu Jen Catholic University, Department of Chemistry, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong [Council of Labor Affairs, Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Taiwan (China); Shih, Tung-Sheng [College of Public Health, China Medical University and Hospital, Institute of Environmental Health, Taiwan (China); Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China)

2012-08-15

258

Concrete Worker Skill Standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document contains skills standards for concrete construction workers that are designed for the following purposes: to inform prospective construction workers about the type of work and the skills required so that they can make informed career decisions; to inform educators about how academic, workplace, and life skills are applied in…

Laborers-AGC Education and Training Fund, Pomfret Center, CT.

259

Knowledge Flows and Knowledge Externalities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The diffusion of knowledge in the world generates positive externalities if knowledge flows increase the productivity of R&D. Our work analyzes knowledge diffusion and knowledge externalities in generating innovation and in determining productivity. We first estimate the determinants of knowledge flows across 141 sub-national regions in 19 countries of Europe and North America as revealed by patent citation between US-granted patents. Then we estimate the impact of these flows on productivity...

Peri, Giovanni

2002-01-01

260

Educating for the Knowledge Economy? Critical Perspectives  

Science.gov (United States)

The promise, embraced by governments around the world, is that the knowledge economy will provide knowledge workers with a degree of autonomy and permission to think which enables them to be creative and to attract high incomes. What credence should we give to this promise? The current economic crisis is provoking a reappraisal of both economic…

Lauder, Hugh, Ed.; Young, Michael, Ed.; Daniels, Harry, Ed.; Balarin, Maria, Ed.; Lowe, John, Ed.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Knowledge for Practice with Transgendered Persons.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the need for social workers to have appropriate knowledge when working with transgendered persons, examining seven areas from which social work practice is derived: practice wisdom; personal experiences; history and current events; professional literature; research; theoretical and conceptual analyses; and knowledge derived from…

Mallon, Gerald P.

1999-01-01

262

Knowledge Sharing for the Islamic Banking Sector in Malaysia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigates the causes of resistance or support by knowledge workers to the sharing of knowledge. Today, banks are starting to understand the relevance and importance of knowledge sharing. They are also beginning to appreciate knowledge as the most significant and valued asset that leads to organizational performance. Hence, promising motivational factors are expected to be helpful in emphasizing the need for employees to share not only crucial knowledge but also new knowledge to ...

2013-01-01

263

Virtual Laboratories  

CERN Document Server

At the frontier of most areas in science, computer simulations play a central role. The traditional division of natural science into experimental and theoretical investigations is now completely outdated. Instead, theory, simulation, and experimentation form three equally essential aspects, each with its own unique flavor and challenges. Yet, education in computational science is still lagging far behind, and the number of text books in this area is minuscule compared to the many text books on theoretical and experimental science. As a result, many researchers still carry out simulations in a haphazard way, without properly setting up the computational equivalent of a well equipped laboratory. The art of creating such a virtual laboratory, while providing proper extensibility and documentation, is still in its infancy. A new approach is described here, Open Knowledge, as an extension of the notion of Open Source software. Besides open source code, manuals, and primers, an open knowledge project provides simul...

Hut, P

2006-01-01

264

Conocimiento de las vías de transmisión de las zoonosis y de las especies afectadas entre los trabajadores rurales / Knowledge of zoonoses transmission routes and of the species concerned among rural workers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el grado de conocimiento que tienen los trabajadores rurales sobre las zoonosis a las que se encuentran expuestos en su trabajo y su asociación con factores socio-demográficos. Se efectuó un estudio observacional transversal basado en la realización de encuest [...] as (N = 110, n = 94), utilizando un cuestionario estructurado. El análisis incluyó c², t de Student y correlación de Pearson y de Spearman. Las zoonosis más conocidas fueron la triquinosis, la rabia y la sarna. En el caso de la brucelosis, la tuberculosis y el carbunco, fueron muy conocidas las especies que las transmiten, pero no así las formas de transmisión. Las enfermedades menos conocidas en ambos sentidos fueron la toxocariasis y la hidatidosis, seguidas por la leptospirosis y la toxoplasmosis. Para todas las zoonosis estudiadas se encontró correlación significativa (p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of awareness of zoonoses among rural workers and their potential associations with socio-demographic factors. A cross-sectional study was performed by holding personal interviews (N = 110, n = 94) using a structured questionnaire. The statistical analy [...] sis included the c² test, the Student's t test and Pearson and Spearman correlations. The highest level of awareness was found for trichinosis, rabies and scabies. Species transmitting brucellosis, tuberculosis and anthrax were well known, but not their modes of transmission. The least known diseases were toxocariasis and hydatidosis, followed by leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis. Significant associations were found (p

Ana I, Molineri; Marcelo L, Signorini; Héctor D, Tarabla.

265

Humidity preference for fungus culturing by workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hygropreference of gardening workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa was investigated in the laboratory using a gradient of relative humidity. Gardening workers were placed, together with pieces of fungus garden, in small, interconnected nest chambers offering four different relative humidities: 33%, 75%, 84% and 98% RH. Workers were allowed to move freely between them and to relocate the fungus following their humidity preference. While workers distributed themselv...

Roces, Flavio; Kleineidam, Christoph

2000-01-01

266

Health considerations relative to the use of solvents in the chemistry laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Organic solvents can be safely used in the research laboratory if a few simple principles of good practice are followed. The hazards from flammability, explosion, incompatible reactions, and decomposition of laboratory solvents are probably greater than health hazards per se, but this paper will address only those hazards which may cause impairment to the health of laboratory workers. In the main, simple, straightforward practices and methods are discussed for controlling exposure to toxic solvents. The major obstacle in achieving good control is neither inadequate control systems nor the lack of knowledge by laboratory workers, but rather the failure to follow safe practices, of which they are already familiar. There seems to be an almost universal tendency among laboratory workers to become complacent and to minimize the health hazards of common solvents. This is especially true in cases where the solvents in question have been used routinely for years. The feeling seems to be that the absence of apparent health effects to date guarantees that there will be none in the future. In reality, chronic damage may already have occurred or there may be a long period of latency before overt health effects are manifested.

Porter, W.E.; Ketchen, E.E.; Bolton, N.E.

1978-01-01

267

The ageing worker.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Singapore, the age for retirement has increased from 55 years to 60 years, and will eventually reach 67 years. At the same time, the proportion of workers aged above 45 years will continue to increase. The World Health Organisation has reported that in 1980, 32% of the working population were older than 45 years of age in countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). This proportion is expected to rise to 35.5% in the year 2000 and 41.3% in the year 2055. What are the implications of the emergence of an ageing workforce? This population represents a special group of individuals in the workforce that have special health, occupational and environmental needs. On the one hand, they have the problem of a reduction in physical work capacity, decreased adaptability, and a generally lower health status. On the other, ageing workers are more experienced and have greater expertise. They are also usually more motivated and may generally have a more positive attitude when compared with younger workers. Society, as well as health care professionals, needs to respond to this issue of an ageing workforce. The response should be three pronged. Firstly, prevention of the premature decline of physical capacities and adaptability of the worker could be addressed by health promotion and continuing job training. Secondly, some measures for adjusting work demands in accordance with functional capacities of the individual are needed. Thirdly, employers and fellow workers should be educated on the strengths of the ageing worker, and the capacity of such workers to continue contributing because of their experience, motivation and skills. If implemented, these measures would ensure a path towards productive ageing. The end results would be that ageing workers would have their functional capacity maintained, the concept of "age-adjusted workload" would be a reality, and ageing workers would not be discriminated against, but instead have their contributions to society maximised. PMID:9522980

Chan, G C; Koh, D S

1997-11-01

268

Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Programming, and Knowledge Refinement.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes the principal findings and recommendations of a 2-year Rand research project on machine-aided knowledge acquisition and discusses the transfer of expertise from humans to machines, as well as the functions of planning, debugging, kno...

F. Hayes-Roth

1980-01-01

269

Gestión del conocimiento y comunidades de práctica en laboratorios de investigación del Polo Científico Grenoblés en Francia* / Knowledge management and communities of practice in research laboratories of the scientific center in Grenoble, France  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se analizan algunas de las prácticas relacionadas con la gestión del conocimiento en los laboratorios del Polo de Investigación Científica ubicado en la ciudad de Grenoble (Francia). El polo científico grenoblés se construye a partir del acentuado desarrollo científico e industrial que vive la regió [...] n desde finales del siglo XIX, ligado a un largo proceso de producción académica, y de compromiso económico y estatal; denso en generación de nuevos conocimientos. Es también un modelo de trabajo colectivo, en el cual cooperan varias ciudades y países. La pregunta fundamental de la investigación es si, efectivamente, en este contexto se puede hablar de la presencia de un modelo de gestión del conocimiento y cuáles serían las condiciones para que esto se de. El análisis se ocupa específicamente del estudio del modelo Nonaka llamado ''Ba'' (conocimiento situado) que estudia el proceso de conversión de conocimientos tácitos en explícitos en los laboratorios de investigación y si éstos funcionan como comunidades de práctica. Los datos que sustentan este trabajo fueron construidos a partir de entrevistas, análisis de componentes principales, observaciones sobre el terreno y el análisis de estudio de caso. Abstract in english Some practices related to knowledge management in the laboratories of the scientific center of Grenoble (France) are analyzed. This center was set up from the great scientific and industrial advance in this region since the 19th Century, which has resulted in a large process of academic production, [...] and economic and governmental commitment. It is also a model of collective work, in which several cities and countries cooperate. The main question of this research is if, in this context, a knowledge management model really exists, and which would be the conditions of its existence. Particularly, the analysis focuses on the Nonaka's model called ''Ba'' (situated knowledge), which studies the tacit and explicit knowledge conversion process in the research laboratories, and if they work like communities of practice. The data that support this study were gathered from interviews, principal component analysis, field observations, and case study analysis.

Margarita María, Gaviria Velásquez.

270

Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among US construction workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of PCB in caulking (sealant material found in masonry buildings has been well-documented in several countries. A recent investigation of 24 buildings in the greater Boston area found that 8 buildings had high PCB levels in caulking materials used around window frames and in joints between masonry blocks. Workers removing caulking material have been shown to have elevated serum PCB levels. Methods This project compared serum PCB levels among male workers who installed and/or removed PCB-containing caulking material from buildings in the greater Boston area with reference serum PCB levels from 358 men from the same area. Serum PCB levels were measured in the same laboratory by liquid-liquid extraction, column chromatography clean-up and dual capillary column GC/microECD analysis. Results When the congener profiles were compared between the reference population and the construction workers, the serum levels of the more volatile, lighter PCBs (di-, tri-and tetrachloro, sum of IUPAC# 6–74 were substantially higher among the construction workers. One of the youngest workers had the lowest total serum PCB levels (sum of 57 congeners of all 6 workers, but the contribution of more volatile (less chlorinated PCB congeners (#16, 26,28,33,74,66, and 60 was markedly higher than in other 5 workers and reference men. Only this worker was working on a job that involved removing PCB caulking at the time of the blood sampling. Conclusion While the results of this pilot study are based upon small numbers (6 construction workers who handled PCB caulking, the serum PCB levels among the construction workers exceed the referents. Comparison of the congener profiles suggests that there are substantial differences between the construction workers and the general population samples. These differences, and the similarities of profiles among the construction workers strongly suggest that occupational contact with caulking material can be a major source of PCB exposure for construction workers.

Altshul Larisa

2007-08-01

271

Human Resources Management in the Knowledge Management  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge is increasingly claimed to be a key critical resource and source of competitive advantage in the modern global economy, especially with the rise of the service economy, the growth in the number of 'knowledge workers', the increasingly rapid flow of global information, and the growing recognition of the importance of intellectual capital and intellectual property rights. Knowledge, with its intangible aspects, is becoming a defining characteristic of economic activities, as opposed t...

2008-01-01

272

Unclaimed Injuries and Workers' Compensation Adequacy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The workers' compensation system was designed to provide health care and compensation for workers with occupational injuries or illness without regard to fault. Nearly all workers are covered by workers' compensation insurance, but not every worker that i...

D. Lakdawalla R. Reville

2005-01-01

273

Views of the workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As the nuclear industry has matured, workers are now regularly required to keep to just a fraction of the legal authorized limit. In addition, where higher doses are possible careful use of worker rotation will reduce the risk. However, it is interesting to note that workers undertaking industrial radiography can incur high doses because they may be poorly supervised. There are also hazards in decommissioning experimental reactors where, after a period of long operation, records or the memory of operators may be incomplete or not available. There is also a risk in reprocessing and handling the waste stream where exit routes previously thought to be available have been closed because of developing environmental concerns. In all this, trust is needed between workers and employing organizations to provide the best protection

2003-07-01

274

Health of radiation workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiation workers are healthier than the average person in the general population and appear to be as healthy as workers in other ?safe? industries. It is, however, assumed that there is no safe dose of radiation and that any exposure to radiation will cause a small increase in the incidence of cancer, this increase being directly proportional to the total radiation dose. On the basis of the risk estimates given by ICRP, radiation exposures up to 1 rem per year for 47 years are predicted to cause fewer work-related deaths than expected for the average worker in Canadian industry. Radiation exposures of 5 rem per year from age 18 to 65 would result in predicted risk which is about four times higher than that for most workers in Canada and might increase the chances of death before age 75 to nearly the same level as for the average member of the general public. (auth)

1979-01-01

275

KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.

Ovidiu NICOLESCU

2007-01-01

276

Interactive, Computer-Based Training Program for Radiological Workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is redesigning its Computer-Based Training (CBT) program for radiological workers. The redesign represents a major effort to produce a single, highly interactive and flexible CBT program that will meet the training needs of a wide range of radiological workers--from researchers and x-ray operators to individuals working in tritium, uranium, plutonium, and accelerator facilities. The new CBT program addresses the broad diversity of backgrounds found at a national laboratory. When a training audience is homogeneous in terms of education level and type of work performed, it is difficult to duplicate the effectiveness of a flexible, technically competent instructor who can tailor a course to the express needs and concerns of a course's participants. Unfortunately, such homogeneity is rare. At LLNL, they have a diverse workforce engaged in a wide range of radiological activities, from the fairly common to the quite exotic. As a result, the Laboratory must offer a wide variety of radiological worker courses. These include a general contamination-control course in addition to radioactive-material-handling courses for both low-level laboratory (i.e., bench-top) activities as well as high-level work in tritium, uranium, and plutonium facilities. They also offer training courses for employees who work with radiation-generating devices--x-ray, accelerator, and E-beam operators, for instance. However, even with the number and variety of courses the Laboratory offers, they are constrained by the diversity of backgrounds (i.e., knowledge and experience) of those to be trained. Moreover, time constraints often preclude in-depth coverage of site- and/or task-specific details. In response to this situation, several years ago LLNL began moving toward computer-based training for radiological workers. Today, that CBT effort includes a general radiological safety course developed by the Department of Energy's Hanford facility and a contamination-control program developed by LLNL. A comprehensive study guide and a post-training practical exam supplement the CBT effort. The ''hands-on'' practical is particularly important in that it gives participants not only the opportunity to demonstrate what they've learned, but to ask questions about their individual work situations. The challenge is how to make the CBT program more facility- and task-specific while, at the same time, making the program more in tune with the education and/or experience levels of individual trainees. To that end, they have designed a CBT program, which they refer to as an ''onion''. That is, the course is layered, going from the general to the more and more specific.

Trinoskey, P.A.; Camacho, P.I.; Wells, L.

2000-01-18

277

Advanced worker protection system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment

1995-10-01

278

Radiation haunts shipyard workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The apparent link recently found by Dr. Najarian between cancer among workers at a US Naval dockyard where up to 5000 civilian employees have been exposed to low dose irradiation while servicing nuclear ships and their radiation exposure is discussed. The study has revealed that 38.4% of the deaths of nuclear workers at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in New Hampshire were caused by cancer while the comparable rate for non-nuclear shipyard workers was 21.7% and the national average in the United States is 18%. The Portsmouth study, launched in October 1977, was based on a survey of 1722 death certificates of shipyard employees and interviews with 592 next-of-kin. In addition the results show that the rate of leukaemia of the shipyard workers was 450% higher than that of the general population, and the incidence of lymph gland cancers was 125% higher than the national rate. The most startling statistics compared mortality among workers aged 60 to 69. In this age group nearly 60% of the nuclear employees had died of cancer, while the cancer death rate among non-nuclear workers was only 26%. If these results are confirmed present ideas concerning the effects of low doses of radiation must be challenged. (U.K.)

1978-03-16

279

Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom

1994-01-01

280

Centrifuge workers study. Phase II, completion report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom.

Wooten, H.D.

1994-09-01

 
 
 
 
281

The Triple Helix of the Organizational Knowledge  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the inner triple helix dynamics of the organizationalknowledge. This is a new perspective of the classical view of tacit knowledge– explicit knowledge dyad of the organizational knowledge promoted by Nonaka and hisco-workers. The new perspective is based on the metaphor that organizational knowledge isa "eld rather than a stock, or stocks and flows. It is a complex metaphor using the thermodynamicsprinciples. The organizational knowledge is composed of three different "elds: cognitiveknowledge, emotional knowledge and spiritual knowledge. These "elds are nonuniform,nonhomogeneous and they interact in a dynamic way. Cognitive "eld contains knowledgeabout what is, emotional "eld contains knowledge about how we feel, and the spiritual "eldcontains knowledge about people’s aspirations and life values. This new perspective opens anew opportunity in understanding the challenges for the 21st century management.

Contantin BR?TIANU

2013-09-01

282

Distance education for tobacco reduction with Inuit frontline health workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background . Tobacco reduction is a major priority in Canadian Inuit communities. However, many Inuit frontline health workers lacked the knowledge, confidence and support to address the tobacco epidemic. Given vast distances, high costs of face-to-face training and previous successful pilots using distance education, this method was chosen for a national tobacco reduction course. Objective . To provide distance education about tobacco reduction to at least 25 frontline health workers from al...

Rob Collins; Merryl Hammond; Carry, Catherine L.; Dianne Kinnon; Joan Killulark; Janet Nevala

2013-01-01

283

Manpower Development for Workers in Tertiary Institutions: Distance Learning Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which workers patronize distance learning approach to further their education. Other purposes include: determine problems facing workers in the process of improving their knowledge and skills through distance learning approach; establish the level of attainment of manpower development objectives of Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba-Akoko and Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, both in Ondo State, Nigeria; and find out the relationship between manpo...

Hassan, Moshood Ayinde

2011-01-01

284

Impact of workers’ competence on their performance in the Malaysian private service sector  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malaysia has to address the challenges of globalization to become a developed nation by year2020. Changing economy to one that is based on knowledge-economy and enhanced importanceof the service sector needs a competitive workforce with high performance and capability. Thisarticle analyses the impact of workers’ competence towards their performance in the privateservice sector. The analysis is based on a sample of 1136 workers who are either executive,manager or professional from three service sub-sectors, namely, education, health andinformation and communication technology (ICT in Selangor, Federal Territory of KualaLumpur, Penang and Johor collected in 2007/2008. In this analysis, Workers’ Performance Index(WPI and Workers’ Competence Index (WCI are developed and subsequently used to analyzefactors determining workers’ performance in the selected service sector. The results show thatworkers’ competence has significant influence towards workers’ performance. Besides that,human capital and workers’ characteristics also determine workers’ performance in the servicesector.

Syahida Zainal Abidin

2010-07-01

285

Exploiting Information : Seeking Long-term Preservation of organisational knowledge  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Long-term preservation of organisational knowledge gives the business opportunities to reusestored knowledge. This preservation of knowledge is present both in the organisation as such,found explicitly in the organisational stock, and also in the individual workers, implicit intheir flow of action. Theoretically have the reuse of knowledge been named organisationalmemory and also been addressed in knowledge management. In a single case-study of amanufacturing company, the authors study the ut...

Ahlin, Karin; Saarikko, Ted

2013-01-01

286

Predicting Worker Exposure from a Glovebox Leak  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is difficult to predict immediate worker radiological consequences from a hypothetical accident. This is recognized in DOE safety analysis guidance and the reason such guidance does not call for quantitative determinations of such consequences. However, it would be useful to at least have a means of systematically and formally quantifying worker dose to be able to identify the relative risks of various processes and to provide an order-of-magnitude impression of absolute consequences. In this report, we present such a means in the form of a simple calculation model that is easily applied and generates reasonable, qualitative dose predictions. The model contains a scaling parameter whose value was deduced from extensive laboratory ventilation flow rate measurements performed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) over the last several years and from recent indoor radioactive contamination dispersion measurements, also at LANL. Application of the model is illustrated with the aid of two example calculations

2001-01-01

287

Sharing knowledge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The workshop on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies for Arctic Indigenous Communities is one stage in developing positions and providing input from the perspectives of Arctic Peoples in preparation for the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change that will take place in April, 2009, in Anchorage, Alaska. The Summit, organized by the Inuit Circumpolar Council with oversight of an International Steering Committee, will bring together hundreds of indigenous Peoples around the world. This Workshop intended to bring together Arctic Indigenous Peoples to deliver and to share information, academic research, case studies based on traditional knowledge and researchers knowledgeable in traditional knowledge and/or policy issues drawn from traditional knowledge. The following themes were discussed: 1) Traditional knowledge research and education; 2) Laws and lawmaking; 3) Food and health; 4) Organisation; 5) Communications and advocacy. (ln)

2009-07-01

288

Knowledge transfer - Acquiring implicit knowledge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many organisations have recognised the problem of experts taking home a huge amount of specific knowledge, which they have gathered in their department, when they leave. The successor is capable only of acquiring explicit expertise because implicit experiences are not documented and therefore no more available. That is why we have started this pilot study in order to try to conserve the above mentioned tacit and implicit knowledge and to make it available to other colleagues. Using a semi-standardised interview we elicit tacit knowledge from the expert and summarise it in a report. This interview-guideline forms the basis of in-depth investigation for implicit knowledge. (author)

2006-01-01

289

Hepatite B: conhecimento e medidas de biossegurança e a saúde do trabalhador de enfermagem Hepatitis B: conocimiento y medidas de bioseguranza y la salud del trabajador de enfermería Hepatitis B: knowledge and measures of biosafety and the health of the nursing worker  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivos: descrever o conhecimento dos profissionais de enfermagem acerca da doença hepatite B; analisar as medidas de biossegurança com relação à hepatite B utilizadas pelos profissionais de enfermagem; e discutir as implicações do conhecimento acerca da hepatite B e as medidas de biossegurança para a saúde do trabalhador de enfermagem. O estudo teve amostra de 44 funcionários, representando 100% dos profissionais de enfermagem do setor de clínica médica de um hospital militar do Município do Rio de janeiro. Constatou-se que a maioria dos profissionais de enfermagem desconhecia as formas de transmissão da hepatite B; um número significativo de profissionais de enfermagem não havia recebido treinamento de como proceder caso houvesse um acidente com material perfurocortante; o conhecimento das medidas de biossegurança não estava presente em toda equipe, nem todos as usavam de forma rotineira. Concluímos que os resultados indicam que alguns profissionais estariam expostos ao risco de contrair a hepatite B caso ocorresse acidente com material perfurocortante.El estudio tubo como objetivo describir el conocimiento de los profesionales de enfermería acerca de la enfermedad hepatitis B; analizar las medidas de bioseguranza con relación a la hepatitis B usada por los profesionales de enfermería; y discutir las implicaciones del conocimiento acerca de la hepatitis B y las medidas de bioseguranza para la salud del trabajador de enfermería. El estudio tubo una muestra de 44 funcionarios, representando 100% de los profesionales de enfermería del sector de clínica médica de un hospital militar de la Ciudad del Rio de Janeiro. Las variables usadas fueran: conocimiento sobre hepatitis B y medidas de bioseguranza. Resultados: la mayoría de los profesionales de enfermería desconocía las formas de transmisión de la hepatitis B; un número significativo de profesionales de enfermería no recibió entrenamiento de cómo proceder si hubiera un accidente con material perforocortante; el conocimiento de las medidas de bioseguranza no estuvo presente en todo el equipo, ni todos las usaban de forma rutinera. Conclusión: los resultados indican que algunos profesionales estarían expuestos al risco de contraer hepatitis B caso ocurriese accidente con material perforocortante.The Study has as purpose to describe the knowledge of nursing professionals about the hepatitis B disease; to analyze the biosafety measures about hepatitis B used by the nursing professionals; and to argue the knowledge implications about hepatitis B and the biosafety measures for the health of the nursing worker. The study has as sample 44 workers, represented 100% of the nursing professionals in the medical clinic sector in a military hospital of Rio de Janeiro City. The variables used were: knowledge about hepatitis B and the biosafety measures. Results: the majority of the nursing professionals didn’t know the ways of hepatitis B transmission; a significant number of nursing professionals didn’t had received training about how to proceed in case of accident with perforating material; the knowledge of the biosafety measures weren’t present in the whole staff, neither everybody used it in a routine way. Conclusion: the results indicated that some professionals would be exposed to the risk to acquire hepatitis B in case of accident with perforating material.

Joziane Pinheiro

2008-06-01

290

Embedding knowledge in a workstation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes an approach to supporting work in the office. Using and extending ideas from the field of artificial intelligence (AI) it describes office work as a problem solving activity. A knowledge embedding language called OMEGA is used to embed knowledge of the organization into an office worker's workstation in order to support the office worker in his or her problem solving. A particular approach to reasoning about change and contradiction is discussed. This approach uses OMEGA's viewpoint mechanism. OMEGA's viewpoint mechanism is a general contradiction handling facility. Unlike other knowledge representation systems, when a contradiction is reached the reasons for the contradiction can be analyzed by the reduction mechanism without having to resort to a backtracking mechanism. The viewpoint mechanism is the heart of the problem solving support paradigm. This paradigm is an alternative to the classical view of problem solving in AI. Office workers are supported using the problem solving support paradigm. 16 references.

Barber, G.

1982-01-01

291

Pediculose nos centros de educação infantil: conhecimentos e práticas dos trabalhadores / Pediculosis in children attending day care centers: knowledge and practice of workers / Infestión de piojos en los centros de educación infantil: conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho objetivou identificar e analisar conhecimentos e práticas, acerca da pediculose, dos trabalhadores de Centros de Educação Infantil (CEI) das áreas de abrangência de duas Unidades de Saúde da Família, Londrina, Paraná. Trata-se de estudo descritivo transversal. Foi aplicado formulário c [...] om questões sobre mitos, tabus, práticas, dúvidas e dificuldades na interrupção da infestação da pediculose em oito CEI. Posteriormente, realizou-se oficina com materiais educativos. Participaram 60,4% dos funcionários, aqueles que estavam presentes no dia determinado pela instituição. Quase a totalidade referiu infestação pela ectoparasitose, assim como em seus familiares. A problemática é enfrentada cotidianamente nos CEI (72,1%). Práticas adequadas de enfrentamento ainda são limitadas. Muitos mitos e tabus persistem (piolhos pulam, uso de sal, vinagre e querosene, etc.). As principais dúvidas estão relacionadas ao tratamento, e a maior dificuldade é a falta de colaboração dos pais. Ressalta-se, enfim, necessidade e importância de ações intersetoriais, preventivas e sistemáticas, no ambiente escolar. Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar y analizar los conocimientos y prácticas acerca de la pediculosis que tienen los empleados de los Centros de Educación Infantil (CEI), de las áreas que abarcan dos unidades de Salud de la Familia, Londrina, Paraná. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo transv [...] ersal. Se aplicó un formulario con preguntas acerca de mitos y tabúes, prácticas, dudas y dificultades para poner fin a la infestación de piojos en ocho CEI. Posteriormente, se realizó un taller con materiales educativos. Participó el 60,4% de los empleados, los que estaban presentes en el día determinado por la institución. Casi todos reportaron la infestación parasitaria, así como en sus familias. El problema es enfrentado diariamente en los CEI (72,1%). Prácticas adecuadas para hacer frente as este problema aún son limitadas. Persisten muchos mitos y tabúes (que los piojos saltan, el uso de la sal, del vinagre y de la parafina, etc.) Las principales dudas se relacionan con el tratamiento y la mayor dificultad que se presenta es la falta de cooperación de los padres. Por último, cabe señalar la necesidad y la importancia de que se implementen acciones intersectoriales, preventivas y sistemáticas en el ambiente escolar. Abstract in english This study aimed to identify and analyze knowledge and practices, about pediculosis, from employees at Child Day Care Centers at two areas of coverage of the Family Health Units, Londrina, Paraná. It's descriptive transversal study. Form was applied with questions about myths, taboos, practices, dou [...] bts and difficulties in stopping the infestation of pediculosis in eight Child Day Care Centers. Subsequently, workshop was held with educational materials. 60.4% of employees participated, those who were present on the day determined by the institution. Almost all indicated the ectoparasitic infestation, as well as their families. The problem is faced daily in Child Day Care Centers (72.1%). Practice appropriate care is still limited. Many myths and taboos persist (lice jump, use salt, vinegar and kerosene, etc). The main questions are related to treatment and the greatest difficulty is the lack of cooperation from parents. It emphasizes, finally, the need and the importance of internal actions, preventive and systematic in the school environment.

Flávia Lopes, Gabani; Clarice Martins Lima, Maebara; Rosângela Aparecida Pimenta, Ferrari.

292

Pediculose nos centros de educação infantil: conhecimentos e práticas dos trabalhadores Infestión de piojos en los centros de educación infantil: conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores Pediculosis in children attending day care centers: knowledge and practice of workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou identificar e analisar conhecimentos e práticas, acerca da pediculose, dos trabalhadores de Centros de Educação Infantil (CEI das áreas de abrangência de duas Unidades de Saúde da Família, Londrina, Paraná. Trata-se de estudo descritivo transversal. Foi aplicado formulário com questões sobre mitos, tabus, práticas, dúvidas e dificuldades na interrupção da infestação da pediculose em oito CEI. Posteriormente, realizou-se oficina com materiais educativos. Participaram 60,4% dos funcionários, aqueles que estavam presentes no dia determinado pela instituição. Quase a totalidade referiu infestação pela ectoparasitose, assim como em seus familiares. A problemática é enfrentada cotidianamente nos CEI (72,1%. Práticas adequadas de enfrentamento ainda são limitadas. Muitos mitos e tabus persistem (piolhos pulam, uso de sal, vinagre e querosene, etc.. As principais dúvidas estão relacionadas ao tratamento, e a maior dificuldade é a falta de colaboração dos pais. Ressalta-se, enfim, necessidade e importância de ações intersetoriais, preventivas e sistemáticas, no ambiente escolar.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar y analizar los conocimientos y prácticas acerca de la pediculosis que tienen los empleados de los Centros de Educación Infantil (CEI, de las áreas que abarcan dos unidades de Salud de la Familia, Londrina, Paraná. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo transversal. Se aplicó un formulario con preguntas acerca de mitos y tabúes, prácticas, dudas y dificultades para poner fin a la infestación de piojos en ocho CEI. Posteriormente, se realizó un taller con materiales educativos. Participó el 60,4% de los empleados, los que estaban presentes en el día determinado por la institución. Casi todos reportaron la infestación parasitaria, así como en sus familias. El problema es enfrentado diariamente en los CEI (72,1%. Prácticas adecuadas para hacer frente as este problema aún son limitadas. Persisten muchos mitos y tabúes (que los piojos saltan, el uso de la sal, del vinagre y de la parafina, etc. Las principales dudas se relacionan con el tratamiento y la mayor dificultad que se presenta es la falta de cooperación de los padres. Por último, cabe señalar la necesidad y la importancia de que se implementen acciones intersectoriales, preventivas y sistemáticas en el ambiente escolar.This study aimed to identify and analyze knowledge and practices, about pediculosis, from employees at Child Day Care Centers at two areas of coverage of the Family Health Units, Londrina, Paraná. It's descriptive transversal study. Form was applied with questions about myths, taboos, practices, doubts and difficulties in stopping the infestation of pediculosis in eight Child Day Care Centers. Subsequently, workshop was held with educational materials. 60.4% of employees participated, those who were present on the day determined by the institution. Almost all indicated the ectoparasitic infestation, as well as their families. The problem is faced daily in Child Day Care Centers (72.1%. Practice appropriate care is still limited. Many myths and taboos persist (lice jump, use salt, vinegar and kerosene, etc. The main questions are related to treatment and the greatest difficulty is the lack of cooperation from parents. It emphasizes, finally, the need and the importance of internal actions, preventive and systematic in the school environment.

Flávia Lopes Gabani

2010-06-01

293

Knowledge cluster formation in Peninsular Malaysia: The emergence of an epistemic landscape  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge clusters are central places within an epistemic landscape, i.e. in a wider structure of knowledge production and dissemination. They have the organisational capability to drive innovations and create new industries. Examples of such organisations in knowledge clusters are universities and colleges, research institutions, think tanks, government research agencies and knowledge-intensive firms with their respective knowledge workers.

2010-01-01

294

Knowledge Work in Distributed Environments: Issues and Illusions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Survey data from 1,775 workers indicate that, although Finland has a sophisticated technological infrastructure, only 4 percent of Finnish wage earners regard themselves as doing telework, and only 4 percent has tried it. Teleworking was rare even among those considered knowledge workers. (Contains 40 references.) (Author/JOW)

Pyoria, Pasi

2003-01-01

295

Competence, knowledge, and the labour market: the role of complementarities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper develops a theoretical analysis of training regimes as outcomes of a complementarity between organizational and institutional factors that determine firms? and workers? incentives as regards skills. Specifically, the paper proposes that, on the one hand, knowledge embeddedness within firms is the determinant of firms? preferences concerning training, while, on the other, labor market institutionalization provides the framework for workers? preferences. Applying ...

2000-01-01

296

Social Worker: Paths and identity construction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this text is to understand the paths and the processes of identity construction of Social Workers, based on a phenomenological perspective. The research behind its arguments attempts to produce knowledge about the training (especially self-training of Social Workers, attempting to ascertain their professional paths, the meanings that are attributed to them and the processes of their identity constructions. Within the scope of this research, still ongoing, exploratory empirical work was carried out, through interviews of a biographical nature with three senior professionals.Simultaneously, an attempt is made to analyse the institutionalisation of the Social Services as a profession, in the historical background whereby humanitarian thinking takes on full professional legitimisation with the establishment of a new relation between the State and Civil Society.Today, as a consequence of the fragmentation caused by the transfer of multiple services from the public sector to the private sector, growing specialisation of the functions of Social Workers and the advances made towards working in closer contact with other professionals, the following question is increasingly pertinent: what exactly does it entail to be a Social Worker?

Isabel Passarinho

2008-05-01

297

Whose Knowledge?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sir Rudolph Peierls, in a reply to John Bell's last critique of the state of our understanding of quantum mechanics, maintained that it is easy to give an acceptable account of the physical significance of the quantum theory. The key is to recognize that all the density matrix characterizing a physical system ever represents is knowledge about that system. In answer to Bell's implicit rejoinder "Whose knowledge?" Peierls offered two simple consistency conditions that must be...

Mermin, N. David

2001-01-01

298

Os trabalhadores do conhecimento num setor tradicional: o caso dos designers do vestuário / Knowledge workers in a traditional sector: the case of clothes designers / Les travailleurs de la connaissance dans un secteur traditionnel: le cas des designers de vêtements / Los trabajadores del conocimiento en un sector tradicional: el caso de los diseñadores de vestuario  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Portugal | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A reestruturação do trabalho no setor da indústria, resultante do desenvolvimento da ?sociedade do conhecimento?, provocou importantes mudanças nas organizações e nos seus trabalhadores. Um dos principais setores que tem vindo a sofrer alterações bruscas nos últimos anos é o da indústria transformad [...] ora. O subsetor do vestuário foi dos primeiros a utilizar diferentes formas de flexibilidade com o objetivo de se manter competitivo. Este artigo analisa este processo de mudança e os seus efeitos nas ?profissões do conhecimento? na indústria, nomeadamente a sua aplicação ao grupo profissional dos designers do vestuário. Para compreender o impacto da reestruturação do trabalho no grupo estudado analisam-se as mudanças que ocorreram nas suas condições de trabalho, qualificações e competências, uso do conhecimento, identidade profissional e trajetórias de carreira. Abstract in spanish La reestructuración del trabajo en el sector de la industria, resultante del desarrollo de la ?sociedad del conocimiento?, provocó importantes cambios en las organizaciones y en sus trabajadores. Uno de los principales sectores que han sufrido alteraciones bruscas en los últimos años es el de la ind [...] ustria transformadora. El subsector de vestuario, fue de los primeros en utilizar diferentes formas de flexibilidad con el objetivo de mantenerse competitivo. Éste artículo analiza este proceso de cambio y sus efectos en las ?profesiones del conocimiento? en la industria, particularmente a su aplicación al grupo profesional de los diseñadores de vestuario. Para comprender el impacto de la reestructuración del trabajo en el grupo estudiado analizaremos los cambios que ocurrieron en sus condiciones de trabajo, grados de estudio y competencias, uso del conocimiento, identidad profesional y trayectorias de carrera. Abstract in english The restructuring of work in the industrial sector brought about by the development of the ?knowledge society? has led important changes in organisations and their workers. The transforming industry is one of the main sectors that have undergone abrupt changes in the last few years. The clothing sub [...] sector was one of the first to use different forms of flexibility in order to remain competitive. This article analyses this change process and its effects on the industry's ?knowledge professions?, particularly in terms of its application to the professional group ?clothes designers?. In order to understand the impact that the restructuring of their work has had on this group, the authors analyse the changes that have taken place in their working conditions, qualifications and skills, use of knowledge, professional identity and career trajectories.

Paulos, Margarida Ramires; Moniz, António Brandão.

299

Rehumanising Knowledge Work through Fluctuating Support Networks: A grounded theory  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through the basic social structural process of fluctuating support networks, knowledge workers self-organise to overcome the dehumanising impact of a rapidly changing workplace context. Such networks operate outside the formal organisation. They are epiphenomenal – self-emerging, self-organising, and selfsustaining. Participation is voluntary and intuitive. The growth of fluctuating support networks facilitates a rehumanising process which serves to counterbalance the dehumanisation that knowledge workers experience in the face of persistent and unpredictable change.

Judith A. Holton, Ph.D.

2007-03-01

300

Healthy worker effect phenomenon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Healthy Worker Effect (HWE) phenomenon has been under debate since some years. Some epidemiologists regard HWE as an ordinary method problem while others consider it a field of science by itself. This article gives definitions of HWE explained with historical background; discusses factors affecting it and suggests methods to minimize problems associated with it.

Shah Divyang

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Healthy radiation workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A recent study of health records of the workforce at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), has shown that radiation workers have lower mortality rates from all causes and from all cancers than the general population. The Lucas Heights data cover more than 7000 past and present employees, from 1957-1998. This study was part of a research programme being carried out in conjunction with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in France and its results add to the much larger pool of data already held by IARC. This finding of the Australian study is similar to the findings of epidemiological studies of the health of workers who have been exposed to low levels of ionising radiation in the course of their occupations elsewhere in the world, and has often been explained as the healthy worker effect. According to this argument, it is reasonable to expect that any group of workers should be more healthy than an average group (with the same age and sex distribution) from the general population. After all, they must at least be healthy enough to get out of bed regularly and go to work. The purpose of the present paper is to ask whether this is the whole story

2002-10-08

302

Public Assistance Worker Job Trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Public Assistance Worker Job Trial was developed for use as a personnel selection tool for the position of Income Maintenance Worker Trainee within the Pennsylvania Department of Public Welfare. This report outlines the steps taken to develop and cons...

A. I. Fiks H. P. Bawden S. W. Davies J. D. Gaspari A. M. Meek

1976-01-01

303

Features of opposition of offender and worker of militia under various conditions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An analysis and generalization of knowledge of features of origin and motion of situations of the armed collision of employees of law enforcement authorities and offenders is conducted. 82 workers of practical subdivisions of internal affairs organs took part in research between workers, who have already necessary to clash and detain criminals with a plain weapon. Canvassed on the specially developed questionnaire. It is set that for the workers of militia the insufficient level of the specia...

Bondarenko V.V.; Prontenko K.V.; Prontenko V.V.; Mihalchuk R.V.

2013-01-01

304

Rethinking Human Resource Strategies: A Shift in the Treatment of Contingent Workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Contingent workers fulfill valuable organizational needs and have functioned as knowledge resources fororganizations. Despite their contributions, the literature suggests that a difference in treatment exists betweencontingent and standard workers in terms of onboarding, pay for performance, and training and developmentpractices within organizations. This paper presents an empirically testable framework that argues for a shift inHR strategies that will allow for equality in treatment between standard and contingent workers withinorganizations.

Tekeisha Zimmerman

2013-03-01

305

- Construction Workers’ Satisfaction with Work Provision Requirement Dimensions in Ghana’s Construction Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper, sought to empirically assess and analyze workers’ satisfaction with different dimensions of work provision requirement of the construction industry in Ghana. It involved a cross-sectional survey that used a self-administered structured questionnaire administered to five hundred respondents of building construction workers. The findings indicate that though workers are satisfied with some work provision requirement dimension items significantly, most of the workers are very dissatisfied with working environment and work benefit of the work provision requirement in Ghana. The management of construction firms in Ghana and policy makers are called upon to focus and redirect attention and effort to ensuring that work provision requirement that workers are dissatisfied with are improved significantly to meet workers expectations. The paper contributes to the general body of knowledge in the area of workers’ satisfaction in developing countries particularly in Ghana’s construction industry. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed.

Humphrey Danso

2012-09-01

306

Workers' Compensation and Teacher Stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the Workers' Compensation system and teacher stress to determine if a burned-out teacher should be eligible for Workers' Compensation benefits. Concludes that although most states do not allow Workers' Compensation benefits to burned-out teachers, compensation should be granted because the injuries are real and work-related. (Contains 48…

Nisbet, Michael K.

1999-01-01

307

Workers' marginal costs of commuting  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper applies a dynamic search model to estimate workers' marginal costs of commuting, including monetary and time costs. Using data on workers' job search activity as well as moving behaviour, for the Netherlands, we provide evidence that, on average, workers' marginal costs of one hour of commuting are about 17 euro.

Fosgerau, Mogens

2009-01-01

308

Knowledge typology for imprecise probabilities.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When characterizing the reliability of a complex system there are often gaps in the data available for specific subsystems or other factors influencing total system reliability. At Los Alamos National Laboratory we employ ethnographic methods to elicit expert knowledge when traditional data is scarce. Typically, we elicit expert knowledge in probabilistic terms. This paper will explore how we might approach elicitation if methods other than probability (i.e., Dempster-Shafer, or fuzzy sets) prove more useful for quantifying certain types of expert knowledge. Specifically, we will consider if experts have different types of knowledge that may be better characterized in ways other than standard probability theory.

Wilson, G. D. (Gregory D.); Zucker, L. J. (Lauren J.)

2002-01-01

309

Retaining Talent in Knowledge Intensive Organizations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Recruitment and development of employees is a large burden for companies in most industries. Because of this, there is a clear organizational imperative to attract and retain knowledge workers since these constitute an important resource, especially for knowledge intensive organizations. A decisive factor for success is thus to retain and develop this vital resource in order to upgrade and sustain competitive advantage. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate what i...

Gerges, David; Sonander, Magnus

2004-01-01

310

Assessing the Employment-Related Interpersonal Competence of Mildly Mentally Retarded Workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Test of Interpersonal Competence for Employment (TICE) designed to assess a mildly retarded worker's knowledge of interpersonal skills in the employment setting, was developed based on analysis of problems that mildly retarded workers experience and identification of correct responses to those problems by competitive employers. Initial…

Bullis, Michael; Foss, Gilbert

1986-01-01

311

Laboratory-associated infections and biosafety.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An estimated 500,000 laboratory workers in the United States are at risk of exposure to infectious agents that cause disease ranging from inapparent to life-threatening infections, but the precise risk to a given worker unknown. The emergence of human immunodeficiency virus and hantavirus, the continuing problem of hepatitis B virus, and the reemergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have renewed interest in biosafety for the employees of laboratories and health care facilities. This review ex...

Sewell, D. L.

1995-01-01

312

Support workers in intermediate care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the proliferation of support worker roles in the UK, little is known about their actual numbers, employment conditions or levels of training. Intermediate care services appear to be an important employer of support workers, but the diversity of intermediate care services makes the task of understanding support worker roles even more complex. This paper presents data from 33 services which were involved in an NHS Modernisation Agency's Changing Workforce Programme project, the Accelerated Development Programme for Support Workers in Intermediate Care in England. Within this project, the main employers of support workers were primary care trusts and/or social services. Participating intermediate care teams were involved in admission avoidance, assisted discharge and reablement, or combinations of these services, and the majority of care was provided in the patient's own home. The 33 services employed 794 support workers and 368 professionally qualified staff. The mean ratio of professionally qualified staff to support workers was 0.95 (range = 0-4.9, SD = 1.05). Support worker roles included multidisciplinary working, meeting rehabilitation needs, providing personal care and enablement. Team leaders included nurses, social workers, physiotherapists, professional managers, home carers and support workers. The most commonly reported sources of support worker training were National Vocational Qualifications and in-house training. In 80% of the services, at least half of the support workers had a qualification. Three models of supervision emerged across the services: the allocation of a mentor; team supervision; and formal and informal line management. These findings illustrate the diversity of employment of support workers in intermediate care. The variations in training, supervision and skill mix have implications for clinical governance and support worker regulation. The employment of support worker staff jointly across health and social care raises cross-boundary issues around employment contracts and pay. PMID:15969705

Nancarrow, Susan A; Shuttleworth, Penny; Tongue, Alison; Brown, Lucy

2005-07-01

313

A theoretical and formal model for knowledge management systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge management is now a huge domain, where it is difficult to have a clear view of the manipulated concepts and their crossed-relations. The development of that domain requires now a theoretical framework including concepts from various theories as Knowledge Economy, Information Systems, Knowledge theories (in particular Nonaka's theory), Communities of practice (Wenger's theory), General System Theory, Semiotic, Information theory, Knowledge Worker concept ?This paper is an attemp...

Ermine, Jean-louis

2005-01-01

314

Nutritional knowledge and calcium intake of health professionals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been demonstrated that greater nutritional knowledge leads to better eating habits, but there are no studies on the relationship between nutritional knowledge and calcium intake. To verify if the calcium intake of health professionals is influenced by their nutritional knowledge. 103 workers from three Oporto hospitals completed two previously validated questionnaires: Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), General Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire(GNKQ) and a question...

Alves, Lisandra; Jardim, Marta; Pedrosa, Sofia; Mendes, So?nia; Nogueira, Tiago; Souza, Juliana; Ferro-lebres, Vera

2011-01-01

315

Knowledge based economy: The role of expert diaspora  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Diasporas stand out as an economic or cultural avant-garde of transformation. This is especially true for academic and other intellectual Diaspora communities, because science and knowledge creation are global enterprises. Proclivity of knowledge workers to move in order to improve and absorb transnational knowledge through Diaspora networks might be an essential quality of an emerging national economy of a developing country. The article treats the role of expert Diaspora in knowledge ...

Filipovi? Jovan; Devjak Sre?ko; Putnik Goran

2012-01-01

316

Knowledge and attitude of medical science students toward hepatitis B and C infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present survey aimed to determine the knowledge level and attitude of medical students in Guilan University toward Hepatitis B and C viruses' infections. In a cross-sectional survey, the knowledge and attitude of 424 medical science undergraduate students of nursing, midwifery, operating room technician, laboratory, anesthesiology and radiology in Guilan University of Medical Sciences toward Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were investigated using a standardized questionnaire. The mean (SD) knowledge level of the medical students toward HBV and HCV were 17 ± 5 from 28 and 10.58 ± 6.7 from 29 questions respectively. Females, nursing students, forth year students, those who worked in hospital and those who had needle stick injuries (NSI) history showed significantly higher knowledge scores toward HBV (P< 0.05). Married students, anesthesiology students, those who were in their fourth year of study, and those who worked in hospital had significantly higher mean knowledge scores toward HCV (P< 0.05). Also students' attitude toward HBV and HCV was positively correlated with their mean knowledge level (r=0.14, p=0.004), (r=0.18, p=0.0001). Education on the nature, symptoms, transmission, prevention and treatment of HBV and HCV infections may increase the willingness of health care workers to care for infected persons. PMID:23573351

Mansour-Ghanaei, Roya; Joukar, Farahnaz; Souti, Fatemeh; Atrkar-Roushan, Zahra

2013-01-01

317

Worker matching and firm value  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper studies the value of firms and their hiring and firing decisions in an environment where the productivity of the workers depends on how well they match with their co-workers and the firm acts as a coordinating device. Match quality derives from a production technology whereby workers are randomly located on the Salop circle, and depends negatively on the distance between the workers. It is shown that a worker's contribution in a given firm changes over time in a nontrivial way as c...

2012-01-01

318

O exame preventivo do câncer cérvico-uterino: conhecimento e significado para as funcionárias de uma escola de enfermagem de uma instituição pública El examen preventivo del cancer del cuello uterino: conocimineto y significado para las empleadas de una escuela de enfermería de una institución publica Screening of cervix-uterine cancer: knowledge and meaning for workers from a public nursing school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Trata-se de estudo descritivo exploratório, realizado em uma Escola de Enfermagem, do qual participam 63 funcionárias não docentes. Teve como objetivos verificar seus conhecimentos sobre o exame preventivo do câncer cérvico-uterino e conhecer seus sentimentos e expectativas ao submeterem-se a este exame. Os dados foram coletados por meio de formulário sendo que a última questão foi gravada e analisada segundo o referencial teórico metodológico da fenomenologia social. As respostas obtidas permitem repensar sobre atendimento adequado mediante ações humanizadas que consideram o ser em sua totalidade existencial, pertencente a um contexto socioeconômico e cultural.Se trata de un estudio descriptivo-exploratorio realizado en una escuela de enfermería donde trabajan 63 mujeres no docentes. Tubo como objetivos verificar sus conocimientos sobre el examen preventivo del cáncer del cuello uterino y conocer sus sentimientos y expectativas al someterse a este examen. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio del un formulario, siendo que la última cuestión fue gravado y analisada según el referencial teórico-metodológico da la fenomenologia social. Las respuestas obtenidas permiten el repensar sobre la atención adecuada, con acciones humanizadas que consideran el ser humano en su totalidad existencial, que pertenece a un contexto socioeconómico y cultural.This is an exploratory descriptive study, carried out at a nursing school, in which 63 non-teacher workers participated. Its objectives were to check their knowledge about screening of cervix-uterine cancer and to know their feelings and expectations as they undergo this test. A questionnaire was used to collect data and the last question was recorded and analyzed using the social phenomenology theoretical framework. The answers provided information which made it possoble for us to rethink about adequate assistance guided by humanized actions considering the being in this existential entirety and belonging to a social economical cultural context.

Miriam Aparecida Barbosa Merighi

2002-09-01

319

What Encourages Sun Protection among Outdoor Workers from Four Industries?  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: We aimed to identify current practice of sun protection and factors associated with effective use in four outdoor worker industries in Queensland, Australia. Methods: Workplaces in four industries with a high proportion of outdoor workers (building/construction, rural/farming, local government, and public sector industries) were identified using an online telephone directory, screened for eligibility, and invited to participant via mail (n=15, recruitment rate 37%). A convenience sample of workers were recruited within each workplace (n=162). Workplaces' sun protective policies and procedures were identified using interviews and policy analysis with workplace representatives, and discussion groups and computer-assisted telephone interviews with workers. Personal characteristics and sun protection knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were collated and analysed. Results: Just over half the workplaces had an existing policy which referred to sun protection (58%), and most provided at least some personal protective equipment (PPE), but few scheduled work outside peak sun hours (43%) or provided skin checks (21%). Several worker and workplace characteristics were associated with greater sun protection behaviour among workers, including having received education on the use of PPE (p<0.001), being concerned about being in the sun (p=0.002); and working in a smaller workplace (p=0.035). Conclusions: Uptake of sun protection by outdoor workers is affected by a complex interplay of both workplace and personal factors, and there is a need for effective strategies targeting both the workplace environment and workers' knowledge, attitudes and behaviors to decrease harmful sun exposure further.(J Occup Health 2014; 56: 62-72). PMID:24270927

Janda, Monika; Stoneham, Melissa; Youl, Philippa; Crane, Phil; Sendall, Marguerite C; Tenkate, Thomas; Kimlin, Michael

2014-04-17

320

Manpower and Employment. A Source Book for Social Workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The project purpose was to develop a source book on manpower, to be used by social workers to increase their knowledge and enhance their professional skills. The report describes the sources of information used and the problems encountered in developing t...

M. Purvine

1972-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Advanced Worker Protection System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs

1996-01-01

322

Advanced Worker Protection System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs.

NONE

1996-04-01

323

Instrumentation for the individual dosimetry of workers  

CERN Multimedia

The control of the radiation dose exposure of workers and personnel exposed to ionizing radiations (nuclear industry, nuclear medicine, army, university laboratories etc..) is ensured by individual dosemeters. This dosimetry is mandatory for all workers susceptible to be exposed to more than 30% of the regulatory dose limit. dosemeters are worn on the chest and in some particular cases, on the finger (dosemeter rings) or on the wrist. Passive dosemeters allow to measure the dose a posteriori, while electronic dosemeters allow a direct reading and recording of the dose. This article presents successively: 1 - the general principles of individual dosimetry: situations of exposure, radiation detection, operational data, standardization, calibration and quality assurance, measurement uncertainties; 2 - goals and regulatory framework of individual dosimetry: regulation and recommendations, optimization, respect of dose limits, accidental situations; 3 - passive dosemeters: film, thermoluminescent, radio-photolumin...

Thévenin, J C

2003-01-01

324

Interviewing media workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides exam...

Heike Graf

2010-01-01

325

Cancer in thirty-nine nuclear industry workers: a preliminary report.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We constructed job-exposure profiles and assessed quality of health care in 39 of 47 current and former workers from a nuclear installation in the Negev whose files were referred to us for assessment of a possible work-related aspect of their tumors. The workers, all male except one, began employment at various times from the reactor construction and were engaged in different tasks in laboratory research, construction, maintenance, and service. Of those workers still living the average age wa...

Richter, E. D.; Ben-michael, E.; Tsafrir, T.; Laster, R.

1997-01-01

326

TESTICULAR CANCER AWARENESS AMONG HEALTH WORKERS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cancer of the testicles is the most common type of cancer diseases among young men. However, we have to be aware that this type of cancer can also affect children and adolescents. Young people often believe that this is a disease of elderly people, so they do not pay much attention on this topic. If health workers had appropriate knowledge about this issue and they were aware enough, they could share it easier between the male population and help them understand the importance of that problem...

2011-01-01

327

Molecular screening of Plasmodium infections among migrant workers in Thailand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background & objective: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Plasmodiuminfections among migrant workers in Thailand.Methods: A total of 241 migrants at Kanchanaburi, Pathumthani and Nakornpathom provinces of Thailand wererecruited in our surveillance. Blood samples were examined for human malaria parasites by using microscopyand semi-nested multiplex PCR (SnM-PCR.Results: Laboratory diagnosis revealed 6.2% total positive rate. As compared to microscopy (26.7%, SnM-PCRwas more sensitive (93.3% for malaria. Plasmodium falciparum was predominant than P. vivax (53% : 40%,respectively. The majority of positive cases were from Myanmar workers who had low parasitaemia and withoutsymptoms. The highest prevalence (13.7% was found among migrant workers from Kanchanaburi province inwestern Thailand.Conclusion: These findings indicate risk of malaria transmission from migrant workers. Malaria surveillanceshould be included in the health-screening program for migrants in Thailand to manage this health risk.

Kanyanan Kritsiriwuthinan , Warunee Ngrenngarmlert

2011-12-01

328

Healthy worker effect  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: In his letter published in the previous issue of the Journal (pages 71-2), Barrie Skelcher recognises the fact that radiation workers are not a true cross section of the general population because they are selected, and that they have to pass a medical examination. He then infers, despite his own experience of staff recruitment, that it is the medical examination that is responsible 'for weeding out those unfortunate enough to die of cancer in the coming decades'. Typically, the reject percentage from pre-medicals is between 1% and 5%. Thus, in a statistical sense, rejection on medical grounds is unusual, and this concurs with the experience of Barrie Skelcher. One would be rightly sceptical that this in itself could be the explanation for the 'healthy worker effect' so often cited. Though Barrie Skelcher mentions selection he does not consider this aspect further. Three different aspects of the selection process may be considered: (i) self-selection by the employee to apply for work; (ii) employer selection of those that apply; and (iii) selection out of work. An individual will apply for a job that he or she is physically capable of pursuing. As William Ogle observed in 1885, 'Some occupations may repel, while others attract, the unfit at the age of starting work.' Radiation work may repel the unfit; those that apply to work in this industry are self-selected fit. The employer then selects from this self-selected pool of potential recruits. This selection process includes the pre-medical. However, as the pool of recruits are already self-selected fit, the reject percentage is small. Having been selected into the workforce, there is then a selection process that removes people from the workforce. Whilst in employment, the occupational health departments monitor the employees' health. If an individual's health has deteriorated then 'those occupations that attract the unfit' may appear attractive. Others may take ill-health retirement. Workers that remain in employment tend to be healthier than those that leave. The occupational health departments also promote healthy lifestyles. The reduction in the number of cancers and heart diseases may also be a consequence of the effective promotion of these healthy lifestyles (such as encouraging smokers to refrain) to those in employment. In summary, the pre-medical has only a minor effect and the other components of the selection process dominate the 'healthy worker effect'. Assuming that employees are not exposed to health hazards in their working environment then, whilst employees are in employment, they benefit health-wise from employment and this further reinforces the 'healthy worker effect'. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

2001-06-01

329

Modificación de conocimientos sobre medio ambiente en jóvenes del Laboratorio de Anticuerpos y Biomodelos Experimentales Modification to knowledge of environment in young people from Laboratory of Antibodies and Experimental Biomodels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de intervención educativa para modificar los conocimientos sobre la conservación del medioambiente en 16 jóvenes del Laboratorio de Anticuerpos y Biomodelos Experimentales de Santiago de Cuba, seleccionados mediante un muestreo aleatorio simple desde abril hasta junio del 2008. Para lograr ese objetivo, la población escogida participó en un programa de clases con 4 sesiones de trabajo, luego de las cuales se comprobó que la insuficiente o errónea información que poseían sobre la necesidad de cuidar responsablemente el entorno por su influencia sobre la salud y calidad de vida, fue modificada favorablemente mediante técnicas participativas y discusiones grupales, de modo que hubo una gran diferencia entre lo que sabían antes del estudio y lo que aprendieron en favor del ambiente después de su ejecución.A study on educational intervention was conducted to modify the knowledge of the environment conservation in 16 young people from Laboratory of Antibodies and Experimental Biomodels in Santiago de Cuba, selected by means of a simple random sampling from April to June, 2008. To achieve that goal the chosen population participated in a program of classes with 4 working sessions, after which it was verified that their inadequate or erroneous information about the necessity of taking care of the environment responsibly because of its influence on the health and quality of life, was modified favorably by means of participatory techniques and group discussions, so that there was a great difference between what they knew before the study and what they learned in favor of the enviroment after it.

Rosa Iris García Céspedes

2009-10-01

330

Integrating The Non-Electrical Worker Into The Electrical Safety Program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intent of this paper is to demonstrate an electrical safety program that incorporates all workers into the program, not just the electrical workers. It is largely in response to a paper presented at the 2012 ESW by Lanny Floyd entitled 'Facilitating Application of Electrical Safety Best Practices to 'Other' Workers' which requested all attendees to review their electrical safety program to assure that non-electrical workers were protected as well as electrical workers. The referenced paper indicated that roughly 50% of electrical incidents involve workers whose primary function is not electrical in nature. It also encouraged all to 'address electrical safety for all workers and not just workers whose job responsibilities involve working on or near energized electrical circuits.' In this paper, a program which includes specific briefings to non-electrical workers as well as to workers who may need to perform their normal activities in proximity to energized electrical conductors is presented. The program uses a targeted approach to specific areas such as welding, excavating, rigging, chart reading, switching, cord and plug equipment and several other general areas to point out hazards that may exist and how to avoid them. NFPA 70E-2004 was incorporated into the program several years ago and with it the need to include the 'other' workers became apparent. The site experience over the years supports the assertion that about half of the electrical incidents involve non-electrical workers and this prompted us to develop specific briefings to enhance the knowledge of the non-electrical worker regarding safe electrical practices. The promotion of 'May is Electrical Safety Month' and the development of informative presentations which are delivered to the general site population as well as electrical workers have greatly improved the hazards awareness status of the general worker on site

2013-03-11

331

Integrating The Non-Electrical Worker Into The Electrical Safety Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The intent of this paper is to demonstrate an electrical safety program that incorporates all workers into the program, not just the electrical workers. It is largely in response to a paper presented at the 2012 ESW by Lanny Floyd entitled "Facilitating Application of Electrical Safety Best Practices to "Other" Workers" which requested all attendees to review their electrical safety program to assure that non-electrical workers were protected as well as electrical workers. The referenced paper indicated that roughly 50% of electrical incidents involve workers whose primary function is not electrical in nature. It also encouraged all to "address electrical safety for all workers and not just workers whose job responsibilities involve working on or near energized electrical circuits." In this paper, a program which includes specific briefings to non-electrical workers as well as to workers who may need to perform their normal activities in proximity to energized electrical conductors is presented. The program uses a targeted approach to specific areas such as welding, excavating, rigging, chart reading, switching, cord and plug equipment and several other general areas to point out hazards that may exist and how to avoid them. NFPA 70E-2004 was incorporated into the program several years ago and with it the need to include the "other" workers became apparent. The site experience over the years supports the assertion that about half of the electrical incidents involve non-electrical workers and this prompted us to develop specific briefings to enhance the knowledge of the non-electrical worker regarding safe electrical practices. The promotion of "May is Electrical Safety Month" and the development of informative presentations which are delivered to the general site population as well as electrical workers have greatly improved the hazards awareness status of the general worker on site.

Mills, T. David; McAlhaney, John H.

2012-08-17

332

Proposal for intake model for workers at IPEN-CNEN/SP who handle 131 I  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The intake model for the two groups of workers at IPEN-CNEN/SP is presented. They handle iodine compounds during the processing of irradiated targets and at labeling of radiopharmaceutical compounds. The intake model for the workers are proposed from the knowledge of the activities carried out in the plant and the internal monitoring program of the workers. In this study, the intake is considered to be taken uniformly during the days of major activities carried out by the workers. In practice, the application of this model has be shown suitable, for the studied groups

1997-10-26

333

Conhecimento e atitudes de trabalhadores de um serviço público de emergência sobre adoção de precauções padrão / Knowledge and attitudes of workers from a public emergency service about the adoption of standard precautions / Conocimientos y actitudes de trabajadores de un servicio de emergencia pública en relación con la adopción de precauciones estándar  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudo transversal realizado em um serviço de atendimento pré-hospitalar de Minas Gerais, com o qual se objetivou avaliar a adoção das medidas de precaução, por meio de conhecimento e atitudes da equipe mutiprofissional. Utilizou-se análise univariada e multivariada dos dados. Verificou-se que enfer [...] meiros e condutores apresentaram o maior e o menor nível de conhecimento em relação às precauções padrão, respectivamente. A não adoção das medidas de precaução foi 3,76 (IC 95%: 1,48 - 9,53) vezes maior entre profissionais com idade superior a 31 anos e 6,7 (IC 95%: 1,81 - 24,75) vezes maior entre trabalhadores de unidade de suporte básico. Diante destes resultados, torna-se imprescindível implantar um programa de educação continuada para melhorar o conhecimento do profissional em relação ao controle de infecção e recomendações da biossegurança. Abstract in spanish Estudio transversal, realizado en un servicio de atención pre-hospitalaria de Minas Gerais, cuyo objetivo fue evaluar la adopción de medidas de precaución, por medio del conocimiento y de las actitudes del equipo multiprofesional. Se utilizó el análisis univariada y multivariada de los datos. Se enc [...] ontró que los enfermeros y los conductores han tenido el nivel más alto y el más bajo e conocimiento en relación a las precauciones estándar, respectivamente. La no adopción de medidas de precaución fue de 3,76 (IC 95%: 1,48 a 9,53) veces mayor para los profesionales de 31 años y 6,7 (IC 95%: 1,81 a 24,75) veces superior entre los trabajadores en la unidad de soporte básico. Teniendo en cuenta estos resultados, es esencial establecer un programa de educación continuada para mejorar los conocimientos profesionales en relación con el control de infecciones y las recomendaciones de bioseguridad. Abstract in english The aims of the study were to evaluate the adoption of the precaution measures, assessing knowledge and attitude of multiprofessional team. This is a transversal study, accomplished in an Emergency Medical Service of Minas Gerais. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used. The results showed th [...] at nurses and drivers had the highest and lowest level of knowledge regarding the standard precautions, respectively. The possibility of non-adoption of the precautionary measures was 3.76 (95% CI: 1.48 to 9.53) times higher among professionals aged over 31 years and 6.7 (95% CI: 1.81 to 24,75) times greater among workers in crowded unit of basic support. The conclusion is that is essential to implement strategies in order to improve the professional's knowledge related to infection control and safety recommendations.

Maria Henriqueta Rocha Siqueira, Paiva; Adriana Cristina de, Oliveira.

334

Health Risk Assessment of Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure among Workers in a Thai Rubber Latex Industry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research objective was to assess health risk from exposure to hydrogen sulfide among rubber latex workers. The results showed that the hydrogen sulfide concentrations of fifteen sample air sample were the rage between 0.0537-0.0610 ppm and avenge of 0.0612 ppm. Secondly, levels of knowledge, attitude and preventive behavior among rubber latex workers about exposure to hydrogen sulfide located in moderate. In additional, the receiving training and the knowledge were the strong predictor for preventive behavior (p < 0.05. Finally, assessing health risk from exposure to hydrogen sulfide among workers was 0.1259, which was lower than 1 and acceptable based on United States Environmental Protection Agency. However, the health risk reduction approach among workers from exposure to hydrogen sulfide was recommenced. It divided two parts: (1 the reductions of hydrogen sulfide concentration from rubber latex process and (2 the health risk reduction with rubber latex workers.

Cheerawit Rattanapan

2014-01-01

335

Workers of Acromyrmex echinatior leafcutter ants police worker-laid eggs, but not reproductive workers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nonreproductive workers of many eusocial Hymenoptera 'police' the colony, that is, they attack reproductive sister workers or destroy their eggs (unfertilized; developing into haploid males). Several ultimate causes of policing have been proposed, including (1) an increase in colony productivity, applicable if reproductive workers work less, or (2) an increase in worker-to-male relatedness, applicable if within-colony relatedness is low. To explain the distribution of policing across taxa, the explanatory power of these and other potential ultimate causes should be assessed separately. One of the few species for which this can be done is the leafcutter ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We previously demonstrated that colony productivity incentives (and sex ratio incentives) are minimal here, while relatedness incentives are strong because queens are highly multiply mated. Overcoming technical difficulties peculiar to leafcutter ants, we introduced reproductive versus nonreproductive workers and batches of queen-laidversus worker-laid eggs into experimental colony fragments and observed their fate. Our main finding was that workers policed by selectively destroying worker-laid eggs, but without attacking reproductive workers. We infer that relatedness incentives are the most likely ultimate cause of the evolutionary maintenance of worker-egg policing in A. echinatior. (C) 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

Dijkstra, M.B.; van Zweden, J.S.

2010-01-01

336

Radiological worker training  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance

1998-01-01

337

Insulin Modifies Honeybee Worker Behavior  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The insulin signaling pathway has been hypothesized to play a key role in regulation of worker social insect behavior. We tested whether insulin treatment has direct effects on worker honeybee behavior in two contexts, sucrose response thresholds in winter bees and the progression to foraging by summer nurse bees. Treatment of winter worker bees with bovine insulin, used as a proxy for honeybee insulin, increased the bees’ sucrose response threshold. Treatment of summer nurse bees with ...

Mott, Christine M.; Breed, Michael D.

2012-01-01

338

Mortality among aircraft manufacturing workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of cancer and other diseases among workers engaged in aircraft manufacturing and potentially exposed to compounds containing chromate, trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and mixed solvents. METHODS: A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted of workers employed for at least 1 year at a large aircraft manufacturing facility in California on or after 1 January 1960. The mortality experience of these workers was determined by examin...

Boice, J. D.; Marano, D. E.; Fryzek, J. P.; Sadler, C. J.; Mclaughlin, J. K.

1999-01-01

339

Visual status of industrial workers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two hundred and eighty four industrial workers were screened to determine their visual acuity. Significant visual impairment was observed in 21.8% individuals and moderate impairment in 34.5% of cases. Convergence insufficiency was a problem in 9.86% of the workers. Since uncorrected refractive errors are a prelude to disastrous workplace related eye injuries, it is recommended that prior to job placement all workers undergo visual acuity screening and get their refractive errors rectified.

Desai Rajiv

1990-01-01

340

Cancer mortality in metal workers.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Age-standardized proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) were calculated for 10 036 metal workers in British Columbia with the use of information on cause of death and occupation recorded in death registrations from 1950 to 1978. Metal workers were found to have a significantly increased risk of death from lung cancer (PMR = 134). In addition, certain occupational groups of metal workers were found, for the first time, to be at increased risk of death from other types of cancer; these included l...

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Metabolic disturbances in shift workers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An increased risk for coronary heart disease among shift workers is earlier shown in the epidemiological literature. The aim of this thesis has been to penetrate metabolic disturbances and obesity among shift workers compared to day workers, and to compare if there are differences in total mortality or cause specific mortality of coronary heart disease (CHD), diabetes or ischaemic stroke in between the two groups. In an intervention study on female nurses (N=11), on night schedules in Umeå h...

Karlsson, Berndt

2004-01-01

342

Are transition economy workers underpaid?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We examine the extent to which workers in transition and developed market economies are able to obtain wages that fully reflect their skills and labor force characteristics. We find that workers in two transition economies, the Czech Republic and Poland, are able to better attain the maximum wage available than are workers in a sample of developed market economies. This greater wage-setting efficiency in the transition economies ap-pears to be more the result of social and demographic charact...

Adamchik, Vera A.; Brada, Josef C.; King, Arthur E.

2009-01-01

343

Radiological protection of the worker in medicine and dentistry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first three sections of this report concern general understanding of radiation protection, basic concepts for all workers, and practical problems common to all users of radiation in medicine and dentistry. The remaining sections cover specialist topics covering practical aspects in diagnostic radiology, dental radiography, the use of unsealed radionuclides (in the laboratory, diagnostic and therapeutic uses) balneotherapy, brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy. (author).

1990-01-01

344

National Knowledge Commission  

Science.gov (United States)

India's National Knowledge Commission (NKC) established by the prime minister is focused on building institutions and infrastructure in Education, Science and Technology, Innovation etc. to meet the challenges of the knowledge economy in the 21st century and increase India's competitive advantage in the global market. India today stands poised to reap the benefits of a rapidly growing economy and a major demographic advantage, with 550 million young people below the age of 25 years, the largest in the world. The NKC is focused on five critical areas of knowledge related to access, concepts, creation, applications and services. This includes a variety of subject areas such as language, translations, libraries, networks, portals, affirmative action, distance learning, intellectual property, Entrepreneurship, application in Agriculture, health, small and medium scale industries, e-governance etc. One of the keys to this effort is to build a national broadband gigabit of networks of 500 nodes to connect universities, Libraries, Laboratories, Hospitals, Agriculture institutions etc. to share resources and collaborate on multidisciplinary activities. This presentation will introduce the NKC, discuss methodology, subject areas, specific recommendation and outline a plan to build knowledge networks and specifics on network architecture, applications, and utilities.

Pitroda, Sam

2007-04-01

345

PVC WORKERS AND THEIR CYTOGENETIC EFFECTS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The industry categories identified vinyl chloride is the chemical used in synthesis for the plastics industry. It is an industrial intermediate chemical that is converted to polyvinyl chloride (PVC polymer and associated copolymers. It is also used for production of chlorinated solvents, primarily 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane. PVC is used in most industrial sectors and accounts for around one fifth of plastic material usage worldwide. Vinyl chloride liquid is fed to polymerization reactors where it is converted from a monomer to a polymer PVC. The final product of the polymerization process is PVC in either a flake or pellet form. The manufacturing plastics often create large quantities of toxic chemical pollutants such as dioxin, hydrochloric acid, and vinyl chloride.  This poses a severe health risks to humans during the PVC life cycle. These toxins can produce severe illness like cancer, diabetes, neurological damage, reproductive and birth defects. Dioxin is a persistent Organic Pollutant (POP, these are chemical substances that persist in the environment, bio-accumulate through the food chain, and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. The focal aim of the present study was to identify the genetic effect of PVC workers who were chronically exposed to PVC manufacturing industry in Coimbatore & Tirupur districts. The exposed workers were categorized based on the duration of exposure to PVC chemicals. Moreover, both the exposed subjects and controls were divided according to age wise manner. The groups were divided into four categories namely group. To the best of our knowledge; this is the first kind of study in PVC industry workers in Coimbatore and Tirupur district. The present investigation will definitely gain the consequence of the better resolution to prevent the effects from chemicals entering into the occupationally exposed workers with protection and prevention strategies.

Harikrishnan A and Leena Grace B*

2013-08-01

346

Knowledge Management Audit - a methodology and case study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The strategic importance of knowledge in today’s organisation has been discussed extensively and research has looked at various issues in developing knowledge management systems. Both the characterisation of knowledge and alternate models for understanding the acquisition and use of such knowledge have taken on significant prominence. This is due to the com-plexities associated with acquiring and representing knowledge, and the varied nature of its use in knowledge work. How-ever, the role of the knowledge workers and the processes that guide their knowledge work as they meet the knowledge goals of an organisation have received little attention. This paper proposes a knowledge audit (an assessment of the way knowledge processes meet an organisation’s knowledge goals methodology to understand the “gaps” in the needs of a knowledge worker before one develops KM systems. The methodology also uses “process change” research to help build a socio-technical environment critical for knowledge work. The audit methodology is applied to a particular case and the im-plementation of the audit recommendations is discussed. Future implications of such an audit are also discussed.

Thomas Lauer

2001-11-01

347

Radiographic changes in the spouses of occupationally exposed asbestos workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chest radiography and pulmonary function tests were recently performed in 120 spouses of asbestos workers in a screening program of a local pipefitters union. To our knowledge, characterization of these findings, including radiographic manifestations, prevalence, and correlation with epidemiologic data, has been limited. In 20 women, (17%) classic pleural plaques consistent with asbestos exposure were found. No parenchymal abnormalities were detected. All women with pleural changes claimed at least a 20-year history of intimate exposure. Correlation with epidemiologic and pulmonary function data is made, and guidelines are suggested for screening and following up spouses of asbestos workers

1986-12-05

348

ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify the design, OSS was able to develop and successfully test, in both the lab and in the field, a prototype AWPS. They clearly demonstrated that a system which provides cooling can significantly increase worker productivity by extending the time they can function in a protective garment. They were also able to develop mature outer garment and LCG designs that provide considerable benefits over current protective equipment, such as self donning and doffing, better visibility, and machine washable. A thorough discussion of the activities performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 is presented in the AWPS Final Report. The report also describes the current system design, outlines the steps needed to certify the AWPS, discusses the technical and programmatic issues that prevented the system from being certified, and presents conclusions and recommendations based upon the seven year effort

2001-01-01

349

Views of the workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: I hope that it is not symptomatic of the radiological protection business that I am making a last minute unscheduled intervention of behalf of the workers. I wonder too whether the Conference should consider the fact that there are no facilities for organized labour or indeed the public to comment during the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) consultation process regarding its recommendations. I have just a few points to make. As a non-scientific participant I can see that we have available accurate dosimetry which can be applied everywhere. This is a most important point. But a problem for the Conference is the different position of developed and developing countries and I would say straight away that I could not accept lower national standards of radiological protection simply to allow that State to catch up economically. We have heard a lot during the Conference about the application of ALARA. Perhaps I could introduce something different, that standards should be 'AHARA' - as high as reasonably achievable. There is no point, however, in imposing criteria that will be ignored, so there may have to be a period of optimization between developing and developed countries. There is every evidence to show that we are here at this Conference to help each other and this may provide an example. But I did not see the causation probability calculations yesterday distinguishing between developing and non-developed countries in relation to the effect of dosages on the human being. Those same calculations also made no distinction between human-made and what I have come to recognize this week as NORM radiation exposure, so it follows again that the worker in a western State's nuclear power plant should have the same standards as underground workers in other countries. This is just an example but at least the same philosophy driving those standards should be applied. No one will argue against the protection of the unborn child and I am not sure that we have a complete answer to this - providing equal opportunities and at the same time ensuring that there is no harm even before a pregnancy is noticed let alone reported. I think more work is needed on this particular subject. I liked the comment made earlier this week that few managers - or even chief executives - expect to receive a radiation dose in their office. I don't think anything was intended here by my scientific colleague but the need to consult, listen and take note of the radiation worker should be obvious. If it is not, then it should be written into the regulatory procedure as being necessary. After all, for each pair of hands engaged by an employer or an operator there is a free brain as well. If the intention is to 'simplify' and to 'unify' the present system of ICRP recommendations and to 'focus on real problems' we can finish here today satisfied only if the situation of the worker, worldwide, in coal mine, nuclear plant, hospital, or wherever, is such that they leave their family at home and go to work and return to them safely day after day after day and without harm whatsoever. If that then needs major changes to the ICRP recommendations then so be it. (author)

2003-07-01

350

ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify the design, OSS was able to develop and successfully test, in both the lab and in the field, a prototype AWPS. They clearly demonstrated that a system which provides cooling can significantly increase worker productivity by extending the time they can function in a protective garment. They were also able to develop mature outer garment and LCG designs that provide considerable benefits over current protective equipment, such as self donning and doffing, better visibility, and machine washable. A thorough discussion of the activities performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 is presented in the AWPS Final Report. The report also describes the current system design, outlines the steps needed to certify the AWPS, discusses the technical and programmatic issues that prevented the system from being certified, and presents conclusions and recommendations based upon the seven year effort.

Judson Hedgehock

2001-03-16

351

Robust automated knowledge capture.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

2011-10-01

352

Influence of Intangible Motivation Factors on Workers’ Labour Behavior Formation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is an opinion that Ukrainian workers can be motivated only by money, therefore, money is the most important motivation. However more theorists and practical workers in the sphere of personnel management including V. Sladkevych, E. Utkin, Yu. Domin and others do not agree with this statement, but there are often such situations, when quite high payment level and use of various financial factors practically do not influence on the labour intensity of workers.The reason of dependence decline between a financial reward and labour intensity consists in that the workers differ widely from their attitude and perception of the mentioned type of stimuli. It is marked, that with the growth of financial prosperity, age and education the value of money is diminishing among the motivating factors. Another argument in favour of intangible motivation consists in that many existing necessities of people are met exactly by intangible stimuli. Nowadays in accordance with the specialists’ estimations, the number of workers who prefer the intangible motivation is constantly growing. The response to changes in the structure of reasons lead to the appearance of numerous modern concepts which emphasize the necessity of application of new approaches which increase the social and production activity of workers. To these concepts specialists ascribe the theories of labour life quality, enrichment of labour content, labour humanization, participation of workers.The career planning is considered by many authors as the important factor of motivation. The promotion and knowledge of your growth prospects is a necessity which people aim to meet in the process of labour activity. The feeling of dependence between the level of work efficiency and promotion contributes to the labour activity of workers.

I. Hruzina

2010-09-01

353

Do hornets have zombie workers?  

Science.gov (United States)

Colonies of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, are typically founded by a single queen mated to a single male. From the resulting colony relatedness pattern we predicted strong worker-queen conflict over male production where both the workers and the queen attempt to produce the colony's males. To test for this conflict, male production was studied in 15 hornet nests using a combination of DNA microsatellite analysis (282 males), worker ovary dissections (500 workers from eight nests) and 50 h of observation (four nests). In contrast to our prediction, the data show that hornet males are queens' sons, that workers never attempt to lay eggs, rarely have activated ovaries, and that there is no direct aggression between the queen and the workers. This contrasts with other data for vespine wasps, which support relatedness predictions. Dolichovespula arenaria has the same kin structure as V. crabro and workers produce males in many colonies. The similarity between these two species makes it difficult to explain why workers do not reproduce in V. crabro. Self-restraint is expected if worker reproduction significantly reduces colony productivity but there is no obvious reason why this should be important to V. crabro but not to D. arenaria. Alternatively, queen control may be important. The absence of expressed queen-worker conflict rules out physical control. Indirect pheromonal control is a possibility and is supported by the occurrence of royal courts and queen pheromone in Vespa but not Dolichovespula. Pheromonal queen control is considered evolutionarily unstable, but could result from a queen-worker arms race over reproductive control in which the queen is ahead. The genetic data also revealed diploid males in one colony, the first example in the vespine wasps, and two colonies with double matrilines, suggesting that occasional usurpation by spring queens occurs. PMID:10849289

Foster, K R; Ratnieks, F L; Raybould, A F

2000-06-01

354

Implementation of ANSI 13.36 radiation safety training for workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1999, new standard, ANSI 13.36 'Radiation Safety Training for Workers,' was completed. The standard is unique in that it emphasizes establishing a training program and performance-based training, rather than simply prescribing objectives. The standard includes a comprehensive list of topics to be addressed, as applicable, and also addresses basic criteria, including instructor qualifications. The standard is based on input from a wide array of regulatory agencies, universities, national laboratories, and nuclear power entities. The standard allows for a graded approach to the development and implementation of the training program. The working group that developed the new standard was reluctant to establish a broad program of specific course objectives because of the diversity of radiation workers and because of a concern that knowledge-based training might be misapplied. In conformance with performance-based training, the working group felt that the length of training should not be arbitrarily prescribed, but derived from the training system development and process. Similarly, passing scores should not be arbitrarily established, but based on specified goals and the characteristics of test questions. The standard shall apply to radiation workers likely to receive in a year an occupational whole-body dose in excess of 100 mrem, 2% of any applicable dose limit, or whose dose could be significant if the person did not receive training. 'Likely to receive' includes evaluation of normal and abnormal situations, but not accidents or emergencies. The standard should apply to radiation workers who operate radiation-generating devices or handle radioactive materials whose dose is likely to be less than 100 mrem per year or 2% of any applicable annual dose limit. It should also apply to individuals whose duties may occasionally bring them into areas where radiation exposures could occur and where it is possible that an occupational dose in excess of 100 mrem per year could be received. Such individual might include shipping clerks, secretaries, nurses, or janitors. This presentation addresses the philosophy behind the requirements in the standard and an implementation approach by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that minimizes unnecessary expenditures of time and resources. We developed a matrix to ensure that applicable topics were addressed and to justify the exclusion of topics. Based on the new list, existing courses were evaluated. An informal job evaluation was performed incorporating the requirements of the standard. In addition to radiation safety courses, the overall training program was revised. Exemptions, deferments, and instructor qualifications, as detailed in the standard, were incorporated into the existing training program. The result has been revitalized training program with emphasis on performance. (author)

2000-05-01

355

“Here is the knowledge-where should I put it?” Findings from a study of how knowledge spaces are used within a support group  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to design useful knowledge media spaces for knowledge workers it is essential that we understand the nature of the work conducted and the knowledge applied in real settings. The paper reports from a study of how a group of quality assurance specialists in the pharmaceutical industry gather, structure and distribute information and knowledge. Based on the findings, a number of overall requirements for knowledge media spaces are identified and discussed. The essential findings were tha...

Carstensen, P. H.; Snis, U.

2010-01-01

356

Knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge in school  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of school knowledge from the point of view of scientific knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge. The starting point is that neither school nor curricula pay attention to what knowledge is, what types of knowledge there are, and what kind of relationship exists between knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge. The first part offers an answer to the question what knowledge is. In the second part presented are some theoretical viewpoints on knowledge: gnoseological, sociological and psychological. The third part deals with the notions of ignorance and "faulty" knowledge. Pointed out are some forms of mystical ignorance. The forms of faulty knowledge are: erroneous notions, prejudices, illusions. In the final part, the author considers their relationship in school education. The starting point is that ignorance is a predecessor of any knowledge. The difference between knowledge, ignorance and faulty knowledge exists in every system of school education, but differs in extent and mode when it comes to nature, society, man and art. The author maintains that school should not be defined as an absolute carrier of knowledge, or the system of foolproof knowledge that the student should acquire uncritically. Instead of absolute confidence in scientific knowledge, the paper concludes with suggesting the option of an "elastic form" of school knowledge. This is a type of knowledge which, in its programme, counts on both ignorance and faulty knowledge and their differing roles in studying and real life of students.

Avramovi? Zoran

2007-01-01

357

Impact of Educational Intervention Regarding Mosquito Borne Diseases and Their Control Measures among The Link Workers of Urban Health Centers (UHCs) of Ahmedabad City  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: In urban area link workers are playing key role in implementing anti-larval measures and behaviour change communication at community level to prevent and control mosquito borne diseases. Objectives: To check baseline knowledge of link workers regarding mosquito borne diseases and control measures and assess their knowledge 14 days after single educational interventional training. Methodology: All 274 link workers of 17 selected UHCs out of total 57 UHCs were taken as study populat...

Prajapati Arpit; Parikh Sonal,; Fancy Manish; Dv, Bala

2012-01-01

358

Workers' Education and the ILO  

Science.gov (United States)

In its concern to eliminate the imbalance between social and economic development, the International Labour Organisation has two objectives in its workers' education activities: to help workers protect themselves against the harmful effects of our technological society; and to strengthen their ability to discharge their social responsibilities.…

Guigui, Albert

1970-01-01

359

Human Resources Management in the Knowledge Management  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Knowledge is increasingly claimed to be a key critical resource and source of competitive advantage in the modern global economy, especially with the rise of the service economy, the growth in the number of 'knowledge workers', the increasingly rapid flow of global information, and the growing recognition of the importance of intellectual capital and intellectual property rights. Knowledge, with its intangible aspects, is becoming a defining characteristic of economic activities, as opposed to tangibles such as goods, services or production processes. The rise of the knowledge economy has seen a proliferation of information and communication technologies, coupled with greater organizational complexity, the growth of virtual and global organizations and rapid change. This in turn requires drastic change within HRM to respond to changing demands of the knowledge economy.

Dan POPESCU

2008-01-01

360

Collective Learning in the Workplace: Important Knowledge Sharing Behaviours  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we identify a set of learning practices adopted by knowledge workers as they learn at work. We examine how key knowledge sharing behaviours: consuming, connecting, creating and contributing knowledge, are associated with these learning practices. Each learning practice brings together a combination of these components to form a distinct learning pathway, providing a baseline for rethinking combinations of practices for more effective learning and development in the workplace.

Allison Littlejohn

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
361

[Cutaneous allergy in construction workers].  

Science.gov (United States)

Nine hundred building trade workers and 4372 office workers (from a database of 16267 patients) with suspected allergic dermatitis, underwent patch tests. The associations between patch test results and occupations were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. As expected, building trade work was significantly associated with chromium sensitization (OR 1.55; 95% IC 1.22-1.97), a well known occupational hapten in this occupational group. An increased risk for epoxy resin sensitization (OR 3.80; 95% IC 2.11-6.86) and thiuram mix sensitization (OR 1.69; 95% IC 1.07-2.65) was also found in the construction workers. Epoxy resin is a strong skin sensitizer widely used in building trade, while thiuram mix is often present as an additive in the rubber gloves used by construction workers. These findings suggest that effective measures to prevent allergic contact dermatitis are needed in the construction workers. PMID:23405606

Rui, F; Bovenzi, M; Prodi, A; Filon, F Larese

2012-01-01

362

Coal workers' pneumoconiosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper analyzes the CT manifestations of coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) and to evaluate the contribution of CT compared with chest radiography in estimating disease severity. A total of 170 chest CT scans were obtained in two groups of miners with (n = 86) or without (n = 84) compensation for CWP concomitantly evaluated by conventional posteroanterior and lateral radiography. The CT signs (micronodules, nodules, progressive massive fibrosis, emphysema, honeycomb pattern, and lymph nodes) were derived from the International Pathologic Classification of CWP and were prospectively evaluated with standard and high- resolution CT. The CT scans were compared with the International Labour Office (ILO) 1980 classification grading system of the chest radiographs with an adaptation of the ILO classification

1990-11-25

363

Internal Dosimetric Calculations for Occupationally Exposed Workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Internal radiation dosimetry calculations are very important to estimate the benefit and the risk of radiation in nuclear medicine field for both patient and worker. MIRD scheme and ICRP model have valid methods in this type of calculations. In this work, a new program called WIRDST the Workers Internal Radiation Dosimetry Simulation for Thyroid gland has been built up by using the Monte Carlo (MC) method to simulate the internal exposure of sodium iodide by inhalation for workers. The working conditions have been taken as the same as found in the hot laboratory of nuclear medicine unit in the National Cancer Institute in Cairo University. The point source equivalent model as a parameterization equation has developed newly by using the fitting model of MC method for uniform distribution of radioactive sodium iodide in the thyroid gland. This model is used for the first time in this type of calculation, and then applied on 3 D coordinates of mathematical geometry for the adult phantom of the reference man. The latest parameters (anatomical data and inhalation metabolic data) of ICRP pamphlets and recommendations have been used in this purpose. Moreover, the latest scheme for iodine decay mode and the latest geometry model for thyroid gland are used also. The results showed that the specific effective energy and the effective dose decrease from the thyroid gland to the nearest organs then decrease gradually until terminated in the organs that have large distance from the thyroid. The Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) has been calculated for a wide range of thyroid uptake (5%, 15%, 25%, 35%, 45%, and 55%) in addition to change of the working time order per week in one year. The results showed that the critical point of intake limits are decreased when the thyroid uptake is increased and/or the number of working time in the hot laboratory per week is increased

2005-04-01

364

Why should I share my knowledge? A multiple foci of commitment perspective  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Knowledge-intensive firms need to leverage their individual knowledge assets via knowledge sharing to create collective knowledge resources. This process is, however, in the control of the knowledge worker. We explore this personal and emotive quality of knowledge sharing by asking: â??How does employee commitment impact on knowledge sharing?â?? We study professional service firms operating in cross-boundary environments and examine the impact of commitment to the organisation, profession, team and client on knowledge sharing. The article contributes directly to our understanding of the interrelationship between (a) the types and foci of commitment and (b) bidirectional knowledge sharing.

Swart, Juani; Kinnie, Nicholas

2014-01-01

365

Unitizing worker expertise and maximizing the brain reward centers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

People are experts when it comes to the work they do; unfortunately their expertise is not utilized as frequently as it could be. More opportunities need to be provided that allow people to participate in the design of their work including: accident investigations, job planning, and process improvements. Many employers use some form of job hazard analysis process to identify and document hazards and controls, but the front line worker is rarely involved. This presentation will show the core principles supporting employee involvement, provide examples where workers had brilliant ideas but no one listened, and provide examples where workers were given the opportunity to use their expertise to improve occupational safety. According to Abraham Maslow's Hierarch of Needs model, one essential human need is to be innovative and solve problems. Advances in brain science have proven, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, the brain reward pathway is activated when people are recognized for their intellectual contributions. As people contribute their expertise to improve occupational safety more frequently they will feel a sense of gratification. In addition, safety professionals will have more time to spend on strategic planning of emerging occupational safety issues. One effect of the current global recession is that SH&E professionals are asked to do more with less. Therefore, to be successful it is essential that SH&E professionals incorporate worker expertise in job planning. This will be illustrated in the presentation through an example where a worker had the answer to a difficult decision on appropriate personal protective equipment for a job but no one asked the worker for his idea during the job planning phase. Fortunately the worker was eventually consulted and his recommendation for the appropriate personal protective equipment for the job was implemented before work began. The goal of this presentation is to expand the awareness and knowledge of SH&E professionals on the benefits and opportunities for leveraging brain science. This will include an overview of the components of the brain reward pathway and the biological mechanisms that make workers feel a sense of gratification when they contribute their ideas toward improving occupational safety. On-the-job examples where it is hypothesized that the brain reward pathway was activated in workers will be provided. Finally, the presentation will include a model illustrating the importance of empowering workers to participate in occupational safety programs. SH&E professionals can use this model to maintain a robust safety and health program with limited resources. The model will also help SH&E professionals prepare for challenges in the SH&E fields by showing them how to allocate more time for strategic planning of emerging issues. Many recent best selling business books such as Wikinomics, Crowdsourcing, and Sway, illustrate how the benefit of harnessing the collective knowledge of employees is a key to company success. Companies like Google and Pixar have mastered the ability to capture empFoyee knowledge in terms of technology. Why should occupational safety be any different? Workers know how to improve safety in their workplace. SH&E professionals can harness this collective safety knowledge just as top companies do with technology, and workers will feel grateful for contributing.

Martinez, Anthony Bert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

366

Personal monitoring and assessment of doses received by radiation workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Personal Radiation Monitoring Service operated by the Australian Radiation Laboratory is outlined and the types of monitors used for assessment of doses received by radiation workers are described. The distribution of doses received by radiation workers in different occupational categories is determined. From these distributions, the average doses received have been assessed and the maximum likely additional increase in cancer deaths in Australia as a result of occupational exposure estimated. This increase is shown to be very small. There is, however, a considerable spread of doses received by individuals within occupational groups

1981-01-01

367

Medical Surveillance for Former Workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997. After excluding current workers, construction workers, and deceased workers, the total estimated number of former workers eligible for screening was 72,611. By September, 2006, 53,010 workers had been contacted, 20,298 responded, 2,835 were eligible and authorized, and 2,773 workers were ultimately screened. The cohort was 80% male, 85% white, and had a mean age of 63 years (range 24-96 years) at the time of first exam. Participants completed an occupational health history survey prior to the medical exam. Former Hanford workers were considered eligible for an exam if they reported exposure to asbestos, beryllium, or noise, or if a review of their Hanford work history indicated possible or probable exposure to one of these three hazards. We also invited any former Hanford worker who requested an exam to participate, regardless of documentation of exposure. The screening exam included a problem-focused physical exam, along with screening tests for one or more of three specific medical conditions: asbestosis (chest X-ray and spirometry), berylliosis (chest X-ray, spirometry, and beryllium-induced lymphocyte proliferation test), and NIHL (audiometry). We assisted ill workers in filing appropriate workers’ compensation claims, and facilitated appropriate follow-up medical care. This program has made an important contribution to the health of former DOE contractor workers at the Hanford defense nuclear site.

Tim Takaro

2009-05-29

368

Program Improvement Through Knowledge Utilization: Executive Summary.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report has been written with the following purposes: (1) To report the JVS Research Utilization Laboratory's conclusions about knowledge utilization in vocational rehabilitation. These conclusions are drawn from RUL's full 12 year history. They inclu...

A. Soloff P. Cheeks G. Burger R. Reeder

1981-01-01

369

Insulin Modifies Honeybee Worker Behavior  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The insulin signaling pathway has been hypothesized to play a key role in regulation of worker social insect behavior. We tested whether insulin treatment has direct effects on worker honeybee behavior in two contexts, sucrose response thresholds in winter bees and the progression to foraging by summer nurse bees. Treatment of winter worker bees with bovine insulin, used as a proxy for honeybee insulin, increased the bees’ sucrose response threshold. Treatment of summer nurse bees with bovine insulin significantly decreased the age at which foraging was initiated. This work provides further insight into the role of endocrine controls in behavior of in honeybees and insects in general.

Christine M. Mott

2012-10-01

370

Stirling Laboratory Research Engine Survey Report.  

Science.gov (United States)

As one step in expanding the knowledge relative to and accelerating the development of Stirling engines, NASA, through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is sponsoring a program which will lead to a versatile Stirling Laboratory Research Engine (SLRE). ...

F. W. Hoehn J. W. Anderson

1979-01-01

371

Studies on osmotic fragility of red blood cells determined with a coil planet centrifuge for workers occupationally exposed to lead  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several clinical laboratory examinations were performed on 27 male workers employed in a scrap lead refining factory using as controls 40 male workers employed in railway construction. The examinations included measurement of red blood cell and reticulocyte counts, hematocrit, MCV, blood and urine lead concentrations, urine coproporphyrin, and urine delta-aminolevulinic acid. The results were: Osmotic fragility of red blood cells was lower in lead workers at all three hemolytic points compared with the controls. Significant difference was observed in hemolysis of the maximum point. The red blood cell and reticulocyte counts, hematocrit value and MCV of the lead workers were not significantly different from those of the controls. Values for blood and urine lead, coproporphyrin, and delta-aminolevulinic acid of the lead workers were much higher than those of the controls. In lead workers, close relationships between the osmotic fragility and these laboratory findings were observed.

Karai, I.; Fukumoto, K.; Horiguchi, S.

1981-06-01

372

An investigation of the acquisition and sharing of tacit knowledge in software development teams  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge in general, and tacit knowledge in particular, has been hailed as an important factor for successful performance in knowledge-worker teams. Despite claims of the importance of tacit knowledge, few researchers have studied the concept empirically, due in part to the confusion surrounding its conceptualisation. The present study examined the acquisition and sharing o f tacit knowledge and the consequent effect on team performance, through social interaction and the development of a tr...

Ryan, Sharon M.

2005-01-01

373

Knowledge cluster formation in Peninsular Malaysia: The emergence of an epistemic landscape  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Knowledge clusters are central places within an epistemic landscape, i.e. in a wider structure of knowledge production and dissemination. They have the organisational capability to drive innovations and create new industries. Examples of such organisations in knowledge clusters are universities and colleges, research institutions, think tanks, government research agencies and knowledge-intensive firms with their respective knowledge workers. The following paper will look at Malaysia and its p...

Evers, Hans-dieter; Nordin, Ramli; Nienkemper, Pamela

2010-01-01

374

Knowledge, work and subject in informational capitalism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"With the development of informational capitalism and the network society, globalization and informatization play an increasingly crucial role for understanding technology and society. Informatization describes a qualitative leap in technology development which opens up new dimensions of productivity by information modelling on the one hand, but which demands new forms of knowledge of information workers on the other hand. Work is becoming more flexible, but also more precarious and more pola...

Schmiede, Rudi; Berleur, Jacques; Nurminen, Markku I.; Impagliazzo, John

2006-01-01

375

Counselling on breastfeeding: assessing knowledge and skills.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Reported are the results of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of the WHO/UNICEF 40-hour course "Breastfeeding counselling: a training course". The course was conducted in a maternity hospital which provides care to a low-income population in a metropolitan area in São Paulo, Brazil. Health workers from 60 health units were randomly assigned to be either participants (20) or controls (40), and their breastfeeding knowledge and skills were assessed before and immediatel...

Rea, M. F.; Venancio, S. I.; Martines, J. C.; Savage, F.

1999-01-01

376

Governing knowledge work: transactional and transformational solutions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The literature on organization design is dominated by ideas and theories on how to manage manual work. This understanding is driven by a division of labor based on clear-cut responsibilities and by focusing on hierarchical organization structures like the U-form, M-form, and matrix. Governance mechanisms, for the most part, have been focused on transactional solutions, that is, on the monitoring of work behavior and monetary rewards. Today, knowledge workers dominate the workforce, and the in...

Frost, Jetta; Osterloh, Margit; Weibel, Antoinette

2010-01-01

377

Allergy to laboratory animals: an epidemiological study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A large cross sectional survey was carried out using a self administered questionnaire to examine the prevalence of laboratory animal allergy (LAA) and the factors associated with its development. Out of 5641 workers who were exposed to animals at 137 laboratory animal facilities in Japan, 23.1% had one or more allergic symptoms related to laboratory animals. The commonest symptom as rhinitis. About 70% of LAA subjects developed symptoms during their first three years of exposure. Atopy (past...

Aoyama, K.; Ueda, A.; Manda, F.; Matsushita, T.; Ueda, T.; Yamauchi, C.

1992-01-01

378

Evaluation of the external exposure of the workers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The semestral statistical results, according to the ESOREX evaluation model, regarding the collective professional exposure, for the years 2009 and 2010, are presented in the paper. The individual monitoring is accomplished by the Laboratory for Personnel and Environment Dosimetry. The measurements are performed with two parallel dosimetric systems: thermoluminescent and dosimetric film based detectors, or with one of them. The surveyed workers are from IFIN-HH and from external units. When both dosimetric systems were used in parallel, the results are comparable. For the units using a single dosimeter, the semestral survey obtained result is: for 90% of workers, the dose equivalent Hp (10) was within the interval 0.5 - 1.0 mSv, with a value of collective dose of (160-180) mSv. For the remaining 10% of workers, a relatively uniform distribution was found. (authors)

2011-10-18

379

Worker honeybee brain proteome.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large-scale mapping of the worker honeybee brain proteome was achieved by MudPIT. We identified 2742 proteins from forager and nurse honeybee brain samples; 17% of the total proteins were found to be differentially expressed by spectral count sampling statistics and a G-test. Sequences were compared with the EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) catalog set using BLASTX and then categorized into the major KOG categories of most similar sequences. According to this categorization, nurse brain showed increased expression of proteins implicated in translation, ribosomal structure, and biogenesis (14.5%) compared with forager (1.8%). Experienced foragers overexpressed proteins involved in energy production and conversion, showing an extensive difference in this set of proteins (17%) in relation to the nurse subcaste (0.6%). Examples of proteins selectively expressed in each subcaste were analyzed. A comparison between these MudPIT experiments and previous 2-DE experiments revealed nine coincident proteins differentially expressed in both methodologies. PMID:22181811

Hernández, Liudy G; Lu, Bingwen; da Cruz, Gabriel C N; Calábria, Luciana K; Martins, Natalia F; Togawa, Roberto; Espindola, Foued S; Yates, John R; Cunha, Ricardo B; de Sousa, Marcelo V

2012-03-01

380

Coal mine workers` pneumoconiosis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fibrogenic and cytotoxic potential of coal mine dust is independent of the amount of quartz and other inorganic parameters. Results of coal petrographical and organic geochemical investigations of coals and coal mine dust from the Ruhr and Ibbenbueren Region of Germany demonstrate variations of organic dust amount possibly influencing these noxious properties. Coal mine dust of high rank coals is characterized by a pronounced fibrogenic risk. This risk, independent of the quantity of quartz, is probably based on shape variations of different coal macerals. With increasing coalification of the corresponding seam, the vitrinite is enriched in its dust; however, lower concentrations have been determined for inertinite. Vitrinite shows constant shapes and sizes independent of the rank of coal. Inertinite particles with elongated to fibrous shapes tend to larger sizes with increasing coalification. Strikingly, coal mine dust from miners` lungs with high degrees of coal mine workers` pneumoconiosis (CWP) is enriched in inertinite. In contrast, high cytotoxicities in cell tests are known for coal mine dust from low coalfield coals. High concentrations of phenolic compounds can be extracted by dichloromethane from low coalfield coal mine dust. These compounds, which are characterized by a high water solubility and therefore high bioavailability, explain the high cytotoxicities of coal mine dust. Contamination of dust by diesel emissions in the coal mine can act as additionally supporting parameters for extended cytotoxicities. (orig.)

Schulz, H.M. [Baltic Sea Research Inst., Dept. of Marine Geology, Rostock (Germany); Hagemann, H.W. [Dept. of Geology, Geochemistry and Deposits of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen Univ. of Technology (Germany); Wolf, M. [Dept. of Geology, Geochemistry and Deposits of Petroleum and Coal, Aachen Univ. of Technology (Germany); Brammertz, A. [Dept. of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Aachen Univ. of Technology (Germany); Einbrodt, H.J. [Dept. of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Aachen Univ. of Technology (Germany)

1997-03-01