Full Text Available The empirical research of this paper deals with knowledge workers in Romanian organizations from different fields of activity, with the purpose of distinguishing them from other types of employees and clarifying their profile and individual characteristics. Also, the paper presents the most important challenges concerning the knowledge workers’ management: identifying, developing and evaluating knowledge workers, motivating and rewarding them, as well as describing specific structure of the organizations that rely mostly on knowledgeable workforce. The findings of the research represent an important factor in developing future efficient human resources strategies and practices regarding workers that fuel the knowledge economy.
Rutty, G N; Honavar, M; Doshi, B.
In 1989 an increased risk of cancer, with a higher than expected incidence of brain tumours, was reported in laboratory workers at the Pasteur Institute, Paris. Three cases of primary brain tumours occurring in three laboratory workers from one laboratory in a district general hospital also came to light. Although this may have been due to coincidence or geographic clustering, the need for stringent safety standards in all laboratories is reiterated, and it is proposed that a national registe...
Laboratory training is a proven method of providing and evaluating hands on skills and knowledge. In an attempt to maximize the effectiveness of radiation worker training of craft personnel, a program consisting of classroom training coupled with a novel laboratory mock-up was generated utilizing the ingenuity of technical skills trainers while minimizing cost. Program development and the results of trainee feedback are presented
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Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is the creation of model of knowledge of the worker of the enterprise and the concept of the market of knowledge of the enterprise and the market of knowledge of a society of knowledge. To purpose achievement it is applied complete-approach of Telemtaev M.M. The contradiction between the market in environment of the enterprise and absence of the market in the internal environment of the enterprise is shown. The role of capitalization of knowledge is shown. A number of new results is received. The general model of knowledge of the worker of the enterprise, and three private models of knowledge of the worker entering into it are developed. The Principle of complete-thinking and practice of the worker and the Principle of the organic replenishments of knowledge of the worker are formulated. It is established that a kernel of complete model of knowledge of the worker is set «ability and skill». The concept of technology of the market of knowledge of the enterprise is developed. As a methodological basis of technology of the market of knowledge the Law of industrialization of knowledge, the Law of mechanization of knowledge, the Law technologization knowledge, the Principle of enrichment of knowledge are formulated. Conditions of interaction of the worker and knowledge - PMK-literacy of the worker and FPI-availability of knowledge are established. The received results are sufficient for construction of base models of knowledge of workers and the concept of the market of knowledge of the concrete enterprise that allows the enterprise to create strategy of effective application of knowledge of workers and to develop advancing strategy of occurrence in the market of a society of knowledge.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-35
Telemtaev Marat Makhmetovich
Full Text Available The main purpose of this work is the creation of model of knowledge of the worker of the enterprise and the concept of the market of knowledge of the enterprise and the market of knowledge of a society of knowledge. To purpose achievement it is applied complete-approach of Telemtaev M.M. The contradiction between the market in environment of the enterprise and absence of the market in the internal environment of the enterprise is shown. The role of capitalization of knowledge is shown. A number of new results is received. The general model of knowledge of the worker of the enterprise, and three private models of knowledge of the worker entering into it are developed. The Principle of complete-thinking and practice of the worker and the Principle of the organic replenishments of knowledge of the worker are formulated. It is established that a kernel of complete model of knowledge of the worker is set «ability and skill». The concept of technology of the market of knowledge of the enterprise is developed. As a methodological basis of technology of the market of knowledge the Law of industrialization of knowledge, the Law of mechanization of knowledge, the Law technologization knowledge, the Principle of enrichment of knowledge are formulated. Conditions of interaction of the worker and knowledge - PMK-literacy of the worker and FPI-availability of knowledge are established. The received results are sufficient for construction of base models of knowledge of workers and the concept of the market of knowledge of the concrete enterprise that allows the enterprise to create strategy of effective application of knowledge of workers and to develop advancing strategy of occurrence in the market of a society of knowledge.
Roelof, van Staden; Adeline, du Toit.
Full Text Available The demand for knowledge workers is on the increase, yet little is known about their career perceptions and attitudes. The objective of this article is to determine the factors affecting the career development of knowledge workers in South Africa. Part-time learners of a postgraduate course were use [...] d as a purposive sample and 82 completed questionnaires were received. The results of the online survey provide an interesting look at the unique career issues knowledge workers experience from a South African perspective. Issues identified dealt with the lack of importance placed upon organisational training, the lack of interest in temporary work assignments and the low importance placed on learning from mentors. Organisations need to take note of their reward structures as knowledge workers have indicated that promotions and rewards based on their knowledge is insufficient.
Salo, Joonas; Lehto, Pauliina
The aim of the thesis was to investigate whether routine knowledge worker efficiency is affected by physical workspace layouts. This research was conducted for X-Index, a company selling, renting and designing workspaces. Though the majority of their workspaces are currently industrial and cater to the manual worker, the authors wanted to provide X-Index with answers on office workspace design and its connections to employee efficiency. This will consequently help X-Index develop their busine...
This paper reviews existing literature on motivation and knowledge work, and empirical studies in different environments and industries on knowledge work and worker. It also surveys 150 Nigerian knowledge workers with diverse characteristics. It holds that the optimal strategies for managing and motivating knowledge workers are job redesign to increase the intrinsic motivational value of the jobs; competitive financial rewards, empowerment and flexibility, equity, fairness, respect and regard...
Full Text Available Outdoor workers are at high risk of developing skin cancer. Primary prevention can potentiallyreduce the incidence of skin cancer in this group. This study aimed to determine theknowledge and sun protective behaviour of outdoor workers towards skin cancer. A shortquestionnaire was used to collect data from workers on construction sites during workinghours. Despite workers having knowledge of the risks of skin cancer their use of sun protectionwas less than satisfactory, particularly considering their cumulative exposure.Workplace health education programs for outdoor workers addressing sun protection areindicated, as is further research to increase understanding of issues workers have withsun protection in the workplace.
Mitchell, Rebecca; Meacheam, David
Purpose: The growing prominence of knowledge workers in contemporary organisations has led to a considerable amount of research into their role and activities, however, despite this growing interest, there remains a lack of clarity regarding the relationship of knowledge workers to management. This paper aims to respond by investigating the…
Full Text Available Nel contesto di analisi delle condizioni di lavoro nell’era della conoscenza e delle tecnologie digitali, il nostro contributo vuole mettere l’attenzione sulle rappresentazioni dei/lle knowledge workers sulla progressiva ridefinizione dell’esperienza corporea, in direzione della perdita di rapporto con il corpo concreto, a favore di un corpo astrattamente inteso. Il discorso si colloca nella logica del “capitalismo tecno-nichilista”, inteso come “un sistema che, sfruttando la sistematica separazione tra le funzioni e i significati, si è progressivamente affermato quale modello di riferimento nel corso degli ultimi decenni”. La domanda di ricerca che ci poniamo in questo contributo è: in qual modo la precarizzazione del lavoro modifica le percezioni dei soggetti, e nello specifico dei lavoratori e delle lavoratrici della conoscenza, nella relazione con il proprio corpo? Nel discutere tale questione, intendiamo concentrarci non solo sugli effetti, ma anche sui processi e sulle relazioni sociali in cui i soggetti – e in varie forme anche le loro esperienze corporee – sono coinvolte.
Full Text Available Due to the expansion of crop productions there has been an increase in the fertilizersâ?? use by farmers in Malaysia. Recently Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP is gaining attention within agricultural sector. The Department of Agriculture facilitates regular delivery of SAP knowledge to farmers through extension workers. However extension workersâ?? perceptions and knowledge on SAP is not known well in Malaysia. A survey of extension workers was conducted in peninsular Malaysia to identify their perceptions and knowledge about SAP and determine the extent to which extension workers communicate SAP to the farmers. A descriptive research design was used to collect data from 400 extension workers. Results suggest extension workersâ?? perceptions and knowledge of SAP are favorable. Extension workers indicated that they communicate SAP information to the farmers. Further investigation from farmersâ?? perspectives is required to discover to what extent extension plays significant role in promoting adoption of the program.
Full Text Available This paper reviews existing literature on motivation and knowledge work, and empirical studies in different environments and industries on knowledge work and worker. It also surveys 150 Nigerian knowledge workers with diverse characteristics. It holds that the optimal strategies for managing and motivating knowledge workers are job redesign to increase the intrinsic motivational value of the jobs; competitive financial rewards, empowerment and flexibility, equity, fairness, respect and regard; a conducive environment that would enable them to bloom and exercise their intellect unhindered, including making mistakes and learning from it in a connected organisation; leadership practices that are responsive to their peculiarities; a leader that is a coach, mentor and enabler and who should be able to convincingly explain why a knowledge worker should agree to be managed by him, and an organizational structure that is devoid of undue bureaucracy and protocols and frees them for optimal performance.
Peishan Sun; Zhiping Fan; Xinbo Sun
The purpose of this paper is to study a synthetic evaluation for the knowledge worker of knowledge-based enterprise?Firstly?according to the concept and feature of knowledge worker and knowledge-based enterprise?analyzing the corroboration of index system?an index system involving virtue?intelligence?ability?key quality?performance are established. it offered a foundation for human resources management of knowledge-based enterprises.
Among the aspects discussed within the globalisation process, the international mobility of professional workers assumes considerable relevance. This paper focuses on migratory aspirations among knowledge workers within the context of economic globalisation and market restructuring in Romania. Due to a lack of literature dealing with these issues,…
Jing Wang; Lanxia Zhang
Firstly, this paper identifies the connotation of knowledge workers, and analyzes the features of knowledge workers. Secondly, it establishes an indexation system to evaluate the 5 parts incentive ability, as contains the parts of environment incentive, reward incentive, work incentive, institution incentive and affection incentive. Thirdly, it gives a model of hierarchical fuzzy comprehensive evaluation. Finally, the validity of the model is also shown by an example.
Neda Tiraieyari; Azimi Hamzah; Bahaman Abu Samah; Jegak Uli
Due to the expansion of crop productions there has been an increase in the fertilizersâ?? use by farmers in Malaysia. Recently Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP) is gaining attention within agricultural sector. The Department of Agriculture facilitates regular delivery of SAP knowledge to farmers through extension workers. However extension workersâ?? perceptions and knowledge on SAP is not known well in Malaysia. A survey of extension workers was conducted in peninsular Malaysia to ide...
E. Meijer; Grobbee, D.; Heederik, D.
Objectives: To determine whether results from questionnaires, exposure measurements, and laboratory tests, commonly used in occupational health practice, can predict the presence or absence of sensitisation in workers exposed to high molecular weight (HMW) allergens. The study aims to develop and validate a diagnostic rule to predict sensitisation in laboratory animal workers. The main reason for such research is efficiency.
Full Text Available Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview . Results: The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (?10.7. When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s, all the workers agreed that dye(s will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE such as rubber hand gloves during work. Conclusion: The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.
Khoury, A E
Ulrich in the forward to the Zenger and Folkman (2002) book, ''The Extraordinary Leader'', wrote about the importance of character in leadership stating, ''Everything about great leaders radiates from character. Character improves the probability of exhibiting strong interpersonal skill. Some of this perceived character is innate . . . but more is driven by the leader's self-awareness and interactions with others'' (p. ix). The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leadership effectiveness and character using leader-managers of knowledge workers as the subject sample. Findings indicated that character, particularly those factors associated with honesty, setting the example, and valuing and strengthening others, were what set the most effective leader-managers apart from their peers. Technical competence and self-efficacy were found to be common characteristics of the study sample as was a drive for results. Who a leader-manager is, his/her substance, was found in this study to differentiate the ''best'' leader-managers at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By their character, leader-managers establish the environment in which knowledge workers contribute and grow. As found by Pfeiffer (2000), Leaders of companies that experience smaller gaps between what they know and what they do (to turn knowledge into action), understand that their most important task is not necessarily to make strategic decisions, or, for that matter any decisions at all. Their task is to help build systems of practice that produce a more reliable transformation of knowledge into action. Leaders create environments, reinforce norms, and help set expectations through what they do. (p. 261) In other words, as confirmed by this research study, their task is to model the way. Study results also confirmed Ulrich's (1996) supposition that to create the ''air'' in which employees work, leaders have the personal characteristics that engender trust and commitment. In other words, as study results confirmed, the most effective leader-managers establish trusting relationships and strengthen others--they enable others; and, are just, fair, sincere, and recognize contributions--they encourage the heart. Based on study findings, the leadership development model proposed was founded on the premise that character can be developed, particularly if done so through assessment and challenging assignments, with coaching, mentoring, and peer network support. However, development of character requires a shift in our leadership development programs. What causes this shift is a focus on learning by doing through challenging assignments and teaching others rather than learning through event focused assessment and course work. Character cannot be learned in the classroom; it needs to be developed through experience and then learned by feedback, reflection, coaching, and teaching others. Study findings indicated that knowledge workers want to be encouraged, believed in and lead by those they trust to inspire them to accomplish the goals and objectives of the organization. To cause a workforce to generate intellectual capital for the organization, study findings found that the leader-manager's ''character'' does make a difference.
Objective of the Study The objective of the study was to discover how knowledge workers use electronic working environments (EWEs) to share and communicate knowledge and what are the perceived benefits using EWEs. The case company is a knowledge intensive company operating in sales consulting. Knowledge sharing practices were studied within the case company in order to answer the following research questions 1) How do the employees use EWEs? 2) How do they share knowledge using the EWE...
Kopecka, J.A.; Santema, S.C.; Hultink, H.J.
The paper forms part of a multiple case study in progress that focuses on information relationships, i.e., the exchange of information and knowledge at the micro-social level between supplier and buyer firms in the fuzzy front end of product development. The micro-social level is made up of dyadic information relationships between the Design Engineer of buyer firms and the Sales Engineer of supplier firms. The case study explores the information relationship through the lens of three theoreti...
Osterloh, Margit; Frey, Bruno S.
"The most influential approach of corporate governance, the view of shareholders supremacyndoes not take into consideration that the key task of modern corporations is to generate andntransfer firm-specific knowledge. It proposes that, in order to overcome the widespreadncorporate scandals, the interests of top management and directors should be increasinglynaligned to shareholder interests by making the board more responsible to shareholders, andnmonitoring of top management by independent o...
Paramasivam Parimalam; Raghavan Premalatha; Srinivasan Padmini; Kumar Ganguli
Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and f...
Bolis, Ivan; Brunoro, Claudio; Sznelwar, Laerte Idal
Based on the concepts of sustainability and knowledge management, this article seeks to identify points of contact between the two themes through an exploratory study of existing literature. The first objective is to find, in international literature, the largest number of papers jointly related to the theme of knowledge management and sustainability. In these documents, the authors looked at the kind of relationship existing between the two themes and what the benefits introduced in organizations are. Based on an ergonomic point of view, the second objective of this article is to analyze the role of the worker (whether at the strategic or operational level) and his importance in this context. The results demonstrate that there is very little literature that addresses the two themes together. The few papers found, however, can be said to show the many advantages of introducing sustainability policies supported by adequate knowledge management. Very little has been studied with regards to the role of workers, which could be interpreted as meaning that little importance is given to the proactive role they may play. On the other hand, there is a high potential for future research in these areas, based on the high level of consideration of workers in knowledge management and sustainability literature, as well as in literature in the areas of ergonomics and sociology. PMID:22317131
Medcalf, Sharon; Bilek, Laura; Hartman, Teresa; Iwen, Peter C; Leuschen, Patricia; Miller, Hannah; O'Keefe, Anne; Sayles, Harlan; Smith, Philip W
To evaluate the need to revaccinate laboratory workers against smallpox, we assessed regular revaccination at the US Laboratory Response Network's variola testing sites by examining barriers to revaccination and the potential for persistence of immunity. Our data do not provide evidence to suggest prolonging the recommended interval for revaccination. PMID:26196153
Bilek, Laura; Hartman, Teresa; Iwen, Peter C.; Leuschen, Patricia; Miller, Hannah; O’Keefe, Anne; Sayles, Harlan; Smith, Philip W.
To evaluate the need to revaccinate laboratory workers against smallpox, we assessed regular revaccination at the US Laboratory Response Network’s variola testing sites by examining barriers to revaccination and the potential for persistence of immunity. Our data do not provide evidence to suggest prolonging the recommended interval for revaccination. PMID:26196153
Ola Edvin Vie
Full Text Available Managers in Research and development (R&D are in search of influence because knowledge workers valueautonomy and dislike direct supervision. The purpose of this article is to explore if and how leadership support isconnected to influence. Through interviews with knowledge workers, it is evident that they expect their managerto be supportive and take an interest in them as complete persons. Observations and interviews with managersreveal that they fulfill these expectations by engaging in listening and chatting. In addition, the data alsoillustrates that managers care about their employees. The analysis shows that manager’s activities of care canindeed be a source of social influence, illustrating close connection between emotion and influence. Thisintertwinement should inspire future research to look deeper and broader for potential sources of influence in theleadership process, but also to acknowledge the importance of leadership in the setting of innovation.
Female Community Knowledge Workers (CKWs) test the pilot for the Muth Helgeson Survey Tool (MHST) in the Kapchorwa, Uganda region. Over 130 CKWs were equipped with smart phones with the MHST application, which also incorporated small behavioural economics games using dice and coins. These CKWs physically visited over 5000 Ugandan farms, measuring farmers behaviours and attitudes regarding risk. The MHST is the largest study of Ugandan farms since 1991 and the first to use this methodology ...
Jalil Heidary, Dahooie; Abbas, Afrazeh; Seyed Mohammad Moathar, Hosseini; Mohammad Reza Ghezel, Arsalan.
Full Text Available The determination of the difficulty factor in knowledge work can be important for improving the performance of knowledge workers. In this article a regression model for investigating the difficulty of knowledge based activities (KBAs) is proposed. Four factors are considered in the model: Uncertaint [...] y, Variability of information, Amount of information and Level of skill and expertise. An empirical study based on 119 jobs from three different groups of knowledge workers (i.e. managerial, professional and clerical) shows that there are significant differences between the difficulty of the KBAs in managerial, clerical and professional jobs, and that managerial KBAs are more difficult than the KBAs of the other two groups. Furthermore, regression models indicate that Level of skill and expertise is the most influential factor in the difficulty of the KBAs in each of the three groups.
Full Text Available The traditional companies are built on familiar bedrock of buildings, plants, and inventories. Competitive advantage is viewed in terms of scale and volume stemming from high-capacity use of machine-based factories. Such an approach fails to recognize how the leverage of knowledge is becoming a key to long-term success. Nowadays, organizations must recognize that power resides in the minds of their best people, who are diffused throughout the business and the organizations are becoming more dependent on people than ever before. The recruitment and the employment of knowledge workers are becoming very important issues from Romanian managers. The competitiveness is the only chance to deal with a very challenging market, especially after European integration. In this paper we present the results of a survey of the opinions of Romanian managers about the most effective strategies for recruitment, motivation and retention the knowledge workers. The study investigated two groups of managers: the first group included the managers who never were involved in activities related to human resources, and the second, the managers who have been involved. The managers from the first group chose theoretical the strategies they considered most effective; the managers for the second group indicated the strategies they applied.
Full Text Available Many studies have been performed previously to investigate different theories of motivation and, more specifically, how to motivate technical professionals. Through a questionnaire survey carried out on 376 development engineers, identified as “knowledge workers” by managers in their firms, this study identifies what methods are used in industry to motivate these individuals, what works and what does not. While many aspects of standard incentives and reward systems used to motivate technical professionals in general are also motivating for technical visionaries, these results indicate that they are motivated by additional factors not generally discussed in the literature.
Alberto, Petronio; Pierluigio, Colacino.
Full Text Available Many studies have been performed previously to investigate different theories of motivation and, more specifically, how to motivate technical professionals.Through a questionnaire survey carried out on 376 development engineers, identified as "knowledge workers" by managers in their firms,this study [...] identifies what methods are used in industry to motivate these individuals, what works and what does not.While many aspects of standard incentives and reward systems used to motivate technical professionals in general are also motivating for technical visionaries, these results indicate that they are motivated by additional factors not generally discussed in the literature.
Yumei Wang; Zhen Zhu; Qing Cong
Knowledge workers are gradually becoming the most valuable and productive part of employees, but their intrinsic characters lead to their high turnover rate. As viewed from the theory of psychological contract, this article analyzes the flow process of knowledge workers, establishes the employee satisfaction model and finds out that one important reason inducing knowledge workers’ high turnover rate is to ignore and breach their psychological expectations. Based on that, this article also put...
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the level of the workers’ knowledge and their function regarding the care of lumbar spine. Some researchers have reported that increased knowledge of the workers, even when they have received specific training, does not cause any major changes in their back’s health and function. However, some research has shown a significant relationship between increased knowledge and improved worker function. Other research has shown that Back School instruction is effective in raising the level of knowledge in workers. This research was carried out using two questionnaires that assessed the level of knowledge and function of workers in a car company. The questions were designed in four groups relating to: (1 goods and load properties and methods of carrying and handling, (2 worker’s posture at work, (3 physical exertion, (4 tools and conditions of the workplace. Measures of outcome included the workers' function and the knowledge. We found that the workers' knowledge fell into one of 3 categories: low (%11, moderate (57%, and high (%32. We also found that %52 of workers had weak function, while %18 had moderate, and %2 had high function levels. Twenty-eight percent of workers showed function levels below that of the “low” category. In brief , our research showed that the level of the workers’ knowledge of the appropriate methods of work in relation to their back was in an acceptable range. However, this function level was associated with low knowledge levels. No significant relationship was found between the workers’ knowledge levels and their functional improvement.
Kubo, I; Saka-Helmhout, A
The knowledge base of companies is increasingly seen as underlying a firm’s performance, and the role of knowledge workers within this framework is seen as strongly associated with a firm’s competitive performance. This perspective views the effective management of knowledge workers as crucial in sustaining an organisation’s competitive advantage. The paper views the financial industry as a knowledge intensive sector which nurtures the idea that financial firms rely on specialists’ knowledge ...
Full Text Available Knowledge workers are gradually becoming the most valuable and productive part of employees, but their intrinsic characters lead to their high turnover rate. As viewed from the theory of psychological contract, this article analyzes the flow process of knowledge workers, establishes the employee satisfaction model and finds out that one important reason inducing knowledge workers’ high turnover rate is to ignore and breach their psychological expectations. Based on that, this article also puts forward the countermeasures to reduce knowledge workers’ turnover rate by managing their psychological contracts.
Miller, S K; Bigelow, P L; Sharp-Geiger, R; Buchan, R M
Geotechnical laboratory testing involves the determination of the physical properties of soil, rock, and other building materials for engineering purposes. Individuals working in these laboratories are exposed to airborne soil, rock, and other dusts during the preparation and testing of these materials. Crystalline silica as quartz is a common constituent of these materials and represents a potential hazard to geotechnical laboratory workers when airborne as a respirable dust. The authors conducted an examination of the potential for geotechnical laboratory workers to be exposed to respirable dust and respirable quartz during the performance of three routine laboratory tasks. A task-based exposure assessment strategy was used. Although respirable dust was generated during the performance of each of these tasks, its impact on exposures was generally overridden by the presence of respirable quartz in the dust. Quartz content in the respirable dust ranged from below the detection limit to greater than 50 percent. Mean exposure to respirable quartz, based on the duration of the task and assuming no other exposures for the rest of the 8-hour day, exceeded the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) "action level" (the exposure level at which certain actions must be taken) of 0.025 mg/m3. If exposure was assumed to continue for the rest of the 8-hour day at the measured concentration, mean exposure to respirable quartz exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) time-weighted average (TWA), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) PEL, and the NIOSH REL. Seven percent of 57 individual task exposure measurements exceeded the TLV-TWA and the PEL, 18 percent exceeded the REL, and another 12 percent exceeded excursion limits as defined by ACGIH. The results of this study support the conclusion that geotechnical laboratory workers are potentially exposed to respirable crystalline silica as quartz at levels that may be harmful. Because the quartz content of the materials being tested in these laboratories is highly variable and is almost never determined prior to testing, all materials being tested in the geotechnical laboratory should be assumed to contain quartz. Appropriate controls should be used to protect workers from inhaling dusts generated from these materials. PMID:10730137
Kim, Jean H; Lo, Fung Kuk; Cheuk, Ka Kin; Kwong, Ming Sum; Goggins, William B.; Cai, Yan Shan; Lee, Shui Shan; Griffiths, Sian
In 2009, a cross-sectional survey of 360 poultry workers in Hong Kong, China, showed that workers had inadequate levels of avian influenza (H5N1) risk knowledge, preventive behavior, and outbreak preparedness. The main barriers to preventive practices were low perceived benefits and interference with work. Poultry workers require occupation-specific health promotion.
Vanthournout, Gert; Noyens, Dorien; Gijbels, David; Van den Bossche, Piet
Workplace learning is becoming a central tenet for a large proportion of today's employees. This seems especially true for so-called knowledge workers. Today, it remains unclear how differences in the quality of workplace learning are affected by differences in perception of the workplace environment and the motivation of knowledge workers to…
This paper describes the circumstances leading to the notification to the Worker's Compensation Board of Ontario of two cases of cancer, both involving the lymphatic and haematoporetic systems, in employees at Chalk River Nulcear Laboratories. Twenty of these neoplasms are known to have occurred in the CRNL population between 1966 and 1983. The leukemia/lymphoma ratio observed in the twenty neoplasms is similar to that found in populations not occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. The possible relationship between asbestos exposure and lymphoid neoplasms was discussed. 5 refs
Energy use per square foot from science research labs is disproportionately higher than that of other rooms in buildings on campuses across the nation. This is partly due to labs’ use of energy intensive equipment. However, laboratory management and personnel behavior may be significant contributing factors to energy consumption. Despite an apparent increasing need for energy conservation in science labs, a systematic investigation of avenues promoting energy conservation behavior in such labs appears absent in scholarly literature. This paper reports the findings of a recent study into the energy conservation knowledge, attitude and behavior of principle investigators, laboratory managers, and student lab workers at a tier 1 research university. The study investigates potential barriers as well as promising avenues to reducing energy consumption in science laboratories. The findings revealed: (1) an apparent lack of information about options for energy conservation in science labs, (2) existing operational barriers, (3) economic issues as barriers/motivators of energy conservation and (4) a widespread notion that cutting edge science may be compromised by energy conservation initiatives. - Highlights: ? Effective energy conservation and efficiency depend on social systems and human behaviors. ? Science laboratories use more energy per square foot than any other academic and research spaces. ? Time, money, quality control, and convenience overshadow personnel convenience overshadow personnel’s desire to save energy. ? Ignorance of conservation practices is a barrier to energy conservation in labs.
Objective: Objective of the present study is to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of universal work precautions amongst medical laboratory technicians in private hospitals. Methodology: Cross-sectional study of health care workers was conducted using a pretested self-administered questionnaire, which enquired about knowledge, attitude and practices of universal work precautions. The hepatitis B vaccination statuses were also asked. Results: 200 questionnaires were administered t...
As China has appeared only recently as an important knowledge producer with growing global economic significance, little is known internationally about how these processes develop and are managed within China. The rapidly expanding Chinese higher education system is playing an increasingly important role in China's knowledge economy and therefore…
Mei-Tai Chu; Rajiv Khosla
Communities of Practice (CoPs) provide a good medium for effective utilization of knowledge workers and group innovation in an organization. It is also an organizational instrument for developing competitive advantage based on chosen business strategy. For effective operation of CoPs and utilization of organizational resources business strategy and knowledge sharing attributes of knowledge workers play a key role in effective design of CoPs. Furthermore, to enable effective implementati...
Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward
This study analyzes the linkage between the travel behavior of knowledge workers and car-related job perks. The importance of this issue derives from the tendency of knowledge economy to concentrate in highly populated metropolitan regions. The analyzed data comprise 750 observations, retrieved from a survey among knowledge workers in Tel-Aviv. Results show that car-related job perks are associated with (1) high annual kilometrage, (2) increased commute by car, (3) long commute travel times, (4) high trip chaining frequency, and (5) many long-distance leisure trips. Results suggest that the development of sustainable knowledge-based cities should consider decoupling knowledge workers from car-related job perks. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Formaldehyde (FA) is a chemical traditionally used in pathology and anatomy laboratories as a tissue preservative. Several epidemiological studies of occupational exposure to FA have indicated an increased risk of nasopharyngeal cancers in industrial workers, embalmers and pathology anatomists. There is also a clear evidence of nasal squamous cell carcinomas from inhalation studies in the rat. The postulated mode of action for nasal tumours in rats was considered biologically plausible and considered likely to be relevant to humans. Based on the available data IARC, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, has recently classified FA as a human carcinogen. Although the in vitro genotoxic as well as the in vivo carcinogenic potentials of FA are well documented in mammalian cells and in rodents, evidence for genotoxic effects and carcinogenic properties in humans is insufficient and conflicting thus remains to be more documented. To evaluate the genetic effects of long-term occupational exposure to FA a group of 30 Pathological Anatomy laboratory workers was tested for a variety of biological endpoints, cytogenetic tests (micronuclei, MN; sister chromatid exchange, SCE) and comet assay. The level of exposure to FA was evaluated near the breathing zone of workers, time weighted average of exposure was calculated for each subject. The association between the biomarkers and polymorphic genes of xenobiotic metabolising and DNA repair enzymes was also assessed. The mean level of exposure was 0.44 ± 0.08 ppm (0.04-1.58 ppm). MN frequency was significantly higher (p = 0.003) in the exposed subjects (5.47 ± 0.76) when compared with controls (3.27 ± 0.69). SCE mean value was significantly higher (p < 0.05) among the exposed group (6.13 ± 0.29) compared with control group (4.49 ± 0.16). Comet assay data showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) of TL in FA-exposed workers (60.00 ± 2.31) with respect to the control group (41.85 ± 1.97). A positive correlation was found between FA exposure levels and MN frequency (r = 0.384, p = 0.001) and TL (r = 0.333, p = 0.005). Regarding the genetic polymorphisms studied, no significant effect was found on the genotoxic endpoints. The results of the present biomonitoring study emphasize the need to develop safety programs
Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon
This study focuses on the linkage between car-related fringe benefits and the travel behavior of knowledge workers in commute and leisure trips. Specifically, this study compares the commuting and leisure travel behavior of knowledge workers who receive either a company-car or car allowance with the travel behavior of workers who do not receive car-related fringe benefits. Data are based on a revealed-preferences survey among knowledge workers in Israel. Results show that car-related fringe benefits are associated with (i) high car ownership and car use intensity, (ii) long commute distances and travel times and non-sustainable transport modes, and (iii) high frequency of long-distance leisure trips. Policy implications include (i) directing policies towards reducing car ownership induced by car-related fringe benefits, (ii) encouraging company-car holders to ‘pay their way’, and (iii) encouraging workers to use sustainable transport modes for commuting and leisure travel.
A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted among employees of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Since 1943, this facility has been the site of energy-related research, including uranium and plutonium recovery and radioisotope production. Historical follow-up conducted for the years 1943 to 1977 for 8681 white males who had been employed for at least one month during the period 1943 to 1972. Vital status was ascertained for 90 percent of the cohort. Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were computed to contrast the workers' mortality experience with that of the US white male population. The observed number of 1017 deaths from all causes was 74 percent of that expected, a finding indicative of the healthy worker effect and the relatively high socioeconomic status of the cohort. The SMR for all cancers was 0.75 (195 observed vs. 261.3 expected). Mortality deficits were seen for non-malignant diseases of all major organ groups and for all site-specific malignancies except prostate cancer (SMR = 1.13), leukemia (SMR = 1.16) and Hodgkin's disease (SMR = 1.28). None of the elevations was statistically significant. There were no consistent trends of cause-specific mortality with either external or internal radiation exposure levels
Rajni Dhingra , Iesha Sharma And Priyanka Sharma
Full Text Available The present research was carried out to assess the Knowledge and Skills of Anganwadi workers (the keyfunctionary in the ICDS programme for delivery of services for conduct of preschool education activities inAnganwadi centres. A sample of 105 Anganwadi workers was randomly drawn from three urban blocks of Jammudistrict. The tools used for collecting information were Observation and Rating scales. Rating scale devised byNational Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development (NIPCCD for “Assessment of PreschoolEducation (PSE skills of Anganwadi workers” and self devised rating scale for “Assessing knowledge level ofAnganwadi workers” were used. The results of the study revealed that majority of the respondents had adequateknowledge regarding their roles and responsibilities in preschool education component of ICDS programme. Theconceptual understanding of respondents on the issues related to growth and development of child, age forpreschool education, teaching method and language to be used for communication was found to be in accordancewith child development theory. On the other hand, knowledge level of Anganwadi workers on the aspect ofimportance of early childhood, concept and need of preschool education were found inadequate. Regarding theskills of Anganwadi worker, it was found that the Anganwadi worker demonstrated good skills for communication,preparation of teaching aids, motivating and organising PSE activities, while they were optimal in other skills likeinteraction between Anganwadi worker and helper and several aspects related to knowledge across the selectedblocks. Knowledge and skills of Anganwadi workers were found to share high positive correlation (0.75 thusdepicting the interdependence of these two factors. The study has important implication for policy makers, trainersand staff of Anganwadi Training Centres (AWTCs particularly for improvement in knowledge and skills ofAnganwadi workers especially in view of large scale expansion of ICDS programme in India.
Krop, Esmeralda J M; Doekes, Gert; Stone, Martin J; Aalberse, Rob C; van der Zee, Jaring S
Background Family members of laboratory animal workers are at risk of developing allergy to laboratory animals. Little is known about the spreading of laboratory animal allergens outside the animal facilities. Objective To assess the presence of laboratory animal allergens in dust collected from mattresses of laboratory animal workers and unexposed controls. Methods Mouse and rat urinary proteins were measured in samples of mattress dust collected by laboratory animal workers and unexposed controls. In addition, rat and mouse allergens were determined in extracts of hair?covering caps, used during laboratory animal work, to estimate spreading of allergen through dust captured on hair. Allergen concentrations on hair caps were compared with exposure measured by personal airborne dust sampling. Results Levels of rat urinary allergens (RUA) and mouse urinary allergens (MUA) and mouse urinary protein (MUP) 8, a specific pheromone?binding mouse allergen, were significantly higher in mattress samples of laboratory animal workers than in those of controls. Hair?covering caps used in animal facilities harboured large amounts of RUA and MUA, which correlated significantly with exposure measured by the personal sampling technique in the animal facility. Conclusions Occupational laboratory animal allergens are detectable in mattress dust of laboratory animal workers. Transfer of allergens via uncovered hair of animal workers is likely contributing to this phenomenon. This study stresses the importance of using hair caps to prevent spreading of occupational allergens. PMID:17053016
Nieuwenhuijsen, MJ; Putcha, V; Gordon, S.; Heederik, D.; Venables, KM; CULLINAN, P; Newman-Taylor, AJ
AIM: To explore exposure-response relations in a cohort of laboratory animal workers. METHODS: Exposure-response modelling was carried out in a cohort of 342 laboratory animal workers. Three exposure indices, divided into different exposure categories, were used in the analyses: intensity of exposure to rat urinary aeroallergen (RUA, the main allergen workers were exposed to), weekly duration of exposure to rats, and the product of the intensity and weekly duration of exposure. Outcomes studi...
H Sanaei Nasab; Tavakoli, R; F. Ghofranipour; ** A (Ph.D) Kazemnejad; A Khavanin
"nBackground: Studies show that about 90% of accidents occur because of unsafe behavior and human errors. Even if workers do not have the right knowledge, attitude and behavior toward safety measures in a safe workplace, all efforts for an accident-free workplace will be in vain. This study aims to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and behavior of workers toward occupational health and safety."nMethods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on workers in Ma...
Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations are still structured according to the Industrial Age control model that restricts optimising the expertise of knowledge workers.Research purpose: The general aim of the research was to explore the organisation design elements and competencies that contribute to optimising the expertise of knowledge workers in a shared services centre.Motivation for the study: Current organisational design methodologies do not emphasise optimising the expertise of knowledge workers. This research addresses the challenge of how an organisation design can improve the creation and availability of the expertise of knowledge workers.Research design/approach method: The researcher followed a qualitative case study research design and collected data in six focus group sessions (N = 25.Main findings: The findings showed that the shared services centre (SSC is not designed to enable its structure, culture and codifying system to optimise the expertise of knowledge workers. In addition, the SSC does not share the knowledge generated with other knowledge workers. Furthermore, it does not use the output of the knowledge workers to improve business processes.Practical/managerial implications: The expertise of knowledge workers is the basis of competitive advantage. Therefore, managers should create an organisational design that is conducive to optimising knowledge work expertise.Contribution/value add: This research highlights the important organisational design elements and supportive organisational structures for optimising the expertise of knowledge workers. The research also proposes a framework for optimising the expertise of knowledge workers and helping an organisation to achieve sustainable competitive advantage.
The aim of the Handbook is to provide a source of information on radiation safety for those who are involved in the use of ionizing radiation in the laboratory. The potential reader may be a laboratory worker in the university or biomedical setting or the safety professional who desires a basic understanding of radiation protection within the research environment. The Handbook may be used as a reference by the radiation protection specialist or Radiation Safety Officer. To this end, liberal use is made of Appendices to make the Handbook a source of reference for a wide spectrum of readership while avoiding complicating the main body of the text. Each chapter or appendix is designed to stand alone. A complete reading of the Handbook will show that topics may be covered more than once. For example, one may read about the hazards and protective measures on handling radioiodine in Chapter 5 on Practical Radiation Protection as well as in Appendix 19 on Safe Handling of 125I. Extensive use of figures, rather than tables has been made to present data, in the belief that these produce a good visual representation to a level of precision which is sufficient for most purposes of radiation protection in laboratories. The reader must remember that this Handbook should be taken as a guide only to the applicable regulations. You must consult the appropriate state or federal regulation directly or receive advice of a qualified radiation safety professional. Also, some information in the Appendices, such as commercially available training institutions or radioactive waste brokers, may change with time. Telephone numbers are given for the reader to call directly and check the services provided
Full Text Available Objective: Objective of the present study is to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of universal work precautions amongst medical laboratory technicians in private hospitals. Methodology: Cross-sectional study of health care workers was conducted using a pretested self-administered questionnaire, which enquired about knowledge, attitude and practices of universal work precautions. The hepatitis B vaccination statuses were also asked. Results: 200 questionnaires were administered to laboratory technicians and 154 of them were returned giving a response rate of 77%. All the participants wear gloves during laboratory work but 81.2% wear a single pair. 17.5 % of the participants claimed to know what to do if exposed to infection. 45.6% of the participants eat in the laboratory, 47.0% of them store foods and water in the refrigerators, 31.5% of them put on cosmetics in the laboratory, 12.6% smoke in the laboratory, 10.0% cut their finger nails with teeth in the laboratory. 91.5% are not immunized against hepatitis B virus (HBV. 99.0% of them do not take shower immediately after laboratory work. 82.0% of the participants do not feel that the use of masks is necessary in laboratory. Conclusion: It is concluded that the knowledge, attitude, perception, and compliance with universal work precautions amongst laboratory technicians are poor. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 113-115
Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon
As knowledge-based economy is recognized as a powerful engine of economic growth and regional competitiveness, policy makers increasingly invest in branding their cities as knowledge-cities and focus on retaining and attracting knowledge-workers. Consequently, most studies related to the residential choice of knowledge workers focus on the inter-regional level, and empirical evidence regarding the residential choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level remains scarce. This study investigates the linkage between the residential choice of knowledge-workers and their lifestyle encompassing life-cycle stage, work-role and leisure activities, subject to economic and spatial constraints. The importance of this issue derives from the role of housing as key enabler for attracting and retaining knowledge-workers, and from evidence regarding the role of knowledge workers in promoting the contradictory trends of urban sprawl and inner city revitalization. The analysis consists of two stages. First, distinguishable clusters of knowledge-workers according to their lifestyle are identified by means of self-organizing maps (SOM) for pattern recognition and classification of multi-dimensional data. The applied method is a two-stage clustering process that comprises SOM followed by neural gas, Bayesian classification and distance matrix edge analysis. Following, the residential choice of these clusters is analyzed in terms of home ownership, location, building type, location and dwelling size. The analyzed data are retrieved from a custom designed revealed-preferences survey among workers in the high-technology and finance sector, who work and reside in the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area in Israel. Results identify five groups of knowledge workers that significantly differ in terms of lifestyle and residential choice: nest-builders, bon-vivants, careerists, entrepreneurs and laid-back. Bon-vivants and entrepreneurs largely prefer to reside in the metropolitan core, although they differ in terms of home ownership, dwelling size and building type. While bon-vivants rent small apartments, entrepreneurs tend towards owning large dwelling units and single detached houses. Careerists strongly prefer to own large single-detached houses in the middle and outer ring of the metropolitan area. Nest-builders exhibit strong preference for home ownership and large apartments or houses, and their main reason for suburban locating is the ability to reside in larger dwellings and single-detached houses. Laid-back trade-off between location and dwelling characteristics, although they exhibit weaker preferences towards home ownership, large dwellings and single detached houses than nest
Full Text Available Primary vaccine failures can occur after high immunization coverage has been achieved. Healthcare workers’ knowledge and practices are influential factors in preventing vaccine failures. Adequate knowledge and practices in the cold chain system are important to keep potency of vaccines and effectiveness of immunization. This cross-sectional study was performed to assess healthcare workers’ knowledge and practices regarding an expanded program on immunization and the cold chain system in Kalasin, Thailand. Data collection methods included interviews, observations and document audit. Ninety primary care units and 117 respondents were selected. Only 55.6% of respondents provided correct answers for questions regarding the immunization schedule of school children and 59.0% of respondents answered correctly for questions about Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine. Healthcare workers in hospitals had better knowledge than healthcare workers in health centers (P<0.001. Healthcare workers who had sufficient training had better knowledge than healthcare workers who had no training (P<0.001. Only 61.1% of primary care units recorded the temperature in the vaccine refrigerator twice a day and 63.3% of primary care units had a flowchart regarding what to do when there is an electric power failure. About 13% of vaccine refrigerators had temperatures outside the recommended range of 2 to 8°C. Practices in hospitals were also better than those in health centers (P=0.001. Knowledge and practices were significantly different between healthcare workers in hospitals and in health centers. Coverage training and regular supervision on vaccine handling and the cold chain system are recommended, especially for health centers in remote areas.
Orientation: In the global war for talent, companies competing in the new knowledge economy face global shortages of their most precious resource – human capital in the form of knowledge workers. In organisations that are at the forefront of the information age, such as information technology (IT) firms, the competitive advantage comes from the intangible value of the knowledge residing within pools of highly skilled employees. It is imperative to be able to attract, retain, and motivate thes...
Inada, Masanori; Sato, Mayumi; Yoneyama, Akiko
This paper discusses a knowledge management system for clinical laboratories. In the clinical laboratory of Toranomon Hospital, we receive about 20 questions relevant to laboratory tests per day from medical doctors or co-medical staff. These questions mostly involve the essence to appropriately accomplish laboratory tests. We have to answer them carefully and suitably because an incorrect answer may cause a medical accident. Up to now, no method has been in place to achieve a rapid response and standardized answers. For this reason, the laboratory staff have responded to various questions based on their individual knowledge. We began to develop a knowledge management system to promote the knowledge of staff working for the laboratory. This system is a type of knowledge base for assisting the work, such as inquiry management, laboratory consultation, process management, and clinical support. It consists of several functions: guiding laboratory test information, managing inquiries from medical staff, reporting results of patient consultation, distributing laboratory staffs notes, and recording guidelines for laboratory medicine. The laboratory test information guide has 2,000 records of medical test information registered in the database with flexible retrieval. The inquiry management tool provides a methos to record all questions, answer easily, and retrieve cases. It helps staff to respond appropriately in a short period of time. The consulting report system treats patients' claims regarding medical tests. The laboratory staffs notes enter a file management system so they can be accessed to aid in clinical support. Knowledge sharing using this function can achieve the transition from individual to organizational learning. Storing guidelines for laboratory medicine will support EBM. Finally, it is expected that this system will support intellectual activity concerning laboratory work and contribute to the practice of knowledge management for clinical work support. PMID:21706867
Rajni Dhingra , Iesha Sharma And Priyanka Sharma
The present research was carried out to assess the Knowledge and Skills of Anganwadi workers (the keyfunctionary in the ICDS programme for delivery of services) for conduct of preschool education activities inAnganwadi centres. A sample of 105 Anganwadi workers was randomly drawn from three urban blocks of Jammudistrict. The tools used for collecting information were Observation and Rating scales. Rating scale devised byNational Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development (NIPCCD) f...
Armstrong Gregory; Kermode Michelle; Raja Shoba; Suja Sujatha; Chandra Prabha; Jorm Anthony F
Abstract Background Unmet needs for mental health treatment in low income countries are pervasive. If mental health is to be effectively integrated into primary health care in low income countries like India then grass-roots workers need to acquire relevant knowledge and skills to be able to recognise, refer and support people experiencing mental disorders in their own communities. This study aims to provide a mental health training intervention to community health workers in Bangalore Rural ...
Mathiasen, Lisa; Morley, Katija; Chapman, Benjamin; Powell, Douglas
A training video was produced and evaluated to assess its impact on the food safety knowledge of agricultural workers. Increasing food safety knowledge on the farm may help to improve the safety of fresh produce. Surveys were used to measure workers' food safety knowledge before and after viewing the video. Focus groups were used to determine…
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing protectors (HP are widely employed as the only measure against noise exposure. However, it is well known that unless do workers wear HP continuously, its efficacy will be very low. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of risk perception, knowledge and safety attitude on hearing protection use in petrochemical industry's workers.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study a structural questionnaire was administrated to 236 randomly selected workers in Iranian petrochemical industry who had been to 85 dBA noise and some influencing factors including risk perception, knowledge and general attitude to safety on using of HP had been investigated.Results: This study showed that only 20.3% of employees claimed to wear hearing protection all the time when they exposed to noise. There was a significant relationship between use of hearing protector and worker's risk perception (p=0.048 and also their knowledge about hearing protection(p=0.009. Also, the relationship between general attitude of workers to safety and risk perception was statistically significant (p=0.046. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that for promoting the use of hearing protectors, two main strategy should be followed. First, removing the barriers to make hearing protectors compliant, and second enhancing the workers’ risk perception about hearing loss and proper use of ear protectors.
Full Text Available Coronary artery disease is one of the most common reasons of death around the world. Also, according to previous studies, the incidence of coronary artery disease is rapidly increasing in developing countries such as Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and practice of pharmaceutical company workers towards the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In this cross sectional study that was conducted in Tehran, 1223 workers of a pharmaceutical company were enrolled. Data was collected using a questionnaire that assessed the level of knowledge and practice of the participants towards coronary artery disease. Regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between study variables and the workers knowledge level. The results of this study showed that 49% of the workers were in a good level of knowledge and according to the regression analysis, the female gender, age above 28, education level higher than high school diploma, body mass index above 25 kilograms per square meters, history of hyperlipidemia, history of diabetes, history of hypertension, history of myocardial infarction, daily activity and exercise, were significantly related to a good knowledge towards coronary artery disease. In addition, the mean score of the participants' performance in preventing coronary artery disease was 4.66 out of 9. The results of this study showed that increasing level of knowledge of labors in order to prevent missing specialized work force, leads to imposition of health costs to the industry and the labor society.
Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward
This study investigates the residential location choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level by applying discrete choice models. The models represent housing choices of 833 knowledge-workers in high-technology and financial services and analyze the relative importance of lifestyle and cultural amenities in addition to classic location factors. Hence, the model bridges the gap between the recent lifestyle-oriented and the classical utility-oriented conceptualizations of the residential choice of knowledge-workers. The most important factors are municipal socioeconomic level, housing affordability and commuting time, while substantial secondary factors are cultural and educational land-use and culture-oriented lifestyle. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Erica Ferraz; Luisa Karla de Paula Arruda; Ericson Bagatin; Martinez, Edson Z.; Cetlin, Andrea A; Christian S. Simoneti; Freitas, Amanda S; Martinez, José A B; Borges, Marcos C; Elcio O. Vianna
OBJECTIVE: Subjects exposed to laboratory animals are at a heightened risk of developing respiratory and allergic diseases. These diseases can be prevented by simple measures such as the use of personal protective equipment. We report here the primary findings of the Laboratory Animals and Respiratory Allergies Study regarding the prevalence of allergic diseases among laboratory animal workers, the routine use of preventive measures in laboratories and animal facilities, and the need for prev...
Full Text Available Malaysia, being a multi-racial society, faces the challenges of creating knowledge sharing capability in organisations, as cultural values are often reflected in the workplace by individual employees. For organisations, it is not clear whether this diversity has resulted in any form of competitive advantage. Studies have shown that various communities in Malaysia do not bring their respective cultures to work, and as such the company values prevail. This research is based on the demographic study of Informal Knowledge Sharing in Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia. After twelve years, Cyberjaya is approximately 25% developed, gradually expanding with the establishment of multinational and international organizations. Several flagship applications have been developed in MSC Malaysia to accelerate its growth. However, the expertise and knowledge shared among the workers are doubtful, especially at its initial growth stage. As Knowledge Management (KM developed, Communities of Practice (Wenger, 1998 became popular, even dominant „KM? intervention. Soon it was supplemented with story-telling interventions encouraging knowledge workers to use stories to „sell? KM internally, share knowledge and facilitate collaboration. This study will focus on knowledge sharing among workers, particularly the approach used to share knowledge through informal communication outside their organizations.
Leilah Zahedi; Emma Sizemore; Stuart Malcolm; Emily Grossniklaus; Oguchi Nwosu
It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27) in the Central Plateau. The m...
Tang Jie; Gao Xiaohui; Yu Yizhen; Ahmed Niman; Zhu Huiping; Wang Jiaji; Du Yukai
Abstract Background In recent years, many studies have focused on adolescent's sex-related issues in China. However, there have been few studies of unmarried migrant females' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, which is important for sexual health education and promotion. Methods A sample of 5156 unmarried migrant female workers was selected from three manufacturing factories, two located in Shenzhen and one in Guangzhou, China. Demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and behavio...
BEDÜK, Tülin; ÜNLÜ, Hayriye; Duyan, Veli
To evaluate AIDS knowledge and risky sexual behaviors of registered female sex workers during their obligatory periodic examination in the Department of Dermatology and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Ankara Metropolitan Municipality Hospital. Materials and methods: A questionnaire composed of items on socio-demographic features and knowledge levels on HIV/AIDS, its transmission routes, and risky sexual behaviors was administered via face to face interviews. Results: One hundred four sex ...
Ivins, Tiffany Zenith
This dissertation examines localization of Open Educational Resources (OER) in Himalayan community technology centers of Nepal. Specifically, I examine strategies and practices that local knowledge-workers utilize in order to localize educational content for the disparate needs, interests, and ability-levels of learners in rural villages. This…
Lee-Kelley, Liz; Blackman, Deborah A.; Hurst, Jeffrey Peter
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate a relationship between learning organisation theory and the potential to retain knowledge workers. It emphasises that human resource (HR) managers must recognise specific relationships between learning organisation elements, job satisfaction facets and turnover intent as they emerge for their…
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, many studies have focused on adolescent's sex-related issues in China. However, there have been few studies of unmarried migrant females' sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, which is important for sexual health education and promotion. Methods A sample of 5156 unmarried migrant female workers was selected from three manufacturing factories, two located in Shenzhen and one in Guangzhou, China. Demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and behaviors were assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the factors associated with premarital sexual intercourse. Results The average age of the unmarried female workers included in the sample was 20.2 years, and majority of them showed a low level of sex-related knowledge. Females from the west of China demonstrated a significant lower level of sex-related knowledge than those from the eastern or central provinces (p p p Conclusion The unmarried migrant female workers lack sexual knowledge and a substantial proportion of them are engaged in premarital sexual behaviors. Interventions aimed at improving their sexual knowledge and related skills are needed.
Jenna T. Nakagawa
Full Text Available Background: The tendency for female sex workers to seek health care is highly influenced by physician attitudes and behavior. By identifying medical students' attitudes toward female sex workers and assessing their knowledge of barriers to seeking care, we can focus medical training and advocacy efforts to increase access to care and improve public health outcomes. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, medical students from various countries were invited to participate in an online survey with close-ended questions and Likert scale statements. Responses were quantified and knowledge and attitude scores were assigned based on knowledge of barriers to seeking care and agreement with positive and negative attitude statements. Results: A total of 292 medical students from 56 countries completed the survey, of whom 98.3% agreed that it will be their job to provide treatment to patients regardless of occupation. Self-identified religious students conveyed more negative attitudes toward female sex workers compared to those who did not identify themselves as religious (p<0.001. Students intending to practice in countries where prostitution is legal conveyed more positive attitudes compared to those intending to practice in countries where prostitution is illegal (p<0.001. Conclusion: Medical students largely agreed on the importance of providing care to female sex workers as a vulnerable group. In addition to addressing knowledge gaps in medical education, more localized studies are needed to understand the religious and legal influences on attitudes toward female sex workers. Such information can help focus the efforts in both medical education and communication training to achieve the desired behavioral impacts, reconciling the future generations of health care providers with the needs of female sex workers.
Yiou, Gong; Shaolin, Ye
Background: Resource-based view emphasizes that the competitive advantage of organization is built on two elements: resources and capabilities/competences, which are related to employees within it. And job-related stress is a phenomenon in workplace and a problem in employee satisfaction management. Aim: How are decision-making latitude in terms of autonomy, as the need of knowledge worker, and his/her job-related stress related? How is knowledge worker autonomy affected by middle level manag...
Full Text Available It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27 in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27 of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective “screen-and-treat” programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population.
Objectives: To assess knowledge, attitude and practices about needle stick Injuries in health care workers. Study type, settings and duration: Hospital based study carried out at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, from August 2010 to November 2010. Subjects and Methods: A self administered 19 items questionnaire was prepared which contained information about needle stick injuries, its awareness, frequency of injury and the protocols that were followed after an injury had occurred. These questionnaires were given to 500 health care workers working in different wards and theaters of the hospital after obtaining their informed written consent. The health care workers included doctors, nurses and paramedical staff of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 15. Results: A total of 500 health care workers filled the questionnaire and returned it. Out of these 416(83.2%) reported ever experiencing needle stick injuries in their professional life. Health care workers working in Emergency department were most frequently affected (65%) followed by those working in different wards (27%) and operation theatre (8%). Most (93.6%) workers had knowledge about needle stick injuries and only 6.4% were not aware of it. Needle stick injury occurred from a brand new (unused) syringe in 51.2% cases, while in 32.8% cases, the needle caused an injury after it had been used for an injection. In 5% cases, injury ocd for an injection. In 5% cases, injury occurred with blood stained needles. The commonest reasons for needle injury in stick injuries were heavy work load (36.8%) followed by hasty work (33.6%) and needle recapping (18.6%). About 66% health care workers were already vaccinated against hepatitis B. Only 13% workers followed universal guidelines of needle stick injuries and no case was reported to hospital authorities. Conclusions: Health care workers had inadequate knowledge about the risk associated with needle stick injuries and do not follow standard preventive measures. Policy message: A standard protocol regarding the training and compliance to follow preventive measures should be followed in all health care institutions. (author)
Daniel Olusoji J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ is still a leading cause of preventable brain damage, physical and mental handicap, and early death among infants in many communities. Greater awareness is needed among all health workers. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge of primary health care workers about the description, causes, effective treatment, and sequelae of NNJ. Methods The setting was a local government area i.e. an administrative district within the south-western part of Nigeria. Community health workers in this area were interviewed by means of a self-administered questionnaire which focused on awareness and knowledge of neonatal jaundice and its causes, treatment and complications. Results Sixty-six community health workers participated in the survey and male-to-female ratio was 1:5. Their work experience averaged 13.5 (SD 12.7 years. Only 51.5% of the respondents gave a correct definition of NNJ. 75.8 % knew how to examine for this condition while 84.9 % knew at least two of its major causes in our environment. Also, only 54.5 % had adequate knowledge of effective treatment namely, phototherapy and exchange blood transfusion. Rather than referring affected babies to hospitals for proper management, 13.4 %, 10.4 % and 3 % of the participants would treat with ineffective drugs, natural phototherapy and herbal remedies respectively. None of the participants knew any effective means of prevention. Conclusion Primary health care workers may have inadequate knowledge and misconceptions on NNJ which must be addressed concertedly before the impact of the condition on child health and well-being can be significantly reduced. We recommend regular training workshops and seminars for this purpose.
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine knowledge, practice and attitude towards jaundice among hospital health workers in Ayder Referral Hospital. Jaundice is a condition in which a person's skin and the whites of the eyes are discolored yellow due to an increased level of bilirubin in blood it is associated with many myth and Misconception. A study, using self administered questionnaire, was conducted from March 2009 to early May 2009.The result of the study showed that 79% respondents were selected, from which only 4(4% of the respondents select all of the correct options namely Dark colour of the urine, Yellowish colour of skin and eye, Aching and convulsion. 10% knew two manifestation of jaundice, 84% of respondent knew only one manifestation of jaundice. 83%of the respondents knew jaundice is due to high blood concentration of billirubin. 5% answered wrong that is jaundice is due to high blood concentration of urea. 76% of the workers prefers modern medicine for the treatment of jaundice and 8% the traditional medicine. The health workers are fairly clear in some aspects of jaundice and inadequate knowledge in other aspects of jaundice. Most of the health workers have positive perception towards jaundice and prefer modern medicine for treating jaundice. They have totally poor knowledge about traditional medicine for the treatment of jaundice. The health workers need an education and training about jaundice to update their knowledge and other study at community level should be conducted to know more about traditional method of treating jaundice.
Pacheco, Karin A; Rose, Cecile S; Silveira, Lori J.; Van Dyke, Michael V; Goelz, Kelly; MacPhail, Kristyn; Maier, Lisa A
Background Most diseases, including asthma, result from the interaction between environmental exposures and genetic variants. Functional variants of CD14 negatively affect lung function in farm workers and children exposed to animal allergens and endotoxin. Objective We hypothesized that CD14 polymorphisms interact with inhaled endotoxin and/or allergen to decrease airways function in laboratory animal workers. Methods 369 Caucasian workers completed a symptom and work exposure questionnaire, prick skin testing, and spirometry. Individual exposure estimates for endotoxin and mouse allergen were calculated by weighting task-based breathing zone concentrations by time reported for each task and length of time in current job. Real-time PCR was used to assess CD14/-1619, -550, and -159 alleles. Multiple linear regression predicting airways function included an interaction term between genotype and exposure. Results Workers at the highest quartile of the natural log transformed cumulative endotoxin exposure and with the endotoxin responsive CD14/-1619 G allele had significantly lower FEV1 and FEF25–75 percent predicted compared to workers with an AA, with no significant differences noted at lower endotoxin levels for either genotype. The gene by environment effect was marked for atopic workers. Laboratory animal allergy, mouse allergen exposure, CD14/-159 or -550 genotype, and a gene-exposure interaction term for these genotypes and exposures did not predict changes in lung function. Conclusions A significant gene by environment interaction affects airways function in laboratory animal workers. More highly endotoxin exposed workers with CD14/-1619G alleles have significantly lower FEV1 and FEF25–75 percent predicted than those with CD14/-1619AA. Atopic workers are particularly affected by cumulative endotoxin exposures. PMID:20579716
Jaroslava KUBA TOVA
Full Text Available Collective intelligence can be defined, very broadly, as groups of individuals that do things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. Collective intelligence has existed for ages. Families, tribes, companies, countries, etc., are all groups of individuals doing things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. However, over the past two decades, the rise of the Internet has given upturn to new types of collective intelligence. Companies can take advantage from the so-called Webenabled collective intelligence. Web-enabled collective intelligence is based on linking knowledge workers through social media. That means that companies can hire geographically dispersed knowledge workers and create so-called virtual teams of these knowledge workers (members of the virtual teams are connected only via the Internet and do not meet face to face. By providing an online social network, the companies can achieve significant growth of collective intelligence. But to create and use an online social network within a company in a really efficient way, the managers need to have a deep understanding of how such a system works.Thus the purpose of this paper is to share the knowledge about effective use of social networks in companies. The main objectives of this paper are as follows: to introduce some good practices of the use of social media in companies, to analyze these practices and to generalize recommendations for a successful introduction and use of social media to increase collective intelligence of a company.
Full Text Available Collective intelligence can be defined, very broadly, as groups of individuals that do things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. Collective intelligence has existed for ages. Families, tribes, companies, countries, etc., are all groups of individuals doing things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. However, over the past two decades, the rise of the Internet has given upturn to new types of collective intelligence. Companies can take advantage from the so-called Web-enabled collective intelligence. Web-enabled collective intelligence is based on linking knowledge workers through social media. That means that companies can hire geographically dispersed knowledge workers and create so-called virtual teams of these knowledge workers (members of the virtual teams are connected only via the Internet and do not meet face to face. By providing an online social network, the companies can achieve significant growth of collective intelligence. But to create and use an online social network within a company in a really efficient way, the managers need to have a deep understanding of how such a system works. Thus the purpose of this paper is to share the knowledge about effective use of social networks in companies. The main objectives of this paper are as follows: to introduce some good practices of the use of social media in companies, to analyze these practices and to generalize recommendations for a successful introduction and use of social media to increase collective intelligence of a company.
Henn, Scott A; Utterback, David F; Waters, Kathleen M; Markey, Andrea M; Tankersley, William G
A chemical exposure assessment was conducted for a cohort mortality study of 6157 chemical laboratory workers employed between 1943 and 1998 at four Department of Energy sites in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Aiken, South Carolina. Previous studies of chemical laboratory workers have included members within professional societies where exposure assessment was either limited or not feasible, or chemical processing employees where laboratory and production workers were combined. Because sufficient industrial hygiene records were unavailable for all four sites, weighted duration of employment was used as a surrogate for the magnitude of exposure. Potential exposure indices were calculated for each worker using number of days employed and weighting factors for frequency of contact and year of employment. A total of 591 unique laboratory job titles indicative of a chemical laboratory worker were collapsed into 18 general job title categories. Through discussions with current and retired workers, along with examination of historical organizational charts and job descriptions, the percentage of time with activities involving the direct handling of chemicals in the laboratory was estimated for each job title category. Scaled weighting factors of 1, 0.6, 0.3, and 0.05 were assigned to the job title categories representing 100%, 60%, 30%, and 5% of daily activities handling chemicals, respectively. Based on limited industrial hygiene monitoring data, personal radiation monitoring records, and professional judgment, weighting factors that declined 4% annually were applied to each year to account for improvements in laboratory technique, advancements in instrumentation, improvement in engineering controls, and increased safety awareness through time. The study cohort was separated into three categories of chemical exposures based on department level information: (1) inorganic, (2) mixed inorganic and organic, and (3) unknown. Potential exposure indices ranged from 0.15 to 6824.5 with a median value of 377.5 and a mean equal to 884.2. This exposure assessment method is useful for epidemiologic analyses when quantitative exposure data are absent or insufficient. PMID:17175512
Rus, Razman Mohd; Daud, Aziah; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Naing, Lin
The purpose of this study was to determine the sawmill workers’ knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in relation to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 83 workers from 3 factories in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Questionnaires were distributed to obtain the socio-demography, knowledge, attitude and practice level in relation to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). The weak areas identified in the knowledge section were treatment aspects (15.5%), signs a...
Almereau Prollius; Gina Joubert; Adelien du Toit; Susan Joubert; Tarina Lourens; Johanna J. Steenkamp
Maternal mortality in South Africa has been receiving attention since it became notifiable in 1997. The ’big five’ causes of maternal mortality are non-pregnancy-related infections (mainly HIV), complications of hypertension during pregnancy, obstetric haemorrhage, pregnancyrelated sepsis and pre-existing medical conditions. In many cases in which women die during pregnancy or childbirth, avoidable health worker-related factors can be identified. This study assessed the knowledge of different...
Yongjian Li; Huan Cao
The paper analyzes the limitation of the method to study the competencies. The differences between competencies of knowledge workers exist in the “therbligs” used in information process. Based on 191 questionnaires, advance the 9 common mental operations: metacognition, distinguishing, memory, transforming, imagining, character extracting, character integrating, reasoning and concretization. And the metacognition plays a role on planning, supervising and adjusting to the other mind operations...
Albrecht, James; van den Berg, Gerard J.; Vroman, Susan
The Swedish adult education program known as the Knowledge Lift is unprecedented in its size and scope, aiming to raise the skill level of all low-skilled workers towards the medium level. This paper evaluates the effects of program participation on individual labor market outcomes, notably employment and annual income, as well as on the labor market equilibrium. For the effects at the individual level, we apply fixed effect methods allowing for treatment effect heterogeneity. The data are ba...
In the past three decades the Asia-Pacific region has experienced amajor wave of immigration despite tighter migration policies andbetter border controls. Southeast Asia has been prominent in thischange, with some countries being important sources and destinationsof skilled and unskilled migrants. Australia has also increased itsmigration quotas, particularly the skilled migration intake. Theemergence of new regional migration patterns, the fast growth in thedemand for knowledge workers and s...
A group of Community Knowledge Workers (CKWs) test the complex game section of the Muth Helgeson Survey Tool (MHST) in the Oyam, Uganda region. Over 130 CKWs were equipped with smart phones with the MHST application, which also incorporated small behavioural economics games. These CKWs physically visited over 5000 Ugandan farms, measuring farmers behaviours and attitudes regarding risk. The MHST is the largest study of Ugandan farms since 1991 and the first to use this methodology to exami...
Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward
This study investigates the residential location choice of knowledge-workers at the intra-metropolitan level by applying discrete choice models. The models represent housing choices of 833 knowledge-workers in high-technology and financial services and analyze the relative importance of lifestyle and cultural amenities in addition to classic location factors. Hence, the model bridges the gap between the recent lifestyle-oriented and the classical utility-oriented conceptualizations of the residential choice of knowledge-workers. The most important factors are municipal socioeconomic level, housing affordability and commuting time, while substantial secondary factors are cultural and educational land-use and culture-oriented lifestyle.
An educative intervention of 30 workers with risk factors for breast cancer was carried out in 'Ramon Lopez Penna' University Polyclinic in Santiago de Cuba, from September 2008 to March 2009, in order to increase some knowledge on the topic. Two subgroups with 15 participants each were created to develop the different activities of the educative project, which will be assessed before the instructive action and 6 months after its onset. A Mc Nemar text was used to validate the information and a significant modification to knowledge on the topic was obtained. (author)
Neda Tiraieyari; Azimi Hamzah; Bahaman Abu Samah; Jejak Uli
Sustainable agriculture is relatively new in Malaysia. The Department of Agriculture (DOA) has earmarked agricultural extension workers in the transfer of sustainable agricultural practices (SAP) to farmers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of the attitude, perception, philosophy, and knowledge of extension workers in transferring SAP to Malaysian farmers. A questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of 400 extension workers associated with the DOA i...
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is operated under the USA's Department of Energy (DOE) and is tasked with developing and applying science and technology to ensure the safety and reliability of U.S. nuclear deterrents and solving national problems in defense, energy, environment, and infrastructure. LANL is divided into numerous groups that accomplish various aspects of these overarching goals. An important aspect of this work is to ensure worker safety. To do this LANL has an on-site Industrial Hygiene (IH) Laboratory that is certified by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) that follows International Standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005 guidelines. Following these guidelines facilitates appropriate records retention and knowledge management by the laboratory. Field Industrial Hygienists monitor workers for exposure and generate various swipe and personal breathing zone air samples that are analyzed by the IH Laboratory. The laboratory provides legally defensible data on which health, safety, and environmental decisions are based. Such documentation serves to protect the legal and financial rights of the Laboratory and individuals affected by Laboratory activities. The proper maintenance and filing of this documentation also serves to avoid expensive and unnecessary re-sampling and reanalysis if customers lose reports or if results are requested by regulatory agencies. We will explain how the Sample Management Office (SMO) interacts with customers to determine their needs to ensure the appropriate analyses are conducted. Additionally, we will explain our process of sample receipt, sample log in into databases, sample analysis, data validation, and compliance to internal procedures, LANL policies, and DOE regulations. Furthermore, we will outline how the Records Management Custodian processes the laboratory's completed data packages starting from database entry to archival at the Federal Records Center. Many DOE records relating to personnel exposures, contamination, waste, and environmental sampling are kept and are scheduled for long-term retention by National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Records shall include information created and received in the course of conducting Laboratory programs and business. Records management serves to promote the creation, capture, use, and transfer of records and knowledge. It also serves to preserve and protect the Laboratory's archival of historical documents and information. All records are given retention periods of at least 75 years. After outlining some of our various records and documents, we will explain how our records management and document control systems are set up to ensure effective and efficient retrieval of these records for 75 years. In conclusion, we will demonstrate how our and LANL's Records Management Program follows good business practices to ensure the protection of our corporate information assets
Mark Ramsey; Nicolene Barkhuizen
Orientation: Organisations are still structured according to the Industrial Age control model that restricts optimising the expertise of knowledge workers.
Research purpose: The general aim of the research was to explore the organisation design elements and competencies that contribute to optimising the expertise of knowledge workers in a shared services centre.
Motivation for the study:
Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture is relatively new in Malaysia. The Department of Agriculture (DOA has earmarked agricultural extension workers in the transfer of sustainable agricultural practices (SAP to farmers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of the attitude, perception, philosophy, and knowledge of extension workers in transferring SAP to Malaysian farmers. A questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of 400 extension workers associated with the DOA in west Malaysia. Quantitative data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple linear regressions (MLR. Findings supported a positive relationship between extension workers’ philosophy, attitude, perception, and knowledge in transferring SAP to farmers. MLR results showed that variables selected for this study explained 62.3% of the variance in transferring SAP. Results support the importance of variables among the extension workers who transfer sustainable practices to farmers.
Arcury-Quandt, Alice E.; Gentry, Amanda L.; Marín, Antonio J.
Background The golf course industry has a growing Latino work force. Little occupational health research has addressed this work force. This paper examines golf course superintendents’ and Latino grounds maintenance workers’ pesticide knowledge, beliefs, and safety training. In particular, it focuses on knowledge of and adherence to OSHA Right-to-Know regulations. Methods In person, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten golf course superintendents in five states and with sixteen Latino grounds maintenance workers in four states. Results Few superintendents were in compliance with Right-to-Know regulations or did pesticide safety training with all of their workers. Few workers had any pesticide safety knowledge. Most safety training on golf courses was rudimentary and focused on machine safety, and was usually conducted in the off-season or on rainy days, not before workers were assigned tasks. Conclusions More Right-to-Know training is necessary for superintendents and grounds maintenance workers. Culturally and linguistically appropriate Spanish language materials need to be developed or made more widely available to train workers. Better enforcement of safety and training regulations is necessary. PMID:21360723
Zhussupov, Baurzhan; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; El-Bassel, Nabila
This study compares sexual risk behaviors among male and female migrant market vendors in Almaty, Kazakhstan. From the Barakholka Market, 209 male and 213 female market vendors were randomly recruited. Self-reported data were collected through standardized face-to-face interviews. Dry blood spot was used as specimen for syphilis testing. Propensity score stratification was used to estimate adjusted prevalence or rate ratios by gender. Compared to male migrant workers, females had lower HIV knowledge and were less likely to have multiple sexual partners. There was no evidence of a gender difference for prevalence of syphilis, condom use with unsteady partners, and safe sex communication between couples. Associations between mobility patterns and engagement in multiple sexual partnerships were stronger among women than men. Efforts should be made to mitigate the gender differential in HIV knowledge among migrants, especially women. Such efforts need to be implemented in both home and host countries. PMID:25294629
Sio, Terence T; Chang, Kenneth; Jayakrishnan, Ritujith; Amitai, Allon; Xu, He; Zaller, Nickolas D; Fu, Jeannia J; Mayer, Kenneth H; Wu, Lily H
Chinese female entertainment workers are at high risk for HIV. We assessed the impact of healthcare access on HIV knowledge, condom use, and their willingness to receive HIV testing. We surveyed 257 entertainment workers in a cross-sectional study. Demographic, knowledge, and behavioral risk factors were examined. Of 257 women, 107 (42.1 %) reported inconsistent condom use. Only 9 % had prior HIV testing. Their HIV knowledge was generally poor. Having access to healthcare, being able to obtain condoms, and managers providing health information were associated with consistent condom use (all P migrant women employed at entertainment venues. PMID:25115291
Gauranga Chandra Mohanta
Full Text Available Improving productivity of knowledge workers is one of the major challenges in today’s global environment. Through exploratory research, effort has been made to identify various tools & techniques those can improve productivity of knowledge workers. Through survey, effort has been made to find out perception of top level scientists on - usefulness of various tools & techniques; use of these tools & techniques and encouragement given in organisations for acquiring skill in these; trainings given for these tools & techniques and relative importance given by scientists for these tools & techniques. Questionnaires have been designed and given to select scientists at top level to find out their perception on various aspects indicated above, followed by interview where responses were not adequate or further clarifications were required. Scientists have indicated that most of the identified tools & techniques can improve their productivity and these are used in organisations or scientists are encouraged to acquire skill in the same and majority of them are presently not trained in these tools & techniques. They also indicated the relative importance of various tools & techniques. The extensive use of these tools & techniques and provision of trainings to the scientists in these can improve their productivity.
Tavakol, Heidary Shayesteh; Akram, Ranjbar; Azam, Sayadi; Nahid, Zadkhosh
Chemical materials are environmental contaminants, are extensively used in laboratories, and may cause various forms of health hazards in laboratory workers. Therefore, this toxicity most likely is a result of the oxidative metabolism of chemical to reactive products. As green tea (GT) possesses antioxidant effects, the objective of this study was to examine any amelioration oxidative stress in chemical laboratory workers drinking one cup (3 g/300 ml water) of freshly prepared tea once daily. Baseline characteristics including age, sex, smoking, fruit consumption, and duration of exposure were recorded via questionnaire to the subjects. Saliva level oxidative stress parameters such as total antioxidant capacity (TAC), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated before and after consumption of GT in these workers. Treatment of subjects with GT induced a significant reduction in saliva GPx activity (406.61 ± 22.07 vs. 238.96 ± 16.26 U/l p = 0.001) and induction in TAC (0.46 ± 0.029 ?mol/ml vs. 0.56 ± 0.031, p = 0.016). No statistically significant alteration was found for saliva SOD (0.080 ± 0.0019 vs. 0.079 ± 0.0014, p > 0.05) and CAT (20.36 ± 0.69 vs. 19.78 ± 0.71, p > 0.05) after 28 days treatment by GT. These results demonstrate that drinking GT during chemical exposure can reduce several parameters indicative of oxidative stress. In conclusion, using GT as a dietary supplement can be a rational protocol to control source of hazards in chemical laboratory workers. PMID:23576111
Glueck, Joshua T; Huneke, Richard B; Perez, Hernando; Burstyn, Igor
Urine of rats and mice is the main source of allergenic proteins that can enter the respiratory tract of laboratory animal care workers. Little is known about the levels and determinants of these exposures in the United States. We investigated the relationship between activities in animal facilities and levels of personal exposure to allergen by collecting personal breathing zone dust samples from 7 caretakers during full workdays for 1 wk. Mice and rat urinary allergens in inhalable dust wer...
Guo, Shuangli; Wu, Jingwen; Wang, Bin; Hu, Wei; Sun, Yanshuang; Li, Hui; Liu, Mingbin; Moore, Justin B.; Chen, Haiying
Three cases of avian influenza virus H10N8 were reported in Nanchang, China, as of April 2014. To identify the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to H10N8 among farmers’ market workers, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in 63 farmers’ markets in Nanchang. Using the resulting data, characteristics of poultry and non-poultry workers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practice were described. Results suggest that interventions targeting high-risk workers should be developed and implemented by public health agencies to prevent the spread of H10N8. Additionally policies that encourage farmers’ market workers to receive influenza vaccine should be developed, adopted, and enforced. PMID:25993111
This report addresses laboratory measurement error in estimates of external doses obtained from personnel dosimeters, and investigates the effects of these errors on linear dose-response analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers. These errors have the distinguishing feature that they are independent across time and across workers. Although the calculations made for this report were based on Hanford data, the overall conclusions are likely to be relevant for other epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to external radiation
Hansa M Goswami, Sumeeta T Soni, Sachin M Patel, Mitesh K Patel
Purpose: A lot of accidents occur in the laboratory due to lack of proper knowledge regarding laboratory safety measures, indifferent attitude & improper implementation of safe laboratory practices. In view of this, the present study on knowledge, Attitude & Practice (KAP) of laboratory safety measures was carried out among paramedical staff of laboratory services of tertiary care teaching hospital, western India. Method: This was a comparative study which used a standardized,...
Lesley T. Bhebhe
Full Text Available Background: Healthcare-associated tuberculosis (TB has become a major occupational hazard for healthcare workers (HCWs. HCWs are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Whenever there is a possibility of exposure, implementation of infection prevention and control (IPC practices is critical. Objective: Following a high incidence of TB among HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital in Lesotho, a study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of HCWs regarding healthcare-associated TB infection and infection controls. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed in June 2011; it involved HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital who were involved with patients and/or sputum. Stratified sampling of 140 HCWs was performed, of whom, 129 (92.0% took part. A self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was used. Results: Most respondents (89.2% had appropriate knowledge of transmission, diagnosis and prevention of TB; however, only 22.0% of the respondents knew the appropriate method of sputum collection. All of the respondents (100.0% were motivated and willing to implement IPC measures. A significant proportion of participants (36.4% reported poor infection control practices, with the majority of inappropriate practices being the administrative infection controls (> 80.0%. Only 38.8% of the participants reported to be using the appropriate N-95 respirator. Conclusion: Poor infection control practices regarding occupational TB exposure were demonstrated, the worst being the first-line administrative infection controls. Critical knowledge gaps were identified; however, there was encouraging willingness by HCWs to adapt to recommended infection control measures. Healthcare workers are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Implementation of infection prevention and control practices is critical whenever there is a possibility of exposure.
Hendrina H., Grobbelaar; Carin E., Napier.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Facilities concerned with children 'in need of care' should not only be considered as a last resort for a child's care, but also as an intervention that requires more than addressing a child's basic physical needs. The nutritional needs of children are particularly important to consider [...] as they are a fundamental part of the care provided. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this descriptive quantitative study was to investigate the profile, nutrition knowledge, food safety and hygiene practices of child and youth care workers (CCWs) in residential care settings in order to guide the development of a food preparation and nutrition manual. METHOD: The residential care settings included in this study were three that were selected randomly in Durban. CCWs (N = 40) employed permanently or part-time were included. Convenience purposive sampling of the CCWs was undertaken. A structured self-administered questionnaire, developed and tested for this purpose, was used to gather information on the profile, nutrition knowledge, food safety and hygiene practices. The data were analysed for descriptive statistics (means and frequencies). RESULTS: The majority of CCWs were women aged 18-34 years. Very few had completed a relevant tertiary qualification. The results indicated that the respondents' knowledge was fair on general nutrition guidelines, but there were areas of concern. Specifically, knowledge on recommended fruit and vegetable intake, correct serving sizes and importance of a variety in the diet were lacking. Some knowledge about food safety and hygiene practices was demonstrated, but not in totality. CONCLUSION: The overall findings supported the development of a comprehensive food preparation and nutrition manual for child residential care facilities.
Full Text Available In the past three decades the Asia-Pacific region has experienced amajor wave of immigration despite tighter migration policies andbetter border controls. Southeast Asia has been prominent in thischange, with some countries being important sources and destinationsof skilled and unskilled migrants. Australia has also increased itsmigration quotas, particularly the skilled migration intake. Theemergence of new regional migration patterns, the fast growth in thedemand for knowledge workers and skilled migrants in specificoccupational categories, and the creation of subregional labourmarkets are all manifestations of the scale and diversity of recentmigratory movements in the region. Key factors accounting for thesedevelopments include disparities in economic growth; income andpoverty levels between countries; labour shortages arising fromdemographic transformations; structural change in labour supply;and the role of social networks and the migration industry as driversof migration.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Powdered infant formula (PIF is not a sterile product, but this information appears to be poorly diffused among child caregivers. Parents and child care workers may behave in an unsafe manner when handling PIF. Methods This study involved parents and child care workers in the 24 municipal child care centres of Palermo. Knowledge and self-reported practices about PIF handling were investigated by a structured questionnaire. A Likert scale was used to measure the strength of the respondent's feelings. Association of knowledge and self-reported practices with demographic variables was also evaluated. Results 42.4% of parents and 71.0% of child care workers filled in the questionnaire. Significant differences were found between parents and child care workers for age and education. 73.2% of parents and 84.4% of child care workers were confident in sterility of PIF. Generally, adherence to safe procedures when reconstituting and handling PIF was more frequently reported by child care workers who, according to the existing legislation, are regularly subjected to a periodic training on food safety principles and practices. Age and education significantly influenced the answers to the questionnaire of both parents and child care workers. Conclusion The results of the study reveal that parents and child care workers are generally unaware that powdered formulas may contain viable microorganisms. However, child care workers consistently chose safer options than parents when answering the questions about adherence to hygienic practices. At present it seems unfeasible to produce sterile PIF, but the risk of growth of hazardous organisms in formula at the time of administration should be minimized by promoting safer behaviours among caregivers to infants in both institutional settings and home.
Agüera, E I; Sánchez-Hermosín, P; Díz-Pérez, J; Tovar, P; Camacho, R; Escribano, B M
The aim of the present work was to transfer a wider concept of teamwork and self-learning to the laboratory, encouraging students' capabilities when seeking, acquiring, and processing knowledge. This educational innovation was carried out with a total of 38 students (fourth year of degree in Biology) in the area of physiology (Advances in Reproduction course) at University of Córdoba in Córdoba, Spain. The design of the project's application methodology consisted of establishing a way in which problems would be tackled in the practical classes. For this purpose, the different tasks were set up so that students could relate them to the concepts learned in the theory classes. On the first day of class, the project was presented to the students. Groups of two to three students worked in the laboratory and set up an outline of the protocol of the practical work that they had done. This outline was performed individually and sent to the lecturers through a learning management system (Moodle). The teachers gave feedback and assessed student submissions. Upon finishing the course, students completed a survey. The project-based learning method promotes practical self-learning on the part of students. This methodology demonstrated to us that it stimulates a critical and self-critical capacity in students, both individually and in groups, and that writing didactic practical material helped students to enhance their theory knowledge. The experiment was a success in view of the scores obtained upon finishing the subject. PMID:26330040
Full Text Available Maternal mortality in South Africa has been receiving attention since it became notifiable in 1997. The ’big five’ causes of maternal mortality are non-pregnancy-related infections (mainly HIV, complications of hypertension during pregnancy, obstetric haemorrhage, pregnancyrelated sepsis and pre-existing medical conditions. In many cases in which women die during pregnancy or childbirth, avoidable health worker-related factors can be identified. This study assessed the knowledge of different levels of medical students and health care workers at public health obstetric facilities in Bloemfontein concerning the Saving Mothers campaign.The self-administered, test-like questionnaire was completed by senior medical students,interns and obstetric personnel (nurses or midwives. Interns obtained the highest median score (48% for the questionnaire, while nurses obtained a median score of 31%. The results strongly suggest that training specific to the Saving Mothers campaign is urgently required across all levels of health care personnel.
Depuis 1997, la mortalité maternelle est devenue à déclaration obligatoire en Afrique du Sud; ce qui a permis d’ attirer plus d’ attention sur cet fléau. Les big five causes de mortalité maternelle sont les infections non lié à la grossesse (principalement le VIH/SIDA, les maladies survenant au cours de la grossesse telles que l'hypertension artérielle, l'hémorragie, et la septicémie, et les pathologies chroniques persistantes. Dans de nombreux cas de mortalité maternelle ou infantile, des facteurs remédiables et associés au personnel de santé peuvent être identifiés. Cette étude a évalué les connaissances des étudiants en médecine et des professionnels de santé publique des maternités de Bloemfontein sur la ‘Saving Mothers campaign. Pour cette étude, un questionnaire était rempli par des étudiants en médecine en fin de cycle, des internes, des infirmières et des sages-femmes. Les internes avaient obtenu le meilleur score médian (48% de connaissance sur le sujet étudié, alors que les infirmières n’obtenaient que 31%. Les résultats montrent une urgente nécessité de formation spéciale lié au ‘Saving Mothers campaign‘ le pour le personnel de santé à tous les niveaux.
How to cite this article: Prollius A, Joubert G, Du Toit A, Joubert S, Lourens T, Steenkamp JJ. Medical students’ and public obstetric health care workers’ knowledge of the Saving Mothers campaign.Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2011;3(1, Art. #184, 3 pages. doi:10.4102/phcfm.v3i1.184
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Subjects exposed to laboratory animals are at a heightened risk of developing respiratory and allergic diseases. These diseases can be prevented by simple measures such as the use of personal protective equipment. We report here the primary findings of the Laboratory Animals and Respiratory Allergies Study regarding the prevalence of allergic diseases among laboratory animal workers, the routine use of preventive measures in laboratories and animal facilities, and the need for prevention programs. METHODS: Animal handlers and non-animal handlers from 2 Brazilian universities (University of São Paulo and State University of Campinas answered specific questionnaires to assess work conditions and symptoms. These subjects also underwent spirometry, a bronchial challenge test with mannitol, and skin prick tests for 11 common allergens and 5 occupational allergens (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and rabbit. RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-five animal handlers (32±10 years old [mean±SD], 209 men and 387 non-animal handlers (33±11 years old, 121 men were evaluated. Sensitization to occupational allergens was higher among animal handlers (16% than non-animal handlers (3%, p<0.01. Accessibility to personal protective equipment was measured at 85% (median, considering 73 workplaces of the animal handler group. Nineteen percent of the animal handlers indicated that they wear a respirator at all times while handling animals or working in the animal room, and only 25% of the animal handlers had received an orientation about animal-induced allergies, asthma, or rhinitis. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our data indicate that preventive programs are necessary. We suggest providing individual advice to workers associated with institutional programs to promote a safer work environment.
Degefa, A; Sanders, EJ; Mekonnen, Y.; Messele, T; Wolday, D.; Dorigo-Zetsma, W; Mekonnen, W; A Schaap; Dukers, NH
This study investigates barriers that may pose a threat to a successful implementation of an antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in Ethiopia. As prelude to the provision of ART among factory workers participating in a cohort study on HIV and AIDS in Ethiopia, we measured knowledge and attitudes towards several aspects of ART and provided an educational intervention. The proportion of participants having good knowledge on issues concerning adherence was found reasonably good (67.7%), concer...
Erica, Ferraz; Luisa Karla de Paula, Arruda; Ericson, Bagatin; Edson Z., Martinez; Andrea A., Cetlin; Christian S., Simoneti; Amanda S., Freitas; José A.B., Martinez; Marcos C., Borges; Elcio O., Vianna.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Subjects exposed to laboratory animals are at a heightened risk of developing respiratory and allergic diseases. These diseases can be prevented by simple measures such as the use of personal protective equipment. We report here the primary findings of the Laboratory Animals an [...] d Respiratory Allergies Study regarding the prevalence of allergic diseases among laboratory animal workers, the routine use of preventive measures in laboratories and animal facilities, and the need for prevention programs. METHODS: Animal handlers and non-animal handlers from 2 Brazilian universities (University of São Paulo and State University of Campinas) answered specific questionnaires to assess work conditions and symptoms. These subjects also underwent spirometry, a bronchial challenge test with mannitol, and skin prick tests for 11 common allergens and 5 occupational allergens (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and rabbit). RESULTS: Four hundred fifty-five animal handlers (32±10 years old [mean±SD], 209 men) and 387 non-animal handlers (33±11 years old, 121 men) were evaluated. Sensitization to occupational allergens was higher among animal handlers (16%) than non-animal handlers (3%, p
del Carmen Cabezas, María; Fornasini, Marco; Barmettler, David; Ortuño, Diego; Borja, Teresa; Albert, Adelin
Objective: To develop and assess an innovative educational video package for improving HIV knowledge, attitudes and practices among company workers in Ecuador. Methods: The design and development of the HIV prevention educational video was based on the results of a large-scale survey conducted in 115 companies (commerce, manufacturing and real…
Ditton, Mary J.
The comparatively poor mental health status of academics at Australian universities compared with the general Australian workforce poses a public health challenge. Productivity of knowledge workers is a key issue for the new economy. Using the case of one university, I interviewed employees stratified by level of employment and showed that their…
Paul Andrew Bourne
Full Text Available Background: Statistics have shown that since 1988, a significant percentage of males are unwilling to seek medical care. The question is if they had the knowledge, worked in the health system and were educated, would this be any different? Aim: The current study aims to fill this void in the literature by examining the perception of rural male health workers (from the Western Region about prostate examination, and why they are reluctant to inquire about the probability of having, or the likelihood of not having prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: The study utilized primary cross-sectional data that was collected during February and March 2008 from 170 males (ages 29 years and older, health-care workers who were employed in particular rural health institutions in Jamaica (i.e. Western Regional Health Authority. SPSS was used to analyze the data. Results: When the respondents were asked “Have you ever heard about the screening procedure for prostate?” 71.2% indicated yes, but only 27.1% had got their prostate checked by a health practitioner. When respondents were asked to state what influenced their choice of not doing a digital rectal examination, 20.6% indicated comfort level; 9.4% stated the gender of the health practitioner, 5.3% mentioned fear and others did not respond. Of those who had the examination 2 years ago, 96.5% did not state the choice of method. Conclusion: The current study is limited in terms of its generalizability to rural males or rural males in Western Jamaica, but it does provide an insight into the difficulty of men in breaking away from culture.
Full Text Available Introduction: In India, community health workers are the main source of information for family planning services and male population want to interact and discuss with them to clear their doubts about male oriented family planning methods. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and perception of community health workers regarding the modern male sterilization method. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Simdega district of Jharkhand. The target population was the community health workers and randomly selected from four randomly selected from blocks out of total seven in the district. A self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used for data collection comprising questions related to knowledge and perception of community health workers about modern male sterilization method. Results: 43% CHWs didn’t know that this method is different from traditional male sterilization method and around 62% thought man’s sexual performance get affected after NSV and 77% did not have any idea about time required to resume normal work. Conclusions: The poor knowledge and wrong perception could be one of the main reasons for poor male participation in family planning process in India.
Richardson, D B; Wing, S.
We examined associations between low-level exposure to ionizing radiation and mortality among 14,095 workers hired at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1943 and 1972. Workers at the facility were individually monitored for external exposure to ionizing radiation and have been followed through 1990 to ascertain cause of death information. Positive associations were observed between low-level exposure to external ionizing radiation and mortality. These associations were larger for doses...
Adegbehingbe, B O; Bisiriyu, L A
This study was carried out to determine the level of correct knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes towards blindness prevention and treatment, and how these factors influence self care practices among teaching hospital workers. A random sample of the workers at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria was interviewed. All respondents were asked the year of their last visit within the past one year to an eye care practitioner. A total of 205 members of staff were interviewed; 85 (41.5%) were males and 120 (58.5%) females. Female sex (P=0.003), medical profession (P=0.007), ophthalmic specialty (P=0.0001), secondary or tertiary education (P=0.001), and recent visit to an eye practitioner (P=0.012) were significant predictors of knowledge of glaucoma as a blinding disease. Younger people believed blindness prevention and treatment were the highest priorities compared with other diseases. Those who work in the ophthalmic unit and those who had relatives who had been blind from glaucoma also considered blindness treatment to be the highest priority compared with other diseases. People with a relative that had previous diagnosis of glaucoma (P=0.0001), older people (P=0.003), females (P=0.001), and people with correct knowledge of common eye diseases (P=0.0005) were significantly more likely to be under eye care. No interaction was found between knowledge and positive attitudes to self care practices. In conclusion, this study shows that there is a gap in the knowledge and understanding of glaucoma among Nigerian hospital workers, especially among the non-medical staff. There is therefore a need for eye health promotion activities targeting all workers at primary healthcare facilities. PMID:19402586
Full Text Available This research intends to study on knowledge worker competency development which effected from students who work in company through the university workplace learning program. The new leadership roles and skills of managers and leaders according to learning organization principle will be focused. Data were collected from knowledge workers using questionnaires and telephone interviews. The result found that students’ coming can stimulate knowledge workers to use and develop their competencies. Competency area that most used and developed is coaching and mentoring which result in knowledge worker’s planning, prioritizing, conducting, monitoring, communicating, and leading skills. The co-learner and model for learning, advocate for learning process and projects, and engage in systems thinking were also used and developed at high level. The study can initial conclude that university workplace learning program is the one of an alternative strategy to drive companies to become learning organization in people perspective.
Glueck, Joshua T; Huneke, Richard B; Perez, Hernando; Burstyn, Igor
Urine of rats and mice is the main source of allergenic proteins that can enter the respiratory tract of laboratory animal care workers. Little is known about the levels and determinants of these exposures in the United States. We investigated the relationship between activities in animal facilities and levels of personal exposure to allergen by collecting personal breathing zone dust samples from 7 caretakers during full workdays for 1 wk. Mice and rat urinary allergens in inhalable dust were quantified via immunoassay. The activities of the sampled workers were observed, and the methods of preventing exposure to allergens were recorded. Mouse urinary allergen was detected in 20 of 39 measurements, yielding a geometric mean of 0.8 ng/m(3) with a maximum of 24 ng/m(3). Washing and cleaning cages and the number of mice handled daily were the most important determinants of personal exposure to mouse urinary allergen, as identified by using multiple linear regressions that explained 51% of total variance. Personal exposures to mouse urinary allergen were associated with day-to-day variation of tasks rather than characteristics of workers. Where potential for personal exposure is the highest, protective measures (N95 masks and cage dumping stations) appeared to be used, as is appropriate. Rat urinary allergen was detected in 4 of 39 measurements; detectable concentrations were between 0.8 and 39 ng/m(3). Only persons who handled rats were exposed to rat urinary allergen. The current findings are valuable for establishing exposure levels against which comparisons of improvement or deterioration of personal exposures can be made. PMID:23312083
Hezekiah K., Adesokan; Peter I., Alabi; Judy A., Stack; Simeon I.B., Cadmus.
Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amon [...] gst livestock holders (LH) and livestock marketers (LM) in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interview-based study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5%) of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262). Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p
Guo, Wenchen; Xiao, Hongjun; Yang, Xi
Human capital plays an important part in employability of knowledge workers, also it is the important intangible assets of company. This paper explores the correlation between human capital and career success of knowledge workers. Based on literature retrieval, we identified measuring tool of career success and modified further; measuring human capital with self-developed scale of high reliability and validity. After exploratory factor analysis, we suggest that human capital contents four dimensions, including education, work experience, learning ability and training; career success contents three dimensions, including perceived internal competitiveness of organization, perceived external competitiveness of organization and career satisfaction. The result of empirical analysis indicates that there is a positive correlation between human capital and career success, and human capital is an excellent predictor of career success beyond demographics variables.
Adesokan, Hezekiah K.; Peter I. Alabi; Judy A. Stack; Simeon I.B. Cadmus
Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH) and livestock marketers (LM) in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling te...
We describe here the standardization of a technique for the estimation of 125I in the thyroid gland of laboratory workers involved with 125I labelling techniques. It is based on a comparison with a standard curve obtained by placing in a thyroid neck phantom various calibrated standard sources of 125I. Its sensitivity was calculated around 0,8 - 1,7 nCi. The precision of our measurements was avaliated in a range of 1.35 - 310.5 nCi and the coefficient of variation obtained varied from 2,2% to 26,3%. The accuracy of our ''in vivo'' measurements was checked by analyzing the influence of the shape and the size of the thyroid in the neck phantom. (author)
Hezekiah K. Adesokan
Full Text Available Brucellosis is an endemic disease in the animal population in Nigeria and of major public health importance, particularly amongst livestock workers who are ignorant of the risk of Brucella infection. Therefore, to gain insight into the knowledge and practices related to brucellosis transmission amongst livestock holders (LH and livestock marketers (LM in Yewa, an international livestock trading centre in south-western Nigeria, we conducted an interviewbased study using a cluster sampling technique. In all, a total of 157 respondents comprising 54 LH and 103 LM were interviewed. Two-thirds (69.5% of the two groups had poor knowledge of brucellosis with no significant difference between them (p = 0.262. Furthermore, consumption of unpasteurised milk, uncooked meat and its products, co-habitation with animals, and poor hygiene were significant risk practices identified as possible means of transfer of Brucella infection from animals to humans amongst these livestock workers (p < 0.05. In conclusion, our findings revealed that poor knowledge and practices related to the consumption of unpasteurised or unboiled dairy products, contaminated beef, and unhygienic practices are factors that will facilitate Brucella infections amongst livestock workers in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need for more public health enlightenment programmes, as well as implementation of brucellosis control measures in the cattle populations.
Full Text Available Background & aim: The most important risk factor for one’s sexual health is high-risk sexual behavior. Implementation of educational programs has been considered as one of the most crucial interventions in the prevention and treatment of these behaviors. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of an educational program on the knowledge and attitude of female sex workers toward preventing high-risk sexual behaviors. Methods:This pretest-posttest, one-group study was conducted on 40 female sex workers, imprisoned in Mashhad Vakil Abad prison in 2013. Data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, as well as knowledge- and attitude-related data. An educational program was designed after the pretest and conducted in four 70-minute sessions. Immediately and four weeks after the educational program, post-test was performed. Data were analyzed by Friedman and Wilcoxon tests, using SPSS version 16. Results: A positive significant increase was found in the mean scores of knowledge and attitude of female sex workers immediately and four weeks after the program (P
Boley, Harold; Hanschke, Philipp; Hinkelmann, Knut; Meyer, Manfred
Knowledge bases for real-world domains such as mechanical engineering require expressive and efficient representation and processing tools. We pursue a declarative-compilative approach to knowledge engineering. While Horn logic (as implemented in PROLOG) is well-suited for representing relational clauses, other kinds of declarative knowledge call for hybrid extensions: functional dependencies and higher-order knowledge should be modeled directly. Forward (bottom-up) reasoning should be integr...
Quinn, Keira; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John
A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface Keira Quinn (1), Dr Max Hope (1), Professor John McCloskey (1). (1)University of Ulster Peer-reviewed science has the potential to guide policy-makers and practitioners in developing robust responses to social problems and issues. Despite advances in hazard-related science, it can often be a challenge to translate findings into useful social applications. With natural hazards affecting 2.9 billion people between 2000 and 2012 the need for hazard science to be effectively communicated is undeniable. This is particularly so in humanitarian contexts as non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play a key role in the poorer nations most affected by natural disasters. Past methods of 'knowledge transfer' have tended to lead to misinterpretations and misrepresentations of science to the extent that it is often used incorrectly or not at all. 'Knowledge exchange' is currently heralded as a more effective means of bringing about successful communication and understanding, and is characterised by the presence of shared learning. Central to a knowledge exchange approach is an understanding of the social and organisational contexts within which learning takes place. Here we use Etienne Wenger's social-learning approach to analyse selected aspects of the social context influencing knowledge exchange across the geoscience-humanitarian interface. For Wenger (2000) Communities of Practice (CoP) are bounded organisational and social groups united by their own distinct values, goals and ways of working. The boundaries surrounding CoPs can act as barriers to knowledge exchange but can also create opportunities for new shared learning by challenging existing perspectives and practice. Drawing on the findings of ongoing qualitative research into communication and learning between earthquake scientists and humanitarian NGOs in UK/Ireland, this paper outlines a number of key features of geoscience and humanitarian Communities of Practice. It focuses on the barriers to and enablers of learning on the boundaries between CoPs and explores the important role played by boundary workers/brokers at this interface. Wenger's (2000) typology of knowledge brokers is used to analyse the different forms this role can take and identify the challenges that hinder it. For example, boundary workers often find themselves in a 'no man's land' between CoP, where their efforts are not recognised or rewarded by either community of practice. We conclude by drawing out wider conclusions on the potential for boundary workers to bridge the science-policy-practice interface particularly ways of developing appropriate boundary infrastructure (for example, recognised career paths, funding mechanisms and organisational support structures).
Sawchuk, Peter H.
A case study of Canada's telecommunications industry found the union engaged in education and research that helped build the potential for workplace democracy. However, scarce resources for these activities and management concerns about worker empowerment constrained progressive change. (SK)
Bendit, Edward; Frenkel, Amnon
Attracting firms in knowledge and technology intensive (KTI) sectors is highly sought by national and regional policy makers as a powerful engine of economic growth. Due to fierce competition in the KTI sector, KTI firms often attract employees by offering car-related job perks in addition to wage. This study analyzes the impact of company-cars and car-allowance on the travel behavior of knowledge-workers. The importance of this issue derives from the tendency of knowledge-based economy to concentrate in highly populated metropolitan regions. The analyzed data comprise 750 observations, retrieved from a revealed-preferences survey among KTI workers in the Tel-Aviv metropolitan region in Israel. Results show that car-related job perks are associated with (i) high annual kilometrage, (ii) high propensity of using the car as main commute mode, (iii) long commute distances and travel times, (iv) high trip chaining frequency in commuting trips, and (v) high frequency of long-distance weekend leisure trips. The results suggest that the development of sustainable knowledge-based cities should consider (i) the replacement of car-related job perks by other incentives, (ii) the provision of pedestrian and cyclist friendly infrastructures, and (iii) public transport improvements.
Rakesh Shah, HK Mehta, Manish Fancy, Sunil Nayak, Bhavesh N. Donga
Full Text Available Health care professionals are exposed to variety of dangers like infections, cuts and needle stick injuries, exposure to anesthetic gases, radiations, dermatitis causing substances, vaccines, serums etc. This study focuses on issues related to some of these risks and possible ways and means on how to overcome these risks. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices among health care workers about needle stick injury. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a teaching hospital in June 2008. Results: Mean age of Health care workers was 33.5 years, majority (50% in the age group of 20-30 years. 61% HCWs had less than 5 year of work experience. 67% HCWs had received hepatitis B vaccination of which only 17.9% had carried out Anti HBs antibody check up. Knowledge about disease transmitted by NSIs was satisfactory. Though 36% had suffered Needle stick injury (NSIs, only 8.3% reported the incident of NSIs. 81% HCWs know about universal precaution guidelines. Conclusion: There is an urgent need for strengthening skills, developing newer competencies and broadening our knowledge in occupational health and safety and disaster management.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Ten to thirty percent of the patients admitted to hospitals in India acquire nosocomial infections as against 5% i n the developed world. The first and foremost principle of Universal Safety Precaution is “HANDWASHING”. But the Health Care Workers often forget to wash their hands before int eracting with the patient. Such contaminated hands plays major role in transmitting infections. HCWs are also at an increased risk of needle stick injuries. According to data fr om EPINet system, hospital workers incur approximately 30 needle stick injuries per 100 beds per year on average – an alarming figure by no exaggeration. (5 OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge and perception of HCWs toward s hand hygiene and to know the incident of NSI and the fac tors associated with it. STUDY METHOD: Cross sectional study with purposive sampling was car ried out in a tertiary care hospital. Out of 275 participants 55 were doctors, 143 nurses and 77 i nterns. Self administered questionnaire was used to collect information. RESULTS : Ninety one percent doctors, 86% interns and 81% nurses had good knowledge about hand hygiene. 73% d octors, 61% interns and 56% nurses knew the duration required for hand rub. The main h indrance for not practicing hand hygiene was due to lack of resources (37%. Knowledge abou t recapping of the needle was poor and incident of injury due to needle stick was 50% amon g nurses. CONCLUSIONS : Study demonstrated adequate knowledge regarding hand hygi ene. The knowledge should be converted into practice. There is a need for educati onal programme about universal precautions especially about handling of the sharps
Full Text Available Background: Socio-economic status (SES, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV knowledge and self-efficacy influence risky behaviors and female sex workers (FSWs are not exception. Aims: This study was aimed to investigate if SES, HIV knowledge and self-efficacy predict frequency of unprotected sex with injecting drug users (IDUs among a sample of FSWs in Iran. Setting and Design: Universal Network for Health Information Dissemination and Exchange HIV Risk Study was a survey of IDUs and FSWs, conducted in eight different provinces of Iran, 2009. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 FSWs were entered in this study. Frequency of unprotected sex with IDUs during the past 6 months was the dependent variable. Number of sexual partners during the past 6 month, SES, HIV Knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived HIV risk and intention for change were predictors. Statistical Analysis: We used hierarchical regression for data analysis. In each step, a block of predictors were added to the model. SES block composed of education level, owning a house and living alone. Results: In the absence of SES in the model, HIV knowledge and self-efficacy were not significantly associated with the frequency of unprotected sex with IDUs during the past 6 months, However, with adding SES block to the model, HIV knowledge became significant predictor of the outcome. Thus, among our sample of Iranian FSWs, SES has a suppressor effect for the effect of HIV knowledge on frequency of unprotected sex with IDUs during the past 6 months. Conclusion: Studies which wish to understand the role of theory-based psychological constructs such as HIV knowledge on high risk behaviors need to include SES an essential contextual factor. This finding may also explain why literature is mixed on the effect of HIV knowledge on HIV risk behaviors.
Full Text Available Evidence points to the fact that frequent resignation of project engineers from construction companies is primarily the result of dissatisfaction with the factors that shape the salary scale. This research aims to identify the major influencing factors in merit based salary calculation systems for knowledge-oriented engineers so as to more accurately reflect their contribution to construction projects. Results from a questionnaire sent to managers, engineers and HR professionals throughout the Iranian construction industry revealed that while there was overall agreement on principles to a merit-based approach, engineers in particular identified ‘professional skills’, ‘experience’ and ‘creativity’. Management-oriented parties should take into account engineer perspectives in order to more accurately value the knowledge-oriented contribution of these workers to construction projects. This research provides a basis for understanding the key factors in the merit based salary scale formulation through the construction industry.
Bendit, Eduard; Frenkel, Amnon
This study investigates the linkage between the lifestyle and the intra-metropolitan residential choice of knowledge-workers in terms of home ownership, location, dwelling size and building type. In order to identify population groups based on their lifestyle, data from a revealed-preferences survey among knowledge-workers in Israel are clustered by means of a two-stage clustering method, consisting of self-organizing maps (SOM) followed by neural gas, Bayesian classification and unified distance matrix edge analysis. The method is embedded in the software Synapse. Five clusters are identified: nest-builders, bon-vivants, careerists, entrepreneurs and laid-back. The clusters significantly differ in terms of their home ownership, location, dwelling size and building type. Bon-vivants and entrepreneurs differ in their dwelling size and home ownership, although both prefer the metropolitan core. Careerists prefer suburban large single-detached houses. Hence, bon-vivants and entrepreneurs bear potential to form part of core revitalization processes, while careerists are the more likely to induce urban sprawl. Nest-builders and laid-back are attracted to central locations, conditional on the provision of affordable medium-size dwellings.
Menicucci, David F.
A growing recognition exists in companies worldwide that, when employees leave, they take with them valuable knowledge that is difficult and expensive to recreate. The concern is now particularly acute as the large ''baby boomer'' generation is reaching retirement age. A new field of science, Knowledge Continuity Management (KCM), is designed to capture and catalog the acquired knowledge and wisdom from experience of these employees before they leave. The KCM concept is in the final stages of being adopted by the Energy, Infrastructure, and Knowledge Systems Center and a program is being applied that should produce significant annual cost savings. This report discusses how the Center can use KCM to mitigate knowledge loss from employee departures, including a concise description of a proposed plan tailored to the Center's specific needs and resources.
Mørch, Anders; Nygård, Kathrine; Andersen, Renate; Mushtaq, Shazia; Nedic,Damir; Olsen, Espen; Hauge, Trond Eiliv; Vedøy, Gunn; Norenes, Svein Olav; Moen, Anne; Nes, Sturle; S. Olsen, Dorothy; Ludvigsen, Sten; Toiviainen, Hanna; Lallimo, Jiri
This deliverable has been produced in the context of the Knowledge- Practice Laboratory (KP-Lab) project. KP-Lab focuses on innovative practices of working with knowledge in higher education, teacher training, and workplaces. Participants of WP10 are University of Helsinki, University of Oslo and Pöyry Forest Industry representing both researchers and practitioners. WP10 explores knowledge practices in workplaces to understand more of the ways professionals create, use, communicate, and embed...
Croom, John R., III
The use of virtual laboratories has the potential to change physics education. These low-cost, interactive computer activities interest students, allow for easy setup, and give educators a way to teach laboratory based online classes. This study investigated whether virtual laboratories could replace traditional hands-on laboratories and whether students could retain the same long-term knowledge in virtual laboratories as compared to hands-on laboratories. This study is a quantitative quasi-experiment that used a multiple posttest design to determine if students using virtual laboratories would retain the same knowledge as students who performed hands-on laboratories after 9 weeks. The study was composed of 336 students from 14 school districts. Students had their performances on the laboratories and their retention of the laboratories compared to a series of factors that might have affected their retention using a pretest and two posttests, which were compared using a t test. The results showed no significant difference in short-term learning between the hands-on laboratory groups and virtual laboratory groups. There was, however, a significant difference (p = .005) between the groups in long-term retention; students in the hands-on laboratory groups retained more information than those in the virtual laboratory groups. These results suggest that long-term learning is enhanced when a laboratory contains a hands-on component. Finally, the results showed that both groups of students felt their particular laboratory style was superior to the alternative method. The findings of this study can be used to improve the integration of virtual laboratories into science curriculum.
Abdul Sattar Khan
Background: Hepatitis B (HBV infection is relatively common throughout the world, but more prevalent in low socioeconomic and underprivileged classes. The chronic infection may lead to severe consequences including Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Method: A cross-sectional, community-based survey of some ethnic expatriate groups of blue color workers (n=665 living in four main areas along the Northern Borders of Saudi Arabia was completed in 2005. We examined knowledge of HBV and vaccination status and compared them with some socio-demographic factors. Results: The mean age of the participants was 45.61 years (±8.44, 53% of whom were Non-Arabs (Non Arabic speaking. Of the total, 41.6% gave seven or more correct answers out of 12 questions addressing knowledge about the transmission and sequelae of HBV. Almost 40% of the respondents had not been vaccinated while the remaining respondents had had three full doses of vaccination. A high level of knowledge (? 7 correct answers was significantly associated (p0.05 with level of knowledge. However, vaccination status was associated (p<0.05 with almost all socio-demographic factors. Conclusion: Hepatitis screening programs for expatriates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia started 10 years ago and are expected to have a great impact on the combat against HBV infections and their complications. However, beyond screening, health promotion, vaccination campaigns, and access to vaccine for the underprivileged classes are some necessary measures towards achieving success.
Shoaei, Parisa; Najafi, Somayeh; Lotfi, Noushin; Vakili, Bahareh; Ataei, Behrooz; Yaran, Majid; Shafiei, Rezvan
Background: Laboratory health care workers (HCWs) may become infected through their occupation with blood-borne pathogens. The aims of this study were determining the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the protection offered by HBV vaccine in medical laboratory HCWs. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 203 employers of clinical laboratories. Participant data were obtained through a questionnaire, and the level of antigens and antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: All of the subjects were negative for HBV infection. Forty-seven (23.2%) were not immune, 126 (62.0%) were relatively immune, and 30 (14.8%) were highly immune. Conclusion: Hepatitis B infection is infrequent in laboratory HCWs in Isfahan.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics of female sex workers and their HIV/AIDS/STI knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in semi-urban areas in South Africa. The sample included 70 female sex workers from the Tzaneen and Phalaborwa area in the Limpopo Province. A modified form of snowball sampling known as “targeted” sampling was used for identifying female sex workers. Results showed an inadequate knowledge of HIV prevention methods and some incorrect beliefs about AIDS transmission. Most sex workers reported condom use with their last sex client, inconsistent condom use with paying partners, and had poor condom use with regular partners. One third were drinking alcohol daily, one quarter had had voluntary HIV tests, and three quarters had been exposed to HIV interventions. Findings are discussed and implications for HIV interventions outlined.
Abd Elaziz, K M; Bakr, I M
Most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of health care workers. The aim of this work was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of hand washing among health care workers (HCW) in Ain-Shams University hospitals and to investigate the presence of the necessary facilities and supplies required for hand washing (HW) in ten wards. A cross-sectional descriptive and observational study was conducted for six months from June till November 2006. Observation of the HCW for hand washing practice was done at any opportunity of contact with the patients in the different wards by members of the infection control team. Knowledge & attitude of HCW towards hand hygiene was done through self-administered questionnaire to HCW in 10 different departments. The total opportunities observed were 2189 opportunities. Doctors showed a significantly higher compliance (37.5%) than other groups of HCW (P = 0.000), however only 11.6% of the opportunities observed for doctors were done appropriately. The most common type of HW practiced among HCW was the routine HW (64.2%) and the least was the antiseptic HW (3.9%). Having a short contact time and improper drying (23.2%) were the most common errors that lead to inappropriate HW. Most of the wards had available sinks (80%) but none of them had available paper towels. The mean knowledge score was higher in nurses compared to doctors (42.6 +/- 1.7 versus 39.1 +/- 10.5). Most of the nurses (97.3%) believe that administrative orders and continuous observation can improve hand washing practices. Implementation of multifaceted interventional behavioral hand hygiene program with continuous monitoring and performance feedback, increasing the supplies necessary for HW and institutional support are important for improving the compliance of hand hygiene guidelines. PMID:19771756
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cambodia has been investing in Village Malaria Workers (VMWs to improve malaria case management in rural areas. This study assessed the quality of the VMWs’ services compared to those by a government-run health center from the perspective of community members. We focused on VMWs’ contribution to promote their action to control malaria. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kampot province in 2009. Interviews were conducted at every accessible household in a village with VMWs (n?=?153 and a village with a health center (n?=?159, using interviewer administered questionnaire. Preference of the interview was given to female household head. Multiple regression analyses were run to compare knowledge about malaria, preventive measures taken, and time before first malaria treatment between the two villages. Findings The villagers perceived the VMWs’ services equally as good as those provided by the health center. After controlling for confounding factors, the following indicators did not show any statistical significance between two villages: community members’ knowledge about malaria transmission (AOR?=?0.60, 95% CI?=?0.30-1.22 and government-recommended antimalarial (AOR?=?0.55, 95% CI?=?0.25-1.23, preventive measures taken (Beta?=??0.191, p?=?0.315, and time before the first treatment (Beta?=?0.053, p?=?0.721. However, knowledge about malaria symptoms was significantly lower in the village with VMWs than the village with a health center (AOR?=?0.40, 95% CI?=?0.19-0.83. Conclusions VMWs played an equivalent role as the health center in promoting malaria knowledge, action, and effective case management. Although VMWs need to enhance community knowledge about malaria symptoms, the current government policy on VMWs is reasonable and should be expanded to other malaria endemic villages.
Full Text Available Purpose : To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among the different health care workers (HCWs on nosocomial infections. Methods : A total of 150 HCWs, doctors (n=50, nurses (n=50 and ward aides (n=50 were included. A questionnaire was administered to the HCWs to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practices on nosocomial infections. A scoring system was devised to grade those (KAP score. They were further subjected to a series of similar questionnaires at intervals of 6, 12 and 24 months after an education module. Subjects in each category of staff (n=10 were observed for compliance to hand washing practices in the ward in the post-education period. Statistical analysis was done using statistical software. Results : The study showed an increase in the number of subjects in each category scoring good and excellent in the post-education questionnaire; however this declined with the progress of time. It was observed that the compliance level to hand washing practices differed among the different HCWs. Total compliance was 63.3% and ward aides were most compliant 76.7% (adjusted Wald 95% CI= 58.80-88.48. Conclusions : Education has a positive impact on retention of knowledge, attitudes and practices in all the categories of staff. There is a need to develop a system of continuous education for all the categories of staff. In order to reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections, compliance with interventions are mandatory.
Davis, Adam Christopher
This research develops a new framework for evaluating the occupational risks of exposure to hazardous substances in any setting where As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) practices are mandated or used. The evaluation is performed by developing a hypothesis-test-based procedure for evaluating the homogeneity of various epidemiological cohorts, and thus the appropriateness of the application of aggregate data-pooling techniques to those cohorts. A statistical methodology is then developed as an alternative to aggregate pooling for situations in which individual cohorts show heterogeneity between them and are thus unsuitable for pooled analysis. These methods are then applied to estimate the all-cancer mortality risks incurred by workers at four Department-of-Energy nuclear weapons laboratories. Both linear, no-threshold and dose-bin averaged risks are calculated and it is further shown that aggregate analysis tends to overestimate the risks with respect to those calculated by the methods developed in this work. The risk estimates developed in Chapter 2 are, in Chapter 3, applied to assess the risks to workers engaged in americium recovery operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The work described in Chapter 3 develops a full radiological protection assessment for the new americium recovery project, including development of exposure cases, creation and modification of MCNP5 models, development of a time-and-motion study, and the final synthesis of all data. This work also develops a new risk-based method of determining whether administrative controls, such as staffing increases, are ALARA-optimized. The EPA's estimate of the value of statistical life is applied to these risk estimates to determine a monetary value for risk. The rate of change of this "risk value" (marginal risk) is then compared with the rate of change of workers' compensations as additional workers are added to the project to reduce the dose (and therefore, presumably, risk) to each individual.
Notes that life-saving advances in medicine have created difficult ethical and legal dilemmas for health care professionals. Presents beginning knowledge base for bioethical practice, especially in hospital neonatal units. Outlines key elements of bioethical decision making and examines potential social work role from clinical and organizational…
Chaturvedi, Sujata; Suri, Vaishali; Pant, Ishita; Rusia, Usha
Blood collection is an important preanalytical component of haematological testing. This questionnaire based study was conducted on laboratory personnel to elicit their knowledge and practice regarding blood collection procedures for haematological testing. Questionnaire comprised of 37 multiple choice questions, of which 10 questions each were related to essential and desirable knowledge, 10 to practice and 7 to educational and job profile. Ninety four laboratory personnel participated in the study. Analysis was done on SPSS software. Percentages of unsatisfactory scores were 42.6%, 4.3%, 17% and 6% in the essential knowledge, desirable knowledge, practice and total scoring respectively. 91.5%, however, had a satisfactory total score. Importance needs to be given to blood collection procedures both, individually and collectively. The study highlights the deficient areas which need to addressed by all laboratorians. Such studies should also be conducted among nursing and resident staff- the other groups concerned with blood collection. PMID:17001890
Kress, Catherine M; Sharling, Lisa; Owen-Smith, Ashli A; Desalegn, Dawit; Blumberg, Henry M; Goedken, Jennifer
Background Though cervical cancer incidence has dramatically decreased in resource rich regions due to the implementation of universal screening programs, it remains one of the most common cancers affecting women worldwide and has one of the highest mortality rates. The vast majority of cervical cancer-related deaths are among women that have never been screened. Prior to implementation of a screening program in Addis Ababa University-affiliated hospitals in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted to assess knowledge of cervical cancer etiology, risk factors, and screening, as well as attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer screening among women’s health care providers. Methods Between February and March 2012 an anonymous, self-administered survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to cervical cancer and its prevention was distributed to 334 health care providers at three government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and three Family Guidance Association clinics in Awassa, Adama, and Bahir Dar. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and chi-square test was used to test differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practices across provider type. Results Overall knowledge surrounding cervical cancer was high, although awareness of etiology and risk factors was low among nurses and midwives. Providers had no experience performing cervical cancer screening on a routine basis with <40% having performed any type of cervical cancer screening. Reported barriers to performing screening were lack of training (52%) and resources (53%); however the majority (97%) of providers indicated cervical cancer screening is an essential part of women’s health care. Conclusion There is a clear need among women’s health care providers for education regarding cervical cancer etiology, risk factors and for training in low-tech, low-cost screening methods. Meeting these needs and improving the infrastructure necessary to implement appropriate screening programs is essential to reduce the burden of cervical cancer in Ethiopia. PMID:26261427
Norizzati Azudin; Mohd Nor Ismail; Zainab Taherali
Malaysia, being a multi-racial society, faces the challenges of creating knowledge sharing capability in organisations, as cultural values are often reflected in the workplace by individual employees. For organisations, it is not clear whether this diversity has resulted in any form of competitive advantage. Studies have shown that various communities in Malaysia do not bring their respective cultures to work, and as such the company values prevail. This research is based on the demographic s...
Shapiro, Daniel S.; Schwartz, Donald R
A rapidly fatal case of pulmonary tularemia in a 43-year-old man who was transferred to a tertiary care facility is presented. The microbiology laboratory and autopsy services were not notified of the clinical suspicion of tularemia by the service caring for the patient. Despite having a laboratory bioterrorism procedure in place and adhering to established laboratory protocol, 12 microbiology laboratory employees were exposed to Francisella tularensis and the identification of the organism w...
Full Text Available Abstract Background This survey assessed knowledge, attitudes, and compliance regarding standard precautions about health care-associated infections (HAIs and the associated determinants among healthcare workers (HCWs in emergency departments in Italy. Methods An anonymous questionnaire, self-administered by all HCWs in eight randomly selected non-academic acute general public hospitals, comprised questions on demographic and occupational characteristics; knowledge about the risks of acquiring and/or transmitting HAIs from/to a patient and standard precautions; attitudes toward guidelines and risk perceived of acquiring a HAI; practice of standard precautions; and sources of information. Results HCWs who know the risk of acquiring Hepatitis C (HCV and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV from a patient were in practice from less years, worked fewer hours per week, knew that a HCW can transmit HCV and HIV to a patient, knew that HCV and HIV infections can be serious, and have received information from educational courses and scientific journals. Those who know that gloves, mask, protective eyewear, and hands hygiene after removing gloves are control measures were nurses, provided care to fewer patients, knew that HCWs' hands are vehicle for transmission of nosocomial pathogens, did not know that a HCW can transmit HCV and HIV to a patient, and have received information from educational courses and scientific journals. Being a nurse, knowing that HCWs' hands are vehicle for transmission of nosocomial pathogens, obtaining information from educational courses and scientific journals, and needing information were associated with a higher perceived risk of acquiring a HAI. HCWs who often or always used gloves and performed hands hygiene measures after removing gloves were nurses, provided care to fewer patients, and knew that hands hygiene after removing gloves was a control measure. Conclusions HCWs have high knowledge, positive attitudes, but low compliance concerning standard precautions. Nurses had higher knowledge, perceived risk, and appropriate HAIs' control measures than physicians and HCWs answered correctly and used appropriately control measures if have received information from educational courses and scientific journals.
Ahmad Filza Ismail; Aziah Daud; Zaliha Ismail; Baharudin Abdullah
Objectives: Noise is known to be one of the environmental and occupational hazards listed in the Factory and Machinery Act 1967. Quarries with loud deafening sounds from trucks and machineries pose the risk of noise-induced hearing loss to workers. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards noise-induced hearing loss and to determine the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss and its associated factors among quarry workers in a north-eastern state of Mala...
The orchestra conductor is a popular metaphor for managers today--up there on the podium in complete control. But that image may be misleading, says Henry Mintzberg, who recently spent a day with Bramwell Tovey, conductor of the Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra, in order to explore the metaphor. He found that Tovey does not operate like an absolute ruler but practices instead what Mintzberg calls covert leadership. Covert leadership means managing with a sense of nuances, constraints, and limitations. When a manager like Tovey guides an organization, he leads without seeming to, without his people being fully aware of all that he is doing. That's because in this world of professionals, a leader is not completely powerless--but neither does he have absolute control over others. As knowledge work grows in importance, the way an orchestra conductor really operates may serve as a good model for managers in a wide range of businesses. For example, Mintzberg found that Tovey does a lot more hands-on work than one might expect. More like a first-line supervisor than a hands-off executive, he takes direct and personal charge of what is getting done. In dealing with his musicians, his focus is on inspiring them, not empowering them. Like other professionals, the musicians don't need to be empowered--they're already secure in what they know and can do--but they do need to be infused with energy for the tasks at hand. This is the role of the covert leader: to act quietly and unobtrusively in order to exact not obedience but inspired performance. PMID:10187244
Full Text Available Background: The primary health care workers of a district in northern India were trained in the year 2006 for Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI using two different training methods: conventional 8-day training and new interrupted 5-day training. Knowledge and skills may decline over a period of time. Rate of decline may be associated with the type of training. A study was thus conducted to see the retention of knowledge and skills in the two training groups, 3 years after the initial training. Materials and Methods: This study was done in the Panchkula district of Haryana state in northern India. In the year 2006, 50 primary health care workers were given new interrupted 5-day training and another 35 workers were given conventional 8-day training on IMNCI. Knowledge and skills of the same workers were evaluated in the year 2009, using the same methodology and tools as were used in the year 2006. Data analysis was done to see the extent of decline in knowledge and skills in these 3 years and whether decline was more in any particular training group. Results: Compared to post-training score in the year 2006, composite knowledge and skill scores for Auxilliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs and Anganwari workers (AWWs together declined significantly in the year 2009 from 74.6 to 58.0 in 8-day training group and from 73.2 to 57.0 in 5-day training group (P < 0.001. Follow-up composite scores in the two training groups were similar. Whereas the decline was more for knowledge scores in 8-day training group and for skill score in 5-day training group, the pattern of decline was inconsistent for different health conditions and among ANMs and AWWs. Conclusion: Long-term retention of knowledge and skills in 5-day group was equivalent to that in 8-day training group. Refresher trainings may boost up the decline in the knowledge and skills.
Full Text Available Companies often have the knowledge on procedures to prevent or mitigate against information technology security risks. Yet these companies may not take adequate measures to implement these procedures, and instead, leave themselves vulnerable to security breaches. Potential reasons for this gap between information security knowledge and implementation are provided based on interviews with information technology managers at a global automobile sales and marketing company. Four mechanisms to reduce this gap are proposed, along with a new approach to conduct a laboratory experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of these mechanisms, applied independently and in combinations.
Full text: Introduction. In the autumn of 2006, the UK government made a commitment to establish a National Nuclear Laboratory based around Nexia Solutions and its 'state of the art' facility at Sellafield in Cumbria. The initial phase of the work to establish the laboratory is now complete and it has a remit for the following roles: to play a key role in supporting the UK's strategic R and D requirements; to operate world-class facilities; to ensure key skills are safeguarded and enhanced; to play a key role in the development of the UK's R and D supply base. It is evident that to be successful the National Nuclear Laboratory will need a strong capability in knowledge management to underpin its activities. Our origins in the R and D communities of BNFL and UKAEA have given us a broad portfolio of capabilities which range from reactor technology through fuel cycle technology to waste management and the knowledge held by our people is one of our major strengths. However, the capabilities and knowledge do need to be maintained and developed, for which we have a four part strategy: Strengthen internal systems and processes; Undertake strategic R and D programmes; Build networks with the nuclear industry across the world; Build links and partnerships with academic institutions. Systems and Processes. Internal systems and processes need to be strengthened to make the capture and sharing of knowledge and information more efficient. A key element will be succession planning for more experienced technologists. R and D programmes. Work is proceeding to develop a robust portfolio of R and D programmes. As well as fulfilling our remit to play a key role in the UK's strategic R and D requirements, this will also ensure that skills maintenance goes beyond formal training. Involvement in R and D programmes will develop capabilities in our younger scientists and engineers, particularly, to generate solutions relevant to the industrial-scale application of nuclear technology. We aim to use our R and D programmes to facilitate skills transfer from experienced practitioners across a wide range of disciplines. Industry Networks. Building networks across the nuclear industry needs to complement the R and D portfolio. We recognise that a creative approach is needed, and one example is that Nexia Solutions has created roles called Senior Fellows. Senior Fellows are leading technologists who are expected to 'act as ambassadors'. That is to say that they will develop links between technologists inside the laboratory with those in academia or other industries. In this context, knowledge management is to work with the 'tacit' knowledge held by experts in a variety of organisations. Establishing the correct links ensures the knowledge is more complete than it would otherwise be and enables it to be focused more effectively on real issues. Each senior fellow role is based around a fundamental technical discipline which provides the theme for the development of technical links. Currently we have roles in the following areas:- Materials behaviour; Corrosion; Actinide chemistry; Criticality; Reactor Systems. Senior Fellows are nationally and internationally known and respected in their field and are expected to maintain their specialist support role within Nexia Solutions in addition to interacting extensively with key research organisations, academia and relevant other industries. Academic links. The National Nuclear Laboratory will aim to maximise the value of its work for the UK and therefore must find ways of increasing the synergies between its own capabilities and those in universities. One example of how the National Laboratory may work is Nexia Solutions' existing initiative called University Research Alliances (URA). The knowledge management aspect is similar to that for industrial networks, i.e. dealing with 'tacit' knowledge. Academic and industrial knowledge can complement each other if the right links are established. Equally, important is the role that universities can play in renewing the knowledge base, through formal education pr ogra
Kruize, H; Post, W.; Heederik, D.; Martens, B.; Hollander, A.; van Beek, E
OBJECTIVES: To study the role of exposure, atopy, and smoking in the development of laboratory animal allergy (LAA) in a retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Between 1977 and 1993, 225 people received a pre-employment screening when they started a job at a Dutch research institute where they were going to work with laboratory animals. After active follow up 136 of them (60.4%) could be traced and were sent a questionnaire with extensive questions on allergic symptoms, smoking habits, and job ...
We examined associations between low-level exposure to ionizing radiation and mortality among 14,095 workers hired at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1943 and 1972. Workers at the facility were individually monitored for external exposure to ionizing radiation and have been followed through 1990 to ascertain cause of death information. Positive associations were observed between low-level exposure to external ionizing radiation and mortality. These associations were larger for doses received after 45 years of age, larger under longer lag assumptions, and primarily due to cancer causes of death. All cancer mortality was estimated to increase 4.98% [standard error (SE)=1.5] per 10-mSv cumulative dose received after age 45 under a 10-year lag, and 7.31% (SE=2.2) per 10-mSv cumulative dose received after age 45 under a 20-year lag. Associations between radiation dose and lung cancer were of similar magnitude to associations between radiation dose and all cancers except lung cancer. Nonmalignant respiratory disease exhibited a positive association with cumulative radiation dose received after age 45, whereas ischemic heart disease exhibited no association with radiation dose. These findings suggest increases in cancer mortality associated with low-level external exposure to ionizing radiation and potentially greater sensitivity to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation with older ages at exposure. (orig.)
Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward
This study investigates the linkage between the lifestyle and the intra-metropolitan residential choice of knowledge-workers in terms of home-ownership, location, dwelling size and building type. Data are retrieved from a revealed-preferences survey among knowledge-workers in the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area and are analyzed with self-organizing maps for pattern recognition and classification. Five clusters are identified: nest-builders, bon-vivants, careerists, entrepreneurs and laid-back. Bon-vivants and entrepreneurs differ in their dwelling size and home-ownership, although both prefer the metropolitan core. Careerists prefer suburban large detached houses. Nest-builders and laid-back are attracted to central locations, conditional on the provision of affordable medium-size dwellings.
Prescott, Dana E
The graduate school curriculum for social workers requires that students learn to critically distinguish between opinion-based knowledge and evidence-based practices, or empirically-supported interventions. Once graduated, licensed social workers are often called upon to offer diagnostic and predictive opinions as experts in a variety of macro-environments. When the family courts are that "host" environment, social workers proffer expert opinions that may categorize and label parents or children for purposes of a judge's allocation of physical or legal custody. In this article, it is suggested that the social work profession, within all three domains of education, practice, and research, should more precisely link the design and fidelity of an evidence-based practice (EBP) with its potential misapplication or warping when proffered as science in "host" environments like family courts. As Foucault and other scholars warn, the failure to verify that an intervention is applied correctly may actually enhance the risk of social injustice by interpreting and translating EBP knowledge in the non-empirical form of authority-by-license. This article, therefore, proposes that the social work profession, from the classroom to the field, has an obligation to thoroughly understand and engage interdisciplinary practices that assure respect for the strengths and limits of social work knowledge. PMID:24066636
International mobility trends of highly skilled workers: an analysis of the transnational migration of highly skilled immigrants for both receiving and sending countries and their role on innovation in a knowledge-based economy
Yan, Victor Andrew
In a knowledge-based economy, innovation has become a key driver of economic growth. The return migration of highly skilled workers to traditional sending countries such as Taiwan, China, and India has increased the international mobility of highly skilled workers in the Science and Technology sector. As a result, this will change transnational migration patterns of highly skilled workers in the future and will affect recruitment strategies of traditional receiving countries such as Canada. T...
Kantarcioglu, A. Serda; Sandoval-Denis, M.; Aygun, Gokhan; Kiraz, Nuri; Akman, Canan; Apaydin, Hulya; KARAMAN, Emin; Guarro, Josep; DE HOOG, G. SYBREN; Gurel, M.S.
Coccidioidomycosis caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii is endemic in arid climate zones in America, travel-related cases have been reported. We report the first documented case of coccidioidomycosis in Turkey, overviewing reported cases in Europe and underlying difficulties of differential diagnosis outside endemic regions. The patient was an otherwise healthy 41-year-old man who travelled endemic areas. Laboratory diagnosis was based on direct microscopy of two subsequen...
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintains an in vivo measurement program designed to identify and evaluate the activity of radionuclides deposited in the body. Two types of systems are primarily used for the routine monitoring of radiation workers, the lung counting system and the scanning bed whole body counting system. The lung counting system is comprised of two Canberra ACTII detector sets. Each ACTII set contains two planar germanium detectors with carbon composite end windows optimized to measure low energy photon emitting radionuclides. The ACTII detectors are placed on the upper torso over the lungs for the direct measurement of internally deposited radionuclides in the lungs that emit low energy photons. A correction for the thickness of the chest wall is applied to the efficiency. Because the thickness of the chest wall is a key factor in the measurement of low energy photon emitting radionuclides in the lung, the minimum detectable activity is a function of the chest wall thickness. The scanning bed whole body counting system is comprised of a thin air mattress on top of a carbon fiber bed that slowly scans over four high purity germanium detectors. The scanning system is designed to minimize variations in detected activity due to radionuclide distribution in the body. The scanning bed detection system is typically used for the measurement of internally deposited radionuclides that emit photons above 100 to 200 keV. MDAs have been generated for radionuclides that provide energies above 80 keV since the lowest calibration energy for the system is approximately 86 keV. The following charts and table provide best determination of minimum detectable activity using human subjects as controls for the background contributions. A wide variety of radionuclides are used throughout the laboratory and the following pages represent several of the radionuclides that have been encountered at the Whole Body and Spectroscopy Laboratories within Hazards Control
Kirkpatrick, Brianne E; Riggs, Erin Rooney; Azzariti, Danielle R; Miller, Vanessa Rangel; Ledbetter, David H; Miller, David T; Rehm, Heidi; Martin, Christa Lese; Faucett, W Andrew
As the utility of genetic and genomic testing in healthcare grows, there is need for a high-quality genomic knowledge base to improve the clinical interpretation of genomic variants. Active patient engagement can enhance communication between clinicians, patients, and researchers, contributing to knowledge building. It also encourages data sharing by patients and increases the data available for clinicians to incorporate into individualized patient care, clinical laboratories to utilize in test interpretation, and investigators to use for research. GenomeConnect is a patient portal supported by the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen), providing an opportunity for patients to add to the knowledge base by securely sharing their health history and genetic test results. Data can be matched with queries from clinicians, laboratory personnel, and researchers to better interpret the results of genetic testing and build a foundation to support genomic medicine. Participation is online, allowing patients to contribute regardless of location. GenomeConnect supports longitudinal, detailed clinical phenotyping and robust "matching" among research and clinical communities. Phenotype data are gathered using online health questionnaires; genotype data are obtained from genetic test reports uploaded by participants and curated by staff. GenomeConnect empowers patients to actively participate in the improvement of genomic test interpretation and clinical utility. PMID:26178529
Stone, Timothy Amos [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Incidents involving release of nuclear materials stored in containers of convenience such as food pack cans, slip lid taped cans, paint cans, etc. has resulted in defense board concerns over the lack of prescriptive performance requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shared in these incidents and in response proactively moved into developing a performance based storage container design, the SAVY-4000. The SAVY-4000 is the first vented general use nuclear material container demonstrated to meet the requirements of DOE M 441.1-1, Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. The SAVY-4000 is an innovative and creative design demonstrated by the fact that it can be opened and closed in a few seconds without torque wrenches or other tools; has a built-in, fire-rated filter that prevents the build-up of hydrogen gas, yet retains 99.97% of plutonium particulates, and prevents release of material even in a 12 foot drop. Finally, it has been tested to 500C for 2 hours, and will reduce the risk to the public in the event of an earthquake/fire scenario. This will allow major nuclear facilities to credit the container towards source term Material at Risk (MAR) reduction. The container was approved for nuclear material storage in theTA-55 Plutonium Facility on March 15, 2011, and the first order of 79 containers was received at LANL on March 21, 2011. The first four SAVY-4000 containers were packaged with plutonium on August 2, 2011. Key aspects ofthe SAVY-4000 vented storage container design will be discussed which include design qualification and testing, implementation plan development and status, risk ranking methodology for re-packaging, in use implementation with interface to LANMAS, surveillance strategy, the design life extension program as enhanced by surveillance activities and production status with the intent to extend well beyond the current five year design life.
K J, Ramphoma; S, Naidoo.
Full Text Available Lesotho has the third highest prevalence of HIV In the world with an estimated 23% of the adult population infected. At least 70% of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have presented with oral manifestation of HIV as the first sign of the disease. Oral health workers regularly encounter patients pr [...] esenting with oral lesions associated with HIV disease and therefore need to have adequate knowledge of these conditions for diagnosis and management. The aim of the present study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of oral health care workers (OHCW) of Lesotho regarding the management of oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on all 46 OHCW in 26 public and private care facilities in all ten districts of Lesotho. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather information. The response rate was 100%. Nearly all (94.7%) agreed that oral lesions are common in people living with HIV and/or AIDS. The majority (91.3%) named oral candidiasis (OC) as the most common lesion found in PLWHA while Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) (34.7%) and Oral Hairy Leukoplakia (OHL) (32.6%) were mentioned as the least common oral lesions of HIV. Most correctly identified the images of oral candidiasis (97.8%), angular cheilitis (86.9%) and herpes zoster (80.4%). Only 16.7% felt they had comprehensive knowledge of oral HIV lesions, although 84.8% reported having previously received training. Almost three quarters (71%) reported that there was no need to treat HIV positive patients differently from HIV negative patients. OHCW in Lesotho demonstrated high confidence levels in their competence in managing dental patients with oral lesions associated with HIV, however, they lacked an in-depth knowledge in this regard. Amongst this group there is a need for comprehensive training with regards to diagnosis and management of oral lesions of HIV including the training of other cadres of health care workers together with nurses and community health workers.
Full Text Available Background: Pandemic influenza A H1N1 has had a rapid worldwide spread and has killed many people so far. For these reasons, it is necessary that health professionals have enough knowledge to prevent high mortality for this overwhelming pandemic. Objective: To determine the level of knowledge about transmission, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and preventive measures in health professionals and to identify factors that can be associated with an adequate level of knowledge. Methods: A transversal study wasperformed in physicians, residents, nurses and medical interns working at Hospital Nacional Arzobispo Loayza (HNAL, whom were selected by a quota sampling and responded a self administerquestionnaire. Results: The level of knowledge was adequate in a 60.6% of workers. The bivariate analysis showed that the associated factors to adequate knowledge were being physician [OR=2.33 (1.42-3.82; p=0.0009] or resident [OR=2.75 (1.5-5.04; p=0.001]. Multivariate analysis showed that none of the factors was associated with an adequate level of knowledge, however the associated factors with an inadequate level of knowledge were: having selected press media as the main source of information [OR=2.15 (1.32-4.78; p=0.005] and working as a nurse [OR=2.603 (1.105 - 6.129; p=0.029].Conclusions: 60.6% of the health professionals from HNAL have an adequate level of knowledge about influenza A H1N1 and being a physician o a resident is associated with this.
Maria Inês Rosa
Full Text Available As atuais mudanças na divisão e organização do trabalho capitalista colocam, como uma das exigências ao trabalhador, o acesso a novos conhecimentos. Buscamos compreender o que é o novo nestas mudanças, e o fazemos através de duas hipóteses. A primeira concerne à mudança de governo do trabalho, ou seja, dos homens como trabalhadores. Este governo não mais se escora na forma taylorista, porém repropõe seu ideal político. A segunda refere-se à vivência pelo trabalhador do acesso aos conhecimentos enquanto profissionalização e/ou qualificação de sua força de trabalho. Desenvolvemos nossas reflexões tanto em nível teórico quanto empírico. Em nível teórico discutimos a política reduzida à instrumentalização, no exercício do governo dos homens, na situação de trabalho. Relacionamos este governo com a concepção do trabalho como uso de si, do homem, como trabalhador. Esta concepção colocou como necessário ouvir os trabalhadores sobre suas atividades de trabalho através de entrevistas. Articulamos este nível empírico e o teórico com as questões do sujeito e do agente social presentes nessas hipóteses.The changes on the division and organisation of capitalistic labour demand that workers have access to new knowledge. We try in this article to understand such changes and what is new about them. We do it through the examination of two hypothesis. The first concerns the change on the government of work, that is, the government of men as workers. This new government does not assume a tayloristic form anymore, but it reproposes its political-ideal. The second one refers to the worker's experience regarding the access to knowledge considered a crucial part of his qualification. Our study has been developed both on the theoretical and on the empirical levels. Theoreticaly we discuss politics in it's reducionistic connotation, that is, as an expression of the government of some men over others in the work situation. We related this government to the conception of work in which men as whole being, are used by others as workers. This conception made it necessary to hear workers about their work activities through enterviews. We articulated both the theoretical and the empirical level of the study through the categories of subject and of social agent, which are part of our hypothesis.
Maria Inês, Rosa.
Full Text Available As atuais mudanças na divisão e organização do trabalho capitalista colocam, como uma das exigências ao trabalhador, o acesso a novos conhecimentos. Buscamos compreender o que é o novo nestas mudanças, e o fazemos através de duas hipóteses. A primeira concerne à mudança de governo do trabalho, ou se [...] ja, dos homens como trabalhadores. Este governo não mais se escora na forma taylorista, porém repropõe seu ideal político. A segunda refere-se à vivência pelo trabalhador do acesso aos conhecimentos enquanto profissionalização e/ou qualificação de sua força de trabalho. Desenvolvemos nossas reflexões tanto em nível teórico quanto empírico. Em nível teórico discutimos a política reduzida à instrumentalização, no exercício do governo dos homens, na situação de trabalho. Relacionamos este governo com a concepção do trabalho como uso de si, do homem, como trabalhador. Esta concepção colocou como necessário ouvir os trabalhadores sobre suas atividades de trabalho através de entrevistas. Articulamos este nível empírico e o teórico com as questões do sujeito e do agente social presentes nessas hipóteses. Abstract in english The changes on the division and organisation of capitalistic labour demand that workers have access to new knowledge. We try in this article to understand such changes and what is new about them. We do it through the examination of two hypothesis. The first concerns the change on the government of w [...] ork, that is, the government of men as workers. This new government does not assume a tayloristic form anymore, but it reproposes its political-ideal. The second one refers to the worker's experience regarding the access to knowledge considered a crucial part of his qualification. Our study has been developed both on the theoretical and on the empirical levels. Theoreticaly we discuss politics in it's reducionistic connotation, that is, as an expression of the government of some men over others in the work situation. We related this government to the conception of work in which men as whole being, are used by others as workers. This conception made it necessary to hear workers about their work activities through enterviews. We articulated both the theoretical and the empirical level of the study through the categories of subject and of social agent, which are part of our hypothesis.
Olanrewaju Olusola Onigbogi
Full Text Available Background One of the requirements of the Osun State smoke-free legislation is to ensure smoke-free enclosed and partially enclosed workplaces. This survey was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitude of workers in indoor bars, beer parlors and discotheques to smoke-free legislation in general and the Osun State smoke-free law in particular. Methods A convenience sampling of 36 hospitality centers was conducted. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit responses about the objectives from non-smoking workers. The questionnaires had sections on knowledge of the Osun State smoke-free law, attitude toward the law and smoke-free legislation in general and exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke by the workers. Questions were also asked about the secondhand tobacco smoking status of these workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0. Results We had 154 participants recruited into the study. There were 75 males (48.0% and 79 females (52.0%. On the overall, respondents had a good knowledge of the effects of second-hand smoke on health (70.2% with 75.0% of them being aware of the general smoke-free law and 67.3% being aware of the Osun State smoke-free law although none of them had ever seen a copy of the law. A high proportion (60.0% was in support of the Osun smoke-free law although all of them think that the implementation of the law could reduce patronage and jeopardize their income. Attitude toward second-hand smoking was generally positive with 72.0% of them having no tolerance for second-hand tobacco smoke in their homes. Most participants (95.5% had been exposed to tobacco smoke in the workplace within the past week. Conclusion Despite the high level of awareness of the respondents about the dangers of second hand smoke and their positive attitude to smoke-free laws, nearly all were constantly being exposed to second hand smoke at work. This calls for policy level interventions to improve the implementation of the smoke-free law.
Lim Sachiko; Yasuoka Junko; Poudel Krishna C; Ly Po; Nguon Chea; Jimba Masamine
Abstract Background Cambodia has been investing in Village Malaria Workers (VMWs) to improve malaria case management in rural areas. This study assessed the quality of the VMWs’ services compared to those by a government-run health center from the perspective of community members. We focused on VMWs’ contribution to promote their action to control malaria. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Kampot province in 2009. Interviews were conducted at every accessible household ...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a recognized occupational risk for health care workers (HCWs). This study aimed to assess the knowledge and beliefs of HCWs regarding HBV transmission and needle stick injuries (NSIs). A cross-sectional questionnaire based KAP study was conducted at Civil Hospital, Karachi, during the period of January to September 2006. HCWs were inquired about possible modes of HBV transmission and association with NSIs. Data were entered using EpiInfo 6.04d software. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12.5 software. A total of 343 HCWs participated, and those answered at least 5 correct modes of HBV transmission were considered knowledgeable. Knowledgeable group was more likely to report NSIs (p < 0.006), more vaccinated (p < 0.001) and were also more likely to attend awareness session (p < 0.009). Overall knowledge were inadequate and behaviour and attitude towards clinical practices were found compromised. To reduce the occupational risk, effort should be focused to establish effective infection control program and training of staff. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unsafe injection practices and injection overuse are widespread in developing countries harming the patient and inviting risks to the health care workers. In Nepal, there is a dearth of documented information about injection practices so the present study was carried out: a to determine whether the selected government health facilities satisfy the conditions for safe injections in terms of staff training, availability of sterile injectable equipment and their proper disposal after use and b to assess knowledge and attitudes of healthcare workers in these health care facilities with regard to injection safety. Methodology A descriptive cross-sectional mixed type (qualitative and quantitative survey was carried out from 18th May to 16th June 2012. In-depth interviews with the in-charges were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Observation of the health facilities using a structured observation tool was done. The data were analysed manually by summarizing, tabulating and presenting in various formats. Results The in-charges (eight males, two females who participated in the study ranged in age from 30 to 50?years with a mean age of 37.8?years. Severe infection followed by pain was the most important cause for injection use with injection Gentamicin being most commonly prescribed. New single use (disposable injections and auto-disable syringes were used to inject curative drugs and vaccines respectively. Sufficient safety boxes were also supplied to dispose the used syringe. All health care workers had received full course of Hepatitis B vaccine and were knowledgeable about at least one pathogen transmitted through unsafe injection practices. Injection safety management policy and waste disposal guideline was not available for viewing in any of the facilities. The office staff who disposed the bio-medical wastes did so without taking any safety measures. Moreover, none of these staff had received any formal training in waste management. Conclusions Certain safe injection practices were noticed in the studied health care facilities but there remain a number of grey areas where unsafe practices still persists placing patient and health workers at risk of associated hazards. Training concentrating on injection safety, guidelines to dispose biomedical waste and monitoring of the activity is needed.
The majority of the 15,000 members of the Power Workers Union (PWU) are employed in electricity production at Ontario Power Generation's nuclear generating stations and in nuclear technology research at the Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. Our members therefore have an obvious vested interest in any discussion related to their jobs. Workers in nuclear power plants have a clearly defined responsibility to ensure a safe working environment for themselves and their fellow workers. They have an overwhelming vested interest in ensuring that the plants are constructed, maintained, and operated safely. As will be detailed in the presentation to the CNS, all workers are required to learn and demonstrate knowledge of the hazards as an integral part of employment initiation and subsequent training. As their union, the PWU has a responsibility to ensure conditions of employment that not only permit workers to refuse work they perceive to be unsafe but require them to bring safety concerns forward for resolution to the satisfaction of both management and workers' representatives. The PWU has accomplished this through the development of workplace structures to ensure worker input is sought and acted on. The paper will describe the next steps required to improve workplace safety at Ontario Power Generation, which could be adapted to other facilities and workgroups. (author)
Knowledge about childhood autism and opinion among healthcare workers on availability of facilities and law caring for the needs and rights of children with childhood autism and other developmental disorders in Nigeria
Igwe Monday N
Full Text Available Abstract Background In designing programs to raise the community level of awareness about childhood autism in sub-Saharan Africa, it is logical to use the primary healthcare workers as contact point for education of the general public. Tertiary healthcare workers could play the role of trainers on childhood autism at primary healthcare level. Assessing their baseline knowledge about childhood autism to detect areas of knowledge gap is an essential ingredient in starting off such programs that would be aimed at early diagnosis and interventions. Knowledge of the healthcare workers on availability of facilities and law that would promote the required interventions is also important. This study assessed the baseline knowledge about childhood autism and opinion among Nigerian healthcare workers on availability of facilities and law caring for the needs and rights of children with childhood autism and other developmental disorders. Method A total of one hundred and thirty four (134 consented healthcare workers working in tertiary healthcare facilities located in south east and south-south regions of Nigeria were interviewed with Socio-demographic, Knowledge about Childhood Autism among Health Workers (KCAHW and Opinion on availability of Facilities and Law caring for the needs and rights of children with Childhood Autism and other developmental disorders (OFLCA questionnaires. Results The total mean score of participated healthcare workers on KCAHW questionnaire was 12.35 ± 4.40 out of a total score of 19 possible. Knowledge gap was found to be higher in domain 3 (symptoms of obsessive and repetitive pattern of behavior, followed by domains 1 (symptoms of impairments in social interaction, 4 (type of disorder autism is and associated co-morbidity and 2 (symptoms of communication impairments of KCAHW respectively among the healthcare workers. Knowledge about childhood autism (KCA as measured by scores on KCAHW questionnaire was significantly associated with age group distribution of the healthcare workers, with those age group of fourth decades and above more likely to have higher mean score (p = 0.004 and previous experience of managing children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD (p = 0.000. KCA showed near significant association with area of specialty, with those healthcare workers in psychiatry compared to pediatrics having higher mean score (p = 0.071 and also with years of working experience of the healthcare workers (p = 0.056. More than half of the healthcare workers subscribed to the opinion that facilities and law caring for the needs and rights of children with childhood autism and other developmental disorders are lacking in Nigeria. Conclusion The correlates of KCA may help in selection of those tertiary healthcare workers that would best fit the role of trainers. It is important to update the knowledge gaps of those healthcare workers who scored low in different domains of KCAHW questionnaire. It is imperative for policy makers in Nigeria to advocate and implement multidisciplinary healthcare service system that would ensure early diagnosis and interventions. Nationally representative baseline epidemiological data that would guide policy and planning are also desirable.
Miriam Maraninchi Alam
Full Text Available Este texto trata da análise, no processo de trabalho em saúde, das características do conhecimento adquirido e produzido pelos trabalhadores, acerca da prevenção e controle de acidentes com materiais perfurocortantes e fluidos biológicos no ambiente hospitalar. Verifica a presença ou não de uma visão integrada de saúde entre trabalhador e instituição. Caracteriza-se como uma pesquisa quantitativa, com progressiva análise contextualizada e, portanto, com um enfoque qualitativo do problema, apoiada em conceitos de educação ambiental, trabalho e saúde. Um total de 130 trabalhadores, em dois Hospitais Universitários da Região Sul do extremo sul do Rio Grande do Sul, em setores de clínica médica, cirúrgica e de pronto atendimento. A análise dos dados foi realizada por meio do cruzamento dos ambientes institucionais e das categorias profissionais com variáveis que caracterizam o processo de trabalho. Entre os dois ambientes institucionais estudados, o Ambiente Institucional "B" apresentou um trabalho educativo, de prevenção e controle mais atuante do que no Ambiente Institucional "A" e, conseqüentemente, uma maior aderência de seus trabalhadores sobre a necessidade de trabalharem com mais segurança.This work intents to analyse, on the health-care work environment, the characteristics of the knowledge acquired and produced by the workers, about accidents prevention and control with cutting material and biological fluids in the hospital environment. It verifies the presence or not of an integrated vision of health between the worker and the institution. It can be described as a quantitative research, in combination with a progressive and contextualized analysis that, therefore, brings a qualitative approach of the problem, supported in concepts as ambiental education, work and health. A total of 130 workers, in two college hospitals situated on the extreme south of the South region of the Rio Grande do Sul, of medical pratice, cirurgical clinic and emergency take part on this research. The data analysis was made through and the "cross tabulation" between the institutional environments and the professional cathegories together with variables, which characterize the health-care work. As a matter of fact, we can see that in the Institutional Environment "B" we see the existence of an educational work, the more active presence of control procedures on accidents preventions than in the Institutional Environment "A" and consequently a major educational level of its workers about the necessity of working with more safety.
Nathália de Carvalho, Lopes; Gleice Ane Scariot Silva, Vieira; Suelle Regina Bese, Pena; Stela Maris Aguiar, Lemos.
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: mapear o conhecimento de agentes comunitários de saúde antes e após participação em oficinas de instrumentalização sobre aspectos fonoaudiológicos e verificar as mudanças de percepção segundo o tempo de trabalho na Estratégia de Saúde da Família. MÉTODOS: o estudo foi realizado em um mun [...] icípio a 170 km da capital de Minas Geraise com 74.409 habitantes. A rede de Atenção Primária a Saúde do município é composta por 10 unidades de Estratégia de Saúde da Família que alocam 60 agentes de saúde. Os dados foram coletados em todas as unidades e consistiu em três etapas: a) aplicação de questionário auto-aplicável acerca de aspectos fonoaudiológicos; b) processo de instrumentalização; c) reaplicação do questionário. RESULTADOS: participaram do estudo 51 agentes de saúde. Após a instrumentalização, tornou-se maior o número de agentes de saúde que deram relevância a fatores que sugerem a ocorrência de distúrbio da comunicação nas diferentes faixas etárias e que passaram a conhecer as quatro áreas que englobam a atuação fonoaudiológica. Não houve relação estatística entre o desempenho dos agentes nas respostas e a unidade de trabalho. Quanto ao tempo de trabalho Estratégia de Saúde da Família, na pré-instrumentalização, o melhor desempenho nas respostas foi dos agentes que trabalham há menos de um ano na atenção primária. CONCLUSÃO: ainstrumentalização favoreceu as respostas dos agentes comunitários de saúde. Houve relação entre o processo de instrumentalização e o tempo de atuação no Programa de Saúde da Família. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to map the knowledge of community health workers before and after the participation in training workshops on phonoaudiological aspects and to verify changes in the perception according to the working time in the Family Health Strategy. METHODS: the study was conducted in a municipality wit [...] h 74,409 inhabitants, 170 km from Belo Horizonte, the capital of the State of Minas Gerais. Its Primary Health Care network is composed of 10 units of Family Health Strategy that allocate 60 health workers. The information was collected from all units and the process consisted of three stages: a) application of a questionnaire about phonoaudiological aspects; b) training process; c) reapplication of the questionnaire. RESULTS: 51 health workers participated in the study. After the training, the number of health workers who started to give importance to factors that may indicate communication disorders in different age groups and that became aware of the four areas of the phonoaudiology became greater. There was no statistical relationship between the answers of the workers and the work unit. Regarding the working time in the Family Health Strategy, those who work for less than a year in the primary care gave the best answers before the training. CONCLUSION: the training favored the responses of the community health workers. There was a relationship between the training process and the working time in the Family Health Program.
Mehrdad Arashpour; Majeed Shabanikia; Mohammadreza Arashpour
Evidence points to the fact that frequent resignation of project engineers from construction companies is primarily the result of dissatisfaction with the factors that shape the salary scale. This research aims to identify the major influencing factors in merit based salary calculation systems for knowledge-oriented engineers so as to more accurately reflect their contribution to construction projects. Results from a questionnaire sent to managers, engineers and HR professionals throughout th...
Berling, Trine Villumsen
Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus on the interrelationship between theory and practice in specific domains, while at the same time foregrounding the own position of the researcher. The transformation of European security in the 1990s is taken as an example of how an IR analysis changes focus when seeing knowledge as Bourdieu.
HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile
Jaime E. Barrientos; Michel Bozon; Edith Ortiz; Anabella Arredondo
This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW ...
Conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores de un hospital sobre el manejo de residuos hospitalarios, Chocó, Colombia, 2012 / Knowledge and practices of workers of a Hospital about handling of hospital waste, Chocó Colombia, 2012
Yulenny, Quinto-Mosquera; Luz Marina, Jaramillo-Pérez; Jaiberth Antonio, Cardona-Arias.
Full Text Available Introducción: los residuos hospitalarios y similares constituyen un grave problema de salud por el riesgo de contaminación biológica y química, y sus impactos negativos sobre la calidad de vida humana y el ambiente. Objetivo: describir los conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores de una Empresa [...] Social del Estado de Chocó-Colombia sobre el manejo de residuos hospitalarios y su asociación con sexo, edad, área de servicios y tiempo de labor en la Institución. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal, en 67 empleados de seis áreas de trabajo de un hospital de Colombia. Se aplicó una escala sobre conocimientos y prácticas relacionadas con el manejo de residuos hospitalarios. Los datos se almacenaron y analizaron en Statistical Package for the Social Sciences for Windows, software SPSS 20, con medidas de resumen, frecuencias, chi cuadrado y Anova. Resultados: en los conocimientos el 40% presentó un grado insatisfactorio, en las prácticas el 17,9% fue regular y solo 3% excelente. Los conocimientos no presentaron asociación estadística con el sexo, el área de servicios, la edad y el tiempo laborado en la Institución Prestadora de Servicios de Salud, excepto en el personal del laboratorio clínico, donde 89% presentaron un conocimiento entre bueno y excelente. Las prácticas no presentaron asociación estadística con el sexo, el área de servicio, la edad y el tiempo de servicio. Conclusión: se observó una elevada proporción de conocimientos y prácticas inadecuadas o insatisfactorias frente al manejo de residuos, independiente del sexo, la edad, el área de trabajo y el tiempo de servicio; esto implica que el problema es generalizado en la Institución y evidencia la necesidad de mejorar los programas de educación y capacitación. (MÉD.UIS. 2013;26(1)9:20) Abstract in english Introduction: hospital waste and similar are relevant health problem for the biological and chemicals risk, and negative impacts on the human quality of life and the environment. Objective: to describe the knowledge and practices of the workers of a Empresa Social del Estado from Chocó, Colombia abo [...] ut the handle of the hospital waste. Materials and methods: cross sectional study in 67 workers of six work areas of a hospital from Colombia. A scale about knowledge and practices about hospital waste was applied. The data is stored and analyzed in SPSS 20, with summary measures, frequencies, chi2 and Anova. Results: in knowledge 40% presented an unsatisfactory grade, in practice 17.9% was regular and only 3.0% excellent. The knowledge do not presented statistical association with sex, area of service, age and the time worked in the IPS, except in clinical laboratory staff, where 89% had a good knowledge. Practices showed no statistical association with sex, area of service, age and length of service. Conclusion: there was a high proportion of practices and knowledge unsatisfactory related with waste management, independent of gender, age, work area and service time, this implies that the problem is widespread in the institution and highlights the need to improve education programs and training. (MÉD.UIS. 2013;26(1)9:20).
Phrasisombath, Ketkesone; Thomsen, Sarah; Hagberg, Jan; Sychareun, Vanphanom; Faxelid, Elisabeth
This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes among health care providers (HCPs) providing sexually transmitted infection (STI) service to female sex workers (FSWs). A cross-sectional survey was performed in 6 districts along Road 9, traversing Savannakhet province from Thailand to Vietnam. In total, 244 HCPs providing STI services were interviewed. In all, 54% of respondents had no STI training despite providing STI treatment. Misperceptions of STI causes, transmission routes, and symptoms were common among respondents. Attitudes differed neither between male and female respondents nor between those who had or had not received STI training. A higher proportion of pharmacists/drug sellers (68%) had negative attitudes followed by medical doctors (59%) and nurse/midwives (55%). The proportion of herbalists with negative attitudes (53%) was less in comparison with the other professionals. To improve the quality of STI services and to enhance FSWs' access to health care services, educational improvements of HCPs' knowledge about STIs and their attitudes are needed. PMID:21807620
Domingo Ojer Tsakiridu
Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir el conocimiento de los métodos contraceptivos y el uso que hacen de ellos las mujeres que ejercen la prostitución en Asturias. Métodos: Estudio transversal mediante cuestionario autoadministrado a 212 mujeres. Resultados: El 61,2% refería tener información suficiente sobre métodos contraceptivos, aunque el conocimiento real es menor. En su última relación comercial en un 2,4% no tuvo una actitud eficaz para prevenir el embarazo y en la última privada, el 20,4%. El método más usado fue el preservativo y el 52,2% de quienes lo usaron en la última relación comercial añadieron otro método eficaz. En caso de rotura, el 40% de las encuestadas no tuvo una actitud eficaz para evitar el embarazo. Conclusiones: El conocimiento contraceptivo en estas mujeres es menor del que cabría esperar por la actividad que realizan. El uso de otro método eficaz asociado al preservativo es escaso para evitar embarazos no deseados. Muchas mujeres no tienen una actitud eficaz para evitarlos en caso de rotura del preservativo.Objective: To describe the knowledge and use of contraceptive methods among female sex workers in Asturias (Spain. Methods: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study of 212 female sex workers by means of a self-completed questionnaire. Results: 61.2% of the women claimed to have sufficient information about contraceptive methods, although the real knowledge measured was much lower. Effective contraception was not used by 2.4% of the women in their last commercial relationship and by 20.4% in their private relationships. The most commonly employed method was the condom, but only 52.2% of the women who had used one in their previous commercial relationships did so together with another effective method. In the event of breakage, 40% of women did not have an attitude that would be effective in avoiding pregnancy. Conclusions: Knowledge about contraceptive methods among these women is lower than might be expected from their occupation. The use of another effective method together with the condom is insufficient to avoid unwanted pregnancies. Many of the women do not have an attitude that would be effective in avoiding pregnancy in the event of condom breakage.
Martina S. Jiménez Suárez
Full Text Available Background: Human toxocariasis is one of the most worldwide extended zoonosis. It mainly affects children and it is not always well known by medical staff. Objective: To assess knowledge of Cienfuegos´s health workers on human toxocariasis. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study was developed from May to September 2005 and a survey was applied to a total sample of 51 doctors through a randomized, stratified sampling. In addition to consider professional category, years of experience and knowledge on zoonosis, we analyzed different aspects the form the variable general knowledge on human toxocariasis. Findings: We could develop a knowledge assessment on toxocariasis in Cienfuegos´ doctors. These findings were compared with surveys in other countries. There is not history of this kind of research in Cuba. Conclusions: Cienfuegos´ doctors knowledge on toxocariasis diagnosis, transmission, and prevention and not satisfactory except for clinic and treatment.Fundamento: La toxocariosis humana es una de las zoonosis más extendidas a escala mundial. Afecta principalmente a la población infantil y no siempre es bien conocida por el personal médico. Objetivo: Evaluar los conocimientos sobre toxocariosis humana del personal médico del municipio Cienfuegos. Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal de mayo a septiembre del 2005 y se aplicó una encuesta a una muestra total de 51 médicos a través de un muestreo aleatorio y estratificado por los diferentes consejos populares. Además de considerar categoría profesional, años de experiencia de la especialidad y capacitación o no sobre zoonosis, se analizaron varios aspectos que conforman la variable conocimiento general sobre toxocariosis humana. Resultados: Se logró con esta investigación realizar una evaluación del conocimiento sobre toxocariosis que tienen los médicos de diferentes categorías del municipio de Cienfuegos. Estos resultados fueron comparados con encuestas de otros países y no hay antecedentes de este tipo trabajo en Cuba. Conclusiones: Los conocimientos que tienen los médicos del municipio Cienfuegos, relacionados con la transmisión, diagnóstico y prevención de la toxocariosis son insuficientes, excepto en la clínica y en el tratamiento.
Andreou, Dimitris; Christophides, Vassilis; Flouris, Giorgos; Kotzinos, Dimitris; Pediaditis, Panagiotis; Tsialiamanis, Petros
This deliverable reports the technical and research development performed until M36 (January 2009) within tasks T5.2 and T5.4 of WP5 in the KP-Lab project, per the latest Description of Work (DoW) 3.2 [DoW3.2]. The described components are included in the KP-Lab Semantic Web Knowledge Middleware (SWKM) Prototype Release 3.0 software that takes place in M36. This release builds on the Prototype Release 2.0 that was presented in [D5.4]. The present deliverable includes both the specification, a...
Batatia, Hadj; Baurens, Benoit; Peled, Avi
This document gives an overview of current needs expressed so far in the project for multimedia management and real-time communication services between groups of learners/workers and examine the kind of support that a standard-based technical solution ?off-the-shelf? can help in solving main technical issues and in focusing on developments of tools and applications. The document includes in its annexes a state-of-the-art review of related technologies and a detailed examination of the platfor...
Romero, L.L.; Hoffman, J.M.; Foltyn, E.M.; Buhl, T.E.
Personnel neutron dosimetry continues to be a difficult science due to the lack of availability of robust passive dosimeters that exhibit tissue- or near-tissue- equivalent response. This paper is an operational study that compares the use of albedo thermoluminescent dosimeters with bubble dosimeters to determine whether bubble dosimeters do provide a useful daily ALARA tool that can yield measurements close to the dose-of-record. A group of workers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) working on the Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) for the NASA Cassini space mission wore both bubble dosimeters and albedo dosimeters over a period from 1993 through 1996. The personal albedo dosimeter was processed on a monthly basis and used as the dose-of-record. The results of this study indicated that cumulative daily bubble dosimetry results agreed with whole-body albedo dosimetry results within about 37% on average.
We studied the effects of age, body mass index (BMI) and some common laboratory test results on several pulmonary CT/HRCT signs. Five hundred twenty-eight construction workers (age 38-80, mean 63 years) were imaged with spiral and high resolution CT. Images were scored by three radiologists for solitary pulmonary nodules, signs indicative of fibrosis and emphysema, ground glass opacities, bronchial wall thickness and bronchiectasis. Multivariate statistical analyses were adjusted for smoking and asbestos exposure. Increasing age, blood haemoglobin value and erythrocyte sedimentation rate correlated positively with several HRCT signs. Increasing BMI was associated with a decrease in several signs, especially parenchymal bands, honeycombing, all kinds of emphysema and bronchiectasis. The latter finding might be due to the suboptimal image quality in obese individuals, which may cause suspicious findings to be overlooked. Background data, including patient's age and body constitution, should be considered when CT/HRCT images are interpreted. (orig.)
Revital Elitzur; Ying Sai
Companies often have the knowledge on procedures to prevent or mitigate against information technology security risks. Yet these companies may not take adequate measures to implement these procedures, and instead, leave themselves vulnerable to security breaches. Potential reasons for this gap between information security knowledge and implementation are provided based on interviews with information technology managers at a global automobile sales and marketing company. Four mechanisms to red...
Wu-Yuin Hwang; Chaknarin Kongcharoen; Gheorghita Ghinea
Recently, various computer networking courses have included additional laboratory classes in order to enhance students’ learning achievement. However, these classes need to establish a suitable laboratory where each student can connect network devices to configure and test functions within different network topologies. In this case, the Linux operating system can be used to operate network devices and the virtualization technique can include multiple OSs for supporting a significant number of...
Full Text Available Recently, various computer networking courses have included additional laboratory classes in order to enhance students’ learning achievement. However, these classes need to establish a suitable laboratory where each student can connect network devices to configure and test functions within different network topologies. In this case, the Linux operating system can be used to operate network devices and the virtualization technique can include multiple OSs for supporting a significant number of students. In previous research, the virtualization application was successfully applied in a laboratory, but focused only on individual assignments. The present study extends previous research by designing the Networking Virtualization-Based Laboratory (NVBLab, which requires collaborative learning among the experimental students. The students were divided into an experimental group and a control group for the experiment. The experimental group performed their laboratory assignments using NVBLab, whereas the control group completed them on virtual machines (VMs that were installed on their personal computers. Moreover, students using NVBLab were provided with an online synchronous discussion (OSD feature that enabled them to communicate with others. The laboratory assignments were divided into two parts: Basic Labs and Advanced Labs. The results show that the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group in two Advanced Labs and the post-test after Advanced Labs. Furthermore, the experimental group’s activities were better than those of the control group based on the total average of the command count per laboratory. Finally, the findings of the interviews and questionnaires with the experimental group reveal that NVBLab was helpful during and after laboratory class.
Knowledge and practices about multidrug-resistant tuberculosis amongst healthcare workers in Maseru / Connaissances et pratiques du personnel de santé de Maseru au sujet de la tuberculose multi-résistante
Ntambwe, Malangu; Omotayo D., Adebanjo.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To date, no study has been found that described the knowledge and practices of healthcare workers surrounding multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Lesotho. AIM AND SETTING: This study was conducted to fill this gap by investigating the knowledge level and practices surrounding MD [...] R-TB amongst healthcare workers at Botsabelo Hospital in Maseru, Lesotho METHOD: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted by means of a questionnaire designed specifically for this study. Data collected included sociodemographic and professional details; and responses to questions about knowledge and practices regarding MDR-TB. The questions ranged from the definition of MDR-TB to its treatment. Respondents' practices such as the use of masks, guidelines and patient education were also assessed RESULTS: A response rate of 84.6% (110 out of 130) was achieved. The majority of participants were women (60%), married (71.8%) and nursing staff (74.5%). Overall, less than half (47.3%) of the participants had a good level of knowledge about MDR-TB. With regard to practice, about 83% of participants stated that they used protective masks whilst attending to MDR-TB patients. About two-thirds (66.4%) reported being personally involved in educating patients about MDR-TB; whilst about 55% stated that they referred to these guidelines CONCLUSION: The level of knowledge about MDR-TB amongst healthcare workers at the study site was not at an acceptable level. Unsafe practices, such as not wearing protective masks and not referring to the MDR-TB treatment guidelines, were found to be associated with an insufficient level of knowledge about MDR-TB. An educational intervention is recommended for all healthcare providers at this facility
Maria Euridéa de Castro
Full Text Available A prevenção da hipertensão arterial torna-se difícil devido às dificuldades de acesso ao sistema de saúde. Foram objetivos deste estudo: averiguar o conhecimento dos trabalhadores acerca da pressão arterial, da hipertensão e, ainda, a prática da verificação da pressão arterial. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, realizado em uma Universidade Pública Estadual em Fortaleza-Ceará, Brasil. O universo do estudo foi constituído por 35 trabalhadores a partir de uma amostra aleatória simples. Depreendeu-se que há déficit de conhecimento acerca da pressão arterial e da hipertensão e que as questões culturais entre profissionais e usuários do sistema de saúde estão em desacordo com o processo ensino-aprendizagem. Concluiu-se que urgem estratégias que permitam maior adesão aos programas e às campanhas de hipertensão. O início dessa mudança tem como fundamento a atenção primária, que leve a população, dentro de uma posição crítica, a tomar atitudes que possibilitem adequar-se a uma condição de vida saudável.La prevención de la hipertensión arterial es difícil por el acceso al sistema de salud. El objetivo fue: averiguar el conocimiento de trabajadores sobre la tensión arterial y de la hipertensión y, además, la práctica de la verificación de la tensión arterial. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo, realizado en la Universidad Pública en Fortaleza-Ceará-Brasil. Fueron seleccionados 35 individuos. Se concluyó que hay déficit de conocimiento de la tensión arterial y de la hipertensión, que los planteamientos culturales entre profesionales y usuarios del sistema están en desacuerdo con el proceso enseñanza/aprendizaje. Urgen estrategias que permitan una mayor adhesión al programa y comunicación efectiva al nivel de entendimiento de las personas. El inicio de ese cambio tiene como fundamento la atención primaria, llevando a la población, dentro de una posición crítica, tomar actitudes que posibiliten adecuarse a una condición de vida sana.The prevention of arterial hypertension has not been an easy task, due to the difficulties of access to the health system. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the amount of worker's knowledge concerning blood pressure and hypertension as well as about the practice of measuring blood pressure. This descriptive study was done at the State University in Fortaleza-Ceará. The universe was a simple random sample of 35 workers. A lack of knowledge about blood pressure and hypertension was found, as well as cultural issues between professionals and system users not being in agreement with the teaching-learning process. It was concluded that strategies which allow for a wider participation in the program and in hypertension campaigns are needed. The beginning of this change has as a basis primary care, which allows the population to make choices which fit a healthy life-style, from a critical position.
McBride, Brent A.; Groves, Melissa; Barbour, Nancy; Horm, Diane; Stremmel, Andrew; Lash, Martha; Bersani, Carol; Ratekin, Cynthia; Moran, James; Elicker, James; Toussaint, Susan
Research Findings: University-based child development laboratory programs have a long and rich history of supporting teaching, research, and outreach activities in the child development/early childhood education fields. Although these programs were originally developed in order to conduct research on children and families to inform policy and…
Comparison of maintenance worker's human error events occurred at United States and domestic nuclear power plants. The proposal of the classification method with insufficient knowledge and experience and the classification result of its application
Human errors by maintenance workers in U.S. nuclear power plants were compared with those in Japanese nuclear power plants for the same period in order to identify the characteristics of such errors. As for U.S. events, cases which occurred during 2006 were selected from the Nuclear Information Database of the Institute to Nuclear Safety System while Japanese cases that occurred during the same period, were extracted from the Nuclear Information Archives (NUCIA) owned by JANTI. The most common cause of human errors was insufficient knowledge or experience' accounting for about 40% for U.S. cases and 50% or more of cases in Japan. To break down 'insufficient knowledge', we classified the contents of knowledge into five categories; method', 'nature', 'reason', 'scope' and 'goal', and classified the level of knowledge into four categories: 'known', 'comprehended', 'applied' and analytic'. By using this classification, the patterns of combination of each item of the content and the level of knowledge were compared. In the U.S. cases, errors due to 'insufficient knowledge of nature and insufficient knowledge of method' were prevalent while three other items', 'reason', scope' and 'goal' which involve work conditions among the contents of knowledge rarely occurred. In Japan, errors arising from 'nature not being comprehended' were rather prevalent while other cases were distributed evenly for all categories including the work conditions. For addressing insufficient knowledge or experience', we consider that the following approaches are valid: according to the knowledge level which is required for the work, the reflection of knowledge on the procedure or education materials, training and confirmation of understanding level, virtual practice and instruction of experience should be implemented. As for the knowledge on the work conditions, it is necessary to enter the work conditions in the procedure and education materials while conducting training or education. (author)
Shepherd, W. F.
The philosophy and workability of the concept of worker participation in management decisions is discussed in the context of British society. It is recommended that four interests be represented in any kind of Workers' Council: management, workers, shareholders, and consumers. (AG)
Manzotti, E.; Vaitkunaite, Evelina
Offshore wind turbines are increasing in both efficiency and size. More economical foundations for such light structures are under investigation, and suction caisson was shown to be particularly suitable for this purpose. In multi-pod foundation configuration, the overturning moment given by loads on the structure is resisted by push-pull loads on the vertical axis of each suction caisson. Relevant works where this situation is examined by means of laboratory testing are summarized in this article, then different conclusions are followed by discussion and comparison. In the initial theoretical section, an overview of phenomena related with the case of study is presented. Drained and undrained condition, liquefaction and suction are examined from the theoretical point of view for mechanisms related to the case of study.
Anderson, O. Roger; Randle, David; Covotsos, Tom
Ideational networks were assessed based on written narrative of seventh grade students who had begun a unit on evolution. The amount of ideational network linkages in narrative, elicited by showing the students a diagram of an evolutionary branching tree of life, was analyzed using flow-map techniques. The number of network linkages in the students' narrative was positively correlated with mean scores on subsequent inquiry laboratory work on evolution (r = 0.5, p .01). final unit test score on knowledge of biological evolution (r = 0.35, p phylogenetic principle of evolutionary change accompanying increasing complexity of life (i.e., progression from one-celled organisms to complex multicelled organisms). Moreover, the mean frequency of occurrences of higher level categorical thought in narrative increased with increasing amount of ideational linkages in recall.
Intervención educativa para elevar nivel de conocimiento sobre brucelosis en trabajadores expuesto a riesgo: municipio Camagüey / Educational intervention to elevate the level of knowledge on brucellosis in workers exposed to risk: Camagüey municipality
Cristina, Casado Rodríguez; Odalys, Rodríguez Heredia; Magalys, Mena Fernández; Gloria, García González.
Full Text Available Fundamento: La brucelosis es una importante zoonosis que puede ser transmitida por animales al hombre, según la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), esta enfermedad es uno de los principales problemas sanitarios en muchos países; con alrededor de medio millón de nuevos casos cada año. Objetivo: A [...] plicar una intervención educativa para elevar el nivel de conocimiento sobre brucelosis en trabajadores expuesto a riesgo. Método: Se realizó un estudio experimental de intervención en el matadero sanitario de Guanavaquilla y en el Combinado cárnico, dirigido a elevar el nivel de conocimientos de los trabajadores expuestos a riesgo acerca de la brucelosis, durante el período del 1ro de enero al treinta y uno de diciembre del 2007. El universo estuvo conformado por todos los trabajadores expuesto al riesgo de brucelosis de los centros Guanavaquilla con setenta y seis expuestos y Combinado cárnico con ciento sesenta expuestos, la muestra quedó conformada por sesenta y seis trabajadores seleccionados a través de un muestreo aleatorio simple a los que se les aplicó un cuestionario. Resultados: Se observó que antes de recibir las labores educativas se consideraron escasos los conocimientos que poseen los trabajadores acerca, de la forma en que se adquiere la brucelosis, la importancia del uso de los medios de protección personal y que estos estén en perfecto estado. El por qué es necesario la higiene personal y un ambiente adecuado, así como los riesgos para adquirir una brucelosis y las medidas de prevención. Conclusiones: Al inicio de la investigación los trabajadores tenían poco conocimiento sobre la brucelosis, luego de la intervención se logró un aumento significativo del mismo, por lo que se consideró efectiva la intervención. Abstract in english Background: The brucellosis is an important zoonosis of man acquired from an animal source, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), this disease is one of the main sanitary problems in many countries; about half million of new cases every year. Objective: To apply an educational interventi [...] on to elevate the level of knowledge on brucellosis in workers exposed to risk. Method: An intervention experimental study in the sanitary slaughterhouse of Guanavaquilla and in the meat processing factory, guided to elevate the level of knowledge of workers exposed to risk about brucellosis, from January 1st to December 31st, 2007. The universe was conformed by all the workers exposed to risk of brucellosis of the center Guanavaquilla with seventy six exposed workers and meat processing factory with one-hundred sixty ones, the sample was conformed by 66 workers selected through a random simple sampling to those were applied a questionnaire. Results: It was observed that before receiving the educational works were considered scarce the knowledge that the workers possess about, in the way brucellosis is acquired, the importance of the use of personal protection means and that these are in perfect state. Also why it is personal hygiene and an appropriate atmosphere necessary, as well as the risks to acquire brucellosis and the prevention measures. Conclusions: At the beginning of the investigation workers had little knowledge on brucellosis, after the intervention a significant increase was achieved, for what the intervention was considered effective.
Mbutho, Nozuko P; Gqaleni, Nceba; Korporaal, Charmaine M
Traditional complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) has been reported to be commonly used among individuals with HIV and AIDS disease. However a lack of communication between health care workers (HCWs) and patients as well as between HCWs and TCAM practitioners has been identified as one of the challenges that may adversely affect treatment of HIV and AIDS patients. With improved and sustained communication HCWs, patients and TCAM practitioners would be able to make informed decisions w...
Conocimiento y actitud en prevención de trabajadores lesionados de una empresa metalmecánica en México / Knowledge and attitudes towards prevention among occupationally injured workers at a Mexican metal-mechanic company
Benito, Zamorano González; Víctor, Parra Sierra; Fabiola, Peña Cárdenas; Yolanda, Castillo Muraira.
Full Text Available Se investigan a 51 trabajadores que sufrieron algún tipo de accidentes de trabajo durante el año de 2007, en una empresa metalmecánica, no importando la región anatómica de la lesión con la finalidad de determinar el nivel de conocimiento y actitud en prevención de riesgos laborales que existe entre [...] ellos. Tal información servirá para mejorar la administración de la seguridad en la empresa. La investigación es de tipo no experimental, descriptiva y transversal. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó, un cuestionario integrado por 30 ítems, divididos en tres apartados: datos demográficos y las variables: conocimiento y actitud en prevención de riesgos laborales. La validez del instrumento obtuvo un valor de alfa de Cronbach del 0,74. Con respecto a las variables de estudio, los resultados obtenidos nos indican que, los trabajadores presentan un nivel bajo de conocimiento en prevención de riesgos laborales. En relación con la variable actitud, estos se ubicaron en un nivel bajo también. Por lo que se concluye que, el conocimiento en prevención de riesgos laborales y la actitud de los trabajadores, están directamente relacionados. Abstract in english 51 workers that suffered some type of work accident were investigated during 2007, at a metal-mechanic company; the lesion’s anatomic region is not an issue, in order to determine the knowledge and attitude level on occupational risks prevention. Such information will enhance safety management at th [...] e company. The investigation is descriptive, transverse and non-experimental. For data collection was used a questionnaire of 30 multiple-choice, divided into three sections: demographics data, and the variables knowledge and attitude on occupational risk prevention. The validity of the instrument got a Cronbach´s alpha of 0,74. With respect to the variables, the results indicate that workers have a low level in prevention knowledge occupational risk. Regarding the attitude variable, these were located at a low level also. As it is concluded that knowledge on occupational risk prevention and the attitude of workers are directly related.
The relationship between knowledge of HIV, self-perceived vulnerability and sexual risk behavior among community clinic workers in Chile / Relación entre conocimientos sobre VIH, percepción de vulnerabilidad y conductas sexuales de riesgo en trabajadores de salud primaria en Chile
Baltica, Cabieses; Lilian, Ferrer; Luis, Villarroel; Helena, Tunstall; Kathleen, Norr.
Full Text Available Objetivo Probar la asociación entre conductas sexuales de riesgo (CSR) y conocimiento de VIH en trabajadores de salud primaria en Chile, y el posible efecto de confusión de auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad hacia VIH en dicha relación. Métodos Estudio transversal anidado en estudio cuasi-experimenta [...] l de 720 trabajadores de salud de Santiago. Score de CSR combinó número de parejas sexuales y uso de condón. Conocimiento de VIH fue medido mediante índice de 25 preguntas. Percepción de vulnerabilidad hacia VIH fue medida como "alta"/"moderada"/ "baja". Variables socio-demográficas, religiosidad y nivel educativo sirvieron de control. Análisis descriptivo, de asociación y confusión fueron desarrollados mediante estimación de proporciones/medias, prueba de Chi-cuadrado y regresión logística. Resultados El 78,2 % de encuestados era mujer, el 46,8 % estaba casado y el 67,6 % era católico. Promedio de edad de 38,9 aÃƒÂ±os (DS=10,5) y el 69 % tenía formación universitaria/técnica. La auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad fue "baja" en el 71,5 % de los trabajadores. Se observó una asociación negativa entre conocimiento y CSR (OR=0,55, IC=0,35-0,86) y la vulnerabilidad percibida no fue factor de confusión. La asociación se mantuvo tras ajustar por edad, sexo, tipo de centro primario, educación y religiosidad. Conclusiones Algunos trabajadores de salud comunitaria tenían conocimiento inadecuado de VIH, que se asoció a CSR. La auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad no fue factor de confusión, pero estudios futuros podrían analizar riesgos laborales de VIH como posible mediador en la percepción de riesgo. Programas de entrenamiento en conocimientos básicos de VIH y CSR debieran implementarse en trabajadores de salud primaria. Abstract in english Objective Testing the hypothesis of an association between knowledge and sexual risk behaviour (SRB) amongst community-clinic workers in Chile, explained by the confounding effect of self-perceived vulnerability to HIV. Methods A cross-sectional survey was analyzed; it was nested within a quasiexper [...] imental study of 720 community-clinic workers in Santiago. The SRB score combined the number of sexual partners and condom use (coded as "high"/"low" SRB). Knowledge of HIV (a 25-item index) was coded as "inadequate"/"adequate" knowledge. Self-perceived vulnerability to HIV was categorised as being "high"/ "moderate"/"low". Control variables included socio-demographics, religiousness and educational level. Percentages/averages, Chi-square tests and logistic regression (OR-estimations) were used for descriptive, association and confounding analysis. Results Respondents were 78.2 % female, 46.8 % married and 67.6 % Catholic. Mean age was 38.9 (10.5 SD) and 69 % had university/diploma level. Self-perceived HIV vulnerability was "low" in 71.5 % cases. A negative association between knowledge and SRB was found (OR=0.55;CI=0.35-0.86), but self-perceived vulnerability did not have a confounding effect on this relationship. This relationship also persisted after being adjusted for multiple control variables (e.g. age, sex, type of primary centre, educational level, and religiousness). Conclusions Some community-clinic workers had inaccurate knowledge of HIV, which was associated with SRB. Self-perceived vulnerability did not have a confounding effect; however, future studies should further analyze occupational risk of HIV as a possible driving factor in health workers' perception of their risk. Focused training programmes should be developed to enhance basic knowledge of HIV in this group.
The relationship between knowledge of HIV, self-perceived vulnerability and sexual risk behavior among community clinic workers in Chile Relación entre conocimientos sobre VIH, percepción de vulnerabilidad y conductas sexuales de riesgo en trabajadores de salud primaria en Chile
Full Text Available Objective Testing the hypothesis of an association between knowledge and sexual risk behaviour (SRB amongst community-clinic workers in Chile, explained by the confounding effect of self-perceived vulnerability to HIV. Methods A cross-sectional survey was analyzed; it was nested within a quasiexperimental study of 720 community-clinic workers in Santiago. The SRB score combined the number of sexual partners and condom use (coded as "high"/"low" SRB. Knowledge of HIV (a 25-item index was coded as "inadequate"/"adequate" knowledge. Self-perceived vulnerability to HIV was categorised as being "high"/ "moderate"/"low". Control variables included socio-demographics, religiousness and educational level. Percentages/averages, Chi-square tests and logistic regression (OR-estimations were used for descriptive, association and confounding analysis. Results Respondents were 78.2 % female, 46.8 % married and 67.6 % Catholic. Mean age was 38.9 (10.5 SD and 69 % had university/diploma level. Self-perceived HIV vulnerability was "low" in 71.5 % cases. A negative association between knowledge and SRB was found (OR=0.55;CI=0.35-0.86, but self-perceived vulnerability did not have a confounding effect on this relationship. This relationship also persisted after being adjusted for multiple control variables (e.g. age, sex, type of primary centre, educational level, and religiousness. Conclusions Some community-clinic workers had inaccurate knowledge of HIV, which was associated with SRB. Self-perceived vulnerability did not have a confounding effect; however, future studies should further analyze occupational risk of HIV as a possible driving factor in health workers' perception of their risk. Focused training programmes should be developed to enhance basic knowledge of HIV in this group.Objetivo Probar la asociación entre conductas sexuales de riesgo (CSR y conocimiento de VIH en trabajadores de salud primaria en Chile, y el posible efecto de confusión de auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad hacia VIH en dicha relación. Métodos Estudio transversal anidado en estudio cuasi-experimental de 720 trabajadores de salud de Santiago. Score de CSR combinó número de parejas sexuales y uso de condón. Conocimiento de VIH fue medido mediante índice de 25 preguntas. Percepción de vulnerabilidad hacia VIH fue medida como "alta"/"moderada"/ "baja". Variables socio-demográficas, religiosidad y nivel educativo sirvieron de control. Análisis descriptivo, de asociación y confusión fueron desarrollados mediante estimación de proporciones/medias, prueba de Chi-cuadrado y regresión logística. Resultados El 78,2 % de encuestados era mujer, el 46,8 % estaba casado y el 67,6 % era católico. Promedio de edad de 38,9 aÃƒÂ±os (DS=10,5 y el 69 % tenía formación universitaria/técnica. La auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad fue "baja" en el 71,5 % de los trabajadores. Se observó una asociación negativa entre conocimiento y CSR (OR=0,55, IC=0,35-0,86 y la vulnerabilidad percibida no fue factor de confusión. La asociación se mantuvo tras ajustar por edad, sexo, tipo de centro primario, educación y religiosidad. Conclusiones Algunos trabajadores de salud comunitaria tenían conocimiento inadecuado de VIH, que se asoció a CSR. La auto-percepción de vulnerabilidad no fue factor de confusión, pero estudios futuros podrían analizar riesgos laborales de VIH como posible mediador en la percepción de riesgo. Programas de entrenamiento en conocimientos básicos de VIH y CSR debieran implementarse en trabajadores de salud primaria.
Attitudes, knowledge and practices of healthcare workers regarding occupational exposure of pulmonary tuberculosis / Attitudes, connaissances et pratiques des membres du personnel soignant relatives à l'exposition du personnel soignant à la tuberculose pulmonaire
Lesley T., Bhebhe; Cornel, Van Rooyen; Wilhelm J., Steinberg.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated tuberculosis (TB) has become a major occupational hazard for healthcare workers (HCWs). HCWs are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Whenever there is a possibility of exposure, implemen [...] tation of infection prevention and control (IPC) practices is critical. OBJECTIVE: Following a high incidence of TB among HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital in Lesotho, a study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of HCWs regarding healthcare-associated TB infection and infection controls. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study performed in June 2011; it involved HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital who were involved with patients and/or sputum. Stratified sampling of 140 HCWs was performed, of whom, 129 (92.0%) took part. A self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was used. RESULTS: Most respondents (89.2%) had appropriate knowledge of transmission, diagnosis and prevention of TB; however, only 22.0% of the respondents knew the appropriate method of sputum collection. All of the respondents (100.0%) were motivated and willing to implement IPC measures. A significant proportion of participants (36.4%) reported poor infection control practices, with the majority of inappropriate practices being the administrative infection controls (> 80.0%). Only 38.8% of the participants reported to be using the appropriate N-95 respirator. CONCLUSION: Poor infection control practices regarding occupational TB exposure were demonstrated, the worst being the first-line administrative infection controls. Critical knowledge gaps were identified; however, there was encouraging willingness by HCWs to adapt to recommended infection control measures. Healthcare workers are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Implementation of infection prevention and control practices is critical whenever there is a possibility of exposure.
Upon completion of this training course, the participant will have the knowledge to work safely in areas controlled for radiological purposes using proper radiological practices. Radiological Worker H Training, for the worker whose job assignment involves entry into Radiological Buffer Areas and all types of Radiation Contamination and Airborne Radioactivity Areas. This course is designed to prepare the worker to work safely in and around radiological areas and present methods to use to ensure individual radiation exposure is maintained As Low As Reasonably Achievable
VOLUNTARY LIFESTYLE CHANGES AND KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HEALTHY LIFESTYLES OF CHILEAN PRIMARY HEALTH CARE WORKERS CAMBIOS DE ESTILO DE VIDA Y CONOCIMIENTOS SOBRE ALIMENTACIÓN SALUDABLE Y ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA EN PROFESIONALES DE ATENCIÓN PRIMARIA EN CHILE
Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing life style changes and knowledge regarding healthy diet and physical activity among Chilean primary health care (PHC professionals. The sample of 194 PHC workers was composed of physicians, nurses, nutritionists, midwives and social workers, of which 86% were women.The majority reported to have made positive changes in their lifestyle: more than 80% stated that they consumed less fat and ate more vegetables; two-thirds said they ate less sugar; around half reported that they drank less alcohol and 45% that they were more physically active. Negative changes like increasing the consumption of soft drinks, alcohol and tobacco were highest in the youngest of all the age groups. Eighty percents correctly answered the knowledge questions about healthy diet and physical activity. Significant differences among the professionals could be identified. Most of the PHC professionals show a positive change in their lifestyle and have a high knowledge level about healthy diet and physical activity. It has to be emphasized that good teamwork among nutritionists, physicians, nurses and other PHC workers is a necessary pre-condition to improve the effectiveness of a heath care team dealing with non-communicable disease preventionSe evaluaron los cambios en los estilos de vida y conocimientos en alimentación saludable y actividad física en profesionales de atención primaria de salud. Se aplicó una encuesta a 194 profesionales (médicos, enfermeras, nutricionistas, matronas y asistentes sociales, de los cuales el 86% eran mujeres. Se observó que durante el último año, la mayoría de los profesionales modificó sus hábitos hacia estilos de vida mas saludables. Alrededor del 80% señalaron que consumen menos grasas y consumen mas verduras, dos tercios indicaron consumir menos azúcar, alrededor de la mitad menos alcohol y un 45% hacen más actividad física. La gente mas joven es la que ha hecho las mayores modificaciones, a pesar que aumentaron el consumo de bebidas gaseosas, alcohol y tabaco. Un 80% de los profesionales respondió correctamente las preguntas relacionadas con alimentación y actividad física. Se encontró diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los diferentes grupos de profesionales. Se concluye que muchos profesionales han efectuado cambios hacia estilos de vida mas saludable, tienen un buen conocimiento de hábitos alimentarios y actividad física. Estos resultados indican la importancia del trabajo en equipo para contribuir a la prevención de las enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles
This paper discusses the development and application of process knowledge (PK) to the characterization of radioactive wastes generated during the excavation of buried materials at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM) Classified Waste Landfill (CWLF). The CWLF, located in SNL/NM Technical Area II, is a 1.5-acre site that received nuclear weapon components and related materials from about 1950 through 1987. These materials were used in the development and testing of nuclear weapon designs. The CWLF is being remediated by the SNL/NM Environmental Restoration (ER) Project pursuant to regulations of the New Mexico Environment Department. A goal of the CWLF project is to maximize the amount of excavated materials that can be demilitarized and recycled. However, some of these materials are radioactively contaminated and, if they cannot be decontaminated, are destined to require disposal as radioactive waste. Five major radioactive waste streams have been designated on the CWLF project, including: unclassified soft radioactive waste--consists of soft, compatible trash such as paper, plastic, and plywood; unclassified solid radioactive waste--includes scrap metal, other unclassified hardware items, and soil; unclassified mixed waste--contains the same materials as unclassified soft or solid radioactive waste, but also contains one or more Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents; classified radioactive waste--consists of classified artifacts, usually weapons components, that contain only radioactive contaminants; and classified mixed waste--comprises radioactive classified material that also contains RCRA constituents. These waste streams contain a variety of radionuclides that exist both as surface contamination and as sealed sources. To characterize these wastes, the CWLF project's waste management team is relying on data obtained from direct measurement of radionuclide activity content to the maximum extent possible and, in cases where direct measurement is not technically feasible, from accumulated PK of the excavated materials
...Campus; Leased Workers Personnel Placements...Account, 2010. Workers Wages Reported Under Transaction...Indemnity 2010. Company, Travelers Companies...Division, Leased Worker from Personnel Placements...Compliance & Knowledge Solutions Div., Leased...
Conhecimentos e opiniões dos trabalhadores sobre o uso e abuso de álcool Conocimientos y opiniones de los trabajadores sobre el uso y abuso de alcohol Knowledge and opinions of the workers about the use and abuse of alcohol
Fernanda Ferreira da Fonseca
Full Text Available Trata-se de um estudo descritivo-exploratório, desenvolvido e fundamentado na abordagem qualitativa. O estudo tem como objetivo analisar o conhecimento e as opiniões dos trabalhadores acerca do uso e abuso de álcool, visando à elaboração de um programa de promoção da saúde no trabalho e prevenção de acidentes relacionados ao uso abusivo dessa substância. Para coleta de dados, foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas com 15 trabalhadores que buscaram atendimento em uma Unidade de Saúde da Família através da consulta de enfermagem. Por meio destas entrevistas, chegou-se à conclusão de que, em geral, os trabalhadores têm pouco conhecimento acerca dos perigos provocados pelo uso abusivo de álcool no trabalho e que é preciso investir em programas de prevenção de acidentes de trabalho causados pelo uso excessivo desta substância, levando-se em consideração o número cada vez maior de casos ocorridos.Estudio descriptivo, exploratorio, desarrollado y basado en el abordaje cualitativo. El estudio tiene como objetivo para analizar el conocimiento y las opiniones de los trabajadores referentes al uso y abuso del alcohol, visando la elaboración de un programa de promoción de salud en el trabajo y prevención de accidentes relacionados al uso abusivo de esta sustancia. La colecta de datos envolvió entrevistas semiestructuradas con 15 trabajadores que habían buscado atención en una Unidad de Salud de la Familia a través de la consulta de enfermería. Por medio de estas entrevistas, se llegó a conclusión de que, en general, los trabajadores tienen poco conocimiento referente a los peligros provocados por el uso abusivo del alcohol en el trabajo y que es necessario invertir en programas de prevención de los accidentes de trabajo causados por el uso extremo de esta sustancia, llevandose en consideración el numero cada vez mayor de casos ocurridos.Descriptive and exploratory study developed and based on the qualitative approach. The study has as objective to analyze the knowledge and opinions of the workers concerning the use and abuse of alcohol, aiming at the elaboration of a program of promotion of the health in the work and prevention of related accidents to the abusive use of this substance. For the collection of data, was made a half-structuralized interview with 15 workers who had searched attendance in a Unit of Health of the Family through the nursing consultation. By these interviews it was concluded that in general the workers have little knowledge about the danger provoked by the abusive alcohol use in the work and that is necessary to invest in programs of prevention of accidents caused by the extreme use of this substance, taking in consideration the large number of cases occurred.
At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) the radiation protection worker aids in protecting personnel and their surrounding environment from the hazards of radiation. These individuals use their technical knowledge, skills, and abilities to survey and monitor various project-related activities. They must also provide guidance in project design, development, and implementation. These combined efforts assure that protective measures are taken in accordance with applicable standards. The ORNL performance-based training program enhances the skills of the worker. The program incorporates job specific information on the diverse facilities and activities monitored with basic fundamentals of radiation protection. Successful completion of this program includes passing both a qualification exam and an on-the-job skills review. This paper details the structure of such a program and explains the strategies taken to reach the program's goals. 4 refs., 2 tabs
Morgan, Arthur; Finniear, Jocelyn
Purpose: The influx of migrant workers in the UK has widespread interest. This group's experience of the British work place has evoked considerable debate ranging from the potential to be exploited through unscrupulous practices to allegations about taking away jobs from British workers. The purpose of this paper is to extend knowledge about the…
Keating, Gordon N.; Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Miller, Elizabeth D.
The integration of available information on the volcanic history of the region surrounding Los Alamos National Laboratory indicates that the Laboratory is at risk from volcanic hazards. Volcanism in the vicinity of the Laboratory is unlikely within the lifetime of the facility (ca. 50–100 years) but cannot be ruled out. This evaluation provides a preliminary estimate of recurrence rates for volcanic activity. If further assessment of the hazard is deemed beneficial to reduce risk uncertainty, the next step would be to convene a formal probabilistic volcanic hazards assessment.
Conhecimento sobre produtos fitofarmacêuticos de agricultores e trabalhadores agrícolas da região do Douro que frequentaram cursos de aplicação / Knowledge of farmers and farm workers from douro region who attended courses of plant protection products application
Alberto Manuel de Araújo Ribeiro de, Carvalho; António Luís da Costa, Araújo; Maria José Moreno da, Cunha.
Full Text Available O estudo pretendeu avaliar a informação e as atitudes relativas à utilização dos produtos fitofarmacêuticos pelos agricultores e trabalhadores agrícolas da Região do Douro, após a frequência de cursos de aplicação de produtos fitofarmacêuticos, entre 2002 e 2006, no âmbito do QCA III. Um inquérito r [...] ealizado, sob a forma de entrevista directa com questionário escrito, abrangeu o universo de 1565 indivíduos que frequentaram 120 cursos de aplicação. A amostra foi de 100 inquiridos, seleccionados de forma aleatória. O inquérito incluiu questões estruturadas e abertas, de índole pessoal, profissional e sobre atitudes e conhecimentos no uso de produtos fitofarmacêuticos. Foram obtidos dados sobre as características da população agrícola, agricultores e trabalhadores agrícolas, sobre o uso dos produtos fitofarmacêuticos e do equipamento de protecção individual e a motivação para a frequência do curso. Abstract in english To assess the information and attitudes concerning the use of pesticides by farmers and agricultural workers of the Douro region, after the frequency of application courses of plant protection products, between 2002 and 2006, under the QCA III, an investigation was carried out in the form of a direc [...] t interview, with a written questionnaire, of 100 individuals which covered the universe of 1565 individuals who attended 120 courses. The sample was randomly selected. The questionnaire included structured and open issues of personal and professional nature and on attitudes and knowledge in the use of pesticides. Data were obtained on the characteristics of the farming population, farmers and farm workers, on the use of plant protection products and personal protective equipment and motivation for the course.
Relation Between Organizational Climate and its Dimensions and Knowledge-sharing Behavior among Knowledge Workers / Relación entre el Clima Organizacional y sus Dimensiones y Comportamiento del Conocimiento Compartido entre Trabajadores del Conocimiento
Milena Margarita, Villamizar Reyes; Delio Ignacio, Castañeda Zapata.
Full Text Available La presente investigación buscó identificar la relación del clima organizacional y sus dimensiones desde el instrumento prueba de medición de clima organizacional PMCO (Cárdenas y Villamizar, 2008, citado por Cardenas, Arciniegas y Barrera, 2009), en la conducta de compartir conocimiento, la cual fu [...] e medida desde la prueba Variables psicosociales y condiciones organizacionales de la conducta de compartir conocimiento (Castañeda y Fernandez, 2007). Los participantes fueron 100 trabajadores del conocimiento de dos organizaciones: una de carácter privado y otra pública. Se encontró una correlación del 0,578 entre el clima organizacional y la conducta de compartir conocimiento. Al realizar el análisis por entidades se encontró que en la pública el nivel de correlación entre clima y compartir conocimiento es altamente significativa con un nivel de confianza superior al 99%. En la entidad privada se encontró que no hay correlación entre las dos variables estudiadas con un r de 0,093 a un 95%. En cuanto a las dimensiones de clima y compartir conocimiento en la universidad pública se encuentra que todas incluyendo nivel de trabajo que presento la relación más baja son estadísticamente significativas al 99.9%. En la universidad privada solo se encontró relación con la dimensión crecimiento personal al 95%. Abstract in english This study aimed at identifying the relation of organizational climate and its dimensions from the PMCO measuring test for organizational climate (Cardenas & Villamizar, 2008, as cited in Cardenas, Arciniegas y Barrera, 2009) - in knowledge-sharing behavior, which was measured from the psychosocial [...] variables and organizational conditions of knowledge-sharing behavior test (Castañeda y Fernandez, 2007). 100 participants from two types of organizations participated on this study: one of private nature and one public. A correlation of 0.578 between organizational climate and knowledge-sharing behavior was found. When carrying out an analysis of each organization, it was evident that the level of correlation between climate and knowledge-sharing behavior was highly significant in the public organization: There was a reliability level higher to 99%. There was no correlation found between the two variables studied in the private organization -with an r of 0.093 to 95%. As for the dimensions of climate and knowledge-sharing behavior, the results showed that in all public universities (including level of work, which got the lowest relation) these are statistically significant to 99.9%. In the private university only a relation to the personal growth dimension of 95% was found.
Aral, Sinan; Brynjolfsson, Erik; Van Alstyne, Marshall
We econometrically evaluate information worker productivity at a midsize executive recruiting firm and assess whether the knowledge that workers accessed through their electronic communication networks enabled them to multitask more productively. We estimate dynamic panel data models of multitasking, knowledge networks, and productivity using several types of micro-level data: (a) direct observation of more than 125,000 email messages over a period of 10 months; (b) detailed accounting data o...
Safety and immunogenicity of a four-component meningococcal group B vaccine (4CMenB) and a quadrivalent meningococcal group ACWY conjugate vaccine administered concomitantly in healthy laboratory workers.
Findlow, Jamie; Bai, Xilian; Findlow, Helen; Newton, Emma; Kaczmarski, Ed; Miller, Elizabeth; Borrow, Ray
Safety precautions for laboratory staff working with meningococci should primarily rely on laboratory procedures preventing exposure to aerosols containing viable meningococci. Despite this, vaccination is a key component of protection in the occupational setting. In the UK in 2009, there were no licensed vaccines for meningococcal capsular group B or conjugate vaccines for capsular groups A, C, W and Y. We therefore undertook a Phase II trial in laboratory workers to investigate the safety and immunogenicity of a four component group B vaccine (4CMenB) and a quadrivalent group A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine (ACWY-CRM). Enrolment was open to staff aged 18-65 years at the Public Health Laboratory, Manchester who may have had a potential occupational exposure risk to meningococci. 4CMenB was administered at 0, 2 and 6 months in the non-dominant arm and ACWY-CRM concomitantly at 0 months in the dominant arm. Pre- and post-vaccination blood samples were taken and analysed by the serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay against A, C, W and Y strains and a panel of seven diverse group B strains. Diary cards were used to record any local and systemic reactions following each vaccination. In total, 38 staff were enrolled and received initial vaccinations with 31 completing the trial per protocol. Both vaccines were proven safe, with local reactogenicity being more commonly reported following 4CMenB than ACWY-CRM. High proportions of subjects had putative protective SBA titres pre-vaccination, with 61-84 and 61-87% protected against A, C, W and Y strains and diverse MenB strains, respectively. Post-vaccination, SBA titres increased with 95-100 and 90-100% of subjects with protective SBA titres against A, C, W and Y strains and diverse MenB strains, respectively. These data suggest that 4CMenB and ACWY-CRM are safe when administered concomitantly and have the potential to enhance protection for laboratory workers. www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00962624. PMID:26025807
HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile / Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile
Jaime E., Barrientos; Michel, Bozon; Edith, Ortiz; Anabella, Arredondo.
Full Text Available Este artículo examina la prevalencia del VIH, los conocimientos respecto a su infección y, además, describe el uso del condón en mujeres que ejercen el comercio sexual en Santiago de Chile y que son atendidas en cinco centros especializados de enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Se aplicó una encues [...] ta que indagaba sobre las características sociodemográficas, el conocimiento sobre el VIH/SIDA y el uso del condón a 626 mujeres. La prevalencia del VIH fue evaluada mediante un examen de ELISA. La prevalencia del VIH fue 0. El conocimiento del VIH fue bueno e, incluso, mejor que en población general, en algunos indicadores. El uso del condón con los clientes fue alto, aunque su uso regular con las parejas estables fue bajo. La prevalencia cero del VIH y el uso consistente de condones con los clientes confirma el impacto positivo que han tenido las estrategias de intervención implementadas para estos grupos, incrementando el conocimiento adecuado sobre el SIDA y el uso del condón con los clientes, contribuyendo a la disminución de la vulnerabilidad de estas mujeres hacia el. Abstract in english This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was a [...] dministered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%), although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%). The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.
Percepción y conocimientos de los profesionales sanitarios de una unidad de Nefrología sobre la higiene de manos: estudio comparativo / Hand hygiene perceptions and knowledge of healthcare workers in a Nephrology Unit: a comparative study
José Luis, Cobo Sánchez; Raquel, Pelayo Alonso; Raquel, Menezo Viadero; Elena, Incera Setién; Magdalena, Gándara Revuelta; Luis Mariano, López López.
Full Text Available Un conocimiento adecuado sobre la higiene de las manos por parte de los profesionales sanitarios, es el primer paso para la adherencia a cualquier programa de disminución de infección relacionada con la asistencia sanitaria. Objetivo: Evaluar el nivel de conocimientos y percepciones respecto a la hi [...] giene de manos entre los profesionales sanitarios de nuestra unidad de Nefrología, y compararlos con los de otra unidad de nuestro centro (Traumatología). Material y método: Estudio prospectivo descriptivo comparativo en 69 profesionales sanitarios. Para evaluar los conocimientos y percepciones respecto a la higiene de manos se utilizó un cuestionario de 26 ítems basado en cuestionarios desarrollados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Resultados: 73% utiliza regularmente preparados de base alcohólica para higiene de manos (Traumatología 96,9%, p=0,007). 94% piensa que las manos de los profesionales sanitarios cuando no están limpias son la principal vía de transmisión de gérmenes patógenos (Traumatología: 87,1%, p=NS). 75,7% piensan que el entorno/superficies del hospital es la principal fuente de gérmenes patógenos (Traumatología: 68,8%) y 16% que son los microrganismos ya presentes en el paciente (Traumatología: 25%) (p=NS). Percepciones: 89% consideran alta la repercusión de las infecciones relacionadas con la asistencia sanitaria en el desenlace de la enfermedad (Traumatología: 59,4%, p=0,009). Respecto a las medidas más efectivas para mejorar la higiene de manos destacan la formación de los profesionales sanitarios, recibir retroalimentación regularmente sobre cómo realizar la higiene de manos y que exista un preparado de base alcohólica en cada punto de atención. Conclusiones: Los profesionales sanitarios de Nefrología, al igual que los de Traumatología, en general tienen conocimientos y percepciones adecuados sobre la higiene de manos. Abstract in english Adequate knowledge about hand hygiene (Hh) by healthcare workers (HCW), is the first step for adhering to any decreased infection related with healthcare (IRHC) program. Aim: To evaluate Hh perceptions and knowledge of HCW in a Nephrology Unit and compare it with another unit in our hospital (Trauma [...] ). Methodology: Comparative prospective study in 69 HCW. A 26-item questionnaire, based on questionnaires developed by WHO to assess knowledge and perceptions of Hh in HCW was used. Results: 73% regularly use alcohol-based preparations for Hh (Trauma 96.9%, p = 0.007). 94% think that the hands of the HCW when they are not clean are the main route of transmission of pathogens (Trauma: 87.1%, p = NS). 75.7% think that the environment / hospital surfaces is the main source of pathogens (Trauma: 68.8%) and 16% which are the microorganisms already present in the patient (Trauma: 25%) (p = NS). Perceptions: 89% consider the impact of high IRHC in the outcome of the disease (Trauma: 59.4%, p = 0.009). Regarding the most effective measures to improve the Hh include the formation of HCW, receive regular feedback on how to make the Hh and that a alcohol-based handrub is present at each point of care. Conclusions: All healthcare workers have adequate knowledge and perceptions about Hh.
Práticas e nível de conhecimento sobre doença cerebrovascular em um hospital universitário: Parte 1. Educação do corpo de enfermagem: prioridade para o tratamento do infarto cerebral Knowledge and attitudes regarding stroke in a Brazilian teaching hospital: Part 1. Results in health care workers and non-health care workers
Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVOS: Em um hospital universitário, entrevista direta de amostras estratificadas dos 3587 funcionários, visando determinar o nível de conhecimento e a conduta prática do corpo social diante do acidente vascular cerebral ou encefálico (AVE. Estabelecer prioridades para esforços educacionais. MÉTODO: Pré-teste para otimização do instrumento e cálculo amostrai. Entrevista de 309 funcionários sorteados. Inquérito consistindo em 32 questões sobre fisiopatologia, epidemiologia e mortalidade, clínica, fatores de risco, evolução e tratamento, comportamento pessoal diante da doença. Teste de Kruskal-Wallis para múltiplas comparações de dados não-paramétricos. RESULTADOS: O corpo social do hospital exibiu baixo nível de conhecimento teórico sobre o AVE e atitudes errôneas diante da doença. A performance dos enfermeiros foi superior à de auxiliares, técnicos e atendentes de enfermagem. O corpo de enfermagem, apesar de pontuar melhor na entrevista que a população leiga, mantém-se desinformado sobre as novas possibilidades terapêuticas e dissemina mitos sobre a doença. Entre os grupos profissionais leigos, o nível de educação formal não influenciou a performance na entrevista. CONCLUSÕES: A comunidade leiga e de saúde do HUCFF não reconhece adequadamente os sintomas típicos, a evolução provável dos pacientes e a necessidade de intervir rapidamente diante da doença cerebrovascular. O corpo de enfermagem não está preparado para a tarefa de difundir conceitos corretos sobre a doença. Somente programas específicos de educação continuada podem reverter este quadro, e devem ser considerados prioritários.BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to evaluate professionals working at a university hospital as to their knowledge and attitudes towards stroke. METHODS: Individuals working in the hospital were divided in two groups, health care workers (HCW and non-health care workers (NHCW, and further subdivided according to level of schooling, resulting in seven strata. A closed questionnaire addressing epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, typical symptoms, treatment, clinical course and personal attitudes towards smoking and blood pressure control, was applied to a random sample of each stratum (total n = 309. Kruskal-Wallis test for multiple comparisons of non-parametric data was used. RESULTS: Significant differences between the seven groups were found. Knowledge was strongly associated with being a HCW and with level of formal education (p<0.001, even after excluding physicians from the analysis (p<0.001. In NHCW groups, knowledge was not associated with level of education (p=0.421. In these groups, personal fear of suffering a stroke was the only variable predictive of knowledge. Smoking and poor monitoring of blood pressure levels were also more common in strata with the lowest levels of education and among NHCW. CONCLUSION: Poor knowledge and wrong attitudes towards stroke are frequent among individuals working in a Brazilian university hospital. Although these results are not necessarily applicable to the general population, they will certainly be useful for the development of educational programs on stroke.
Full Text Available Improving productivity of knowledge workers is one of the major challenges in today’s global environment. Information technology-related technologies have given a new fillip to increase the productivity of those who are working in a knowledge-intensive organisation. This paper discusses the perspective of scientists of Hyderabad-based Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO laboratories on usefulness of IT-related technologies on their performance.
Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.
The Bioscience Industry Skills Standards Project (BISSP) is developing national, voluntary skill standards for technical jobs in biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and clinical laboratories in hospitals, universities, government, and independent settings. Research with employees and educators has pinpointed three issues underscoring the…
Conhecimento e percepção dos profissionais a respeito do ruído na unidade neonatal Conocimiento y percepción de los profesionales respecto del ruido en la unidad neonatal Workers' knowledge and perception regarding noise in the neonatal unit
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o conhecimento e a percepção de profissionais de Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN sobre as repercussões do ruído ao neonato, família e profissionais, antes da implementação de um programa educativo. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, quantitativa, realizada em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de um hospital de São Paulo, com 101 profissionais. Foram utilizados: questionário para a coleta de dados, e os testes de Qui-quadrado e t de Student para a associação entre as variáveis. Os profissionais identificaram a UTIN como muito ruidosa (44,9%, perceberam os efeitos desse ruído durante e após a jornada de trabalho (67,4% e utilizaram estratégias para amenizá-lo. Embora os profissionais desconheçam a legislação sobre o ruído no ambiente hospitalar, identificaram repercussões para si, recém-nascido e família. Os resultados apontaram para a necessidade de orientar a equipe quanto à legislação, prevenção de ruído e reorganização das práticas assistenciais e estrutura física da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal.Se objetivó verificar el conocimiento y percepción de profesionales de Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN sobre efectos del ruido en el neonato, familia y profesionales, antes de implementar un programa educativo. Investigación descriptiva, cuantitativa, realizada en UTIN de un hospital de São Paulo, con 101 profesionales. Fueron utilizados: cuestionario para recolección de datos y tests de Chi-cuadrado y T de Student para asociación entre las variables. Los profesionales se refirieron a la UTIN como muy ruidosa (44,9%, percibieron los efectos de ese ruido durante y después de la jornada laboral (67,4% y utilizaron estrategias para neutralizarlo. A pesar de que los profesionales desconozcan la legislación sobre ruidos en ambiente hospitalario, identificaron repercusiones para sí mismos, para el recién nacido y su familia. Los resultados sugieren la necesidad de orientar al equipo respecto de la legislación, prevención de ruidos y reorganización de prácticas asistenciales y estructura física de la UTIN.The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and perception of professionals working in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU regarding the repercussions of noise on the neonates, families and workers, prior to the implementation of an educational program. This qualitative descriptive study was conducted in a NICU of a São Paulo hospital with 101 professionals. A questionnaire was used for data collection, and chi-square and Student's t test were used to determine the association between variables. The workers described the NICU as very noisy (44.9%; they noticed the effects of noise during and after their work shift (67.4% and used strategies to reduce noise. Despite not being familiar with legislation regarding noise in the hospital, the workers identify its repercussions on themselves, the neonates and families. Results indicate the need to teach the staff about legislation and noise prevention, as well as reorganize healthcare practices and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit facilities.
Conhecimento e percepção dos profissionais a respeito do ruído na unidade neonatal / Workers' knowledge and perception regarding noise in the neonatal unit / Conocimiento y percepción de los profesionales respecto del ruido en la unidad neonatal
Daniela, Daniele; Eliana Moreira, Pinheiro; Teresa Yoshiko, Kakehashi; Maria Magda Ferreira Gomes, Balieiro.
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar o conhecimento e a percepção de profissionais de Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN) sobre as repercussões do ruído ao neonato, família e profissionais, antes da implementação de um programa educativo. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, quantitativa, [...] realizada em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal de um hospital de São Paulo, com 101 profissionais. Foram utilizados: questionário para a coleta de dados, e os testes de Qui-quadrado e t de Student para a associação entre as variáveis. Os profissionais identificaram a UTIN como muito ruidosa (44,9%), perceberam os efeitos desse ruído durante e após a jornada de trabalho (67,4%) e utilizaram estratégias para amenizá-lo. Embora os profissionais desconheçam a legislação sobre o ruído no ambiente hospitalar, identificaram repercussões para si, recém-nascido e família. Os resultados apontaram para a necessidade de orientar a equipe quanto à legislação, prevenção de ruído e reorganização das práticas assistenciais e estrutura física da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal. Abstract in spanish Se objetivó verificar el conocimiento y percepción de profesionales de Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN) sobre efectos del ruido en el neonato, familia y profesionales, antes de implementar un programa educativo. Investigación descriptiva, cuantitativa, realizada en UTIN de un hospital de [...] São Paulo, con 101 profesionales. Fueron utilizados: cuestionario para recolección de datos y tests de Chi-cuadrado y T de Student para asociación entre las variables. Los profesionales se refirieron a la UTIN como muy ruidosa (44,9%), percibieron los efectos de ese ruido durante y después de la jornada laboral (67,4%) y utilizaron estrategias para neutralizarlo. A pesar de que los profesionales desconozcan la legislación sobre ruidos en ambiente hospitalario, identificaron repercusiones para sí mismos, para el recién nacido y su familia. Los resultados sugieren la necesidad de orientar al equipo respecto de la legislación, prevención de ruidos y reorganización de prácticas asistenciales y estructura física de la UTIN. Abstract in english The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and perception of professionals working in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) regarding the repercussions of noise on the neonates, families and workers, prior to the implementation of an educational program. This qualitative descriptive stud [...] y was conducted in a NICU of a São Paulo hospital with 101 professionals. A questionnaire was used for data collection, and chi-square and Student's t test were used to determine the association between variables. The workers described the NICU as very noisy (44.9%); they noticed the effects of noise during and after their work shift (67.4%) and used strategies to reduce noise. Despite not being familiar with legislation regarding noise in the hospital, the workers identify its repercussions on themselves, the neonates and families. Results indicate the need to teach the staff about legislation and noise prevention, as well as reorganize healthcare practices and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit facilities.
Full Text Available In the Slovakia rehabilitations offer to drug-addicted clients absolvelongtime treat, either the formof ambulance or sojourn form. The family, who drugaddicted member decide to absove the social rehabilitation process, should participe on his treatment. In my contribution I work on know better the activities and work of social worker. I decribe the work methods and procedures with client in the social rehabilitation. Here, we focus on skills and knowledges, which are important and usefull in work with drug-users. The aim of the social rehabilitation process is permanent abstination of any substances. The clients have to walk a long way to achieve this aim.They recognize an abstinent philosophy and the health lifestyle. In contribution I am been on the questions about area, which the social work in rehabilitation centre cover, about work the social worker with family together and work on competences of social worker as a member of therapeutic team.
Too often, students enter our classrooms with insufficient knowledge of physical science. As a result, they have a difficult time understanding content in texts, lectures, and laboratory activities. This lack of background knowledge can have an impact on
Klein, Roy L.
The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge-usefulness to organizational managers. The determination of the level of usefulness provided organizational managers with a reliable measure of their decision-making. Organizational workers' perceptions of knowledge accessibility, quality of knowledge content, timeliness, and user…
This article is a condensed analysis of the developing sustainability crisis of Australian universities. It is based on an address to National Council of the National Tertiary Education Union, Melbourne, 3 October 2014. Thanks to all my fellow-members, who have kept my hopes for the modern university alive.
Tacit knowledge, the knowledge that workers possess but do not articulate, is associated with terms such as "skill,""know-how,""working knowledge," and "expertise" that are used to describe knowledge about and ability to perform work. Learning that takes place through apprenticeships draws heavily on tacit knowledge, and it has been connected with…
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is redesigning its Computer-Based Training (CBT) program for radiological workers. The redesign represents a major effort to produce a single, highly interactive and flexible CBT program that will meet the training needs of a wide range of radiological workers--from researchers and x-ray operators to individuals working in tritium, uranium, plutonium, and accelerator facilities. The new CBT program addresses the broad diversity of backgrounds found at a national laboratory. When a training audience is homogeneous in terms of education level and type of work performed, it is difficult to duplicate the effectiveness of a flexible, technically competent instructor who can tailor a course to the express needs and concerns of a course's participants. Unfortunately, such homogeneity is rare. At LLNL, they have a diverse workforce engaged in a wide range of radiological activities, from the fairly common to the quite exotic. As a result, the Laboratory must offer a wide variety of radiological worker courses. These include a general contamination-control course in addition to radioactive-material-handling courses for both low-level laboratory (i.e., bench-top) activities as well as high-level work in tritium, uranium, and plutonium facilities. They also offer training courses for employees who work with radiation-generating devices--x-ray, accelerator, and E-beam operators, for instance. However, even with the number and variety of courses the Laboratory offers, they are constrained by the diversity of backgrounds (i.e., knowledge and experience) of those to be trained. Moreover, time constraints often preclude in-depth coverage of site- and/or task-specific details. In response to this situation, several years ago LLNL began moving toward computer-based training for radiological workers. Today, that CBT effort includes a general radiological safety course developed by the Department of Energy's Hanford facility and a contamination-control program developed by LLNL. A comprehensive study guide and a post-training practical exam supplement the CBT effort. The ''hands-on'' practical is particularly important in that it gives participants not only the opportunity to demonstrate what they've learned, but to ask questions about their individual work situations. The challenge is how to make the CBT program more facility- and task-specific while, at the same time, making the program more in tune with the education and/or experience levels of individual trainees. To that end, they have designed a CBT program, which they refer to as an ''onion''. That is, the course is layered, going from the general to the more and more specific
The population of radium dial workers who were exposed to radium 30 to 50 years ago are currently being followed by the Center for Human Radiobiology at the Argonne National Laboratory. It is not clear that radium has induced additional malignancies in this population, other than the well-known bone sarcomas and head carcinomas, but elevated incidence rates for multiple myeloma and cancers of the colon, rectum, stomach, and breast suggest that radium might be involved. Continued follow-up of this population may resolve these questions. Finally, the question of the effect of fetal irradiation on the offspring of these women remains to be resolved. No evidence exists to suggest that any effects have occurred, but there is no question that a chronic irradiation of the developing fetus did take place. No formal follow-up of these children has yet been initiated
An Ohio vocational school Small Animal Care program prepares students for entry level employment as veterinary assistants, pet shop salesmen, kennel workers, animal groomers, Humane Society workers, laboratory animal assistants, and riding stable assistants. (EA)
Capacitações perecíveis do trabalhador: a busca de saberes comportamentais e técnicos no novo capitalismo / Les formations périssables du travailleur: la recherche de savoirs comportamentaux et techniques dans le nouveau capitalisme / Perishable worker training: the search for behavioral and technical knowledge in the new capitalism
Maurício dos Santos, Ferreira.
Full Text Available Este artigo problematiza as estratégias pelas quais a atualização permanente de saberes se impôs como imprescindível ao perfil profissional contemporâneo. Para tanto, opero com os conceitos foucaultianos de discurso, cuidados de si e tecnologias do eu, bem como trabalho imaterial, de Lazzarato e Neg [...] ri - articulados a uma crítica ao capital humano - , a fim de analisar o caderno Empregos & Oportunidades do jornal Zero Hora. Centrando-me nas exigências comportamentaise técnicas, destaco algumas implicações: o autoconhecimento torna-se a resposta à trivialidade do trabalho, orientando o sujeito a estabelecer relações superficiais consigo e com o outro; a busca por conhecimento técnico gera contingentes de trabalhadores capacitados que se mantêm em defasagem; a inovação faz-se "dobradiça" entre o mercado e a exigência de novos saberes. Hoje, a condição perecível das capacitações dá o tom à formação do trabalhador. Abstract in english This paper problematizes the strategies through which the permanent updating of knowledge has been imposed as indispensable to the contemporary professional profile. In order to do that, I have worked with the Foucauldian concepts of discourse, care of the self and technologies of the self, as well [...] as Lazzarato and Negri's concept of immaterial work - articulated with a criticism of human capital - to analyze the supplement called Jobs & Opportunities of Zero Hora newspaper. Focused on behavioral and technical requirements, I have highlighted some implications: self-knowledge has become the answer to work triviality, leading the subjects to establish superficial relationships with themselves and the others; the search for technical knowledge has generated contingents of skilled workers that lag behind; innovation has become a "hinge" between the market and the requirement for new knowledge. Nowadays, the perishable situation of worker training dominates worker learning.
Schild, Susie A.
Knowledge management thinking has resulted in the perception that the organization is the relevant beneficiary of knowledge. Individual approaches to and experiences with personal knowledge management are not well documented in empirical studies, which uncovered the specific problem that the situatedness of knowledge worker contemporaries within…
Fisher, Randy A.
Advertisements (N=50) for school social workers were selected which appeared in the National Association of Social Workers Illinois Bulletin between the years 1973 and 1975. Contents of the advertisements are broken down into nine categories for analysis. (Author)
Protecting workers from potential effects of pesticides is an important role of EPA's Pesticide Program. Workers in several occupations may be exposed to pesticides when they: Prepare pesticides for ...
Full Text Available We investigate the problem arising in allocating master and workers in the Master-Worker Paradigm. Although various methods have beenproposed for Master-Worker allocation, optimal allocation is yet to be achieved. This paper proposes an extension to the generic Master-Worker architecture for achieving optimal allocation of masters and workers. The architecture is extended by introducing an additional utilizing layer in between the Grid application layer and the Grid service layer, which is called Master-worker optimization layer. The layer consists of a knowledge base and uses statistical knowledge for utilization of the resource allocation. The salient feature of this layer is that it uses the prior knowledge and numerical data relating to groups of individual computers for the decision making process. The paper describes the architecture of the extended Master-Worker rchitecture; its functionality, possible alternatives for the Master-worker optimization layer and assessment of the proposed method.
Kania, A.; M. Spilka
Purpose: In this article the important role of knowledge management in enterprises was presented. The knowledge and workers skills are the wealth and success source of organizations on the market.Design/methodology/approach: The paper shows definitions and types of knowledge, systems and models of knowledge management and directions of knowledge acquirement and development.Findings: In this article the analysis of role and function of knowledge management in modern enterprise on the basis of ...
Ha, Tak S.
In the knowledge economy, many companies are well aware of the vital need to maintain the professional expertise of their workers at a high level. Though there have been a lot of research studies in the areas of professional expertise and workplace learning, few examined the learning pathways novice workers went through to become experts in their…
Hassan, Moshood Ayinde
The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which workers patronize distance learning approach to further their education. Other purposes include: determine problems facing workers in the process of improving their knowledge and skills through distance learning approach; establish the level of attainment of manpower development…
Johnson, Teresa A.
This viewgraph presentation reviews the issues surrounding the management of knowledge in regards to safety and mission assurance. The JSC workers who were hired in the 1960's are slated to retire in the next two to three years. The experiences and knowledge of these NASA workers must be identified, and disseminated. This paper reviews some of the strategies that the S&MA is developing to capture that valuable institutional knowledge.
Conhecimentos, práticas e percepções de profissionais de saúde sobre o tratamento de malária não complicada em municípios de alto risco da Amazônia Legal Uncomplicated malaria treatment in the Brazilian Amazon: knowledge, practices and perceptions of health workers in high-incidence municipalities
Claudia Garcia Serpa Osorio-de-Castro
Full Text Available O controle da malária no Brasil conta com diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado e oportuno como estratégia para cura rápida e duradoura. Consequências clínicas e resistência aos antimaláricos podem resultar de falhas na prescrição, dispensação e aceitação dos profissionais aos esquemas terapêuticos propostos. Objetivou-se avaliar conhecimentos, práticas, percepções e atitudes de profissionais envolvidos na assistência farmacêutica à malária, frente ao protocolo oficial e a possíveis falhas na terapêutica. Entrevistaram-se profissionais em seis municípios na Amazônia Legal. Utilizou-se técnica de análise do discurso para determinação de categorias analíticas e sistematização. Dos 63 entrevistados, houve apenas um médico. Os demais, de nível médio, atuavam no diagnóstico, indicação e dispensação do tratamento antimalárico. O tempo de formação e de treinamento foi variável. Houve falhas na adesão ao protocolo nacional, perpassando indicação, dispensação e orientação aos pacientes. Os profissionais carecem de conhecimento para lidar com as especificidades da doença e do tratamento. A responsabilização de profissionais que não possuem o preparo necessário para a atenção sugere necessidade de políticas para a adequada capacitação e incorporação de recursos humanos.Malaria control in Brazil is based on early diagnosis and adequate and timely treatment as strategies for a rapid and long-lasting cure. Clinical consequences and resistance to antimalarials may arise from problems in prescribing, dispensing and in acceptance of therapeutic regimens by healthcare workers. We studied knowledge and practices, perceptions and attitudes of health workers participating in pharmaceutical services for malaria, regarding the official protocol and the possible flaws in therapy. Health workers from six municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon were interviewed. Speech analysis was employed as a technique to determine analytical categories and to organize data. There was only 1 physician among the 63 interviewees, the others were health technicians carrying out diagnosis, therapy indication and dispensing of antimalarial treatment. Training time and period since course completion varied. Flaws in the adherence to the national protocol included therapy indication, dispensing and counseling. Health workers need knowledge to face disease and treatment specificities. Holding accountable health workers that are unprepared and unfit for the job may indicate the need for adequacy in policies regarding adequate training and hiring of human resources.
Autonomous robots are becoming more and more skilled in performing human-scale manipulation tasks, and will soon become common co-workers in our homes. In this work, we describe a framework for representing the knowledge that an autonomous robot needs for performing household tasks, for automated reasoning on this knowledge, and for acquiring new knowledge from sources on the Internet and from observations of human activities. The developed methods allow programmers to write more general and ...
This chapter explores the potential of Fairtrade in hired labour situations in terms of improving conditions for agricultural workers. The chapter will address various aspects including the contentious issue of Fairtrade and trade union organisation as well as on issues of worker empowerment. At a local level, analysis focuses on the implications of Fairtrade certification for large enterprises and workers, drawing on a field-based studies of certified flower farms in Ecuador and Kenya.
Workers at several U.S. plutonium (Pu) processing or research facilities are subjects of the National Plutonium Workers Study. Mortality from all causes and all cancers has not been elevated in these cohorts compared with rates in the general U.S. population. Mortality from all causes and blood cell neoplasms was statistically elevated in Pu-exposed workers at Rocky Flats compared with those not exposed to Pu. Linear dose-response trends were not observed. Bone sarcoma in a Los Alamos Pu exposed worker is noteworthy because bone tumors are an important cancer found in Pu exposed dogs. (author)
The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration
Liou, Saou-Hsing, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Wang, Shu-Li; Li, Lih-Ann; Chiang, Hung-Che; Li, Wan-Fen; Lin, Pin-Pin [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lai, Ching-Huang [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Public Health, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling [Fu Jen Catholic University, Department of Chemistry, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ming-Hsiu; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Chen, Chiou-Rong [Council of Labor Affairs, Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Taiwan (China); Shih, Tung-Sheng [College of Public Health, China Medical University and Hospital, Institute of Environmental Health, Taiwan (China); Liao, Hui-Yi; Chung, Yu-Teh [National Health Research Institutes, Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, Taiwan (China)
The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20-100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than in control workers. A significantly decreasing gradient was found for SOD (control > RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose-response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of workers handling engineered nanomaterials.
This thesis intends to contribute to building evidence and expanding the knowledge base in the field of Human Resource Management (HRM) and health worker performance in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). It identifies the impact of HIV/AIDS on health workers, explores the factors influencing motivation of health workers, and examines the evidence on the effectiveness of HRM on health workers’ motivation and performance. In addition, it discusses whether HRM could contribute effectively t...
Conhecimentos, práticas e percepções de profissionais de saúde sobre o tratamento de malária não complicada em municípios de alto risco da Amazônia Legal / Uncomplicated malaria treatment in the Brazilian Amazon: knowledge, practices and perceptions of health workers in high-incidence municipalities
Claudia Garcia Serpa, Osorio-de-Castro; Elaine Silva, Miranda; Ângela, Esher; Mônica Rodrigues de, Campos; Juliana de Castro, Brasil; Ana Cristina Soares, Ferreira; Isabel Cristina Martins, Emmerick.
Full Text Available O controle da malária no Brasil conta com diagnóstico precoce e tratamento adequado e oportuno como estratégia para cura rápida e duradoura. Consequências clínicas e resistência aos antimaláricos podem resultar de falhas na prescrição, dispensação e aceitação dos profissionais aos esquemas terapêuti [...] cos propostos. Objetivou-se avaliar conhecimentos, práticas, percepções e atitudes de profissionais envolvidos na assistência farmacêutica à malária, frente ao protocolo oficial e a possíveis falhas na terapêutica. Entrevistaram-se profissionais em seis municípios na Amazônia Legal. Utilizou-se técnica de análise do discurso para determinação de categorias analíticas e sistematização. Dos 63 entrevistados, houve apenas um médico. Os demais, de nível médio, atuavam no diagnóstico, indicação e dispensação do tratamento antimalárico. O tempo de formação e de treinamento foi variável. Houve falhas na adesão ao protocolo nacional, perpassando indicação, dispensação e orientação aos pacientes. Os profissionais carecem de conhecimento para lidar com as especificidades da doença e do tratamento. A responsabilização de profissionais que não possuem o preparo necessário para a atenção sugere necessidade de políticas para a adequada capacitação e incorporação de recursos humanos. Abstract in english Malaria control in Brazil is based on early diagnosis and adequate and timely treatment as strategies for a rapid and long-lasting cure. Clinical consequences and resistance to antimalarials may arise from problems in prescribing, dispensing and in acceptance of therapeutic regimens by healthcare wo [...] rkers. We studied knowledge and practices, perceptions and attitudes of health workers participating in pharmaceutical services for malaria, regarding the official protocol and the possible flaws in therapy. Health workers from six municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon were interviewed. Speech analysis was employed as a technique to determine analytical categories and to organize data. There was only 1 physician among the 63 interviewees, the others were health technicians carrying out diagnosis, therapy indication and dispensing of antimalarial treatment. Training time and period since course completion varied. Flaws in the adherence to the national protocol included therapy indication, dispensing and counseling. Health workers need knowledge to face disease and treatment specificities. Holding accountable health workers that are unprepared and unfit for the job may indicate the need for adequacy in policies regarding adequate training and hiring of human resources.
Goodson, Elizabeth; And Others
The issue discusses the role of the International Labour Office in the field of workers' education for rural workers and their organizations. Articles discuss labor conditions, child labor in agriculture, gender and equality training, trade unions, fair trade, and changing patterns of food production. Appendixes include information about…
Aim Shift workers may be at risk of different diseases. In order to assess cardiometabolic risk in shift workers, a cross-sectional study was performed among active workers. Methods A total of 481 workers (121 men, 360 women) were investigated; most of them were employees in light industry (58.2%) or in public services (23.9%). Past medical history was recorded and physical examination was performed. Questionnaires were used to characterize daily activity. Fasting venous blood sample was collected for measuring laboratory parameters. Data from shift workers (n = 234, age: 43.9 ± 8.1 years) were compared to those of daytime workers (n = 247, age: 42.8 ± 8.5 years), men and women were analyzed separately. Results In men, systolic blood pressure was higher in shift workers compared to daytime workers (133 ± 8 vs 126 ± 17 mmHg; p < 0.05). In women, weight (73.6 ± 15.5 vs 67.7 ± 13.2 kg; p < 0.001), body mass index (27.5 ± 5.7 vs 25.0 ± 4.3 kg/m2; p<0.001) and the prevalence rate of hypertension in the past medical history (24.4 vs 13.4%; p < 0.01) were higher in shift workers compared to daytime workers. In addition, the proportion of current smokers was higher (37.7 vs 21.7%; p < 0.001) and HDL-cholesterol level was lower (1.56 ± 0.32 vs 1.68 ± 0.36 mmol/l; p < 0.01) in female shift workers than in female daytime workers. Both in men and in women, rotating shift workers spent less time sleeping both on working days and on non-working days, spent less time with sport activity, drank more coffee and they spent less time working per day, especially in light physical work, compared to daytime workers. In addition, low and middle educational levels were most frequently found among rotating shift workers as opposed to the daytime workers where high educational level was more common. Conclusion Middle-aged active shift workers, especially women, have a less healthy lifestyle and are at higher cardiometabolic risk as compared to daytime workers. Our study highlights the importance of measures for identifying and preventing cardiometabolic risk factors in shift workers. PMID:22296806
Full Text Available This paper gives an overview of knowledge sharing in workplace. Based on the review of critical literaturesby the authors, they infer that knowledge sharing in workplace can be influenced by motivators anddemotivators. Activities of knowledge sharing in organizations may be on organization level or individuallevel. Knowledge sharing of both levels is critical to the success or failure of knowledge management insideand outside of organizations. Age, culture, and industry were all found to affect knowledge sharing amongworkers. A common stereotype is that older workers hoard knowledge because they are more insecure andfeel threatened by younger workers. Since older workers have more valuable knowledge, younger workersneeded to entice their older colleagues to share their valuable knowledge with them. The paper focus onmotivators and demotivators to sharing Knowledge in workplace. Theories and research pertaining to whyworkers share knowledge are reviewed. While all industry need knowledge and innovation, it is also truethat the pace of change and the need to innovate differs from industry to industry. Technology wasacknowledged to have a high important role in increasing productivity of knowledge sharing. It plays acritical role in creating, storing and distributing explicit knowledge in an accessible and expeditiousmanner.
Furman, Rich; Negi, Nalini Junko; Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Rowan, Diana; Shukraft, Allison; Gragg, Jennifer
The Latino population is the fastest growing group in the United States; thus, it is imperative that social workers and other mental health practitioners be knowledgeable about the current literature on how to effectively serve this population. This article elucidates key issues and knowledge, such as immigration and migration concerns; discusses…
Produção de conhecimento e intersetorialidade em prol das condições de vida e de saúde dos trabalhadores do setor sucroalcooleiro / Production of knowledge and an inter-sectoral approach vis-à-vis living and health conditions of workers in the sugarcane sector
Full Text Available Neste artigo, são apresentadas algumas dimensões da atuação intersetorial com vistas à melhoria das condições de trabalho e de vida dos trabalhadores na área de saúde do trabalhador do setor sucroalcooleiro. É analisada a dinâmica seguida na construção de formas de intersetorialidade em determinadas [...] práticas desenvolvidas a esse respeito numa região do Estado de São Paulo. Destaca-se o importante papel desempenhado por setores do Ministério Público do Trabalho e do Poder Legislativo na articulação de atores institucionais e da sociedade civil que potencializa uma atuação de maior alcance de cada órgão público responsável, envolvido na solução das questões de saúde do trabalhador. O estudo foi produzido a partir da análise documental do material produzido pelas instituições e por fóruns de debates com propostas de intervenção. Os resultados mostram que a apropriação de conhecimentos estratégicos produzidos por pesquisadores no setor canavieiro, nos recursos utilizados do instrumental jurídico e nas ações de fiscalização e vigilância, propicia importantes avanços na saúde do trabalhador e no meio ambiente. Abstract in english This article presents some dimensions of inter-sectoral action aimed at improving working and living conditions of workers in the sugarcane and alcohol industry. The dynamics of the implementation of certain forms of given intersectoral practices established in a region of the State of São Paulo are [...] analyzed. The important role played by sectors of the Labor Prosecution Office and the Legislative Authority in the articulation of institutional actors and civil society is stressed. They give greater impetus to the work of each public sector responsible for addressing the issues of workers'healthcare. This study was produced from analysis of documents and material provided by institutions and discussion forums with proposals for intervention. The results show that the appropriation of strategic knowledge produced by researchers of the sugarcane industry in the instrumental resources used in legal actions, monitoring and surveillance generates important advances in the health of workers and the environment.
Llanes, R; Somarriba, L; Hernández, G; Bardaji, Y; Aguila, A; Mazumder, R N
SUMMARY This investigation was undertaken to characterize the prevalence of intestinal Vibrio cholerae in healthcare workers (HCWs) returning from Haiti due to the ongoing cholera epidemic. Eight hundred and fifty asymptomatic HCWs of the Cuban Medical Brigade, who planned to leave Haiti, were studied by laboratory screening of stool culture for V. cholerae. A very low percentage (0.23%) of toxigenic V. cholerae serogroup O1, serotype Ogawa was found. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the largest reported screening study for V. cholerae infection in asymptomatic HCWs returning from a cholera-affected country. Cholera transmission to health personnel highlights a possible risk of transmitting cholera during mobilization of the population for emergency response. Aid workers are encouraged to take precautions to reduce their risk for acquiring cholera and special care should be taken by consuming safe water and food and practising regular hand washing. PMID:25016919
The aim of this study was to establish and identify the health effect markers of workers with potential exposure to nanoparticles (20–100 nm) during manufacturing and/or application of nanomaterials. For this cross-sectional study, we recruited 227 workers who handled nanomaterials and 137 workers for comparison who did not from 14 plants in Taiwan. A questionnaire was used to collect data on exposure status, demographics, and potential confounders. The health effect markers were measured in the medical laboratory. Control banding from the Nanotool Risk Level Matrix was used to categorize the exposure risk levels of the workers. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD) in risk level 1 (RL1) and risk level 2 (RL2) workers was significantly (p RL1 > RL2). Another antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), was significantly lower only in RL1 workers than in the control workers. The cardiovascular markers, fibrinogen and ICAM (intercellular adhesion molecule), were significantly higher in RL2 workers than in controls and a significant dose–response with an increasing trend was found for these two cardiovascular markers. Another cardiovascular marker, interleukin-6, was significantly increased among RL1 workers, but not among RL2 workers. The accuracy rate for remembering 7-digits and reciting them backwards was significantly lower iem backwards was significantly lower in RL2 workers (OR = 0.48) than in controls and a significantly reversed gradient was also found for the correct rate of backward memory (OR = 0.90 for RL1, OR = 0.48 for RL2, p < 0.05 in test for trend). Depression of antioxidant enzymes and increased expression of cardiovascular markers were found among workers handling nanomaterials. Antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD and GPX, and cardiovascular markers, such as fibrinogen, ICAM, and interluekin-6, are possible biomarkers for medical surveillance of workers handling engineered nanomaterials.
Royce, S; Rosenberg, J
Occupational lead overexposure remains a major problem. To evaluate the settings in which physicians appropriately prescribe chelation therapy for lead exposure, 7 cases were identified from physician phone calls and mandatory laboratory reporting of elevated blood lead levels to the California Department of Health Services. In the 2 workers with the highest blood lead levels (both of whom had severe symptoms), treatment was indicated. Physicians inappropriately prescribed chelating agents to workers with ongoing lead exposure as prophylaxis against rising blood lead levels and to treat atherosclerotic heart disease. Workers' personal physicians identified lead overexposure in 5 of the 7 cases. Workplace lead medical surveillance programs mandated by the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration were inadequate in all 5 of the workplaces where information was available. PMID:8317123
Full text: The Canadian Nuclear Industry recognizes the importance of nuclear knowledge management and has already implemented a number of initiatives to maintain competency, capture and preserve existing knowledge, advance the nuclear technology, develop future nuclear workers, and maintain a critical R and D capability. Although this paper addresses the Canadian scene in general, it will focus on knowledge management from a technology development point of view. Therefore, special emphasis will be placed on activities underway at present at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). Maintaining competency is a high priority issue. With the on-going retirement of nuclear workers, resource management, succession planning and technical training programs are all in place at AECL. For example, a comprehensive assessment was recently completed to identify critical core competencies and the potential and timing of future retirements. Using a risk-based approach, the technology disciplines were prioritized and a plan was developed to address the requirements. The plan is now being implemented to hire, train, mentor and develop a new core of technical experts. Collaboration and knowledge sharing are important success factors in that regard. This is being achieved through cross-functional teamwork, consolidation of expertise, on-going work on nuclear power plant projects (e.g., the just completed units in China and ongoing work on unit 2 at the Romanian Cernavoda site), developing and designing new products (Advanced CANDU Reactor, ACR-700), adopting and improving Quality Management Systems (e.g., ISO 9001:2000 Global Certification and pursuing business excellence through the adoption of the Canadian Framework for Business Excellence). Capturing and preserving existing knowledge as well as advancing nuclear technology have also received significant attention. Fully computerized engineering tools have been developed and used to document the complete design of CANDU plants, and this methodology is being used for the recent build projects. This encompasses all plant design, analysis and licensing knowledge including engineering drawings, design manuals, design reviews, analysis reports and all licensing documentation. The same system is being used today for the development of the ACR. In addition, a comprehensive feedback of experience system documents all operational issues to ensure lessons learned from operating plants are shared widely within AECL and with CANDU owners. AECL has also developed smart technology that transfers knowledge from highly specialized technical experts working in our laboratories to computer systems that can be accessed by plant operators. Such technology enables nuclear operators in monitoring station conditions, converting measured data into useful information, analyzing the information intelligently and providing recommendations to support decision making. In this way, specialized knowledge can be used throughout the nuclear industry. Another essential element in AECL's strategy for preserving knowledge is the on-going design and development of advanced CANDU systems over the years. In this approach, each generation of CANDU reactor is firmly based on incremental advancements in technology, which ensures that future expertise is maintained and based on an extensive existing knowledge base. Development of future nuclear workers received a boost through the University Network of Excellence in Nuclear Engineering (UNENE) program. This is an alliance of Canadian universities, nuclear power utilities, research and regulatory agencies. The purpose of UNENE is to assure a sustainable supply of qualified nuclear engineers and scientists to meet the current and future needs of the Canadian nuclear industry. In addition to full-time undergraduate and graduate degrees, UNENE, through 5 major Canadian universities also offers part-time programs designed for students already employed in the industry. Courses are offered in flexible formats, generally at nuclear sites for the convenience of the students. More informati
Evaluation of the impact of a simple hand-washing and water-treatment intervention in rural health facilities on hygiene knowledge and reported behaviours of health workers and their clients, Nyanza Province, Kenya, 2008.
Sreenivasan, N; Gotestrand, S A; Ombeki, S; Oluoch, G; Fischer, T K; Quick, R
Many clinics in rural western Kenya lack access to safe water and hand-washing facilities. To address this problem, in 2005 a programme was initiated to install water stations for hand washing and drinking water in 109 health facilities, train health workers on water treatment and hygiene, and motivate clients to adopt these practices. In 2008, we evaluated this intervention's impact by conducting observations at facilities, and interviewing staff and clients about water treatment and hygiene. Of 30 randomly selected facilities, 97% had water stations in use. Chlorine residuals were detectable in at least one container at 59% of facilities. Of 164 interviewed staff, 79% knew the recommended water-treatment procedure. Of 298 clients, 45% had received training on water treatment at a facility; of these, 68% knew the recommended water-treatment procedure. Use of water stations, water treatment, and client training were sustained in some facilities for up to 3 years. PMID:24865584
Elwood, P.C.; Thomas, H. F.; Sweetnam, P.M.; Elwood, J H
A total of 2528 workers in flax mills in Northern Ireland were followed up for 16 years. Follow-up was 97% complete. Deaths were identified and date and cause ascertained. Expected deaths were calculated on the basis of age and sex specific rates for Northern Ireland. Both male and female workers had fewer deaths than expected, and mortality showed no clear relationship with type of work. There was a small excess in the mortality of the workers who had had byssinosis at the time of the origin...
GrØntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole
We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers.
Phase II of the Centrifuge Workers Study was a follow-up to the Phase I efforts. The Phase I results had indicated a higher risk than expected among centrifuge workers for developing bladder cancer when compared with the risk in the general population for developing this same type of cancer. However, no specific agent could be identified as the causative agent for these bladder cancers. As the Phase II Report states, Phase I had been limited to workers who had the greatest potential for exposure to substances used in the centrifuge process. Phase II was designed to expand the survey to evaluate the health of all employees who had ever worked in Centrifuge Program Departments 1330-1339 but who had not been interviewed in Phase I. Employees in analytical laboratories and maintenance departments who provided support services for the Centrifuge Program were also included in Phase II. In December 1989, the Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), now known as Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE), was contracted to conduct a follow-up study (Phase II). Phase H of the Centrifuge Workers Study expanded the survey to include all former centrifuge workers who were not included in Phase I. ORISE was chosen because they had performed the Phase I tasks and summarized the corresponding survey data therefrom
Trabajadores de conocimiento: predictores de la agregación de valor a la organización / Travailleurs de la connaissance: prédicteurs de la valeur ajoutée de l'organisation / Knowledge workers: predictors of added value for an organization / Trabalhadores de conhecimento: indicativos da agragação de valor à organização
Rosa Araceli, Cortés Mendoza; Ricardo, Flores Zambada.
Full Text Available Em uma amostra por conveniência de 220 trabalhadores de conhecimento, explorou-se a relação multivariante entre a motivação, aprendizagem, pensamento e escuta, gestão da informação, atitudes, e nível de conhecimento com a variável agregação de valor. O modelo estrutural encontrado representa de mane [...] ira aceitável e nos dá evidência empírica, sobre algumas das variáveis que a literatura propõe dentro do perfil do trabalhador de conhecimento, e como aquelas incidem de maneira direta e indireta na agregação de valor por parte destes. Este último aspecto é muito importante, encontra-se evidência de que há traços intrapessoais e atitudinais que favorecem a acumulação de conhecimento e o uso do mesmo para gerar valor. Abstract in spanish En una muestra por conveniencia de 220 trabajadores de conocimiento, se exploró la relación multivariante entre motivación, aprendizaje, pensamiento y escucha, manejo de la información, actitudes, y nivel de conocimiento con la variable agregación de valor. El modelo estructural encontrado represent [...] a de manera aceptable, y da evidencia empírica, sobre algunas de las variables que la literatura propone dentro del perfil del trabajador de conocimiento, y cómo estas inciden de manera directa e indirecta en la agregación de valor por parte de estos. Este último aspecto es muy importante; se encuentra evidencia de que hay rasgos intrapersonales y actitudinales que favorecen la acumulación de conocimiento y el uso del mismo para generar valor. Abstract in english In a convenient sample of 220 knowledge workers, the multi-variant relationship between motivation, learning, thinking and listening, handling information, attitudes, and the level of knowledge of the added value variable was explored. The structural model that was found provides an acceptable repre [...] sentation along with empirical evidence regarding some of the values that the literature proposes within the profile of the knowledge worker, and how these directly and indirectly influence their added value. This last aspect is very important and it was found that there are intrapersonal and attitudinal characteristics that favor the generation of knowledge and its use to create value.
This file gathers contributions and points of view from different actors of the workers radiation protection, included two foreign contributions making reference to Spanish and British practices. (N.C.)
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Radiation workers are healthier than the average person in the general population and appear to be as healthy as workers in other ?safe? industries. It is, however, assumed that there is no safe dose of radiation and that any exposure to radiation will cause a small increase in the incidence of cancer, this increase being directly proportional to the total radiation dose. On the basis of the risk estimates given by ICRP, radiation exposures up to 1 rem per year for 47 years are predicted to cause fewer work-related deaths than expected for the average worker in Canadian industry. Radiation exposures of 5 rem per year from age 18 to 65 would result in predicted risk which is about four times higher than that for most workers in Canada and might increase the chances of death before age 75 to nearly the same level as for the average member of the general public. (auth)
As the nuclear industry has matured, workers are now regularly required to keep to just a fraction of the legal authorized limit. In addition, where higher doses are possible careful use of worker rotation will reduce the risk. However, it is interesting to note that workers undertaking industrial radiography can incur high doses because they may be poorly supervised. There are also hazards in decommissioning experimental reactors where, after a period of long operation, records or the memory of operators may be incomplete or not available. There is also a risk in reprocessing and handling the waste stream where exit routes previously thought to be available have been closed because of developing environmental concerns. In all this, trust is needed between workers and employing organizations to provide the best protection
Juridical aspects with respect to the workers in nuclear activity are presented. Special emphasis is given to the clauses of the statute of workers (Consolidacao das Leis do Trabalho) the rules of the Ministerio do Trabalho and the rules of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. The performance of the international authorities is also emphasized such as the International Labour Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the International Radiological Protection Commission. (Author)
This study ha been conducted in the Radiopharmacy Laboratories of Nuclear Medicine departments of various hospitals and private nuclear medicine laboratories. A total of 35 laboratories from 7 regions of Turkey have been selected by layered sampling method from 131 Radiopharmacy Laboratories located in 30 different cities. During the study, a GRP investigation list with 67 questions and direct communication technique have been used. The aim was determine the current status of the Radiopharmacy Laboratories in general and the administration of radiopharmaceuticals on patients, and good practices in radiopharmacy and conformance with quality assurance systems. In this respect, questions have been asked to determine a) General status, b) Information level of lab workers regarding to the GRP and ISO concepts (i-Status of lab managers, ii- Responsibilities and knowledge of lab workers and iii- regarding to GRP and ISO-9000), c) Conditions of infrastructure, and lab services and its quality, d) Status of organizations. Results showed that only two of the 35 managers of laboratories were radiopharmacists, the rest were Nuclear Medicine specialists. There were less knowledge on GRP than ISO, the labs holding ISO certificate were in minority even though ISO is known concept, radiopharmacist were more knowledgeable in GRP while nuclear medicine specialists were in ISO, the labs with better GRP knowledge have better infrastructure, the GRP knowledge were better in the university and armed forces hospitals while ISO knowledge and certificates were more in private labs and hospitals, the armed forces hospitals better paraphernalia, practically almost all radiopharmaceutical kits were imported goods and there were important problems in quality control
Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)
The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.
VonSeggern, Marilyn; Jourdain, Janet M.; Pinelli, Thomas E.
Research in recent decades has identified the varied information needs of engineers versus scientists. While most of that research looked at the differences among organizations, we surveyed engineers and scientists within a single Air Force research and development laboratory about their information gathering, usage, and production practices. The results of the Phillips Laboratory survey confirm prior assumptions about distinctions between engineering and science. Because military employees responded at a much higher rate than civilian staff, the survey also became an opportunity to profile a little-known segment of the engineer/scientist population. In addition to the effect Phillips Laboratory's stated mission may have on member engineers and scientists, other factors causing variations in technical communication and information-related activities are identified.
The level of knowledge and radiation safety practice amongst cardiovascular technology, medical assistant, nursing and diagnostic radiography students and dose monitoring in radiography laboratory of Kolej Islam Sains dan Teknologi, Kelantan
Full-text: This study investigated the knowledge level and practices regarding radiation safety among the cardiovascular technology, medical assistant nursing and radiography diagnostic students of Kolej Islam Sains dan Teknologi (KIST). The objectives of this study are to monitor the dose rate at radiography lab and to propose the guideline on radiation safety topics to improve the syllabus. 274 respondents including 30 psychology students acting as the control group were asked to answer questions from the questionnaires which cover the topics of basic knowledge of radiation and radiation safety practice. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the correct answers and courses for 18 questions except for the question 4. There was a significant different (p < 0.05) between the correct answers and year of study for the questions 4, 5, 7, 12 to 15 and 18 to 20. There was a significance different (p < 0.05) between the correct answers and gender for questions 7, 11 and 19. For area dose monitoring in the radiography diagnostic lab, the assessment report on film batches of 4 walls in the lab were recorded and Victoreen451-RYR survey meter was used to monitor the dose rate for 7 selected areas with the exposure factors set for the chest, abdomen, upper extremity, lower extremity and skull radiography examinations. The dose rates at area 1 to 4, area 5 during the examination of chest, abdomen and skull, area 6 during the examination of abdomen and area 7 during the examination of abdomen, had exceeded the dose limit for radiation worker. The dose rate at the area 1 and 4 are slightly higher than the other areas. The contributing factors are the distance, tube potential, collimation and X-ray tube angulation. This study had shown that the cardiovascular technology and diagnostic radiography students have better knowledge and radiation safety practice level than the medical assistant and nursing students. In general, the level of knowledge and radiation safety practices were below satisfactory with the mean values of correct answers percentage was 42.74 % ± 0.91. As a result, a guideline to improve the syllabus is proposed because of the needs for the students to have better basic knowledge on radiation safety. (author)
The main objective of the study presented in this thesis was to estimate the prevalence rate of laboratory animal allergy and to determine its association with risk factors, like allergen exposure level, atopy, gender and other host factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 540 workers at 8 laboratory animal facilities. All participants completed a questionnaire and underwent skin prick testing with common and occupational allergens. Total and specific IgE measures were obtained....
This article, by including the problem of ?Knowledge Crash? in the more general framework of ?Knowledge Management?, enlarges the concepts of knowledge, generation and knowledge transfer. It proposes a global approach, starting from a strategic analysis of a knowledge capital and ending in the implementation of socio-technical devices for inter-generational knowledge transfer.
Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas frente a la tuberculosis en trabajadores del sector salud en municipios prioritarios de la Costa Pacífica colombiana / Health Workers' Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Towards Tuberculosis in Priority Municipalities of the Colombian Pacific Coast / Conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas perante a tuberculose em trabalhadores da saúde em municipalidades prioritárias do litoral pacífico sul da Colômbia
Rocío, Carvajal-Barona; María Teresa, Varela-Arévalo; Paula Andrea, Hoyos; Eliana Sofía, Angulo-Valencia; Carolina, Duarte-Alarcón.
Full Text Available Objectivo: caracterizar os conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas perante a tuberculose em trabalhadores da saúde que participam dos programas de controle em municipalidades prioritárias do litoral pacífico colombiano. Materiais e métodos: Realizou-se um estudo descritivo de corte transversal com 38 tra [...] balhadores da Saúde, os quais correspondem a maior parte da população de pessoas com funções nos programas de TBC em 10 municipalidades prioritárias num departamento do sul da Colômbia. Usou-se um questionário estruturado, previamente validado através de entrevistas cognitivas realizadas em pessoas com caraterísticas similares as da população de estudo e realizadas previamente à coleta da informação. Resultados: Os trabalhadores disseram ter conhecimentos sobre a TBC e saber como tratar os pacientes com a doença seguindo as normatividades estabelecidas. Porém, identificaram-se algumas práticas de risco relacionadas com o cumprimento das medidas do plano de controle de infecções e atitudes que refletem o estigma perante a doença. Conclusão: O estudo confere informação a respeito dos conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas das equipes de saúde no pacífico sul da Colômbia, a qual se pode converter em insumo de consulta no momento do planejamento de estratégias de intervenção que possibilitem o fortalecimento do programa de controle de TB com enfoque cultural nesta região. Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Caracterizar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas frente a la tuberculosis (TB) en los trabajadores de la salud que participan en los programas de control en municipios prioritarios de la Costa Pacífica colombiana. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transv [...] ersal en 38 trabajadores de la salud, que corresponden a la mayor parte de la población del personal con funciones en los programas de TB de 10 municipios prioritarios en Nariño, Colombia. El instrumento utilizado fue un cuestionario estructurado, previamente validado a través de entrevistas cognitivas a personas con características similares a la población estudio, realizadas previamente a la recolección de información. Resultados: Los trabajadores reportan tener conocimientos sobre TB y su manejo de acuerdo a las normas de control establecidas. No obstante, se identificaron algunas prácticas de riesgo relacionadas con el cumplimiento de las medidas del plan de control de infecciones y actitudes que reflejan estigma frente a la enfermedad. Conclusiones: El estudio aporta información referente a los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas del personal de salud en el pacífico nariñense, que se puede convertir en insumo de consulta al momento del diseño de estrategias de intervención que posibiliten el fortalecimiento del programa de control de TB con enfoque cultural en esta región. Abstract in english Purpose: To describe knowledge, attitudes and practices of health workers of tuberculosis (TB) programs in priority municipalities of the Colombian Pacific coast. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted with 38 health workers, corresponding to the entire population of [...] people working at the TB programs in ten priority municipalities of Nariño, Colombia. A structured interview, previously validated trough cognitive interviews, was used. Results: Health workers report to have knowledge about TB and its management according to the established control guidelines. Nevertheless, some risk practices concerning biosecurity standards of infection control were found, that show some stigmatizing attitudes towards the illness. Conclusions: The study provides information about the health workers' knowledge, attitudes and practices towards TB in Nariño that can be used as input to the design of intervention strategies to strengthen the TB programs with local and cultural approach.
A comparative analysis of two cross-sectional surveys of healthcare workers' hand hygiene knowledge, intentions, access and product preferences between two university hospitals, one in Norway and one in Canada
Mediå, Anne Kristine
Objective: Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) and The University Hospital of Northern Norway in Tromsø (UNN-Tromsø) were compared for self-reported differences in level of knowledge and intentions to comply with the hand hygiene guidelines. Hand hygiene products were also assessed for preference of use, access, gentleness and promotion of hand hygiene compliance. Methods: A cross-sectional quality assurance staff survey was made available at UNN- Tromsø and at VGH in both print and in electr...
A comparative analysis of two cross-sectional surveys of healthcare workers' hand hygiene knowledge, intentions, access and product preferences between two university hospitals, one in Norway and one in Canada
Mediå, Anne Kristine
Objective: Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) and The University Hospital of Northern Norway in Tromsø (UNN-Tromsø) were compared for self-reported differences in level of knowledge and intentions to comply with the hand hygiene guidelines. Hand hygiene products were also assessed for preference of use, access, gentleness and promotion of hand hygiene compliance. Methods: A cross-sectional quality assurance staff survey was made available at UNN- Tromsø and at VGH in both print and in electroni...
Hassan, Moshood Ayinde
The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which workers patronize distance learning approach to further their education. Other purposes include: determine problems facing workers in the process of improving their knowledge and skills through distance learning approach; establish the level of attainment of manpower development objectives of Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba-Akoko and Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, both in Ondo State, Nigeria; and find out the relationship between manpo...
Introduction Client violence toward social workers has become recognized as a common problem, and major concern has been raised with regard to its impacts on the workers’ practice, and physical and psychological health. More than half a century has passed since the social work profession was established in Iran, and yet client violence and the associated health-related consequences remain unexplored. This thesis aims to address this gap in knowledge. Methods A national survey was conducte...
Rob Collins; Merryl Hammond; Catherine L. Carry; Dianne Kinnon; Joan Killulark; Janet Nevala
Background . Tobacco reduction is a major priority in Canadian Inuit communities. However, many Inuit frontline health workers lacked the knowledge, confidence and support to address the tobacco epidemic. Given vast distances, high costs of face-to-face training and previous successful pilots using distance education, this method was chosen for a national tobacco reduction course. Objective . To provide distance education about tobacco reduction to at least 25 frontline health workers from al...
Conocimiento de las vías de transmisión de las zoonosis y de las especies afectadas entre los trabajadores rurales / Knowledge of zoonoses transmission routes and of the species concerned among rural workers
Ana I, Molineri; Marcelo L, Signorini; Héctor D, Tarabla.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el grado de conocimiento que tienen los trabajadores rurales sobre las zoonosis a las que se encuentran expuestos en su trabajo y su asociación con factores socio-demográficos. Se efectuó un estudio observacional transversal basado en la realización de encuest [...] as (N = 110, n = 94), utilizando un cuestionario estructurado. El análisis incluyó c², t de Student y correlación de Pearson y de Spearman. Las zoonosis más conocidas fueron la triquinosis, la rabia y la sarna. En el caso de la brucelosis, la tuberculosis y el carbunco, fueron muy conocidas las especies que las transmiten, pero no así las formas de transmisión. Las enfermedades menos conocidas en ambos sentidos fueron la toxocariasis y la hidatidosis, seguidas por la leptospirosis y la toxoplasmosis. Para todas las zoonosis estudiadas se encontró correlación significativa (p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of awareness of zoonoses among rural workers and their potential associations with socio-demographic factors. A cross-sectional study was performed by holding personal interviews (N = 110, n = 94) using a structured questionnaire. The statistical analy [...] sis included the c² test, the Student's t test and Pearson and Spearman correlations. The highest level of awareness was found for trichinosis, rabies and scabies. Species transmitting brucellosis, tuberculosis and anthrax were well known, but not their modes of transmission. The least known diseases were toxocariasis and hydatidosis, followed by leptospirosis and toxoplasmosis. Significant associations were found (p
Knowledge Management Systems have been actively promoted for decades within organizations but have frequently failed to be used. Recently, deployments of enterprise social networking platforms used for knowledge management have become commonplace. These platforms help harness the knowledge of workers by serving as repositories of knowledge as well…
M. A. Jabar; F. Sidi; M. H. Selamat; A.A.A. Ghani; Ibrahim, H.; S. Baharom
Problem statement: Organization has to evaluate the competencies of their workers to improve organizational productivity. However, this is difficult because organizations have difficulties to capture and retain knowledge especially tacit knowledge of their employees. Approach: The study reviewed selected literature on management knowledge and employers competencies. It also reviewed existing frameworks in knowledge management focusing on the capturing and storing tacit kno...
Saberes e práticas do agente comunitário de saúde na atenção à saúde do trabalhador / Knowledge and practices of community health agents in workers' healthcare / Saberes y prácticas del agente comunitario de salud en la atención a la salud del trabajador
Thais Lacerda e, Silva; Elizabeth Costa, Dias; Eliana Cláudia de Otero, Ribeiro.
Full Text Available Os Agentes Comunitários de Saúde (ACS) desempenham papel fundamental na atenção integral à saúde dos trabalhadores, cadastrando e recolhendo informações sobre o perfil sociodemográfico desta população, identificando atividades produtivas desenvolvidas no domicílio e peridomicílio e os possíveis fato [...] res de risco para a saúde dos trabalhadores. Este estudo baseia-se no referencial das competências e busca compreender o processo de trabalho do ACS, valorizando seu saber fazer e sua percepção sobre as relações trabalho-saúdedoença, para orientar os processos de capacitação. Foi desenvolvido em um município da região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais e utilizada a técnica card colection, que integra o método VIPP (Visualization in Participatory Programmes). Foram identificadas ações nas áreas de competência: promoção da saúde/ prevenção de doenças e organização do cuidado. Os resultados reforçam a importância de novos estudos que considerem as mudanças no processo de trabalho do ACS ao se pretender desenvolver ações de saúde do trabalhador. Abstract in spanish Los Agentes Comunitarios de Salud (ACS) desarrollan un papel fundamental en la atención a los trabajadores. Identifican las características de la poblacion trabajadora, las actividades productivas desarrolladas dentro y cerca de los hogares y los factores de riesgo para la salud relacionados a estos [...] procesos de trabajo. Este estudo orienta los procesos de capacitación para el desarrollo de estas actividades, basado en el modelo de competencias. Fue realizado en una ciudad metropolitana de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, y fue utilizada la técnica de tarjetas de colección, buscando entender el proceso de trabajo de los ACS y su percepción sobre las relaciones trabajo-salud-enfermedad. Fueron identificadas acciones en las areas de promoción y prevención en salud y la organización del cuidado, que necesitan ser incorporadas en las capacitaciones. Los resultados refuerzan la importancia de nuevos estudios que consideren cambios en el proceso de trabajo de los agentes al pretenderse desarrollar acciones de la salud del trabajador. Abstract in english Community health agents play a fundamental role in workers' comprehensive healthcare through registering and gathering information on the sociodemographic profile of this population and identifying productive activities developed at home and in the vicinity, along with possible risk factors for work [...] ers' health. This study was based on competency reference points and sought to understand community health agents' work processes, placing value on their knowhow and perceptions of work-health-illness relationships, in order to guide the capacitation processes. It was developed in a city located at metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais state, and used the card collection technique, which is part of the "Visualization in Participatory Programmes" method. Actions within the fields of competency of health promotion and organization of healthcare were identified. The results stress the importance of new studies that take into consideration the changes in community health agents' work processes when aiming to developing workers' healthcare actions.
Full Text Available nowadays, knowledge management is considered an essential part of any organization to prepare and develop its vision for the future. Knowledge management allows better utilization of the organization expertise, resources, and bright ideas. The science of knowledge management started when the technology revolution reached every organization. The ease and availability of information, major advancements in communication technologies, the emergence of knowledge worker, and the knowledge economy are the reasons of knowledge management development.
Jonas, Albert M.
Design of laboratory animal facilities must be functional. Accordingly, the designer should be aware of the complex nature of animal research and specifically the type of animal research which will be conducted in a new facility. The building of animal-care facilities in research institutions requires special knowledge in laboratory animal…
Érica Silva Carvalho
Full Text Available In the course of history the terms related to workers, their health and work environment have been changed: from Medical Labor Health to Occupational Health through to the Worker’s Health. This aim of this article is to demonstrate the importance of the worker’s oral health, by means of the studies of several authors. This literature review draws attention to the importance of knowing the dental problems that may affect workers, with the intention of analyzing the epidemiology, etiology and pathology in addition to understanding the impact they would cause on the quality of life, oral health promotion and prevention. This goal stems from the dentist’s importance to the Worker’s Health, preventing dental absenteeism, as orofacial pain may alter the conditions of life and work of the individual to a greater extent than other systemic conditions such as diabetes and high blood pressure do. Occupational Dentistry has collaborated with worker’s health both in the public and private spheres, because what really is really being sought is a worker with adequate oral health conditions for his/her work activities and an improvement in the worker’s quality of life.
Gödert, Winfried; Nagelschmidt, Matthias
This book covers the basics of semantic web technologies and indexing languages, and describes their contribution to improve languages as a tool for subject queries and knowledge exploration. The book is relevant to information scientists, knowledge workers and indexers. It provides a suitable combination of theoretical foundations and practical applications.
The nuclear technology has encouraged the world development and brought a number of benefits to society. These benefits occurred in important social sectors such as Agriculture, Industry, Health Sciences, Environmental Sciences and the production of energy. The research in the nuclear area is justified, accordingly, as an important factor for science development, technology and innovation. Despite the importance of nuclear energy, there is a collapse in the generation, transmission and sharing of nuclear knowledge. The threat of regression in this area is evidenced by the difficulty of generating new knowledge and practices regarding the maintenance of some critical areas. This project focuses its attention on studying, specifically, the lack of young engineers and technical professionals to replace the older, considered this, an alarming situation. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and record the key skills of experienced workers, through a set of tools to elicitation (capture) this knowledge, as expertise is mainly with people, and is lost when they leave the organization. Against, the Knowledge Management provides methodologies for the process of stimulating the creation, collection and knowledge dissemination process, in order to achieve strategic objectives. This study aims to contribute to the building of a model for the Brazilian nuclear knowledge preservation and, therefore, contributes to the maintenance and innovation of activities in this area. (author)
Conocimientos y prácticas sobre la nueva influenza A (H1N1) en trabajadores de salud y pacientes ambulatorios, Perú (mayo 2009) / Knowledge and practices about novel influenza A (H1N1) in health workers and ambulatory patients, peru (may 2009)
Jeannette, Ávila; César V., Munayco; Jorge, Gomez; Juan, Nunura; Jerónimo, Canahuiri.
Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar el nivel de conocimientos, las actitudes y prácticas de los pacientes y del personal de salud a inicios de la pandemia de la nueva Influenza A H1N1, desarrollamos un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en establecimientos del Ministerio de Salud del Perú (MINSA) so [...] bre 313 usuarios y 244 trabajadores de 4 ciudades del país. El 38% de los pacientes encuestados asocia la nueva Influenza A (H1N1) con los cerdos o aves, un 17% no reconoce que la transmisión es de persona a persona, asimismo, entre el 35% a 50% utiliza la mano para cubrirse nariz y boca al estornudar o toser y no tiene práctica de higiene de manos. En el caso del personal de salud, el 99% advierte la transmisión humana y el 86% conoce la definición de caso sospechoso de Influenza A (H1N1). Entre el 83% y 95% de los trabajadores encuestados reconocen las medidas de protección individual recomendadas por el MINSA. En ambos grupos la televisión es el medio más visto (60%) y por dónde recibe mayor información sobre Influenza A (H1N1), además, en los trabajadores de salud, un medio frecuente de información sobre el tema también es el internet (11%). Abstract in english The aim of this study was to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices of patients and health personnel at the beginning of the pandemic of novel Influenza A (H1N1), we did a cross sectional survey appliying a questionnaire in health facilities of Ministry of Health (MoH). 313 patients and 244 he [...] alth workers were interviewed in 4 Peruvian cities. 38% of surveyed patients linked Influenza A (H1N1) with pigs or poultry, 17% do not recognize that the transmission is from person to person, between 35% to 50% used the hand to cover nose and mouth when sneezing or coughing and does not practice hand hygiene. 99% and 86% of health personnel recognizes human transmission and knows the case definition of suspected case of Influenza A (H1N1), respectively. Between 83% and 95% of workers surveyed understand the individual protection measures recommended by the MoH. In both groups, television is the most seen (60%) and where to get more information on Influenza A (H1N1). An important way of information, through health care workers get information is internet (11%).
A recent study of health records of the workforce at the Lucas Heights Science and Technology Centre, operated by the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), has shown that radiation workers have lower mortality rates from all causes and from all cancers than the general population. The Lucas Heights data cover more than 7000 past and present employees, from 1957-1998. This study was part of a research programme being carried out in conjunction with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in France and its results add to the much larger pool of data already held by IARC. This finding of the Australian study is similar to the findings of epidemiological studies of the health of workers who have been exposed to low levels of ionising radiation in the course of their occupations elsewhere in the world, and has often been explained as the healthy worker effect. According to this argument, it is reasonable to expect that any group of workers should be more healthy than an average group (with the same age and sex distribution) from the general population. After all, they must at least be healthy enough to get out of bed regularly and go to work. The purpose of the present paper is to ask whether this is the whole story
The Healthy Worker Effect (HWE) phenomenon has been under debate since some years. Some epidemiologists regard HWE as an ordinary method problem while others consider it a field of science by itself. This article gives definitions of HWE explained with historical background; discusses factors affecting it and suggests methods to minimize problems associated with it.
... report from the MA Department of Public Health. Health and Safety of Young Workers: Proceedings of a U.S. and Canadian Series of Symposia Young Worker Safety and Health Reports and Publications Teacher Resources Charts on Young ...
... employees are under 20 years of age. Many young workers' first work experience is in the restaurant industry. OSHA is providing this eTool to help young workers in the restaurant industry be safe and healthy ...
This paper discusses the important process of knowledge and its management, and differences between tacit and explicit knowledge and understanding the culture as a key issue for the successful implementation of knowledge management, in addition to, this paper is concerned with the four-stage model for the evolution of information technology (IT) support for knowledge management in law firms.
The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual framework for…
Weine, Stevan; Golobof, Alexandra; Bahromov, Mahbat; Kashuba, Adrianna; Kalandarov, Tohir; Jonbekov, Jonbek; Loue, Sana
This study aimed to build formative knowledge regarding HIV risks in female migrant sex workers in Moscow, focusing on gender and power. This was a collaborative ethnographic study, informed by the theory of gender and power, in which we conducted minimally structured interviews with 24 female sex workers who were migrants to Moscow and who provided sexual services to male migrant laborers. Overall, the female migrant sex workers engaged in HIV risk behaviors and practiced inadequate HIV prot...
Breedt, Marlize; Janse van Rensburg, Antonie C.
The emergence of the Information Age necessitates the need to manage the organisation’s knowledge asset. The competitive advantage of the organisation depends on the quality of the organisation’s knowledge asset and the successful exploitation of it. Knowledge management aims at leveraging this explicit and tacit knowledge asset to the collective benefit of the organisation by developing an infrastructure to facilitate knowledge processes. Elements such as company know-how, employee competenc...
Popescu, Dan; Iulia CHIVU
Knowledge is increasingly claimed to be a key critical resource and source of competitive advantage in the modern global economy, especially with the rise of the service economy, the growth in the number of 'knowledge workers', the increasingly rapid flow of global information, and the growing recognition of the importance of intellectual capital and intellectual property rights. Knowledge, with its intangible aspects, is becoming a defining characteristic of economic activities, as opposed t...
Derballa, Volker; Pousttchi, Key
Knowledge and Knowledge Management (KM) are evolving into an increasingly eminent source of competitive advantage. However,for the time being, the potential of KM is usually limited to stationary workplaces. This excludes a multiplicity of mobile workers, many of them in charge of knowledge-intensive activities.This paper examines the capabilities and limitations of mobile technology usage in order to support KM. After a general overview of KM, the relevant mobile technology is introduced.Sub...
Gestión del conocimiento y comunidades de práctica en laboratorios de investigación del Polo Científico Grenoblés en Francia* / Knowledge management and communities of practice in research laboratories of the scientific center in Grenoble, France
Margarita María, Gaviria Velásquez.
Full Text Available Se analizan algunas de las prácticas relacionadas con la gestión del conocimiento en los laboratorios del Polo de Investigación Científica ubicado en la ciudad de Grenoble (Francia). El polo científico grenoblés se construye a partir del acentuado desarrollo científico e industrial que vive la regió [...] n desde finales del siglo XIX, ligado a un largo proceso de producción académica, y de compromiso económico y estatal; denso en generación de nuevos conocimientos. Es también un modelo de trabajo colectivo, en el cual cooperan varias ciudades y países. La pregunta fundamental de la investigación es si, efectivamente, en este contexto se puede hablar de la presencia de un modelo de gestión del conocimiento y cuáles serían las condiciones para que esto se de. El análisis se ocupa específicamente del estudio del modelo Nonaka llamado ''Ba'' (conocimiento situado) que estudia el proceso de conversión de conocimientos tácitos en explícitos en los laboratorios de investigación y si éstos funcionan como comunidades de práctica. Los datos que sustentan este trabajo fueron construidos a partir de entrevistas, análisis de componentes principales, observaciones sobre el terreno y el análisis de estudio de caso. Abstract in english Some practices related to knowledge management in the laboratories of the scientific center of Grenoble (France) are analyzed. This center was set up from the great scientific and industrial advance in this region since the 19th Century, which has resulted in a large process of academic production, [...] and economic and governmental commitment. It is also a model of collective work, in which several cities and countries cooperate. The main question of this research is if, in this context, a knowledge management model really exists, and which would be the conditions of its existence. Particularly, the analysis focuses on the Nonaka's model called ''Ba'' (situated knowledge), which studies the tacit and explicit knowledge conversion process in the research laboratories, and if they work like communities of practice. The data that support this study were gathered from interviews, principal component analysis, field observations, and case study analysis.
Hepatite B: conhecimento e medidas de biossegurança e a saúde do trabalhador de enfermagem / Hepatitis B: knowledge and measures of biosafety and the health of the nursing worker / Hepatitis B: conocimiento y medidas de bioseguranza y la salud del trabajador de enfermería
Joziane, Pinheiro; Regina Célia Gollner, Zeitoune.
Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivos: descrever o conhecimento dos profissionais de enfermagem acerca da doença hepatite B; analisar as medidas de biossegurança com relação à hepatite B utilizadas pelos profissionais de enfermagem; e discutir as implicações do conhecimento acerca da hepatite B e as medidas [...] de biossegurança para a saúde do trabalhador de enfermagem. O estudo teve amostra de 44 funcionários, representando 100% dos profissionais de enfermagem do setor de clínica médica de um hospital militar do Município do Rio de janeiro. Constatou-se que a maioria dos profissionais de enfermagem desconhecia as formas de transmissão da hepatite B; um número significativo de profissionais de enfermagem não havia recebido treinamento de como proceder caso houvesse um acidente com material perfurocortante; o conhecimento das medidas de biossegurança não estava presente em toda equipe, nem todos as usavam de forma rotineira. Concluímos que os resultados indicam que alguns profissionais estariam expostos ao risco de contrair a hepatite B caso ocorresse acidente com material perfurocortante. Abstract in spanish El estudio tubo como objetivo describir el conocimiento de los profesionales de enfermería acerca de la enfermedad hepatitis B; analizar las medidas de bioseguranza con relación a la hepatitis B usada por los profesionales de enfermería; y discutir las implicaciones del conocimiento acerca de la hep [...] atitis B y las medidas de bioseguranza para la salud del trabajador de enfermería. El estudio tubo una muestra de 44 funcionarios, representando 100% de los profesionales de enfermería del sector de clínica médica de un hospital militar de la Ciudad del Rio de Janeiro. Las variables usadas fueran: conocimiento sobre hepatitis B y medidas de bioseguranza. Resultados: la mayoría de los profesionales de enfermería desconocía las formas de transmisión de la hepatitis B; un número significativo de profesionales de enfermería no recibió entrenamiento de cómo proceder si hubiera un accidente con material perforocortante; el conocimiento de las medidas de bioseguranza no estuvo presente en todo el equipo, ni todos las usaban de forma rutinera. Conclusión: los resultados indican que algunos profesionales estarían expuestos al risco de contraer hepatitis B caso ocurriese accidente con material perforocortante. Abstract in english The Study has as purpose to describe the knowledge of nursing professionals about the hepatitis B disease; to analyze the biosafety measures about hepatitis B used by the nursing professionals; and to argue the knowledge implications about hepatitis B and the biosafety measures for the health of the [...] nursing worker. The study has as sample 44 workers, represented 100% of the nursing professionals in the medical clinic sector in a military hospital of Rio de Janeiro City. The variables used were: knowledge about hepatitis B and the biosafety measures. Results: the majority of the nursing professionals didn’t know the ways of hepatitis B transmission; a significant number of nursing professionals didn’t had received training about how to proceed in case of accident with perforating material; the knowledge of the biosafety measures weren’t present in the whole staff, neither everybody used it in a routine way. Conclusion: the results indicated that some professionals would be exposed to the risk to acquire hepatitis B in case of accident with perforating material.
NASA has discovered that 60% of aerospace workers will reach retirement age over the next few years so needed to find a way to capture knowledge from exiting workers and make it available to remaining and future staff (1 page).
Thévenin, J C
The control of the radiation dose exposure of workers and personnel exposed to ionizing radiations (nuclear industry, nuclear medicine, army, university laboratories etc..) is ensured by individual dosemeters. This dosimetry is mandatory for all workers susceptible to be exposed to more than 30% of the regulatory dose limit. dosemeters are worn on the chest and in some particular cases, on the finger (dosemeter rings) or on the wrist. Passive dosemeters allow to measure the dose a posteriori, while electronic dosemeters allow a direct reading and recording of the dose. This article presents successively: 1 - the general principles of individual dosimetry: situations of exposure, radiation detection, operational data, standardization, calibration and quality assurance, measurement uncertainties; 2 - goals and regulatory framework of individual dosimetry: regulation and recommendations, optimization, respect of dose limits, accidental situations; 3 - passive dosemeters: film, thermoluminescent, radio-photolumin...
Richter, E D; Ben-Michael, E; Tsafrir, T; Laster, R
We constructed job-exposure profiles and assessed quality of health care in 39 of 47 current and former workers from a nuclear installation in the Negev whose files were referred to us for assessment of a possible work-related aspect of their tumors. The workers, all male except one, began employment at various times from the reactor construction and were engaged in different tasks in laboratory research, construction, maintenance, and service. Of those workers still living the average age wa...
There are approximately 50,000 workers employed in the light assembly industry in Haiti. About 70% are women, the majority of whom are aged between 25 and 34 years, and are either single or in a nonpermanent relationship with the father of their children. Many live and work in appalling conditions, surviving on very low wages to support several children and an extended family. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is now a visible problem in many factories. In October 1988, the Center for the Promotion of Women Workers (Centre de Promotion des Femmes Ouvriers/CPFO) launched a pilot AIDS education program for factory women. The Center, based in a large industrial zone near the airport, runs a health clinic and courses in literacy, communications skills, health promotion and family planning. The new AIDS program allowed CPFO staff to gain entry into factories for the 1st time. Other courses were held outside working hours and outside factory premises. Staff contacted manages by telephone to arrange a meeting to discuss AIDS and to ask permission to hold educational "round tables" with workers. Of 18 managers in the factories approached over a 12-month period, only 2 refused entry to CPFO staff. Almost all managers reported they had registered between 2 and 5 deaths from AIDS among their employees over the past couple of years. A total of 85 educational sessions, each lasting about 2 hours, were held within 28 different factories, community or labor organizations reaching 3063 workers (male and female). In each session, the presentation was carried out by 2 CPFO trained monitors and included a slide show, flip charts, and the video "Met ko," originally produced for Haitian immigrants in New York. The most important aspect of the program was the training of 38 volunteer factory-based health promoters. These promoters attended the round table sessions, where they facilitated discussion and distributed condoms and were subsequently available for counseling co-workers. Initially, the Center intended to recruit only literate women as promoters, but several nonliterate women were selected for training by labor organizations 18 hours of tuition and discussion of AIDS/human immunodeficiency virus were held over 2 1/2 weeks, including sessions on group dynamics and organizational skills. To improve communications skills, sessions included role play exercises which were videotaped and played back to trainees. Training in communication skills also helps promoters participate in activities aimed at supporting a broader range of workers' rights. PMID:12342836
Hudson, P.J.; Vogt, R.L.; Brondum, J.; Witherell, L.; Myers, G.; Paschal, D.C.
Because evidence of mercury exposure was found among workers of a mercury thermometer-manufacturing plant in March 1984, the Vermont Department of Health studied the workers' children for both exposure to mercury and evidence of mercury toxicity. The median urine mercury level of 23 workers' children was 25 micrograms/L. This was significantly higher than the level (5 micrograms/L) among 39 children randomly selected from nonworkers' households in the same community (P less than .001). Mercury-in-air levels measured in workers' homes were higher than those measured in control homes. A significant correlation was found between the urine mercury levels of the workers' children and the urine mercury levels of their working parents. No child had frank mercury toxicity. No evidence of neurologic toxicity among exposed children was discovered by a pediatric neurologist who examined these and unexposed children without knowledge of their exposure status. This is the first report demonstrating mercury exposure in children of mercury workers. Although toxic effects of mercury were not demonstrated at these levels of exposure, children of mercury workers are at risk for mercury exposure and potential mercury toxicity.
While troubleshooting and repairing medical instrumentation may be all that BMETs would like to do, it's just too limited in scope to perform the job effectively. Flattened organizations can require greater responsibility for BMETs--and lead to greater ambiguity. Besides electronic troubleshooting skills, mechanical ability, and the knowledge of how medical equipment normally operates, additional skills are required of the BMET to effectively facilitate a repair--such as knowledge of pertinent codes and standards, job safety laws and guidelines, politeness, and empathy for the equipment user. You will notice that many of these relate to interpersonal relations. The ability to interact with fellow health care workers in a non-threatening manner and to have an appreciation for their perspectives are valuable customer service skills--potentially more valuable than being able to do component-level troubleshooting! PMID:11668951
The diffusion of knowledge in the world generates positive externalities if knowledge flows increase the productivity of R&D. Our work analyzes knowledge diffusion and knowledge externalities in generating innovation and in determining productivity. We first estimate the determinants of knowledge flows across 141 sub-national regions in 19 countries of Europe and North America as revealed by patent citation between US-granted patents. Then we estimate the impact of these flows on productivity...
Henningsson, Stefan; Øhrgaard, Christian
The IT integration of acquisitions consists an important challenge for the many acquiring organizations. Complementing existing research, this paper searches for explanation to differences in acquirers’ abilities for acquisition IT integration in the external of the acquirer, by a study of the use of temporary agency workers. Following an analytic induction approach, theoretically grounded in the re-source-based view of the firm, we identify the complimentary and supplementary roles consultants can assume in acquisition IT integration. Through case studies of three acquirers, we investigate how the acquirers appropriate the use of agency workers as part of its acquisition strategy. For the investigated acquirers, assigning roles to agency workers is contingent on balancing the needs of knowledge induction and knowledge retention, as well as experience richness and in-depth under-standing. Composition of the acquisition IT integration team should consider the balance of these, in practice, commonly mutually excluding needs.
The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs
Knowledge management is an evolving subject area based on two notions: - That knowledge is a fundamental aspect of effective organizational performance; - That specific steps need to be actively taken to promote knowledge creation and use. Two common approaches to knowledge management that are often used in combination include: - Knowledge management focused on the capture of explicit knowledge and sharing this via technology; - Knowledge management focused on managing tacit knowledge without necessarily making it explicit, and creating new knowledge as well as sharing existing knowledge. In the context of human resources development, knowledge management is strongly tied to strategy and is activity oriented. Properly applied knowledge management improves organizational efficiency and productivity through reducing process times, introducing technology to assist finding relevant information and instituting techniques to remedy poor quality outputs. Knowledge management also promotes innovations, which can result from initiatives such as developing social networks for knowledge exchange, providing leadership to encourage risk taking and capturing the lessons learned from past activities. Both of these benefits require openness to change and a drive for continual improvement. Other benefits of knowledge management include improved decision making, retaining organizational memory and organizational learning, as well as improving morale. Knowledge management can be used on its own or in collaboration with other management disciplines and tools to establish an environment that will enable the organization to realize these benefits. Summarizing the effective management of nuclear knowledge includes ensuring the continued availability of qualified personnel. As the nuclear workforce ages and retires, and with support uncertain for university programmes in nuclear science and engineering, this issue has become critical to ensuring safety and security, encouraging innovation and making certain that the benefits of nuclear energy related to different applications including electricity supply remain available for future generations
The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, ...
This paper investigates worker flows in Russia. Information onelapsed durationsof job tenure from the 1994-1996 Russian Longitudinal MonitoringSurvey (RLMS)and fromretrospective work history responses to the Institute for LaborRelationsResearch (ISITO) 1998 household survey is used. Competing risksmodels fordurations of job tenure with multiple destination states areestimated. Patternsof transitions between sectors and to non-employment are identifiedfordifferent demographic groups. Rates of ...
For what purposes are public libraries established? Who do the founders intend to reach with the activities of the libraries? How does the question of goals of public library work develop over time? These are important questions to analyse but first we have to demarcate. The paper treats public libraries and their forerunners in Sweden. The focus is on class and libraries and especially workers and libraries. Three phases are studied. The first is the founding phase of the modern public ...
Ahlin, Karin; Saarikko, Ted
Long-term preservation of organisational knowledge gives the business opportunities to reusestored knowledge. This preservation of knowledge is present both in the organisation as such,found explicitly in the organisational stock, and also in the individual workers, implicit intheir flow of action. Theoretically have the reuse of knowledge been named organisationalmemory and also been addressed in knowledge management. In a single case-study of amanufacturing company, the authors study the ut...
nowadays, knowledge management is considered an essential part of any organization to prepare and develop its vision for the future. Knowledge management allows better utilization of the organization expertise, resources, and bright ideas. The science of knowledge management started when the technology revolution reached every organization. The ease and availability of information, major advancements in communication technologies, the emergence of knowledge worker, and the knowledge economy a...
Pediculose nos centros de educação infantil: conhecimentos e práticas dos trabalhadores / Pediculosis in children attending day care centers: knowledge and practice of workers / Infestión de piojos en los centros de educación infantil: conocimientos y prácticas de los trabajadores
Flávia Lopes, Gabani; Clarice Martins Lima, Maebara; Rosângela Aparecida Pimenta, Ferrari.
Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou identificar e analisar conhecimentos e práticas, acerca da pediculose, dos trabalhadores de Centros de Educação Infantil (CEI) das áreas de abrangência de duas Unidades de Saúde da Família, Londrina, Paraná. Trata-se de estudo descritivo transversal. Foi aplicado formulário c [...] om questões sobre mitos, tabus, práticas, dúvidas e dificuldades na interrupção da infestação da pediculose em oito CEI. Posteriormente, realizou-se oficina com materiais educativos. Participaram 60,4% dos funcionários, aqueles que estavam presentes no dia determinado pela instituição. Quase a totalidade referiu infestação pela ectoparasitose, assim como em seus familiares. A problemática é enfrentada cotidianamente nos CEI (72,1%). Práticas adequadas de enfrentamento ainda são limitadas. Muitos mitos e tabus persistem (piolhos pulam, uso de sal, vinagre e querosene, etc.). As principais dúvidas estão relacionadas ao tratamento, e a maior dificuldade é a falta de colaboração dos pais. Ressalta-se, enfim, necessidade e importância de ações intersetoriais, preventivas e sistemáticas, no ambiente escolar. Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar y analizar los conocimientos y prácticas acerca de la pediculosis que tienen los empleados de los Centros de Educación Infantil (CEI), de las áreas que abarcan dos unidades de Salud de la Familia, Londrina, Paraná. Se trata de un estudio descriptivo transv [...] ersal. Se aplicó un formulario con preguntas acerca de mitos y tabúes, prácticas, dudas y dificultades para poner fin a la infestación de piojos en ocho CEI. Posteriormente, se realizó un taller con materiales educativos. Participó el 60,4% de los empleados, los que estaban presentes en el día determinado por la institución. Casi todos reportaron la infestación parasitaria, así como en sus familias. El problema es enfrentado diariamente en los CEI (72,1%). Prácticas adecuadas para hacer frente as este problema aún son limitadas. Persisten muchos mitos y tabúes (que los piojos saltan, el uso de la sal, del vinagre y de la parafina, etc.) Las principales dudas se relacionan con el tratamiento y la mayor dificultad que se presenta es la falta de cooperación de los padres. Por último, cabe señalar la necesidad y la importancia de que se implementen acciones intersectoriales, preventivas y sistemáticas en el ambiente escolar. Abstract in english This study aimed to identify and analyze knowledge and practices, about pediculosis, from employees at Child Day Care Centers at two areas of coverage of the Family Health Units, Londrina, Paraná. It's descriptive transversal study. Form was applied with questions about myths, taboos, practices, dou [...] bts and difficulties in stopping the infestation of pediculosis in eight Child Day Care Centers. Subsequently, workshop was held with educational materials. 60.4% of employees participated, those who were present on the day determined by the institution. Almost all indicated the ectoparasitic infestation, as well as their families. The problem is faced daily in Child Day Care Centers (72.1%). Practice appropriate care is still limited. Many myths and taboos persist (lice jump, use salt, vinegar and kerosene, etc). The main questions are related to treatment and the greatest difficulty is the lack of cooperation from parents. It emphasizes, finally, the need and the importance of internal actions, preventive and systematic in the school environment.
Rhodes, Carl; Garrick, John
Analysis of management discourses, especially project-based learning and knowledge management, indicates that such terms as human capital, working knowledge, and knowledge assets construe managerial workers as cogito-economic subjects. Although workplace learning should develop economically related capabilities, such discourses imply that these…
Cowley-Durst, Barbara; Christensen, Hal D.; Degler, Duane; Weidner, Douglas; Feldstein, Michael
Five knowledge management (KM) experts discuss answers to six fundamental issues of KM that address: a definition of knowledge and KM; relationship between business and KM; whether technology has helped the knowledge worker; relationship between learning, performance, knowledge, and community; the promise of knowledge ecology or ecosystem and…
Several technologies are emerging that provide new ways to capture, store, present and use knowledge. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive introduction to five of the most important of these technologies: Knowledge Engineering, Knowledge Based Engineering, Knowledge Webs, Ontologies and Semantic Webs. For each of these, answers are given to a number of key questions (What is it? How does it operate? How is a system developed? What can it be used for? What tools ...
Full text: In his letter published in the previous issue of the Journal (pages 71-2), Barrie Skelcher recognises the fact that radiation workers are not a true cross section of the general population because they are selected, and that they have to pass a medical examination. He then infers, despite his own experience of staff recruitment, that it is the medical examination that is responsible 'for weeding out those unfortunate enough to die of cancer in the coming decades'. Typically, the reject percentage from pre-medicals is between 1% and 5%. Thus, in a statistical sense, rejection on medical grounds is unusual, and this concurs with the experience of Barrie Skelcher. One would be rightly sceptical that this in itself could be the explanation for the 'healthy worker effect' so often cited. Though Barrie Skelcher mentions selection he does not consider this aspect further. Three different aspects of the selection process may be considered: (i) self-selection by the employee to apply for work; (ii) employer selection of those that apply; and (iii) selection out of work. An individual will apply for a job that he or she is physically capable of pursuing. As William Ogle observed in 1885, 'Some occupations may repel, while others attract, the unfit at the age of starting work.' Radiation work may repel the unfit; those that apply to work in this industry are self-selected fit. The employer then selects from this self-selected pool of potential recruits. This selection process includes the pre-medical. However, as the pool of recruits are already self-selected fit, the reject percentage is small. Having been selected into the workforce, there is then a selection process that removes people from the workforce. Whilst in employment, the occupational health departments monitor the employees' health. If an individual's health has deteriorated then 'those occupations that attract the unfit' may appear attractive. Others may take ill-health retirement. Workers that remain in employment tend to be healthier than those that leave. The occupational health departments also promote healthy lifestyles. The reduction in the number of cancers and heart diseases may also be a consequence of the effective promotion of these healthy lifestyles (such as encouraging smokers to refrain) to those in employment. In summary, the pre-medical has only a minor effect and the other components of the selection process dominate the 'healthy worker effect'. Assuming that employees are not exposed to health hazards in their working environment then, whilst employees are in employment, they benefit health-wise from employment and this further reinforces the 'healthy worker effect'. (author). Letter-to-the-editor
In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed an...
Hambach, Ramona; Mairiaux, Philippe; François, Guido; Braeckman, Lutgart; Balsat, Alain; Van Hal, Guido; Vandoorne, Chantal; Van Royen, Paul; van Sprundel, Marc
Workers' perceptions with respect to health and safety at work are rarely taken into account when considering the development of prevention programs. The aim of this study was to explore workers' perceptions of chemical risks at the workplace, in order to investigate the prerequisites for a workplace health program. A qualitative study was conducted involving seven focus groups of 5-10 participants (blue-collar workers) each. All groups were homogeneous in terms of sex, work status, language, and company membership. Results showed that several factors have an important influence on workers' perception of chemical risks. Workers assess risks by means of both sensory and empirical diagnosis and are concerned about the long-term health consequences. They perceive the threat of chemical risks as high. Despite this, they are resigned to accepting the risks. Existing formal sources of information are rarely consulted because they are judged to be difficult to understand and not user friendly. Instead, workers tend to obtain information from informal sources. Communication problems with and lack of trust in prevention advisers and hierarchy are frequently mentioned. Workers feel that their specific knowledge of their working conditions and their proposals for practical, cost-effective solutions to improve health and safety at the workplace are insufficiently taken into account. The use of focus groups yielded a useful insight into workers' perceptions of chemical risks. Our findings suggest that training programs for prevention advisers should include topics such as understanding of workers' perceptions, usefulness of a participatory approach, and communication and education skills. PMID:20846168
Os trabalhadores do conhecimento num setor tradicional: o caso dos designers do vestuário / Les travailleurs de la connaissance dans un secteur traditionnel: le cas des designers de vêtements / Knowledge workers in a traditional sector: the case of clothes designers / Los trabajadores del conocimiento en un sector tradicional: el caso de los diseñadores de vestuario
Margarida Ramires, Paulos; António Brandão, Moniz.
Full Text Available A reestruturação do trabalho no setor da indústria, resultante do desenvolvimento da “sociedade do conhecimento”, provocou importantes mudanças nas organizações e nos seus trabalhadores. Um dos principais setores que tem vindo a sofrer alterações bruscas nos últimos anos é o da indústria transformad [...] ora. O subsetor do vestuário foi dos primeiros a utilizar diferentes formas de flexibilidade com o objetivo de se manter competitivo. Este artigo analisa este processo de mudança e os seus efeitos nas “profissões do conhecimento” na indústria, nomeadamente a sua aplicação ao grupo profissional dos designers do vestuário. Para compreender o impacto da reestruturação do trabalho no grupo estudado analisam-se as mudanças que ocorreram nas suas condições de trabalho, qualificações e competências, uso do conhecimento, identidade profissional e trajetórias de carreira. Abstract in spanish La reestructuración del trabajo en el sector de la industria, resultante del desarrollo de la “sociedad del conocimiento”, provocó importantes cambios en las organizaciones y en sus trabajadores. Uno de los principales sectores que han sufrido alteraciones bruscas en los últimos años es el de la ind [...] ustria transformadora. El subsector de vestuario, fue de los primeros en utilizar diferentes formas de flexibilidad con el objetivo de mantenerse competitivo. Éste artículo analiza este proceso de cambio y sus efectos en las “profesiones del conocimiento” en la industria, particularmente a su aplicación al grupo profesional de los diseñadores de vestuario. Para comprender el impacto de la reestructuración del trabajo en el grupo estudiado analizaremos los cambios que ocurrieron en sus condiciones de trabajo, grados de estudio y competencias, uso del conocimiento, identidad profesional y trayectorias de carrera. Abstract in english The restructuring of work in the industrial sector brought about by the development of the “knowledge society” has led important changes in organisations and their workers. The transforming industry is one of the main sectors that have undergone abrupt changes in the last few years. The clothing sub [...] sector was one of the first to use different forms of flexibility in order to remain competitive. This article analyses this change process and its effects on the industry's “knowledge professions”, particularly in terms of its application to the professional group “clothes designers”. In order to understand the impact that the restructuring of their work has had on this group, the authors analyse the changes that have taken place in their working conditions, qualifications and skills, use of knowledge, professional identity and career trajectories.
Conhecimento e atitudes de trabalhadores de um serviço público de emergência sobre adoção de precauções padrão / Knowledge and attitudes of workers from a public emergency service about the adoption of standard precautions / Conocimientos y actitudes de trabajadores de un servicio de emergencia pública en relación con la adopción de precauciones estándar
Maria Henriqueta Rocha Siqueira, Paiva; Adriana Cristina de, Oliveira.
Full Text Available Estudo transversal realizado em um serviço de atendimento pré-hospitalar de Minas Gerais, com o qual se objetivou avaliar a adoção das medidas de precaução, por meio de conhecimento e atitudes da equipe mutiprofissional. Utilizou-se análise univariada e multivariada dos dados. Verificou-se que enfer [...] meiros e condutores apresentaram o maior e o menor nível de conhecimento em relação às precauções padrão, respectivamente. A não adoção das medidas de precaução foi 3,76 (IC 95%: 1,48 - 9,53) vezes maior entre profissionais com idade superior a 31 anos e 6,7 (IC 95%: 1,81 - 24,75) vezes maior entre trabalhadores de unidade de suporte básico. Diante destes resultados, torna-se imprescindível implantar um programa de educação continuada para melhorar o conhecimento do profissional em relação ao controle de infecção e recomendações da biossegurança. Abstract in spanish Estudio transversal, realizado en un servicio de atención pre-hospitalaria de Minas Gerais, cuyo objetivo fue evaluar la adopción de medidas de precaución, por medio del conocimiento y de las actitudes del equipo multiprofesional. Se utilizó el análisis univariada y multivariada de los datos. Se enc [...] ontró que los enfermeros y los conductores han tenido el nivel más alto y el más bajo e conocimiento en relación a las precauciones estándar, respectivamente. La no adopción de medidas de precaución fue de 3,76 (IC 95%: 1,48 a 9,53) veces mayor para los profesionales de 31 años y 6,7 (IC 95%: 1,81 a 24,75) veces superior entre los trabajadores en la unidad de soporte básico. Teniendo en cuenta estos resultados, es esencial establecer un programa de educación continuada para mejorar los conocimientos profesionales en relación con el control de infecciones y las recomendaciones de bioseguridad. Abstract in english The aims of the study were to evaluate the adoption of the precaution measures, assessing knowledge and attitude of multiprofessional team. This is a transversal study, accomplished in an Emergency Medical Service of Minas Gerais. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used. The results showed th [...] at nurses and drivers had the highest and lowest level of knowledge regarding the standard precautions, respectively. The possibility of non-adoption of the precautionary measures was 3.76 (95% CI: 1.48 to 9.53) times higher among professionals aged over 31 years and 6.7 (95% CI: 1.81 to 24,75) times greater among workers in crowded unit of basic support. The conclusion is that is essential to implement strategies in order to improve the professional's knowledge related to infection control and safety recommendations.
Kirkeby, Inge Mette
Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge– including research-based knowledge – do practicing architects make use of when designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners found their primary support in context-dependent knowledge, whereas context-independent knowledge was criticised as being too prescriptive. Further, they tended to ask for assistance from the researcher in person rather than reading research publications. The findings challenge research in two ways – first to produce context-dependent knowledge to structure the first steps of the design process, second to develop new ways to ensure a knowledge flow between research and practice.
Mills, T. David; McAlhaney, John H.
The intent of this paper is to demonstrate an electrical safety program that incorporates all workers into the program, not just the electrical workers. It is largely in response to a paper presented at the 2012 ESW by Lanny Floyd entitled "Facilitating Application of Electrical Safety Best Practices to "Other" Workers" which requested all attendees to review their electrical safety program to assure that non-electrical workers were protected as well as electrical workers. The referenced paper indicated that roughly 50% of electrical incidents involve workers whose primary function is not electrical in nature. It also encouraged all to "address electrical safety for all workers and not just workers whose job responsibilities involve working on or near energized electrical circuits." In this paper, a program which includes specific briefings to non-electrical workers as well as to workers who may need to perform their normal activities in proximity to energized electrical conductors is presented. The program uses a targeted approach to specific areas such as welding, excavating, rigging, chart reading, switching, cord and plug equipment and several other general areas to point out hazards that may exist and how to avoid them. NFPA 70E-2004 was incorporated into the program several years ago and with it the need to include the "other" workers became apparent. The site experience over the years supports the assertion that about half of the electrical incidents involve non-electrical workers and this prompted us to develop specific briefings to enhance the knowledge of the non-electrical worker regarding safe electrical practices. The promotion of "May is Electrical Safety Month" and the development of informative presentations which are delivered to the general site population as well as electrical workers have greatly improved the hazards awareness status of the general worker on site.
Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.
Okonkwo Kevin O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their peculiar sociocultural background, healthcare workers in sub-Saharan African subcultures may have various conceptions on different aspects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD, such as etiology, treatment and issues of prognosis. These various conceptions, if different from current knowledge in literature about ASD, may negatively influence help-seeking behavior of parents of children with ASD who seek advice and information from the healthcare workers. This study assessed the opinions of healthcare workers in Nigeria on aspects of etiology, treatability and preventability of childhood autism, and relates their opinions to the sociodemographic variables. Methods Healthcare workers working in four tertiary healthcare facilities located in the south-east and south-south regions of Nigeria were interviewed with a sociodemographic questionnaire, personal opinion on etiology, treatability and preventability of childhood autism (POETPCA questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire to assess their knowledge and opinions on various aspects of childhood autism. Results A total of 134 healthcare workers participated in the study. In all, 78 (58.2%, 19 (14.2% and 36 (26.9% of the healthcare workers were of the opinion that the etiology of childhood autism can be explained by natural, preternatural and supernatural causes, respectively. One (0.7% of the healthcare workers was unsure of the explanation of the etiology. Knowledge about childhood autism as measured by scores on the KCAHW questionnaire was the only factor significantly associated with the opinions of the healthcare workers on etiology of childhood autism. In all, 73 (54.5% and 43 (32.1%, of the healthcare workers subscribed to the opinion that childhood autism is treatable and preventable respectively. Previous involvement with managing children with ASD significantly influenced the opinion of the healthcare workers in subscribing to treatability of childhood autism, while working experience of less than 6 years among the healthcare workers significantly influenced the opinion of the healthcare workers in admitting to believing in the preventability of childhood autism. Conclusion In designing policies and programs to change negative opinions or beliefs of healthcare workers about childhood autism, there is a need for baseline information such as this survey. Changing the negative opinions or beliefs of the healthcare workers about childhood autism should encourage appropriate help-seeking behavior among parents of children with ASD who may be seeking advice or information from the healthcare workers. This would encourage early interventions, which are essential to prognosis of childhood autism.
Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)
The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.
In this paper we propose a novel approach aimed at building a new class of information system platforms which we call the "Knowledge-work Support Systems" or KwSS. KwSS can play a significant role in enhancing the IS support for knowledge management processes, including those customarily identified as less amenable to IS support. In our approach we try to enhance basic functionalities provided by the computer-based information systems, namely, that of improving the efficiency of the knowledge workers in accessing, processing and creating useful information. The improvement, along with proper focus on cultural, social and other aspects of the knowledge management processes, can enhance the workers' efficiency significantly in performing high quality knowledge works. In order to build the proposed approach, we develop several new concepts. The approach analyzes the information availability and usage from the knowledge workers and their works' perspectives and consequently brings forth more transparency in vario...
Jorgana Fernanda Soares
Full Text Available Worker’s Health, a new field in Public Health, requires professionals capable of dealing with the hazards workers are exposed to in their environment. These professionals in the health area, mainly nurses, need to understand the meaning of the concept of hazard to the worker’s health. An interdisciplinary work with the workers may effectively change the work and health conditions of the Brazilian people. Therefore, this paper aims at providing better understanding of the concept of hazard to the worker’s health for professionals in health, mainly for nurses. This is done through a literature review based on all journals on health published in the Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO Brazil and some books whose authors approach the theme hazard. A hazard is something uncertain, a possibility, a socio-historical construct, thus, it is fundamental that professionals in health, including nurses, know what a hazard to workers’ health is and how it can be minimized.
Full Text Available A domestic worker is a person who works within the employer's household. Domestic workers perform a variety of household services for an individual or a family, from providing care for children and elderly dependents to cleaning and household maintenance, known as housekeeping. Responsibilities may also include cooking, doing laundry and ironing, food shopping and other household errands. Some domestic workers live within the household where they work. In the course of twentieth-century movements for labour rights, women's rights and immigrant rights, the conditions faced by domestic workers and the problems specific to their class of employment have come to the fore. In 2011, the International Labour Organization adopted the Convention Concerning Decent Work for Domestic Workers which covers decent work conditions for domestic workers.
Dijkstra, M.B.; van Zweden, J.S.
Nonreproductive workers of many eusocial Hymenoptera 'police' the colony, that is, they attack reproductive sister workers or destroy their eggs (unfertilized; developing into haploid males). Several ultimate causes of policing have been proposed, including (1) an increase in colony productivity, applicable if reproductive workers work less, or (2) an increase in worker-to-male relatedness, applicable if within-colony relatedness is low. To explain the distribution of policing across taxa, the explanatory power of these and other potential ultimate causes should be assessed separately. One of the few species for which this can be done is the leafcutter ant Acromyrmex echinatior. We previously demonstrated that colony productivity incentives (and sex ratio incentives) are minimal here, while relatedness incentives are strong because queens are highly multiply mated. Overcoming technical difficulties peculiar to leafcutter ants, we introduced reproductive versus nonreproductive workers and batches of queen-laidversus worker-laid eggs into experimental colony fragments and observed their fate. Our main finding was that workers policed by selectively destroying worker-laid eggs, but without attacking reproductive workers. We infer that relatedness incentives are the most likely ultimate cause of the evolutionary maintenance of worker-egg policing in A. echinatior. (C) 2010 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
Davis, Adam Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
The Worker Safety and Security Team (WSST) at Los Alamos National Laboratory holds an annual festival, WSST-fest, to engage workers and inform them about safety- and securityrelated matters. As part of the 2015 WSST-fest, workers were given the opportunity to participate in a survey assessing their engagement in their organizations and work environments. A total of 789 workers participated in the 23-question survey where they were also invited, optionally, to identify themselves, their organization, and to give open-ended feedback. The survey consisted of 23 positive statements (i.e. “My organization is a good place to work.”) with which the respondent could express a level of agreement. The text of these statements are provided in Table 1. The level of agreement corresponds to a 5-level Likert scale ranging from “Strongly Disagree” to “Strongly Agree.” In addition to assessing the overall positivity or negativity of the scores, the results were partitioned into several cohorts based on the response meta-data (self-identification, comments, etc.) to explore trends. Survey respondents were presented with the options to identify themselves, their organizations and to provide comments. These options suggested the following questions about the data set.
Ulang N. Md
Full Text Available Construction sector is an important sector and contributed significantly to national development. However, this sector poses higher risk to accident. This is due to fact that construction site can be considered as a dangerous zone to workers and to the public. Due to the variety of cases occurs on site, the contractor will usually have to pay the cost related to accidents in the form of higher insurance premium. Despite various measures, accidents still occur at construction sites. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE is one of the important means to protect the wearer from hazards in the workplace. Since this equipment is the last frontier of the wearer from worksite hazards, it is important to select it based on the job scope and the intended protection. Therefore, this study was formulated to find out the level of knowledge and awareness of construction workers on PPE usage. It was also important to know what make the workers would want or do not want to use the PPE. It was found in this study that the level of awareness and knowledge among workers on the proper use of PPE is moderate. Construction sites accident can be further be reduced with proper implementation of PPE voluntarily by all workers.
Preventing the loss of nuclear knowledge has become an important concern for the atomic energy industry. A great number of nuclear workers are getting close to the retirement age and there are not enough young qualified people to replace them. It is necessary to identify the key skills to replace senior engineers, managers and experienced workers. This paper proposes a matrix for capturing the strategic nuclear knowledge obtained from plants operation in the past decades. (author)
Judith A. Holton, Ph.D.
Full Text Available Through the basic social structural process of fluctuating support networks, knowledge workers self-organise to overcome the dehumanising impact of a rapidly changing workplace context. Such networks operate outside the formal organisation. They are epiphenomenal – self-emerging, self-organising, and selfsustaining. Participation is voluntary and intuitive. The growth of fluctuating support networks facilitates a rehumanising process which serves to counterbalance the dehumanisation that knowledge workers experience in the face of persistent and unpredictable change.
This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance.
This Handbook describes an implementation process for core training as recommended in Implementation Guide G441.12, Radiation Safety Training, and as outlined in the DOE Radiological Control Standard (RCS). The Handbook is meant to assist those individuals within the Department of Energy, Managing and Operating contractors, and Managing and Integrating contractors identified as having responsibility for implementing core training recommended by the RCS. This training is intended for radiological workers to assist in meeting their job-specific training requirements of 10 CFR 835. While this Handbook addresses many requirements of 10 CFR 835 Subpart J, it must be supplemented with facility-specific information to achieve full compliance
Adamchik, Vera A.; Brada, Josef C.; King, Arthur E.
We examine the extent to which workers in transition and developed market economies are able to obtain wages that fully reflect their skills and labor force characteristics. We find that workers in two transition economies, the Czech Republic and Poland, are able to better attain the maximum wage available than are workers in a sample of developed market economies. This greater wage-setting efficiency in the transition economies ap-pears to be more the result of social and demographic charact...
Boice, J. D.; Marano, D. E.; Fryzek, J. P.; Sadler, C J; McLaughlin, J K
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of cancer and other diseases among workers engaged in aircraft manufacturing and potentially exposed to compounds containing chromate, trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and mixed solvents. METHODS: A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted of workers employed for at least 1 year at a large aircraft manufacturing facility in California on or after 1 January 1960. The mortality experience of these workers was determined by examin...
Visser, E-J.; Dijk, M.P. van
This dossier deals with the impact of economic globalisation on workers, especially in developing nations: their employment opportunities, wage income, job security and other aspects of decent work (ILO 1999, 2002). This is a highly relevant theme. Not only do workers in the EU, the United States and other prosperous parts of the world fear the low wages in Asian and Eastern European economies, but workers in developing and transition countries also fear losing t...
An increased risk for coronary heart disease among shift workers is earlier shown in the epidemiological literature. The aim of this thesis has been to penetrate metabolic disturbances and obesity among shift workers compared to day workers, and to compare if there are differences in total mortality or cause specific mortality of coronary heart disease (CHD), diabetes or ischaemic stroke in between the two groups. In an intervention study on female nurses (N=11), on night schedules in Umeå ho...
A paper on "Violence against Women Migrant Workers in Thailand" will show the situation of women migrant workers in Thailand, why they have to come to Thailand, what kind of job they do, how they are abused and exploited by employer in many types of violence and how the Thai government manages to solve the problems and assist them. The term or definition of "violence against women-VAW" and "discrimination against women" is provided and based on the definition stated in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Readers will see that violence against women is a form of discrimination committed on a basis of sex. In other words, VAW is a clear violation of women's inherent human rights including the rights to life, liberty, and security of person, equality, equal protection under the law and freedom from all forms of discrimination. More than one hundred thousands of women illegal migrant workers work in Thailand. They come from countries in the Mekong Sub-region namely Myanmar Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and China (Yunnan province). As they come illegally and have low level of education and working skills, they are vulnerable to exploitation, abuse or face violence. In general, they work in small factories, domestic work and restaurant. They are forced begging, forced prostitution or work in a slavery-like condition. Root causes of illegal migration and VAW are interrelated and occur in both sending and receiving countries of migrant workers. Poverty, demand and supply sides of labor, level of education, no knowledge of their own rights, impact of capitalism and gender issues, are mentioned as original factors of migration and VAW. The Thai government has national policy, plan, instrument and measures to cope with in- migration of illegal workers. Not only government agencies are active to solve the problems and assist the women migrant workers, but also non-government and international organizations as well as the UN agencies are working seriously to assist them and protect their rights. PMID:21218599
Manthorpe, Jill; Martineau, Stephen; Moriarty, Jo; Hussein, Shereen; Stevens, Martin
This paper reports the findings of a scoping study designed to describe the evidence base with regard to support workers in social care in the United Kingdom and to identify gaps in knowledge. Multiple bibliographic databases were searched for studies published since 2003. The results revealed that the support worker role, though not well-defined, could be characterised as one aimed at fostering independence among service users, undertaking tasks across social and health-care, and not being trained in, or a member of, a specific profession. The studies identified were predominantly small-scale qualitative projects which considered issues such as role clarity, training and pay, worker satisfaction, service user views and the amount of time support workers are able to spend with service users compared to other staff. The review concluded that the research base lacks longitudinal studies, there is definitional confusion and imprecision, and there is limited evidence about employment terms and conditions for support workers or about their accountability and performance. The desirability and value of training and how it is resourced need further analysis. It is concluded that moves to self-directed support or personalisation and the increased reliance on and use of support workers, in the form of personal assistants, call for closer scrutiny of the role. PMID:20345887
Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina; Elbez-Uzan, Joelle; Alejaldre, Carlos
Fusion machines from all over the world have contributed to the knowledge accumulated in fusion science. This knowledge has been applied to design new experimental fusion machines and in particular ITER. Only two fusion devices based on magnetic confinement have used deuterium and tritium fuels to-date-the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor, TFTR, in Princeton, USA, and JET, the European tokamak. These machines have demonstrated that the fusion reaction is achievable with these fuels, and have provided valuable lessons on radioprotection-related issues as concerns tritium and workers. Dedicated tritium installations for fusion research and development have also contributed to this knowledge base. PMID:19690360
From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify the design, OSS was able to develop and successfully test, in both the lab and in the field, a prototype AWPS. They clearly demonstrated that a system which provides cooling can significantly increase worker productivity by extending the time they can function in a protective garment. They were also able to develop mature outer garment and LCG designs that provide considerable benefits over current protective equipment, such as self donning and doffing, better visibility, and machine washable. A thorough discussion of the activities performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 is presented in the AWPS Final Report. The report also describes the current system design, outlines the steps needed to certify the AWPS, discusses the technical and programmatic issues that prevented the system from being certified, and presents conclusions and recommendations based upon the seven year effort
From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify the design, OSS was able to develop and successfully test, in both the lab and in the field, a prototype AWPS. They clearly demonstrated that a system which provides cooling can significantly increase worker productivity by extending the time they can function in a protective garment. They were also able to develop mature outer garment and LCG designs that provide considerable benefits over current protective equipment, such as self donning and doffing, better visibility, and machine washable. A thorough discussion of the activities performed during Phase 1 and Phase 2 is presented in the AWPS Final Report. The report also describes the current system design, outlines the steps needed to certify the AWPS, discusses the technical and programmatic issues that prevented the system from being certified, and presents conclusions and recommendations based upon the seven year effort.
Sunal, Ayda Buyuksahin; Sunal, Onur; Yasin, Fatma
The purpose of this study is to compare job satisfaction, perception of job risk, stress symptoms and vulnerability to stress of miners, dock workers, jean sandblasting workers and factory workers. A job satisfaction scale and stress audit scale were applied to 220 workers. Results revealed that dock and jean sandblasting workers perceived their…
Walker, D L
Designing a physician incentive compensation plan that aligns the demands of managed care with the perceived fairness of income distribution is a key challenge for medical practices today. Rather than focus on traditional productivity measures, managed care requires physicians to demonstrate efficient practice of medicine. Physicians still need to be highly productive; however, they are now required to demonstrate efficiency related to clinical resource management, patient access and service, and evidence-based outcomes. Approaches to the development of physician incentive compensation plans and case examples are offered to assist practices that are transitioning physician compensation from volume-based to efficiency-based indicators. PMID:11067093
Foster, K R; Ratnieks, F L; Raybould, A F
Colonies of the European hornet, Vespa crabro, are typically founded by a single queen mated to a single male. From the resulting colony relatedness pattern we predicted strong worker-queen conflict over male production where both the workers and the queen attempt to produce the colony's males. To test for this conflict, male production was studied in 15 hornet nests using a combination of DNA microsatellite analysis (282 males), worker ovary dissections (500 workers from eight nests) and 50 h of observation (four nests). In contrast to our prediction, the data show that hornet males are queens' sons, that workers never attempt to lay eggs, rarely have activated ovaries, and that there is no direct aggression between the queen and the workers. This contrasts with other data for vespine wasps, which support relatedness predictions. Dolichovespula arenaria has the same kin structure as V. crabro and workers produce males in many colonies. The similarity between these two species makes it difficult to explain why workers do not reproduce in V. crabro. Self-restraint is expected if worker reproduction significantly reduces colony productivity but there is no obvious reason why this should be important to V. crabro but not to D. arenaria. Alternatively, queen control may be important. The absence of expressed queen-worker conflict rules out physical control. Indirect pheromonal control is a possibility and is supported by the occurrence of royal courts and queen pheromone in Vespa but not Dolichovespula. Pheromonal queen control is considered evolutionarily unstable, but could result from a queen-worker arms race over reproductive control in which the queen is ahead. The genetic data also revealed diploid males in one colony, the first example in the vespine wasps, and two colonies with double matrilines, suggesting that occasional usurpation by spring queens occurs. PMID:10849289
Full Text Available There is an opinion that Ukrainian workers can be motivated only by money, therefore, money is the most important motivation. However more theorists and practical workers in the sphere of personnel management including V. Sladkevych, E. Utkin, Yu. Domin and others do not agree with this statement, but there are often such situations, when quite high payment level and use of various financial factors practically do not influence on the labour intensity of workers.The reason of dependence decline between a financial reward and labour intensity consists in that the workers differ widely from their attitude and perception of the mentioned type of stimuli. It is marked, that with the growth of financial prosperity, age and education the value of money is diminishing among the motivating factors. Another argument in favour of intangible motivation consists in that many existing necessities of people are met exactly by intangible stimuli. Nowadays in accordance with the specialists’ estimations, the number of workers who prefer the intangible motivation is constantly growing. The response to changes in the structure of reasons lead to the appearance of numerous modern concepts which emphasize the necessity of application of new approaches which increase the social and production activity of workers. To these concepts specialists ascribe the theories of labour life quality, enrichment of labour content, labour humanization, participation of workers.The career planning is considered by many authors as the important factor of motivation. The promotion and knowledge of your growth prospects is a necessity which people aim to meet in the process of labour activity. The feeling of dependence between the level of work efficiency and promotion contributes to the labour activity of workers.
The Internal radiation dosimetry calculations are very important to estimate the benefit and the risk of radiation in nuclear medicine field for both patient and worker. MIRD scheme and ICRP model have valid methods in this type of calculations. In this work, a new program called WIRDST the Workers Internal Radiation Dosimetry Simulation for Thyroid gland has been built up by using the Monte Carlo (MC) method to simulate the internal exposure of sodium iodide by inhalation for workers. The working conditions have been taken as the same as found in the hot laboratory of nuclear medicine unit in the National Cancer Institute in Cairo University. The point source equivalent model as a parameterization equation has developed newly by using the fitting model of MC method for uniform distribution of radioactive sodium iodide in the thyroid gland. This model is used for the first time in this type of calculation, and then applied on 3 D coordinates of mathematical geometry for the adult phantom of the reference man. The latest parameters (anatomical data and inhalation metabolic data) of ICRP pamphlets and recommendations have been used in this purpose. Moreover, the latest scheme for iodine decay mode and the latest geometry model for thyroid gland are used also. The results showed that the specific effective energy and the effective dose decrease from the thyroid gland to the nearest organs then decrease gradually until terminated in the organs that have large distance from the thyroid. The Annual Limit of Intake (ALI) has been calculated for a wide range of thyroid uptake (5%, 15%, 25%, 35%, 45%, and 55%) in addition to change of the working time order per week in one year. The results showed that the critical point of intake limits are decreased when the thyroid uptake is increased and/or the number of working time in the hot laboratory per week is increased
Elaine Drehmer de Almeida Cruz
Full Text Available The carrier state of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is pointed as infection predictor among hospitalized patients, and factor for environmental and person to person dissemination, including health service workers, when colonized are commonly associate to outbreaks1. Prevention of professional colonization risk is associated to behavior and dependent of knowledge and beliefs in health. Objective: analyze the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva of workers of the nursing, medical, physiotherapist, occupational therapist and cleaning teams, at a big university hospital. Method: epidemiologic longitudinal study carried out with 486 workers between April 2006 and June 2008, three saliva samples were collected and a data collection instrument with open and closed questions was applied. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the clinical specimen and characterized by phenotypes; the methicillin-resistant were submitted to mecA gene detection and SCCmec chromosome cassette identification. Quantitative data from the instrument and the laboratory results were organized and processed with EPI-Info software and analyzed by descriptive statistics. Data from the open questions were submitted to quantitative discourse analysis and analyzed according to the categories which emerged from the answer subjects. The ethics principles in research were observed. Results: among the researched workers, 60,9% were colonized by Staphylococcus aureus in saliva, of those 67,9% were transitory carriers and 32,1% persistent carriers; the prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among the isolated was 15,7%. The average prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 12,7% and higher among nurses’ aides (21,4% and cleaning aides (20,6% and lower among nurses (4,5% and doctors (5,9%. The mecA gene was detected in 36,9% of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The most valorized preventive measures were the use of individual protective devices and adoption of basic hygiene and isolation measures. Workers understand their susceptibility to colonization and see it as dependent of their health conditions. The consequences of colonization and the benefits of adopting preventive attitudes were associated to the patient, family and workers themselves; knowledge and working conditions were referred to as the main interventions in adopting control and prevention measures. Conclusions: workers presented high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva, indicating mouth as an important body site to investigate colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and potential source to its dissemination2. The phenotypic profile revealed differences on the antimicrobial sensibility profile between isolated resistant and meticillin-resistant; as well as the multi-resistance of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to the other antimicrobials tested. The study of workers’ knowledge and beliefs allowed a better comprehension of the professional behavior and contributed to the planning of educational actions3;4, targeting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention and control.
Elaine Drehmer de Almeida Cruz
Full Text Available The carrier state of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is pointed as infection predictor among hospitalized patients, and factor for environmental and person to person dissemination, including health service workers, when colonized are commonly associate to outbreaks1. Prevention of professional colonization risk is associated to behavior and dependent of knowledge and beliefs in health. Objective: analyze the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva of workers of the nursing, medical, physiotherapist, occupational therapist and cleaning teams, at a big university hospital. Method: epidemiologic longitudinal study carried out with 486 workers between April 2006 and June 2008, three saliva samples were collected and a data collection instrument with open and closed questions was applied. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from the clinical specimen and characterized by phenotypes; the methicillin-resistant were submitted to mecA gene detection and SCCmec chromosome cassette identification. Quantitative data from the instrument and the laboratory results were organized and processed with EPI-Info software and analyzed by descriptive statistics. Data from the open questions were submitted to quantitative discourse analysis and analyzed according to the categories which emerged from the answer subjects. The ethics principles in research were observed. Results: among the researched workers, 60,9% were colonized by Staphylococcus aureus in saliva, of those 67,9% were transitory carriers and 32,1% persistent carriers; the prevalence of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among the isolated was 15,7%. The average prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was 12,7% and higher among nurses’ aides (21,4% and cleaning aides (20,6% and lower among nurses (4,5% and doctors (5,9%. The mecA gene was detected in 36,9% of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The most valorized preventive measures were the use of individual protective devices and adoption of basic hygiene and isolation measures. Workers understand their susceptibility to colonization and see it as dependent of their health conditions. The consequences of colonization and the benefits of adopting preventive attitudes were associated to the patient, family and workers themselves; knowledge and working conditions were referred to as the main interventions in adopting control and prevention measures. Conclusions: workers presented high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva, indicating mouth as an important body site to investigate colonization by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and potential source to its dissemination2. The phenotypic profile revealed differences on the antimicrobial sensibility profile between isolated resistant and meticillin-resistant; as well as the multi-resistance of the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to the other antimicrobials tested. The study of workers’ knowledge and beliefs allowed a better comprehension of the professional behavior and contributed to the planning of educational actions3;4, targeting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevention and control.
The Personal Radiation Monitoring Service operated by the Australian Radiation Laboratory is outlined and the types of monitors used for assessment of doses received by radiation workers are described. The distribution of doses received by radiation workers in different occupational categories is determined. From these distributions, the average doses received have been assessed and the maximum likely additional increase in cancer deaths in Australia as a result of occupational exposure estimated. This increase is shown to be very small. There is, however, a considerable spread of doses received by individuals within occupational groups
Knowledge Management (KM) is the process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual and knowledge-based assets. Frequently generating value from such assets means sharing them among employees, divisions and even with other companies in order to develop best practices. This article discusses three basic aspects of…
Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Alados, Juan Carlos; Gómez G de la Pedrosa, Elia; Leiva, José; Pérez, José L
The normal activity in the laboratory of microbiology poses different risks - mainly biological - that can affect the health of their workers, visitors and the community. Routine health examinations (surveillance and prevention), individual awareness of self-protection, hazard identification and risk assessment of laboratory procedures, the adoption of appropriate containment measures, and the use of conscientious microbiological techniques allow laboratory to be a safe place, as records of laboratory-acquired infections and accidents show. Training and information are the cornerstones for designing a comprehensive safety plan for the laboratory. In this article, the basic concepts and the theoretical background on laboratory safety are reviewed, including the main legal regulations. Moreover, practical guidelines are presented for each laboratory to design its own safety plan according its own particular characteristics. PMID:25444041
METZLER, WILLIAM H.; SARGENT, FREDERIC O.
A SURVEY ON THE INCOME OF MIGRATORY WORKERS LOCATED IN SOUTH TEXAS DURING THE WINTER OF 1956-57 WAS PRESENTED. IN 446 HOUSEHOLDS SURVEYED, THERE WERE 1,334 WORKERS, APPROXIMATELY HALF OF THESE WERE HOUSEHOLD HEADS OR THEIR WIVES. WORKING WIVES WERE A LITTLE MORE THAN HALF AS NUMEROUS AS WORKING HUSBANDS. MOST OF THE HUSBANDS WERE 45 TO 54 YEARS OF…
Leng, Mary; Potter, Michael
What is the nature of mathematical knowledge? Is it anything like scientific knowledge or is it sui generis? How do we acquire it? Should we believe what mathematicians themselves tell us about it? Are mathematical concepts innate or acquired? Eight new essays offer answers to these and many other questions. - ;What is the nature of mathematical knowledge? Is it anything like scientific knowledge or is it sui generis? How do we acquire it? Should we believe what mathematicians themselves tell us about it? Are mathematical concepts innate or acquired? Eight new essays offer answers to these and many other questions. Written by some of the world''s leading philosophers of mathematics, psychologists, and mathematicians, Mathematical Knowledge gives a lively sense of the. current state of debate in this fascinating field. -
Urbancová, Hana; K?íž, Josef
In the current knowledge economy the workers are the key competitive advantage and their knowledge is the most important asset in the various business processes. If people leave the organization they will take their knowledge with them and it can jeopardize the quality of the processes. This paper focuses on the topic of the ensuring the knowledge continuity as a tool for fluent improvement of processes in organizations. The processes and the areas were identified within the organizatio...
Wilson, G. D. (Gregory D.); Zucker, L. J. (Lauren J.)
When characterizing the reliability of a complex system there are often gaps in the data available for specific subsystems or other factors influencing total system reliability. At Los Alamos National Laboratory we employ ethnographic methods to elicit expert knowledge when traditional data is scarce. Typically, we elicit expert knowledge in probabilistic terms. This paper will explore how we might approach elicitation if methods other than probability (i.e., Dempster-Shafer, or fuzzy sets) prove more useful for quantifying certain types of expert knowledge. Specifically, we will consider if experts have different types of knowledge that may be better characterized in ways other than standard probability theory.
Gerges, David; Sonander, Magnus
Background: Recruitment and development of employees is a large burden for companies in most industries. Because of this, there is a clear organizational imperative to attract and retain knowledge workers since these constitute an important resource, especially for knowledge intensive organizations. A decisive factor for success is thus to retain and develop this vital resource in order to upgrade and sustain competitive advantage. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to investigate what i...
The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997. After excluding current workers, construction workers, and deceased workers, the total estimated number of former workers eligible for screening was 72,611. By September, 2006, 53,010 workers had been contacted, 20,298 responded, 2,835 were eligible and authorized, and 2,773 workers were ultimately screened. The cohort was 80% male, 85% white, and had a mean age of 63 years (range 24-96 years) at the time of first exam. Participants completed an occupational health history survey prior to the medical exam. Former Hanford workers were considered eligible for an exam if they reported exposure to asbestos, beryllium, or noise, or if a review of their Hanford work history indicated possible or probable exposure to one of these three hazards. We also invited any former Hanford worker who requested an exam to participate, regardless of documentation of exposure. The screening exam included a problem-focused physical exam, along with screening tests for one or more of three specific medical conditions: asbestosis (chest X-ray and spirometry), berylliosis (chest X-ray, spirometry, and beryllium-induced lymphocyte proliferation test), and NIHL (audiometry). We assisted ill workers in filing appropriate workers’ compensation claims, and facilitated appropriate follow-up medical care. This program has made an important contribution to the health of former DOE contractor workers at the Hanford defense nuclear site.
Reza Rostami; Zahra Zamanian; Jafar Hasanzadeh
Improvements in knowledge as well as technology andindustrial workers’ exposure to adverse factors have caused more attention tobe paid to the workers’ occupational health. According to the report by W.H.O.,noise, as one of the most important physical factors of workplace, causes 4million dollars health damage every day. Noise can also reduce the workers’morale as well as motivation and, consequently, have negative effects on theirperformance. Considering the importance of occupational health...
Martinez, Anthony Bert [Los Alamos National Laboratory
People are experts when it comes to the work they do; unfortunately their expertise is not utilized as frequently as it could be. More opportunities need to be provided that allow people to participate in the design of their work including: accident investigations, job planning, and process improvements. Many employers use some form of job hazard analysis process to identify and document hazards and controls, but the front line worker is rarely involved. This presentation will show the core principles supporting employee involvement, provide examples where workers had brilliant ideas but no one listened, and provide examples where workers were given the opportunity to use their expertise to improve occupational safety. According to Abraham Maslow's Hierarch of Needs model, one essential human need is to be innovative and solve problems. Advances in brain science have proven, through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, the brain reward pathway is activated when people are recognized for their intellectual contributions. As people contribute their expertise to improve occupational safety more frequently they will feel a sense of gratification. In addition, safety professionals will have more time to spend on strategic planning of emerging occupational safety issues. One effect of the current global recession is that SH&E professionals are asked to do more with less. Therefore, to be successful it is essential that SH&E professionals incorporate worker expertise in job planning. This will be illustrated in the presentation through an example where a worker had the answer to a difficult decision on appropriate personal protective equipment for a job but no one asked the worker for his idea during the job planning phase. Fortunately the worker was eventually consulted and his recommendation for the appropriate personal protective equipment for the job was implemented before work began. The goal of this presentation is to expand the awareness and knowledge of SH&E professionals on the benefits and opportunities for leveraging brain science. This will include an overview of the components of the brain reward pathway and the biological mechanisms that make workers feel a sense of gratification when they contribute their ideas toward improving occupational safety. On-the-job examples where it is hypothesized that the brain reward pathway was activated in workers will be provided. Finally, the presentation will include a model illustrating the importance of empowering workers to participate in occupational safety programs. SH&E professionals can use this model to maintain a robust safety and health program with limited resources. The model will also help SH&E professionals prepare for challenges in the SH&E fields by showing them how to allocate more time for strategic planning of emerging issues. Many recent best selling business books such as Wikinomics, Crowdsourcing, and Sway, illustrate how the benefit of harnessing the collective knowledge of employees is a key to company success. Companies like Google and Pixar have mastered the ability to capture empFoyee knowledge in terms of technology. Why should occupational safety be any different? Workers know how to improve safety in their workplace. SH&E professionals can harness this collective safety knowledge just as top companies do with technology, and workers will feel grateful for contributing.
In Germany a new standard has been defined for the monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to radioactive material. The German government adopted three guidelines which define general rules for the monitoring of exposures, regulate the assessment of exposures by incorporated radiation emitters and set the requirements measuring laboratories have to fulfill. The purpose of the approach was to establish a consistent system, that 1. defines clear criteria for the necessity of routine and special monitoring programs, 2. ensures that dose assessments are as reliable as necessary, 3. standardizes as far as possible the procedures of dose assessments, and 4. guarantees the necessary quality standards. In accordance with the underlying Radiation Protection Ordinance the scientific basis of this regulatory system is formed by the publications 30, 48 and 54 of ICRP, but the structure easily allows the adoption of more recent knowledge. (orig.)
The semestral statistical results, according to the ESOREX evaluation model, regarding the collective professional exposure, for the years 2009 and 2010, are presented in the paper. The individual monitoring is accomplished by the Laboratory for Personnel and Environment Dosimetry. The measurements are performed with two parallel dosimetric systems: thermoluminescent and dosimetric film based detectors, or with one of them. The surveyed workers are from IFIN-HH and from external units. When both dosimetric systems were used in parallel, the results are comparable. For the units using a single dosimeter, the semestral survey obtained result is: for 90% of workers, the dose equivalent Hp (10) was within the interval 0.5 - 1.0 mSv, with a value of collective dose of (160-180) mSv. For the remaining 10% of workers, a relatively uniform distribution was found. (authors)
Robinson, James P; Glass, Lee S
Physicians who treat injured workers with painful conditions face complex challenges that require skills beyond those of a clinician. To address these challenges effectively, physicians need to understand the logic of workers' compensation systems and the interests of the various participants in the systems. They must be prepared to interface constructively between their patients and the workers' compensation carrier and attend to a multitude of administrative issues. In the present article, the authors provide an extended case history with commentary to illustrate the challenges that physicians face and the ways they can respond to these challenges. PMID:25952072
Zuskin, E; Skuri?, Z
Respiratory function was studied in five groups of tea workers employed in processing different types of tea. The prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms was significantly higher in workers processing dog-rose, sage, and gruzyan tea than in control workers. During the Monday workshift there was a significant mean acute decrease in maximum expiratory flow rates at 50% vital capacity (range: 4.1-8.8%) and at 25% VC (range: 7.8-21.8%) except in those exposed to camomile. Acute redu...
Swapan Kumar Roy
Full Text Available Research on biosecurity of poultry workers of Live Bird Market (LBM in urban and rural areas related to highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI was undertaken during March-June, 2014 at Keshabpur upazila (22°48´-22°57´N latitude and 89°06´-89°22´E longitude, Jessore, Bangladesh. A non-randomized (purposive sampling method was applied and a descriptive type of cross sectional study was performed among 72 workers, dividing them into two groups as 36 urban and 36 rural poultry workers of LBM through split-halves variation technique. They were interviewed confidentially in their work place using a structured pretested questionnaire. Among respondents 53%, 75%, 45%, 81%, and 56% of urban and 50%, 42%, 50%, 89%, and 36% of rural residence had attended up to primary school, knowledge about AI through media like TV and radio, used proper personal protective equipment as mask and gloves, washed their hands and equipment after finishing work and cleaned stalls/cages daily and mostly they used water as a cleaning material, respectively. In urban (14% and rural (36% workers used the same vehicle to transport poultry and humans. A combined effort is required to enhance knowledge and change behavior among those most at risk in low-income countries and precautions necessary to avoid spreading the virus among poultry and humans.
Hassan, Moshood Ayinde
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which workers patronize distance learning approach to further their education. Other purposes include: determine problems facing workers in the process of improving their knowledge and skills through distance learning approach; establish the level of attainment of manpower development objectives of Adekunle Ajasin University Akungba-Akoko and Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, both in Ondo State, Nigeria; and find out the relationship between manpower development and job performance effectiveness of workers in both institutions. Survey research was used in order to carry out the study. One hundred and seventy five (175 respondents were selected from Adekunle Ajasin University. However, one hundred and ninety five (195 respondents came from Rufus Giwa Polytechnic. Four (4 research questions were generated from the literature review. Questionnaire items on manpower development through distance education and the responses elicited from respondents were numerically quantified, tabulated and analyzed using Likert scale and percentage. The analyses showed that: opportunity for training and development was given to all workers in both institutions; most Nigerian Universities do not provide distance learning programmes to citizens; respondents of both institutions reported occasional frustration from colleagues and management in a bid to pursue further education; respondents in the two institutions held that the objectives of floating manpower development for workers were achieved; and they reported that there was relationship between acquisition of manpower development and job performance at workplace. Based on the findings, it is recommended that workers should be encouraged to patronize distance learning system to further their education; information and communication technology should form part of manpower development programmes in tertiary institutions; and workers who have stayed long away from classroom should be properly counseled whenever they are on for further studies.
Igarashi, Yu; Mori, Koji
Various types of disasters, such as natural disasters, industrial accidents and crimes, often occur in the workplace and many workers are involved in them. They are not only directly injured but also exposed to health hazards, such as terrible experiences and chemical materials. Occupational health specialists are expected to act to minimize the adverse health effects from them speedily and appropriately. It is assumed that learning from past cases is effective for such occupational health activities. Accordingly, we conducted a literature review about the health effects on workers in disasters. Relevant literature was searched in PubMed. Twenty four studies were extracted by our criteria. In this review, subjects were limited to general workers by excluding professional workers, such as emergency services and firefighters. The health effects were examined as follows: mental health (13 articles), respiratory (5), cardiovascular (2), musculoskeletal (1), skin (1), nervous (1), and general (1). It was obvious that few studies on general workers were published when considering large number of disasters in the past. Factors that affect health outcomes were categorized into ? those related to devastation of environment of work and life due to disaster, and ? those related to health hazards due to disasters. Knowledge from the review will support the activities of occupational health specialists during disasters, but additional studies are needed. PMID:26370044
Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, from the current study, of how systems theory can be applied in order to analyse interviews. Using a difference-theoretical approach means looking at the distinctions the informants make when talking about their experiences. These main guiding distinctions can be summarised as immigrant background/competence as well as advantage/competence. Using the guiding distinction of inclusion/exclusion when interpreting the interviewees’ statements, the interdependencies of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in newsrooms related to ethnic background can be examined.
Muniz, Andrew Everardo
Higher education institutions (HEIs) could be among organizations without effective programs for preserving tacit knowledge (TK) when knowledge workers retire, quit, take a leave of absence, or are terminated. The theoretical underpinnings of this study were neuroscience related to brain learning physiology, transformational leadership theory,…
This report presents the contribution of CEPN (study center on protection evaluation in nuclear area) to the Days of the French Radiation Protection Society (SFRP) on optimization of workers radiation protection in electronuclear, industrial and medical areas
... Home Recommended Vaccines for Adults Share Compartir Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers On this Page Published Recommendations ... that could spread infection, you should get appropriate vaccines to reduce the chance that you will get ...
Muhammad Haroon SIDDIQUE
Full Text Available NGOs came into the society in their present form after World War II and more precisely in 1960s. Before that also different forms of philanthropy existed. Like elsewhere in the world, in Pakistan also state and the market were the two sectors catering for different needs of the people. When foreign funding started coming into the poor countries, the channel of NGOs was considered more appropriate including the fact they had roots in the society and the benefit could reach the far flung areas. NGO field workers are the real actors in the NGOs’ activities but sadly the NGOs those raise the slogans of working for the destitute do not bother to facilitate the NGO field workers. Eventually the NGO field workers are facing problems of job insecurity, poor salary structure, unhealthy working environment and even harassment especially in case of women NGO field workers in Pakistan
The International Labour Organization is concerned with three types of education: vocational training, management training, and workers' education. The last, which is the focus of the article, is concerned solely with social matters. (MS)
Modificación de conocimientos sobre medio ambiente en jóvenes del Laboratorio de Anticuerpos y Biomodelos Experimentales Modification to knowledge of environment in young people from Laboratory of Antibodies and Experimental Biomodels
Rosa Iris García Céspedes
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de intervención educativa para modificar los conocimientos sobre la conservación del medioambiente en 16 jóvenes del Laboratorio de Anticuerpos y Biomodelos Experimentales de Santiago de Cuba, seleccionados mediante un muestreo aleatorio simple desde abril hasta junio del 2008. Para lograr ese objetivo, la población escogida participó en un programa de clases con 4 sesiones de trabajo, luego de las cuales se comprobó que la insuficiente o errónea información que poseían sobre la necesidad de cuidar responsablemente el entorno por su influencia sobre la salud y calidad de vida, fue modificada favorablemente mediante técnicas participativas y discusiones grupales, de modo que hubo una gran diferencia entre lo que sabían antes del estudio y lo que aprendieron en favor del ambiente después de su ejecución.A study on educational intervention was conducted to modify the knowledge of the environment conservation in 16 young people from Laboratory of Antibodies and Experimental Biomodels in Santiago de Cuba, selected by means of a simple random sampling from April to June, 2008. To achieve that goal the chosen population participated in a program of classes with 4 working sessions, after which it was verified that their inadequate or erroneous information about the necessity of taking care of the environment responsibly because of its influence on the health and quality of life, was modified favorably by means of participatory techniques and group discussions, so that there was a great difference between what they knew before the study and what they learned in favor of the enviroment after it.
Modificación de conocimientos sobre medio ambiente en jóvenes del Laboratorio de Anticuerpos y Biomodelos Experimentales / Modification to knowledge of environment in young people from Laboratory of Antibodies and Experimental Biomodels
Rosa Iris, García Céspedes; Yaimarelis, Saumell Nápoles; Maria Eugenia, García Céspedes; Osmany, Harteman Ávila.
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de intervención educativa para modificar los conocimientos sobre la conservación del medioambiente en 16 jóvenes del Laboratorio de Anticuerpos y Biomodelos Experimentales de Santiago de Cuba, seleccionados mediante un muestreo aleatorio simple desde abril hasta junio del 2008. [...] Para lograr ese objetivo, la población escogida participó en un programa de clases con 4 sesiones de trabajo, luego de las cuales se comprobó que la insuficiente o errónea información que poseían sobre la necesidad de cuidar responsablemente el entorno por su influencia sobre la salud y calidad de vida, fue modificada favorablemente mediante técnicas participativas y discusiones grupales, de modo que hubo una gran diferencia entre lo que sabían antes del estudio y lo que aprendieron en favor del ambiente después de su ejecución. Abstract in english A study on educational intervention was conducted to modify the knowledge of the environment conservation in 16 young people from Laboratory of Antibodies and Experimental Biomodels in Santiago de Cuba, selected by means of a simple random sampling from April to June, 2008. To achieve that goal the [...] chosen population participated in a program of classes with 4 working sessions, after which it was verified that their inadequate or erroneous information about the necessity of taking care of the environment responsibly because of its influence on the health and quality of life, was modified favorably by means of participatory techniques and group discussions, so that there was a great difference between what they knew before the study and what they learned in favor of the enviroment after it.
Gersbach, Hans; Schmutzler, Armin
We examine how globalization affects firms incentives to train workers. In our model, firms invest in productivity-enhancing worker training before Cournot competition takes place. When two separated product markets become integrated and are thus replaced with a market with greater demand and greater firm number, training by each firm increases provided the two countries are sufficiently small. When barriers between large markets are eliminated, training is reduced. Similar results hold when ...
Sepkowitz, Kent A.; EISENBERG, LEON
Recent experiences with severe acute respiratory syndrome and the US smallpox vaccination program have demonstrated the vulnerability of healthcare workers to occupationally acquired infectious diseases. However, despite acknowledgment of risk, the occupational death rate for healthcare workers is unknown. In contrast, the death rate for other professions with occupational risk, such as police officer or firefighter, has been well defined. With available information from federal sources and c...
Bryson, Alex; Clark, Andrew E.; Richard B. Freeman; Green, Colin P.
We show that worker wellbeing is not only related to the amount of compensation workers receive but also how they receive it. While previous theoretical and empirical work has often been pre-occupied with individual performance-related pay, we here demonstrate a robust positive link between the receipt of a range of group performance schemes (profit shares, group bonuses and share ownership) and job satisfaction. Critically, this relationship remains after conditioning on wage levels, which s...
Sherertz, R J; Bassetti, S; Bassetti-Wyss, B.
Certain bacteria dispersed by health-care workers can cause hospital infections. Asymptomatic health-care workers colonized rectally, vaginally, or on the skin with group A streptococci have caused outbreaks of surgical site infection by airborne dispersal. Outbreaks have been associated with skin colonization or viral upper respiratory tract infection in a phenomenon of airborne dispersal of Staphylococcus aureus called the "cloud" phenomenon. This review summarizes the data supporting the e...
Hanke, W; Sepulveda, M J; Watson, A.; Jankovic, J
Medical and environmental surveys were conducted at a wollastonite mine and mill in 1976 and in 1982. Health testing included chest radiography, spirometry, and a questionnaire. Workers at a nearby electronics plant were also examined in 1982 for a comparison of lung function and respiratory symptoms. Both wollastonite and control workers showed significant smoking effects for chronic respiratory symptoms, but differences between the groups were not detected. Pneumoconiosis was found in 3% (3...
Liliany S Arifin
The need of factory worker housing cannot be denied during the period of industrialization. In fact, from early 18 century in Europe and at the end of 20 century in Asia, industrialization have been bringing the problem of housing for their workers, but only few attention are given by governments or companies. This study is a secondary study and at the end offers some arguments that can be used as further implication research.
Liliany S Arifin
Full Text Available The need of factory worker housing cannot be denied during the period of industrialization. In fact, from early 18 century in Europe and at the end of 20 century in Asia, industrialization have been bringing the problem of housing for their workers, but only few attention are given by governments or companies. This study is a secondary study and at the end offers some arguments that can be used as further implication research.
Andersen, Lotte BØgh; Kristensen, Nicolai
Command systems are widely used to monitor public service provision, but little is known about unintended effects on individual workers’ motivation and work effort. Using insights from motivation crowding theory, we estimate a SEM model that captures how Danish childcare assistants and social/healthcare assistants perceive documentation requirements. We analyze how this perception relates to intrinsic motivation measured in a survey and sickness absence as reported in administrative registers and find that individuals who perceive documentation requirements as controlling have lower intrinsic motivation and higher sickness absence. The association is statistically significant, but very small in substantive terms. The result is nevertheless consistent with the expectation in motivation crowding theory and contributes to the literature by including a new reliable behavioral variable, sickness absence, and by drawing attention to possible downsides of command-and-control. Even though command systems can also have positive disciplining effects, knowledge about potential drawbacks is important for public managers.
Full Text Available The strategic importance of knowledge in today’s organisation has been discussed extensively and research has looked at various issues in developing knowledge management systems. Both the characterisation of knowledge and alternate models for understanding the acquisition and use of such knowledge have taken on significant prominence. This is due to the complexities associated with acquiring and representing knowledge, and the varied nature of its use in knowledge work. However, the role of the knowledge workers and the processes that guide their knowledge work as they meet the knowledge goals of an organisation have received little attention. This paper proposes a knowledge audit (an assessment of the way knowledge processes meet an organisation’s knowledge goals methodology to understand the “gaps” in the needs of a knowledge worker before one develops KM systems. The methodology also uses “process change” research to help build a socio-technical environment critical for knowledge work. The audit methodology is applied to a particular case and the implementation of the audit recommendations is discussed. Future implications of such an audit are also discussed.
Gandelman, Nestor; Piani, Giorgina
In this paper we use data from a population survey on quality of life dimensions conducted in Uruguay to analyze the self reported well-being among workers and non workers. Along with the literature, we find that the probability of being happy is greater for workers than non-workers. Specifically, we find evidence that workers tend to be more…
Kelen Gabor D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although training and education have long been accepted as integral to disaster preparedness, many currently taught practices are neither evidence-based nor standardized. The need for effective evidence-based disaster training of healthcare staff at all levels, including the development of standards and guidelines for training in the multi-disciplinary health response to major events, has been designated by the disaster response community as a high priority. We describe the application of systematic evidence-based consensus building methods to derive educational competencies and objectives in criteria-based preparedness and response relevant to all hospital healthcare workers. Methods The conceptual development of cross-cutting competencies incorporated current evidence through a systematic consensus building process with the following steps: (1 review of peer-reviewed literature on relevant content areas and educational theory; (2 structured review of existing competencies, national level courses and published training objectives; (3 synthesis of new cross-cutting competencies; (4 expert panel review; (5 refinement of new competencies and; (6 development of testable terminal objectives for each competency using similar processes covering requisite knowledge, attitudes, and skills. Results Seven cross-cutting competencies were developed: (1 Recognize a potential critical event and implement initial actions; (2 Apply the principles of critical event management; (3 Demonstrate critical event safety principles; (4 Understand the institutional emergency operations plan; (5 Demonstrate effective critical event communications; (6 Understand the incident command system and your role in it; (7 Demonstrate the knowledge and skills needed to fulfill your role during a critical event. For each of the cross-cutting competencies, comprehensive terminal objectives are described. Conclusion Cross-cutting competencies and objectives developed through a systematic evidence-based consensus building approach may serve as a foundation for future hospital healthcare worker training and education in disaster preparedness and response.
Ho-Hsing Lin; Chi-Wen Juan; Li-Ya Lin; Chi-Wei Lee; Chien-Jen Huang
Background: In Taiwan, emergency departments are so busy that it is not uncommon for staffs (doctors and nurses) to be deprived of their lunch breaks or breaks to go to the restroom. As a consequence, during their busy shifts some emergency department healthcare workers choose to limit their water intake and no time to micturate which are both risk factors of urinary tract infection or urolithiasis. Hematuria is a common laboratory finding due to urinary tract infection and urolithiasis. Obje...
Okonkwo Kevin O; Eaton Julian; Ebigbo Peter O; Agomoh Ahamefule O; Bakare Muideen; Onwukwe Jojo U; Onyeama Gabriel M
Abstract Background Because of their peculiar sociocultural background, healthcare workers in sub-Saharan African subcultures may have various conceptions on different aspects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), such as etiology, treatment and issues of prognosis. These various conceptions, if different from current knowledge in literature about ASD, may negatively influence help-seeking behavior of parents of children with ASD who seek advice and information from the healthcare workers. This...
Doh Anderson; Boulvain Michel; Tebeu Pierre; Pirek David; McCarey Catherine; Petignat Patrick
Abstract Background Cervical cancer, although largely preventable, remains the most common cause of cancer mortality among women in low-resource countries. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer prevention among Cameroonian healthcare workers. Methods A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire in 5 parts with 46 items regarding cervical cancer etiology and prevention was addressed to healthcare workers in six hospitals of Yaoundé, Cameroon....
Deng Chung-Yeh; Tai Chen-Jei; Daly Maria; Chien Li-Yin
Abstract Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has remained an integral part of Chinese culture and society for thousands of years. In Taiwan TCM is a recognized element of its National Health Insurance Scheme. However, there is no knowledge about how TCM is accessed by foreign workers from a non-Asian cultural background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and patterns of TCM use among non-Asian white-collar workers living in Taiwan, and examine factors l...
Dykeman, Sarah; Williams, Allison
Canada's Compassionate Care Benefit (CCB), an employment insurance program designed to allow Canadian workers time off to care for a dying relative or friend, has had low uptake since its inception. Due to their role in working with family caregivers, social workers are one group of primary health care professionals who have been identified as benefiting from a knowledge translation campaign. Knowledge tools about the CCB have been developed through social worker input in a prior study. This ...
AN INTENSE academic review of knowledge management is provided by this book, covering the nature of knowledge-sharing environments, insights from healthcare workers, and advice on how to initiate and measure knowledge sharing. While many of the contributors are academic leaders in the US, it will translate to the UK and NHS. PMID:25355116
Efi Yuliati Yovi
Full Text Available Timber harvesting activities are unquestionably related with high risk of work accidents and health disorders.Such activities were not only burdened the workers with heavy physical workloads due to uneasy workingenvironment, and massive work materials and tools, but also physiopsychologically burdened workers as theywere imposed with both mechanical and acoustic vibrations (noise produced by the chainsaw. However, it is acommon practice that most of the workers still ignored the importance of the use of noise reduction devices suchas earmuff or ear plug. This study was aimed to reveal the factual effects of noise on work concentration of theworkers to provide a scientific basis in supporting efforts in improving workers’ attitude. The results confirmedthat chainsaw might produce noise during operation. Noise intensities received by both right and left ears werenot significantly different, indicating that left-handed and normal workers received similar degree of noise inboth side of ears. Further, results also showed that there was a significant difference on the perception and workconcentration of chainsaw operators versus sedentary people to the noise. These findings proved that hearingability of chainsaw operators had declined due to frequent noise exposure.Keywords: timber harvesting, physio-psychological disorder, noise, chainsaw
Heide, Mats; Simonsson, Charlotte
The status of co-workers has increased due to the expansion of post-bureaucratic and knowledge-intensive organizations. In organization studies the importance of co-workers has for a rather long time been acknowledged. Remarkably has co-workers more or less been neglected in research as well as in practice within the field of strategic communication. In research the overall focus is mainly on the practice of communication pro-fessionals or at a management or strategic level. In practice many ...
In both the preparation and the application of the recommendations presented by the ICRP one important voice has been absent: that of the workers in the nuclear industry. A large number of specialists are studying their situation from all points of view, in their different capacities as workers, consumers and male or female members of the public, but this extensive study is being done without consulting them, without their opinion even being asked for. The paper discusses such deficiencies, in particular all those aspects which distinguish these recommendations from a legal text. The lack of conciseness in the definition of the limit which the average annual dose to a large group of workers must not exceed (500 mrad) is considered. The possibility of a large number of workers being exposed for a long period is not acceptable if the decision is left to the manager of a nuclear facility alone. Cost-benefit analysis, as it is described in the ICRP text, cannot be considered to provide credible protection from the point of view of workers. Moreover, the various ICRP recommendations fail to mention such important matters as allowance for low-dose effects, disparities in the social security coverage offered to various categories of workers in the event of occupational illness, and the increasing use of migrant workers for difficult decontamination and maitenance tasks. At a time when it is thought that nuclear technology can be standardized, the French Democratic Labour Confederation (CFDT) expresses its fears concerning the practical application of the ICRP recommendations; for example, the text of ICRP Publication 26 has not yet been translated into French, but Euratom has already proposed directives for its application in Member States
Maria Regina Maciel
Full Text Available The farm workers of the sugar cane agroindustry are subject to the social, economic and environmental impacts coming from that plantation, especially by the existing working conditions which fall upon their life quality and health. Using a methodology of qualitative nature, this study aimed to investigate aspects relative to the life, work and health conditions of the temporary worker of the sugar cane agroindustry of Lagoa da Prata, town of Minas Gerais. For the data collection, the semi-structured interview was used, the sample being limited through the informational redundancy criteria and the information were dealt through the Bardin content analysis. The predominance of young and male workers and the presence of migrant workers and recurrent from of other crops were found. Women seem to perform the working activities mostly in the same way that men, logically within their physical limitations. The worker’s purchasing power seems to be insufficient, an evident escape of capitals coming from the sugar-cane cutting with the migrant temporary workers. There was no apparent evidence of expropriation of small farms to the urban area increasing rural exodus. Informal work was present in these worker’s every day, which at the off-season time made use of different opportunities to meet their needs. Although, the workers showed to be aware of the importance of the utilization of the equipment for individual protection, the need of an improved knowledge as far as the health risks and problems to which they were exposed due to their working conditions are concerned was found.
Swart, Juani; Kinnie, Nicholas
Knowledge-intensive firms need to leverage their individual knowledge assets via knowledge sharing to create collective knowledge resources. This process is, however, in the control of the knowledge worker. We explore this personal and emotive quality of knowledge sharing by asking: ‘How does employee commitment impact on knowledge sharing?’ We study professional service firms operating in cross-boundary environments and examine the impact of commitment to the organisation, profession, team and client on knowledge sharing. The article contributes directly to our understanding of the interrelationship between (a) the types and foci of commitment and (b) bidirectional knowledge sharing.
India's National Knowledge Commission (NKC) established by the prime minister is focused on building institutions and infrastructure in Education, Science and Technology, Innovation etc. to meet the challenges of the knowledge economy in the 21st century and increase India's competitive advantage in the global market. India today stands poised to reap the benefits of a rapidly growing economy and a major demographic advantage, with 550 million young people below the age of 25 years, the largest in the world. The NKC is focused on five critical areas of knowledge related to access, concepts, creation, applications and services. This includes a variety of subject areas such as language, translations, libraries, networks, portals, affirmative action, distance learning, intellectual property, Entrepreneurship, application in Agriculture, health, small and medium scale industries, e-governance etc. One of the keys to this effort is to build a national broadband gigabit of networks of 500 nodes to connect universities, Libraries, Laboratories, Hospitals, Agriculture institutions etc. to share resources and collaborate on multidisciplinary activities. This presentation will introduce the NKC, discuss methodology, subject areas, specific recommendation and outline a plan to build knowledge networks and specifics on network architecture, applications, and utilities.
Truss, C.; Conway, Edel; D'Amato, A.; G. Kelly; Monks, K; Hannon, E.; Flood, P.C.
Knowledge-intensive firms (KIFs) have been the subject of growing interest from researchers. However, investigations into the comparative experiences of men and women in KIFs remain sparse, and little is known about women’s participation in the processes of innovation and knowledge exchange and combination that are core features of KIFs. We report on the findings of a study in the UK and Ireland involving 498 male and female knowledge workers in KIFs. Despite equal levels of qualification an...
Full Text Available In this paper we identify a set of learning practices adopted by knowledge workers as they learn at work. We examine how key knowledge sharing behaviours: consuming, connecting, creating and contributing knowledge, are associated with these learning practices. Each learning practice brings together a combination of these components to form a distinct learning pathway, providing a baseline for rethinking combinations of practices for more effective learning and development in the workplace.
Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt
This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.
The possibility of worker exposure to radioactive materials during accidents at nuclear facilities is a principal concern of the DOE. The KBERT software has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories under DOE support to address this issue by assisting in the estimation of risks posed by accidents at chemical and nuclear facilities. KBERT is an acronym for Knowledge-Based system for Estimating hazards of Radioactive material release Transients. The current prototype version of KBERT focuses on calculation of doses and consequences to in-facility workers due to accidental releases of radioactivity. This report gives detailed instructions on how a user who is familiar with the design, layout and potential hazards of a facility can use KBERT to assess the risks to workers in that facility. KBERT is a tool that allows a user to simulate possible accidents and observe the predicted consequences. Potential applications of KBERT include the evaluation of the efficacy of evacuation practices, worker shielding, personal protection equipment and the containment of hazardous materials
People in Japan have expressed great anxiety about possible radiation and radioactivity after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company's (TEPCO), due to the great earthquake and tsunami in eastern Japan on 11 March 2011. A large number of workers were engaged in response and recovery operations, and they were possibly exposed to high doses of radiation as compared to the general population. In the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986, high doses of radiation to 134 plant staff and emergency personnel resulted in acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which proved fatal for 28 of them. In the Fukushima accident, six workers were exposed to more than 250 mSv of radiation during the initial response phase, but no one showed ARS. It is necessary to continue registration of radiation doses for all workers who were exposed to radiation to facilitate suitable healthcare management in the future. In addition to radiation exposure, a group of workers were also exposed to other health hazards. Frequent occurrence of heat disorders has been a concern for the workers wearing protective clothing with poor ventilation. A comprehensive program to prevent heat illness was implemented by TEPCO under the guidance of the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. It is important to provide effective systems not only for prevention of radiation exposure but also for general management of other health risks including heat disorders and infection. (author)
Full Text Available The most common hazards in the forestry that may induce disorders of the musculoskeletal system are vibrations, unfavorable microclimatic conditions, noise, over-time working hours, work load and long-term repeated movements. The objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases and its difference among workers engaged in various jobs in the forestry. Two groups of workers were selected: woodcutters operating with chain-saw (N=33 and other loggers (N=32. Selected workers were of the similar age and had similar total length of employment as well as the length of service in the forestry. Both groups of workers employed in the forestry had the high prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases (woodcutters 69.7% and other loggers 62.5%, respectively. Degenerative diseases of spinal column were very frequent, in dependently of the type of activity in the forestry. Non-significantly higher risk of carpal tunnel syndrome was found in woodcutters with chain-saw compared to workers having other jobs in the forestry (OR=3.09; 95%CI=0.64-19.72. The lateral epicondylitis was found only in woodcutters operating with chain-saw with the prevalence of 18.2%.
Touted as "your portal to today's most prominent business," INSEAD Knowledge is a publication of INSEAD business school, which is based in France with campuses in Europe and Asia. INSEAD Knowledge prides itself on its easy-to-use format including simple, intuitive navigation, quick-reading abstracts of working papers and case studies, professors' insights into a variety of business-related issues, and in-depth examinations of business research. Along the left side of the Website, users will find eighteen themes including globalization, Asia focus, corporate development, and marketing. Each theme links to a variety of articles and related research sites. Users must complete the short free registration in order to view the full text of articles.
Provide population estimates for variables that represent knowledge about certain cancer risk factors, screening tests, and resources. The data are sourced from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). The HINTS data collection program was created to monitor changes in the rapidly evolving field of health communication. Survey researchers are using the data to understand how adults 18 years and older use different communication channels, including the Internet, to obtain vital health information for themselves and their loved ones.
Dill, Janette S; Chuang, Emmeline; Morgan, Jennifer C
Increasing concerns about quality of care and workforce shortages have motivated health care organizations and educational institutions to partner to create career ladders for frontline health care workers. Career ladders reward workers for gains in skills and knowledge and may reduce the costs associated with turnover, improve patient care, and/or address projected shortages of certain nursing and allied health professions. This study examines partnerships between health care and educational organizations in the United States during the design and implementation of career ladder training programs for low-skill workers in health care settings, referred to as frontline health care workers. Mixed methods data from 291 frontline health care workers and 347 key informants (e.g., administrators, instructors, managers) collected between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed using both regression and fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). Results suggest that different combinations of partner characteristics, including having an education leader, employer leader, frontline management support, partnership history, community need, and educational policies, were necessary for high worker career self-efficacy and program satisfaction. Whether a worker received a wage increase, however, was primarily dependent on leadership within the health care organization, including having an employer leader and employer implementation policies. Findings suggest that strong partnerships between health care and educational organizations can contribute to the successful implementation of career ladder programs, but workers' ability to earn monetary rewards for program participation depends on the strength of leadership support within the health care organization. PMID:25441318
We analyze the interdependence of human resource management and knowledge management. The service organization is modeled as a queueing network. The optimal number of workers in each division, the amount of customer contact and the wage for each manager is determined. We combine three features within the model. First, each manager may engage in customer contact. We show that although the fraction of time a worker is busy is increasing in rank of the manager, the customer task acceptance rate ...
Skinner, E.L.; Watterson, C.A.; Chemerys, J.C.
Safety, defined as 'freedom from danger, risk, or injury,' is difficult to achieve in a laboratory environment. Inherent dangers, associated with water analysis and research laboratories where hazardous samples, materials, and equipment are used, must be minimized to protect workers, buildings, and equipment. Managers, supervisors, analysts, and laboratory support personnel each have specific responsibilities to reduce hazards by maintaining a safe work environment. General rules of conduct and safety practices that involve personal protection, laboratory practices, chemical handling, compressed gases handling, use of equipment, and overall security must be practiced by everyone at all levels. Routine and extensive inspections of all laboratories must be made regularly by qualified people. Personnel should be trained thoroughly and repetitively. Special hazards that may involve exposure to carcinogens, cryogenics, or radiation must be given special attention, and specific rules and operational procedures must be established to deal with them. Safety data, reference materials, and texts must be kept available if prudent safety is to be practiced and accidents prevented or minimized.
Stoleski, Saso; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka; Stikova, Elisaveta; Risteska-Kuc, Snezana; Mijakoski, Dragan; Minov, Jordan
This paper describes a retrospective cohort study comparing 60 workers occupationally exposed to inorganic lead and 60 matched controls. All subjects were assessed using data obtained from a specially designed Questionnaire for lead exposure and toxic effects assessment, physical examination, spirometry, ECG, and laboratory tests including blood lead level (BLL) and biomarkers of lead toxic effects. Muscle pain, droopiness, and work-related nasal symptoms were significantly more frequent in lead workers. The prevalence of lung symptoms was higher in lead workers than in controls, but not significantly (20 % vs. 6.6 %, respectively). Mean values of BLL and delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) were significantly higher in lead workers. The activity of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in lead workers was significantly lower than in controls. Abnormal of BLL, ALAD, and ALA were more frequent in lead workers, with statistical difference for BLL and ALAD. Inverse correlation was found between BLL and ALAD, and positive correlation between BLL and age, years of employment, and years of exposure. Inverse correlation was found between ALAD and age, years of employment, years of exposure, blood pressure, alcohol consumption, and years of alcohol consumption. Changes in spirometry correlated inversely with BLL. A positive correlation was found between BLL and erythrocyte count and haemoglobin concentration, whereas it was inverse for ALAD and haemoglobin concentration. A significant difference was found for BLL and ALAD, with a very high odds ratio (14.64 and 7.23, respectively) and high relative risk (4.18 and 3.08, respectively). Our data have confirmed the association between occupational lead exposure and deviation in specific biological markers of lead effect and between the role of occupational exposure in the development of adverse effects. PMID:18407868
After having recalled some characteristics of the electro-nuclear sector in terms of employment (direct and indirect jobs, average age, number of persons controlled on the radiological level, exposure with respect to work location), the author outlines that workers of this sector are seldom evoked whereas investments, incidents and accidents are generally the main evoked and commented topics. He proposes some explanations about this image of the nuclear sector. He reports an incident which occurred in Marcoule and outlines how a set of imperfectly managed events resulted in this incident. He also outlines the importance of the role of workers and the difficulty to make the right choice in such situations. As a conclusion, the author draws some lessons, and particularly outlines that the commitment of workers should be put forward
BrintzenhofeSzoc, Karlynn; Davis, Cindy; Kayser, Karen; Lee, Hee Yun; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances; Oktay, Julianne S; Zabora, James; Zebrack, Bradley J
Oncology social workers are the primary providers of psychosocial care for cancer patients, thus they are well positioned to implement and oversee psychosocial distress screening. A national survey of members of the Association of Oncology Social Work was conducted to examine screening knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and perceived competency. The findings indicated that most participants screened for psychosocial distress using a standardized instrument and identified institutional and individual barriers to implementing screening. Analyses revealed that social workers who perceived patient benefits from screening and were knowledgeable about guidelines were significantly more likely to implement screening procedures and use a standardized instrument. PMID:25420574
Ryan, Sharon M.
Knowledge in general, and tacit knowledge in particular, has been hailed as an important factor for successful performance in knowledge-worker teams. Despite claims of the importance of tacit knowledge, few researchers have studied the concept empirically, due in part to the confusion surrounding its conceptualisation. The present study examined the acquisition and sharing o f tacit knowledge and the consequent effect on team performance, through social interaction and the development of a tr...
Full text: Serbia and Montenegro legislation concerning with radiation protection was upgrading after publication ICRP- 60 and B.S.S., No.115. Present Law on the Protection against Ionizing Radiation is in force from 1996. Among quite new issues in radiation protection regulations there was article relate to obligatory refresher training. Due to adverse political and economic situation through many years radiation protection regulations were not fulfill completely. The aim of this investigation was to get real view to education level of professional exposed workers. In Serbia and Montenegro the most of ionizing radiation sources are in medical use and the most exposed workers are radiographers and radiologists. The test was passed by 200 radiographers and 50 radiologists. Main groups of questions were: Radiation protection and safety; difference between safety and security; legislation: law and regulations; incidents, accidents and operational failures: recording, learning. Usually, knowledge from school pales. New quantities (as ambient and personal dose equivalent) are mostly unknown. It is easier to understand the real difference between safety and security than to understand linguistic differences. Discussing regulations workers are more interesting in syndicate regulations than radiation protection ones. Operational failures and incidents are hidden. Better to say: nobody dare to speak about them. The results imposed conclusion that regulatory body has to pay more attention to upraise safety culture and radiation protection education level of professional exposed workers. (authors)
Ritch, Donna; Rank, Jane
Reports on a research project to determine if students possess and comprehend basic safety knowledge. Shows a significant increase in the amount of safety knowledge gained when students are exposed to various topics in laboratory safety and are held accountable for learning the information as required in a laboratory safety course. (Author/MM)
D'Adamo, Margaret; Short Fabic, Madeleine; Ohkubo, Saori
The information challenges facing health workers worldwide include lack of routine systems for seeking and sharing information, lack of high-quality and current health information, and lack of locally relevant materials and tools. This issue of Journal of Health Communication presents three studies of health information needs in India, Senegal, and Malawi that demonstrate these information challenges, provide additional insight, and describe innovative strategies to improve knowledge and information sharing. Results confirm that health workers' information needs differ on the basis of the level of the health system in which a health worker is located, regardless of country or cultural context. Data also reveal that communication channels tailored to health workers' needs and preferences are vital for improving information access and knowledge sharing. Meetings remain the way that most health workers communicate with each other, although technical working groups, professional associations, and networks also play strong roles in information and knowledge sharing. Study findings also confirm health workers' need for up-to-date, simple information in formats useful for policy development, program management, and service delivery. It is important to note that data demonstrate a persistent need for a variety of information types--from research syntheses, to job aids, to case studies--and suggest the need to invest in multifaceted knowledge management systems and approaches that take advantage of expanding technology, especially mobile phones; support existing professional and social networks; and are tailored to the varying needs of health professionals across health systems. These common lessons can be universally applied to expand health workers' access to reliable, practical, evidence-based information. PMID:22724669
Full Text Available The paper aims at understanding health of migrant workers at their place of origin in Bihar (India. Migration is a social reality in which push and pull factors are the major determinants. In case of rural Bihar push factors are instrumental in large scale migration of workers. The research literature on Bihar suggests that lowest socio-economic indicators and high population density are primary reasons of the push enabled migration. This research among workers of scheduled caste found them at a double edged road. They are already characterised by weaker institutional framework, and when they migrate for work, they get uprooted from the existing set up at place of origin and simultaneously do not find space in the institutional setup at place of destination. This creates a situation where their behavioural patterns become vulnerable to the extent that it severely affects their health status and health seeking behaviour.
Full Text Available Acrylamide (ACR is a water-soluble chemical used in different industrial and laboratory processes. ACR monomer is neurotoxic in humans and laboratory animals. Subchronic exposure to this chemical causes neuropathies, hands and feet numbness, gait abnormalities, muscle weakness, ataxia, skin and in some cases, cerebellar alterations. ACR neurotoxicity involves mostly the peripheral but also the central nervous system, because of damage to the nerve terminal through membrane fusion mechanisms and tubulovescicular alterations. Nevertheless, the exact action mechanism is not completely elucidated. In this paper we have reviewed the current literature on its neurotoxicity connected to work-related ACR exposure. We have analyzed not only the different pathogenetic hypotheses focusing on possible neuropathological targets, but also the critical behavior of ACR poisoning. In addition we have evaluated the ACR-exposed workers case studies. Despite all the amount of work which have being carried out on this topic more studies are necessary to fully understand the pathogenetic mechanisms, in order to propose suitable therapies.
A study of office worker exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MF) was conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The main purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess ELF MF exposures. A secondary objective was to determine whether or not exposures to ELF MF can be reduced by implementing administrative controls and educating workers on the sources of such fields. EMDEX dosimeters were used to determine full shift personal exposures for 12 volunteers from two personnel sections and one training section. In addition, using the EMDEX meter in survey mode, office area evaluations were conducted. Administrative controls and training were implemented in an attempt to reduce exposures. Post control monitoring was conducted to determine if a reduction in ELF MF occurred among the workers. On average, baseline office worker exposures to ELF MF were 2.3 mG, ranging from 0.6 to 9.7 mG. The post control exposures averaged 1.1 mG with a range from 0.5 to 2.2 mG. A reduction of 53% overall was seen after implementation of administrative controls and training. The office area survey indicated that many sources of ELF MF influence exposure and that magnetic field strengths vary not only from one type of equipment to another, but also vary between two similar pieces of equipment.
Efi Yuliati Yovi
Full Text Available Despite of prevention measures such as government regulations and recommendations through technical and managerial researches, unsafe working practices are still a common practice in Indonesia's forestry work, especially in tree harvesting operation. In order to determine competency level of both field supervisor and workers as a baseline in developing participatory occupational safety and health (OSH protection program, a previously developed competency assessing instrument has been modified. Further, the redesigned instrument was used to verify competency level of field supervisor and forestry workers (chainsawman, hauling workers, and truck drivers from 6 different forest sites with similar working method. Results showed that both group of respondents had overestimated their competency level in practical aspect, indicated by the gap existence between OSH self-perception value and the standard-based assessment value. The gap significantly occurred in knowledge, skill, and attitude elements; however working attitudes rest in the worst level. This finding then indicated that improving working attitude should be taken as the goal priority in the OSH protection programs in Indonesia. In short, when the discussion is pointed to practical activities, OSH protection program should adapt such strategies which put serious consideration on control mechanism.Keywords: tree harvesting, workers, safety and health, competency, attitude
Full Text Available Shaping the knowledge society has become a priority for all the educational policies in member countries of the European Union. Within it, it is a specific quality of life based on people's ability to create value intangible nature, which may take the form of ideas, inventions or solutions of socio-economic character. A knowledge worker becomes the core workforce of the company. This worker works in a team, cooperates with individual members as well as with the group, develops ideas and actively shares knowledge. The way he works considerably varies as well as tools he uses at work. Our purpose is to identify the future competency model for new qualified workforce, which could be applicable for the educational policy, concretely for innovation of the educational and job standards In this paper we apply the theoretical analysis aimed at identifying the knowledge worker specifying the set of professional competencies in frame of 4 partial models, which are: personal competence, individual competence, social competence and societal competence. Through primary analysis we obtained information about preferences of his abilities, needed for changes in the educational system. The aim of this paper is to identify the basic characteristics of the knowledge worker and propose the competency model focusing on the personal, individual, social, and societal competence with its verification and proposal for improving the education standard. The result or our paper present suggest of the competency model of the knowledge worker, which would allow his definition on macro and micro level as well as identification new impulses for the educational policy. Fulfilment of the objective relates to the demanding requirements for qualified workforce in the knowledge society, from which is expected to more specialized knowledge, skills and work habits that would facilitate and promote mobility on the national and international level.
The author reports on the trend for manufacturing companies to spend heavily on retraining and retaining employees whose jobs have been abolished or dramatically changed. Employers have found retraining current employees to be more cost effective than hiring new workers. He describes a California state program that helps finance such training…
Full Text Available Workplace violence is a threatening worldwide public health problem. Healthcare workers have under particular risk of workplace violence, and they are being exposed to violence 4-16 times more than other service workers. The frequency of violence in the health sector in the world has indicated in different range of results since there is no consistent definition of workplace violence and differences in research methodology (any type of violence: 22,0% - 60,0%; physical violence: 2,6% - 57,0%; verbal violence: 24,3% - 82,0%; sexual harassment: %1,9 - 10,5%. All healthcare workers have right to work in a safe working place. The safety of healthcare workers should deserve the same priority as patient safety. Various risk factors including social, cultural, environmental, organizational and personal elements play a role in the formation of workplace violence that is very important for our country. Considering all those factors, the workplace violence in health sector should be seriously handled and the strategies and policies must be developed for prevention. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 315-326
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Full Text Available Job stress is a great problem in developed countries of the world, but in Yugoslavia, it is increased due to additional reasons associated with economic crisis in the society. Health services and health workers are in particulary difficult conditions. The aim of this paper was to examine sources and causes of job stress in health workers. Material and methods The research was undertaken among health workers treated at Health Centre "Hospital" in Novi Sad. The study group included health workers - doctors nurses and laboratory workers, and the control group included the rest of non-medical staff. Adapted Siegrist questionnaire was used. Three factors were examined: extrinsic efforts (disturbances at work, sense of great job responsibility and the need for overtime work; intrinsic efforts (major criticism, thinking about the job from the early morning, getting nervous because of minor problems, discontentment because of unsolved problems at work, relaxation at home and so on, and low reward (respect from the superiors and colleagues, support and security at workplace. Answers were scored indicating intensity (high, moderate, low, not at alt. Statistic analysis included testing the level of significance in health workers in relation to non-medical staff (t test and Fisher's exact test. Results Applying the scoring system it has been established that health workers are exposed to greater job stress, great sense of very high job responsibility and frequent overtime work (p<0,001 than the control group. In regard to answers from the second group - intrinsic effort and low reward, there was no statistical significance between the study and control group. Generally high level of risk factors was established, especially presence of one or more risk factors. Discussion Job stress increases absenteeism, reduces work productivity, causes higher expenses of medical treatment, rehabilitation and staff retraining. It is of great importance to identify factors which cause job dissatisfaction in order to decrease them to the lowest level. Conclusion High sense of responsibility in health workers is a source of job stress.
... Health (NIOSH) Share Compartir Simple Solutions Ergonomics for Construction Workers October 2006 DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 2007-122 This booklet is intended for construction workers, unions, supervisors, contractors, safety specialists, human resources managers- ...
Full text: Knowledge identification, acquisition, sharing, preservation and measurement are some of the desired habits and processes necessary for knowledge management to be effective and contributes to increased innovation, organizational value, competitiveness and sustainability. The knowledge workers in the K-economic era are expected to be an innovative knowledge professional who are capable of managing their own work as well as their own competency development. Organizations however need to provide an environment, tools and policies to support and encourage learning and knowledge acquisition in all forms, methods and approaches beyond what is traditionally done. For an ordinary knowledge professional, he is only interested in developing the necessary competency to complete his assigned tasks and progress in his career. He would not be interested to learn and be lectured on knowledge management or learning principles and concepts. But for the organization it is not only important that its staff members understand and able to go through the process of acquiring the necessary skills to carry out their current and future tasks at the right time, but it has to ensure that what they learn or their individual knowledge is converted into organizational knowledge, utilised, shared and preserved. Hence it is important that tools are provided and policies are set in place to ensure that staff identify, acquire, utilise, share and preserve knowledge necessary for organizational sustainability and growth. A Competency Development Information System was recently developed to address the issue of inculcating the habit of identifying, acquiring, utilising, sharing, preserving and measuring knowledge among staff members hands-on by doing and repeating without having to learn the theory first. Besides that it helps organization manage competency development processes from analysis to planning, implementing and right through to evaluation. The process starts from capturing information on business or division level mission, vision, objectives, strategies, projects and activities. From here the desired competencies are identified and broken down into knowledge and knowledge content. From this process the organization knowledge taxonomy is derived. The next process is the knowledge needs analysis conducted at group level and then at individual level. The level of all identified knowledge necessary to carryout planned projects and activities are assessed at group and individual level on a scale of 1-10. This process is conducted in a group lead by the group leader or manager. The knowledge profile that results is presented graphically and the knowledge gap that has to be filled through some learning initiatives is clearly portrayed Having identified the gap, the next task is to identify the knowledge sources in the form of books, journal articles, websites, laboratories, experts, vendors, electronic media and organised training and these are keyed into the system. At this stage individual staff would have enough information to plan his learning and knowledge acquisition. He would then plan his learning using the training plan module. He can learn through self directed learning or go for courses, seminars, attachments, scientific visit, or Masters and PhD. The time, place, budget and source of fund need to be determined. The staff biodata and development plan is also captured by the system. After implementing the training, the staff must submit a report and lessons learnt to the system. The system requires that the supervisor evaluates the training effectiveness, reviews recommendations and lessons learnt that was submitted and support and facilitate application of learning and implementation of any useful recommendations as a result of the training All the learning initiatives should increase the knowledge and competency level. This assessment is conducted on a regular basis to evaluate the effectiveness of learning initiatives and investment in human resource development. This system assess competency level on a scale of 1-6, 6 bein g ex
Full Text Available Purpose: The scope of the paper is to present effects of creating the laboratory support for the didactic process of automatic control of engineering processes.Design/methodology/approach: The discussed laboratory framework is a complex system, flexible in terms of further development, operating on four basic levels: rudimental- serving general introductory classes to the subject, advanced level- suitable for specialisation classes, hardware and software for individual or team work assignments completed in the course of self-studies, semester projects, BSc and MSc. theses, and the sophisticated level designed for PhD and DSc research workers.Findings: Close cooperation with industry and practical implementation of joint research projects play a crucial role in the functioning of the laboratory framework.Practical implications: The education of modern engineers and Masters of Science in automatic control and robotics is a challenging task which may be successfully accomplished only if faced with industrial reality. Continuously advancing industrial companies demand graduates who can quickly adjust to the workflow and who can instantly utilize the knowledge and skills acquired in the complex, interdisciplinary field of mechatronics.Originality/value: The discussed laboratory framework successfully couples software and hardware, providing a complex yet flexible system open for further development, enabling teaching and research into the design and operation of modern control systems, both by means of virtual construction and testing in simulation programs, as well as on real industrial structures configured in laboratory workstations.
Brucellosis is an occupational hazard with those particularly at risk either living in close proximity with animals or handling them. It is a public health problem in developing countries with adverse health implications both for animals and human beings as well as economic implications for individuals and communities. The Objectives were to estimate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among abattoir workers of Lahore District and to determine the association of brucellosis with nature of job of the workers. Data was collected in April 2008. It was a cross-sectional study in which four main slaughterhouses in Lahore were included. The slaughterhouse workers were divided into seven strata based on their nature of job: meat sellers, slaughterers, animal keepers, drivers, cleaners, loaders and vets/paravets. A total of 360 such workers were selected using stratified random sampling technique. Sampling frames for different strata were prepared and from each frame, proportionate numbers, were selected through simple random method using random number tables. Data was obtained using a questionnaire. Additionally blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-Brucella Immunoglobulin G (IgG) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The seroprevalence of anti-Brucella IgG was found to be 21.7%. A statistically significant difference was observed between the immune status of the respondents and their nature of job (p=0.005), age groups (p=0.013), and duration of job (p=0.003). The disease is an important public health problem in Pakistan. The disease can be prevented in the slaughterhouse workers through the use of personal protective devices. Public health authorities should educate the general public regarding prevention of the disease with specific emphasis on people working in slaughterhouses. (author)
Julie L. Hotchkiss; Quispe-Agnoli, Myriam; Rios-Avila, Fernando
Using administrative, individual-level, longitudinal data from the state of Georgia, this paper finds that a documented worker employed by a firm that hires undocumented workers can expect to earn 0.15 percent less than if employed by a firm that does not hire undocumented workers. However, in sectors where there are opportunities for task specialization and benefits from communication skills, documented workers can expect to earn a wage premium of less than 1 percent from being employed at a...
Bryson, Alex; Richard B. Freeman
The problems/need for representation and participation reported by workers vary across workplaces and by types of jobs. Workers with greater workplace needs are more desirous of unions but their preferences are fine-grained. Workers want unions to negotiate wages and work conditions and for protection but do not see unions as helping them progress in their careers. Many workers see no major workplace problems that would impel them to form or join unions. Unionism raises reported problems whil...
Rea, M. F.; Venancio, S. I.; Martines, J. C.; Savage, F
Reported are the results of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of the WHO/UNICEF 40-hour course "Breastfeeding counselling: a training course". The course was conducted in a maternity hospital which provides care to a low-income population in a metropolitan area in São Paulo, Brazil. Health workers from 60 health units were randomly assigned to be either participants (20) or controls (40), and their breastfeeding knowledge and skills were assessed before and immediately...
Sawazaki, Kenta; Sakuraba, Hinata; Masudai, Fumiya; Ishii, Chiyo; Yokoyama, Kazuhito
To elucidate the situation of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) in an occupational health setting, workers in a factory of a housing construction business were surveyed using self-administered questionnaires on their utilization of CAM in the past 12 months, out-of-pocket expenditures on CAM and ordinary western medicines (OWM), and reasons for the use of CAM. A total of 263 workers (84.3%) completed the questionnaires. Among them, 134 (51%) had received CAM therapy in the last 12 months: i.e. nutritional and tonic drinks (35.4%), supplements (16.3%), massage (13.7%), chiropractic or osteopathy (8.7%), health-related appliances (6.5%), herb or kampo (3.4%), aromatherapy (1.9%), acupuncture (1.9%), or other therapy (1.5%). Reasons for the use of CAM was "the condition was not serious enough to warrant OWM" and "expectation of health promotion or disease prevention" for 70 (51.9%) and 53 (39.3%) subjects, respectively. Average annual out-of-pocket expenditures for CAM and OWM were 17,500 and 21,300 yen, respectively. It seems important to further widen awareness and knowledge of CAM in occupational health. PMID:16408437
Bundi, Martin; Miring’u, Gabriel; Inoue, Shingo; Muriithi, Betty; Ashur, Salame; Wandera, Ernest; Kathiiko, Cyrus; Odoyo, Erick; Narita, Chika; Kwalla, Allan; Galata, Amina; Makumi, Angela; Huka, Sora; Shah, Mohammed; Karama, Mohammed
Pathogens handled in a Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) containment laboratory pose significant risks to laboratory staff and the environment. It is therefore necessary to develop competency and proficiency among laboratory workers and to promote appropriate behavior and practices that enhance safety through biosafety training. Following the installation of our BSL-3 laboratory at the Center for Microbiology Research-Kenya Medical Research Institute in 2006, a biosafety training program was develope...
Dhanalakshmi. J; Shameena.P.M; Sudha S
Safety is an important aspect of any clinical laboratory. Every clinical laboratory must have aformal safety program to ensure a safe and healthy working environment . Safety shouldbe the code of practice and it involves discipline in addressing the safe handling andcontainment of various hazardous materials in a laboratory . It is a joint responsibility ofboth management and laboratory workers and the duty of the management is to establish andmaintain adequate standards, policies, procedures...
Full Text Available We conduct an artefactual field experiment to compare the individual preferences and propensity to cooperate of three pools of subjects: Undergraduate students, temporary workers and permanent workers. We find that students are more selfish and contribute less than workers. Temporary and permanent contract workers have similar other-regarding preferences and display analogous contribution patterns in an anonymous Public Good Game.
An investigation was carried out within the frame of occupational medicine on the psychological attitudes of workers in the nuclear industry towards ionizing radiations. Three aspects were considered: awareness of the danger; feeling of safety in the working environment; workers' feelings following incidents or accidents; satisfaction level felt by the workers in the plant
The U.S. Department of Labor is the only national information source on the demographics, and working and living conditions of U.S. farm workers. Since the NAWS began surveying farm workers in 1988, it has collected information from over 25,000 workers. The survey samples all cro...
Karetskaia, T D; Pfaf, V F; Chernov, O E
The authors present results of medical social monitoring of occupationalhazards that are the most prevalent in railway occupations workers, statistic data on occupational morbidity of railway transport workers over last 10 years. The article covers major causes of unfavorable effects resulting from occupational hazards in various workers categories. Dynamics of occupational morbidity parameters and its structure concerning separate nosologic entities are analyzed. PMID:25826875
During World War II, Arsenal workers from Huntsville, Alabama. and surrounding areas responded to the call for civilian defense workers. This February 20, 1945 photo shows workers filling colored smoke grenades that were used for signaling. (Courtesy of Huntsville/Madison County Public Library)
Winer, Jane L.
Investigated classifying graduate students into worker function codes. Results support the proposition that, at least for psychology, worker functions provide a useful differentiation of intraoccupational groups. Students of different worker function profiles revealed interests and self-rated competence that agreed with their assigned codes. (JAC)
A paper from an International Labour Office seminar states that the economic and social development of rural workers must be through their labor organizations. In principle, such organizations for rural workers are the same as those for urban industrial workers. Services provided by unions are discussed. (MF)
Two articles, one by George Strauss and the second by Peter Henle, examine worker dissatisfaction in the United States. The first article explores the causes of worker dissatisfaction. The second article looks at the economic situation for workers today and its effect on job satisfaction. (EJT)
...false Agreements with workers. 500.72 Section...LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections...arrangements they have made with migrant or seasonal agricultural workers. Normally,...
Todo, Yasuyuki; Zhang, Weiying; Zhou, Li-an
This paper employs a firm-level panel data set for a high-tech cluster in the People's Republic of China to examine knowledge spillovers from multinational enterprises (MNEs) to domestic firms, focusing on the role of MNEs' employment of educated workers. We find that knowledge within MNEs spills over to domestic firms in the same industry through MNEs' employment of workers with graduate-level or overseas education. We also find that Japanese MNEs contribute less to knowledge spillovers than...
The necessity of (re)considering the three main faces of security mentioned in the title of the paper derives from the accumulation of the importance of the knowledge circulating in organizations, with the existence of numerous dangers and threats that target this knowledge, focusing on people as depositaries and users of knowledge. After a general presentation of the knowledge workers characteristics that can be analyzed as potential risks from the point of view of the confidentiality, integ...
Mac Morrow, Noreen
Discusses issues related to knowledge management and organizational knowledge. Highlights include types of knowledge; the knowledge economy; intellectual capital; knowledge and learning organizations; knowledge management strategies and processes; organizational culture; the role of technology; measuring knowledge; and the role of the information…
Allwood, Paul B; Jenkins, Timothy; Paulus, Colleen; Johnson, Lars; Hedberg, Craig W
Inadequate hand washing by food workers is an important contributing factor to foodborne disease outbreaks in retail food establishments (RFEs). We conducted a survey of RFEs to investigate the effect of hand washing training, availability of hand washing facilities, and the ability of the person in charge (PIC) to describe hand washing according to the Minnesota Food Code (food code) on workers' ability to demonstrate food code-compliant hand washing. Only 52% of the PICs could describe the hand washing procedure outlined in the food code, and only 48% of workers could demonstrate code-compliant hand washing. The most common problems observed were failure to wash for 20 s and failure to use a fingernail brush. There was a strong positive association between the PIC being a certified food manager and being able to describe the food code hand washing procedure (odds ratio [OR], 5.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2 to 13.7), and there was an even stronger association between the PIC being able to describe hand washing and workers being able to demonstrate code-compliant hand washing (OR, 15; 95% CI, 6 to 37). Significant associations were detected among correct hand washing demonstration, physical infrastructure for hand washing, and the hand washing training methods used by the establishment. However, the principal determinant of successful hand washing demonstration was the PIC's ability to describe proper hand washing procedure. These results suggest that improving hand washing practices among food workers will require interventions that address PIC knowledge of hand washing requirement and procedure and the development and implementation of effective hand washing training methods. PMID:15633696
Waste management workers are required to participate in special training mandated by a variety of Federal laws and DOE Orders; these include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Superfund Amendments Reauthorization Act (SARA) as implemented by OSHA in CFR 1920.120, in addition to requirements for Hazard Communication, Radiation Workers, Respiratory Protection, Transportation, and Waste Generator training. The Technical Resources and Training program is examining the course contents and mandated requirements to determine how to best meld these requirements into a training program that will still fulfill all requirements but eliminate the potential for duplication of some elements in successive courses. This approach may not eliminate all duplication between courses, but it should result in significant savings in manhours demanded in a training environment which requires similar information to meet a host of regulatory requirements. The training matrix planned for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be presented and discussed. 22 refs., 3 tabs
In an effort to understand the nature and extent of worker risk encountered during environmental restoration activities, the Center for Risk Management at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory characterized remedial worker risk resulting from remediation activities at 17 radiologically contaminated U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites found at a variety of DOE installations across the United States. These sites varied in the type of contamination, geographical setting, and waste unit configuration. Site types included a waste pit, silo, settling basin, two seepage basins, trench, creeks, drums, a landfill, a holding pond, canals, contaminated groundwater, and two uranium mill tailings piles. Of the 17 sites evaluated, 4 of the sites were decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) sites. The D ampersand D sites consisted of a contaminated building, a liquid-waste processing area, a buried reactor, and reactor building and its components
Coelho, Ana Cláudia; García Díez, Juan
Advances and research in biotechnology have applications over a wide range of areas, such as microbiology, medicine, the food industry, agriculture, genetically modified organisms, and nanotechnology, among others. However, research with pathogenic agents, such as virus, parasites, fungi, rickettsia, bacterial microorganisms, or genetic modified organisms, has generated concern because of their potential biological risk - not only for people, but also for the environment due to their unpredictable behavior. In addition, concern for biosafety is associated with the emergence of new diseases or re-emergence of diseases that were already under control. Biotechnology laboratories require biosafety measures designed to protect their staff, the population, and the environment, which may be exposed to hazardous organisms and materials. Laboratory staff training and education is essential, not only to acquire a good understanding about the direct handling of hazardous biological agents but also knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenicity, and human susceptibility to the biological materials used in research. Biological risk can be reduced and controlled by the correct application of internationally recognized procedures such as proper microbiological techniques, proper containment apparatus, adequate facilities, protective barriers, and special training and education of laboratory workers. To avoid occupational infections, knowledge about standardized microbiological procedures and techniques and the use of containment devices, facilities, and protective barriers is necessary. Training and education about the epidemiology, pathogenicity, and biohazards of the microorganisms involved may prevent or decrease the risk. In this way, the scientific community may benefit from the lessons learned in the past to anticipate future problems. PMID:25973418
Coelho, Ana Cláudia; García Díez, Juan
Advances and research in biotechnology have applications over a wide range of areas, such as microbiology, medicine, the food industry, agriculture, genetically modified organisms, and nanotechnology, among others. However, research with pathogenic agents, such as virus, parasites, fungi, rickettsia, bacterial microorganisms, or genetic modified organisms, has generated concern because of their potential biological risk – not only for people, but also for the environment due to their unpredictable behavior. In addition, concern for biosafety is associated with the emergence of new diseases or re-emergence of diseases that were already under control. Biotechnology laboratories require biosafety measures designed to protect their staff, the population, and the environment, which may be exposed to hazardous organisms and materials. Laboratory staff training and education is essential, not only to acquire a good understanding about the direct handling of hazardous biological agents but also knowledge of the epidemiology, pathogenicity, and human susceptibility to the biological materials used in research. Biological risk can be reduced and controlled by the correct application of internationally recognized procedures such as proper microbiological techniques, proper containment apparatus, adequate facilities, protective barriers, and special training and education of laboratory workers. To avoid occupational infections, knowledge about standardized microbiological procedures and techniques and the use of containment devices, facilities, and protective barriers is necessary. Training and education about the epidemiology, pathogenicity, and biohazards of the microorganisms involved may prevent or decrease the risk. In this way, the scientific community may benefit from the lessons learned in the past to anticipate future problems. PMID:25973418
Abdusalam A. A. Abuazoum
Full Text Available This study investigates the causes of resistance or support by knowledge workers to the sharing of knowledge. Today, banks are starting to understand the relevance and importance of knowledge sharing. They are also beginning to appreciate knowledge as the most significant and valued asset that leads to organizational performance. Hence, promising motivational factors are expected to be helpful in emphasizing the need for employees to share not only crucial knowledge but also new knowledge to further ensure that the banking industry possesses the competitive edge they seek. This study investigates and thoroughly examines the intrinsic (trust, learning, behavior and extrinsic (organization culture, reward system information technology motivational factors that encourage widespread knowledge sharing among bank employees, especially in the dynamic and ever-growing Islamic banking sector in Malaysia. The research findings provide useful information and help deepen the understanding of banks about motivating their employees’ tendencies to engage in knowledge sharing practices.
Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.
Venables, Km; Upton, JL; Hawkins, ER; Tee, RD; Longbottom, JL; Newman Taylor, AJ
This study examined data from three cross sectional surveys of 296 laboratory workers exposed to small mammals. Four indices of laboratory animal allergy were studied: symptoms suggestive of occupational asthma, symptoms suggestive of any occupational allergy, skin weals to animal urine extracts, and serum binding in radioallergosorbent tests with urine extracts. Pooled data from the three surveys showed an association between smoking and all indices except radioallergosorbent tests; the asso...
Full Text Available The burden of exposure to blood-borne pathogens (such as hepatitis B and C viruses is considerable for health care workers. Hepatitis virus transmission requires a non-immune host, an infectious source, and skin or mucous membrane injury. These three aspects are the main fields for preventional interventions. We reviewed major recent studies on this topic to identify precautions health care workers should take to avoid hepatitis B (HBV and C virus (HCV infections. Accordingly, this review looks at aspects of epidemiology, risk factors, economy, knowledge, attitudes, practice, and ethics of HBV and HCV that affect health care workers. The risk of transmission depends on the load of pathogen, infectious characteristics and exposure frequency. Health care workers skill levels and the specific hospital department involved appear to be the most important factors in the exposure of health care workers to blood-borne pathogens. However, many health care workers surveyed, believed that educational programs about standard precautions in their setting were not adequate. Obviously, more detailed studies will be needed to clarify risks and opportunities for health care workers precautions aimed at avoiding HBV and HCV infection, especially in emerging health research communities.
Full Text Available The paper studied the factors that made the new generation of migrant workers transform in to the industrial workers by the questionnaire for them in china. On the basis of analyzing the characteristics of the new generation of migrant worker groups, the implementation approaches of their industrialization has been researched from the following four aspects: their on quality, psychological identity, economic base and social environment with the help of structural equation modle. Measures that transformed the new generation of migrant workers into industrial workers had been proposed according to the result of this study.
Immigrant workers are a vulnerable and underserved population. The average life expectancy of the migrant worker is 49?years, compared to 77.2?years for most Americans. Immigrant workers have a higher disease burden than other populations and work in occupations with high hazard levels. In addition, they have low socioeconomic levels and face many barriers to accessing healthcare services. Undocumented immigrant workers are excluded in the Affordable Care Act. Health professionals must be attuned to the health issues of new immigrants so that they can provide better services. In order to raise the health standards of America, health professionals must provide healthcare for all, including immigrant workers. PMID:25612759
The foundation of a 'National Laboratory' which would support a Research center in synchrotron radiation applications is proposed. The essential features of such a laboratory differing of others centers in Brazil are presented. (L.C.)
Alswaidi, F M; Memish, Z A; Al-Hakeem, R F; Atlam, S A
Expatriate workers must be medically examined in their country of origin at accredited centres prior to their arrival in any Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) country and are reexamined when they enter the country. This review investigated the epidemiological profile of registered expatriate workers in Saudi Arabia who were found medically unfit to work. A descriptive analysis was performed on 4,272,480 records of a Ministry of Health database from 1997 to 2010. The greatest proportion of workers was from Indonesia (34.3%). The total proportion of unfit expatriate workers was low (0.71%). The highest rate of unfitness was among workers from Ethiopia (4.06%), followed by Somalia (2.41%). Hepatitis B infection was the most common cause (57.5%), followed by noncommunicable diseases (21.2%) and hepatitis C infection (17.4%). This review suggests that the total number of workers registered in the Saudi Ministry of Health was underestimated, and the rate of unfit workers was lower than for other GCC countries, suggesting that standards and quality assurance in Saudi laboratories require revision. PMID:24975313
Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; JØrgensen, Marie Birk
PURPOSE: Shift workers are exposed to more physical and psychosocial stressors in the working environment as compared to day workers. Despite the need for targeted prevention, it is likely that workplace interventions less frequently reach shift workers. The aim was therefore to investigate whether the reach of workplace interventions varied between shift workers and day workers and whether such differences could be explained by the quality of leadership exhibited at different times of the day. METHODS: We used questionnaire data from 5361 female care workers in the Danish eldercare sector. The questions concerned usual working hours, quality of leadership, and self-reported implementation of workplace activities aimed at stress reduction, reorganization of the working hours, and participation in improvements of working procedures or qualifications. RESULTS: Compared with day workers, shift workers were less likely to be reached by workplace interventions. For example, night workers less frequently reportedthat they had got more flexibility (OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7) or that they had participated in improvements of the working procedures (OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.5-0.8). Quality of leadership to some extent explained the lack of reach of interventions especially among fixed evening workers. CONCLUSIONS: In the light of the evidence of shift workers' stressful working conditions, we suggest that future studies focus on the generalizability of results of the present study and on how to reach this group and meet their needs when designing and implementing workplace interventions.
This report presents an assessment of potential radiation doses to workers during mobilization and removal of contaminated sludges from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The assessment is based on (1) measurements of radionuclide concentrations in sludge and supernatant liquid samples from the waste storage tanks, (2) measurements of gamma radiation levels in various areas that will be accessed by workers during normal activities, (3) calculations of gamma radiation levels for particular exposure situations, especially when the available measurements are not applicable, and (4) assumed scenarios for worker activities in radiation areas. Only doses from external exposure are estimated in this assessment. Doses from internal exposure are assumed to be controlled by containment of radioactive materials or respiratory protection of workers and are not estimated
Kerr, G.D.; Coleman, R.L.; Kocher, D.C.; Wynn, C.C.
This report presents an assessment of potential radiation doses to workers during mobilization and removal of contaminated sludges from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The assessment is based on (1) measurements of radionuclide concentrations in sludge and supernatant liquid samples from the waste storage tanks, (2) measurements of gamma radiation levels in various areas that will be accessed by workers during normal activities, (3) calculations of gamma radiation levels for particular exposure situations, especially when the available measurements are not applicable, and (4) assumed scenarios for worker activities in radiation areas. Only doses from external exposure are estimated in this assessment. Doses from internal exposure are assumed to be controlled by containment of radioactive materials or respiratory protection of workers and are not estimated.
Cross-sectional questionnaire data were used to compare the levels of job strain in shift and daytime workers. Job strain was measured according to Karasek's Demands/Discretion model. Four occupational groups were included: drivers, industrial workers, policemen/watchmen, and cooks. The study subjects were a random sample of 508 daytime workers and 418 shift workers. Job demand did not differentiate between shift and daytime workers, comparing groups broken down by gender and by occupation. The daytime workers reported higher levels of job strain than the shift workers, and women experienced a higher level of job strain than did men. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that only occupational group and gender predicted job strain level. Shiftwork was not significantly associated with job strain in the regression model. PMID:9891143
The issue of illegal aliens has received considerable attention in recent years. Concern over the problem of illegal aliens has promulgated an array of efforts by the federal government to examine and revise immigration statutes and practices. Indeed, much debate has arisen over the possibility of instituting a large scale temporary foreign worker program in the United States. The book by professors Miller and Martin addresses some of the basic problems that must be taken into consideration ...
Phanprasit, Wantanee; Sujirarat, Dusit; Musigapong, Pirutchada; Sripaiboonkij, Penpatra; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai
The objectives are to compare the airborne asbestos concentrations resulted from mitering of abestos cement roof sheets by a high-speed motor and a hand saw, and to monitor whether other workers near the test sites are vulnerable to the fibers exceeding the occupational exposure limit. Four test cases were carried out and altogether 7 personal and 4 area air samples were collected. The NIOSH method 7400 was employed for the air samplings and analysis. Using the phase contrast microscopy, fibe...
Buch, Claudia M.; Kuckulenz, Anja; Le Manchec, Marie-Helene
The debate on the risks and benefits of the globalisation of international capital markets has focused on the volume and the volatility of the main capital flows – foreign direct investment (FDI), portfolio investment, and foreign bank lending. Financial transfers in the form of worker remittances have received less attention in this context. This paper provides an analysis on the magnitude of remittances, their volatility, and their relationship to other capital flows. Moreover, we provide e...
The first part of this volume describes the effects of radiation on living organism, both at the overall and at the molecular level. Special attention is paid to the metabolism and toxicity of radioactivity substances. The second part deals with radiological exposure, natural, medical and occupational. The third part provides data on radiological protection standards, and the fourth part addresses the health supervision of workers exposed to ionizing radiation, covering both physical and medical control.
Clausen, J.; Netterstrøm, B; C. Wolff
To evaluate the effects of working with modern insulation materials (rock and glass wool), the members of the Copenhagen Union of Insulation Workers were invited to participate in a study based on a health examination that included lung function tests. Three hundred and forty men (74%) agreed to participate, and 166 bus drivers served as the control group. Age distribution, height, and smoking habits were similar in the two groups. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in o...
The Power Workers' Union represents workers at Ontario Hydro's nuclear stations and AECL operators at Chalk River. Although labour relations are far from perfect, the union does its best to protect the industry. Avoiding confrontation as much as possible, this union is happy to be regarded as a partner in the business. The union is impressed by the consultants' report on Ontario Hydro's nuclear operations. Whatever the future may bring, the present is not really pleasant for nuclear workers generally, in that the work itself is very demanding technically, and must be performed with great diligence because the responsibility for safety is enormous. Considering the actual safety record, some caricatures or ''cheap shots'' from antinuclear politicians and special interest groups seem quite offensive. As a partner in public relations, the union has produced draft fact sheets on topics such as: transporting radioactive material; the burning of plutonium from dismantled weaponry; deep geological storage of nuclear waste; the sale of Candu reactors to China. The author closes with some advice on how to improve industrial relations, based on the union's experience
A book worker is one engaged in the hand book arts, which includes "bookbinding, conservation, printing, papermaking, calligraphy, marbling and artist's books." The Guild of Book Workers is a century-plus-old American organization that sponsors workshops, lectures, and exhibitions. Their website is a great resource for book workers, or for those interested in viewing and learning about the hand book arts. Visitors unfamiliar with book art should definitely take a look at the "Galleries" link under the "News & Events" section of the site. Some of the themes of the exhibits in the gallery are "Marking Time" and "AbeCeDarium", which is the alphabet, and a classic theme for the book arts. Visitors will find it enjoyable to see how the same theme can be expressed or interpreted in so many beautiful, moving, or disturbing ways by book artists. The multitude of online galleries on this site is a real treat for those who enjoy the creativity of the book arts.
The purpose of the Nuclear Energy Knowledge Portal is to offer professionals in the nuclear field a direct and efficient access path to scientific and technical expert knowledge. Knowledge ultimately resides with people, it comprises the information and skills that a knowledgeable person commands. In complex systems, knowledge may also exist in a distributed form: A group may be able to succeed in tasks, which exceed the knowledge of every one individual member of the group. In the latter case, there must be at least one person who has the additional organizational knowledge of where key subject knowledge resides within the group. Individual experts may gain knowledge in three ways: - by studying (reading and understanding documented information); - by example and explanation from an expert (on-the-job training, tutoring); - by research (observation, discovery, reasoning). Research is the only way of creating original knowledge which is either truly novel or has existed before, but was lost without sufficient record. It is also the slowest, most expensive and in some cases (failed experiments) the most dangerous way. However, given time and resources, research work will always enable mankind to regain lost knowledge, how ever expensive that may be. While the IAEA has been actively coordinating and fostering nuclear research and development for many years, there are other aspects of nuclear knowledge management, which are now gaining in importance, too. In particular taining in importance, too. In particular the stimulation of interest in the nuclear field in the younger generation and activities associated with succession planning are increasingly recognized as important aspects of knowledge management. Experts who are presently leaving the nuclear field due to retirement or because of professional re-orientation have in many cases gained their knowledge by direct research (scientists) or have been instructed by the original researchers (engineers). Ideally, they should now pass their knowledge on to the next generation of nuclear workers. However, because of the generally reduced interest in the nuclear field, the nuclear workforce is shrinking in a number of countries and it becomes therefore more and more difficult to extend or even to maintain humankind's present knowledge in the nuclear field. The main function of the proposed nuclear knowledge portal is therefore to support and enhance the existing infrastructure for knowledge transmission. The portal will facilitate access to archived materials (on-line and off-line) and foster professional contacts in academic and industrial contexts by identifying centers of excellence (universities, institutes, industries) where nuclear knowledge presently resides
Broussard, C. Anne
Article uses literature that addresses lack of family diversity content in teacher training as a springboard to encourage dialogue about new ways school social workers might use their theoretical knowledge of ecological and family systems and family diversity and strengths to collaborate with schools, families, and communities. Implications for…
Redcay, Madeleine C.
This module on health assessment is one of a set of six developed to prepare human services workers for the changing mental health service delivery system. A total of seven objectives are included to help students utilize knowledge of physical factors which may influence health and behavior in order to recognize signs and symptoms which indicate…
Ambrose-Smith, Neal; Smith, Janue Quick-to-See
This Instructional Resource relates the experiences of Native American artist Neal Ambrose-Smith, who views himself not only as an artist with a studio practice, but also as an "Arts Worker" who pursues learning new knowledge with his arts-related jobs. Painting, sculpting, and printmaking are only three areas of his studio practice. He…
Shapovalov K. V.
Full Text Available The aim of this work: a study of health - social and ethical aspects of health care workers in the framework of the prevention of a healthy lifestyle among youth. To study the level of students' knowledge about HIV prevention and detection of bad habits - drinking, smoking, drug addiction, a study author profiles. We have used empirical, sociological and statistical methods
Gammelgaard, Jens; Ritter, Thomas
AbstractPrevious discussions of knowledge transfer within multinational corporations tended tofocus on the process as an isolated phenomenon and on the factors that impede the process.Less attention has been given to how the individual knowledge worker retrieves or identifies,and then decodes knowledge accessed from the corporate memory. We suggest thatmultinational companies (MNCs) solve knowledge retrieval problems by implementingvirtual communities of practice - intranet-based collaborative forums. Codification andpersonalization strategies have previously been emphasized as an either-or solution. Thesevirtual communities of practice combine the codification and personalization strategies,simultaneously utilizing the advantages of two approaches.
The organizational changes due to internal promotion or personal rotation require that new workers acquire proper training adapted to needed knowledge, abilities and attitudes. Training should allow make their work suitably. It is not enough teaching associated technical competence to the technology but it is necessary to complement them with abilities associated to the interaction with the people at social level, communication, team work... etc. current training programs tries to reach two objectives, one focused on providing explicit knowledge (gathered in documents, procedures, others) and on other centred in the tacit knowledge. This tacit knowledge is most of the times no structured, nor recorded in document. Implicitly, tacit knowledge remains in outcome workers (manners to work, attitude to face activities, relationship with peers, clients or others. Usually, new worker is able to catch tacit knowledge during on-the-job training process in contact with the outcomes worker (always the training program include this phase of overlap). The best would be to collect and transfer tacit knowledge, at least critic knowledge associated to the job position. This paper presents an overview of important points associated to the tools to retain the explicit knowledge and two tools to capture the tacit knowledge. In addition, main concepts and definitions of these tools will be briefly describes, and benefits to incorporate these tools to the organization dynamics, as well. These tools will cause safer, reliable and efficient organization. (Author)
Nuclear power plants have recognized the importance of preserving critical knowledge due to many nuclear experts retiring simultaneously in the near future. The different characteristics of explicit and tacit knowledge have implications on how these types of knowledge can and should be preserved and transferred from the retiring experts to the novices in the NPPs. This paper provides a literature review of the characteristics of tacit knowledge. In addition the DIAMOND model of tacit knowledge in NPP maintenance is presented. In conclusion: In addition to knowing how to perform maintenance tasks (having procedural tacit knowledge), the maintenance workers have to understand the 'what' and 'why' perspectives of the work, e.g. have appropriate cognitive tacit knowledge on the NPP systems, processes and devices as well as knowledge on the reasons and backgrounds for different behaviors. We need to take into account the various aspects of the tacit knowledge when we are determining the methods and aims for sharing tacit knowledge between the employees and especially between experts and novices. Sharing tacit knowledge is not a new invention but observation and imitation (i.e. apprenticeship) is probably the oldest method for teaching and learning. The current emphasis on workplace learning, however, further emphasizes this and the idea that people should become more aware and reflective, and hence, potentially more in control of what and how they learn (Alred and Garvey, 2000). Therefore, as learners and experts are not passive but actively shape their cognitive and procedural tacit knowledge (mainly unconsciously), we need to actively involve them into designing employee training programs and competence development efforts. (authors)
Full Text Available Background: In urban area link workers are playing key role in implementing anti-larval measures and behaviour change communication at community level to prevent and control mosquito borne diseases. Objectives: To check baseline knowledge of link workers regarding mosquito borne diseases and control measures and assess their knowledge 14 days after single educational interventional training. Methodology: All 274 link workers of 17 selected UHCs out of total 57 UHCs were taken as study population and their baseline knowledge regarding mosquito borne diseases and mosquito control measures was assessed by questionnaire. Single educational training for 45 minutes was given to groups of link workers and their post– intervention knowledge for same was assessed after 14 days. Mean, Wilcoxon sign-rank test were applied. Results: Mean age of link workers was 31.3 + 4.8 years. The knowledge regarding Chikungunya, Dengue and Malaria was mosquito borne diseases was respectively 55.5%, 87.9% and 95.5% which was increase after intervention to 100%. But 14.4% did not know filariasis is mosquito borne disease even after training. All link workers know about the chemical (Temephos used for mosquito control (100% but knowledge of proper temephos dose for different volume of water containers was significantly improved after intervention. The overall knowledge regarding mosquito & mosquito control measures was significantly improved after intervention (p value <0.05. Conclusion: Even though link workers were involved in anti-larval activities since from many years, many link workers had poor knowledge regarding the mosquito borne diseases and control measures.
Mukherjee Shuvankar; Samanta Amrita; Ghosh Santanu
Background: Automobile repair workers may run high risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS infection owing to their socio cultural background. A cross- sectional study was conducted among them in Chetla, Kolkata to assess knowledge, attitude and practices related to HIV/AIDS and to find out difference in knowledge status based on different socio-demographic variables. Materials and Methods: Both qualitative and quantitative methods were adopted. A total of 114 male workers were interviewed from randomly s...
Cooper, Lynne P.; Nash, Rebecca L.; Phan, Tu-Anh T.; Bailey, Teresa R.
This paper describes the deployment of a knowledge system to support learning of organizational knowledge at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a US national research laboratory whose mission is planetary exploration and to 'do what no one has done before.' Data collected over 19 weeks of operation were used to assess system performance with respect to design considerations, participation, effectiveness of communication mechanisms, and individual-based learning. These results are discussed in the context of organizational learning research and implications for practice.
Montoni, Mariella A.; Galotta, Catia; Rocha, Ana Regina; Rabelo, Álvaro; Rabelo, Lisia
Knowledge management supports decision-making by capturing and analyzing key performance indicators, providing visibility into the effectiveness of the business model, and by concentrating collaborative work and employee knowledge reviews on critical business problems. CardioKnowledge is a knowledge management environment based on the business and process requirements of a health care organization in Cardiology. CardioKnowledge supports organizational processes in order to facilitate the comm...
Introduction. This article returns to a theme addressed in Vol. 8(1) October 2002 of the journal: knowledge management and the problem of managing tacit knowledge. Method. The article is primarily a review and analysis of the literature associated with the management of knowledge. In particular, it focuses on the works of a group of economists who have studied the transformation of knowledge into information through the process of codification and the knowledge transaction topography they...
Simone De Bruim Babisk, Mezadre; Monica de Fátima, Bianco.
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the work situations and highlight aspects of the knowledge invested by workers when performing marble and granite processing activities. The survey is qualitative and was based on the reality of a small industrial company that deals with processing activities [...] . The case study was based on theoretical and analytical ergology tools by analyzing the organizational documents and safety and health standards that regulate activity. It involved conducting individual interviews with nine workers, organizing a focus group with these workers, and directly observing work for four months while recording a field notebook. The workers’ experiences in the renormalization of working processes, or the introduction of improvements guided by singular aspects of the local work organization, were identified. The workers, through use of oneself, place more importance on meeting deadlines and production targets than on their own safety. Worker competency is directly related to the professional training obtained on the job and is associated with working experience in the absence of an a priori formal education. This article contributes to the field of organizational studies and human resource management because there is a lack of studies on workers from this field that describe the competencies used in actual work. Thus it may guide theoretical and practical management aspects in such working environments and small businesses regarding safer work organization.
Simone De Bruim Babisk Mezadre
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the work situations and highlight aspects of the knowledge invested by workers when performing marble and granite processing activities. The survey is qualitative and was based on the reality of a small industrial company that deals with processing activities. The case study was based on theoretical and analytical ergology tools by analyzing the organizational documents and safety and health standards that regulate activity. It involved conducting individual interviews with nine workers, organizing a focus group with these workers, and directly observing work for four months while recording a field notebook. The workers’ experiences in the renormalization of working processes, or the introduction of improvements guided by singular aspects of the local work organization, were identified. The workers, through use of oneself, place more importance on meeting deadlines and production targets than on their own safety. Worker competency is directly related to the professional training obtained on the job and is associated with working experience in the absence of an a priori formal education. This article contributes to the field of organizational studies and human resource management because there is a lack of studies on workers from this field that describe the competencies used in actual work. Thus it may guide theoretical and practical management aspects in such working environments and small businesses regarding safer work organization.
The Ames Laboratory conducts fundamental research in the physical, chemical, materials, and mathematical sciences and engineering which underlie energy generating, conversion, transmission and storage technologies, environmental improvement, and other technical areas essential to national needs. These efforts will be maintained so as to contribute to the achievement of the vision of DOE and, more specifically, to increase the general levels of knowledge and technical capabilities, to prepare engineering and physical sciences students for the future, both academia and industry, and to develop new technologies and practical applications from our basic scientific programs that will contribute to a strengthening of the US economy. The Laboratory approaches all its operations with the safety and health of all workers as a constant objective and with genuine concern for the environment. The Laboratory relies upon its strengths in materials synthesis and processing, materials reliability, chemical analysis, chemical sciences, photosynthesis, materials sciences, metallurgy, high-temperature superconductivity, and applied mathematical sciences to conduct the long term basic and intermediate range applied research needed to solve the complex problems encountered in energy production, and utilization as well as environmental restoration and waste management. Ames Laboratory will continue to maintain a very significant and highly beneficial pre-college math and science education program which currently serves both teachers and students at the middle school and high school levels. Our technology transfer program is aided by joint efforts with ISU's technology development and commercialization enterprise and will sustain concerted efforts to implement Cooperative Research and Development Agreements, industrially sponsored Work for Others projects. and scientific personnel exchanges with our various customers
Beerepoot, N.; Hendriks, M.
Critical concerns have been raised about the quality of employment in the offshore service sector in developing countries, suggesting that many activities have an inherent paradox of highly educated workers performing low-skilled jobs. Based on empirical data collected in the offshore service sector in Baguio City (the Philippines), this article analyses the knowledge and skills acquisition of workers using the concepts of employability and generic skills. The article demonstrates that offsho...
Elaine Drehmer de Almeida Cruz; Elucir Gir
The carrier state of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is pointed as infection predictor among hospitalized patients, and factor for environmental and person to person dissemination, including health service workers, when colonized are commonly associate to outbreaks1. Prevention of professional colonization risk is associated to behavior and dependent of knowledge and beliefs in health. Objective: analyze the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in saliva of workers of the nursing, ...
Based on theory regarding mobile communication in general, this essay relates the experiences of migrant workers from both rural and urban areas in Fuzhou, who used mobile phones to stay in contact with the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, to how these contacts supported and encouraged migrant workers to persist in gathering Olympic Games information. In other words, does the relationship between demographics and knowledge about the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games differ according to the use of mobile ...
Siti Alida John Abdullah; Hjh. Sabitha Marican
Knowledge management involves delivering of information to a person or a set of people, which necessitates two or more people communicating directly face to face, indirectly or in a virtual environment. Human barrier in this paper refers to sexual harassment behaviors that are unwanted and unwelcome that occurs in the form of verbal, non verbal, physical and visual actions among workers at workplace. It acts a as communication barrier to knowledge sharing, which works best when the people who...