Sample records for l2 morphological learning

  1. Phonological Bases for L2 Morphological Learning

    Hu, Chieh-Fang


    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…

  2. Planning, Recasts, and Learning of L2 Morphology

    Romanova, Natalia


    This study investigated two issues: (1) whether availability of planning time affects learners' ability to notice and learn from recasts in the input; and (2) whether pre-task or online planning is more effective. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups that formed the treatment conditions: a no planning group (N = 13), a pre-task…

  3. From Seeing Adverbs to Seeing Verbal Morphology: Language Experience and Adult Acquisition of L2 Tense

    Sagarra, Nuria; Ellis, Nick C.


    Adult learners have persistent difficulty processing second language (L2) inflectional morphology. We investigate associative learning explanations that involve the blocking of later experienced cues by earlier learned ones in the first language (L1; i.e., transfer) and the L2 (i.e., proficiency). Sagarra (2008) and Ellis and Sagarra (2010b) found…

  4. Chinese L1 Children's English L2 Verb Morphology over Time: Individual Variation in Longterm Outcomes

    Paradis, Joanne; Tulpar, Yasemin; Arppe, Antti


    This study examined accuracy in production and grammaticality judgements of verb morphology by eighteen Chinese-speaking children learning English as a second language (L2) followed longitudinally from four to six years of exposure to English, and who began to learn English at age 4;2. Children's growth in accuracy with verb morphology reached a…

  5. Gaming as extramural English L2 learning and L2 proficiency among young learners

    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin; Sundqvist, Pia


    Today, playing digital games is an important part of many young people’s everyday lives. Claims have been made that certain games, in particular massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) provide L2 English learners with a linguistically rich and cognitively challenging virtual environment that may be conducive to L2 learning, as learners get ample opportunities for L2 input and scaffolded interaction in the L2. In this paper, we present empirical evidence that L2 English profi...

  6. Input frequencies in processing of verbal morphology in L1 and L2: Evidence from Russian

    Tatiana Chernigovskaya


    Full Text Available In this study we take a usage-based perspective on the analysis of data from the acquisition of verbal morphology by Norwegian adult learners of L2 Russian, as compared to children acquiring Russian as an L1. According to the usage-based theories, language learning is input-driven and frequency of occurrence of grammatical structures and lexical items in the input plays a key role in this process. We have analysed to what extent the acquisition and processing of Russian verbal morphology by children and adult L2 learners is dependent on the input factors, in particular on type and token frequencies. Our analysis of the L2 input based on the written material used in the instruction shows a different distribution of frequencies as compared to the target language at large. The results of the tests that elicited present tense forms of verbs belonging to four different inflectional classes (-AJ-, -A-, -I-, and -OVA- have demonstrated that for both Russian children and L2 learners type frequency appears to be an important factor, influencing both correct stem recognition and generalisations. The results have also demonstrated token frequency effects. For L2 learners we observed also effects of formal instruction and greater reliance on morphological cues. In spite of the fact that L2 learners did not match completely any of the child groups, there are many similarities between L1 and L2 morphological processing, the main one being the role of frequency.

  7. Similarity and Difference in Learning L2 Word-Form

    Hamada, Megumi; Koda, Keiko


    This study explored similarity and difference in L2 written word-form learning from a cross-linguistic perspective. This study investigated whether learners' L1 orthographic background, which influences L2 visual word recognition (e.g., Wang et al., 2003), also influences L2 word-form learning, in particular, the sensitivity to phonological and…

  8. L2 Teaching and Learning in the Classroom Space

    REN Xi-ping


    L2 teaching and learning is a way of using language, but it happens in a particular space -the classroom space, which, to some extent, has a restriction to language using. This paper provides a valuable sight into L 2 teaching and learning in the class-room space, and discusses the viewpoint of how to make an actual learning of L2 under the way of teaching.

  9. Knowledge sources in L2 learning

    Diana Ayliff


    Should one bother to teach grammar to second language (L2) learners of English? The purpose of this article is to examine the hypothesis that there is an interface between explicit and implicit knowledge sources. Three groups of learners at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University were asked to articulate, first without a prompt and then with a prompt, the grammatical rules they were applying to correct common errors.  The test results suggest that there is a high correlation between what ...

  10. Promoting L2 Vocabulary Learning through Narrow Reading

    Kang, Eun Young


    Krashen (2004) has advocated that narrow reading, i.e., reading a series of texts addressing one specific topic, is an effective method to grow vocabulary. While narrow reading has been championed to have many advantages for L2 vocabulary learning, there remains a relative dearth of empirical studies that test the impact of narrow reading on L2

  11. Chinese L1 children's English L2 verb morphology over time: individual variation in long-term outcomes.

    Paradis, Johanne; Tulpar, Yasemin; Arppe, Antti


    This study examined accuracy in production and grammaticality judgements of verb morphology by eighteen Chinese-speaking children learning English as a second language (L2) followed longitudinally from four to six years of exposure to English, and who began to learn English at age 4;2. Children's growth in accuracy with verb morphology reached a plateau by six years, where 11/18 children did not display native-speaker levels of accuracy for one or more morphemes. Variation in children's accuracy with verb morphology was predicted by their English vocabulary size and verbal short-term memories primarily, and quality and quantity of English input at home secondarily. This study shows that even very young L2 learners might not all catch up to native speakers in this time frame and that non-age factors play a role in determining individual variation in child L2 learners' long-term outcomes with English morphology. PMID:26915494

  12. Influence of Syllable Structure on L2 Auditory Word Learning

    Hamada, Megumi; Goya, Hideki


    This study investigated the role of syllable structure in L2 auditory word learning. Based on research on cross-linguistic variation of speech perception and lexical memory, it was hypothesized that Japanese L1 learners of English would learn English words with an open-syllable structure without consonant clusters better than words with a…

  13. Merits and Demerits of CMC in L2 Language Learning



    In the digital era,with the rapid development of the computer technology,the possibility and interest of utilizing Internet in L2 language classrooms has gradually increased.In particular,as a useful tool for enhancing language learning and teaching the computer-mediated communication(CMC)through the Internet has become extremely popular over the last five years.Based on the previous literatures,this essay aims not only to discuss a string of actual merits of CMC in terms of L2 teaching and learning but also some demerits belong to it.Furthermore,in order to achieve the most appropriate way to implement CMC into the L2 classroom,some possible solutions for dealing with those disadvantages will also be suggested.

  14. Appraisal Systems in L2 vs. L3 Learning Experiences

    Gabrys-Barker, Danuta


    This article offers a comment on the ways multilingual language users perceive their L2 and L3 learning experiences at the level of appraisals, that is, variables that "assign value to current stimuli based on past experience". In the theoretical part of the article the concept of appraisals is introduced and briefly outlined from the different…

  15. Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee


    Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

  16. The Influence of Positive Attitudes and Motivation on Successful L2 learning



    As the development of the second language learning(L2),it becomes more significant to study the factors that influence the success in L2 learning.Positive attitudes and motivation definitely play vital role in L2 learning process.This paper briefly analyses how these two factors influence L2learning.

  17. The Influence of Positive Attitudes and Motivation on Successful L2 learning



    As the development of the second language learning(L2),it becomes more significant to study the factors that influence the success in L2 learning.Positive attitudes and motivation definitely play vital role in L2 learning process. This paper briefly analyses how these two factors influence L2 learning.

  18. Event-related brain potentials and second language learning: syntactic processing in late L2 learners at different L2 proficiency levels

    Hell, J.G. van; Tokowicz, N.


    There are several major questions in the literature on late second language (L2) learning and processing. Some of these questions include: Can late L2 learners process an L2 in a native-like way? What is the nature of the differences in L2 processing among L2 learners at different levels of L2 profi

  19. Studies on L2 Learning Motivation of Primary and Middle School Stu-dents from the Perspective of L2 Motivational Self System



    An empirical survey among 219 school students in the framework of L2 Motivational Self System found that Ideal L2 Self, Ought-to L2 Self and L2 Learning Experience in the System make different contributions to L2 motivation respectively and L2 Learning Experience is the largest contributor to L2 motivation for primary and middle school students. The pedagogical im⁃plications are also suggested.

  20. Anonymity and Motivation in Asynchronous Discussions and L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Polat, Nihat; Mancilla, Rae; Mahalingappa, Laura


    This study investigates L2 attainment in asynchronous online environments, specifically possible relationships among anonymity, L2 motivation, participation in discussions, quality of L2 production, and success in L2 vocabulary learning. It examines, in asynchronous discussions, (a) if participation and (b) motivation contribute to L2 vocabulary…

  1. Possible effect of explicit knowledge on L2 learning



    Ellis (2004) had given a specific working definition of explicit knowledge in the definition and measure-ment of L2 explicit knowledge. He said this kind of knowledge is“the conscious awareness of what a lan-guage or language in general consists of and / or of the roles that it plays in human life.” To be more specific, explicit knowledge is part of declarative memory, and it is stored in the limbic system of the brain. Besides, it is always presented in consciousness and can be verbalized. For example, a L2 learner can point out that in this sentence“The boy plays basketball”.“-S”should be put after the predicate“play”, because the subject of the sentence is the third person singular pronoun. Also, the process of learning explicit knowledge is controlled or monitored. In general, experts test explicit knowledge mainly by grammar. But there are also some other aspects of explicit knowledge that need to be considered, such as the pronunciation, vocabulary, pragmatic features and so on. This essay considers what effect of the as-pects I have mentioned above might have on second language learning.

  2. The Role of Morphological and Contextual Information in L2 Lexical Inference

    Hamada, Megumi


    This study investigated the role of morphological and contextual information in inferring the meaning of unknown L2 words during reading. Four groups of college-level ESL students, beginning (n?=?34), intermediate (n?=?27), high-intermediate (n?=?21), and advanced (n?=?25), chose the inferred meanings of 20 pseudo compounds (e.g.,…

  3. Extracting Phonological Patterns for L2 Word Learning: The Effect of Poor Phonological Awareness

    Hu, Chieh-Fang


    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of…

  4. Investigating the Relationship between the Morphological Processing of Regular and Irregular Words and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Ahmed Masrai


    Full Text Available The present study investigates the relationship between the morphological processing of regular and irregular words and second language (L2 vocabulary acquisition. In considering that monolingual Arabic speakers derive a large number of new words from roots by leaning heavily on the regularity of rules in Arabic (Bar & Dershowitz, 2012; Habash, 2010, they are expected to experience difficulty when developing the lexicon of a language with less regular rules, such as English. To examine this assumption empirically, data were collected by administering an English receptive vocabulary knowledge test that included 100 regular and irregular inflected and derived words to 450 Arabic English as a foreign language (EFL learners from schools in Saudi Arabia. The test also included pesudowords (non-words to act as ‘gatekeepers’ against the possibility of guessing. The t-test results revealed a non-significant difference in learners’ uptake of L2 words, whether regular or irregular. However, the study indicates that word frequency plays a statistically significant role in learning L2 vocabulary that is irregularly inflected or derived. The frequency effect on irregular word morphology found in this study is in line with the approach of a dual-route mechanism. This approach suggests that irregular words are not rule-based, so are stored in the mental lexicon as full entries, whereas regular words are not. This article suggests that introducing rules for deriving new words from base forms to EFL learners in the early stages of learning would be very useful for L2 vocabulary development.Keywords: morphological processing, vocabulary acquisition, frequency, Arabic, mental lexicon

  5. The Role of L1 Literacy on L2 Literacy Learning



    A native language can be learned effortlessly, while a second language is always difficult for people to learn. L1 literacy may impede or promote L2 literacy learning. This paper discusses the role L1 Literacy on L2 Literacy Learning.

  6. Effects of Synonym Generation on Incidental and Intentional L2 Vocabulary Learning during Reading

    Barcroft, Joe


    This study examined effects of synonym generation on second language (L2) vocabulary learning during reading in both incidental and intentional vocabulary learning contexts. Spanish-speaking adult learners of L2 English (N = 114) at low- and high-intermediate proficiency levels read an English passage containing 10 target words translated in the…

  7. Learning English with "The Sims": Exploiting Authentic Computer Simulation Games for L2 Learning

    Ranalli, Jim


    With their realistic animation, complex scenarios and impressive interactivity, computer simulation games might be able to provide context-rich, cognitively engaging virtual environments for language learning. However, simulation games designed for L2 learners are in short supply. As an alternative, could games designed for the mass-market be…

  8. The acquisition of interlanguage morphology : a study into the role of morphology in the L2 learner's mental lexicon

    Lowie, Wander Marius


    Introduction 1.1 Morphology and second language learning If Dutch learners of English encounter a word like undoable, they may recognise it because they have seen it before and have remembered it. They may also fail to recognise it and guess the meaning of the word on the basis of the context. A thi

  9. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised.

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola


    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1) along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners' awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general. PMID:26300792

  10. L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children: Effects of Learning Method and Cognate Status

    Tonzar, Claudio; Lotto, Lorella; Job, Remo


    In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or word-mediated learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German. We examined children from fourth and eighth grades in a school setting. After a learning phase during which L2 words were…

  11. Self-regulation from Educational Psychology to L2 Pedagogy: an Alternative to Language Learning Strategies

    Maryam Banisaeid


    Full Text Available Language learning strategy was the focus of many studies during the last two decades. Because of definitional fuzziness and unreliable instrument, the concept of language learning strategy was replaced by self-regulation in educational psychology. Subsequently, this shift affected L2 research. The notion of self-regulation is used in some L2 studies today (Tseng, Dörnyei & Schmitt, 2006; Rose, 2011b, Banisaeid, 2013a, 2013b. Self-regulation is more process-oriented while language learning strategy is more product-oriented. Although it only encompasses the metacognitive strategy, the general domain of it is meaningfully wider than the strategic framework. It covers some aspects in the learning process as motivation, goals and self-efficacy.Keywords: self-regulation, language learning strategy, L2 studies, educational psychology

  12. A Review of Current Foreign Literature on the Notion of“Investment”in L2 Learning

    ZHANG Xiao-wen


    Motivation has a profound effect on L2 learning and thus has attracted great attention from relevant researchers. Tradi⁃tional studies focus on instrumental and integrative motivation. However, a new concept“investment”is now drawing increasing attention in the schorlars studying SLA motivation. The concept“investment”mainly involves concepts of identity and imagined communities. Many empirical studies have been conducted on“investment”in different groups of L2 learners.

  13. L2-norm multiple kernel learning and its application to biomedical data fusion

    De Moor Bart


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper introduces the notion of optimizing different norms in the dual problem of support vector machines with multiple kernels. The selection of norms yields different extensions of multiple kernel learning (MKL such as L∞, L1, and L2 MKL. In particular, L2 MKL is a novel method that leads to non-sparse optimal kernel coefficients, which is different from the sparse kernel coefficients optimized by the existing L∞ MKL method. In real biomedical applications, L2 MKL may have more advantages over sparse integration method for thoroughly combining complementary information in heterogeneous data sources. Results We provide a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the L2 optimization of kernels in the dual problem with the L2 coefficient regularization in the primal problem. Understanding the dual L2 problem grants a unified view on MKL and enables us to extend the L2 method to a wide range of machine learning problems. We implement L2 MKL for ranking and classification problems and compare its performance with the sparse L∞ and the averaging L1 MKL methods. The experiments are carried out on six real biomedical data sets and two large scale UCI data sets. L2 MKL yields better performance on most of the benchmark data sets. In particular, we propose a novel L2 MKL least squares support vector machine (LSSVM algorithm, which is shown to be an efficient and promising classifier for large scale data sets processing. Conclusions This paper extends the statistical framework of genomic data fusion based on MKL. Allowing non-sparse weights on the data sources is an attractive option in settings where we believe most data sources to be relevant to the problem at hand and want to avoid a "winner-takes-all" effect seen in L∞ MKL, which can be detrimental to the performance in prospective studies. The notion of optimizing L2 kernels can be straightforwardly extended to ranking, classification, regression, and

  14. Using Learning Strategies:A Review in L2 Listening Research



    This paper briefly reviews some significant learning strategies in L2 listening research. By pointing out both the feasibil⁃ities and difficulties in implementing those strategies in Chinese EFL classrooms, it attempts to raise English language practitio⁃ners’awareness of reforming the listening instruction and of utilizing strategic teaching approaches so as to enhance students’lis⁃tening proficiency.

  15. The Impact of Blended e-Learning on Undergraduate Academic Essay Writing in English (L2)

    Ferriman, Nicholas


    This paper describes a quasi-experimental study into the impact of a blended e-learning environment on academic writing assignments in English (L2) at a Thai international college. An experimental group of 15 students used an on-line bulletin board, as well as face-to-face (F2F) communication in class, to share information for essay topics they…

  16. Enhancing Autonomous L2 Vocabulary Learning Focusing on the Development of Word-Level Processing Skills

    Toyoda, Etsuko


    The paper reviewed studies in word-level processing skills and related areas, and profiled how the development of L2 word recognition and integration skills would contribute to autonomous "kango" (Chinese originated words or words created from Chinese originated words) vocabulary learning. Despite the fact that the acquisition of a…

  17. Learning Exponents of Number on First Exposure to an L2

    Carroll, Susanne E.; Widjaja, Elizabeth


    Number lends itself to the study of how input interacts with transferred first language (L1) knowledge to facilitate or impede second language (L2) learning. We present data from adult English speakers exposed for the first time to Indonesian, a language that expresses number through bare noun phrases, reduplication and numeral + classifier…

  18. The Effect of Learning English (L2) on Learning of Arabic Literacy (L1) in the Primary School

    Hussien, Abdelaziz M.


    This study investigated the effect of learning English (L2) on learning to read and spell connected texts accurately in Arabic (L1). The author selected a sample of 83 (38 males and 45 females; 45 bilinguals and 38 monolinguals) native Arabic-speaking fourth-graders in Egypt. Students completed the author-developed Oral Reading Accuracy Measure…

  19. Active Learning through Materials Development: A Project for the Advanced L2 Classroom

    Katrina Daly Thompson


    Full Text Available Building on the notion of active learning, the assumption that students learn more when given opportunities to practice using their skills and to receive feedback on their performance, this article de-scribes a project undertaken in an Advanced (third-year Swahili course in which students were given the opportunity to develop L2 materials for computer-mediated peer instruction. The article exam-ines the goals, design and results of the project in light of the litera-ture on active learning and learner autonomy, and suggests how the project might be improved in order to serve as a model for other Ad-vanced L2 courses.

  20. A Frequency-Based Approach to L2 Phonological Learning: Teacher Input and Student Output in an Intensive ESL Context

    Trofimovich, Pavel; Collins, Laura; Cardoso, Walcir; White, Joanna; Horst, Marlise


    Most second language (L2) researchers and teachers would agree that input, often defined as the language a learner hears or reads, plays an important role in L2 learning. There is a great deal of research investigating which types of input are most beneficial for learning, how learners process and internalize input (e.g., Schmidt, 2001), and how…

  1. Learning through L2--Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and English as Medium of Instruction (EMI)

    Wannagat, Ulrich


    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has been promoted by the European Union as a means to achieve multilingualism. While in Germany and other European countries the trend to use the L2 as a medium of instruction is increasing, in Hong Kong, however, we see a converse development. Many schools switched from English as a medium of…

  2. Task-based Language Learning in Bilingual Montessori Elementary Schools: Customizing Foreign Language Learning and Promoting L2 Speaking Skills

    Jana Winnefeld


    Full Text Available Foreign language learning has been a part of German elementary schools for several years now. Montessori schools focusing on individual learning, i.e. mostly independent from the teacher and based on auto-education, interest, and free choice, are also asked to teach an L2. The original lack of a concept of L2 learning for this environment has brought forth different approaches. Bilingual education seems to be feasible and applicable in Montessori education. The downside to this is that even in a bilingual classroom the Montessori way of learning may not allow for very much oral production of the foreign language. The role of L2 production (cf. Swain 1985, 1995, 2005 for language acquisition has been theoretically claimed and empirically investigated. Output can have a positive influence on L2 learning (cf. e.g. Izumi 2002, Keck et al. 2006. This also applies to interaction (cf. Long 1996, where negotiation of meaning and modified output are factors supporting L2 development (cf. e.g. de la Fuente 2002, McDonough 2005. Task-based Language Learning (TBLL presents itself as one way to promote oral language production and to provide opportunities for meaning-negotiation. Especially tasks with required information exchange and a closed outcome have been shown to be beneficial for the elicitation of negotiation of meaning and modified output. This paper argues that TBLL is a promising approach for the facilitation of L2 production and thus the development of speaking skills in a Montessori context. It also hypothesizes that TBLL can be implemented in a bilingual Montessori environment while still making the Montessori way of learning possible. Different tasks on various topics, examples of which are presented in this article, can lay the foundation for this. Offering such tasks in a bilingual Montessori elementary classroom promises to foster language production and the use of communication strategies like negotiation of meaning, both being

  3. The Role of Dynamic Contrasts in the L2 Acquisition of Spanish Past Tense Morphology

    Dominguez, Laura; Tracy-Ventura, Nicole; Arche, Maria J.; Mitchell, Rosamond; Myles, Florence


    This study examines the second language acquisition of Spanish past tense morphology by three groups of English speakers (beginners, intermediates and advanced). We adopt a novel methodological approach--combining oral corpus data with controlled experimental data--in order to provide new evidence on the validity of the Lexical Aspect Hypothesis…

  4. Matching Vocabulary Learning Process with Learning Outcome in L2 Academic Writing: An Exploratory Case Study

    Ma, Qing


    This exploratory case study of two undergraduates links vocabulary learning approaches with lexical quality measured in academic writing. Employing an array of qualitative data, it is shown that in a "semi-language-rich" learning context, Chinese learners may dispense with rote learning and engage in a more natural learning approach in which…

  5. Phonological and orthographic cues enhance the processing of inflectional morphology. ERP evidence from L1 and L2 French

    Haydee eCarrasco-Ortiz


    Full Text Available We report the results of two ERP experiments in which Spanish learners of French and native French controls show graded sensitivity to verbal inflectional errors as a function of the presence of orthographic and/or phonological cues when reading silently in French. In both experiments, verbal agreement was manipulated in sentential context such that subject verb agreement was either correct, ill-formed and orally-realized, involving both orthographic and phonological cues, or ill-formed and silent which involved only orthographic cues. The results of both experiments revealed more robust ERP responses to orally-realized than to silent inflectional errors. This was true for L2 learners as well as native controls, although the effect in the learner group was reduced in comparison to the native group. In addition, the combined influence of phonological and orthographic cues led to the largest differences between morphosyntactic conditions. Overall, the results suggest that the presence of phonological cues may enhance L2 readers’ sensitivity to morphology but that such may appear in L2 processing only when sufficient proficiency is attained. Moreover, both orthographic and phonological cues are used when available.

  6. Assisting Your Child's Learning in L2 Is Like Teaching Them to Ride a Bike: A Study on Parental Involvement

    Castillo, Rigoberto; Camelo Gámez, Linda Catherine


    This article deals with parental involvement as a strategy to assist young learners in their efforts to learn an L2. It discusses an 18-month experience involving ten young learners, their parents, and teachers, in the development of another language (L2). The parents had expressed that they were unable to support their children's development in…

  7. The Influence of L2 Teachers' Use of CALL Modes on Language Learners' Reactions to Blended Learning

    Hong, Kwang Hee; Samimy, Keiko K.


    Previous research on blended learning (BL) implementation in L2 instructional settings considers L2 teachers' use of the incorporated CALL modes and learners' attitudes toward the CALL modes as critical factors, among other factors, for achieving successful BL implementation. In the literature, these two factors are suggested to be strongly…

  8. A Case Study on the Effects of an L2 Writing Instructional Model for Blended Learning in Higher Education

    So, Lee; Lee, Chung Hyun


    This case study explores EFL (English as a foreign language) students' perceptions toward a prototype of an instructional model for second language (L2) writing in blended learning and the effects of the model on the development of L2 writing skills in higher education. This model is primarily founded on the process-oriented writing approach…

  9. Extending the Distributional Bias Hypothesis to the Acquisition of Honorific Morphology in L2 Korean



    Korean verbs can be marked with both referent and addressee honorific morphology . An analysis of a teledrama corpus and a phone call corpus shows that these two morphological classes co‐occur in a biased distribution indicating an association between the two classes . An experiment was conducted to determine whether Korean heritage speakers�acquisition of Korean was affected by this association as would be predicted by the distributional bias hypothesis . Twenty heritage learners of Korean performed a teledrama oral translation task which elicited two addressee honorific styles with and without referent honorific marking . A repeated measures ANOVA on the four possible addressee‐referent honorific combination showed differences in performance . A post hoc analysis of pairwise contrasts indicated that performance was superior on the referent honorific (RH) plus hayyo addressee honorific (AH) combination relative to the RH plus hay AH combination . This result is incompatible with an account that explains acquisition in terms of the cumulative frequencies of the forms in input . It is also incompatible with accounts claiming that learners do not associate the forms during the acquisitional process . It is argued that the distributional bias hypothesis best accounts for the pattern of results and the frequency‐driven conflation of semantically related concatenated affixes may have special significance for agglutinative languages such as Korean .

  10. Investigating the Efficacy of an Intensive English Program and the L2 Learners’ Learning Styles

    Rebecca Lee Su Ping


    Full Text Available Past research has found that many pre-university L2 learners, having completed an Intensive English Program (IEP still have difficulty in undertaking various disciplines in English-speaking tertiary institutions and continue to exhibit numerous linguistic problems (Bialystok, 2001, Celce Murcia 2001. The purpose of this paper is to present the findings on the investigation of L2 learners’ English proficiency in reading, writing, grammar, listening and speaking upon their completion of an Intensive English (IE program using their IELTS (Academic, in-house exams and English Placement Tests (EPT scores, and the efficacy of IE program.  IELTS test is chosen for this study due to its increasing popularity in Malaysia and its internationally recognised value and quality.  The study was conducted in two parts. In Part One, all 72 Level 4 IE students were given an in-house EPT (English Placement Test pre-test on their entry and another EPT post-test on their exit, and then their pre-test and post-test results were compared.  In Part Two, 22 volunteers sat the IELTS test at the end of the program. The IELTS results of the 22 volunteers were compared with those who did not.  Data were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. This paper hopes to shed some light on (i whether or not L2 learners’ English language proficiency can be significantly enhanced and influenced by an intensive English program and (ii how leaners’ perception of their own learning strategies influence their learning progress. 

  11. Motivations for Learning Japanese and Additional Languages: A Study of L2 Self-Image across Multiple Languages

    Toshiyuki Nakamura


    Full Text Available This qualitative study aims to identify language learners’ motivations for studying Japanese by comparing these with motivations for learning or using additional languages. Thirteen students from an Australian university participated in the study, all of whom were learning Japanese as a second language (L2 and were also learners or users of additional languages. Utilising Dörnyei’s (2005 L2 Motivational Self System and the concept of ‘domains of possible selves’ (Unemori et al. 2004, this study investigates the language self- images (L2 selves associated with Japanese, and contrasts them with the L2 selves associated with participants’ additional languages. Further, it explores the formation of L2 selves and the relationships between different L2 selves within a learner. Previous studies in this area have emphasised the negative impacts of the ideal English L2 self on motivations for learning subsequent languages. However, this study indicates that multiple ideal L2 selves can coexist without competition if each language has a firm link to a different domain (i.e., Interpersonal, Extracurricular, Career, Education in a learner’s future self-image. The results of this study can be used to inform the practice of Japanese language teachers in multilingual contexts.

  12. Effect of CALL-based and Non-CALL Based Methods of Teaching on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Effat Bagheri; Ali Roohani; Dariush Nejad Ansari


    The use of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in the field of education has increased remarkably in recent years due to the swift and modern changes in language software. However, CALL is not widely employed in the field of second/foreign (L2) language learning in Iran. Interested in the application of CALL, this study examines two methods of vocabulary teaching/learning (CALL-based versus non-CALL based) in the short and long-term learning in the area of L2 vocabulary. It seeks to se...

  13. Galaxy morphology - an unsupervised machine learning approach

    Schutter, Andrew; Shamir, Lior


    Structural properties posses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement wi...

  14. Exploring Language Learning Strategy Transfer between Greek L2 and English FL in Case of Early Adolescent Multilinguals

    Mitits, Lydia; Gavriilidou, Zoe


    This study compares language learning strategy (LLS) use between Greek L2 and English FL and a possible variation in the frequency and type of LLSs employed in the two languages in order to depict the strategic profiles of the multilingual learners aged 12-15 (n = 307). It also observes the effect of gender in relation to a second vs. foreign…

  15. Language Interference and Language Learning Techniques Transfer in L2 and L3 Immersion Programs.

    Aronin, Larissa; Toubkin, Lynne


    Examines the relationships between the first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) language in immersion programs for Russian-speaking students in Israel. Two parallel and similar immersion programs, which were carried out for the same population, but with different target languages (L2 Hebrew and L3 English), are described. Presents tentative…

  16. Contribution of Morphological Awareness and Lexical Inferencing Ability to L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension among Advanced EFL Learners: Testing Direct and Indirect Effects

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko


    Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling)…

  17. Galaxy morphology - an unsupervised machine learning approach

    Schutter, Andrew


    Structural properties posses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being ...

  18. Active Learning: Qualitative Inquiries into Vocabulary Instruction in Chinese L2 Classrooms

    Shen, Helen H.; Xu, Wenjing


    Active learning emerged as a new approach to learning in the 1980s. The core concept of active learning involves engaging students not only in actively exploring knowledge but also in reflecting on their own learning process in order to become more effective learners. Because the nonalphabetic nature of the Chinese writing system makes learning to…

  19. Machine Learning for Galaxy Morphology Classification

    Gauci, Adam; Abela, John; Magro, Alessio


    In this work, decision tree learning algorithms and fuzzy inferencing systems are applied for galaxy morphology classification. In particular, the CART, the C4.5, the Random Forest and fuzzy logic algorithms are studied and reliable classifiers are developed to distinguish between spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies or star/unknown galactic objects. Morphology information for the training and testing datasets is obtained from the Galaxy Zoo project while the corresponding photometric and spectra parameters are downloaded from the SDSS DR7 catalogue.

  20. An Investigation into the Modality Specificity of L2 Learners' STM Abilities in Learning Vocabulary via PDAs

    Saeed Khazaie


    Full Text Available Parallel with the rapid growth of wireless technology and potentials of mobile learning for language teaching/learning, employing mobile devices in language learning seems indispensable. To this end, designing learning materials suitable for different types of mobile devices regarding dual coding (DCT and cognitive load (CLT theories seems inevitable. In this study, multimedia were employed for designing two types of learning materials. Since short-term memory plays an important role in language learning, learners’ visual and verbal short-term memories were taken into consideration, too. 161 L2 Learners aged 19 and 23 years old participated in the major phases of an experiment via personal digital assistant (PDA. Based on their scores on the English vocabulary recognition and recall (EVRR tests and the statistical analysis of the results, it was revealed that delivery of learning materials with pictorial and written annotations combined rather than delivery of learning materials without such annotations to learners with high-visual and high-verbal abilities, learners with high-visual but low-verbal ability, and learners with low-visual but high-verbal ability results in better vocabulary learning outcomes. However, this was not the case for learners with low-visual and low-verbal abilities. This study acknowledges the relation between STM and the relevant modalities of materials presentation.Keywords: Mobile learning, PDA, Verbal and visual ability, Vocabulary learning


    Mohammad Hadi Mahmoodi


    Full Text Available Oral skills are important components of language competence. To have good and acceptable listening and speaking, one must have good pronunciation, which encompasses segmental and suprasegmental features. Despite extensive studies on the role of segmental features and related issues in listening and speaking, there is paucity of research on the role of suprasegmental features in the same domain. Conducting studies which aim at shedding light on the issues related to learning suprasegmental features can help language teachers and learners in the process of teaching/learning English as a foreign language. To this end, this study was designed to investigate the relationship among brain hemispheric dominance, gender, attitudes towards L1 and L2, and learning suprasegmental features in Iranian EFL learners. First, 200 Intermediate EFL learners were selected from different English language teaching institutes in Hamedan and Isfahan, two provinces in Iran, as the sample. Prior to the main stage of the study, Oxford Placement Test (OPT was used to homogenize the proficiency level of all the participants. Then, the participants were asked to complete the Edinburgh Handedness Questionnaire to determine their dominant hemisphere. They were also required to answer two questionnaires regarding their attitudes towards L1 and L2. Finally, the participants took suprasegmental features test. The results of the independent samples t-tests indicated left-brained language learners’ superiority in observing and learning suprasegmental features. It was also found that females are better than males in producing suprasegmental features. Furthermore, the results of Pearson Product Moment Correlations indicated that there is significant relationship between attitude towards L2 and learning suprasegmental features. However, no significant relationship was found between attitude towards L1 and learning English suprasegmental features. The findings of this study can

  2. Teaching, Learning, and Developing L2 French Sociolinguistic Competence: A Sociocultural Perspective

    van Compernolle, Remi A.; Williams, Lawrence


    The study reported in this article investigates the development of sociolinguistic competence among second-year (US university-level) L2 learners of French who were given systematic instruction on sociolinguistic variation as part of their normal coursework. We focus on the variable use of the negative morpheme "ne" in verbal negation. Drawing…

  3. Morphologically Complex Words in L1 and L2 Processing: Evidence from Masked Priming Experiments in English

    Silva, Renita; Clahsen, Harald


    This paper reports results from masked priming experiments investigating regular past-tense forms and deadjectival nominalizations with -ness and -ity in adult native (L1) speakers of English and in different groups of advanced adult second language (L2) learners of English. While the L1 group showed efficient priming for both inflected and…

  4. Galaxy morphology - An unsupervised machine learning approach

    Schutter, A.; Shamir, L.


    Structural properties poses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being analyzed. The source code of the method is publicly available, and the protocol of the experiment is included in the paper so that the experiment can be replicated, and the method can be used to analyze user-defined datasets of galaxy images.

  5. Investigating Reading Comprehension and Learning Styles in Relation to Reading Strategies in L2

    Gürses, Meral Özkan; Bouvet, Eric


    This study aims to investigate the extent to which reading comprehension and learning styles are related to perceived use of reading strategies among students studying French at an Australian university and a Turkish university. Ninety-one participants completed a background questionnaire, the Survey of Reading Strategies, the Kolb Learning Style…

  6. The Role of Formal L2 Learning Experience in L3 Acquisition among Early Bilinguals

    Park, Mihi; Starr, Rebecca L.


    Early bilingualism is thought to facilitate language learning [Klein, E. C. (1995). "Second versus third language acquisition: Is there a difference?" "Language Learning", 45(3), 419-466; Cromdal, J. (1999). "Childhood bilingualism and metalinguistic skills: Analysis and control in young Swedish-English bilinguals."…

  7. The Impact of Choice on EFL Students' Motivation and Engagement with L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Wang, Han-Chung; Huang, Hung-Tzu; Hsu, Chun-Chieh


    The current study investigates EFL college learners' motivation and engagement during English vocabulary learning tasks. By adopting self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000), the study looked into the impact of autonomy on college students' task motivation and engagement with vocabulary learning tasks and their general English…

  8. Unstructured Object Recognition using Morphological Learning

    S. Kar; Chandran, S.


    A technique of object recognition which can detect absence or presence of objects of interest without making explicit use of their underlying geometric structure is deemed suitable for many practical applications. In this work, a method of recognising unstructured objects has been presented, wherein several gray patterns are input as examples to a morphological rule-based learning algorithm. The output of the algorithm are the corresponding gray structuring elements capable of recogni...

  9. The Apocalypse of L2 Normative Ideology: Current Sociolinguistic Research in Relation to Foreign Language Learning.

    Loveday, Leo


    Discusses how current applied and sociolinguistic research and theory, which reveals the naturalness of language variation and productive aspects of error-making, seriously challenges traditional second language learning practices and postulates. (EKN)

  10. Constructing the L2-Graph for Robust Subspace Learning and Subspace Clustering

    Peng, Xi; Yu, Zhiding; Tang, Huajin; Yi, Zhang


    Under the framework of graph-based learning, the key to robust subspace clustering and subspace learning is to obtain a good similarity graph that eliminates the effects of errors and retains only connections between the data points from the same subspace (i.e., intra-subspace data points). Recent works achieve good performance by modeling errors into their objective functions to remove the errors from the inputs. However, these approaches face the limitations that the structure of errors sho...

  11. A Vocabulary Learning Tool for L2 Undergraduates Reading Science and Technology Textbooks

    Hsu, Chihcheng; Yang, Fang-Chuan Ou


    Students of English as a second language who major in science and technology use English-language textbooks to ensure that they can read English materials upon graduation. Research indicates that teachers spend little time helping these students on the linguistic complexity of such textbooks. Vocabulary, grammar, and article structure are elements of this complexity, but to many students, these elements can be akin to locked doors. This study presents MyVLS-Reader, which focuses on unlocking the first of these doors-vocabulary-while assisting in reading. With explicit vocabulary learning, students learn and memorize individual vocabulary, but the context is lost if the depth of learning discards context. In implicit vocabulary learning, students acquire vocabulary through repeated exposure to contexts, but repeated encounters with new words are required. Few e-learning systems combine both vocabulary-learning approaches. MyVLS-Reader achieves such synergy by (1) using a keyword setting to provide context-matched vocabulary explanation while reading and (2) embedding multiple learning choices, such as keyword setting, the review and memorization of explicit vocabulary, and the option to ask instructors. This study includes two rounds of evaluations: (1) an evaluation of the learning achievements of control and treatment groups and (2) a quantitative and qualitative investigation of perceptions regarding the use of MyVLS-Reader. The evaluation results indicate that the treatment group developed a better vocabulary than the control group in significantly less time. The use of MyVLS-Reader also slightly improved higher-order thinking skills. This result suggests that MyVLS-Reader can effective assist students in building their vocabulary while reading.

  12. CMC-Based Projects and L2 Learning: Confirming the Importance of Nativisation

    Grosbois, Muriel


    Despite the spread of reliable desktop audio and videoconferencing facilities, some CMC-based projects still rely on asynchronous written environments, if only because of the temporal constraints of synchronicity (Guichon, 2009; Develotte, Guichon & Vincent, 2010). Yet speaking is usually the skill students most need to improve when learning a…

  13. Social and Individual Frame Factors in L2 Learning: Comparative Aspects.

    Ekstrand, Lars H.

    A large number of factors are considered in their role in second language learning. Individual factors include language aptitude, personality, attitudes and motivation, and the role of the speaker's native language. Teacher factors involve the method of instruction, the sex of the teacher, and a teacher's training and competence, while…

  14. An Observation Tool for Effective L2 Pedagogy in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)

    de Graaff, Rick; Koopman, Gerrit Jan; Anikina, Yulia; Westhoff, Gerard


    In Europe, Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is becoming a popular and widespread practice of immersion education. In the Netherlands, for example, over 90 secondary schools offer a CLIL strand. Most CLIL teachers, however, are nonnative speakers of the target language, and do not have a professional background in language pedagogy.…

  15. Online multilingual vocabulary system and its application in L2 learning

    Haruko Miyakoda


    Full Text Available In the field of second language teaching, vocabulary has been one of the most neglected areas in the classroom. Although language teachers/ instructors are well aware of the importance of vocabulary, there is not enough time in the classroom to actually “teach” vocabulary. Therefore, we need to find ways to promote autonomous vocabulary learning so that students can make good use of their time outside theclassrooms.In this study, we present an online vocabulary learning system that we have developed. The results obtained from our evaluation experiment indicate that our system is more effective in retaining the meaning of the words compared to the traditional learning method.As an example of applying this system to language learning, we will give a demonstration of a Japanese onomatopoeia dictionary that we are compiling. Onomatopoeia are especially troublesome for learners of the Japanese language. Although they are frequently used in both written and spoken Japanese, they are very difficult to translate to other languages. We demonstrate that by employing our system, learners are better able to understand the meaning and the context of eachlexical item.

  16. The Effect of L1 on Learning New L2 Vocabulary among Intermediate Proficiency Level Students

    Maryam Pakzadian


    During the last decades, the role of mother tongue in language teaching has been the subject of a host of research studies ;however, quite rarely have researchers addressed such issues as comparing the use of mother tongue and other teaching techniques like paraphrasing and translation effects on students' reading comprehension ability and their ability in learning new English vocabulary. This study aimed to explore whether paraphrases vs. translations of new words in general English passages...

  17. A Survey on the Use of Metacognition in L2 Learning and Teaching

    ZHANG Yibin


    The author tries to verify that there are differences between the usages of the metacongintive strategies through a survey. He also discusses the role of the language teacher, since more and more people believe that teachers are not only language instructors but also learner trainers. So if they are interested in improving learners'use of strategies for learning and using the language, their roles may be changing.

  18. Peer interaction and learning opportunities in cohesive and less cohesive L2 classrooms

    Leslie, Carolyn Elizabeth


    The present study investigates peer to peer oral interaction in two task based language teaching classrooms, one of which was a self-declared cohesive group, and the other a self- declared less cohesive group, both at B1 level. It studies how learners talk cohesion into being and considers how this talk leads to learning opportunities in these groups. The study was classroom-based and was carried out over the period of an academic year. Research was conducted in the classrooms and the task...

  19. Unstructured Object Recognition using Morphological Learning

    S. Kar


    Full Text Available A technique of object recognition which can detect absence or presence of objects of interest without making explicit use of their underlying geometric structure is deemed suitable for many practical applications. In this work, a method of recognising unstructured objects has been presented, wherein several gray patterns are input as examples to a morphological rule-based learning algorithm. The output of the algorithm are the corresponding gray structuring elements capable of recognising patterns in query images. The learning is carried out offline before recognition of the queries. The technique has been tested to identify fuel pellet surface imperfections. Robustness wrt intensity, orientation, and shape variations of the query patterns is built into the method. Moreover, simplicity of the recognition process leading to reduced computational time makes the method attractive to solve many practical problems.

  20. Estilos de pensamiento Cognitive styles: an approach to autonomous learning in L2 adult students

    Atehortúa Atehortúa José Nicolás


    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo resume los resultados de una investigación descriptivo-cualitativa sobre estilos cognitivos o de pensamiento, llevado a cabo con miembros del programa de extensión académica en la UPB, con el objetivo de describir los estilos de pensamiento de los estudiantes que les permitan reconocer y utilizar estrategias meta cognitivas para desarrollar un nivel consciente de responsabilidad y autonomía en el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera. El marco teórico de este estudio se basa en conceptos tales como estilos cognitivos, estrategias meta cognitivas, aptitud, así como la autonomía y la responsabilidad en el aprendizaje. Los instrumentos diseñados para la recopilación de datos fueron un test sobre estilos cognitivos, en segundo lugar, un cuestionario semiestructurado con los siguientes ítems: proceso de toma de decisiones, la auto descripción como aprendices, las percepciones del estudiante sobre el papel del profesor, incluido el uso de estrategias meta cognitivas, tercero , una entrevista abierta con el objetivo de medir el impacto que tiene el concebir un proceso de aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera desde la perspectiva de los estilos de pensamiento. Los resultados mostraron la expectativa de los estudiantes para reconocer las capacidades humanas, la necesidad de adquirir la competencia estratégica, la necesidad real de participar abiertamente en la planificación de metas y objetivos, y en la auto-evaluación formativa del proceso de aprendizaje, así como el deseo de pasar de un proceso centrado en tareas, a un proceso centrado en la autonomía. The following article sums up the findings of a descriptive-qualitative research on cognitive styles carried out with members of the Academic Extension program at the UPB, aiming at describing the cognitive styles of students that enable them to recognize and use metacognitive strategies in order to develop a conscious level of autonomy and responsibility in learning

  1. Learning Spike Time Codes Through Morphological Learning With Binary Synapses.

    Roy, Subhrajit; San, Phyo Phyo; Hussain, Shaista; Wei, Lee Wang; Basu, Arindam


    In this brief, a neuron with nonlinear dendrites (NNLDs) and binary synapses that is able to learn temporal features of spike input patterns is considered. Since binary synapses are considered, learning happens through formation and elimination of connections between the inputs and the dendritic branches to modify the structure or morphology of the NNLD. A morphological learning algorithm inspired by the tempotron, i.e., a recently proposed temporal learning algorithm is presented in this brief. Unlike tempotron, the proposed learning rule uses a technique to automatically adapt the NNLD threshold during training. Experimental results indicate that our NNLD with 1-bit synapses can obtain accuracy similar to that of a traditional tempotron with 4-bit synapses in classifying single spike random latency and pairwise synchrony patterns. Hence, the proposed method is better suited for robust hardware implementation in the presence of statistical variations. We also present results of applying this rule to real-life spike classification problems from the field of tactile sensing. PMID:26173221

  2. Transfer of reading-related cognitive skills in learning to read Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among Chinese elementary school children

    Keung, YC; Ho, CSH


    This study investigated transfer of reading-related cognitive skills between learning to read Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among Chinese children in Hong Kong. Fifty-three Grade 2 students were tested on word reading, phonological, orthographic and rapid naming skills in Chinese (L1) and English (L2). The major findings were: (a) significant correlations between Chinese and English measures in phonological awareness and rapid naming, but not in orthographic skills; (b) significant unique con...

  3. Developing Critical L2 Digital Literacy through the Use of Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Learning Management Systems such as Moodle

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Second Language (L2) Digital Literacy is of emerging importance within English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Korea, and will evolve to become regarded as the most critical component of overall L2 English Literacy. Computer-based Internet-hosted Learning Management Systems (LMS), such as the popular open-source Moodle, are rapidly being adopted worldwide for distance education, and are also being applied to blended (hybrid) education. In EFL Education, they have a special potential: by setting the LMS to force English to be used exclusively throughout a course website, the meta-language can be made the target L2 language. Of necessity, students develop the ability to use English to navigate the Internet, access and contribute to online resources, and engage in computer-mediated communication. Through such pragmatic engagement with English, students significantly develop their L2 Digital Literacy.

  4. Direct and Indirect Access to Corpora: An Exploratory Case Study Comparing Students' Error Correction and Learning Strategy Use in L2 Writing

    Yoon, Hyunsook; Jo, Jung Won


    Studies on students' use of corpora in L2 writing have demonstrated the benefits of corpora not only as a linguistic resource to improve their writing abilities but also as a cognitive tool to develop their learning skills and strategies. Most of the corpus studies, however, adopted either direct use or indirect use of corpora by students,…

  5. Cantonese English as a Second Language Learners' Perceived Relations between "Similar" L1 and L2 Speech Sounds: A Test of the Speech Learning Model

    Chan, Alice Y. W.


    This article reports on the results of a research study that investigated Cantonese English as a second language (ESL) learners' perception of English speech sounds, their perceived relations between "similar" English and Cantonese sounds, as well as the applicability of the claims of the Speech Learning Model (SLM) to second language (L2)…

  6. L2 Vocabulary Learning from Reading: Explicit and Tacit Lexical Knowledge and the Role of Learner and Item Variables

    Elgort, Irina; Warren, Paul


    This study investigates acquisition of second language (L2) vocabulary from reading a connected authentic text. Advanced and upper-intermediate L2 (English) participants read a long expository text for general understanding, with embedded critical vocabulary items (pseudowords). Explicit knowledge of the critical items was examined using a meaning…

  7. Developing bi-plurilingual skills in French as a schooling language : L2 learning in early bilingual education

    COLIN, Catherine


    While the benefits of early bilingual education programs are widely praised and acknowledged, relatively little is known about the processes involved in child second language acquisition. The aim of this research is to investigate L2 development in young children while school is their only source of exposure to the L2. Relying on corpora collected in two French-American kindergarten and primary schools in California, this work focuses on how French is acquired by English-speaking children fro...

  8. Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: evidence from two learning methods in children.

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia


    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyse the effect of two learning methods (picture- vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and non-cognates) in early stages of children's L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age = 10.87 years; SD= 0.85), participated in the study. None of them had prior knowledge of Basque (the L2 in this study). After a learning phase in which L2 words were learned either by a picture- or a word-based method, children were tested in a backward-word translation recognition task at two times (immediately vs. one week later). Results showed that the participants made more errors when rejecting semantically related than semantically unrelated words as correct translations (semantic interference effect). The magnitude of this effect was higher in the delayed test condition regardless of the learning method. Moreover, the overall performance of participants from the word-based method was better than the performance of participants from the picture-word method. Results were discussed concerning the most significant bilingual lexical processing models. PMID:22804703

  9. Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots

    Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh;


    Hand-coding locomotion controllers for modular robots is difficult due to their polymorphic nature. Instead, we propose to use a simple and distributed reinforcement learning strategy. ATRON modules with identical controllers can be assembled in any configuration. To optimize the robot’s locomotion...... speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy’s performance on different robot configurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast...... as possible. We conclude that the learning strategy is effective and may be a practical approach to design gaits....

  10. Aptitude as Grammatical Sensitivity and the Initial Stages of Learning Japanese as a L2: Parametric Variation and Case Marking

    VanPatten, Bill; Smith, Megan


    In this article, we challenge the notion that aptitude--operationalized as grammatical sensitivity as measured by the Words in Sentences section of the Modern Language Aptitude Test--is central to adult second language (L2) acquisition. We present the findings of a study on the acquisition of two properties of Japanese, head-final word order and…

  11. Language Learning Motivation within the Context of Globalisation: An L2 Self within an Imagined Global Community

    Ryan, Stephen


    This is a theoretical paper that attempts to re-conceptualize language learning motivation by taking into consideration the effects of globalisation on learners' sense of identity and how this impacts on the motivation to learn the unquestioned language of globalisation, English. I will argue that in EFL contexts it is learners' sense of…

  12. Assessing Differences and Similarities between Instructed Heritage Language Learners and L2 Learners in Their Knowledge of Spanish Tense-Aspect and Mood (TAM) Morphology

    Montrul, Silvina; Perpinan, Silvia


    The acquisition of the aspectual difference between the preterit and imperfect in the past tense and the acquisition of the contrast between subjunctive and indicative mood are classic problem areas in second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish by English-speaking learners (Collentine, 1995, 1998, 2003; Salaberry, 1999; Slabakova & Montrul, 2002;…

  13. Tracking "Learning Behaviours" in the Incidental Acquisition of Two Dimensional Adjectives by Japanese Beginner Learners of L2 English

    Shintani, Natsuko; Ellis, Rod


    The purpose of this article is to examine both the process and product of vocabulary learning in a task-based instructional context. The article reports a study that investigated the acquisition of two dimensional adjectives ("big" and "small") by six-year-old Japanese children who were complete beginners. It tracked the…

  14. Enhancement of Automatization through Vocabulary Learning Using CALL: Can Prompt Language Processing Lead to Better Comprehension in L2 Reading?

    Sato, Takeshi; Matsunuma, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Akio


    Our study aims to optimize a multimedia application for vocabulary learning for English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Our study is based on the concept that difficulty in reading a text in a second language is due to the need for more working memory for word decoding skills, although the working memory must also be used for text comprehension…

  15. Task-based incidental vocabulary learning in L2 Arabic: The role of proficiency and task performance

    Ayman A. Mohamed


    Full Text Available This study tests the claim that word learning in a second language are contingent upon a task’s involvement load (i.e. the amount of need, search, and evaluation it imposes, as proposed by Laufer and Hulstijn (2001. Fifty-three English-speaking learners of Arabic were assigned to one of three vocabulary learning tasks that varied in the degree of involvement: reading comprehension with glosses (low, fill-in-the-gap task (medium, and sentence writing (high. Ten words, selected based on a pretest, were targeted in the tasks. Results showed a main effect of task, with the sentence writing task yielding the highest rates of vocabulary learning, followed by the gap-fill task, and finally the reading comprehension task. A significant correlation was found between accuracy of performance across participants and their subsequent vocabulary acquisition in the immediate posttest. Within groups, only the performance of the writing group correlated significantly with their posttest scores. Results of the present study validate the hypothesis and point to multiple factors at play in incidental vocabulary acquisition. The study provides further arguments to refine the hypothesis and implement pedagogical practices that accommodate incidental learning in foreign language settings.

  16. Effects of Interactive versus Simultaneous Display of Multimedia Glosses on L2 Reading Comprehension and Incidental Vocabulary Learning

    Türk, Emine; Erçetin, Gülcan


    This study examines the effects of interactive versus simultaneous display of visual and verbal multimedia information on incidental vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of learners of English with lower proficiency levels. In the interactive display condition, learners were allowed to select the type of multimedia information whereas the…

  17. L2 listening at work

    Øhrstrøm, Charlotte

    as a corporate language, listen in Danish at work, how they handle these situations, what problems they experience, and why some situations are more difficult to listen in than others. The study makes use of qualitative research methods and theoretical aspects from psycholinguistic approaches as well as socially......This dissertation on adult second language (L2) learning investigates individual learners’ experiences with listening in Danish as an L2 in everyday situations at work. More specifically, the study explores when international employees, who work at international companies in Denmark with English...

  18. Modelling “Constructional transfer”: A comparative corpus study of morphological and syntactic intensifiers in L1 French, L1 Dutch and L2 Dutch

    Hendrikx, Isa; Van Goethem, Kristel; Meunier, Fanny; Morphology Days 2015


    In this contribution we will present a corpus-based comparison of the use of intensifying constructions in (written) native Dutch (Corpus Hedendaags Nederlands), Dutch by French-speaking learners (Leerdercorpus Nederlands) and native French (Frantext). The central focus will be on the competition between morphological and syntactic means to intensify adjectives. The analysis will take a constructional perspective on language acquisition and multilingualism (cf. Tomasello 2003; Goldberg 2010; ...

  19. Automatic programming of binary morphological machines by PAC learning

    Barrera, Junior; Tomita, Nina S.; Correa da Silva, Flavio S.; Terada, Routo


    Binary image analysis problems can be solved by set operators implemented as programs for a binary morphological machine (BMM). This is a very general and powerful approach to solve this type of problem. However, the design of these programs is not a task manageable by nonexperts on mathematical morphology. In order to overcome this difficulty we have worked on tools that help users describe their goals at higher levels of abstraction and to translate them into BMM programs. Some of these tools are based on the representation of the goals of the user as a collection of input-output pairs of images and the estimation of the target operator from these data. PAC learning is a well suited methodology for this task, since in this theory 'concepts' are represented as Boolean functions that are equivalent to set operators. In order to apply this technique in practice we must have efficient learning algorithms. In this paper we introduce two PAC learning algorithms, both are based on the minimal representation of Boolean functions, which has a straightforward translation to the canonical decomposition of set operators. The first algorithm is based on the classical Quine-McCluskey algorithm for the simplification of Boolean functions, and the second one is based on a new idea for the construction of Boolean functions: the incremental splitting of intervals. We also present a comparative complexity analysis of the two algorithms. Finally, we give some application examples.

  20. Galaxy Image Processing and Morphological Classification Using Machine Learning

    Kates-Harbeck, Julian


    This work uses data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Galaxy Zoo Project for classification of galaxy morphologies via machine learning. SDSS imaging data together with reliable human classifications from Galaxy Zoo provide the training set and test set for the machine learning architectures. Classification is performed with hand-picked, pre-computed features from SDSS as well as with the raw imaging data from SDSS that was available to humans in the Galaxy Zoo project. With the hand-picked features and a logistic regression classifier, 95.21% classification accuracy and an area under the ROC curve of 0.986 are attained. In the case of the raw imaging data, the images are first processed to remove background noise, image artifacts, and celestial objects other than the galaxy of interest. They are then rotated onto their principle axis of variance to guarantee rotational invariance. The processed images are used to compute color information, up to 4^th order central normalized moments, and radial intensity profiles. These features are used to train a support vector machine with a 3^rd degree polynomial kernel, which achieves a classification accuracy of 95.89% with an ROC area of 0.943.

  1. MIMO transmit scheme based on morphological perceptron with competitive learning.

    Valente, Raul Ambrozio; Abrão, Taufik


    This paper proposes a new multi-input multi-output (MIMO) transmit scheme aided by artificial neural network (ANN). The morphological perceptron with competitive learning (MP/CL) concept is deployed as a decision rule in the MIMO detection stage. The proposed MIMO transmission scheme is able to achieve double spectral efficiency; hence, in each time-slot the receiver decodes two symbols at a time instead one as Alamouti scheme. Other advantage of the proposed transmit scheme with MP/CL-aided detector is its polynomial complexity according to modulation order, while it becomes linear when the data stream length is greater than modulation order. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared to the traditional MIMO schemes, namely Alamouti scheme and maximum-likelihood MIMO (ML-MIMO) detector. Also, the proposed scheme is evaluated in a scenario with variable channel information along the frame. Numerical results have shown that the diversity gain under space-time coding Alamouti scheme is partially lost, which slightly reduces the bit-error rate (BER) performance of the proposed MP/CL-NN MIMO scheme. PMID:27135805

  2. The VVT Project: A Web-Based Platform for Strategy Instruction and Research into Self-Regulated Learning of L2 Vocabulary

    Ranalli, James M.


    The focus of this dissertation is a web-based, second language (L2) instructional resource called VVT (Virtual Vocabulary Trainer) designed to teach integrated vocabulary depth of knowledge and dictionary referencing skills to tertiary-level learners of English as a Second Language (ESL). In addition to evaluating the potential of online resources…

  3. Effects of age of learning on voice onset time: categorical perception of Swedish stops by near-native L2 speakers.

    Stölten, Katrin; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Hyltenstam, Kenneth


    This study examined the effects of age of onset (AO) of L2 acquisition on the categorical perception of the voicing contrast in Swedish word-initial stops varying in voice onset time (VOT). Three voicing continua created on the basis of natural Swedish word pairs with /p-b/, /t-d/, /k-/ in initial position were presented to 41 Spanish early (AO 12) near-native speakers of L2 Swedish. Fifteen native speakers of Swedish served as controls. Categorizations were influenced by AO and listener status as L1/L2 speaker, in that the late learners deviated the most from native-speaker perception. In addition, only a small minority of the late learners perceived the voicing contrast in a way comparable to native-speaker categorization, while most early L2 learners demonstrated nativelike categorization patterns. However, when the results were combined with the L2 learners' production of Swedish voiceless stops (Stölten, 2005; Stölten, Abrahamsson & Hyltenstam, in press), nativelike production and perception was never found among the late learners, while a majority of the early learners still exhibited nativelike production and perception. It is concluded that, despite their being perceived as mother-tongue speakers of Swedish by native listeners, the late learners do not, after detailed phonetic scrutiny, exhibit a fully nativelike command of Swedish VOT. Consequently, being near-native rather than nativelike speakers of their second language, these individuals do not constitute the evidence necessary to reject the hypothesis of one or several critical (or sensitive) periods for language acquisition. PMID:25536842

  4. Combining Hand-crafted Rules and Unsupervised Learning in Constraint-based Morphological Disambiguation

    Oflazer, K; Oflazer, Kemal; Tur, Gokhan


    This paper presents a constraint-based morphological disambiguation approach that is applicable languages with complex morphology--specifically agglutinative languages with productive inflectional and derivational morphological phenomena. In certain respects, our approach has been motivated by Brill's recent work, but with the observation that his transformational approach is not directly applicable to languages like Turkish. Our system combines corpus independent hand-crafted constraint rules, constraint rules that are learned via unsupervised learning from a training corpus, and additional statistical information from the corpus to be morphologically disambiguated. The hand-crafted rules are linguistically motivated and tuned to improve precision without sacrificing recall. The unsupervised learning process produces two sets of rules: (i) choose rules which choose morphological parses of a lexical item satisfying constraint effectively discarding other parses, and (ii) delete rules, which delete parses sati...

  5. Morphological Awareness and Bilingual Word Learning: A Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko; Leong, Che Kan


    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay-English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first…

  6. The L2Acquisition of English Passive%The L2 Acquisition of English Passive



    Passive voice is an important grammatical category in language learning while it varies in different languages.In order to diminish the negative impact on L1 transfer and maintain the originality of passive voice in L2 learning,this essay centers on the grammatical differences of passive voice both in English and Chinese and propose practical teaching strategies.

  7. Relations of Learning Style of College Students and L2Acquisition%大学生学习风格与二语习得的关系及启示



    This paper has done a questionnaire on 476 college students about their learning style and has verified the Learning Style Inventory. The study shows that the inventory has good reliability and validity. The inventory describes the major types of learning styles among the college students as well as the difference tests and regression analysis of demographic variables. It has also surveyed Pearson correlation between different learning styles and English learning scores. The statistical analysis shows that the learning styles of auditory type, extravert type, overall type, induction type and field dependence are in significant positive correlation with English learning scores, which show the college students of these learning styles are better in L2 learning.%通过对476名大学生进行了有关学习风格的问卷调查,对学习风格量表进行了验证,表明其具有良好的信度和效度。利用该量表对大学生的主要学习类型进行了描述和人口统计学变量上的差异检验和回归分析,并考察了大学生不同学习风格与英语学习成绩之间的皮尔逊相关关系。统计分析结果表明听觉型、外向型、纵观全局型、归纳型和场依赖型的学习风格与其英语学习成绩呈显著正相关,说明具有这些学习风格的大学生其二语成绩更好。

  8. Learning morphological phenomena of modern Greek an exploratory approach

    Y. Kotsanis


    Full Text Available Educational technology is influenced by and closely related to the fields of generative epistemology, Artificial Intelligence, and the learning sciences. Relevant research literature refers to the term constructionism (Papert, 1993 and exploratory learning (diSessa et al, 1995. Constructionism and exploratory learning are a synthesis of the constructivist theory of Piaget and the opportunities offered by technology to education on thinking concretely, on learning while constructing intelligible entities, and on interacting with multimedia objects, rather than the direct acquisition of knowledge and facts. These views are based on the approach that learners can take substantial control of their own learning in an appropriately designed physical and cultural environment (Harel, 1991. In parallel, most of the studies of the Vygotskian framework focus on the role of language in the learning procedure, considering conceptual thought to be impossible outside an articulated verbal thinking. Moreover, the specific use of words is considered to be the most relevant cause for childhood and adolescent differentiation (Vygotsky, 1962.

  9. Teaching and Learning Morphology: A Reflection on Generative Vocabulary Instruction

    Templeton, Shane


    Students' knowledge of morphology can play a critical role in vocabulary development, and by extension, reading comprehension and writing. This reflection describes the nature of this knowledge and how it may be developed through the examination of generative vocabulary knowledge and the role of the spelling system in developing this knowledge. In…

  10. Suggestions of keeping L2 motivation



    How will we keep the motivation during the second language as long as we can, which confuses us, though what the L2 motivation is and how it is developed have been discussed by the psychologists, educators, etc. The aim of this passage is to clarify the basic content of motivation, including the definition, classification, importance, etc. how the current situation is in se-nior high students’English learning motivation, what should be done to keep such motivation. In the following part, it will be read that the introduction, the chapter stating the content and classification of (L 2) motivation, the chapter analyzing the necessity and state of L2 motivation at senor high, the chapter offering approach to keep that motivation, and the conclusion. All of them use the comparison, explanation and cites.

  11. Lexical representation of novel L2 contrasts

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Masuda, Kyoko


    There is much interest among psychologists and linguists in the influence of the native language sound system on the acquisition of second languages (Best, 1995; Flege, 1995). Most studies of second language (L2) speech focus on how learners perceive and produce L2 sounds, but we know of only two that have considered how novel sound contrasts are encoded in learners' lexical representations of L2 words (Pallier et al., 2001; Ota et al., 2002). In this study we investigated how native speakers of English encode Japanese consonant quantity contrasts in their developing Japanese lexicons at different stages of acquisition (Japanese contrasts singleton versus geminate consonants but English does not). Monolingual English speakers, native English speakers learning Japanese for one year, and native speakers of Japanese were taught a set of Japanese nonwords containing singleton and geminate consonants. Subjects then performed memory tasks eliciting perception and production data to determine whether they encoded the Japanese consonant quantity contrast lexically. Overall accuracy in these tasks was a function of Japanese language experience, and acoustic analysis of the production data revealed non-native-like patterns of differentiation of singleton and geminate consonants among the L2 learners of Japanese. Implications for theories of L2 speech are discussed.

  12. Similarity in L2 Phonology

    Barrios, Shannon L.


    Adult second language (L2) learners often experience difficulty producing and perceiving non-native phonological contrasts. Even highly proficient bilinguals, who have been exposed to an L2 for long periods of time, struggle with difficult contrasts, such as /r/-/l/ for Japanese learners of English. To account for the relative ease or difficulty…

  13. On Positive Evidence and Ultimate Attainment in L2 Phonology.

    Young-Scholten, Martha


    Reviews research on the acquisition of second-language (L2) phonology, focusing on whether adult learners have access to the principles and parameters of Universal Grammar (UG). It argues that UG is still accessible in L2 phonological acquisition, and parameters can be reset but that the Subset Principle can impede learning success. (51…

  14. Unsupervised Discovery of Phonological Categories through Supervised Learning of Morphological Rules

    Daelemans, W; Gillis, S; Daelemans, Walter; Berck, Peter; Gillis, Steven


    We describe a case study in the application of {\\em symbolic machine learning} techniques for the discovery of linguistic rules and categories. A supervised rule induction algorithm is used to learn to predict the correct diminutive suffix given the phonological representation of Dutch nouns. The system produces rules which are comparable to rules proposed by linguists. Furthermore, in the process of learning this morphological task, the phonemes used are grouped into phonologically relevant categories. We discuss the relevance of our method for linguistics and language technology.

  15. Severely impaired learning and altered neuronal morphology in mice lacking NMDA receptors in medium spiny neurons.

    Lisa R Beutler

    Full Text Available The striatum is composed predominantly of medium spiny neurons (MSNs that integrate excitatory, glutamatergic inputs from the cortex and thalamus, and modulatory dopaminergic inputs from the ventral midbrain to influence behavior. Glutamatergic activation of AMPA, NMDA, and metabotropic receptors on MSNs is important for striatal development and function, but the roles of each of these receptor classes remain incompletely understood. Signaling through NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs in the striatum has been implicated in various motor and appetitive learning paradigms. In addition, signaling through NMDARs influences neuronal morphology, which could underlie their role in mediating learned behaviors. To study the role of NMDARs on MSNs in learning and in morphological development, we generated mice lacking the essential NR1 subunit, encoded by the Grin1 gene, selectively in MSNs. Although these knockout mice appear normal and display normal 24-hour locomotion, they have severe deficits in motor learning, operant conditioning and active avoidance. In addition, the MSNs from these knockout mice have smaller cell bodies and decreased dendritic length compared to littermate controls. We conclude that NMDAR signaling in MSNs is critical for normal MSN morphology and many forms of learning.

  16. Children benefit from morphological relatedness when they learn to spell new words



    Full Text Available Use of morphologically related words often helps in selecting among spellings of sounds in French. For instance, final /wa/ may be spelled oi (e.g., envoi ‘sendoff’, oit (e.g., exploit ‘exploit’, ois (e.g., siamois, ‘siamese’, or oie (e.g., joie ‘joy’. The morphologically complex word exploiter ‘to exploit’, with a pronounced t, can be used to indicate that the stem exploit is spelled with a silent t. We asked whether 8-year-old children benefited from such cues to learn new spellings. Children read silently stories which included two target nonwords, one presented in an opaque condition and the other in a morphological condition. In the opaque condition, the sentence provided semantic information (e.g., a vensois is a musical instrument but no morphological information that could justify the spelling of the target word’s final sound. Such justification was available in the morphological condition (e.g., the vensoisist plays the vensois instrument, which justifies that vensois includes a final silent s. Thirty minutes after having read the stories, children’s orthographic learning was assessed by asking them to choose the correct spelling of each nonword from among three phonologically plausible alternatives (e.g., vensois, vensoit, vensoie. Children chose correct spellings more often in the morphological condition than the opaque condition, even though the root (vensois had been presented equally often in both conditions. That is, children benefited from information about the spelling of the morphologically complex word to learn the spelling of the stem.

  17. Fault-tolerant gait learning and morphology optimization of a polymorphic walking robot

    Christensen, David Johan; Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Stoy, Kasper


    optimize eight open parameters of a central pattern generator based gait implementation. We observe that the strategy converges in roughly ten minutes to gaits of similar or higher velocity than a manually designed gait and that the strategy readapts in the event of failed actuators. We also optimize......This paper presents experiments with a morphology-independent, life-long strategy for online learning of locomotion gaits. The experimental platform is a quadruped robot assembled from the LocoKit modular robotic construction kit. The learning strategy applies a stochastic optimization algorithm to...... offline the reachable space of a foot based on a reference design but finds that the reality gap hardens the successfully transference to the physical robot. To address this limitation, in future work we plan to study co-learning of morphological and control parameters directly on physical robots....

  18. Comments on Stefka H. Marinova-Todd, D. Bradford Marshall, and Catherine E. Snow's "Three Misconceptions About Age and L2 Learning" [and] Age and L2 Learning: The Hazards of Matching Practical "Implications" with Theoretical "Facts" [and] Missing the Point: A Response to Hyltenstam and Abrahamsson.

    Hyltenstam, Kenneth; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Marshall, D. Bradford; Snow, Catherine E.


    Offers comments on an earlier article on age and second language learning, and questions the authors' of that article's interpretation of the research they reviewed. The authors of the original article respond to these comments and questions. (Author/VWL)

  19. Negative evidence in L2 acquisition

    Anne Dahl


    Full Text Available This article deals with the L2 acquisition of differences between Norwegian and English passives, and presents data to show that the acquisition of these differences by Norwegian L2 acquirers of English cannot be fully explained by positive evidence, cues, conservativism or economy. Rather, it is argued, it is natural to consider whether indirect negative evidence may facilitate acquisition by inferencing. The structures in focus are impersonal passive constructions with postverbal NPs and passive constructions with intransitive verbs. These sentences are ungrammatical in English. Chomsky (1981 proposes that this is a result of passive morphology absorbing objective case in English. There is no such case to be assigned to the postverbal NP in impersonal passives. In passive constructions with intransitive verbs, the verb does not assign objective case, so that there is no case for the passive morphology to absorb. Thus, impersonal passives have to be changed into personal passives, where the NP receives nominative case, and the objective case is free to go to the passive morphology. Intransitive verbs, however, cannot be used in the passive voice at all. Both the structures discussed in this article, i.e. are grammatical in Norwegian. However, the options available in English, viz. personal passives and active sentences, are equally possible. Åfarli (1992 therefore proposes that Norwegian has optional case absorption (passive morphology optionally absorbs case. On the basis on such observations, we may propose a parameter with the settings [+case absorption] for English, and [-case absorption], signifying optional case absorption, for Norwegian. This means that none of the structures that are grammatical in English can function as positive evidence for the [+case absorption] setting, since they are also grammatical in optional case absorption languages. The question is how this parameter is set.

  20. Extreme Networksin L2-tietoturvaominaisuudet

    Piispanen, Juha


    Opinnäytetyö toteutettiin Jyväskylän ammattikorkeakoulun SpiderNet-laboratorioympäristössä. SpiderNet-laboratorio ympäristöä käytetään Jyväskylän ammattikorkeakoulun tietotekniikka-koulutusohjelman opetuksessa, sekä tutkimus- ja kehityshankkeissa. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli toteuttaa SpiderNet-laboratorioympäristöön L2-kytkinympäristö Extreme Networksin laitteilla, jossa testattiin ja todennettiin Extreme Networksin kytkinten tukemia L2-tason tietoturvatekniikoita. Työssä käytössä oli E...

  1. Morphological neural networks for automatic target detection by simulated annealing learning algorithm

    余农; 吴昊; 吴常泳; 李范鸣; 吴立德


    A practical neural network model for morphological filtering and a simulated annealing optimal algorithm for the network parameters training are proposed in this paper. It is pointed out that the optimal designing process of the morphological filtering network in fact is the optimal learning process of adjusting network parameters (structuring element, or SE for short) to accommodate image environment. Then the network structure may possess the characteristics ofimage targets, and so give specific infor- mation to the SE. Morphological filters formed in this way become certainly intelligent and can provide good filtering results and robust adaptability to complex changing image. For application tomotional image target detection, dynamic training algorithm is applied to the designing process using asymptotic shrinking error and appropriate network weights adjusting. Experimental results show that the algorithm has invariant propertywith respect to shift, scale and rotation of moving target in continuing detection of moving targets.

  2. L2 and L3 integrated learning

    Hazel, Spencer; Wagner, Johannes


    This study offers an empirical account of the use of English in Danish-as-a-foreign-language classroom settings. We will refer to English as the lingua franca - which in itself is a second language for the majority of the participants in the data - and to Danish as the target language. We consider...... implications of lingua franca interaction in target language classroom interactions, and show how in sequences where participants orient to linguistic issues in the target language, for example grammatical forms or lexical items, they often do this with reference to the lingua franca....

  3. Combining human and machine learning for morphological analysis of galaxy images

    Kuminski, Evan; Wallin, John; Shamir, Lior


    The increasing importance of digital sky surveys collecting many millions of galaxy images has reinforced the need for robust methods that can perform morphological analysis of large galaxy image databases. Citizen science initiatives such as Galaxy Zoo showed that large datasets of galaxy images can be analyzed effectively by non-scientist volunteers, but since databases generated by robotic telescopes grow much faster than the processing power of any group of citizen scientists, it is clear that computer analysis is required. Here we propose to use citizen science data for training machine learning systems, and show experimental results demonstrating that machine learning systems can be trained with citizen science data. Our findings show that the performance of machine learning depends on the quality of the data, which can be improved by using samples that have a high degree of agreement between the citizen scientists. The source code of the method is publicly available.

  4. Combining Human and Machine Learning for Morphological Analysis of Galaxy Images

    Kuminski, Evan; George, Joe; Wallin, John; Shamir, Lior


    The increasing importance of digital sky surveys collecting many millions of galaxy images has reinforced the need for robust methods that can perform morphological analysis of large galaxy image databases. Citizen science initiatives such as Galaxy Zoo showed that large data sets of galaxy images can be analyzed effectively by nonscientist volunteers, but since databases generated by robotic telescopes grow much faster than the processing power of any group of citizen scientists, it is clear that computer analysis is required. Here, we propose to use citizen science data for training machine learning systems, and show experimental results demonstrating that machine learning systems can be trained with citizen science data. Our findings show that the performance of machine learning depends on the quality of the data, which can be improved by using samples that have a high degree of agreement between the citizen scientists. The source code of the method is publicly available.

  5. Authenticity in oral communication of instructed L2 learners

    Nowicka, Agnieszka; Wilczyńska, Weronika


    The skill of producing oral discourse in L2 is commonly considered to be difficult to foster in instructional setting. However, the main problem appears to be ensuring an authenticity of speaking both in personal, internal sense and in the social, socio-linguistic dimension. The main claim of here-discussed person centered approach is that both of these dimensions, although distinct, do not need to be treated in L2 learning as systematically separate and incompatible ones. On the contrary,...

  6. Task Complexity and L2 Narrative Oral Production

    Gilabert Guerrero, Roger


    This study explores the impact of manipulating Task Complexity simultaneously along both pre-task planning time and the degree of displaced, past time reference on L2 narrative oral production. By drawing on consolidated psycholinguistic models of language production, the study first explores the similarities and differences between L1 and L2 oral production and examines how language processing for comprehension, production, and learning are mediated by the cognitive processes of attention an...

  7. Distinct morphological processing of recently learned compound words: An ERP study.

    Kaczer, Laura; Timmer, Kalinka; Bavassi, Luz; Schiller, Niels O


    Our vocabulary is, at least in principle, infinite. We can create new words combining existing ones in meaningful ways to form new linguistic expressions. The present study investigated the morphological processing of novel compound words in overt speech production. Native speakers of Dutch learned a series of new compounds (e.g. appelgezicht, 'apple-face') that were later used as primes in a morphological priming task. In this protocol, primes were compound words morphologically related to a target's picture name (e.g. appelgezicht was used for a picture of an apple, Dutch appel). The novel primes were compared with corresponding familiar compounds sharing a free morpheme (e.g. appelmoes, 'applesauce') and with unrelated compounds. Participants were required to read aloud words and to name pictures in a long-lag design. Behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) data were collected in two sessions, separated by 48h. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological related words. Notably, our results show that novel compounds have a stronger priming effect than familiar compounds in both sessions, which is expressed in a marked reduction in target naming latencies and a decrease in the N400 amplitude. These results suggest that participants focused more on the separate constituents when reading novel primes than in the case of existing compounds. PMID:26505918

  8. CALL--Enhanced L2 Listening Skills--Aiming for Automatization in a Multimedia Environment

    Mayor, Maria Jesus Blasco


    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening…

  9. A morphological perceptron with gradient-based learning for Brazilian stock market forecasting.

    Araújo, Ricardo de A


    Several linear and non-linear techniques have been proposed to solve the stock market forecasting problem. However, a limitation arises from all these techniques and is known as the random walk dilemma (RWD). In this scenario, forecasts generated by arbitrary models have a characteristic one step ahead delay with respect to the time series values, so that, there is a time phase distortion in stock market phenomena reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a suitable model inspired by concepts in mathematical morphology (MM) and lattice theory (LT). This model is generically called the increasing morphological perceptron (IMP). Also, we present a gradient steepest descent method to design the proposed IMP based on ideas from the back-propagation (BP) algorithm and using a systematic approach to overcome the problem of non-differentiability of morphological operations. Into the learning process we have included a procedure to overcome the RWD, which is an automatic correction step that is geared toward eliminating time phase distortions that occur in stock market phenomena. Furthermore, an experimental analysis is conducted with the IMP using four complex non-linear problems of time series forecasting from the Brazilian stock market. Additionally, two natural phenomena time series are used to assess forecasting performance of the proposed IMP with other non financial time series. At the end, the obtained results are discussed and compared to results found using models recently proposed in the literature. PMID:22391234

  10. Teaching L2 Spanish Stress

    Saalfeld, Anita K.


    The present study investigated the effects of training on the perception of Spanish stress, an important feature in the Spanish verbal morphology system. Participants were two intact classes of native English speakers enrolled in a six-week session of second-semester Spanish, as well as native English and native Spanish control groups. During the…

  11. Translation and Short-Term L2 Vocabulary Retention: Hindrance or Help?

    Hummel, Kirsten M.


    This study addresses the role that active translation may have in second language (L2) vocabulary learning. Some research suggests that translation might be an effective cognitive strategy for L2 vocabulary learning. Participants were 191 native French-speaking students enrolled in a TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) program.The study…

  12. Instructors' Attitudes towards CALL and MALL in L2 Classrooms

    Pagel, James W.; Lambacher, Stephen; Reedy, David W.


    As part of an ongoing study on learners' and instructors' attitudes toward the use of computers and mobile devices in second-language (L2) learning situations, our purpose here is to identify how language instructors value the use of computers and mobile devices in their teaching. We compare the responses of a survey administered during the past…

  13. The L1=L2 Hypotheses: A Reconsideration

    Ellis, Rod


    Discusses the L1=L2 hypothesis which states that, all other things except knowledge of language being equal, first language acquisition is the same as second language acquisition. Reviews the evidence for and against the hypothesis, looks at current research and considers the general distinction between formal and informal learning. (SED)

  14. Learner Negotiation of L2 Form in Transcription Exercises

    Mennim, Paul


    Negotiation of language form is thought to engage learning processes by helping learners to notice gaps in their developing L2 and find target-like ways of filling them. Self-transcription, where learners work together to find language errors in recordings of their own oral output, is an awareness raising exercise that encourages such negotiation.…

  15. Selective Listening in L2 Learners of French

    Graham, Suzanne; Santos, Denise


    This paper considers the issue raised in 2008 by Gillian Brown in her article "Selective listening" regarding whether nouns are "privileged" in memory over verbs during listening tasks, and whether attention to nouns, at least in the early stages of L2 learning, is a desirable strategy to be taught to learners, as Brown suggests it might be. The…

  16. L(2)-cohomology of arithmetic varieties.

    Saper, L; Stern, M


    The L(2)-cohomology of arithmetic quotients of bounded symmetric domains is studied. We establish the conjecture of Zucker equating the L(2)-cohomology of these spaces to the intersection cohomology of their Baily-Borel compactifications. PMID:16593866

  17. L2-cohomology of arithmetic varieties

    Saper, Leslie; Stern, Mark


    The L2-cohomology of arithmetic quotients of bounded symmetric domains is studied. We establish the conjecture of Zucker equating the L2-cohomology of these spaces to the intersection cohomology of their Baily-Borel compactifications. PMID:16593866

  18. The Analysis of L2 Learners'Fossilization in Interlanguage



    The author designed a questionnaire,emailed and interviewed thirty advanced L2 learners who work as L2 lecturers in a university to get a survey on the processing of fossilization in their foreign language learning and teaching from the causes of purpose of learning.teaching tasks and other factors involved.AU of the subjects thought that their coinlnand of the target language was not as good as a native speaker's of target language in many aspects.That is.there existed fossilization among them.However,most of them agreed that their command of the target language was adequate for their professional and communication needs.Results also suggest that fossilization Can be conscious to this group of L2 learners;it is deeply related with the L2 learners'motivations;it can be affected by personal famres such as ages,learning styles and teaching tasks;it is changeable and unpredictable;and jt is diffcult to eradicate.

  19. ASC Trilab L2 Codesign Milestone 2015

    Trott, Christian Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Simon David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dinge, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lin, Paul T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vaughan, Courtenay T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cook, Jeanine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Edwards, Harold C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rajan, Mahesh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoekstra, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    For the FY15 ASC L2 Trilab Codesign milestone Sandia National Laboratories performed two main studies. The first study investigated three topics (performance, cross-platform portability and programmer productivity) when using OpenMP directives and the RAJA and Kokkos programming models available from LLNL and SNL respectively. The focus of this first study was the LULESH mini-application developed and maintained by LLNL. In the coming sections of the report the reader will find performance comparisons (and a demonstration of portability) for a variety of mini-application implementations produced during this study with varying levels of optimization. Of note is that the implementations utilized including optimizations across a number of programming models to help ensure claims that Kokkos can provide native-class application performance are valid. The second study performed during FY15 is a performance assessment of the MiniAero mini-application developed by Sandia. This mini-application was developed by the SIERRA Thermal-Fluid team at Sandia for the purposes of learning the Kokkos programming model and so is available in only a single implementation. For this report we studied its performance and scaling on a number of machines with the intent of providing insight into potential performance issues that may be experienced when similar algorithms are deployed on the forthcoming Trinity ASC ATS platform.

  20. CALL-enhanced L2 listening skills – aiming for automatization in a multimedia environment

    Blasco Mayor, María Jesús


    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening comprehension research, as they are the foundations of our methodological proposal. It also establishes a set of criteria for the design and pedagogical ex...

  1. The Application of Bottom-up and Top-down Processing in L2 Listening Comprehension



    Listening comprehension is one of the four basic skills for language learning and is also one of the most difficult tasks L2 learners ever experienced.L2 listening comprehemion is a cognitvive process,in which listeners use both bottom-up andtop-downprocessing to comprehend the auraltext.Thepaper focmes on the applicationof the two approaches in L2 lis-tening comprehemiom

  2. The UG Paradox in L2 Acquisition.

    Clahsen, Harald; Muysken, Pieter


    Suggests that differences between first- and second-language learners are due to principles of universal grammar (UG) that guide first language (L1), but not second language (L2) acquisition. This view can be reconciled with the idea that L2 learners can use UG principles to some extent in evaluating target sentences. (49 references) (Author/VWL)

  3. Phantom Word Activation in L2

    Broersma, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne


    L2 listening can involve the phantom activation of words which are not actually in the input. All spoken-word recognition involves multiple concurrent activation of word candidates, with selection of the correct words achieved by a process of competition between them. L2 listening involves more such activation than L1 listening, and we report two…

  4. Defining and Operationalising L2 Complexity

    Bulte, Bram; Housen, Alex


    This chapter takes a critical look at complexity in L2 research. We demonstrate several problems in the L2 literature in terms of how complexity has been defined and operationalised as a construct. In the first part of the chapter we try to unravel its highly complex, multidimensional nature by presenting a taxonomic model that identifies major…

  5. L2 English Intonation: Relations between Form-Meaning Associations, Access to Meaning, and L1 Transfer

    Ortega-Llebaria, Marta; Colantoni, Laura


    Although there is consistent evidence that higher levels of processing, such as learning the form-meaning associations specific to the second language (L2), are a source of difficulty in acquiring L2 speech, no study has addressed how these levels interact in shaping L2 perception and production of intonation. We examine the hypothesis of whether…

  6. The Ethnic Group Affiliation and L2 Proficiency Link: Empirical Evidence

    Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Trofimovich, Pavel


    With economic globalisation making second language (L2) learning inevitable throughout the world, understanding what factors facilitate success is a socioeconomic necessity. This paper examined the role of social factors, those related to ethnic group affiliation (EGA), in the development of L2 proficiency. Although numerous studies have…

  7. Isolated and Integrated Form-Focused Instruction: Effects on Different Types of L2 Knowledge

    Spada, Nina; Jessop, Lorena; Tomita, Yasuyo; Suzuki, Wataru; Valeo, Antonella


    In this study we compared the effects of two types of form-focused instruction (FFI) on second language (L2) learning and their potential contributions to the development of different types of L2 knowledge. Both types of instruction were pre-emptive in nature, that is planned and teacher generated. In Integrated FFI attention to form was embedded…

  8. College Students' Possible L2 Self Development in an EFL Context during the Transition Year

    Zhan, Ying; Wan, Zhi Hong


    In the field of second language learning motivation, the studies on process-oriented nature of possible L2 selves are scarce. In order to address this research gap, this study explored how a group of five Chinese non-English-major undergraduates developed their possible L2 selves during the transition year from high school to university. The…

  9. L2-Proficiency-Dependent Laterality Shift in Structural Connectivity of Brain Language Pathways.

    Xiang, Huadong; van Leeuwen, Tessa Marije; Dediu, Dan; Roberts, Leah; Norris, David G; Hagoort, Peter


    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests and DTI scans were obtained from German students before and after they completed an intensive 6-week course of the Dutch language. In the initial learning stage, with increasing L2 proficiency, the hemispheric dominance of the Brodmann area (BA) 6-temporal pathway (mainly along the arcuate fasciculus) shifted from the left to the right hemisphere. With further increased proficiency, however, lateralization dominance was again found in the left BA6-temporal pathway. This result is consistent with reports in the literature that imply a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere in L2 processing especially for less proficient L2 speakers. This is the first time that an L2 proficiency-dependent laterality shift in the structural connectivity of language pathways during L2 acquisition has been observed to shift from left to right and back to left hemisphere dominance with increasing L2 proficiency. The authors additionally find that changes in fractional anisotropy values after the course are related to the time elapsed between the two scans. The results suggest that structural connectivity in (at least part of) the perisylvian language network may be subject to fast dynamic changes following language learning. PMID:25594261

  10. The production and processing of determiner-noun agreement in child L2 Dutch

    E. Blom; N. Vasić


    Recent research has shown that children who learn Dutch as their second language (L2) have difficulties with Dutch grammatical gender. This study shows that six to nine year old L2 Dutch children whose first language (L1) is Turkish noticed incorrect gender agreement between determiner and noun only

  11. A Review of Multimedia Glosses and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in CALL Literature

    Mohsen, Mohammed Ali; Balakumar, M.


    This article reviews the literature of multimedia glosses in computer assisted language learning (CALL) and their effects on L2 vocabulary acquisition during the past seventeen years. Several studies have touched on this area to examine the potential of multimedia in a CALL environment in aiding L2 vocabulary acquisition. In this review, the…

  12. A Key Factor Affecting L2 (English) Vocabulary Acquisition:L2 (English) Proficiency



    There are some certain factors affecting L2 ( English) vocabulary acquisition such as L2 ( English) proficiency, readers’ purpose and the habit of reading, and the difficulty of target words and context, among which the first plays a key role. The paper, through a review of the relevant experimental researches, reaches a conclusion that L2 ( English) proficiency does influence much upon L2 vocabulary acquisition.

  13. Using Eye-Tracking to Investigate Topics in L2 Acquisition and L2 Processing

    Roberts, Leah; Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna


    Second language (L2) researchers are becoming more interested in both L2 learners' knowledge of the target language and how that knowledge is put to use during real-time language processing. Researchers are therefore beginning to see the importance of combining traditional L2 research methods with those that capture the moment-by-moment…

  14. L^2-homology for compact quantum groups

    Kyed, David


    A notion of L^2-homology for compact quantum groups is introduced, generalizing the classical notion for countable, discrete groups. If the compact quantum group in question has tracial Haar state, it is possible to define its L^2-Betti numbers and Novikov-Shubin invariants/capacities. It is proved that these L^2-Betti numbers vanish for the Gelfand dual of a compact Lie group and that the zeroth Novikov-Shubin invariant equals the dimension of the underlying Lie group. Finally, we relate our...

  15. L(2) Cohomology of the Bergman metric.

    Donnelly, H; Fefferman, C


    The L(2) cohomology of the Bergman metric is infinite dimensional in the middle degree and vanishes for all other degrees. Asymptotic expansions are given for the Schwartz kernels of the corresponding projections onto harmonic forms. PMID:16593319

  16. L2 Cohomology of the Bergman metric

    Donnelly, Harold; Fefferman, Charles


    The L2 cohomology of the Bergman metric is infinite dimensional in the middle degree and vanishes for all other degrees. Asymptotic expansions are given for the Schwartz kernels of the corresponding projections onto harmonic forms. PMID:16593319

  17. Transfer of L1 Visual Word Recognition Strategies during Early Stages of L2 Learning: Evidence from Hebrew Learners Whose First Language Is Either Semitic or Indo-European

    Norman, Tal; Degani, Tamar; Peleg, Orna


    The present study examined visual word recognition processes in Hebrew (a Semitic language) among beginning learners whose first language (L1) was either Semitic (Arabic) or Indo-European (e.g. English). To examine if learners, like native Hebrew speakers, exhibit morphological sensitivity to root and word-pattern morphemes, learners made an…

  18. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies



    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed.Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  19. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies



    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed .Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  20. Learning to Read Chinese: The Relative Roles of Phonological Awareness and Morphological Awareness

    Chan, Yi-Chih


    Phonological awareness and morphological awareness have been shown to affect Chinese children's reading development. Previous studies conducted in Hong Kong, which required children to read two-character words only or a mixture of single-character and two-character words in a Chinese reading test, exclusively found that morphological awareness was…

  1. Digital Game-Based Learning (DGBL) in the L2 Classroom: The Impact of the UN's Off-the-Shelf Videogame, Food Force, on Learner Affect and Vocabulary Retention

    Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Schmidt, Matthew; Hayashi, Kentaro


    This mixed-method study explored the impact of "Food Force (FF)", a UN-sponsored off-the-shelf videogame, on learner affect and vocabulary learning and retention in a Japanese as a second/foreign language classroom. The videogame was integrated into an existing curriculum and two studies were performed. In Study 1 (n = 9), new vocabulary…

  2. Personalized versus Normal Practice of L2 Speaking on Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Proficiency

    Ayda Rahmani


    Full Text Available Personalized learning is a self-initiated, self-directed or self-prioritized pursuit which gives the learner a degree of choice about the process of learning i.e. what to learn, how to learn and when to learn. Of course personalized learning does not indicate unlimited choice; because, L2 learners will still have targets to be met. However, it provides learners with the opportunity to learn in ways that suit their individual learning styles. The L2 learner should have the opportunity to freely choose a series of activities, already predisposed by the teacher, to improve and develop L2 proficiency. This is because human beings have different ways to learn and process information; and, these different ways of learning are independent of each other. In other words, learning styles and techniques differ across individuals; thus, personalized learning provides L2 learners to freely choose the activities they enjoy the most. So it is a student-centered learning method in which the interests and the preferences of the learner is taken into account.The present study is an investigation of a personalized versus normal practice of L2 proficiency. For this purpose an OPT (Oxford Placement Test was given to a total of 80 Iranian EFL learners. Then, 40 of them who were considered as intermediate learners were selected for the purpose of the study. The participants were randomly divided into two groups i.e. an experimental group and a control group. Both groups were pretested prior to the study. Then, the experimental group received the treatment in the form of personalized learning (games-based learning, songs, music, stories, English tongue twisters and the materials that the subjects were most interested in for ten sessions while the control group received a normal practice of speaking proficiency (based on New Interchange course books. After ten sessions, both groups were post tested. Then the results of the posttests were subjects of statistical analysis

  3. The L2-cohomology of Discrete Groups

    Schreve, Kevin

    Given a space with a proper, cocompact group action, the L2-cohomology groups are a particularly interesting invariant that incorporates the topology of the space and the geometry of the group action. We are interested in both the algebraic and geometric aspects of these invariants. From the algebraic side, the Strong Atiyah Conjecture claims that the L2-Betti numbers assume only rational values, with certain prescribed denominators related to the torsion subgroups of the group. We prove this conjecture for the class of virtually cocompact special groups. This implies the Zero Divisor Conjecture holds for such groups. On the geometric side, the Action Dimension Conjecture claims that a group with that acts properly on a contractible n-manifold has vanishing L2-Betti numbers above the middle dimension. We will prove this conjecture for many classes of right-angled Artin groups and Coxeter groups.

  4. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: A case report

    Jović Nebojša J.


    Full Text Available Introduction. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disease with a slowly progressive course and characterized by increased levels of hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. In this condition clinical features mainly consist of mental deterioration, ataxia and motor deficits. Case Outline. The patient is a 16-year-old girl, the first and only child of healthy, non-consanguineous parents of Serbian origin. At the age of 4 years her walk became unsteady and ataxic. Other signs of cerebellar involvement were soon observed. Head circumference was above two standard deviations (55 cm. Mild mental retardation was revealed by formal intelligence testing (IQ 60. MR examination of the brain showed confluent subcortical white matter lesions spread centripetally, and atrophy of the cerebellar vermis with involvement of dentate nuclei, without deep white matter abnormalities. Laboratory investigation revealed increased amounts and a very large peak of HGA in urine and plasma. Enantiomeric analysis confirmed the L-configuration (>90% establishing the diagnosis of L-2-HGA. The first epileptic seizure, partial with secondary generalization, occurred at age of 8 years. Favorable seizure control was achieved. A slow progression of neurological impairment was noted. Therapeutic trials with oral coenzyme Q10 and with oral riboflavin showed no biochemical and clinical effects. Recently, the diagnosis was proven by the presence of a mutation in the L-2-HGA gene. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of L-2-HGA in Serbia. L-2-HGA must be considered in the differential diagnosis based on specific findings in cranial MRI.

  5. A new approach to the learning of dental morphology, function, and esthetics: the "2D-3D-4D" concept.

    Magne, Pascal


    A concept is proposed for an approach to the learning of dental morphology and occlusion. Dental morphology, function, and esthetics should reflect a fundamental driving force, that is, the faithful emulation of the natural dentition's structural (functional, mechanical) and esthetic properties. The innovative part of the proposed approach is the emphasis on visual arts and the 2D-3D-4D aspect that starts with drawing (2D/3D) and continues with partial wax-up exercises that are followed by labial waxups and, finally, full wax-ups using innovative technical aids (electric waxers, prefabricated wax patterns, etc). Finally, the concept of layers (4D) and the histoanatomy of enamel/dentin and optical depth are taught through the realization of layering exercises (advanced acrylic mock-ups and composite resin restorations). All these techniques and materials are not only used to teach morphology and occlusion, but also constitute essential tools that will be of significant use for the student dentists and dental technologists in their future daily practice. The clinical significance of the presented methodology should allow not only students but also practicing dentists and dental technologists to help their youngest collaborators to develop a deep sense of morphology, function, and esthetics. PMID:25625126

  6. The Bounded L2 Curvature Conjecture

    Klainerman, Sergiu; Rodnianski, Igor; Szeftel, Jeremie


    This is the main paper in a sequence in which we give a complete proof of the bounded $L^2$ curvature conjecture. More precisely we show that the time of existence of a classical solution to the Einstein-vacuum equations depends only on the $L^2$-norm of the curvature and a lower bound on the volume radius of the corresponding initial data set. We note that though the result is not optimal with respect to the standard scaling of the Einstein equations, it is nevertheless critical with respect...

  7. Exponential spectra in $L^2(\\mu)$

    He, Xing-Gang; Lau, Ka-Sing


    Let $\\mu$ be a Borel probability measure with compact support. We consider exponential type orthonormal bases, Riesz bases and frames in $L^2(\\mu)$. We show that if $L^2(\\mu)$ admits an exponential frame, then $\\mu$ must be of pure type. We also classify various $\\mu$ that admits either kind of exponential bases, in particular, the discrete measures and their connection with integer tiles. By using this and convolution, we construct a class of singularly continuous measures that has an exponential Riesz basis but no exponential orthonormal basis. It is the first of such kind of examples.

  8. Literary Language in Development of L2 Competence

    Dan Lu


    Full Text Available Nowadays it is believed that language in daily communication rather than literary language should be the target of learning in L2 education. This is mainly because literary language is said to be uncommon in life. This paper reports on a study in which some Hong Kong ESL learners’ English proficiency was re-examined through literary texts. These learners had reached intermediate or advanced levels of English prior to the study and were generally competent in daily English. However, many of them encountered difficulty in understanding literary language. Their proficiency in general English test could not match their performances in understanding literary works. The findings reveal that learners who are strong in general proficiency may not be good in understanding literary language. Lack of literary language in the curriculum results in a false and distorted picture about the learners’ proficiency. Literary language helps upgrade L2 learners’ real proficiency in the target language.Keywords: literature, literary language, L2 proficiency, reading competence


    Filippo Zanoli


    Full Text Available Mai come oggi le classi (di Italiano L2, ma non solo sono così fortemente colonizzate dal digitale. L’invasione si è palesata sotto forma di telefonini cellulari (smartphone e tablet dotati di connessione internet e infinite potenzialità sotto forma di applicazioni che possono sia aiutare il discente sia, se male impiegati, ostacolarlo dall’intraprendere un proficuo percorso di apprendimento. Compito dell’insegnante di lingua è circoscrivere l’influenza e l’uso di tali strumenti – che non sono mero techné, ma un modo di funzionare di una generazione – non  per vietarli ma per proporre un approccio e un loro utilizzo costruttivo quali mezzi dalle grandi potenzialità nell’apprendimento di una lingua straniera.     The 1st class – Smartphones and Italian L2/FL   Classrooms (for Italian L2, but not only have never before been so strongly digitally oriented. This invasion is made tangible by smartphones and tablets equipped with internet connections and infinite potential thanks to applications which can help students in their studies, or hinder them if used incorrectly. The language teacher’s task is to circumscribe the influence and use of these tools– which are not mere techné, but the way an entire generation functions – not to prohibit using them but to propose using them constructively, thanks to their great potential for foreign language learning.

  10. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    Mai, Ziyin


    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…


    Arun Behera


    Full Text Available Learning a language is always a difficult thing and more so when it comes to learning a second language (L2 for it reflects the complexity of learning a language which is the other tongue rather than the mother tongue of a person. The present paper proposes to focus on the prospects and benefits of the skill-based learning of the L2. All learners, as such pick up a language by two means: a acquisition of one's own language/mother tongue, and b learning another language. Acquisition is a subconscious and intuitive process, similar to that used by a child to pick up the first language (L1; and the second is conscious learning, in which a learner is aware of his/her own learning process.

  12. Processing Focus Structure in L1 and L2 French: L2 Proficiency Effects on ERPs

    Reichle, Robert V.; Birdsong, David


    This study examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by focus processing among first language (L1) speakers and second language (L2) learners of French. Participants read wh-questions containing explicit focus marking, followed by responses instantiating contrastive and informational focus. We hypothesized that L2 proficiency would…

  13. Using Multimedia Vocabulary Annotations in L2 Reading and Listening Activities

    Jing Xu


    This paper reviews the role of multimedia vocabulary annotation (MVA) in facilitating second language (L2) reading and listening activities. It examines the multimedia learning and multimedia language learning theories that underlie the MVA research, synthesizes the findings on MVA in the last decade, and identifies three underresearched areas on…

  14. Fast Single Image Super-Resolution Using a New Analytical Solution for l2 - l2 Problems.

    Zhao, Ningning; Wei, Qi; Basarab, Adrian; Dobigeon, Nicolas; Kouame, Denis; Tourneret, Jean-Yves


    This paper addresses the problem of single image super-resolution (SR), which consists of recovering a high-resolution image from its blurred, decimated, and noisy version. The existing algorithms for single image SR use different strategies to handle the decimation and blurring operators. In addition to the traditional first-order gradient methods, recent techniques investigate splitting-based methods dividing the SR problem into up-sampling and deconvolution steps that can be easily solved. Instead of following this splitting strategy, we propose to deal with the decimation and blurring operators simultaneously by taking advantage of their particular properties in the frequency domain, leading to a new fast SR approach. Specifically, an analytical solution is derived and implemented efficiently for the Gaussian prior or any other regularization that can be formulated into an l2 -regularized quadratic model, i.e., an l2 - l2 optimization problem. The flexibility of the proposed SR scheme is shown through the use of various priors/regularizations, ranging from generic image priors to learning-based approaches. In the case of non-Gaussian priors, we show how the analytical solution derived from the Gaussian case can be embedded into traditional splitting frameworks, allowing the computation cost of existing algorithms to be decreased significantly. Simulation results conducted on several images with different priors illustrate the effectiveness of our fast SR approach compared with existing techniques. PMID:27187960

  15. Learning Novel Morphology: The Role of Meaning and Orientation of Attention at Initial Exposure

    Marsden, Emma; Williams, John; Liu, Xierong


    A large body of research has shown that suffixes--both inflectional and derivational--can be primed with adult native speakers, which informs our understanding of storage and access to morphology in mature systems. However, this line of research has not yet been conducted from an acquisition perspective: Little is known about whether or not…

  16. Acquiring L2 sentence comprehension: A longitudinal study of word monitoring in noise

    Oliver, Georgina; Gullberg, Marianne; Hellwig, Frauke; Mitterer, Holger; Indefrey, Peter


    This study investigated the development of second language online auditory processing with ab initio German learners of Dutch. We assessed the influence of different levels of background noise and different levels of semantic and syntactic target word predictability on word-monitoring latencies. There was evidence of syntactic, but not lexical-semantic, transfer from the L1 to the L2 from the onset of L2 learning. An initial stronger adverse effect of noise on syntactic compared to phonologic...

  17. Development and implementation of a novel assay for L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L-2-HGDH) in cell lysates: L-2-HGDH deficiency in 15 patients with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    Kranendijk, M; Salomons, G S; Gibson, K M;


    L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase. An assay to evaluate L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L-2-HGDH) activity in fibroblast, lymphoblast and/or lymphoc...... relationship between molecular and biochemical observations. Residual activity was detected in cells derived from one L-2-HGA patient. The L-2-HGDH assay will be valuable for examining in vitro riboflavin/FAD therapy to rescue L-2-HGDH activity....

  18. Deadbeat Response is l_2 Optimal

    Kučera, Vladimír

    New York: IEEE, 2008, s. 154-157 ISBN 978-1-4244-1687-5; ISBN 978-1-4244-1688-2. [The 3rd International Symposium on Communications, Control and Signal Processing. St. Julians (ML), 12.03.2008-14.03.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear systems * finite impulse response * L_2 norm minimization Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  19. Assessing Pragmatic Competence Of L2 Learners

    Kusevska, Marija; Ulanska, Tatjana; Ivanovska, Biljana; Daskalovska, Nina; Mitkovska, Liljana


    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the components of pragmatic competence for L2 learners. Developing pragmatic competence in a second/foreign language has been addressed in many articles and publications on cross-cultural and interlanguage pragmatics (Bardovi-Harlig, 1999; Barron, 2003; Blum-Kulka, House, & Kasper, 1989; Cohen & Ishihara, 2005; Ishihara & Cohen, 2010; Kasper & Blum-Kulka, 1993; McConachy & Hata, 2013; Trosborg, 2010; Wigglesworth & Y...

  20. Difficulties in Portuguese Verbal Morphology Learning by Spanish Speakers: Present Indicative Tense

    Rocío Alonso Rey


    Full Text Available In Portuguese for Spanish Speakers the negative L1 influence is seen as the main problem in language learning. This influence is reflected by several production errors formally related to L1.This paper presents the results of an error analysis of the inflected forms of present indicative tense produced by beginning level learners in a transformation activity. The analysis shows that quantification may vary depending on the transfer identification judgment used and the importance of intralinguistic phenomena in the learning process and use.

  1. Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning

    Peers, Chris


    This article discusses two well-known texts that respectively describe learning and teaching, drawn from the work of Freud and Plato. These texts are considered in psychoanalytic terms using a methodology drawn from the philosophy of Luce Irigaray. In particular the article addresses Irigaray's approach to the analysis of speech and utterance as a…




    Based on research carried out on four pilot classes,this paper makes surveys how intercultural factors can lead to fossilization in second language learning and foreign language (L2/FL) learning process, so as to highlight the magnificent value of deep-structure cultural transfer in L2/FL teaching and learning procedure. Furthermore. the paper goes deeper into the significance of rhythmic and contrastive cultural input in L2/FL class via analysis on results of sampled items. The paper reaches a conclusion that contrastive deep-structure cultural transfer is basically “I+I” approach in cultural instruction in nature, but the point is how it goes is in accordance with human knowledge/skill acquisition principle.

  3. L2 Learners’ Proficiency Development through Noticing Feedback

    Seyed Saber Alavi


    Full Text Available This experimental study investigated the relationship between noticing of corrective feedback and L2 development considering the learners’ perspective on error correction. Specifically, it aimed to uncover the noticeability and effectiveness of recasts, prompts, a combination of the two, to determine a relationship between noticing of CF and learning of the past tense. The participants were four groups of college ESL learners (n = 40. Each group was assigned to a treatment condition, but the researcher taught the control group. CF was provided to learners in response to their mistakes in forming the past tense. While noticing of CF was assessed through immediate recall and questionnaire responses, learning outcomes were measured through picture description administered via pre-test, post-test, and delayed post-test design. Learner beliefs about CF were probed by means of a 40-item questionnaire. The results indicated that the noticeability of CF is dependent on the grammatical target it addresses and that the feedback techniques that push learners to self-correct alone or in combination with target exemplars are more effective in. In relation to the learning outcomes, the overall past tense accuracy increased more than that for questions, but there were no significant differences between the groups. Finally, in relation to the beliefs about CF, the participants’ responses centered on the importance of oral CF, recasts as CF technique, prompts as CF technique, and affective consequences of CF, two of which mediated the noticeability of the supplied CF, but none impacted the learning outcomes.

  4. The Definition and Measurement of L2 Explicit Knowledge

    Ellis, Rod


    A number of theories of second language L2 acquisition acknowledge a role for explicit L2 knowledge. However, the testing of these theories remains problematic because of the lack of a widely accepted means for measuring L2 explicit knowledge. This article seeks to address this lacuna by examining L2 explicit knowledge from two perspectives.…

  5. Are Alphabetic Language-Derived Models of L2 Reading Relevant to L1 Logographic Background Readers?

    Ehrich, John Fitzgerald; Zhang, Lawrence Jun; Mu, Jon Congjun; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine


    In this paper, we argue that second language (L2) reading research, which has been informed by studies involving first language (L1) alphabetic English reading, may be less relevant to L2 readers with non-alphabetic reading backgrounds, such as Chinese readers with an L1 logographic (Chinese character) learning history. We provide both…

  6. Dynamic Assessment of Elicited Imitation: A Case Analysis of an Advanced L2 English Speaker

    van Compernolle, Rémi A.; Zhang, Haomin


    The focus of this paper is on the design, administration, and scoring of a dynamically administered elicited imitation test of L2 English morphology. Drawing on Vygotskian sociocultural psychology, particularly the concepts of zone of proximal development and dynamic assessment, we argue that support provided during the elicited imitation test…

  7. KNET: A General Framework for Learning Word Embedding using Morphological Knowledge

    Cui, Qing; Gao, Bin; Bian, Jiang; Qiu, Siyu; Liu, Tie-Yan


    Neural network techniques are widely applied to obtain high-quality distributed representations of words, i.e., word embeddings, to address text mining, information retrieval, and natural language processing tasks. Recently, efficient methods have been proposed to learn word embeddings from context that captures both semantic and syntactic relationships between words. However, it is challenging to handle unseen words or rare words with insufficient context. In this paper, inspired by the stud...

  8. A catalog of visual-like morphologies in the 5 CANDELS fields using deep-learning

    Huertas-Company, M; Cabrera-Vives, G; Pérez-González, P G; Kartaltepe, J S; Barro, G; Bernardi, M; Mei, S; Shankar, F; Dimauro, P; Bell, E F; Kocevski, D; Koo, D C; Faber, S M; Mcintosh, D H


    We present a catalog of visual like H-band morphologies of $\\sim50.000$ galaxies ($H_{f160w}\\sim1.25$. The algorithm is trained on GOODS-S for which visual classifications are publicly available and then applied to the other 4 fields. Following the CANDELS main morphology classification scheme, our model retrieves the probabilities for each galaxy of having a spheroid, a disk, presenting an irregularity, being compact or point source and being unclassifiable. ConvNets are able to predict the fractions of votes given a galaxy image with zero bias and $\\sim10\\%$ scatter. The fraction of miss-classifications is less than $1\\%$. Our classification scheme represents a major improvement with respect to CAS (Concentration-Asymmetry-Smoothness)-based methods, which hit a $20-30\\%$ contamination limit at high z. The catalog is released with the present paper via the $\\href{}{Rainbow\\,database}$

  9. Automatic approach to solve the morphological galaxy classification problem using the sparse representation technique and dictionary learning

    Diaz-Hernandez, R.; Ortiz-Esquivel, A.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Altamirano-Robles, L.; Gonzalez-Bernal, J.


    The observation of celestial objects in the sky is a practice that helps astronomers to understand the way in which the Universe is structured. However, due to the large number of observed objects with modern telescopes, the analysis of these by hand is a difficult task. An important part in galaxy research is the morphological structure classification based on the Hubble sequence. In this research, we present an approach to solve the morphological galaxy classification problem in an automatic way by using the Sparse Representation technique and dictionary learning with K-SVD. For the tests in this work, we use a database of galaxies extracted from the Principal Galaxy Catalog (PGC) and the APM Equatorial Catalogue of Galaxies obtaining a total of 2403 useful galaxies. In order to represent each galaxy frame, we propose to calculate a set of 20 features such as Hu's invariant moments, galaxy nucleus eccentricity, gabor galaxy ratio and some other features commonly used in galaxy classification. A stage of feature relevance analysis was performed using Relief-f in order to determine which are the best parameters for the classification tests using 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 galaxy classes making signal vectors of different length values with the most important features. For the classification task, we use a 20-random cross-validation technique to evaluate classification accuracy with all signal sets achieving a score of 82.27 % for 2 galaxy classes and up to 44.27 % for 7 galaxy classes.

  10. Automatic approach to solve the morphological galaxy classification problem using the sparse representation technique and dictionary learning

    Diaz-Hernandez, R.; Ortiz-Esquivel, A.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Altamirano-Robles, L.; Gonzalez-Bernal, J.


    The observation of celestial objects in the sky is a practice that helps astronomers to understand the way in which the Universe is structured. However, due to the large number of observed objects with modern telescopes, the analysis of these by hand is a difficult task. An important part in galaxy research is the morphological structure classification based on the Hubble sequence. In this research, we present an approach to solve the morphological galaxy classification problem in an automatic way by using the Sparse Representation technique and dictionary learning with K-SVD. For the tests in this work, we use a database of galaxies extracted from the Principal Galaxy Catalog (PGC) and the APM Equatorial Catalogue of Galaxies obtaining a total of 2403 useful galaxies. In order to represent each galaxy frame, we propose to calculate a set of 20 features such as Hu's invariant moments, galaxy nucleus eccentricity, gabor galaxy ratio and some other features commonly used in galaxy classification. A stage of feature relevance analysis was performed using Relief-f in order to determine which are the best parameters for the classification tests using 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 galaxy classes making signal vectors of different length values with the most important features. For the classification task, we use a 20-random cross-validation technique to evaluate classification accuracy with all signal sets achieving a score of 82.27 % for 2 galaxy classes and up to 44.27 % for 7 galaxy classes.

  11. Transfer and Semantic Universals in the L2 Acquisition of the English Article System by Child L2 Learners

    Morales-Reyes, Alexandra; Soler, Inmaculada Gómez


    L2 learners' problems with English articles have been linked to learners' L1 and their access to universal semantic features (e.g., definiteness and specificity). Studies suggest that L2 adults rely on their L1 knowledge, while child L2 learners rely more on their access to semantic universals. The present study investigates whether child L2

  12. Modulation ofTcf7l2 expression alters behavior in mice.

    Daniel Savic

    Full Text Available The comorbidity of type 2 diabetes (T2D with several psychiatric diseases is well established. While environmental factors may partially account for these co-occurrences, common genetic susceptibilities could also be implicated in the confluence of these diseases. In support of shared genetic burdens, TCF7L2, the strongest genetic determinant for T2D risk in the human population, has been recently implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ risk, suggesting that this may be one of many loci that pleiotropically influence both diseases. To investigate whether Tcf7l2 is involved in behavioral phenotypes in addition to its roles in glucose metabolism, we conducted several behavioral tests in mice with null alleles of Tcf7l2 or overexpressing Tcf7l2. We identified a role for Tcf7l2 in anxiety-like behavior and a dose-dependent effect of Tcf7l2 alleles on fear learning. None of the mutant mice showed differences in prepulse inhibition (PPI, which is a well-established endophenotype for SCZ. These results show that Tcf7l2 alters behavior in mice. Importantly, these differences are observed prior to the onset of detectable glucose metabolism abnormalities. Whether these differences are related to human anxiety-disorders or schizophrenia remains to be determined. These animal models have the potential to elucidate the molecular basis of psychiatric comorbidities in diabetes and should therefore be studied further.

  13. The Role of Written Corrective Feedback in Developing Writing in L2

    Gabrijela Petra Nagode


    Full Text Available Feedback plays an important role in developing L2 writing in young learners. The article provides a brief overview of the history of giving feedback and of some contemporary views within this field. Special attention is paid to cognitive perspectives, such as the influence of written corrective feedback on shortterm memory, the influence of focused and unfocused written corrective feedback on error correction, the influence of written corrective feedback on a particular category of error, the influence of direct and indirect written corrective feedback and combinations of various types of written corrective feedback, and the influence of educational background and L2 learning background on the effectiveness of written corrective feedback in terms of sociocultural perspectives. The main aim of the article is to present readers (especially teachers with the variety of aspects of giving written corrective feedback in developing L2 writing and thus in enabling young learners to develop their L2 writing skills more effectively.

  14. L2 Spelling Errors in Italian Children with Dyslexia.

    Palladino, Paola; Cismondo, Dhebora; Ferrari, Marcella; Ballagamba, Isabella; Cornoldi, Cesare


    The present study aimed to investigate L2 spelling skills in Italian children by administering an English word dictation task to 13 children with dyslexia (CD), 13 control children (comparable in age, gender, schooling and IQ) and a group of 10 children with an English learning difficulty, but no L1 learning disorder. Patterns of difficulties were examined for accuracy and type of errors, in spelling dictated short and long words (i.e. disyllables and three syllables). Notably, CD were poor in spelling English words. Furthermore, their errors were mainly related with phonological representation of words, as they made more 'phonologically' implausible errors than controls. In addition, CD errors were more frequent for short than long words. Conversely, the three groups did not differ in the number of plausible ('non-phonological') errors, that is, words that were incorrectly written, but whose reading could correspond to the dictated word via either Italian or English rules. Error analysis also showed syllable position differences in the spelling patterns of CD, children with and English learning difficulty and control children. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26892314

  15. L2 Rhythm Acquisition : The question of learning direction

    van Maastricht, Lieke; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc


    Dutch and Spanish are distinguishable from each other based solely on rhythmic cues (Ramus, Dupoux & Mehler, 2003) due to typological contrasts between both languages: Dutch has relatively complex syllable structure and uses extensive final (FL) and accentual lengthening (AL), while Spanish has less

  16. Three Misconceptions about Age and L2 Learning.

    Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Marshall, D. Bradford; Snow, Catherine E.


    Discusses the effects of age on second language acquisition, considering recent data and highlighting the misconceptions. Claims that proponents of the critical period hypothesis have misinterpreted research on speed of acquisition, misattributed age differences to neurobiological factors, and misemphasized poor language learners in research on…

  17. Effects of Input Properties, Vocabulary Size, and L1 on the Development of Third Person Singular -"s" in Child L2 English

    Blom, Elma; Paradis, Johanne; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson


    This study was designed to investigate the development of third-person singular (3SG) -"s" in children who learn English as a second language (L2). Adopting the usage-based perspective on the learning of inflection, we analyzed spontaneous speech samples collected from 15 English L2 children who were followed over a 2-year period. Assessing the…

  18. A Review of Recent Research (2000-2008) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 Spanish

    Anton, Marta


    This review presents a broad picture of recent work on L2 Spanish in educational contexts. The thematic and geographic scope of the review is wide, in order to capture the diversity of learners and learning contexts of L2 Spanish, just two decades after teaching and learning the language gained impetus worldwide. Traditional second or foreign…

  19. Effects of input properties, vocabulary size, and L1 on the development of third person singular –s in child L2 English

    Blom, W.B.T.; Paradis, J.; Sorenson Duncan, T.


    This study was designed to investigate the development of third-person singular (3SG) –s in children who learn English as a second language (L2). Adopting the usage-based perspective on the learning of inflection, we analyzed spontaneous speech samples collected from 15 English L2 children who were

  20. Effects of input properties, vocabulary size, and L1 on the development of third person singular -s in child L2 English

    E. Blom; J. Paradis; T. Sorenson Duncan


    This study was designed to investigate the development of third-person singular (3SG) -s in children who learn English as a second language (L2). Adopting the usage-based perspective on the learning of inflection, we analyzed spontaneous speech samples collected from 15 English L2 children who were

  1. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    Wang, Joshua W. [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Roden, Richard B.S., E-mail: [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)


    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ∼8 kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. - Highlights: • L2 is the minor antigen of the non-enveloped T=7d icosahedral Papillomavirus capsid. • L2 is a nuclear protein that can traffic to ND-10 and facilitate genome encapsidation. • L2 is critical for infection and must be cleaved by furin. • L2 is a broadly protective vaccine antigen recognized by neutralizing antibodies.

  2. Gender Differences in Identity and Acculturation Patterns and L2 Accent Attainment

    Polat, Nihat; Mahalingappa, Laura J.


    Addressing the influence of sociocultural theory, current views of second language acquisition situate language learning in a much broader context than the isolated box of the classroom. There is need to consider second language (L2) acquisition practices more broadly. This study addresses differences between girls and boys of Kurdish ethnic…

  3. Character Reading Fluency, Word Segmentation Accuracy, and Reading Comprehension in L2 Chinese

    Shen, Helen H.; Jiang, Xin


    This study investigated the relationships between lower-level processing and general reading comprehension among adult L2 (second-language) beginning learners of Chinese, in both target and non-target language learning environments. Lower-level processing in Chinese reading includes the factors of character-naming accuracy, character-naming speed,…

  4. ICALL for Improving Korean L2 Writers' Ability to Edit Grammatical Errors

    Cowan, Ron; Choo, Jinhee; Lee, Gabseon Sunny


    This study illustrates how a synergy of two technologies--Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) and corpus linguistic analysis--can produce a lasting improvement in L2 learners' ability to edit persistent grammatical errors from their writing. A large written English corpus produced by Korean undergraduate and graduate…

  5. Orthographic Influence on the Phonological Development of L2 Learners of Korean

    Lee, Sooyeon


    This dissertation examines the influence of L2 orthographic representation on the phonological development of American English speakers learning Korean, addressing specifically the syllabification and resyllabification of Korean intervocalic obstruents and the intervocalic liquid phoneme. Although Korean and English both employ alphabetic writing…

  6. Training L2 Writers to Reference Corpora as a Self-Correction Tool

    Quinn, Cynthia


    Corpora have the potential to support the L2 writing process at the discourse level in contrast to the isolated dictionary entries that many intermediate writers rely on. To take advantage of this resource, learners need to be trained, which involves practising corpus research and referencing skills as well as learning to make data-based…

  7. Roles of Position, Stress, and Proficiency in L2 Children's Spelling: A Developmental Perspective

    Hong, Su Chin; Chen, Shu Hui


    This study investigated the roles of phoneme position, stress, and proficiency in L2 spelling development by Taiwanese students learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL), an alphabetic writing system typologically different from the learners' L1 logographic system. Structured nonword spelling tests were administered to EFL sixth-graders with…

  8. Exploring the Relationship between Reading Strategy Use and Multiple Intelligences among Successful L2 Readers

    Mirzaei, Azizullah; Rahimi Domakani, Masoud; Heidari, Najmeh


    Over the years, the multiple intelligences theory (MIT) proposed by Howard Gardner has renewed interest in learners' use of effective learning strategies and produced interesting results. This MIT-oriented study investigated the role of successful L2 readers' multiple intelligences in their effective use of reading strategies. To this…

  9. The multi-feature hypothesis: Connectionist guidelines for L2 task design

    Moonen, M.L.I.; de Graaff, H.C.J.; Westhoff, G.J.; Brekelmans, J.M.G.


    This study focuses on the effects of task type on the retention and ease of activation of second language (L2) vocabulary, based on the multi-feature hypothesis (Moonen, De Graaff, & Westhoff, 2006). Two tasks were compared: a writing task and a list-learning task. It was hypothesized that performin

  10. Altered gene regulation and synaptic morphology in Drosophila learning and memory mutants.

    Guan, Zhuo; Buhl, Lauren K; Quinn, William G; Littleton, J Troy


    Genetic studies in Drosophila have revealed two separable long-term memory pathways defined as anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) and long-lasting long-term memory (LLTM). ARM is disrupted in radish (rsh) mutants, whereas LLTM requires CREB-dependent protein synthesis. Although the downstream effectors of ARM and LLTM are distinct, pathways leading to these forms of memory may share the cAMP cascade critical for associative learning. Dunce, which encodes a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, and rutabaga, which encodes an adenylyl cyclase, both disrupt short-term memory. Amnesiac encodes a pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide homolog and is required for middle-term memory. Here, we demonstrate that the Radish protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus and is a PKA phosphorylation target in vitro. To characterize how these plasticity pathways may manifest at the synaptic level, we assayed synaptic connectivity and performed an expression analysis to detect altered transcriptional networks in rutabaga, dunce, amnesiac, and radish mutants. All four mutants disrupt specific aspects of synaptic connectivity at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis revealed ∼375 transcripts that are altered in these mutants, suggesting defects in multiple neuronal signaling pathways. In particular, the transcriptional target Lapsyn, which encodes a leucine-rich repeat cell adhesion protein, localizes to synapses and regulates synaptic growth. This analysis provides insights into the Radish-dependent ARM pathway and novel transcriptional targets that may contribute to memory processing in Drosophila. PMID:21422168

  11. Lead Exposure Impairs Hippocampus Related Learning and Memory by Altering Synaptic Plasticity and Morphology During Juvenile Period.

    Wang, Tao; Guan, Rui-Li; Liu, Ming-Chao; Shen, Xue-Feng; Chen, Jing Yuan; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Luo, Wen-Jing


    Lead (Pb) is an environmental neurotoxic metal. Pb exposure may cause neurobehavioral changes, such as learning and memory impairment, and adolescence violence among children. Previous animal models have largely focused on the effects of Pb exposure during early development (from gestation to lactation period) on neurobehavior. In this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats during the juvenile stage (from juvenile period to adult period). We investigated the synaptic function and structural changes and the relationship of these changes to neurobehavioral deficits in adult rats. Our results showed that juvenile Pb exposure caused fear-conditioned memory impairment and anxiety-like behavior, but locomotion and pain behavior were indistinguishable from the controls. Electrophysiological studies showed that long-term potentiation induction was affected in Pb-exposed rats, and this was probably due to excitatory synaptic transmission impairment in Pb-exposed rats. We found that NMDA and AMPA receptor-mediated current was inhibited, whereas the GABA synaptic transmission was normal in Pb-exposed rats. NR2A and phosphorylated GluR1 expression decreased. Moreover, morphological studies showed that density of dendritic spines declined by about 20 % in the Pb-treated group. The spine showed an immature form in Pb-exposed rats, as indicated by spine size measurements. However, the length and arborization of dendrites were unchanged. Our results suggested that juvenile Pb exposure in rats is associated with alterations in the glutamate receptor, which caused synaptic functional and morphological changes in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, thereby leading to behavioral changes. PMID:26141123

  12. The Sociocognitive Imperative of L2 Pedagogy

    Toth, Paul D.; Davin, Kristin J.


    As a new century begins for "The Modern Language Journal," we argue that highly effective pedagogy requires viewing language and language learning as both cognitive and social phenomena, and that teachers who seek to truly understand the nature of their responsibilities do not have the luxury of choosing one perspective over the other.…

  13. Applications of the L_2-Transform to Partial Differential Equations

    Gaugler, Todd


    This paper aims to demonstrate the applicability of the L_2-integral transform to Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). Of special interest is section (6), which contains an application of the L_2-transform to a PDE of exponential squared order, but not of exponential order. Sections (1) and (2) aim to introduce the history and some elementary properties of the L_2-transform, (3) and (4) include some of the transform's simple applications, and section (5) introduces the L_2 convolution.

  14. Peer Response to L2 Student Writing: Patterns and Expectations

    Abdalla Salih, Abdel Rahman


    This paper reports the corrective feedback patterns in L2 writing and the student writers' preferences for peer feedback. The study examines the actual focus of peer review and the types of corrective feedback provided in L2 composing process. Sixteen L2 matriculation students at a Malaysian university took part in five peer review sessions,…


    Rosaria Solarino


    Full Text Available Si può oggi affrontare il tema degli errori di italiano da una prospettiva che possa giovare contemporaneamente a docenti di italiano L1 ed L2? Noi pensiamo di sì: la ricerca glottodidattica sembra aver ormai apprestato un terreno comune alle due situazioni di apprendimento, sgombrando il campo da vecchi pregiudizi e distinzioni che appaiono ormai superate. Attraverso la contrapposizione di concetti quali “lingua parlata/lingua scritta”,  “errori di lingua / errori di linguaggio”, “apprendimento spontaneo/apprendimento guidato”, “italiano L1/italiano L2”, “errori di apprendimento/errori di interferenza, si indicano diversi criteri per la interpretazione degli errori e la loro valutazione in relazione alle cause, alle situazioni comunicative, ai contesti o allo stadio di evoluzione dell’apprendimento della lingua.     Errors in italian L1 and L2: interference and learning   Can errors in Italian be approached in a way that benefits both L1 and L2 Italian teachers? We believe so: glottodidactic research seems to have prepared a common terrain for these two learning situations, clearing the field of old prejudices and obsolete distinctions.  Through the juxtaposition of concepts like “spoken language/written language”, “language errors/speech errors”, “spontaneous learning/guided learning”, “L1 Italian/L2 Italian”, “learning errors/interference errors”, different criteria for interpreting errors and evaluating them in relation to their causes, to communicative situations, to contexts and the developmental state in learning a language are singled out.

  16. L2TTMON Monitoring Program for L2 Topological Trigger in H1 Experiment - User's Guide

    Monitoring software for the L2 Topological Trigger in H1 experiment consists of two parts working on two different computers. The hardware read-out and data processing is done on a fast FIC 8234 computer working with the OS9 real time operating system. The Macintosh Quadra is used as a Graphic User Interface for accessing the OS9 trigger monitoring software. The communication between both computers is based on the parallel connection between the Macintosh and the VME crate, where the FIC computer is placed. The special designed protocol (client-server) is used to communicate between both nodes. The general scheme of monitoring for the L2 Topological Trigger and detailed description of using of the monitoring software in both nodes are given in this guide. (author)

  17. VDES J2325-5229 a z=2.7 gravitationally lensed quasar discovered using morphology independent supervised machine learning

    Ostrovski, Fernanda; Connolly, Andrew J; Lemon, Cameron A; Auger, Matthew W; Banerji, Manda; Hung, Johnathan M; Koposov, Sergey E; Lidman, Christopher E; Reed, Sophie L; Allam, Sahar; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Kind, Matias Carrasco; Carretero, Jorge; Cunha, Carlos E; da Costa, Luiz N; Desai, Shantanu; Diehl, H Thomas; Dietrich, Jörg P; Evrard, August E; Finley, David A; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Frieman, Josh; Gerdes, David W; Goldstein, Daniel A; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert A; Gutierrez, Gaston; Honscheid, Klaus; James, David J; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Lima, Marcos; Lin, Huan; Maia, Marcio A G; Marshall, Jennifer L; Martini, Paul; Melchior, Peter; Miquel, Ramon; Ogando, Ricardo; Malagón, Andrés Plazas; Reil, Kevin; Romer, Kathy; Sanchez, Eusebio; Santiago, Basilio; Scarpine, Vic; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Sobreira, Flavia; Suchyta, Eric; Tarle, Gregory; Thomas, Daniel; Tucker, Douglas L; Walker, Alistair R


    We present the discovery and preliminary characterization of a gravitationally lensed quasar with a source redshift $z_{s}=2.74$ and image separation of $2.9"$ lensed by a foreground $z_{l}=0.40$ elliptical galaxy. Since the images of gravitationally lensed quasars are the superposition of multiple point sources and a foreground lensing galaxy, we have developed a morphology independent multi-wavelength approach to the photometric selection of lensed quasar candidates based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM) supervised machine learning. Using this technique and $gi$ multicolour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES), near IR $JK$ photometry from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS) and WISE mid IR photometry, we have identified a candidate system with two catalogue components with $i_{AB}=18.61$ and $i_{AB}=20.44$ comprised of an elliptical galaxy and two blue point sources. Spectroscopic follow-up with NTT and the use of an archival AAT spectrum show that the point sources can be identified as...

  18. The Role of L1 and L2 Working Memory in Literal and Inferential Comprehension in L2 Reading

    Alptekin, Cem; Ercetin, Gulcan


    Reading span as a measure of L1 or L2 working memory capacity is shown to be related to L2 reading comprehension. Albeit limited, there is research on the relationship between both L1 and L2 reading spans and their roles in L2 reading comprehension, yet these studies take reading as a global construct rather than delving into its multi-level…

  19. An overview of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase gene (L2HGDH) variants: a genotype-phenotype study

    Steenweg, Marjan E; Jakobs, Cornelis; Errami, Abdellatif;


    L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is a rare, neurometabolic disorder with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Affected individuals only have neurological manifestations, including psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and more variably macrocephaly, or epilepsy. The diagnosis of L2...

  20. The L2 Passionate Interactional Imperative (for short “The L2 Pie”: It’s Hot or It’s Not!

    Tim Murphey


    Full Text Available At the American Association of Applied Linguistics (AAAL 2011 conference, John Schumann described how Lee, Dina, Joaquin, Mates & Schumann’s (2010 interactional instinct unfolds between infants and caregivers such that learning an L1 is assured in normal development through emotional bonding between infants and caregivers which is substantiated by motivation, proficiency, and opportunities (all co-constructing concepts. In subsequent second language learning at an older age, these three characteristics are not environmentally and contextually assured, and this seems to account for a great part of the shortcomings of much of the late-L2 instruction in the world (Lee, Dina, Joaquin, Mates & Schumann, 2010.

  1. The effect of computer-assisted translation on L2 learners’ mastery of writing

    Ahmad Ali Kazemzadeh


    Full Text Available Computer-Assisted Translation (CAT is an alternative approach to computer translation that integrates human expertise into the automatic translation process. In this realm, the few studies that deal with Computer Assisted Translation (CAT as a language learning tool focus on its use by advanced learners, not by beginners. Yet, freely available CAT engines (i.e. Google Translate position themselves to cater precisely to the needs of learners with a limited command of a second language (L2. Anecdotal classroom evidence points to beginners availing themselves of CAT help, even against the advice of teachers. In order to find out whether CAT could help develop learners’ writing skills in L2, some tests were run asking participants to write directly into L2 in one instance and into L1 in another, while pre-editing the L1 and post-editing the L2 within the CAT’s interface. The analysis of the output shows that CAT helps beginners to communicate more, particularly when they have a lesser mastery of the language. The less their mastery of the L2, the greater the difference between the number of words composed with the help of CAT and the number of those written directly into L2. It also helps them to communicate better, with blind marking indicating higher quality when writing with CAT mediation. Looking at the screen recordings, on the other hand, we found that writing directly into L2 requires more effort, as measured by number of pauses, and involves more engagement with the task, as measured by the number of editing interventions.

  2. Blogging Identity: How L2 Learners Express Themselves

    Kiyomi FUJII


    Full Text Available This study discusses language learning and identity, particularly pertaining to intermediate-advanced-level Japanese-language learners, focusing on their target language and identity expression through their interactions with peers and Japanese college students. When learners of Japanese express their identities while interacting with others in their target language, they feel a gap between the self-image they want to present, and the image they are capable of presenting in Japanese (Siegal, 1994, 1995, 1996. Along with adjusting their L1 and L2 usage depending on their interlocutor (Kurata 2007, learners also use different sentence-ending styles depending on the role they want to assume (Cook 2008. By conducting a case study, the present inquiry attempts to address how learners of Japanese express their identities through blog conversations, focusing on their language choice and expressions. Results suggest that participants use the formal endings for self-presentation and projection of their student and classmate identity. However, when expressing emotion some students preferred informal endings, or sentence-final particles.

  3. A preliminary Analysis of Dörnyei and Otto’s Process Model of L2 Motivation



    In the past few decades, motivation has already become a recurring topic in SLA field, where motivational theories have placed great influence on language teaching. Different from previous motivation theories, Dörnyei and Otto’s process model of L2 motivation focuses on the dynamicity of motivation.This paper aims at analyzing the process model of L2 motivation and proposing stimulation strategies for each phase to attain learning effect.

  4. A preliminary Analysis of Drnyei and Otto’s Process Model of L2 Motivation



    In the past few decades, motivation has already become a recurring topic in SLA field, where motivational theories have placed great influence on language teaching.Different from previous motivation theories, Drnyei and Otto’s process model of L2 motivation focuses on the dynamicity of motivation.This paper aims at analyzing the process model of L2 motivation and proposing stimulation strategies for each phase to attain learning effect.

  5. Mental Lexicon, Working Memory and L2 (English Vocabulary in Polish Students with and without Dyslexia

    Marta Łockiewicz


    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between access to the mental lexicon, working memory and knowledge of English (L2 vocabulary. Analyses were undertaken amongst monolingual speakers of Polish (26 with dyslexia, 24 without who studied English as a second language as part of their compulsory educational programme at school. We assumed that students with dyslexia would manifest deficits in access to the mental lexicon and verbal working memory, and would have a limited L2 vocabulary. We also assumed that better access to the mental lexicon facilitates knowledge of English (L2 vocabulary, and that this relationship is present in both the criterion and the control group. All of the students participated in both parts of the assessment, the group part (i.e., questionnaire, IQ test, two vocabulary tasks and the individual part (i.e., psychological measures: verbal working memory, RAN, verbal fluency, and single word reading in L1 task. We found that students with dyslexia exhibited deficits in the speed of access to data from the mental lexicon. The predictive function of memory for vocabulary was more conspicuous in the control group; in the criterion group, the result might constitute a risk factor for L2 vocabulary acquisition in dyslexia, which may manifest with increased proficiency in word knowledge. Poor vocabulary knowledge renders the L2 learning experience difficult, as it impairs students’ reading comprehension, writing and conversational skills.

  6. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and L2 Reading Skill among Iranian EFL University Students

    Saber Khooei Oskooei


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between multiple intelligences (MI and foreign language (L2 reading skill among Iranian EFL sophomores. Multiple intelligences and L2 reading measurements of participants – 29 males and 69 females who were selected from four intact classes – were obtained through McKenzie’s (1999 Multiple Intelligences Inventory and reading part of a Preliminary English Test PET, respectively, and then Pearson’s correlation analysis was run to determine the degree of the relationship between each component of multiple intelligences and L2 reading skill. Afterwards, through a multiple regression analysis those components of multiple intelligences which acted as the predictors of L2 reading skill were identified and the power of each predictor was calculated. The results of the correlation analyses revealed that linguistic-verbal, logical-mathematical, spatial, and interpersonal intelligences were significantly correlated with reading skill. In addition, the results showed that linguistic-verbal, interpersonal, and logical-mathematical intelligences were the best predictors of L2 reading skill scores of the participants. The results of the study can help coursebook designers, educational planners, foreign language institutes, teachers, learners and their parents to provide and use different methods of teaching and learning.Keywords: multiple intelligences, general intelligence, reading comprehension, university students, EFL

  7. External factors and the interference of L1 Estonian on L2 English pronunciation: An apparent-time study

    Kristiina Ader; Merilin Miljan


    This study focusses on external factors of second language learning (L2) and their effect on L2 sound production. The aim was to find out whether young adults whose first language (L1) is Estonian speak L2 English with less accent than older speakers of L1 Estonian. Prior studies have claimed that more exposure to the target language lessens the effect of L1 interference (internal factors) (e.g. Piske et al. 2001, Muñoz, Llanes 2014). An apparent-time study was imple- mented in order to test ...

  8. Explicit Grammar Instruction and the Acquisition of Second Language Verbal Morphology: A Framework for Generalized Learning in Second Language Acquisition

    Baugher, Mark W.


    The dissertation outlines a framework for understanding variation in ultimate attainment and syntactic structure in second language acquisition by positing a distinction between competence-based and generalized learning processes. Within this framework, competence-based learning is theorized to employ inductive learning processes to acquire a…

  9. Ansiedad situacional en la enseñanza de L2: ejemplo en el caso de un estudiante virtual

    Franca Plastina, Anna


    Besides motivation and attitude, anxiety proves to strongly affect L2 learning. Synchronous text-based environments offer an opportunity to investigate situational anxiety in a learning environment which differs from the traditional classroom. In catering differently to factors such as personality trait, acceptance, orientation, communication, performance and evaluation, virtual learning spaces may alter users’ behaviour and situational anxiety.This paper reports on a small-scale case study c...

  10. Explicit Grammar Instruction in L2 Learners’Writing Development:Effective or Ineffective?



      It has long been in dispute about whether explicit grammar teaching is more effective in second language learning or implicit grammar teaching is. However, there are more than one factor to take into consideration while discussing which way is better for L2 learners. This short essay aims at depicting three respects concerning grammar teaching, namely learning context, language learners’beliefs and needs, and grammar instruction. When educators and practitioners try to adopt grammar instruction either implicitly or explicitly in L2 learners’writing development, they probably need to consider the above three factors and to find out the best way to produce more effective teaching results among their students

  11. Calibration of Comprehension and Performance in L2 Reading

    Sarac, Seda; Tarhan, Betul


    Comprehension monitoring is crucial for successful reading. Although the researchers appreciate the importance of comprehension monitoring in L2 reading, there are only a few studies done on the comprehension monitoring ability of L2 readers. The main aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension monitoring abilities of university…

  12. Weyl-Heisenberg frames for subspaces of L^2(R)

    Casazza, Peter G.; Christensen, Ole


    We give sufficient conditions for translates and modulates of a function g in L^2(R) to be a frame for its closed linear span. Even in the case where this family spans all of L^2(R), wou conditions are significantly weaker than the previous known conditions.

  13. Development of L2 Word-Meaning Inference while Reading

    Hamada, Megumi


    Ability to infer the meaning of unknown words encountered while reading plays an important role in learners' L2 word-knowledge development. Despite numerous findings reported on word-meaning inference, how learners develop this ability is still unclear. In order to provide a developmental inquiry into L2 word-meaning inference while reading, this…

  14. Processability Approach to Arabic L2 Teaching and Syllabus Design

    Al Shatter, Ghassan


    This study aims to identify the relationship between the developmental hierarchy in the acquisition of Arabic as a second language (Arabic L2) and formal classroom instruction. It provides a general presentation of the current debate on the influence of formal instruction in the acquisition of L2. Special attention is given to the subset of…

  15. Measuring L2 Lexical Growth Using Hypernymic Relationships

    Crossley, Scott; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle


    This study investigated second language (L2) lexical development in the spontaneous speech of six adult, L2 English learners in a 1-year longitudinal study. One important aspect of lexical development is lexical organization and depth of knowledge. Hypernymic relations, the hierarchical relationships among related words that vary in relation to…

  16. On the zeroth L^2-homology of a quantum group

    Kyed, David


    We prove that the zeroth L^2-Betti number of a compact quantum group vanishes unless the underlying C*-algebra is finite dimensional and that the zeroth L^2-homology itself is non-trivial exactly when the quantum group is coamenable.

  17. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena


    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  18. Use of reading comprehension strategies when reading academic texts in L1 or L2.

    De Bruyne, Ellen; Valcke, Martin


    In higher education, reading of academic texts is considered as an essential gateway to scientific knowledge. The use of reading strategies in the L2 literature has been recognized as an important solution to facilitate reading comprehension. In a previous study we determined a differential impact of reading comprehension strategy instruction (RCSI) on learning performance when studying academic texts with different difficulty levels. The research involved first year university students (n=18...

  19. Shrinkage degree in $L_2$-re-scale boosting for regression

    Xu, Lin; Lin, Shaobo; Wang, Yao; Xu, Zongben


    Re-scale boosting (RBoosting) is a variant of boosting which can essentially improve the generalization performance of boosting learning. The key feature of RBoosting lies in introducing a shrinkage degree to re-scale the ensemble estimate in each gradient-descent step. Thus, the shrinkage degree determines the performance of RBoosting. The aim of this paper is to develop a concrete analysis concerning how to determine the shrinkage degree in $L_2$-RBoosting. We propose two feasible ways to s...

  20. On the effects of L2 perception and of individual differences in L1 production on L2 pronunciation

    Natalia eKartushina


    Full Text Available The speech of late second language (L2 learners is generally marked by an accent. The dominant theoretical perspective attributes accents to deficient L2 perception arising from a transfer of L1 phonology, which is thought to influence L2 perception and production. In this study we evaluate the explanatory role of L2 perception in L2 production and explore alternative explanations arising from the L1 phonological system, such as for example, the role of L1 production. Specifically we examine the role of an individual’s L1 productions in the production of L2 vowel contrasts. Fourteen Spanish adolescents studying French at school were assessed on their perception and production of the mid-close/mid-open contrasts, /ø-œ/ and /e-ε/, which are, respectively, acoustically distinct from Spanish sounds, or similar to them. The participants’ native productions were explored to assess 1 the variability in the production of native vowels (i.e., the compactness of vowel categories in F1/F2 acoustic space, and 2 the position of the vowels in the acoustic space. The results revealed that although poorly perceived contrasts were generally produced poorly, there was no correlation between individual performance in perception and production, and no effect of L2 perception on L2 production in mixed-effects regression analyses. This result is consistent with a growing body of psycholinguistic and neuroimaging research that suggest partial dissociations between L2 perception and production. In contrast, individual differences in the compactness and position of native vowels predicted L2 production accuracy. These results point to existence of surface transfer of individual L1 phonetic realisations to L2 space and demonstrate that pre-existing features of the native space in production partly determine how new sounds can be accommodated in that space.

  1. Acquiring native-like intonation in Dutch and Spanish : Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners

    van Maastricht, L.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Krahmer, E.J.


    ACQUIRING NATIVE-LIKE INTONATION IN DUTCH AND SPANISH Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners Introduction Learning more about the interaction between the native language (L1) and the target language (L2) has been the aim of many studies on second language acquisition

  2. L2 Teachers' Experience of CALL Technology Education and the Use of Computer Technology in the Classroom: The Case of Franklin County, Ohio

    Hong, Kwang Hee


    Primary issues concerned with CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) teacher education are twofold: Integration of CALL technology into foreign and second language (L2) teacher education programs and L2 teachers' integration of CALL technology into their classroom. While increased attention has been paid to the former, only a small body of…

  3. About a boy : A gamer and L2 English speaker coming into being by use of self-access

    Sundqvist, Pia


    This is an interview study of Eldin, a 14-year-old Bosnian boy living in Sweden since the age of six. The aim is to investigate how Eldin became a gamer and how he, strongly motivated, learned foreign/second (L2) English mainly through self-access gameplay. Using language learning motivation theories, Dörnyei’s (2005, 2009) L2 Motivational Self System and Dweck’s (2006) concept of mindsets, the questions are: (i) By whom and at what age was the learner introduced to video games?, (ii) What wa...

  4. How to Make L2 Easier to Process ?The Role of L2 Proficiency and Semantic Category in Translation Priming



    The current study reports four masked translation priming experiments and demonstrates that L2 proficiency plays a role in translation priming but it is not the only factor determining translation priming patterns . Instead , language dominance might be more accurate in predicting priming patterns . Given the asymmetrical representations of L 1 and L2 as described by most bilingual models , the conditions to produce L2‐L1 priming not only depends on the task , but also the category size in semantic categorization . Relevant results will be discussed in relation to bilingual models . One implication of the current results is that processing L2 in a specific semantic context can be optimal to L2 lexical access .

  5. Tcf7l2 is Tightly Controlled During Myelin Formation

    Fu, Hui; Kesari, Santosh; Cai, Jun


    Recent, studies have shown that Tcf7l2, an important transcription factor in Wnt pathway, plays critical roles in oligodendrocyte development. In this article we report a study showing that Tcf7l2 is under tight regulation during myelin formation. We have found that during early development, Tcf7l2 mRNA appears much earlier than the protein, suggesting a regulation at the translational level. We induced demyelination in a mouse model by a dietary toxin, where remyelination followed after a fe...

  6. L2-Betti numbers of locally compact groups

    Petersen, Henrik Densing

    We introduce a notion of L2-Betti numbers for locally compact, second countable, unimodular groups. We study the relation to the standard notion of L2-Betti numbers of countable discrete groups for lattices. In this way, several new computations are obtained for countable groups, including lattic...... in algebraic groups over local elds, and Kac-Moody lattices. We also extend the vanishing of reduced L2-cohomology for countable amenable groups, a well known theorem due to Cheeger and Gromov, to cover all amenable, second countable, unimodular locally compact groups....


    Michela Albizzati


    L2? “Movies during Italian L2 Lessons: exams at the cinema” tries to answer these questions regarding the use of films in class and proposes an activity using clips from Italian films. Movies are social documents, vehicles for experiencing living, “situated” language and multi-sensory learning. The article sheds light on how L2 classes can benefit from the use of authentic audio-visual materials such as movies if properly selected and didacticized. From reflection to practice: after identifying objectives, target groups and their linguistic and communicative needs, an activity based on the using three didacticized clips centered on university oral exams is presented. Putting the linguistic-communicative needs of learners at the center shows that, if properly didacticized, a film or a clip constitutes extremely useful educational material for L2 learning, as well as an inexhaustible source of ideas from which the teacher can create original and stimulating educational activities which are not only linguistic but also intercultural.

  8. Empirical Comparison of Evaluation Methods for Unsupervised Learning of Morphology Comparaison empirique des méthodes d'évaluation de l'apprentissage non-supervisé de la morphologie

    Sami Virpioja


    Full Text Available Unsupervised and semi-supervised learning of morphology provide practical solutions for processing morphologically rich languages with less human labor than the traditional rule-based analyzers. Direct evaluation of the learning methods using linguistic reference analyses is important for their development, as evaluation through the final applications is often time consuming. However, even linguistic evaluation is not straightforward for full morphological analysis, because the morpheme labels generated by the learning method can be arbitrary. We review the previous evaluation methods for the learning tasks and propose new variations. In order to compare the methods, we perform an extensive meta-evaluation using the large collection of results from the Morpho Challenge competitions.

  9. L^2-Betti numbers, isomorphism conjectures and noncommutative localization

    Reich, Holger


    In this paper we discuss how the question about the rationality of L^2-Betti numbers is related to the Isomorphism Conjecture in algebraic K-theory and why in this context noncommutative localization appears as an important tool.

  10. Okeanos Explorer (EX1503L2): Tropical Exploration (Mapping II)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During EX-15-03L2, multibeam data will be collected 24 hours a day and XBT casts will be conducted at an interval defined by prevailing oceanographic conditions,...

  11. L^2-Betti Numbers of Algebras and Equivalence Relations


    In this thesis, we consider the L^2-Betti numbers associated to algebras and equivalence relations. For algebras, we expand upon the motivation between Connes and Shlyakhtenko's definition of L^2-Betti numbers of tracial algebras, and give an alternative definition of these numbers through an excision-type theorem. For equivalence relations we consider the definitions given by Gaboriau and Sauer and show that they coincide, in the process proving a theorem of Gaboriau. The methods used are st...

  12. Optimally Weighted L2 Distance for Functional Data

    Chen, Huaihou; Reiss, Philip T.; Tarpey, Thaddeus


    Many techniques of functional data analysis require choosing a measure of distance between functions, with the most common choice being L2 distance. In this paper we show that using a weighted L2 distance, with a judiciously chosen weight function, can improve the performance of various statistical methods for functional data, including k-medoids clustering, nonparametric classification, and permutation testing. Assuming a quadratically penalized (e.g. spline) basis representation for the fun...

  13. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students' Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2 (Creencias de estudiantes universitarios iraníes EFL e hindúes ESL acerca de las estrategias de lectura en L2)

    Karbalaei, Alireza


    The notion of "learner beliefs" has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners' beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers' beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study…

  14. An overview of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase gene (L2HGDH) variants: a genotype-phenotype study

    Steenweg, Marjan E; Jakobs, Cornelis; Errami, Abdellatif;


    increased L2HG (n=106; 83 families) were included. Clinical information on 61 patients was obtained via questionnaires. In 82 families the mutations were detected by direct sequence analysis and/or multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA), including one case where MLPA was essential to detect......HGA can be made based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical analysis, and mutational analysis of L2HGDH. About 200 patients with elevated concentrations of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) in the urine were referred for chiral determination of 2HG and L2HGDH mutational analysis. All patients with...... the second allele. In another case RT-PCR followed by deep intronic sequencing was needed to detect the mutation. Thirty-five novel mutations as well as 35 reported mutations and 14 nondisease-related variants are reviewed and included in a novel Leiden Open source Variation Database (LOVD) for L2HGDH...

  15. The multipath and SNR Quality in civil code L2

    Polezel, W. G.; Souza, E. M.; Monico, J. F.


    The new generation of GPS satellites, with the addition of the new L2C civil code, may provide to the users better positioning capabilities. The new code in the L2 may increase the signal robustness, improve resistance to interference, reduce tracking noise and consequently, improve accuracy and provide better positioning inside buildings and in wooded areas. The second civil frequency code will eliminate the need of using fragile semi- codeless tracking techniques currently used in connection with L2. The L2C has a different structure that allows civil and military share the same code. L2C owns two codes of different length: moderate code (CM) and long code (CL). The CM was chosen to have 10.230 chips repeated to every 20 millisecond. The CL was chosen to have 767250 chips with period of 1.5 second. The main reasons for these choices were due to excellent correlation properties. Furthermore, L2C enhances performance by having no data modulation on CL code, which improves, among others, the threshold tracking performance. Comparing the L2C acquisition with the C/A, the CM code is ten times longer than the C/A and the two components have half the total power. This is an important feature for many low-power applications. Although this signal has several advantages, some investigations about its performance are necessary, mainly about the provided accuracy under some effects, for example, multipath. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the L2C signal, as well as its quality using some parameters, such as Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and multipath level (MP). The experiment was realized at Sao Paulo State University UNESP in Presidente Prudente, Brazil. The data were collected by two receivers of different brands, both able to collect the L2C signal, and connected to the same antenna, thought the use of a splitter. The results showed that the MP and SNR values were better for the modernized satellites. Furthermore, the SNR values of the two receivers were similar while the

  16. Gender Differences in Motivation and L2 Accent Attainment: An Investigation of Young Kurdish Learners of Turkish

    Polat, Nihat


    Although some earlier studies reported female and child superiority in learning a second language (L2), current research has been inconclusive as to whether, and why, this might be the case. Using a socio-cultural paradigm, this study addresses how motivation, gender and age relate to the attainment of a native-like accent for young Kurdish…

  17. An Exploration of Language Anxiety in L2 Academic Context for Chinese International Students in U.S. Universities

    Zhao, Qing


    This mix-methods study examined the language anxiety levels that the Chinese international students perceived in second language (L2) academic context at four universities in the northeastern region of the United States of America; it explored the impact of language anxiety that these students perceived on their academic learning; it also…

  18. The Effects of Word Exposure Frequency and Elaboration of Word Processing on Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading

    Eckerth, Johannes; Tavakoli, Parveneh


    Research on incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition through reading has claimed that repeated encounters with unfamiliar words and the relative elaboration of processing these words facilitate word learning. However, so far both variables have been investigated in isolation. To help close this research gap, the current study…

  19. Study Quality in SLA: An Assessment of Designs, Analyses, and Reporting Practices in Quantitative L2 Research

    Plonsky, Luke


    This study assesses research and reporting practices in quantitative second language (L2) research. A sample of 606 primary studies, published from 1990 to 2010 in "Language Learning and Studies in Second Language Acquisition," was collected and coded for designs, statistical analyses, reporting practices, and outcomes (i.e., effect…

  20. "Even Though I Am Married, I Have a Dream": Constructing L2 Gendered Identities through Narratives of Departure and Arrival

    Giroir, Shannon


    This paper reports on the findings of a multiple case study to show how 3 women constructed meaning around the processes of L2 learning and migration and (re)constructed identities through their participation in new communities of practice (CoPs). Data sources include formal classroom observations, in-depth interviews, and the participants'…

  1. Acquiring Temporal Meanings without Tense Morphology: The Case of L2 Mandarin Chinese

    Slabakova, Roumyana


    This article reports on an experimental study addressing the second language acquisition of Mandarin temporality. Mandarin Chinese does not mark past, present, or future with dedicated morphemes; the native English of the learners does. It was hypothesized that, in their comprehension, learners would utilize the deictic pattern of expressing…

  2. Morphological Analysis as a Vocabulary Strategy for L1 and L2 College Preparatory Students

    Bellomo, Tom S.


    Students enrolled in a college preparatory reading class were categorized based on language origin. Native English speakers comprised one group and foreign students were dichotomized into Latin-based (for example, Spanish) and non Latin-based (for example, Japanese) language groups. A pretest assessment quantified existing knowledge of Latinate…

  3. Introduction. Beyond the Obvious: Do Second Language Learners Process Inflectional Morphology?

    Gor, Kira


    Given that this special issue is devoted to the acquisition and processing of inflectional morphology by second language (L2) learners, the question in the title may appear redundant. However, recent research on first language (L1) and L2 morphological processing has challenged basic assumptions about the status of inflectional morphology in…

  4. Longitudinal growth and morphology of the hippocampus through childhood: Impact of prematurity and implications for memory and learning.

    Thompson, Deanne K; Omizzolo, Cristina; Adamson, Christopher; Lee, Katherine J; Stargatt, Robyn; Egan, Gary F; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie E; Anderson, Peter J


    The effects of prematurity on hippocampal development through early childhood are largely unknown. The aims of this study were to (1) compare the shape of the very preterm (VPT) hippocampus to that of full-term (FT) children at 7 years of age, and determine if hippocampal shape is associated with memory and learning impairment in VPT children, (2) compare change in shape and volume of the hippocampi from term-equivalent to 7 years of age between VPT and FT children, and determine if development of the hippocampi over time predicts memory and learning impairment in VPT children. T1 and T2 magnetic resonance images were acquired at both term equivalent and 7 years of age in 125 VPT and 25 FT children. Hippocampi were manually segmented and shape was characterized by boundary point distribution models at both time-points. Memory and learning outcomes were measured at 7 years of age. The VPT group demonstrated less hippocampal infolding than the FT group at 7 years. Hippocampal growth between infancy and 7 years was less in the VPT compared with the FT group, but the change in shape was similar between groups. There was little evidence that the measures of hippocampal development were related to memory and learning impairments in the VPT group. This study suggests that the developmental trajectory of the human hippocampus is altered in VPT children, but this does not predict memory and learning impairment. Further research is required to elucidate the mechanisms for memory and learning difficulties in VPT children. PMID:24523026

  5. Palomuurin ja L3-kytkimen L2VPN yhteensopivuus operaattoriverkossa

    Kujala, Jussi


    Palveluntarjoajien verkoissa ei ole vain yhtä suurta laitevalmistajaa, jolla olisi monopoliasema. Palveluntarjoajan on tunnettava laaja kirjo eri laitevalmistajia ja löydettävä yhtäläisyydet laitevalmistajien välillä. Palveluntarjoajan on myös pystyttävä reagoimaan vikatilanteisiin nopeasti ja tehokkaasti. Opinnäytetyö käsittelee erilaisia L2VPN-siirtoteitä ja niiden yhteensopivuutta eri laitevalmistajien välillä. L2VPN-siirtoteissä keskityttiin VLL Martini -moodiin ja VPLS Martini -mood...

  6. L2R: A Logical Method for Reference Reconciliation

    Saïs, Fatiha; Pernelle, Nathalie; Rousset, Marie-Christine


    International audience The reference reconciliation problem consists in decid- ing whether different identifiers refer to the same data, i.e., correspond to the same world entity. The L2R sys- tem exploits the semantics of a rich data model, which extends RDFS by a fragment of OWL-DL and SWRL rules. In L2R, the semantics of the schema is translated into a set of logical rules of reconciliation, which are then used to infer correct decisions both of reconcilia- tion and no reconciliation. In...

  7. L’apprendimento della lingua della medicina in L2: due manuali a confronto

    Maria Polita


    Full Text Available Insegnare la lingua speciale della medicina ad una classe di apprendenti L2 implica considerare diverse problematiche relative alle peculiarità del codice settoriale (variazioni diafasiche, particolarità del lessico, tecnicismi collaterali, ma anche relative al pubblico di apprendenti non italofono (tipologia, interessi, livello di apprendimento. Il panorama editoriale italiano offre pochi strumenti dedicati: tra questi Donatella Troncarelli, Dica 33. Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, 1994 e Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma edizioni, 2004. Questo studio intende mettere a confronto i due testi sottolineandone le caratteristiche e l’impostazione glottodidattica ed evidenziando come il contenuto linguistico sia proposto, quali siano le abilità favorite, quali gli obiettivi di apprendimento e quali gli strumenti forniti. Particolare attenzione viene prestata al lessico registrato nei glossari dei volumi.  Learning the language of medicine in l2: a comparison of two textbooks Teaching the special language of medicine to a class of L2 learners implies considering various issues related to the peculiarities of the sector-specific jargon (diphasic variations, peculiarities of vocabulary, collateral technicalities, also related to non-Italian-speaking learners (type, interests, level of learning. Italian publishers offer few dedicated tools: these include Donatella Troncarelli, Dica 33.Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, 1994 and Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma editions, 2004. This study aims to compare the two texts, highlighting their features and language teaching setting, showing how linguistic content is proposed, which skills are promoted, what the learning objectives are and what tools are provided. Particular attention is paid to the vocabulary in the glossaries.

  8. An Analysis of the Monitor Theory and Its Implications for L2 Teaching



    This paper presents an analysis of Krashen's Monitor Theory from both theoretical and practical perspectives. Krashen proposes that adults' second language acquisition is almost the same as children's L1 acquisition. Such a statement is neither reliable nor scientific, for Lland L2 acquisitions are different in more than one respect. Viewed from the perspective of second language practice, his Acquisition-Learning Distinction can not be empirically tested or applied. Besides, it is faulty for Krashen to deny the role of output in SLA. Anyhow, as one of the first attempts to account for SLA, MT does have some implications for Second Language Teaching.

  9. Correspondences, von Neumann algebras and holomorphic $L^2$ torsion

    Carey, A L; Mathai, V; Carey, Alan L.; Farber, Michael; Mathai, Varghese


    Given a holomorphic Hilbertian bundle on a compact complex manifold, we introduce the notion of holomorphic $L^2$ torsion, which lies in the determinant line of the twisted $L^2$ Dolbeault cohomology and represents a volume element there. Here we utilise the theory of determinant lines of Hilbertian modules over finite von Neumann algebras as developed in an earlier paper by the authors. This specialises to the Ray-Singer-Quillen holomorphic torsion in the finite dimensional case. We compute a metric variation formula for the holomorphic $L^2$ torsion, which shows that it is not in general independent of the choice of Hermitian metrics on the complex manifold and on the holomorphic Hilbertian bundle, which are needed to define it. We therefore initiate the theory of correspondences of determinant lines, that enables us to define a relative holomorphic $L^2$ torsion for a pair of flat Hilbertian bundles, which we prove is independent of the choice of Hermitian metrics on the complex manifold and on the flat Hi...

  10. Awareness of L1/L2 Differences: Does It Matter?

    Ammar, Ahlem; Lightbown, Patsy M.; Spada, Nina


    This study is an investigation of the extent to which francophone learners of English as a second language (ESL) are aware of the differences between French and English question formation and how such awareness relates to their L2 performance. Three tasks were administered to 58 grades 5 and 6 francophone ESL learners. In a grammaticality…

  11. Epilogue: Exploring L2 Writing-SLA Interfaces

    Ortega, Lourdes


    In this closing commentary, I first briefly recognize areas that have made the dialogue between the fields of second language (L2) writing and second language acquisition (SLA) difficult in the past. I then offer some comments on the interfaces that are brought to the fore by the contributions gathered in the special issue. The themes explored are…

  12. Generators with interior degeneracy on spaces of L^2 type

    Genni Fragnelli


    Full Text Available We consider operators in divergence and in nondivergence form with degeneracy at the interior of the space domain. Characterizing the domain of the operators, we prove that they generate positive analytic semigroups on spaces of L^2 type. Finally, some applications to linear and semilinear parabolic evolution problems and to linear hyperbolic ones are presented.

  13. L1-L2 Sentence Translation in Classroom Grammar Tests

    Salem, Ilana


    L1-L2 translation of separate sentences is one kind of task format used by mainstream EFL teachers to assess their learners' grammatical accuracy. Aimed at improving teacher-written translation items, this study analyses linguistic features potentially causing such decontextualized cues (and their target responses) to sound odd or untypical of…

  14. Narration and Narrative in L2 Speakers of Russian

    Robin, Richard M.


    The researcher examined 54 oral proficiency interviews (OPIs) with L2 Russian speakers ranging from Intermediate High through Superior (predominantly Advanced Mid) for narrative as defined by Labov. Descriptors adapted from episodic analysis were also used. While the author found that OPIs provided relatively weak prompts for narrative, Superior…

  15. Assessing L2 Knowledge of Spanish Clitic Placement: Converging Methodologies.

    Duffield, Nigel; White, Lydia


    Reports on an experiment investigating adult second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish object clitic placement by native speakers of English and French. Two experimental methodologies are compared: an on-line sentence matching task and an off-line grammaticality judgment task. (Author/VWL)

  16. Hedging, Inflating, and Persuading in L2 Academic Writing

    Hinkel, Eli


    This study analyzes the types and frequencies of hedges and intensifiers employed in NS and NNS academic essays included in a corpus of L1 and L2 student academic texts (745 essays/220,747 words). The overarching goal of this investigation is to focus on these lexical and syntactic features of written discourse because they effectively lend…

  17. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul


    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  18. Variables Affecting L2 Gains during Study Abroad

    Baker-Smemoe, Wendy; Dewey, Dan P.; Bown, Jennifer; Martinsen, Rob A.


    Second language (L2) gains during study abroad have been related to several variables including length of stay (Llanes, 2011), language use (Martinsen, Baker, Dewey, Bown, & Johnson, 2010), and social network development (Isabelli-García, 2006), among others. However, most studies have investigated only a few predictors in single study abroad…

  19. L2 English Listening:A Metacognitive Approach



    Metacognitive instruction is considered to be an effective approach of teaching listening in L2 context. Related research reports positively about the relation between listening performance and metacognitive instruction. However, when implementing metacognitive instruction in English classrooms in the context of China, there are some aspects deserving our further discussion.

  20. Phonetics Instruction Improves Learners' Perception of L2 Sounds

    Kissling, Elizabeth M.


    Explicit phonetics instruction can help second language (L2) learners to moderately improve their pronunciation, but less is known about how the instruction affects learners' perception, even though there is evidence that perception and pronunciation are related. This study provided phonetics instruction to students (n = 46) studying Spanish as a…


    Ma Bolin; Hu Guoen


    The commutators of oscillatory singular integral operators with homogeneous kernel are studied,where Ω is homogeneous of degree zero, has mean value zero on the unit sphere. It is proved that Ω ∈ L(logL)k+1(Sm-1) is a sufficient condition under which the k-th order commutator is bounded on L2(Rn).

  2. Effect of Alignment on L2 Written Production

    Wang, Chuming; Wang, Min


    This article aims to uncover how L2 writing is affected by alignment, a socio-cognitive process involving dynamic coordination and adaptation. For this, two studies were conducted. Study 1 required two groups of 24 learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) to continue in English two stories with their endings removed, both of which had a…

  3. Discourse Connectives in L1 and L2 Argumentative Writing

    Hu, Chunyu; Li, Yuanyuan


    Discourse connectives (DCs) are multi-functional devices used to connect discourse segments and fulfill interpersonal levels of discourse. This study investigates the use of selected 80 DCs within 11 categories in the argumentative essays produced by L1 and L2 university students. The analysis is based on the International Corpus Network of Asian…

  4. L2 Reading Motivation among Sri Lankan University Students

    Dhanapala, Kusumi Vasantha; Hirakawa, Yukiko


    This study investigated the extent of the motivational processes that facilitated the text comprehension among 406 Sri Lankan university students in Sri Lanka. Students' L2 text comprehension and reading motivation were assessed using a reading comprehension test and a reading motivation and attitude questionnaire. The Principal Componential…

  5. Rigidity and $L^2$ cohomology of hyperbolic manifolds

    Carron, Gilles


    When $X=\\Gamma\\backslash \\H^n$ is a real hyperbolic manifold, it is already known that if the critical exponent is small enough then some cohomology spaces and some spaces of $L^2$ harmonic forms vanish. In this paper, we show rigidity results in the borderline case of these vanishing results.

  6. Raising Learners' Awareness through L1-L2 Teacher Collaboration

    Gunning, Pamela; White, Joanna; Busque, Christine


    There is considerable interest in teacher collaboration across mother tongue and second language curricula. However, cross-curricular collaboration in reading strategy instruction has seldom been investigated. We report a two-year study involving collaboration between the French first language (L1) and English second language (L2) teachers in an…

  7. The Inseparability of Cognition and Emotion in Second Language Learning

    Swain, Merrill


    The scholarly literature about the process of second language (L2) learning has focused to a considerable extent on cognitive processes. Left aside are questions about how emotions fit into an understanding of L2 learning. One goal of this plenary is to demonstrate that we have limited our understanding of L2 learning by failing to take into…

  8. Acquiring native-like intonation in Dutch and Spanish: Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners

    van Maastricht, L.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Krahmer, E.J.


    ACQUIRING NATIVE-LIKE INTONATION IN DUTCH AND SPANISH Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners Introduction Learning more about the interaction between the native language (L1) and the target language (L2) has been the aim of many studies on second language acquisition (SLA). Where the first studies mostly focussed on the influence of the L1 on the L2, later studies showed that the opposite is also possible, making linguistic transfer a bi-directional phenomenon...

  9. Progress and prospects for L2-based human papillomavirus vaccines.

    Jiang, Rosie T; Schellenbacher, Christina; Chackerian, Bryce; Roden, Richard B S


    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a worldwide public health problem, particularly in resource-limited countries. Fifteen high-risk genital HPV types are sexually transmitted and cause 5% of all cancers worldwide, primarily cervical, anogenital and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Skin HPV types are generally associated with benign disease, but a subset is linked to non-melanoma skin cancer. Licensed HPV vaccines based on virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from L1 major capsid antigen of key high risk HPVs are effective at preventing these infections but do not cover cutaneous types and are not therapeutic. Vaccines targeting L2 minor capsid antigen, some using capsid display, adjuvant and fusions with early HPV antigens or Toll-like receptor agonists, are in development to fill these gaps. Progress and challenges with L2-based vaccines are summarized. PMID:26901354


    Gregory K . Iverson


    Full Text Available The research reported in this paper is intended as a contribution to the understanding of several wellknown problems relating to the leaming of phonemic contrasts in second language (L2 phonology. The paper describes a series of ongoing studies examining what Lado (1957 hypothesized to represent maximum diffículty in second language pronunciation, narnely, a phonemic split. This is the process involved when an L2 learner must split native language (NL allophones into separate target language (TL phonemes. Two core principles of phonological theory are described and evaluated for their relevante in explaining the series of well-defined, implicationally-related stages involved in a phonemic split. Finally, the paper reports the results of an empirical study designed to test the explanatory adequacy of these principles, and concludes with a discussion of the implications of these studies for second language phonology in general.

  11. Optimally weighted L(2) distance for functional data.

    Chen, Huaihou; Reiss, Philip T; Tarpey, Thaddeus


    Many techniques of functional data analysis require choosing a measure of distance between functions, with the most common choice being L2 distance. In this article we show that using a weighted L2 distance, with a judiciously chosen weight function, can improve the performance of various statistical methods for functional data, including k-medoids clustering, nonparametric classification, and permutation testing. Assuming a quadratically penalized (e.g., spline) basis representation for the functional data, we consider three nontrivial weight functions: design density weights, inverse-variance weights, and a new weight function that minimizes the coefficient of variation of the resulting squared distance by means of an efficient iterative procedure. The benefits of weighting, in particular with the proposed weight function, are demonstrated both in simulation studies and in applications to the Berkeley growth data and a functional magnetic resonance imaging data set. PMID:26228660

  12. L2 and L∞ optimal downsampling from system theoretic viewpoint

    Shekhawat, Hanumant Singh; Meinsma, Gjerrit


    Downsampling is the process of reducing the sampling rate of a discrete signal. It has many applications in image processing, audio, radar etc. The reduction factor of the sampling rate can be an integer or a rational greater than one. This paper describes how sampled data system theory can be used to design an L2/L∞ optimal downsampler which reduces the sampling rate by an positive integer factor M from a given fast sampler sampling at h′ = h/M.

  13. Feedback in L2 writing: the students' perspective

    Vokic, Gabriela


    Given the disparate views in L2 writing literature on what constitutes effective teacher feedback, this qualitative study approached this issue from the student???s perspective. In order to examine what constitutes effective teacher feedback from the student???s standpoint, fifty-four student responses to three drastically different feedback styles were analyzed. The results of this preliminary study are partially in line with Hyland (1998), since it was found that whethe...

  14. L2 Quality as a Competitive Edge - Project Presentation

    Ditlevsen, Marianne Grove; Kastberg, Peter


    In our paper we would like to present an interdisciplinary project "L2 as a Competitive Edge". We'll be doing this by first giving you a project overview in section 0. The overview will then in the section 1 and 2 be followed by a presentation of two of the most interesting themes, serving as poi...... of departure for further discussion. The two themes are "The evaluation of language quality" and "Method - an Integrated Approach"....

  15. Assessing output and outcomes in L2 through perspective taking

    Myers, Marie J.


    We present results of a two year longitudinal study on the assessment of French as a second language (L2) reaction papers to theoretical readings in a fifth year university program in teacher training in Canada. As students come into this program for a one year specialization from very different backgrounds and universities, we wanted them to feel free in terms of their various ways in operationalizing and variability in language ...

  16. Some Sharp L^2 Inequalities for Dirac Type Operators

    Alexander Balinsky


    Full Text Available We use the spectra of Dirac type operators on the sphere $S^n$ to produce sharp $L^2$ inequalities on the sphere. These operators include the Dirac operator on $S^n$, the conformal Laplacian and Paenitz operator. We use the Cayley transform, or stereographic projection, to obtain similar inequalities for powers of the Dirac operator and their inverses in ${mathbb R}^n$.

  17. Integration of moral values during L2 sentence processing.

    Foucart, Alice; Moreno, Eva; Martin, Clara D; Costa, Albert


    This study reports an event-related potential (ERP) experiment examining whether valuation (i.e., one's own values) is integrated incrementally and whether it affects L2 speakers' online interpretation of the sentence. We presented Spanish native speakers and French-Spanish mid-proficiency late L2 speakers with visual sentences containing value-consistent and value-inconsistent statements (e.g., 'Nowadays, paedophilia should be prohibited/tolerated across the world.'). Participants' brain activity was recorded as they were reading the sentences and indicating whether they agreed with the statements or not. Behaviourally, the two groups revealed identical valuation. The ERP analyses showed both a semantic (N400) and an affect-related response (LPP) to value-inconsistent statements in the native group, but only an LPP in the non-native group. These results suggest that valuation is integrated online (presence of LPP) during L2 sentence comprehension but that it does not interfere with semantic processing (absence of N400). PMID:26431751

  18. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of L2 Puppis

    Chen, Zhuo; Nordhaus, Jason; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G.; Balick, Bruce


    Recent observations of the L2 Puppis system suggest that this Mira-like variable may be in the early stages of forming a bipolar planetary nebula. As one of nearest and brightest asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, thought be a binary, L2 Puppis serves as a benchmark object for studying the late-stages of stellar evolution. We perform global, three-dimensional, adaptive-mesh-refinement hydrodynamic simulations of the L2 Puppis system with ASTROBEAR. We use the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D to construct the broad-band spectral energy distribution and synthetic observational images from our simulations. Given the reported binary parameters, we are able to reproduce the current observational data if a short pulse of dense material is released from the AGB star with a velocity sufficient to escape the primary but not the binary. Such a situation could result from a thermal pulse, be induced by a periastron passage of the secondary, or could be launched if the primary ingests a planet.

  19. Accounting for L2 learners’ errors in word stress placement

    Clara Herlina Karjo


    Full Text Available Stress placement in English words is governed by highly complicated rules. Thus, assigning stress correctly in English words has been a challenging task for L2 learners, especially Indonesian learners since their L1 does not recognize such stress system. This study explores the production of English word stress by 30 university students. The method used for this study is immediate repetition task. Participants are instructed to identify the stress placement of 80 English words which are auditorily presented as stimuli and immediately repeat the words with correct stress placement. The objectives of this study are to find out whether English word stress placement is problematic for L2 learners and to investigate the phonological factors which account for these problems. Research reveals that L2 learners have different ability in producing the stress, but three-syllable words are more problematic than two-syllable words. Moreover, misplacement of stress is caused by, among others, the influence of vowel lenght and vowel height.


    Elena Maria Pandolfi


    Full Text Available L'articolo propone alcune considerazioni sulla didattica dell'italiano come L2 in Svizzera, partendo da una breve disamina della posizione che l'italiano ha in Svizzera all'interno del suo territorio e nei Cantoni non italofoni. Si è dunque trattato della didattica dell'italiano L2 in Svizzera abbozzando i tratti principali che caratterizzano la didattica fuori e all'interno del territorio italofono. Si è anche proposta una lista di alcuni lessemi marcati in diatopia che caratterizzano l'italiano in Svizzera, sottolineando come questi e altri tratti più squisitamente sociolinguistici possano indurre a considerare anche l'italiano come una lingua pluricentrica, con le implicazioni che questo concetto ha per la didattica dell'italiano L2 in Svizzera, anche dal punto di vista della riflessione metalinguistica.   The paper proposes some considerations concerning teaching Italian as a second language in Switzerland. Through a brief description of the position of Italian inside the Swiss quadrilingualism the teaching approaches are discussed taking into account the peculiar situation inside and outside the Italian territory. Besides the paper presents a list of some common lexemes diatopically marked inducing, along with sociolinguistic parameters, at considering Italian as a pluricentric language with the implication the concept may have concerning the teaching of Italian as a second language in Switzerland.

  1. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of L2 Puppis

    Chen, Zhuo; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G


    Recent observations of the L2 Puppis system suggest that the Mira-like variable may be in the early stages of forming a bipolar planetary nebula (PN). As one of nearest and brightest AGB stars, and due to its status as a binary, L2 Puppis serves as a benchmark object for studying the late-stages of stellar evolution. We perform global, three-dimensional, adaptive-mesh-refinement hydrodynamic simulations of the L2 Puppis system with AstroBEAR. The broad-band spectral-energy-distribution (SED) and synthetic observational images are post-processed from our simulations using the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D. Given the reported binary parameters, we are able to reproduce the current observational data if a short pulse of dense material is released from the AGB star with a velocity sufficient to escape the primary but not the binary. Such a situation could emanate from a thermal pulse, be induced by a periastron passage of the secondary, or could be launched if the primary ingests a planet.

  2. Developing a useful Vocabulary in English is more Complicated and Ef-fective than Simply Learning Words Based on Lists

    HU Xiao; XIAO Jun


    Traditional ways of English learning such as memorizing a certain couple of words and reciting from the word list seem much easier than developing a useful vocabulary for L2 learners. However, learners complain that they have suffered from couples of difficulties as the words are easy to be forgotten. Compare with the ways of mechanical memorizing, it argues that pro⁃viding L2 learners with the development of useful lexical knowledge such as semantic information and morphological structure is more effective in the process of language acquisition. Moreover, developing a useful lexical knowledge is far more complicated for English learners.

  3. Design of dialogic eLearning-to-learn: metalearning as pedagogical methodology

    Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard


    networked e Learning based on Learning-to-Learn (L2L), it makes a plea for L2L in a dialogic global learning context, offering a vision of global democratic citizens able to engage in critical dialogue with fellow learners.

  4. ICT and L2 Acquisition by Adult Migrants: Results from a Comparative Study in the Netherlands and Sweden

    SPOTTI Massimiliano; KLUZER Stefano; Ferrari, Anusca


    This paper, part of a larger comparative study jointly developed by IPTS (Seville) and DG INFSO (Brussels), deals with ICT and L2 learning as enablers of integration and the everyday engagement of adult migrants in both in the Netherlands and Sweden. More specifically, the paper provides a qualitative snapshot of the current situation in these two countries where migrant integration is regimented by opposite policy regimes with sharp differences in their ICT provision (a highly developed priv...

  5. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Iranian EFL Learners’ Level of L2 Lexical Knowledge: The Case of Gender

    Reza Biria; Abbas Mehrabi Boshrabadi; Elham Nikbakht


    Human cognitive competence represents individuals’ subconscious knowledge of abilities, talents, and mental skills collectively called “multiple intelligences (MIs)”, which play a pivotal role in facilitating human learning. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to determine the magnitude of the relationship existing between multiple intelligences and Iranian EFL learners’ level of second language (L2) lexical knowledge on one hand and the partializing impact of gender on the othe...

  6. Exoplanet Photometry and Spectroscopy with HII/L2

    Tamura, M.


    With the recent discovery of extrasolar planets (exoplanets) around nearby stars by indirect methods, one of the next goals of the exoplanet study is to directly detect the giant exoplanets and to make photometry and spectroscopy. The next decade will be the time to move from discovery to characterization of exoplanet systems. This, however, requires all of high sensitivity, high spatial resolution, and high dynamic range observations at infrared wavelengths, which will be difficult to achieve from the ground. In this paper, we describe a coronagraphic camera and spectrometer for the HII/L2 mission for mid- and far-infrared astronomy and show the photometry and spectroscopy of exoplanets to be one of the most important scientific aims for this mission. The proposed HII/L2 coronagraph will cover the wavelength between 4 and 27 micron, optimized at 5 micron. The plate scale is about 0.06 arcsec, covering a field-of-view of about 1 arcmin by 1 arcmin with a 1024x1024 array detector. Occulting masks of diameter greater than 0.72 arcsec will be available, which enables the observations of exoplanets beyond ~2 AU around nearby (d~5 pc) stars. The coronagraph greatly takes advantage of the single (non-segmented) mirror of the HII/L2 telescope design. A high-efficiency Ge or CdTe grism with a resolution of a few hundreds will be installed for the coronagraphic spectroscopy of the exoplanet atmosphere. Rich spectral features at mid-infrared wavelengths enable us to study various atmospheric components and to make a comparative study of the exoplanets and our solar system planets.

  7. Affective Variables of Second Language Learning


    <正>There are various factors influencing second language learning(L2 learning). Among then,affective variables directly or indirectly have an effect on the success of L2 learning. Based on the applied linguistics theories,the paper mainly discusses three major groups of affective variables—attitude,motivation,personality and how they influence L2 learning.It aims to make both language teachers and learners understand the importance of these variables so as to improve the efficiency of L2 learning and teaching.

  8. The Laplace transform and polynomial approximation in L2

    Labouriau, Rodrigo


    This short note gives a sufficient condition for having the class of polynomials dense in the space of square integrable functions with respect to a finite measure dominated by the Lebesgue measure in the real line, here denoted by L2. It is shown that if the Laplace transform of the measure...... concerning the polynomial approximation is original, even thought the proof is relatively simple. Additionally, an alternative stronger condition (easier to be verified) not involving the calculation of the Laplace transform is given. The condition essentially says that the density of the measure should have...

  9. English L2 reading getting to the bottom

    Birch, Barbara M


    English L2 Reading, Third Edition offers teachers research-based insights into bottom-up skills in reading English as a second language and a solid foundation on which to build reading instruction. Core linguistic and psycholinguistic concepts are presented within the context of their application to teaching. The goal is to balance or supplement (not replace) top-down approaches and methodologies with effective low-level options for teaching English reading. The text's pedagogical features- Questions, Study Guide Questions. Discussion Questions, Spotlight on Teaching sections- engage readers o

  10. Strong limit theorems in noncommutative L2-spaces

    Jajte, Ryszard


    The noncommutative versions of fundamental classical results on the almost sure convergence in L2-spaces are discussed: individual ergodic theorems, strong laws of large numbers, theorems on convergence of orthogonal series, of martingales of powers of contractions etc. The proofs introduce new techniques in von Neumann algebras. The reader is assumed to master the fundamentals of functional analysis and probability. The book is written mainly for mathematicians and physicists familiar with probability theory and interested in applications of operator algebras to quantum statistical mechanics.


    陈志华; 周朝晖


    This paper is concernod with the L2 harmonic forms of a complete noncompact Riemannian manifold, i.e. If M has a pole Q, let 0 < p < n/1+ 2 or 2n/1+ 2 < p < n, and assume the radial section curvatures satisfy -c(1-c)/r2 ≤ Kr ≤ c(1-c)/r2 on M - {Q}, where 1>c> (1+ 2)p-1/n-1, then Hp = {0}. If M has a soul, then similar result is obtained.

  12. Teaching learners to communicate effectively in the L2: Integrating body language in the students’ syllabus

    Maria Grazia Busà


    Full Text Available Abstract –In communication a great deal of meaning is exchanged through body language, including gaze, posture, hand gestures and body movements. Body language is largely culture-specific, and rests, for its comprehension, on people’s sharing socio-cultural and linguistic norms. In cross-cultural communication, L2 speakers’ use of body language may convey meaning that is not understood or misinterpreted by the interlocutors, affecting the pragmatics of communication. In spite of its importance for cross-cultural communication, body language is neglected in ESL/EFL teaching. This paper argues that the study of body language should be integrated in the syllabus of ESL/EFL teaching and learning. This is done by: 1 reviewing literature showing the tight connection between language, speech and gestures and the problems that might arise in cross-cultural communication when speakers use and interpret body language according to different conventions; 2 reporting the data from two pilot studies showing that L2 learners transfer L1 gestures to the L2 and that these are not understood by native L2 speakers; 3 reporting an experience teaching body language in an ESL/EFL classroom. The paper suggests that in multicultural ESL/EFL classes teaching body language should be aimed primarily at raising the students’ awareness of the differences existing across cultures.   Keywords: ESL/EFL teaching; body language; cross-cultural communication; speech; gestures.     Abstract –Nella comunicazione una buona parte del significato viene trasmetto attraverso il linguaggio del corpo, che include lo sguardo, la postura, i gesti delle mani e i movimenti del corpo. Il linguaggio del corpo è per lo più specifico di ciascuna cultura e si affida, per la sua comprensione, sulla condivisione di norme socio-culturali e linguistiche. Nella comunicazione interculturale l’uso del linguaggio del corpo da parte dei parlanti di L2 può trasmettere significati che non

  13. The Effect of Using Print Media on Children’s L2 Literacy Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Mansoor Tavakoli; Saeedeh Esmae’li


    This paper tries to examine the effect of using print media in the classroom on the children’s L2 literacy development in an EFL context. Since reading is regarded as a chief goal, in many second/foreign language teaching situations, it receives a special focus. Media as a tool for language learning/teaching, can help both instructed and non-instructed learners to overcome the difficult task of language learning. In order to determine the effects of print media usage on the development ...


    Diego Santalucia


    Full Text Available L’articolo, prendendo spunto da recenti progetti che spingono per un utilizzo sempre più esteso di tablet e strumenti digitali in classe, fa riferimento alla Raccomandazione del Parlamento Europeo e del Consiglio dell’Unione Europea (2006 per discutere alcuni degli elementi rappresentativi della “competenza digitale” che la Raccomandazione delinea. Alla luce di questi elementi si sviluppano alcune indicazioni sull’uso ragionato dei motori di ricerca e di alcune risorse offerte dalla rete, come Google Docs e Google Drive.Seguono una breve illustrazione di Edmodo, una piattaforma didattica social, e alcune indicazioni sull’utilizzo degli smartphone per l’accesso a risorse utili e semplici da condividere in classe. Sono tracciate alcune linee guida sulla gestione di risorse già accessibili in rete e che sono, quindi, a disposizione di quegli insegnanti di Italiano L2/LS che vogliano utilizzare sistemi di condivisione online a sostegno della didattica in presenza.Digital competence and digital language teaching for Italian L2/FL teachersThe article, inspired by recent projects that push for an ever-wider use of tablets and digital tools in the classroom, refers to the Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of the European Union (2006 discusses some of the representative elements of “digital competence” that the Recommendation outlines. In light of these elements, some guidelines on the use of search engines and some resources offered by the network, such as Google Docs and Google Drive, are offered.This is followed by a brief description of Edmodo, a social learning platform, and information on the use of smartphones to access helpful resources that are easy to share in class. Finally, some guidelines on the management of resources already available on the Internet for Italian L2/FL teachers who want to use online sharing systems to support of frontal lessons are given.


    J. Scott Payne


    Full Text Available Recently a number of quasi-experimental studies have investigated the potential of a cross-modality transfer of second language competency between real-time, conversational exchange via text and speech (Abrams, 2003; Beauvious, 1998; Kost, 2004; Payne & Whitney, 2002. Payne and Whitney employed Levelt's (1989 model of language production and concepts from working memory as a rationale for a hypothesized connection between synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC and second language (L2 speech and as a basis for predicting the differential contributions of SCMC to the L2 oral proficiency development.This study extends the psycholinguistic framework reported in Payne and Whitney (2002 with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explore how individual differences in working memory capacity may affect the frequency of repetition and other patterns of language use in chatroom discourse. Working memory capacity was measured by a reading span and nonword repetition test. Oral proficiency was measured with a speaking task that solicited a 5-minute speech sample and was scored based on a holistic scale. The data collected from 20 chat sessions were analyzed for occurrences of repetition and relexicalization, as well as language output measures. Findings suggest a connection between working memory and language output as measured in this study.

  16. James Webb Space Telescope - L2 Communications for Science Data Processing

    Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Jones, Ronald; Fatig, Curtis; Wasiak, Francis


    JWST is the first NASA mission at the second Lagrange point (L2) to identify the need for data rates higher than 10 megabits per second (Mbps). JWST will produce approximately 235 Gigabits of science data every day that will be downlinked to the Deep Space Network (DSN). To get the data rates desired required moving away from X-band frequencies to Ka-band frequencies. To accomplish this transition, the DSN is upgrading its infrastructure. This new range of frequencies are becoming the new standard for high data rate science missions at L2. With the new frequency range, the issues of alternatives antenna deployment, off nominal scenarios, NASA implementation of the Ka-band 26 GHz, and navigation requirements will be discussed in this paper. JWST is also using Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standard process for reliable file transfer using CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). For JWST the use of the CFDP protocol provides level zero processing at the DSN site. This paper will address NASA implementations of Ground Stations in support of Ka-band 26 GHz and lesson learned from implementing a file base (CFDP) protocol operational system.

  17. The transformative potential of action research and ICT in the Second Language (L2 classroom

    Farren Margaret


    Full Text Available This study shows the transformative potential of action research and information and communications technology (ICT in the second language (L2 classroom. Two enquiries from teacher-researchers are detailed in the article. Their engagement in a collaborative professional development Masters programme was pivotal in designing and implementing ICT creatively in their classroom. Gee (2008 advocates the use of the preferred media of our classroom students in order to address their learning. Prensky (2001 urges us to feel the fear and do it anyway with our digital native classes. A post-primary teacher and a primary teacher show us how they felt the fear, did it and transformed aspects of their own teaching in the process. The Masters programme required the teachers to engage with innovative practices, informed by their own values, and integrate technologies that were new to them into their repertoire of classroom strategies. Peer validation meetings with colleagues enabled meaningful insights to emerge from the research. The teachers improve and transform their second language (L2 practice in collaboration and validation with others.

  18. L’italiano L2 : auto-apprendimento e narratività. Materiali multimediali di italiano L2 per bambini e ragazzi.

    Graziella Favaro


    basano su un forte impianto narrativo che sviluppa coinvolgimento e identificazione; d sono attenti allo sviluppo della lingua orale e dello scritto, dell'italiano per comunicare e per lo studio; e hanno una chiara caratterizzazione interculturale.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Teaching Italian as a second language to newly immigrated children and young people is a delicate and complex undertaking which has become part of the job for teachers working in increasingly multicultural and multilingual classes.  The most widespread and effective way of teaching/learning the L2 is the integrated approach: the non-Italian-speaking child is placed in an ordinary class and, parallel to this, there are times when (she attends a workshop of Italian as a second language.  To support this integrated approach and accompany the new arrivals in their journey into the Italian language, flexible teaching/learning materials are needed, with a wealth of suggestions that can be used independently and with a small group; they should be suitable for use either traditionally or through LIM and appropriate for developing different competences in the language of communication, written Italian and preparation for learning in the core curriculum.  The two courses of Italian as L2 presented in the final part of the article satisfy these demands since a the former is intended for newly-arrived children from abroad and the latter for newly-arrived young people; b they are intended for the shift from pre-elementary to levels A1, A2 and B1 of the QCERL; c they are founded on a solid narrative basis which develops involvement and identification; d they

  19. Inference with formal analogical proportions: application to the automatic learning of morphology Du quatrième de proportion comme principe inductif : une proposition et son application à l'apprentissage de la morphologie

    Nicolas Stroppa


    Full Text Available We present an analogical learning model which exploits the notion of formal analogical proportions; this approach requires the ability to define these proportions and to implement them efficiently. We propose an algebraic definition of this notion, which applies to a large range of structured objects: words, attribute-value structures, labeled trees. We test this inference model by applying it to the task of learning morphological analyses of unknown forms. We can assess the validity of the approach thanks to experimental results that are given for several lexicons.

  20. Multilingual Learning Stories: Threshold, Stability and Change

    Gabrys-Barker, Danuta; Otwinowska, Agnieszka


    The article presents a reflection on the ways multilingual language users perceive their L2 and L3 learning experiences in retrospect. Emphasis is placed on sequential learning of foreign languages in classroom settings for learners/users homogenous in terms of their learning histories, with L1 Polish and L2 English (advanced), but at two…

  1. Il lessico in corsi universitari di italiano l2

    Atzeni, Danila


    This thesis is about vocabulary and especially its role in teaching and learning Italian as a foreign language. In recent decades, in fact, the crucial importance of vocabulary has been repeatedly reaffirmed within the disciplines that deal with the learning of second languages as well as in language teaching, although in the past has not always received the attention it deserved. The first chapter gives an account of some terminological and theoretical issues. The second chapt...

  2. Going Blended: New Challenges for Second Generation L2 Tutors

    Nissen, Elke; Tea, Elena


    This study explores how second generation tutors within blended learning courses link the face-to-face and online course modalities - in their representations as well as through their pedagogical activities - and which aspects help them to feel involved in the course. The methodology used is a qualitative analysis of interviews with seven tutors of three different blended learning courses. The results show that most tutors indeed had difficulties gaining a deeper insight into the course desig...

  3. Asymptotically periodic L^2 minimizers in strongly segregating diblock copolymers

    Chmaj, Adam


    Using the delta correction to the standard free energy \\cite{bc} in the elastic setting with a quadratic foundation term and some parameters, we introduce a one dimension only model for strong segregation in diblock copolymers, whose sharp interface periodic microstructure is consistent with experiment in low temperatures. The Green's function pattern forming nonlocality is the same as in the Ohta-Kawasaki model. Thus we complete the statement in [31,p.349]: ``The detailed analysis of this model will be given elsewhere. Our preliminary results indicate that the new model exhibits periodic minimizers with sharp interfaces.'' We stress that the result is unexpected, as the functional is not well posed, moreover the instabilities in $L^2$ typically occur only along continuous nondifferentiable ``hairs''. We also improve the derivation done by van der Waals and use it and the above to show the existence of a phase transition with Maxwell's equal area rule. However, this model does not predict the universal critic...

  4. Global magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in the L-2M stellarator

    Mikhailov, M. I.; Shchepetov, S. V.; Nührenberg, C.; Nührenberg, J.


    Analysis of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in the L-2M stellarator (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences) is presented. The properties of free-boundary equilibria states are outlined, the stability conditions for small-scale modes are briefly discussed, and the number of trapped particles is estimated. All the magnetic configurations under study are stable against ballooning modes. It is shown that global ideal internal MHD modes can be found reliably only in Mercier unstable plasmas. In plasma that is stable with respect to the Mercier criterion, global unstable modes that are localized in the vicinity of the free plasma boundary and are not associated with any rational magnetic surface inside the plasma (the so-called peeling modes) can be found. The radial structure of all perturbations under study is almost entirely determined by the poloidal coupling of harmonics. The results of calculations are compared with the available experimental data.


    Mark Evan Nelson


    Full Text Available This study of digital storytelling attempts to apply Kress's (2003 notions of synaesthesia, transformation, and transduction to the analysis of four undergraduate L2 writers' multimedia text creation processes. The students, entering freshmen, participated in an experimental course entitled "Multimedia Writing," whose purpose was to experience and explore the processes of multimodal textual communication. With the support of empirical data drawn from interviews, student journals, and the digital story-related artifacts themselves, the author shows how synaesthetically derived meaning may be a natural part of the process of creating multimodal texts. Considering the special case of non-native English speakers, the paper also demonstrates that synaesthesia may have both amplifying and limiting effects on the projection of authorial intention and voice. Before reading the following, it is suggested that the reader view examples of the multimedia essays discussed herein.

  6. Global magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in the L-2M stellarator

    Mikhailov, M. I., E-mail: [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Shchepetov, S. V., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Nührenberg, C.; Nührenberg, J. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (Germany)


    Analysis of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in the L-2M stellarator (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences) is presented. The properties of free-boundary equilibria states are outlined, the stability conditions for small-scale modes are briefly discussed, and the number of trapped particles is estimated. All the magnetic configurations under study are stable against ballooning modes. It is shown that global ideal internal MHD modes can be found reliably only in Mercier unstable plasmas. In plasma that is stable with respect to the Mercier criterion, global unstable modes that are localized in the vicinity of the free plasma boundary and are not associated with any rational magnetic surface inside the plasma (the so-called peeling modes) can be found. The radial structure of all perturbations under study is almost entirely determined by the poloidal coupling of harmonics. The results of calculations are compared with the available experimental data.

  7. Second Language Idiom Learning in a Paired-Associate Paradigm: Effects of Direction of Learning, Direction of Testing, Idiom Imageability, and Idiom Transparency

    Steinel, Margarita P.; Hulstijn, Jan H.; Steinel, Wolfgang


    In a paired-associate learning (PAL) task, Dutch university students (n = 129) learned 20 English second language (L2) idioms either receptively or productively (i.e., L2-first language [L1] or L1-L2) and were tested in two directions (i.e., recognition or production) immediately after learning and 3 weeks later. Receptive and productive…

  8. Evolution of periodic orbits near the Lagrangian point L2

    Dutt, Pooja; Sharma, R. K.


    A study of the evolution of the periodic and the quasi-periodic orbits near the Lagrangian point L2, which is located to the right of the smaller primary on the line joining the primaries and whose distance from the more massive primary is greater than the distance between the primaries, in the framework of restricted three-body problem for the Sun-Jupiter, Earth-Moon (relatively large mass ratio) and Saturn-Titan (relatively small mass ratio) systems is made. Two families of periodic orbits around the smaller primary are identified using the Poincaré surface of section method - family I (initially elliptical, gradually becomes egg-shaped with the increase in the Jacobi constant C and elongated towards the more massive primary) and family II (initially egg-shaped orbits elongated towards L2 and gradually becomes elliptical with the increase in C). The family I in the Sun-Jupiter and Saturn-Titan systems contains two separatrix caused by third-order and fourth-order resonances, while the Earth-Moon system has only one separatrix which is caused by third-order resonances. Also in the Sun-Jupiter and the Saturn-Titan systems, family I merge with family II, around Jacobian constant 3.0393 and 3.0163, respectively, while in the Earth-Moon system, family II evolves separately from two different branches. The two branches merge at C = 3.184515. In the Earth-Moon system, the family II contains a separatrix due to third-order resonances which is absent in the other two systems.

  9. L’apport des TICE et de l’écriture collaborative au développement des compétences écrites dans l’acquisition/apprentissage d’une L2 Can new technologies and collaborative writing contribute to better written performance in second language acquisition/learning

    Isabelle Bonnassies


    Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une recherche-action en école d’ingénieurs, nous avons cherché à développer un savoir et un savoir-faire propre à la technique du compte-rendu. Cet objectif était facilité par des activités langagières et des procédures formalisées sous forme de grilles d’auto-évaluation. L’apprentissage se déroulait dans un environnement collaboratif et s’appuyait sur des outils informatisés. En conséquence, nous avons comparé deux situations d’apprentissage autour de ces questions : dans quelle mesure une tâche médiatisée par l’ordinateur permet une meilleure appropriation de la technique d’écriture et, une fois acquis, ce savoir faire peut-il être transféré quel que soit le support ?This field research is aimed at teaching the report writing technique to engineering students through various language activities and self-assessment grids. They worked in a collaborative environment using new technologies. We compared two learning situations to show how computer-mediated tasks help improve the written performance and how this know-how is transferred to other learning situations.

  10. Group morphology

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.


    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  11. Morphological knowledge and literacy acquisition.

    Nagy, William E; Carlisle, Joanne F; Goodwin, Amanda P


    The purpose of this special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities is to bring to the attention of researchers and educators studies on morphology and literacy that either involve students with learning difficulties or have educational implications for teaching such students. In our introduction, we first provide background information about morphological knowledge and consider the role of morphology in literacy, focusing on findings that are relevant for instruction of students who struggle with reading and writing. Next we present an overview of the studies included in this issue, organized by current issues concerning the role of morphological knowledge in literacy. Collectively, the articles in this issue suggest that students with weaker literacy skills tend to lag behind their peers in morphological knowledge but that all students are likely to benefit from morphological instruction. Morphological interventions hold promise, especially for students who face challenges in language learning and literacy, but additional research is needed to provide a basis for informed decisions about the design of effective morphological interventions. PMID:24219917

  12. Encapsidating artificial human papillomavirus-16 mE7 protein in human papillomavirus-6b L1/L2 virus like particles

    XU Yu-fei; WANG Qing-yong; ZHANG Hong-tao; HAN Ye-hua; SONG Guo-xing; XU Xue-mei


    Background Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) can infect squamous or mucosal epithelia and cause cervical cancer or genital warts. Coinfection with multiple HPV types is a common finding of many epidemiological studies. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a vaccine, which can eradicate established HPV infections and prevent other HPV infections. In this study, we generated chimeric virus like particles (cVLPs) composed of HPV-6b L1, HPV-6b L2 and one artificial HPV-16 mE7 proteins.Methods The artificial HPV-16 mE7 gene was designed by codon modification, point mutation and gene shuffling then chemically synthesized and subcloned behind HPV-6b L2. HPV-6b L1 and L2-mE7 were expressed in insect cells by using Bac-to-Bac system. The generated cVLPs were purified by CsCl gradient ultracentrifuge and analyzed by immunoblot, electron microscope and haemagglutination assay.Results The HPV-6b L1 and L2-mE7 proteins were well expressed in insect cells and could selfassemble into cVLPs,whose diameter was about 55 nm and similar to that of HPV-6b L1/L2 VLPs. Intact cVLPs could be recognized by H6.M48 neutralizing monoclonal antibody and HPV-6b L2 polyclonal antibody, while the denatured cVLPs, but not the intact cVLPs, were reactive to HPV-16 E7 polyclonal antibody. HPV-6b L1/L2-mE7 cVLPs haemagglutinated mouse erythrocytes as efficiently as HPV-6b L1/L2 VLPs did.Conclusions The insertion of the 158 amino acid HPV-16 mE7 protein behind L2 did not disrupt the correct assembling of cVLPs. The morphological characteristics and haemagglutinating activity of cVLPs were similar to those of HPV-6b L1/L2 VLPs. The cVLPs retained conformational B cell epitopes of HPV-6 VLPs and HPV-16 mE7 protein had an internal location in the cVLPs. Therefore, large modified E7 protein with higher immunogenicity could be incorporated into cVLPs by fusing to the C-terminus of L2, which would help to improve the therapeutic effects of L1/L2-E7 cVLPs.

  13. 基于IPSec的L2 VPN研究与设计%The Research and Design of IPSec-based L2 VPN



    L2 VPN is working at layer 2 of OSI network model, which can hide the geographical limitations and provide virtual private network service. This paper is intended to give solutions to implement L2 VPN using IPSec tunnel.%  L2 VPN工作在OSI网络模型的第二层,它可以隐藏地域限制,并提供虚拟专有网络服务。本论文研究如何基于IPSec隧道实现L2 VPN。

  14. Early literacy experiences constrain L1 and L2 reading procedures.

    Bhide, Adeetee


    Computational models of reading posit that there are two pathways to word recognition, using sublexical phonology or morphological/orthographic information. They further theorize that everyone uses both pathways to some extent, but the division of labor between the pathways can vary. This review argues that the first language one was taught to read, and the instructional method by which one was taught, can have profound and long-lasting effects on how one reads, not only in one's first language, but also in one's second language. Readers who first learn a transparent orthography rely more heavily on the sublexical phonology pathway, and this seems relatively impervious to instruction. Readers who first learn a more opaque orthography rely more on morphological/orthographic information, but the degree to which they do so can be modulated by instructional method. Finally, readers who first learned to read a highly opaque morphosyllabic orthography use less sublexical phonology while reading in their second language than do other second language learners and this effect may be heightened if they were not also exposed to an orthography that codes for phonological units during early literacy acquisition. These effects of early literacy experiences on reading procedure are persistent despite increases in reading ability. PMID:26483714

  15. Early literacy experiences constrain L1 and L2 reading procedures

    Adeetee eBhide


    Full Text Available Computational models of reading posit that there are two pathways to word recognition, using sublexical phonology or morphological/orthographic information. They further theorize that everyone uses both pathways to some extent, but the division of labor between the pathways can vary. This review argues that the first language one was taught to read, and the instructional method by which one was taught, can have profound and long-lasting effects on how one reads, not only in one’s first language, but also in one’s second language. Readers who first learn a transparent orthography rely more heavily on the sublexical phonology pathway, and this seems relatively impervious to instruction. Readers who first learn a more opaque orthography rely more on morphological/orthographic information, but the degree to which they do so can be modulated by instructional method. Finally, readers who first learned to read a highly opaque morphosyllabic orthography use less sublexical phonology while reading in their second language than do other second language learners and this effect may be heightened if they were not also exposed to an orthography that codes for phonological units during early literacy acquisition. These effects of early literacy experiences on reading procedure are persistent despite increases in reading ability.

  16. Mathematical morphology

    Najman, Laurent


    Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoretical foun

  17. Exploring Motivational Profiles through Language Learning Narratives

    Thompson, Amy S.; Vásquez, Camilla


    This study analyzes the language learning narratives of 3 NNS foreign language teachers. It uses as a theoretical framework the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) (Dörnyei, 2009) but adds the dimension of psychological reactance (Brehm, 1966). Our findings indicate that the L2MSS underestimates the relationship between "I" and…

  18. Operationalizing Multilingualism: Language Learning Motivation in Turkey

    Thompson, Amy S.; Erdil-Moody, Zeynep


    This study is an examination of language learning motivation and multilingual status in the Turkish English as a foreign language (EFL) context. Using Dörnyei's L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) framework, specifically the ideal and ought-to L2 selves, this study examines the relationship between motivation and two operationalizations of…

  19. Using Gamification to Enhance Second Language Learning

    Figueroa Flores, Jorge Francisco


    One major competence for learners in the 21st century is acquiring a second language (L2). Based on this, L2 instruction has integrated new concepts to motivate learners in their pursue of achieving fluency. A concept that is adaptable to digital natives and digital immigrants that are learning a L2 is Gamification. As a pedagogical strategy,…

  20. Grammar-translation and CLT in L2 Grammar Teaching



    This paper puts forward to compare teaching method between grammar-translation and CLT in grammar teaching. Gram⁃mar leaning is a basic concept in English learning as grammar is an important element in a communicative approach to language. This paper discussed CLT method can help and encourage student to study, however, grammar-translation method is able to under⁃stand.

  1. Impact of English Orthography on L2 Acquisition

    Sipra, Muhammad Aslam


    English language has become unavoidable being a global language in the present era. Whether it is a field of business, technology or education, its significance can't be denied. Thus, majority of the world is learning and speaking English owing to its dire need. Unfortunately, despite staining through different reforms, the orthography of English…

  2. Implicit and Explicit Recasts in L2 Oral French Interaction

    Erlam, Rosemary; Loewen, Shawn


    This laboratory-based study of second- and third-year American university students learning French examines the effectiveness of implicit and explicit corrective feedback on noun-adjective agreement errors. The treatment consisted of one hour of interactive tasks. Implicit feedback was operationalized as a single recast with interrogative…

  3. Some designs and codes from L_2(q

    Jamshid Moori


    Full Text Available For $q \\in \\{7,8,9,11,13,16\\}$, we consider the primitive actions of $L_2(q$ and use Key-Moori Method 1 as described in [Codes, designs and graphs from the Janko groups {$J_1$} and {$J_2$}, {\\em J. Combin. Math. Combin. Comput.}, {\\bf 40} (2002 143--159., Correction to: ``Codes, designs and graphs from the Janko groups {$J_1$} and {$J_2$}'' [J. Combin. Math. Combin. Comput. {\\bf 40} (2002 143--159], {\\em J. Combin. Math. Combin. Comput.}, {\\bf 64} (2008 153.] to construct designs from the orbits of the point stabilisers and from any union of these orbits. We also use Key-Moori Method 2 (see {\\em Information security, coding theory and related combinatorics}, NATO Sci. Peace Secur. Ser. D Inf. Commun. Secur., IOS Amsterdam, {\\bf 29} (2011 202--230. to determine the designs from the maximal subgroups and the conjugacy classes of elements of these groups. The incidence matrices of these designs are then used to generate associated binary codes. The full automorphisms of these designs and codes are also determined.

  4. Dyadic Bivariate Wavelet Multipliers in L2(R2)

    Zhong Yan LI; Xian Liang SHI


    The single 2 dilation wavelet multipliers in one-dimensional case and single A-dilation (where A is any expansive matrix with integer entries and |detA|=2)wavelet multipliers in twodimensional case were completely characterized by Wutam Consortium(1998)and Li Z.,et al.(2010).But there exist no results on multivariate wavelet multipliers corresponding to integer expansive dilation.matrix with the absolute value of determinant not 2 in L2(R2).In this paper,we choose 2I2=(0202)as the dilation matrix and consider the 2I2-dilation multivariate wavelet Ψ={ψ1,ψ2,ψ3}(which is called a dyadic bivariate wavelet)multipliers.Here we call a measurable function family f={f1,f2,f3}a dyadic bivariate wavelet multiplier if Ψ1={F-1(f1ψ1),F-1(f2ψ2),F-1(f3ψ3)} is a dyadic bivariate wavelet for any dyadic bivariate wavelet Ψ={ψ1,ψ2,ψ3},where(f)and,F-1 denote the Fourier transform and the inverse transform of function f respectively.We study dyadic bivariate wavelet multipliers,and give some conditions for dyadic bivariate wavelet multipliers.We also give concrete forms of linear phases of dyadic MRA bivariate wavelets.

  5. Recent results of ECRH experiments on L-2M stellarator

    Results are reported from experimental study of ECH heated plasma in the L-2M stellarator with special emphasis on studying the turbulent processes. It is shown that the total plasma energy at fixed total heating power is strongly dependent on the plasma position. Visible degradation of plasma confinement is observed for the inward shifted magnetic configurations where the stability conditions of ideal interchange MHD modes are violated. However, even in this case the situation can be improved by decreasing the average radius of the plasma boundary with the help of graphite limiter resulting in the increase of the Shafranov shift of magnetic surfaces and deepening of the magnetic well due to the effect of self-stabilization. This in turn causes stabilization of ideal MHD interchange modes and visible increase in plasma energy and volume average value of beta. Statistical properties of turbulence was studied both for the central part of the plasma column and for the plasma edge. It is shown that one of the critical factors determining the coherent structures and turbulent fluxes in the edge plasma is the radial electric field. (author)

  6. Wavelet Decomposition Method for $L_2/$/TV-Image Deblurring

    Fornasier, M.


    In this paper, we show additional properties of the limit of a sequence produced by the subspace correction algorithm proposed by Fornasier and Schönlieb [SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 47 (2009), pp. 3397-3428 for L 2/TV-minimization problems. An important but missing property of such a limiting sequence in that paper is the convergence to a minimizer of the original minimization problem, which was obtained in [M. Fornasier, A. Langer, and C.-B. Schönlieb, Numer. Math., 116 (2010), pp. 645-685 with an additional condition of overlapping subdomains. We can now determine when the limit is indeed a minimizer of the original problem. Inspired by the work of Vonesch and Unser [IEEE Trans. Image Process., 18 (2009), pp. 509-523], we adapt and specify this algorithm to the case of an orthogonal wavelet space decomposition for deblurring problems and provide an equivalence condition to the convergence of such a limiting sequence to a minimizer. We also provide a counterexample of a limiting sequence by the algorithm that does not converge to a minimizer, which shows the necessity of our analysis of the minimizing algorithm. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  7. l2 Multiple Kernel Fuzzy SVM-Based Data Fusion for Improving Peptide Identification.

    Jian, Ling; Xia, Zhonghang; Niu, Xinnan; Liang, Xijun; Samir, Parimal; Link, Andrew J


    SEQUEST is a database-searching engine, which calculates the correlation score between observed spectrum and theoretical spectrum deduced from protein sequences stored in a flat text file, even though it is not a relational and object-oriental repository. Nevertheless, the SEQUEST score functions fail to discriminate between true and false PSMs accurately. Some approaches, such as PeptideProphet and Percolator, have been proposed to address the task of distinguishing true and false PSMs. However, most of these methods employ time-consuming learning algorithms to validate peptide assignments [1] . In this paper, we propose a fast algorithm for validating peptide identification by incorporating heterogeneous information from SEQUEST scores and peptide digested knowledge. To automate the peptide identification process and incorporate additional information, we employ l2 multiple kernel learning (MKL) to implement the current peptide identification task. Results on experimental datasets indicate that compared with state-of-the-art methods, i.e., PeptideProphet and Percolator, our data fusing strategy has comparable performance but reduces the running time significantly. PMID:26394437

  8. Seeking out Challenges to Develop L2 Self-Confidence: A Language Learner's Journey to Proficiency

    Edwads, Emily; Roger, Peter Stewart


    As one constituent of second language (L2) motivation, L2 "self-­confidence" has been shown to be a significant predictor of language proficiency. More recently, L2 self-­confidence has been studied as part of the "willingness to communicate" (WTC) construct. Less is known, however, about the processes by which learners develop…

  9. SLA Research and L2 Pedagogy: Misapplications and Questions of Relevance

    Spada, Nina


    There has been considerable debate about the relevance and applicability of SLA theory and research for L2 pedagogy. There are those who maintain that SLA must be applicable to L2 pedagogy: a view based on the argument that because SLA is a subfield of applied linguistics, it should have direct relevance to L2 teaching. Others take the view that…

  10. The Relationship between L1 Fluency and L2 Fluency Development

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.; Thomson, Ronald I.; Rossiter, Marian J.


    A fundamental question in the study of second language (L2) fluency is the extent to which temporal characteristics of speakers' first language (L1) productions predict the same characteristics in the L2. A close relationship between a speaker's L1 and L2 temporal characteristics would suggest that fluency is governed by an underlying trait. This…

  11. Semantic Categorization of Placement Verbs in L1 and L2 Danish and Spanish

    Cadierno, Teresa; Ibarretxe-Antuñano, Iraide; Hijazo-Gascón, Alberto


    This study investigates semantic categorization of the meaning of placement verbs by Danish and Spanish native speakers and two groups of intermediate second language (L2) learners (Danish learners of L2 Spanish and Spanish learners of L2 Danish). Participants described 31 video clips picturing different types of placement events. Cluster analyses…

  12. Factors Affecting Grammatical and Lexical Complexity of Long-Term L2 Speakers' Oral Proficiency

    Lahmann, Cornelia; Steinkrauss, Rasmus; Schmid, Monika S.


    There remains considerable disagreement about which factors drive second language (L2) ultimate attainment. Age of onset (AO) appears to be a robust factor, lending support to theories of maturational constraints on L2 acquisition. The present study is an investigation of factors that influence grammatical and lexical complexity at the stage of L2

  13. Perceptual Filtering in L2 Lexical Memory: A Neural Network Approach to Second Language Acquisition

    Nelson, Robert


    A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory has…

  14. Factors influencing subcellular localization of the human papillomavirus L2 minor structural protein

    Two structural proteins form the capsids of papillomaviruses. The major structural protein L1 is the structural determinant of the capsids and is present in 360 copies arranged in 72 pentamers. The minor structural protein L2 is estimated to be present in twelve copies per capsid. Possible roles for L2 in interaction with cell surface receptors and in virion uptake have been suggested. As previously reported, L2 localizes in subnuclear domains identified as nuclear domain 10 (ND10). As it was demonstrated that L2 is able to recruit viral and cellular proteins to ND10, a possible role for L2 as a mediator in viral assembly has been proposed. In this study, we determined factors influencing the localization of L2 at ND10. Under conditions of moderate L2 expression level and in the absence of heterologous viral components, we observed that, in contrast to previous reports, L2 is mainly distributed homogeneously throughout the nucleus. L2, however, is recruited to ND10 at a higher expression level or in the presence of viral components derived from vaccinia virus or from Semliki Forest virus. We observed that translocation of L2 to ND10 is not a concentration-dependent accumulation but rather seems to be triggered by yet unidentified cellular factors. In contrast to HPV 11 and 16 L2, the HPV 18 L2 protein seems to require L1 for efficient nuclear accumulation

  15. Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina


    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands. PMID:21767061

  16. How Strategic Use of L1 in an L2-Medium Mathematics Classroom Facilitates L2 Interaction and Comprehension

    Tavares, Nicole Judith


    There has been an increasing interest in and hence a growing number of research studies on content and language integrated learning (CLIL) over the past two decades. One of the on-going debates in CLIL is on bilingualism versus monolingualism, or the role of the first language (L1) in subject teaching. So far, very few research projects have been…

  17. Ajustes Conversacionales para el Aprendizaje de Contenidos en L2

    Berta de Dios


    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende describir las interacciones conversacionales entre el alumnado en las aulas AICLE. Nos preguntamos si hay un vínculo entre las características de las interacciones y el aprendizaje de contenidos no lingüísticos y, si es así, qué tipo de ajustes fomentan dicho aprendizaje. Las aulas AICLE son los entornos ideales para estudiar el vínculo entre ajustes conversacionales y aprendizaje de contenidos porque, al no ser en la lengua materna del alumnado, se dan más ajustes conversacionales que en las clases en lengua materna.---------------------------------------------This article pursues to describe conversational adjustments among students in CLIL classes. We wonder if there is a link between the characteristics of the interactions and the learning of non-linguistic contents and, if there is, what kind of adjustments promote such learning. CLIL classes are the ideal environments to study the link between conversational adjustments and the learning of contents because, since they are not in the students’ mother tongue, conversational adjustments occur more frequently than in classes in mother tongue.

  18. Reduction in Tcf7l2 Expression Decreases Diabetic Susceptibility in Mice

    Hyekyung Yang, Qing Li, Jong-Hwan Lee, Yan Shu


    Objective: The WNT signaling pathway effector gene TCF7L2 has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unclear how this gene affects diabetic pathogenesis. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of Tcf7l2 haploinsufficiency on metabolic phenotypes in mice.Experimental Design: Tcf7l2 knockout (Tcf7l-/-) mice were generated. Because of the early mortality of Tcf7l2-/- mice, we characterized the metabolic phenotypes of heterozygous Tcf7l2+/- m...

  19. Reduction in Tcf7l2 Expression Decreases Diabetic Susceptibility in Mice

    Yang, Hyekyung; Li, Qing; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Shu, Yan


    Objective: The WNT signaling pathway effector gene TCF7L2 has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unclear how this gene affects diabetic pathogenesis. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of Tcf7l2 haploinsufficiency on metabolic phenotypes in mice. Experimental Design: Tcf7l2 knockout (Tcf7l -/-) mice were generated. Because of the early mortality of Tcf7l2 -/- mice, we characterized the metabolic phenotypes of heterozygous Tcf7l2 +...

  20. Automatic quantitative morphological analysis of interacting galaxies

    Shamir, Lior; Holincheck, Anthony; Wallin, John


    The large number of galaxies imaged by digital sky surveys reinforces the need for computational methods for analyzing galaxy morphology. While the morphology of most galaxies can be associated with a stage on the Hubble sequence, morphology of galaxy mergers is far more complex due to the combination of two or more galaxies with different morphologies and the interaction between them. Here we propose a computational method based on unsupervised machine learning that can quantitatively analyz...

  1. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Iranian EFL Learners’ Level of L2 Lexical Knowledge: The Case of Gender

    Reza Biria


    Full Text Available Human cognitive competence represents individuals’ subconscious knowledge of abilities, talents, and mental skills collectively called “multiple intelligences (MIs”, which play a pivotal role in facilitating human learning. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to determine the magnitude of the relationship existing between multiple intelligences and Iranian EFL learners’ level of second language (L2 lexical knowledge on one hand and the partializing impact of gender on the other. For this purpose, from the population of the senior undergraduate students majoring in translation at Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan (Isfahan Branch, Isfahan, Iran, a sample of 88 students, 24 males and 64 females, were randomly selected. First, Mckenzie’s (1999 MIs Inventory was administered to specify the size of individual types of intelligences in each learner’s MIs composite. Then, the learners were provided with Nation’s (2001 receptive level test a week later to gauge their level of L2 lexical knowledge. The findings revealed that the scores on MIs inventory correlated positively with those of L2 lexical knowledge. Alternatively, different types of intelligences served as useful predictors for estimating the quality of learners’ vocabulary knowledge. Finally, it was found out that gender did indeed have a different effect regarding the learners’ vocabulary knowledge.

  2. Fundamental Issues in L2 Vocabulary Assessment in Academic Settings

    中村, 優治


    語彙力は母国語においても,外国語においても読解力には欠かせないものである。語彙力をつけるための指導に関しては多くの議論がなされているが,語彙力の測定に関してはまだ十分とは言えない。読解力の測定が常に何らかの形で語彙力と強い結びつきを持っているとされながら,語彙力の測定の知識や技術はまだ限界があるようである。語彙力測定の際にはそもそも語の知識,語彙力がなんであるかを知る必要がある。良いテストの作成には測られているものの構成要素を確定することが求められる。本稿の目的はこれらのことを踏まえてよい語彙テストを作成するための基本事項をまず議論し,その中でも学校教育で実施可能な語彙テストづくりに必要な問題点を明らかにすることである。また,語彙テストの実施例としてプレイスメントテストの語彙部分の結果の検証も合わせて行う。Knowledge of vocabulary is essential to proficient reading in both L2 and L1. While teaching vocabulary has been discussed frequently in ac...

  3. Working Memory Capacity, Inhibitory Control and the Role of L2 Proficiency in Aging L1 Dutch Speakers of Near-Native L2 English

    Merel Keijzer


    Full Text Available This paper examines the intricate relationship between working memory (WM capacity and inhibitory control as a function of both L2 proficiency and age. In both its design and research questions, this study closely follows Gass & Lee’s work, where both L1 and L2 Reading Span Tasks (as measures of WM capacity and L1 and L2 Stroop interference tasks (to measure inhibitory control were administered. In this study, the test battery is augmented by both an L1 and L2 C-test of overall language proficiency. Participants were 63 L1 Dutch speakers of L2 English, who had been immersed in an L2 environment for a considerable amount of time. Their data were set off against those of 54 monolingual Dutch speakers and 56 monolingual English speakers. At the time of testing, all the bilingual participants had a near-native command of English and their L1 and L2 WM scores were not found to be significantly different. However, discrepancies did occur in Stroop test scores of inhibition, where the bilinguals performed better in their L2 English than L1 Dutch. These main effects often contradicted the results found in Gass & Lee’s study, who examined less proficient L2 learners. An aging effect was furthermore found: older subjects consistently performed more poorly on WM and inhibition tasks than their younger peers. These results can shed light on how individual factors like WM capacity and inhibitory control interact in successful late bilinguals and how these dynamics shift with advanced age.

  4. Morphological processing in early bilinguals: an ERP study of regular and irregular verb processing.

    De Diego Balaguer, R; Sebastián-Gallés, N; Díaz, B; Rodríguez-Fornells, A


    Although the age of acquisition of a language has an effect when learning a second language, the similarity between languages may also have a crucial role. The aim of the present study is to understand the influence of this latter factor in the acquisition of morphosyntactic information. With this purpose, two groups of highly proficient early Catalan-Spanish bilinguals were presented with a repetition-priming paradigm with regular and irregular verbs of Spanish. Catalan and Spanish have a similar suffix (-o) for regular verbs and completely different alternations for irregular verbs. Two types of irregular verbs were studied (semi-regular verbs with a systematic diphthong alternation, sentir-siento, and verbs with idiosyncratic changes, venir-vengo). Regular verbs showed the same centro-parietal N400 priming effect in the second-language speakers (L2) as in primary-language (L1) speakers. However, differences between groups, in the ERP pattern and the topography of the N400 effect, were observed for irregular morphology. In L1 speakers, the N400 effect was attenuated only for semi-regular verbs. In contrast, L2 speakers showed a reduced N400 priming effect in both irregular contrasts. This pattern of results suggests that the similarity between languages may help for similar structures but may interfere for dissimilar structures, at least when the two languages have very similar morphological systems. PMID:16023332


    Andrea Groppaldi


    Full Text Available L'autobiografia linguistica è una attività particolarmente utile nell'insegnamento-apprendimento di una lingua straniera. L'apprendente immigrato è invitato a narrare in prima persona le esperienze linguistico-comunicative nella propria L1, nella L2 /LS che sta apprendendo e/o nella lingua seconda che ha acquisito come lingua di comunicazione e di studio nel suo paese di origine, le relazioni umane ed emotive che accompagnano  o hanno accompagnato queste esperienze, le situazioni che ne hanno favorito o ostacolato l'apprendimento. Con l'autobiografia linguistica l'apprendente straniero costruisce, attraverso la scrittura e quindi attraverso un processo di esplicitazione e di riflessione consapevole,  un ponte tra "là" e "qui", tra paese d'origine e il paese di arrivo, tra la vita "prima" e la vita "dopo" lo strappo della migrazione. Ricompone e dà senso alla propria storia, nelle due lingue, esprime affetti ed emozioni, rinomina il mondo e se ne riappropria ricostruendo insieme la propria identità, esplora se stesso e si fa conoscere ai suoi pari e all'insegnante in un rapporto di condivisione e di comprensione reciproca: si crea un contesto non di integrazione, ma di inclusione. A sua volta il docente può meglio comprendere le strategie di apprendimento dell'apprendente, la sua personalità, le sue difficoltà e progettare strategie didattiche più efficaci, perché più individuali e orientate al successo nella comunicazione e nell'apprendimento.   Linguistic autobiography is especially useful in the teaching and learning of a foreign language. The foreign learner is asked to narrate, in the first person, his/her linguistic-communicative experiences in their L1 and in the L2/FL which they are learning and/or in the second language they have acquired for communication or study in their home country, focusing on the emotional and human relationships which accompanied this experience and the situations which encouraged or blocked the


    Viviana Solcia


    Full Text Available Come si organizza un corso di italiano L2 per donne migranti? Perché questi corsi si differenziano dalle altre proposte formative rivolte ad adulti immigrati? Basandosi sulle indicazioni del vademecum Tutte le mamme a scuola, il presente contributo cerca di rispondere a queste domande analizzando i bisogni linguistici delle donne migranti, interrogandosi su quale italiano insegnare, su quale metodo didattico adottare con particolare attenzione all’approccio autobiografico e all’“imparare facendo” e presentando i libri di testo rivolti a questa tipologia di apprendenti. Le tre interviste in appendice, raccolte in tre diversi centri che si occupano di corsi di italiano L2 per donne immigrate, raccontano come tutte queste indicazioni possano essere messe in pratica per cercare di soddisfare quel desiderio di integrazione e promozione sociale di cui le allieve si fanno portatrici,  che rende la classe di lingua non solo il luogo in cui si impara a parlare italiano, ma anche un laboratorio sociale in cui sperimentare modi diversi di approcciarsi e di considerare la diversità.     Not only language. Italian L2 for migrant women between linguistic needs and the desire for integration.   How is an Italian L2 course organized for migrant women? Why are these courses different from other classes designed for adult immigrants? Based on the indications in the handbook Tutte le mamme a scuola, this article tries to answer these questions analyzing the linguistic needs of migrant women, considering what Italian should be taught, what teaching method should be used with special attention placed on the autobiographical approach and “learning by doing”. The three interviews in the appendix, from three different centers which offer Italian L2 courses to immigrant women, tell about how these indications can be put into practice to satisfy the desire for the integration and social inclusion of these students, making the language class more than a

  7. Learning Strategies in Second Language Acquisition

    MA Chun-lan


      The proper use of learning strategies can facilitate language learning. There are abundant studies on L2 learning strate⁃gies and the initial research is studies on good language learners, which provides information on strategy use contributing to suc⁃cessful language learning. Strategies used by successful learners differ from less successful learners and strategies can be learned.

  8. Una estrategia para favorecer la comprensión y el aprendizaje en las Ciencias Morfológicas: Presentaciones en PowerPoint. [ A strategy to improve the comprehension and learning in morphological science: powerpoint presentation

    Carranza, Miriam L. y Celaya, Gabriela


    Full Text Available In this paper, a hypertext to the Morphological Sciences in biological area was developed and evaluated. The application with format of digital atlas approaches Anatomical, Histological and Functional concepts about the man and animals in integrated form. PowerPoint presentation was developed to operators which experience in the handling of software are limited. This digital resource was qualified as a good complement of other didactic materials. In this knowledge area offers opportunity to develop significant knowledge to improve the understanding and learning through an interactive methodology

  9. Learning

    Mohsen Laabidi


    Full Text Available Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT. Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-accessibility, universal design and assistive technologies, with a special focus on accessible e-learning systems. Then, we will present recent research works conducted in our research Laboratory LaTICE toward the development of an accessible online learning environment for persons with disabilities from the design and specification step to the implementation. We will present, in particular, the accessible version “MoodleAcc+” of the well known e-learning platform Moodle as well as new elaborated generic models and a range of tools for authoring and evaluating accessible educational content.

  10. Computer-Mediated Corrective Feedback and the Development of L2 Grammar

    Shannon Sauro


    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study that investigated the impact of two types of computer-mediated corrective feedback on the development of adult learners’ L2 knowledge: (1 corrective feedback that reformulates the error in the form of recasts, and (2 corrective feedback that supplies the learner with metalinguistic information about the nature of the error. High intermediate and advanced adult learners of English (n=23 from an intact class at a Swedish university were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (two feedback conditions and one control and were randomly paired with English native speakers. During task-based interaction via text-chat, the learners received focused corrective feedback on omission of the zero article with abstract noncount nouns (e.g., employment, global warming, culture. Computer-delivered pretests, posttests and delayed posttests of knowledge (acceptability judgments measured learning outcomes. Results showed no significant advantage for either feedback type on immediate or sustained gains in target form knowledge, although the metalinguistic group showed significant immediate gains relative to the control condition.


    Claudia Matthiae


    Full Text Available Gli “attori” di un corso di lingua sono gli apprendenti, il docente facilitatore e… il manuale. La scelta di quest’ultimo, e quindi la metodologia didattica che lo sottende, contribuiscono in maniera decisiva a delineare il percorso d’apprendimento esplicitando finalità e priorità didattiche. In un panorama editoriale ormai ricco e variegato non è sempre agevole districarsi fra le numerose proposte di libri di testo. Oltre alla centralità del discente e al metodo comunicativo, requisiti in linea con i dettami dell’European Common Framework presenti, seppur in dosi differenti, nella quasi totalità dei manuali, altri elementi meritano la dovuta considerazione. La riflessione metalinguistica, per esempio, si è affacciata solo recentemente sulla “scena” glottodidattica assumendo un ruolo tutt’altro che secondario.METALINGUISTIC REFLECTION IN ITALIAN L2 TEXT BOOKS: A CASE STUDYThe “actors” in a language course are the learners, the teacher/facilitator and… the textbook. Choosing a textbook, and the didactic methodology underlying it, contribute in a decisive way to the learning process by directing the learning objectives and choices. With a varied choice of textbooks available, it is not always easy to evaluate them. Student-centered courses using the communicative method, indications in line with the European Common Framework, are aspects which vary in quantity from text to text but which characterize them all. There are, however, also other elements to consider. Metalinguistic reflection, for example, has only recently taken on a primary role in the glottodidactic scenario.


    龚亚方; 杜金元


    In this paper, a kind of new definitions of singular integral operators in the weighted L2 space with the generalized Jacobi weights are given, then the boundedness in the weighted L2 space, the relationships between these operators and the classic singular integral operators are proved. For the convenience in the later use, similar results in the L2 space with Jacobi weights are given.

  13. L 2 Stability Estimates for Shock Solutions of Scalar Conservation Laws Using the Relative Entropy Method

    Leger, Nicholas


    We consider scalar nonviscous conservation laws with strictly convex flux in one spatial dimension, and we investigate the behavior of bounded L 2 perturbations of shock wave solutions to the Riemann problem using the relative entropy method. We show that up to a time-dependent translation of the shock, the L 2 norm of a perturbed solution relative to the shock wave is bounded above by the L 2 norm of the initial perturbation.

  14. L^2 stability estimates for shock solutions of scalar conservation laws using the relative entropy method

    Leger, Nicholas


    We consider scalar nonviscous conservation laws with strictly convex flux in one spatial dimension, and we investigate the behavior of bounded L^2 perturbations of shock wave solutions to the Riemann problem using the relative entropy method. We show that up to a time-dependent translation of the shock, the L^2 norm of a perturbed solution relative to the shock wave is bounded above by the L^2 norm of the initial perturbation.

  15. Teaching to suppress L1 processes in L2. PTLC 2013

    Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Balas, Anna; Rojczyk, Arkadiusz; Schwartz, Geoffrey


    Advanced second language learners in a formal setting can suppress many L1) processes in L2 pronunciation when provided with sufficient exposure to L2 and metacompetence. This paper shows how imitation in L2 teaching can be enhanced on the basis of current phonetic research and how complex allophonic processes such as nasal vocali zation and glottal stop insertion can be suppressed using “repair” – a method of providing learners with adequ...

  16. On recognition of simple group L2(r by the number of Sylow subgroups

    Alireza Khalili Asboei


    Full Text Available Let G be a finite group and n_{p}(G be the number of Sylow p- subgroup of G. In this work it is proved if G is a centerless group and n_{p}(G=n_{p}(L_{2}(r, for every prime p in pi (G, where r is prime number, r^2 does not divide |G| and r is not Mersenne prime, then L_{2}(r<=G<=Aut(L_{2}(r.

  17. Galaxy Morphology

    Buta, Ronald J


    Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or between a perturbation and the basic state of a stellar disk, can also drive secular transformations. In this series of lectures, I review many aspects of galaxy morphology with a view to delineating some of the possible evolutionary pathways between different galaxy types.

  18. Noun Morphology

    Santazilia, Ekaitz


    This is a study of the Basque noun morphology, which sets out the noun paradigm of historical Basque and the structure of its NP, and then goes on to list the explanations proposed so far for every aspect concerning the formation of that paradigm: first the number/definiteness axis, and then the individual cases, classifying these into primary cases (grammatical and local), secondary cases (those built upon the allative and the genitive), and pseudo-flectional morphemes or non-cases.

  19. Estilos de pensamiento Cognitive styles: an approach to autonomous learning in L2 adult students

    Atehortúa Atehortúa José Nicolás


    El siguiente artículo resume los resultados de una investigación descriptivo-cualitativa sobre estilos cognitivos o de pensamiento, llevado a cabo con miembros del programa de extensión académica en la UPB, con el objetivo de describir los estilos de pensamiento de los estudiantes que les permitan reconocer y utilizar estrategias meta cognitivas para desarrollar un nivel consciente de responsabilidad y autonomía en el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera. El marco teórico de este estudio se b...

  20. The effects of using L1 Translation on young learners’ L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Codina Camó, Aïda


    The present study explores the role the L1 plays in young learners' retention of and access to English vocabulary. Two groups of 10-11 year-old children in an EFL school context were recruited for the study. Exposing one group to the L1 translation of the items and giving the English input to the other group was the practice used to analyse exposure to translation in terms of lexical access and retention. Results of the study show that providing students with the L1 results in learners retain...

  1. Grammar Processing through English L2 E-Books: Distance vs. Face-to-Face Learning

    Escobar-Álvarez, Mª Ángeles


    For university teachers in Distance Education, e-books should be an optimum solution since they do not have the opportunity to flip through the pages of print texts together with their students in the same classroom. College students usually use criteria such as cost, efficiency and personal comfort. Working with e-textbooks can be a tough…

  2. Cybertext Redux: Using Digital Game-Based Learning to Teach L2 Vocabulary, Reading, and Culture

    Neville, David O.; Shelton, Brett E.; McInnis, Brian


    The essay reports on a mixed-methods study using an interactive fiction (IF) game to teach German vocabulary, reading, and culture to university students. The study measured knowledge retention and transfer, and evaluated the attitudes of students toward the game. The results tentatively indicate that contextualized, immersive role play may have…

  3. Podcasting to enhance pronunciation in second language learning

    Woloshen, Sonya Katherine


    Studies on using digital devices to improve, enhance, and supplement second language (L2) learning have emerged over the last decade. A focus on speaking and specifically pronunciation is addressed in very few studies. This study is framed by research on CALL (computer assisted language learning) and MALL (mobile assisted language learning) with a specific focus on podcasting as a method of L2 pronunciation instruction and enhancement. This study used iPods to enhance L2 pronunciation in grad...

  4. TCF7L2基因与2型糖尿病%TCF7L2 gene and type 2 diabetes

    高伟; 张江义


    Common variants in the TCF7L2 gene are strongly associated with risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in multiethnic cohort.There are pronounced tissue-specific differences in the splicing of TCF7L2.The expression of TCF7L2 in islets of patients with T2DM is increased.Variants in the TCF7L2 gene are associated with impaired insulin secretion.The increased risk of T2DM conferred by variants in TCF7L2 may involve in impaired insulin secretion induced by incretin such as GLP-1,or impaired conversion of proinsulin to insulin,and/or Wnt signaling activation.So research in TCF7L2 gene as the strongest genetic contributor to risk of T2DM can yield novel insights into pathophysiology and pathogenesis of T2DM and exploration of new target in diabetic therapy.%转录因子7类似物2(TCF7L2)常见变异在不同的种族中几乎都与2型糖尿病显著相关.TCF7L2剪接有显著的组织特异性,在2型糖尿病患者的胰岛内TCF7L2 mRNA水平增高.其变异与胰岛素分泌功能减退有关,机制可能是其特异性损害肠促胰素(incretin)如胰高血糖素样肽-1(GLP-1)诱导的胰岛素分泌,也可能因胰岛素原向胰岛素的转换异常,和(或)参与Wnt信号通路的激活而致2型糖尿病.因此对2型糖尿病致病基因TCF7L2基因的研究有助于揭示糖尿病的发病机制、病理生理及为糖尿病的治疗提供新的靶点.

  5. Learning

    Mohsen Laabidi; Mohamed Jemni; Leila Jemni Ben Ayed; Hejer Ben Brahim; Amal Ben Jemaa


    Nowadays learning technologies transformed educational systems with impressive progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Furthermore, when these technologies are available, affordable and accessible, they represent more than a transformation for people with disabilities. They represent real opportunities with access to an inclusive education and help to overcome the obstacles they met in classical educational systems. In this paper, we will cover basic concepts of e-access...

  6. An Investigation Into Second Language Aptitude for Advanced Chinese Language Learning

    Winke, Paula


    In this study I examine the construct of aptitude in learning Chinese as a second language (L2) to an advanced level. I test 2 hypotheses: first, that L2 aptitude comprises 4 components--working memory, rote memory, grammatical sensitivity, and phonemic coding ability--and second, that L2 aptitude affects learning both directly and indirectly…

  7. Effects of Feedback Timing on Second Language Vocabulary Learning: Does Delaying Feedback Increase Learning?

    Nakata, Tatsuya


    Feedback, or information given to learners regarding their performance, is found to facilitate second language (L2) learning. Research also suggests that the timing of feedback (whether it is provided immediately or after a delay) may affect learning. The purpose of the present study was to identify the optimal feedback timing for L2 vocabulary…

  8. Lepton flavour violating decays of $\\mu$ and $\\tau$ lepton in a gauge group $SU_L(2)\\times SU_R(2)\\times SU_l(2)$



    A model for electroweak unification based on gauge group $ SU_L(2)\\times SU_R(2)\\times SU_l(2) $ for leptons is formulated. The group $SU_l(2)$ is in the lepton space.The left handed leptons and anti-leptons are assigned to the fundamental representation $(2,2,\\bar{2})$ of the group.The left- right symmetric gauge group $ SU_L(2)\\times SU_R(2)\\times U_{Y_1}(1) $ is contained in the above group for leptons. Out of three vector bossons $ Y_\\mu^\\pm $,$Y_{3\\mu}$ of $SU_l(2)$,the charged vector bosons $Y_\\mu^\\pm$ mediate the lepton number violating $ \\mu$ and $\\tau$ decays. The neutral vector bosson $ Y_{3\\mu}$ with coupling constant $ g_{Y}$ plays the same role as the vector bosson $B_{1\\mu}$ with coupling constant $g_1$ associated with Abelian part $ U_{Y_1}(1)$ with $Y_1=\\mp1$ for leptons and anti leptons. The left handed quarks and anti quarks are assigned to representations (2,1) and (1,2) with $Y_1=\\pm \\frac{1}{3}$ of the left-right symmetric gauge group. The lepton number violating $\\mu~and~\\tau$ decays sim...

  9. Near soliton dynamics and singularity formation for L2 critical problems

    This survey reviews the state of the art concerning singularity formation for two canonical dispersive problems: the L2 critical non-linear Schrödinger equation and the L2 critical generalized KdV equation. In particular, the currently very topical question of classifying flows with initial data near a soliton is addressed. Bibliography: 72 titles

  10. Thinking with Your Hands: Speech-Gesture Activity during an L2 Awareness-Raising Task

    van Compernolle, Remi A.; Williams, Lawrence


    This article reports on a study of second language (L2) French learners' self-generated use of gesture to think through and resolve a metalinguistic awareness-raising task during small-group work with an expert mediator. Although the use of gesture in L2 communication and pedagogy has recently received increasing attention, little research has…

  11. Shared Features of L2 Writing: Intergroup Homogeneity and Text Classification

    Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.


    This study investigates intergroup homogeneity within high intermediate and advanced L2 writers of English from Czech, Finnish, German, and Spanish first language backgrounds. A variety of linguistic features related to lexical sophistication, syntactic complexity, and cohesion were used to compare texts written by L1 speakers of English to L2

  12. Admissible ŝl (2|1; C) k characters and parafermions

    Hayes, M.; Taormina, A.


    The branching functions of a particular subclass of characters of the affine superalgebra ŝl(2|1;( C) k into characters of the subalgebra ŝl(2|1;( C) k are calculated for fractional levels k = /1 u - 1, u ɛ N. They involve rational torus A u(u-1)andZu-1 parafermion characters.

  13. Frequency Effects in L2 Multiword Unit Processing: Evidence from Self-Paced Reading

    Kim, Soo Hyon; Kim, Ji Hyon


    Many second language acquisition (SLA) studies have traditionally limited their scope of investigation to the description and analysis of errors in L2 learners' use of multiword units. Recently, researchers have begun to approach this topic from a psycholinguistic perspective, examining the processing of multiword units by L2 learners. However,…

  14. L1 Use during L2 Writing: An Empirical Study of a Complex Phenomenon

    van Weijen, Daphne; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted


    This study examined writers' use of their first language (L1) while writing in their second language (L2). Twenty students each wrote four short argumentative essays in their L1 (Dutch) and four in their L2 (English) under think-aloud conditions. We analysed whether L1 use varied between writers and tasks, and whether it was related to general…

  15. Early Child L2 Acquisition: Age or Input Effects? Neither, or Both?

    Unsworth, Sharon


    This paper explores whether there is evidence for age and/or input effects in child L2 acquisition across three different linguistic domains, namely morphosyntax, vocabulary, and syntax-semantics. More specifically, it compares data from English-speaking children whose age of onset to L2 Dutch was between one and three years with data from…

  16. Listening in a Multilingual World: The Challenges of Second Language (L2) Listening

    Rost, Michael


    Research into language acquisition and oral language use was examined in order to identify key factors that contribute to the successful acquisition of second language (L2) listening ability. The factors were grouped into three major domains: affective, cognitive, and interpersonal. It is claimed that in each domain, proficient L2 listeners have…

  17. Extensive Reading and Development of Different Aspects of L2 Proficiency

    Yamashita, Junko


    Extensive reading has been drawing increasing attention from L2 educators as a potentially effective form of L2 reading instruction. However, some researchers argue that it is not easy to observe the benefits of extensive reading in the short term. The present study was motivated by the need to elucidate the differential effects of extensive…

  18. Estimativos L^2 para una clase de operadores pseudodiferenciales definidos en el toro

    Duván Cardona


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se establecen estimativos L 2 para operadores pseudodiferenciales definidos en el toro. Los operadores considerados surgen del estudio de operadores entre grupos abelianos localmente compactos. Abstract. In this work we establish L 2 estimates from pseudo-differential operators defined on the torus. Such operators arise from the study of operators on locally compact abelian groups.

  19. Handling Discourse: Gestures, Reference Tracking, and Communication Strategies in Early L2

    Gullberg, Marianne


    The production of cohesive discourse, especially maintained reference, poses problems for early second language L2 speakers. This paper considers a communicative account of overexplicit L2 discourse by focusing on the interdependence between spoken and gestural cohesion, the latter being expressed by anchoring of referents in gesture space.…

  20. Mediation Strategies in L2 Writing Processes: A Case Study of Two Korean Language Learners

    Kang, Yon-Soo; Pyun, Danielle Ooyoung


    With the recent rise of sociocultural theory in second-language acquisition, attempts have been made to understand L2 learners' uses of different resources in writing, based on their cultural, historical, and institutional contexts. In line with L2 writing research within the sociocultural paradigm, this study investigates the writing strategies…

  1. L1-L2 Convergence in Clausal Packaging in Japanese and English

    Brown, Amanda; Gullberg, Marianne


    This study investigates L1-L2 convergence among bilinguals at an intermediate (CEFR-B2) level of L2 proficiency, focusing on the clausal packaging of Manner and Path of motion. Previous research has shown cross-linguistic differences between English and Japanese in this domain (Allen et al., 2003; Kita & Ozyurek, 2003, though note Brown &…

  2. Effects of TCF7L2 polymorphisms on obesity in European populations

    Cauchi, Stéphane; Choquet, Hélène; Gutiérrez-Aguilar, Ruth;


    The transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) rs7903146 T allele was previously associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and decreased BMI whereas haplotypes carrying the rs7903146 C and rs10885406 A alleles (HapA) were associated with increased BMI. The functional relevance of TCF7L2 polymorphisms...

  3. The Development of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in the Written Production of L2 French

    Gunnarsson, Cecilia


    The present longitudinal case study investigated the development of fluency, complexity and accuracy--and the possible relationships between them--in the written production of L2 French. We assessed fluency and complexity in five intermediate learners by means of conventional indicators for written L2 (cf. Wolfe-Quintero et al. 1998), while…

  4. Acquisition of L2 Vowel Duration in Japanese by Native English Speakers

    Okuno, Tomoko


    Research has demonstrated that focused perceptual training facilitates L2 learners' segmental perception and spoken word identification. Hardison (2003) and Motohashi-Saigo and Hardison (2009) found benefits of visual cues in the training for acquisition of L2 contrasts. The present study examined factors affecting perception and production…

  5. The Role of Hypercorrection in the Acquisition of L2 Phonemic Contrasts

    Eckman, Fred R.; Iverson, Gregory K.; Song, Jae Yung


    This article reports empirical findings from an ongoing investigation into the acquisition of second-language (L2) phonemic contrasts. Specifically, we consider the status and role of the phenomenon of hypercorrection in the various stages through which L2 learners develop and internalize a target language (TL) contrast. We adopt the prevailing…

  6. Effects of Web-Based Collaborative Writing on Individual L2 Writing Development

    Bikowski, Dawn; Vithanage, Ramyadarshanie


    This study investigated the effect of repeated in-class web-based collaborative writing tasks on second language writers' (L2) individual writing scores. A pre-test post-test research model was used in addition to participant surveys, class observations, and teacher interviews. Participants included 59 L2 writers in a writing class at a large U.S.…

  7. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing

    Lu, Yanbin


    This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

  8. Task Response and Text Construction across L1 and L2 Writing

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol


    This exploratory study, undertaken from a socio-cognitive perspective, aims to investigate the effects of intensive preparatory high school training in L1 and/or L2 essay writing for university entrance exams. The analysis focuses on the task response and structural features in L1 (Japanese) and L2 (English) essays written by first-year Japanese…

  9. The Roles of First Language and Proficiency in L2 Processing of Spanish Clitics: Global Effects

    Seibert Hanson, Aroline E.; Carlson, Matthew T.


    We assessed the roles of first language (L1) and second language (L2) proficiency in the processing of preverbal clitics in L2 Spanish by considering the predictions of four processing theories--the Input Processing Theory, the Unified Competition Model, the Amalgamation Model, and the Associative-Cognitive CREED. We compared the performance of L1…

  10. The Effects of Corrective Feedback on Instructed L2 Speech Perception

    Lee, Andrew H.; Lyster, Roy


    To what extent do second language (L2) learners benefit from instruction that includes corrective feedback (CF) on L2 speech perception? This article addresses this question by reporting the results of a classroom-based experimental study conducted with 32 young adult Korean learners of English. An instruction-only group and an instruction + CF…

  11. Los contornos melódicos como señalizadores de la fuerza ilocutiva del discurso del profesor de L2

    Fonseca Mora, Mª del Carmen


    L2 teachers often have difficulties in communicating successfully in the target language with students who have poor transitional competence. However, in a former study, Fonseca and Cuenca (2000) observed that it was possible for a native English teacher to communicate with seven-yearold beginners whose mother tongue was Spanish by using a type of simplified code created to help the hearer to learn and understand language. One of the features identified in that code was the use of exaggerated...

  12. Nucleic localization of human papillomavirus minor capsid protein L2%人乳头瘤病毒次要衣壳蛋白L2核定位

    陈卫东; 井申荣


    在人乳头瘤病毒(human papillomavirus,HPV)次要衣壳蛋白L2的N端和C端,有大量带正电荷的氨基酸残基组成核定位信号(nuclear localization signal,NLS).细胞的核结构域10 (nuclear domain 10,ND10)是细胞周期和病毒生活周期的重要调节者.L2定位到ND10的过程不仅会受到早幼粒细胞白血病蛋白(promyleocytic leukaemia protein,PML)、死亡结构域相关蛋白(death domain-associated protein,Daxx)、Sp100核抗原(Sp100 nuclear antigen)等细胞蛋白的影响,也会与L1在ND10发生相互作用.在HPV感染和组装过程中,L2的核定位信号有着重要作用.%The nuclear localization signal, NLS, which is composed of many amino acids with positive charge residue, is located in both ends of N terminus and C terminus of the human papillomavirus minor capsid protein L2. The nuclear domain 10, ND-10, which is in the cell nucleus, is an important modulator of both cell cycle and virus cyclogeny. The process of the locating of L2 to ND-10, is not only impacted by the cell proteins, such as the promyelocytic leukemia protein, death domain-associated protein Daxx, nuclear antigen Sp100, but also interacts with L1 in ND-10. The NLS of L2 plays a significant role during the HPV virus assembly course.

  13. 基于MPLS L2 VPN的VPLS应用技术%The Applied Technology of VPLS Based on MPLS L2 VPN



    基于帧中继/ATM传统二层VPN已不适应发展要求,而MPLS提供的是一种完全新型的二层VPN.本文在分析了MPLS和MPLS L2 VPN技术之后,介绍了一种基于MPLS L2 VPN的典型应用VPLS技术,给出了VPLS的组网模型及其典型设计,分析了VPLS的运营可靠性及QoS等方面的优点.

  14. Didattica multicanale integrata: il fumetto parlante. Un’esperienza di scrittura creativa collaborativa in un corso di italiano L2

    Diego Santalucia


    Full Text Available L’articolo, nella premessa, parte da riferimenti a S. Papert e al costruzionismo, per focalizzarsi poi su alcuni aspetti dell’ultimo lavoro di A.Pian che, con l’ elaborazione del concetto di didattica multicanale integrata, indica una prospettiva ulteriore per l’integrazione di strumenti tecnologici nei processi di insegnamento/apprendimento.Nella fase seguente questo lavoro illustra un esperimento di scrittura creativa collaborativa in un corso di Italiano L2 blended, effettuato attraverso un sistema wiki e la successiva elaborazione integrata di testo, immagini e narrazione orale in un “fumetto parlante”. Uno degli obiettivi fondamentali del progetto è stato quello di valutare se, e in quale modo, il percorso effettuato in un ambiente online potesse favorire lo sviluppo della competenza comunicativa da parte dei corsisti, insieme a quello di analizzare i codici linguistici attivati nell’interazione. Non ultimo, l’obiettivo di verificare la possibilità che i corsisti potessero sperimentare un percorso per la creazione di un oggetto didattico che possa dare anche “piacere estetico” nella fruizione.  Integrated multi-channel teaching: the cartoon speaker.An experience in collaborative creative writing in an Italian L2 course The article begins with references to S. Papert and constructionism, then focuses on certain aspects of the work of A. Pian, who elaborated the concept of integrated multi-channel learning, indicating a further perspective for the integration of technological tools in the teaching/learning process. An experiment in a blended Italian L2 collaborative creative writing course was carried out using a wiki system and the subsequent processing of the integrated text, images and storytelling into a “speech bubble”. A key objective of the project was to assess whether, and in what way, an online environment could favor the development of communicative competence on the part of the students, along with the

  15. L2-stability of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near global Maxwellians

    We present a L2-stability theory of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system for the two-species collisional plasma. We show that in a perturbative regime of a global Maxwellian, the L2-distance between two strong solutions can be controlled by that between initial data in a Lipschitz manner. Our stability result extends earlier results [Ha, S.-Y. and Xiao, Q.-H., “A revisiting to the L2-stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near global Maxwellians,” (submitted) and Ha, S.-Y., Yang, X.-F., and Yun, S.-B., “L2 stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near a global Maxwellian,” Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 197, 657–688 (2010)] on the L2-stability of the Boltzmann equation to the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent external forces. As a direct application of our stability result, we show that classical solutions in Duan et al. [“Optimal large-time behavior of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system in the whole space,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 24, 1497–1546 (2011)] and Guo [“The Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near Maxwellians,” Invent. Math. 153(3), 593–630 (2003)] satisfy a uniform L2-stability estimate. This is the first result on the L2-stability of the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent field equations in three dimensions

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of highly thermostable L2 lipase from the newly isolated Bacillus sp. L2

    Thermostable recombinant L2 lipase from thermophilic Bacillus sp. L2 has been crystallized by using counter-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to the primitive orthorhombic space group P212121 with unit-cell parameters a = 87.44, b = 94.90, c = 126.46 Å. Purified thermostable recombinant L2 lipase from Bacillus sp. L2 was crystallized by the counter-diffusion method using 20% PEG 6000, 50 mM MES pH 6.5 and 50 mM NaCl as precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.7 Å resolution using an in-house Bruker X8 PROTEUM single-crystal diffractometer system. The crystal belonged to the primitive orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 87.44, b = 94.90, c = 126.46 Å. The asymmetric unit contained one single molecule of protein, with a Matthews coefficient (VM) of 2.85 Å3 Da−1 and a solvent content of 57%

  17. Multiwavelet Packets and Frame Packets of $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d)$

    Biswaranjan Behera


    The orthonormal basis generated by a wavelet of $L^2(\\mathbb{R})$ has poor frequency localization. To overcome this disadvantage Coifman, Meyer, and Wickerhauser constructed wavelet packets. We extend this concept to the higher dimensions where we consider arbitrary dilation matrices. The resulting basis of $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d)$ is called the multiwavelet packet basis. The concept of wavelet frame packet is also generalized to this setting. Further, we show how to construct various orthonormal bases of $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d)$ from the multiwavelet packets.

  18. REV7/MAD2L2: the multitasking maestro emerges as a barrier to recombination

    Julian E Sale


    REV7/MAD2L2 plays important roles in translesion DNA synthesis and mitotic control. Two new papers extend its gamut by revealing its unexpected participation in pathway choice during DNA double-strand break repair. By inhibiting 5′ DNA end resection downstream of 53BP1 and RIF1, REV7/MAD2L2 promotes non-homologous end joining at the expense of homologous recombination. Importantly, loss of REV7/MAD2L2 renders PARP inhibitors ineffective in BRCA1-deficient tumours, suggesting another possible ...

  19. Mutations in MAB21L2 result in ocular Coloboma, microcornea and cataracts.

    Brett Deml

    Full Text Available Ocular coloboma results from abnormal embryonic development and is often associated with additional ocular and systemic features. Coloboma is a highly heterogeneous disorder with many cases remaining unexplained. Whole exome sequencing from two cousins affected with dominant coloboma with microcornea, cataracts, and skeletal dysplasia identified a novel heterozygous allele in MAB21L2, c.151 C>G, p.(Arg51Gly; the mutation was present in all five family members with the disease and appeared de novo in the first affected generation of the three-generational pedigree. MAB21L2 encodes a protein similar to C. elegans mab-21 cell fate-determining factor; the molecular function of MAB21L2 is largely unknown. To further evaluate the role of MAB21L2, zebrafish mutants carrying a p.(Gln48Serfs*5 frameshift truncation (mab21l2Q48Sfs*5 and a p.(Arg51_Phe52del in-frame deletion (mab21l2R51_F52del were developed with TALEN technology. Homozygous zebrafish embryos from both lines developed variable lens and coloboma phenotypes: mab21l2Q48Sfs*5 embryos demonstrated severe lens and retinal defects with complete lethality while mab21l2R51_F52del mutants displayed a milder lens phenotype and severe coloboma with a small number of fish surviving to adulthood. Protein studies showed decreased stability for the human p.(Arg51Gly and zebrafish p.(Arg51_Phe52del mutant proteins and predicted a complete loss-of-function for the zebrafish p.(Gln48Serfs*5 frameshift truncation. Additionally, in contrast to wild-type human MAB21L2 transcript, mutant p.(Arg51Gly mRNA failed to efficiently rescue the ocular phenotype when injected into mab21l2Q48Sfs*5 embryos, suggesting this allele is functionally deficient. Histology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization experiments identified retinal invagination defects, an increase in cell death, abnormal proliferation patterns, and altered expression of several ocular markers in the mab21l2 mutants. These findings support the

  20. O papel da tradução da L1 para a L2 no currículo de escrita em L2

    Huang, Harry J.


    Full Text Available Certos educadores tem restrições à tradução da L1 para a L2, no currículo do ensino da escrita em L2; alguns, inclusive, posicionam-se contra a introdução da tradução no currículo da escrita em L2. No presente artigo, o autor tenta elucidar a relação entre escrita e tradução, esclarece o inter-relacionamento entre escrita "livre", escrita "baseada em conteúdo" bem como escrita "limitada em conteúdo" em L2, expõe em particular as principais semelhanças entre escrita "limitada em conteúdo", conforme rótulo do autor. Para refutar afirmações como "a tradução jamais poderá ajudar aprendizes de um alíngua a aprender uma outra" , o autor mostra exemplos incluindo amostras de escrita "limitada em conteúdo" de alunos (chinês-inglês, números contrastantes e comentários de alunos de uma Escola Superior no Canadá para provar que a tradução da L1 não apenas desempenha um papel positivo no currículo de escrita em ISL avançada se conduzida adequadamente, mas também semelhantemente à escrita "baseada em conteúdo", um constituinte natural do currículo da escrita em L2

  1. How does language distance between L1 and L2 affect the L2 brain network? An fMRI study of Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals.

    Kim, Say Young; Qi, Ting; Feng, Xiaoxia; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Cao, Fan


    The present study tested the hypothesis that language distance between first language (L1) and second language (L2) influences the assimilation and accommodation pattern in Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals. The distance between English and Korean is smaller than that between Chinese and Korean in terms of orthographic transparency, because both English and Korean are alphabetic, whereas Chinese is logographic. During fMRI, Korean trilingual participants performed a visual rhyming judgment task in three languages (Korean: KK, Chinese: KC, English: KE). Two L1 control groups were native Chinese and English speakers performing the task in their native languages (CC and EE, respectively). The general pattern of brain activation of KC was more similar to that of CC than KK, suggesting accommodation. Higher accuracy in KC was associated with decreased activation in regions of the KK network, suggesting reduced assimilation. In contrast, the brain activation of KE was more similar to that of KK than EE, suggesting assimilation. Higher accuracy in KE was associated with decreased activation in regions of the EE network, suggesting reduced accommodation. Finally, an ROI analysis on the left middle frontal gyrus revealed greater activation for KC than for KE, suggesting its selective involvement in the L2 with more arbitrary mapping between orthography and phonology (i.e., Chinese). Taken together, the brain network involved in L2 reading is similar to the L1 network when L2 and L1 are similar in orthographic transparency, while significant accommodation is expected when L2 is more opaque than L1. PMID:26673115

  2. The Relationship between Phonological Memory, L2 Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Size of Iranian High School Students

    Parviz Ghazanfar


    Full Text Available Phonological memory (PM is viewed as one of the key elements in language learning. The present study was an effort to investigate the relationship between PM, reading comprehension, and vocabulary size of Iranian high school EFL learners. The participants were 58 high school freshmen and senior students. Administering Oxford Quick Placement Test (QPT, the participants were divided into two groups of proficiency, i.e. elementary and lower intermediate. Afterwards, two measures of PM, namely nonword repetition (NWRP and nonword recognition (NWRC tests, a reading comprehension test, and Schmitt’s vocabulary levels test were administered. The results showed a significant relationship between reading comprehension, vocabulary size, and PM measures at both levels of proficiency. Moreover, the regression analyses showed that NWRC can be a better predictor of L2 learners’ performance on reading comprehension at the lower intermediate level, and NWRC was found to be a better predictor of vocabulary size for both groups of language proficiency.

  3. EX1103L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1103L2: Exploration and Mapping,...

  4. Blowup for the Damped $l^{2}$-Critical Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger Equation

    Mohamad, Darwich


    We consider the Cauchy problem for the $L^{2}$-critical damped nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. We prove existence and stability of finite time blowup dynamics with the log-log blow-up speed for $\\|\

  5. Blowup for the Damped $L^{2}$-Critical Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger Equation

    Darwich, Mohamad


    We consider the Cauchy problem for the $L^{2}$-critical damped nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. We prove existence and stability of finite time blowup dynamics with the log-log blow-up speed for $\\|\

  6. EX1004L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1004L2: Exploration Indonesia - Bitung...

  7. EX1504L2 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  8. EX1504L2 Dive07 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  9. EX1205L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1205L2: Northeast Canyons and...

  10. EX1402L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1402L2: Gulf of Mexico Mapping and...

  11. EX1504L2 Dive14 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  12. EX1502L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1502L2: Caribbean Exploration (Mapping)...

  13. EX1304L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S. Canyons...

  14. EX1504L2 Dive13 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  15. EX1504L2 Dive16 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  16. EX1504L2 Dive01 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  17. EX1504L2 Dive12 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  18. EX1504L2 Dive10 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  19. EX1504L2 Dive15 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  20. EX1504L2 Dive09 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  1. EX1504L2 Dive06 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  2. EX1504L2 Dive08 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  3. EX1504L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to Address Pacific...

  4. EX1504L2 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  5. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria is a Diagnostic Indicator of Leukodystrophy: A Case Report

    Mahmoud Reza ASHRAFI


    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Ashrafi MR, Nikkhah A, Houshmand M, Aryani O. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria is a Diagnostic Indicator of Leukodystrophy: A CaseReport Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 2011;5(4:37-38. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive inherited neurometabolic disorder.It is characterized by slow progressive neurological dysfunction with cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, intellectual decline, and seizures. Herein, we report a case of a 7-year-old boy from Tehran whose symptoms and signs indicated leukoencephalopathy with macrocephaly and motor delay. References 1. Barth PG, Hoffmann GF, Jaeken J, Lehnert W, Hanefeld F, van Gennip AH, et al. L-2-hydroxyglutaric acidemia: a novel inherited neurometabolic disease. Ann Neurol 1992;32(1:66-71. 2. Duran M, Kamerling JP, Bakker HD, Van Gennip AH, Wadman S. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria: an inborn error of metabolism? J Inherit Metab Dis 1980;3(4:109-12. 3. Haliloglu G, Jobard F, Oguz KK, Anlar B, Akalan N, Coskun T, et al. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria and brain tumors in children with mutations in the L2HGDH gene: neuroimaging findings. Neuropediatrics  2008;39(2:119-22. 4. De Klerk JB, Huijmans JG, Stroink H, Robben SG, Jakobs C, Duran M. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: clinical heterogeneity versus biochemical homogeneity in a sibship. Neuropediatrics 1997;28(6:314-7. 5. Fenichel GM. Clinical pediatric neurology: a signs and symptoms approach. Saunders:Elsevier, 2009. 6. Diogo L, Fineza I, Canha J, Borges L, Cardoso ML, Vilarinho L. Macrocephaly as the presenting feature of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria in a 5-month-old boy. J Inherit Metab Dis 1996;19(3:369-70. 7. Rzem R, Van Schaftingen E, Veiga-da-Cunha M. The gene mutated in l-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria encodes l-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase. Biochimie 2006;88(1:113-6. 8. Shafeghati Y, Vakili G, Entezari A. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: A report of six cases and Review of the Literature


    Zawodniak, Joanna


    Teaching a foreign language to young learners requires of the teacher a special ability to involve them in a variety of activities explicitly accommodating their need for whole-person enjoyment and implicitly fostering their L2 knowledge. This complex pedagogic task is likely to be achieved with reliance on the multi-sensory approach which is recommended by the European Co-operation Programs as an alternative L2 teaching trend encompassing universal, proactive qualities and educational div...

  7. Based on combination of L2TP and IPSec VPN security technology research

    Ya-qin Fan; Chi Li; Chao Sun


    This report is written to provide a method of building secure VPN by combination of L2TP and IPSec in order to meet the requirements of secure transmission of data and improve the VPN security technology. It remedies the secured short comes of L2TP Tunneling Protocol Tunneling Protocol and IPSec security. Simulation and analysis show that the construction method can improve the security of data transmission, and the simulation results of VPN is valuable for security professionals to refer.

  8. How to Catch L_2-Heavy-Hitters on Sliding Windows

    Braverman, Vladimir; Gelles, Ran; Ostrovsky, Rafail


    Finding heavy-elements (heavy-hitters) in streaming data is one of the central, and well-understood tasks. Despite the importance of this problem, when considering the sliding windows model of streaming (where elements eventually expire) the problem of finding L_2-heavy elements has remained completely open despite multiple papers and considerable success in finding L_1-heavy elements. In this paper, we develop the first poly-logarithmic-memory algorithm for finding L_2-heavy elements in slid...

  9. Characters of admissible representations of the affine superalgebra ŝl(2|1; C) k

    Bowcock, P.; Hayes, M.; Taormina, A.


    We calculate characters and supercharacters for irreducible, admissible representations of the affine superalgebra ŝl(2|1; C) k in both the Ramond and Neveu-Schwarz sectors and discuss their modular properties in the special case of level k = - {1}/{2}. We also show that the non-degenerate integrable ŝl(2|1; C) k characters coincide with some N = 4 superconformal characters.

  10. TCF7L2 involvement in estradiol- and progesterone-modulated islet and hepatic glucose homeostasis.

    Dong, Fengqin; Ling, Qi; Ye, Dan; Zhang, Zhe; Shu, Jing; Chen, Guoping; Fei, Yang; Li, Chengjiang


    To evaluate the role of TCF7L2, a key regulator of glucose homeostasis, in estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4)-modulated glucose metabolism, mouse insulinoma cells (MIN6) and human liver cancer cells (hepG2 and HUH7) were treated with physiological concentrations of E2 or P4 in the up- and down-regulation of TCF7L2. Insulin/proinsulin secretion was measured in MIN6 cells, while glucose uptake and production were evaluated in liver cancer cells. E2 increased insulin/proinsulin secretion under both basal and stimulated conditions, whereas P4 increased insulin/proinsulin secretion only under glucose-stimulated conditions. An antagonistic effect, possibly concentration-dependent, of E2 and P4 on the regulation of islet glucose metabolism was observed. After E2 or P4 treatment, secretion of insulin/proinsulin was positively correlated with TCF7L2 protein expression. When TCF7L2 was silenced, E2- or P4-promoted insulin/proinsulin secretion was significantly weakened. Under glucotoxicity conditions, overexpression of TCF7L2 increased insulin secretion and processing. In liver cancer cells, E2 or P4 exposure elevated TCF7L2 expression, enhanced the activity of insulin signaling (pAKT/pGSK), reduced PEPCK expression, subsequently increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and decreased glucose production. Silencing TCF7L2 eliminated effects of E2 or P4. In conclusion, TCF7L2 regulates E2- or P4-modulated islet and hepatic glucose metabolism. The results have implications for glucose homeostasis in pregnancy. PMID:27108846

  11. A Multimeric L2 Vaccine for Prevention of Animal Papillomavirus Infections

    Jagu, Subhashini; Malandro, Nicole; Kwak, Kihyuck; Yuan, Hang; Schlegel, Richard; Palmer, Kenneth E; Huh, Warner K.; Campo, M. Saveria; Roden, Richard BS


    It is unclear what level of neutralizing antibody is sufficient to protect cattle from experimental bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV4) challenge. Markedly lower, and often undetected, serum neutralizing antibody titers were associated with protection in cattle vaccinated with BPV4 L2 as compared to L1 VLP. We hypothesized that vaccination with concatemers of the N-terminal protective epitopes of L2 derived from multiple animal papillomavirus types would enhance the breadth and strength of im...

  12. On the asymptotic expansion of the curvature of perturbations of the $L_{2}$ connection



    We establish that the Hitchin connection is a perturbation of the $L_{2}$-connection. We notice that such a formulation of the Hitchin connection does not necessarily require the manifold in question possessing a rigid family of Kähler structures. We then proceed to calculate the asymptotic expansion of general perturbations of the $L_{2}$-connection, and see when under certain assumptions such perturbations are flat and projectively flat. During the calculations we also found an asymptotic e...

  13. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and L2 Reading Skill among Iranian EFL University Students

    Saber Khooei Oskooei; Farzad Salahshoor


    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between multiple intelligences (MI) and foreign language (L2) reading skill among Iranian EFL sophomores. Multiple intelligences and L2 reading measurements of participants – 29 males and 69 females who were selected from four intact classes – were obtained through McKenzie’s (1999) Multiple Intelligences Inventory and reading part of a Preliminary English Test PET, respectively, and then Pearson’s correlation analysis was r...

  14. A processability account of the L2 article acquisition by Bulgarian young learners of English

    Harakchiyska T. K.


    Full Text Available The present paper sheds a new light on the acquisition of English articles by L2 young learners of English. It focuses on the interplay between L1 interference and the applicability of a recent cognitive theoretical framework – the Processability theory which serve as a basis for outlining the possible difficulties in the English article acquisition by Bulgarian 9-10-year old learners of English as L2.

  15. Low Parametric Sensitivity Realizations with relaxed L2-dynamic-range-scaling constraints

    Hilaire, Thibault


    This paper presents a new dynamic-range scaling for the implementation of filters/controllers in state-space form. Relaxing the classical L2-scaling constraints by specific fixed-point considerations allows for a higher degree of freedom for the optimal L2-parametric sensitivity problem. However, overflows in the implementation are still prevented. The underlying constrained problem is converted into an unconstrained problem for which a solution can be provided. This leads to realizations whi...

  16. Unique splicing pattern of the TCF7L2 gene in human pancreatic islets

    Osmark, P; Hansson, O; Jonsson, Anna Elisabet;


    Intronic variation in the TCF7L2 gene exhibits the strongest association to type 2 diabetes observed to date, but the mechanism whereby this genetic variation translates into altered biological function is largely unknown. A possible explanation is a genotype-dependent difference in the complex...... splicing pattern; however, this has not previously been characterised in pancreatic or insulin target tissues. Here, the detailed TCF7L2 splicing pattern in five human tissues is described and dependence on risk genotype explored....

  17. Main Ingredients for Success in L2 Academic Writing: Outlining, Drafting and Proofreading

    Munoz-Luna, Rosa


    Spanish undergraduates of English Studies are required to submit their essays in academic English, a genre which most of them are not acquainted with. This paper aims to explore the extralinguistic side of second language (L2) academic writing, more specifically, the combination of metalinguistic items (e.g. transition and frame markers, among others) with students’ writing strategies when composing an academic text in L2 English. The research sample conveys a group of 200 Spanish undergradua...

  18. Morphological Structure in Native and Nonnative Language Processing

    Clahsen, Harald; Felser, Claudia; Neubauer, Kathleen; Sato, Mikako; Silva, Renita


    This article presents a selective overview of studies that have investigated how advanced adult second language (L2) learners process morphologically complex words. The studies reported here have used different kinds of experimental tasks (including speeded grammaticality judgments, lexical decision, and priming) to examine three domains of…

  19. The Time Course of Morphological Processing in a Second Language

    Clahsen, Harald; Balkhair, Loay; Schutter, John-Sebastian; Cunnings, Ian


    We report findings from psycholinguistic experiments investigating the detailed timing of processing morphologically complex words by proficient adult second (L2) language learners of English in comparison to adult native (L1) speakers of English. The first study employed the masked priming technique to investigate "-ed" forms with a group of…

  20. Morphological priming during language switching: an ERP study

    Saskia E. Lensink


    Full Text Available Bilingual language control (BLC is a much-debated issue in recent literature. Some models assume BLC is achieved by various types of inhibition of the non-target language, whereas other models do not assume any inhibitory mechanisms. In an ERP study involving a long-lag morphological priming paradigm, participants were required to name pictures and read aloud words in both their L1 (Dutch and L2 (English. Switch blocks contained intervening L1 items between L2 primes and targets, whereas non-switch blocks contained only L2 stimuli. In non-switch blocks, target picture names that were morphologically related to the primes were named faster than unrelated control items. In switch blocks, faster response latencies were recorded for morphologically related targets as well, demonstrating the existence of morphological priming in the L2. However, only in non-switch blocks, ERP data showed a reduced N400 trend, possibly suggesting that participants made use of a post-lexical checking mechanism during the switch block.


    Rosetta Baccari


    Full Text Available L’articolo parte dalla riflessione sull’utilizzo delle tecnologie educative nel mondo contemporaneo per poi mostrare i vantaggi e le potenzialità dei corsi ibridi o blended nel processo di insegnamento/apprendimento dell’italiano L2. A supporto di tale tesi sono riportate le osservazioni tratte dall’esperienza di tirocinio svolta presso il PLO Pepe del Comune di Milano dove è stato attivato con successo un corso ibrido di 10° livello (livello C1 del QCER. Il corso, basato sull’integrazione tra le tradizionali lezioni in classe e le lezioni on-line a distanza tramite la piattaforma Moodle, ha consentito di superare i limiti e le difficoltà connessi a ciascuna modalità di insegnamento/apprendimento quando applicata isolatamente e ha permesso di creare una comunità di apprendimento in cui ciascun apprendente ha avuto la possibilità di costruire e co-costruire con gli altri il percorso di apprendimento secondo i propri ritmi e bisogni. L’ultima parte del lavoro riguarda una proposta di insegnamento dell’italiano L2 attraverso l’utilizzo di Edmodo, una piattaforma digitale alternativa a Moodle. Gratuita e di facile utilizzo, permette agli studenti di partecipare in modo attivo e costruttivo alle attività proposte e agli insegnanti di personalizzare e rendere più accattivante l’offerta didattica. Hybrid Italian L2 courses: frontal lessons and multimedia platforms as instruments in the co-construction of knowledgeThe article begins by discussing the current use of educational technology, highlighting the advantages and potentials of hybrid or blended courses in L2 teaching/learning. To support this thesis, observations are drawn from training experiences which took place at the PLO Pepe in Milan where a hybrid 10th level course (level C1 CEFR was activated. The course, based on the integration between traditional classroom and online classes held remotely via the Moodle platform, enabled us to overcome the limitations and

  2. Effectiveness of L2 spinal nerve infiltration for selective discogenic low back pain patients

    It has been reported that rat L5/6 lumbar discs are innervated mainly by L2 dorsal root ganglion neurons. We previously reported that L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective for discogenic low back pain (DLBP) patients, although the diagnosis was based only on the results of physical examination, plain films, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate L2 spinal nerve block for DLBP patients retrospectively based on MRI findings and surgical results. A total of 62 patients with only LBP and no accompanying radicular pain were investigated. Patients had only one level of disc degeneration on MRI. When pain was provoked during discography, we performed surgery at the next stage (40 patients). In all, 22 patients were excluded owing to negative discography results. Of the 40 patients, we evaluated 25 strictly selected patients suffering from DLBP. DLBP was diagnosed when the patient experienced pain relief at least 2 years after anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Fifteen patients who did not show pain relief after surgery were used for the non-DLBP group. L2 spinal nerve infiltration using 1.5 ml of lidocaine was performed in all 40 patients before surgery. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score after L2 spinal nerve infiltration was recorded, and an association of L2 spinal nerve infiltration and DLBP was explored. Low back pain scores assessed using the VAS score, the Japanese Orthopedic Association score, and the Oswestry Disability Index score in the two groups were not significantly different. L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective for 27 patients but not effective for 13 patients; the VAS score after 15 min and 2 h improved in the DLBP group compared with that of the non-DLBP group (P<0.05). L2 spinal nerve infiltration was more effective in DLBP patients (21 patients, 84%) than in the non-DLBP group (6 patients, 40%) (P<0.05). In the current study, L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective in 84% of selected DLBP

  3. Age-related differences in the motivation of learning English as a foreign language: Attitudes, selves and motivated learning behavior.

    Kormos, Judit; Csizér, Kata


    Our study describes the motivation for learning English as a foreign language in three distinct learner populations: secondary school pupils, university students, and adult language learners. Questionnaire data were collected from 623 Hungarian students. The main factors affecting students' second language (L2) motivation were language learning attitudes and the Ideal L2 self, which provides empirical support for the main construct of the theory of the L2 Motivational Self-System (Dörnyei, 20...


    Paola Arrigoni


    Full Text Available La modalità plurilingue della comunicazione in classi di lingua straniera può rientrare tra le strategie pedagogiche a disposizione dell’insegnante per il raggiungimento di precisi scopi didattici e formativi. Partendo da una breve analisi sul significato di parlante plurilingue e plurilinguismo stesso, in questo articolo si è voluto esaminare come si attua una educazione al plurilinguismo in contesti formativi e, in particolare, se e come l’utilizzo della L1 può costituire uno strumento di supporto all’insegnamento e all’apprendimento di una lingua straniera. A questo scopo sono stati analizzati i dati raccolti presso l’Università di Coventry durante corsi di italiano L2 per studenti anglofoni. I fenomeni di contatto linguistico L1/L2 più frequenti e significativi sono stati suddivisi in base al parlante e alle loro funzioni.   The phenomena of l1/l2 alternation in the teaching of italian as a foreign language. analysis of a corpus of didactic interactions Multilingual communication in foreign language classrooms can be considered as one of the teacher’s pedagogical  strategies to achieve specific educational aims. Through a brief analysis of the meaning of multilingual speakers and multilingualism, this article examines how an education to multilingualism in teaching contexts is carried out and, in particular, if and how the use of the L1 can be a helpful tool for the foreign language teaching and learning. For this purpose the data collected at Coventry University during Italian (L2 classrooms for English students were examined. The more common and meaningful phenomena of linguistic contact between L1 and L2 were grouped according to the speaker and to their functions.

  5. Effet de l'apprentissage systématique de l'écrit sur l'acquisition de la langue orale en L2 : cas du français appris par des enfants marocains au Maroc

    Martin, Carine


    This research on French-Arabic interlanguage is at the junction of psycholinguistics , cognitive psychology and didactics . It takes place in a multilingual country, Morocco (Agadir). Our study seeks to establish to what extent learning to read in French (L2) impacts the development of perception and pronunciation of this language and how important this learning is. We assume indeed that spelling and phonological skills gained through reading, could make certain phonological representations o...

  6. Is Mobile-Assisted Language Learning Really Useful? An Examination of Recall Automatization and Learner Autonomy

    Sato, Takeshi; Murase, Fumiko; Burden, Tyler


    The aim of this study is to examine the advantages of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning (MALL), especially vocabulary learning of English as a foreign or second language (L2) in terms of the two strands: automatization and learner autonomy. Previous studies articulate that technology-enhanced L2 learning could bring about some positive effects.…

  7. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students’ Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2

    Karbalaei Alireza


    Full Text Available The notion of “learner beliefs” has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners’ beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers’ beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading in English. 190 undergraduate college students completed the Survey of Reading Strategies questionnaire. The results indicated that the subjects in both groups reported almost similar patterns of strategy awareness while reading; however, Indians reported more awareness of global, support and total metacognitive reading strategies than Iranians while no significant difference was reported when using problem-solving strategies. These results can contribute to the necessity of reading strategies training in both contexts. La noción de “creencias del estudiante” ha ganado mucha atención en el ámbito de la adquisición de la segunda lengua. Aunque se han realizado diferentes estudios sobre las creencias de los estudiantes respecto al aprendizaje de la lengua, poco se ha investigado acerca de las creencias de los lectores de segunda lengua y su relación con estrategias de lectura. Este estudio investigó si había diferencias significativas entre los lectores de inglés como lengua extranjera y los lectores de inglés como segunda lengua en cuanto a la conciencia lectora y el uso de estrategias metacognitivas cuando leen en inglés. Ciento noventa estudiantes de pregrado completaron el cuestionario sobre estrategias lectoras. Los resultados mostraron que los sujetos de los dos grupos reportaron un patrón casi similar al uso de conciencia de estrategia mientras leían. Sin embargo, los estudiantes indios reportaron ser más conscientes respecto a

  8. Automatic quantitative morphological analysis of interacting galaxies

    Shamir, Lior; Wallin, John


    The large number of galaxies imaged by digital sky surveys reinforces the need for computational methods for analyzing galaxy morphology. While the morphology of most galaxies can be associated with a stage on the Hubble sequence, morphology of galaxy mergers is far more complex due to the combination of two or more galaxies with different morphologies and the interaction between them. Here we propose a computational method based on unsupervised machine learning that can quantitatively analyze morphologies of galaxy mergers and associate galaxies by their morphology. The method works by first generating multiple synthetic galaxy models for each galaxy merger, and then extracting a large set of numerical image content descriptors for each galaxy model. These numbers are weighted using Fisher discriminant scores, and then the similarities between the galaxy mergers are deduced using a variation of Weighted Nearest Neighbor analysis such that the Fisher scores are used as weights. The similarities between the ga...

  9. Dual regulatory switch through interactions of Tcf7l2/Tcf4 with stage-specific partners propels oligodendroglial maturation

    Zhao, Chuntao; Deng, Yaqi; Liu, Lei; Yu, Kun; Zhang, Liguo; Wang, Haibo; He, Xuelian; Wang, Jincheng; Lu, Changqing; Wu, Laiman N; Weng, Qinjie; Mao, Meng; Li, Jianrong; van Es, Johan H.; Xin, Mei


    Constitutive activation of Wnt/β-catenin inhibits oligodendrocyte myelination. Tcf7l2/Tcf4, a β-catenin transcriptional partner, is required for oligodendrocyte differentiation. How Tcf7l2 modifies β-catenin signalling and controls myelination remains elusive. Here we define a stage-specific Tcf7l2-regulated transcriptional circuitry in initiating and sustaining oligodendrocyte differentiation. Multistage genome occupancy analyses reveal that Tcf7l2 serially cooperates with distinct co-regula...

  10. TCF7L2 polymorphisms and inflammatory markers before and after treatment with fenofibrate

    Kabagambe Edmond K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation is implicated in causing diabetes. We tested whether transcription factor 7 like-2 (TCF7L2 gene polymorphisms (rs12255372 and rs7903146, consistently associated with type 2 diabetes, are associated with plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers before and after three weeks of daily treatment with fenofibrate. Methods Men and women in the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study (n = 1025, age 49 ± 16 y were included. All participants suspended use of lipid-lowering drugs for three weeks and were then given 160 mg/day of fenofibrate for three weeks. Inflammatory markers and lipids were measured before and after fenofibrate. ANOVA was used to test for differences across TCF7L2 genotypes. Results Under the additive or dominant model, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05 in the concentrations of inflammatory markers (hsCRP, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α and MCP-1 across TCF7L2 genotypes in the period before or after treatment. For both rs12255372 and rs7903146, homozygote T-allele carriers had significantly higher (P Conclusion Overall these data show no association between TCF7L2 polymorphisms and the inflammatory markers suggesting that the effects of TCF7L2 on diabetes may not be via inflammation.

  11. Alphabetic and nonalphabetic L1 effects in English word identification: a comparison of Korean and Chinese English L2 learners.

    Wang, Min; Koda, Keiko; Perfetti, Charles A


    Different writing systems in the world select different units of spoken language for mapping. Do these writing system differences influence how first language (L1) literacy experiences affect cognitive processes in learning to read a second language (L2)? Two groups of college students who were learning to read English as a second language (ESL) were examined for their relative reliance on phonological and orthographic processing in English word identification: Korean students with an alphabetic L1 literacy background, and Chinese students with a nonalphabetic L1 literacy background. In a semantic category judgment task, Korean ESL learners made more false positive errors in judging stimuli that were homophones to category exemplars than they did in judging spelling controls. However, there were no significant differences in responses to stimuli in these two conditions for Chinese ESL learners. Chinese ESL learners, on the other hand, made more accurate responses to stimuli that were less similar in spelling to category exemplars than those that were more similar. Chinese ESL learners may rely less on phonological information and more on orthographic information in identifying English words than their Korean counterparts. Further evidence supporting this argument came from a phoneme deletion task in which Chinese subjects performed more poorly overall than their Korean counterparts and made more errors that were phonologically incorrect but orthographically acceptable. We suggest that cross-writing system differences in L1s and L1 reading skills transfer could be responsible for these ESL performance differences. PMID:12590041

  12. 26 CFR 1.6050L-2 - Information returns by donees relating to qualified intellectual property contributions.


    ... qualified intellectual property contributions. 1.6050L-2 Section 1.6050L-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... § 1.6050L-2 Information returns by donees relating to qualified intellectual property contributions... receives or accrues net income during a taxable year from any qualified intellectual property...

  13. The Effect of Phonetics Instruction on Adult Learners' Perception and Production of L2 Sounds

    Kissling, Elizabeth Maria


    Traditional pronunciation instruction and instruction in second language (L2) phonetics have been shown to improve learners' L2 accent in some, though certainly not all, cases. Learners in intermediate and advanced Spanish FL courses have shown modest improvement in the pronunciation of some L2 phones after receiving such instruction.…

  14. Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological and Orthographic Processing Skills from Spanish L1 to English L2

    Sun-Alperin, M. Kendra; Wang, Min


    Previous cross-language research has focused on L1 phonological processing and its relation to L2 reading. Less extensive is the research on the effect that L1 orthographic processing skill has on L2 reading and spelling. This study was designed to investigate how reading and spelling acquisition in English (L2) is influenced by phonological and…

  15. The Phonological Permeability Hypothesis: Measuring Regressive L3 Influence to Test L1 and L2 Phonological Representations

    Cabrelli Amaro, Jennifer Lauren


    The Phonological Permeability Hypothesis (PPH, Cabrelli Amaro & Rothman, 2010) attempts to reconcile evidence suggesting some L2 learners, however rare, attain native-like L2 phonological systems with the observation that most do not. Considering existing L2 phonology research, it is not clear that phonological differences between early and…




    The authors discuss problems of approximation to functions in L2 (Rn)and operators from L2(Rn1)to L2(Rn2)by Radial-Basis Functions. The results obtained solve the parblem of capability of RBF neural networks,a basic problem in neural networks.

  17. Comparison of Different Machine Learning Algorithms for Lithological Mapping Using Remote Sensing Data and Morphological Features: A Case Study in Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq

    Othman, Arsalan; Gloaguen, Richard


    Topographic effects and complex vegetation cover hinder lithology classification in mountain regions based not only in field, but also in reflectance remote sensing data. The area of interest "Bardi-Zard" is located in the NE of Iraq. It is part of the Zagros orogenic belt, where seven lithological units outcrop and is known for its chromite deposit. The aim of this study is to compare three machine learning algorithms (MLAs): Maximum Likelihood (ML), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and Random Forest (RF) in the context of a supervised lithology classification task using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite, its derived, spatial information (spatial coordinates) and geomorphic data. We emphasize the enhancement in remote sensing lithological mapping accuracy that arises from the integration of geomorphic features and spatial information (spatial coordinates) in classifications. This study identifies that RF is better than ML and SVM algorithms in almost the sixteen combination datasets, which were tested. The overall accuracy of the best dataset combination with the RF map for the all seven classes reach ~80% and the producer and user's accuracies are ~73.91% and 76.09% respectively while the kappa coefficient is ~0.76. TPI is more effective with SVM algorithm than an RF algorithm. This paper demonstrates that adding geomorphic indices such as TPI and spatial information in the dataset increases the lithological classification accuracy.

  18. The Effects of Planned Instruction on Iranian L2 Learners' Interlanguage Pragmatic Development

    Maryam Esmaeili


    Full Text Available The most compelling evidence that instruction in L2pragmatics is necessary comes from learners whoselanguage proficiency is advanced but their communicative actsfrequently contain pragmatic errors. The current studyevaluated the impact of explicit instruction on EFL learner'sawareness and production of three speech acts of request,apology, and complaint. It also probed whether learners’language proficiency plays any role in incorporatingpragmatic instruction into the L2 classroom. The instructionlasted for about 12 weeks. Achievement in L2 pragmaticswas assessed based on a pretest-posttest plan usingMultiple-Choice Discourse Comprehension Test (MDCTand Written Discourse Completion Test (WDCT. Thesignificant gains made by the experimental groups receivinginstruction support the claim recently made by instructionalpragmatics that explicit instruction does facilitate thedevelopment of pragmatically appropriate use of language.Yet, learners’ level of language proficiency had no significantrole in the incorporation of the instruction. Furthertheoretical issues are also discussed.

  19. L2 discretization of atomic and molecular electronic continua: moment, quadrature and J-matrix techniques

    A review of the process of extraction of continuum information from operators discretized in finite sets of square integrable (L2) basis functions is given, with emphasis on the close relationships between the Stieltjes method and Gaussian integration. Examples of recent applications are given in the areas of atomic and molecular photoabsorption (He, Ne*, H2, Ar2*), Stieltjes determination of e- -atom/molecule resonances (He, He-, Mg-, N2-) and e+ -H scattering at intermediate energies. Finally, photoabsorption of H- leading to H+ + 2e is discussed using the J-matrix technique, which involves an infinite L2 expansion, and combines advantages of the finite L2 methods with those of the traditional close coupling method. (Auth.)

  20. L2 norm performance index of synchronization and optimal control synthesis of complex networks

    Liu, Chao; Chen, Guanrong; Huang, Lin


    In this paper, the synchronizability problem of dynamical networks is addressed, where better synchronizability means that the network synchronizes faster with lower-overshoot. The L2 norm of the error vector e is taken as a performance index to measure this kind of synchronizability. For the equilibrium synchronization case, it is shown that there is a close relationship between the L2 norm of the error vector e and the H2 norm of the transfer function G of the linearized network about the equilibrium point. Consequently, the effect of the network coupling topology on the H2 norm of the transfer function G is analyzed. Finally, an optimal controller is designed, according to the so-called LQR problem in modern control theory, which can drive the whole network to its equilibrium point and meanwhile minimize the L2 norm of the output of the linearized network.

  1. Differences in adult L2 grammars of Lithuanian: The case of gender agreement

    Simona Mačiukaité


    Full Text Available This article presents results obtained from an empirical investigation into the acquisition of gender agreement in Lithuanian as a second language (L2. A total of 59 L2 learners of Lithuanian and 10 Lithuanian native speakers, as controls, took part in this study. The participants came from diverse rst language (L1 backgrounds (i.e., Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Latvian, and English. The data were collected using a written translation task. The results of the study showed some statistically significant differences between English speaking learners of Lithuanian and non-native English speaking learners of Lithuanian. The findings support the Full Transfer Full Access hypothesis (Schwartz, Sprouse 1994, 1996 which argues for the interaction of L1 transfer and Universal Grammar in the development of adult L2 grammars.DOI:

  2. Global existence for an L^2 critical Nonlinear Dirac equation in one dimension

    Candy, Timothy


    We prove global existence from $L^2$ initial data for a nonlinear Dirac equation known as the Thirring model. Local existence in $H^s$ for $s>0$, and global existence for $s>1/2$, has recently been proven by Selberg and Tesfahun by using $X^{s, b}$ spaces together with a type of null form estimate. In contrast, motivated by the recent work of Machihara, Nakanishi, and Tsugawa, we first prove local existence in $L^2$ by using null coordinates, where the time of existence depends on the profile of the initial data. To extend this to a global existence result we need to rule out concentration of $L^2$ norm, or charge, at a point. This is done by decomposing the solution into an approximately linear component and a component with improved integrability. We then prove global existence for all $s>0$.

  3. The nearby AGB star L2 Puppis: the birth of a planetary nebula ?

    Kervella, P; Lagadec, E


    Adaptive optics observations in the infrared (VLT/NACO, Kervella et al. 2014) and visible (VLT/SPHERE, Kervella et al. 2015) domains revealed that the nearby AGB star L2 Pup (d=64 pc) is surrounded by a dust disk seen almost edge-on. Thermal emission from a large dust "loop" is detected at 4 microns up to more than 10 AU from the star. We also detect a secondary source at a separation of 32 mas, whose nature is uncertain. L2 Pup is currently a relatively "young" AGB star, so we may witness the formation of a planetary nebula. The mechanism that breaks the spherical symmetry of mass loss is currently uncertain, but we propose that the dust disk and companion are key elements in the shaping of the bipolar structure. L2 Pup emerges as an important system to test this hypothesis.

  4. Beliefs about Second Language Learning: The Influence of Learning Context and Learning Purpose

    Al-Osaimi, Saleh; Wedell, Martin


    Much second language acquisition research in recent decades has assumed that a learner's main purpose for learning a second language (L2) is to develop communicative competence. Consequently, many studies have focused on investigating ways in which teachers and/or the learning environment may support the development of such competence. In…

  5. Association between TCF7L2 Genotype and Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients Treated with Gliclazide

    Martin Javorský


    Full Text Available Previous studies showed associations between variants in TCF7L2 gene and the therapeutic response to sulfonylureas. All sulfonylureas stimulate insulin secretion by the closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channel. The aim of the present study was to compare TCF7L2 genotype specific effect of gliclazide binding to KATP channel A-site (Group 1 with sulfonylureas binding to AB-site (Group 2. A total of 101 patients were treated with sulfonylureas for 6 months as an add-on therapy to the previous metformin treatment. TCF7L2 rs7903146 C/T genotype was identified by real-time PCR with subsequent melting curve analysis. Analyses using the dominant genetic model showed significantly higher effect of gliclazide in the CC genotype group in comparison with combined CT + TT genotype group (1.32±0.15% versus 0.73±0.11%, Padj=0.005. No significant difference in ΔHbA1c between the patients with CC genotype and the T-allele carriers was observed in Group 2. In the multivariate analysis, only the TCF7L2 genotype (P=0.006 and the baseline HbA1c (P<0.001 were significant predictors of ΔHbA1c. After introducing an interaction term between the TCF7L2 genotype and the sulfonylurea type into multivariate model, the interaction became a significant predictor (P=0.023 of ΔHbA1c. The results indicate significantly higher difference in ΔHbA1c among the TCF7L2 genotypes in patients treated with gliclazide than in patients treated with glimepiride, glibenclamide, or glipizide.

  6. Electrophysiological evidence of sublexical phonological access in character processing by L2 Chinese learners of L1 alphabetic scripts.

    Yum, Yen Na; Law, Sam-Po; Mo, Kwan Nok; Lau, Dustin; Su, I-Fan; Shum, Mark S K


    While Chinese character reading relies more on addressed phonology relative to alphabetic scripts, skilled Chinese readers also access sublexical phonological units during recognition of phonograms. However, sublexical orthography-to-phonology mapping has not been found among beginning second language (L2) Chinese learners. This study investigated character reading in more advanced Chinese learners whose native writing system is alphabetic. Phonological regularity and consistency were examined in behavioral responses and event-related potentials (ERPs) in lexical decision and delayed naming tasks. Participants were 18 native English speakers who acquired written Chinese after age 5 years and reached grade 4 Chinese reading level. Behaviorally, regular characters were named more accurately than irregular characters, but consistency had no effect. Similar to native Chinese readers, regularity effects emerged early with regular characters eliciting a greater N170 than irregular characters. Regular characters also elicited greater frontal P200 and smaller N400 than irregular characters in phonograms of low consistency. Additionally, regular-consistent characters and irregular-inconsistent characters had more negative amplitudes than irregular-consistent characters in the N400 and LPC time windows. The overall pattern of brain activities revealed distinct regularity and consistency effects in both tasks. Although orthographic neighbors are activated in character processing of L2 Chinese readers, the timing of their impact seems delayed compared with native Chinese readers. The time courses of regularity and consistency effects across ERP components suggest both assimilation and accommodation of the reading network in learning to read a typologically distinct second orthographic system. PMID:26620688

  7. Beyond the SM ΔL=2 operators and neutrinoless double beta decay

    Neutrinoless double beta decay is a lepton number violating process (ΔL=2) whose observation would prove that neutrinos are Majorana particles, i.e. their own antiparticles. The simplest realisation of this process (mediation by light massive Majorana neutrinos) may however interfere with other lepton number violating operators. Therefore, the possibility to reliably extract neutrino parameters from the experimental results may be affected by this interplay. We discuss the effects of various beyond the SM ΔL=2 processes at higher scales on the measurement of the effective Majorana mass and their implications on different parameters in the neutrino sector.

  8. : PD-1 / PD-L1 - PD-L2 interactions

    Ghiotto, Marguerite; Gauthier, Laurent; Serriari, Nacer; Pastor, Sonia; Truneh, Alemseged; Nunès, Jacques; Olive, Daniel


    The programmed death-1 (PD-1) molecule is involved in peripheral tolerance and in the immune escape mechanisms during chronic viral infections and cancer. PD-1 interacts with two ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2. We have investigated the molecular mechanisms of PD-1 interactions with its ligands by surface plasmon resonance and cell surface binding as well as the ability of the two ligands to compete for PD-1 binding. PD-L1 and PD-L2 bound PD-1 with comparable affinities, but striking differences wer...

  9. Analysis of four Chinese EFL classrooms: the use of L1 and L2

    Du, Yi


    Although there have been a large number of studies on the use of L1 and L2, there seem to be few on L1 use in Chinese university EFL classrooms, especially investigating the language use of those who teach English to students at different proficiency levels or teach different types of English courses. This thesis aims to analyze four Chinese EFL teachers’ actual use of L1 and L2, to understand their attitudes and beliefs regarding this issue, and their own perceptions of and re...

  10. Association between TCF7L2 Genotype and Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients Treated with Gliclazide

    Martin Javorský; Eva Babjaková; Lucia Klimčáková; Zbynek Schroner; Jozef Židzik; Mária Štolfová; Ján Šalagovič; Ivan Tkáč


    Previous studies showed associations between variants in TCF7L2 gene and the therapeutic response to sulfonylureas. All sulfonylureas stimulate insulin secretion by the closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel. The aim of the present study was to compare TCF7L2 genotype specific effect of gliclazide binding to KATP channel A-site (Group 1) with sulfonylureas binding to AB-site (Group 2). A total of 101 patients were treated with sulfonylureas for 6 months as an add-on therapy to the ...

  11. L2 Radicular Compression Caused by a Foraminal Extradural Gas Pseudocyst

    Lee, Dong Yeob; Lee, Sang-Ho


    Gas pseudocysts are a rare cause of lumbar radiculopathy and most symptomatic gas pseudocysts are found within the confines of the spinal canal. A gas pseudocyst in the foramen causing lumbar radiculopathy is very rare. We present a case of a 67-year-old woman suffering from severe pain in the right leg. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a gas pseudocyst compressing the L2 root at the right L2-3 foramen. The patient underwent cyst excision using the lateral transmusc...

  12. L2(Rn) Boundedness for a Class of Multilinear Singular Integral Operators

    Guo En HU


    The L2(Rn) boundedness for the multilinear singular integral operators defined by Ω(x-y) TAf(x) =∫Ω(x-y)/Rn[ |x-y|n+1 ](A(x) - A(y) - A(y)(x - y))f(y)dy is considered, where Ω is homogeneous of degree zero, integrable on the unit sphere and has vanishing moment of order one, A has derivatives of order one in BMO(Rn). A sufficient condition based on the Fourier transform estimate and implying the L2(Rn) boundedness for the multilinear operator TA is given.

  13. Preliminary Design Considerations for Access and Operations in Earth-Moon L1/L2 Orbits

    Folta, David C.; Pavlak, Thomas A.; Haapala, Amanda F.; Howell, Kathleen C.


    Within the context of manned spaceflight activities, Earth-Moon libration point orbits could support lunar surface operations and serve as staging areas for future missions to near-Earth asteroids and Mars. This investigation examines preliminary design considerations including Earth-Moon L1/L2 libration point orbit selection, transfers, and stationkeeping costs associated with maintaining a spacecraft in the vicinity of L1 or L2 for a specified duration. Existing tools in multi-body trajectory design, dynamical systems theory, and orbit maintenance are leveraged in this analysis to explore end-to-end concepts for manned missions to Earth-Moon libration points.

  14. Introducción a la enseñanza de L2/LE

    Rodríguez-Piñero, Ana I.


    Este curso tiene por finalidad introducir al estudiante en la teoría y metodología de la enseñanza de segundas lenguas (L2) y lenguas extranjeras (LE) desde una perspectiva actual. El curso se organiza en torno a seis temas, en los que se exponen las diferencias entre la adquisición, el aprendizaje y la enseñanza de la primera lengua (L1) frente a las lenguas segundas y extranjeras (L2/LE) y las novedades que supuso la aparición del Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para las Lenguas (MCER) pa...

  15. Stability and L2 performance analysis of stochastic delayed neural networks.

    Chen, Yun; Zheng, Wei Xing


    This brief focuses on the robust mean-square exponential stability and L(2) performance analysis for a class of uncertain time-delay neural networks perturbed by both additive and multiplicative stochastic noises. New mean-square exponential stability and L(2) performance criteria are developed based on the delay partition Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional method and generalized Finsler lemma which is applicable to stochastic systems. The analytical results are established without involving any model transformation, estimation for cross terms, additional free-weighting matrices, or tuning parameters. Numerical examples are presented to verify that the proposed approach is both less conservative and less computationally complex than the existing ones. PMID:21843984

  16. Adaptive Excitation Control with L2 Disturbance Attenuation for Multi-Machine Power Systems

    梅生伟; 金敏杰; 申铁龙


    Generator excitation control plays an important role in improving the dynamic performance and stability of power systems. This paper is concerned with nonlinear decentralized adaptive excitation control for multi-machine power systems. Based on a recursive design method, an adaptive excitation control law with L2 disturbance attenuation is constructed. Furthermore, it is verified that the proposed control scheme possesses the property of decentralization and the robustness in the sense of L2-gain. As a consequence, transient stability of a multi-machine power system is guaranteed, regardless of system parameters variation and faults.

  17. Anaphora resolution in L1 English-L2 Spanish: evidence from the CEDEL2 corpus

    Bautista S??nchez, M??nica


    Previous experimental research has studied some of the factors that influence Anaphora Resolution (AR) in native and non-native discourse, that is, how null and overt pronouns and NP subjects co-refer with their antecedents in discourse. In this dissertation, AR is investigated in an L2 Spanish corpus, as this offers more natural and contextually rich texts. CEDEL2, an L1 English-L2 Spanish corpus, is analyzed in order to study a very specific context of AR: the Position of Antecedent Strateg...

  18. Relationship of C5L2 Receptor to Skeletal Muscle Substrate Utilization

    Roy, Christian; Paglialunga, Sabina; Schaart, Gert; Moonen-Kornips, Esther; Meex, Ruth C.; Phielix, Esther; Hoeks, Joris; Hesselink, Matthijs K. C.; Cianflone, Katherine; Schrauwen, Patrick


    Objective To investigate the role of Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP) receptor C5L2 in skeletal muscle fatty acid accumulation and metabolism as well as insulin sensitivity in both mice and human models of diet-induced insulin resistance. Design and Methods Male wildtype (WT) and C5L2 knockout (KO) mice were fed a low (LFD) or a high (HFD) fat diet for 10 weeks. Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation (by oil red O staining) and beta-oxidation HADH enzyme activity were determined in ske...

  19. The expression of Path in L2 Danish by German and Turkish learners

    Jessen, Moiken


    Do language learners think in their first language (L1) when using their second language (L2)? This study explores the nature of crosslinguistic influence by investigating how German and Turkish learners of Danish express motion, paying special attention to the semantics of Path. We examined three...... aspects: overall Path frequency, Path complexity, and the subcomponents of Path. The presence of L1 influence in each aspect reflects how the interplay between form and meaning is carried over as a whole to the L2. In particular, we show how the selection of a specific Path meaning for expression in the L...

  20. Communication Strategies Used by L2 Learners to Solve Communication Problems

    孙明霞; 刘洪明


    Most L2 research has limited the term"communication strategies"to strategies employed when things go wrong rather than applying it to the processes of problem-free communication:a communication strategy is resored to whe the L2 learner has difficulty with communicating rather than when things are going smoothly.Communication strategies overcome obstacles to communication by prividing the speaker with an alternative form of expressin for the intended meaning.In this article,the author discuss the problem from hvo aspects.