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Sample records for l2 morphological learning

  1. Phonological Bases for L2 Morphological Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…

  2. Planning, Recasts, and Learning of L2 Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated two issues: (1) whether availability of planning time affects learners' ability to notice and learn from recasts in the input; and (2) whether pre-task or online planning is more effective. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups that formed the treatment conditions: a no planning group (N = 13), a pre-task…

  3. Embodied L2 Construction Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Søren W.; Wagner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This study uses conversation analysis (CA) to investigate the coupling of specific linguistic items with specific gestures in second language (L2) learning over time. In particular, we are interested in how gestures accompany learning of new vocabulary. CA-informed studies of gesture have previously shown the importance of embodiment in L2 use and…

  4. L2 Regularization for Learning Kernels

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    Cortes, Corinna; Rostamizadeh, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    The choice of the kernel is critical to the success of many learning algorithms but it is typically left to the user. Instead, the training data can be used to learn the kernel by selecting it out of a given family, such as that of non-negative linear combinations of p base kernels, constrained by a trace or L1 regularization. This paper studies the problem of learning kernels with the same family of kernels but with an L2 regularization instead, and for regression problems. We analyze the problem of learning kernels with ridge regression. We derive the form of the solution of the optimization problem and give an efficient iterative algorithm for computing that solution. We present a novel theoretical analysis of the problem based on stability and give learning bounds for orthogonal kernels that contain only an additive term O(pp/m) when compared to the standard kernel ridge regression stability bound. We also report the results of experiments indicating that L1 regularization can lead to modest improvements ...

  5. Input frequencies in processing of verbal morphology in L1 and L2: Evidence from Russian

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    Tatiana Chernigovskaya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we take a usage-based perspective on the analysis of data from the acquisition of verbal morphology by Norwegian adult learners of L2 Russian, as compared to children acquiring Russian as an L1. According to the usage-based theories, language learning is input-driven and frequency of occurrence of grammatical structures and lexical items in the input plays a key role in this process. We have analysed to what extent the acquisition and processing of Russian verbal morphology by children and adult L2 learners is dependent on the input factors, in particular on type and token frequencies. Our analysis of the L2 input based on the written material used in the instruction shows a different distribution of frequencies as compared to the target language at large. The results of the tests that elicited present tense forms of verbs belonging to four different inflectional classes (-AJ-, -A-, -I-, and -OVA- have demonstrated that for both Russian children and L2 learners type frequency appears to be an important factor, influencing both correct stem recognition and generalisations. The results have also demonstrated token frequency effects. For L2 learners we observed also effects of formal instruction and greater reliance on morphological cues. In spite of the fact that L2 learners did not match completely any of the child groups, there are many similarities between L1 and L2 morphological processing, the main one being the role of frequency.

  6. Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?

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    Bruton, Anthony; Lopez, Miguel Garcia; Mesa, Raquel Esquiliche

    2011-01-01

    References to the term "incidental vocabulary learning" have become very commonplace not only in second language (L2) acquisition research, but also in empirical research into second and foreign language pedagogy, very often in contrast to "intentional language learning". The former term is associated with more natural language learning, that is,…

  7. Relative Importance of Learning Variables on L2 Performance

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    Olivares-Cuhat, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the results of a pilot study investigating the relative importance of various learner variables on L2 performance are presented. The study was conducted with the participation of forty students enrolled in a beginning Spanish class at a large midwestern university. The CANAL?S test, FLCAS and SILL surveys were administered to evaluate language learning aptitude, anxiety and learning strategy use. Demographic data and exam grades were also recorded. The data was first analyzed within the framework of a causal model with correlational and multiple regression analyses. A second step involved the evaluation of the relative importance of the learner variables. Third, the validity of the causality postulated between foreign language anxiety and L2 performance was examined. Overall, this paper confirmed the prevailing role played by language learning aptitude and anxiety, and demonstrated the applicability of a multivariate model to analyze the impact of individual differences on L2 performance.

  8. Influence of syllable structure on L2 auditory word learning.

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    Hamada, Megumi; Goya, Hideki

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the role of syllable structure in L2 auditory word learning. Based on research on cross-linguistic variation of speech perception and lexical memory, it was hypothesized that Japanese L1 learners of English would learn English words with an open-syllable structure without consonant clusters better than words with a closed-syllable structure and consonant clusters. Two groups of college students (Japanese group, N = 22; and native speakers of English, N = 21) learned paired English pseudowords and pictures. The pseudoword types differed in terms of the syllable structure and consonant clusters (congruent vs. incongruent) and the position of consonant clusters (coda vs. onset). Recall accuracy was higher for the pseudowords in the congruent type and the pseudowords with the coda-consonant clusters. The syllable structure effect was obtained from both participant groups, disconfirming the hypothesized cross-linguistic influence on L2 auditory word learning. PMID:24493208

  9. Relative Importance of Learning Variables on L2 Performance

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    Olivares-Cuhat, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the results of a pilot study investigating the relative importance of various learner variables on L2 performance are presented. The study was conducted with the participation of forty students enrolled in a beginning Spanish class at a large midwestern university. The CANAL?S test, FLCAS and SILL surveys were administered to evaluate language learning aptitude, anxiety and learning strategy use. Demographic data and exam grades were also recorded. The data was first analyzed...

  10. Implicit Learning of L2 Word Stress Regularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ricky K. W.; Leung, Janny H. C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports an experiment on the implicit learning of second language stress regularities, and presents a methodological innovation on awareness measurement. After practising two-syllable Spanish words, native Cantonese speakers with English as a second language (L2) completed a judgement task. Critical items differed only in placement of…

  11. Grammar Teaching and Learning in L2: Necessary, but Boring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Gladys; Simard, Daphnee

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive inquiry-based study targeted second language (L2) high school students' (n = 2321) and teachers' (n = 45) beliefs and perceptions about grammar instruction, specifically about grammatical accuracy, corrective feedback, and diverse forms of grammar teaching and learning. Results showed only slight discrepancies between students'…

  12. Age effects in L2 acquisition: ultimate attainment at the syntax-morphology interface

    OpenAIRE

    Komar, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a selective overview of studies that have examined age effects in second language (L2) acquisition. The focus was on adult second language learners and the L2 ultimate attainment at syntax-interface morphology, with particular attention given to the problematic case of inflectional morphology. We present different kinds of evidence including behavioural, descriptive and brain-based data. Although the main focus was on the syntax-morphology interface, other domains such as ...

  13. Individual Differences in L2 Learning and Long-Term L1-L2 Relationships

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    Sparks, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I describe studies conducted over 25 years with secondary and post-secondary L2 learners in the United States. The evidence from these studies shows that there are important connections between students' early L1 skills and their L2 aptitude and L2 proficiency and that individual differences in students' L1 skills in elementary…

  14. Assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phonemes governs L2 learning in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimaldi, Mirko; Sisinni, Bianca; Fivela, Barbara Gili; Invitto, Sara; Resta, Donatella; Alku, Paava; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    According to the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM), articulatory similarity/dissimilarity between sounds of the second language (L2) and the native language (L1) governs L2 learnability in adulthood and predicts L2 sound perception by native listeners. We performed behavioral and neurophysiological experiments on two groups of university students at the first and fifth years of the English language curriculum and on a group of naive listeners. Categorization and discrimination tests, as well a...

  15. A reappraisal of motivation: the cornerstone of L2 learning

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Calvín, José

    1991-01-01

    This article is aimed at increasing teacher awareness of the most relevant issues involved in motivation. It examines the importance of motivation in L2 learning, its types and sources, as well as detailing the various factors which influence it. Its focus is twofold, in that it concentrates not only on the student but also on the teacher, using authoritative sources to back up its line of argument. It aims at both clarifying the role of teachers in student motivation and the importance of...

  16. Anonymity and Motivation in Asynchronous Discussions and L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Nihat; Mancilla, Rae; Mahalingappa, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates L2 attainment in asynchronous online environments, specifically possible relationships among anonymity, L2 motivation, participation in discussions, quality of L2 production, and success in L2 vocabulary learning. It examines, in asynchronous discussions, (a) if participation and (b) motivation contribute to L2 vocabulary…

  17. L1 and L2 Word Recognotion in Finnish. Examining L1 Effects on L2 Processing of Morphological Complexity and Morphophonological Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Seppo; Anneli, Pajunen; Hyona, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the first language (L1) on the visual word recognition of inflected nouns in second language (L2) Finnish by native Russian and Chinese speakers. Case inflection is common in Russian and in Finnish but nonexistent in Chinese. Several models have been posited to describe L2 morphological processing. The unified…

  18. L1 and L2 Word Recognotion in Finnish. Examining L1 Effects on L2 Processing of Morphological Complexity and Morphophonological Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Seppo; Anneli, Pajunen; Hyona, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the first language (L1) on the visual word recognition of inflected nouns in second language (L2) Finnish by native Russian and Chinese speakers. Case inflection is common in Russian and in Finnish but nonexistent in Chinese. Several models have been posited to describe L2 morphological processing. The unified…

  19. Extracting Phonological Patterns for L2 Word Learning: The Effect of Poor Phonological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2014-01-01

    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of…

  20. Enhancing L2 Students' Listening Transcription Ability through a Focus on Morphological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Nabi

    2013-01-01

    Morphological awareness (MA), defined as the ability to understand the morphemic structure of the words, has been reported to affect various aspects of second language performance including reading comprehension ability, spelling performance, etc. But the concept has been far less treated with reference to l2 listening. Against this background,…

  1. The Development of Past Tense Morphology in L2 Spanish. Studies in Bilingualism 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaberry, M. Rafael

    The general objective of this study is the investigation of some of the cognitive processes underlying adult second language acquisition through the analysis of the development of morphological markers of temporality in the acquisition of Spanish as a second language (L2) among native English speakers. It is argued that analysis of data on the…

  2. Investigating the Relationship between the Morphological Processing of Regular and Irregular Words and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Masrai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the relationship between the morphological processing of regular and irregular words and second language (L2 vocabulary acquisition. In considering that monolingual Arabic speakers derive a large number of new words from roots by leaning heavily on the regularity of rules in Arabic (Bar & Dershowitz, 2012; Habash, 2010, they are expected to experience difficulty when developing the lexicon of a language with less regular rules, such as English. To examine this assumption empirically, data were collected by administering an English receptive vocabulary knowledge test that included 100 regular and irregular inflected and derived words to 450 Arabic English as a foreign language (EFL learners from schools in Saudi Arabia. The test also included pesudowords (non-words to act as ‘gatekeepers’ against the possibility of guessing. The t-test results revealed a non-significant difference in learners’ uptake of L2 words, whether regular or irregular. However, the study indicates that word frequency plays a statistically significant role in learning L2 vocabulary that is irregularly inflected or derived. The frequency effect on irregular word morphology found in this study is in line with the approach of a dual-route mechanism. This approach suggests that irregular words are not rule-based, so are stored in the mental lexicon as full entries, whereas regular words are not. This article suggests that introducing rules for deriving new words from base forms to EFL learners in the early stages of learning would be very useful for L2 vocabulary development.Keywords: morphological processing, vocabulary acquisition, frequency, Arabic, mental lexicon

  3. Effects of Input Enhancement and Visual Prompts in Children’s L2 Acquisition of Spanish Verbal Morphology

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    Rosas Mayén, Norma

    2013-01-01

    In the pedagogical arena of second language (L2) acquisition, much of the input enhancement research (Sharwood Smith, 1993) has focused on adult L2 acquisition. However, the impact of this pedagogi¬cal technique in child L2 acquisition is an area of investigation that still deserves more attention. The present study analyzes the effect of input enhancement techniques supported by visual prompts in the acquisition of Spanish verbal morphology by child L2 learners. Over a fourteen-week period, ...

  4. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1) along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners' awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general. PMID:26300792

  5. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1) along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners' awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general. PMID:26300792

  6. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  7. Assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phonemes governs L2 learning in adulthood : a behavioral and ERP study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimaldi, Mirko; Sisinni, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    According to the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM), articulatory similarity/dissimilarity between sounds of the second language (L2) and the native language (L1) governs L2 learnability in adulthood and predicts L2 sound perception by native listeners. We performed behavioral and neurophysiological experiments on two groups of university students at the first and fifth years of the English language curriculum and on a group of naive listeners. Categorization and discrimination tests, as well as the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response to L2 sound changes, showed that the discriminatory capabilities of the students did not significantly differ from those of the naive subjects. In line with the PAM model, we extend the findings of previous behavioral studies showing that, at the neural level, classroom instruction in adulthood relies on assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phoneme categories and does not trigger improvement in L2 phonetic discrimination. Implications for L2 classroom teaching practices are discussed.

  8. Self-regulation from Educational Psychology to L2 Pedagogy: an Alternative to Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Banisaeid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Language learning strategy was the focus of many studies during the last two decades. Because of definitional fuzziness and unreliable instrument, the concept of language learning strategy was replaced by self-regulation in educational psychology. Subsequently, this shift affected L2 research. The notion of self-regulation is used in some L2 studies today (Tseng, Dörnyei & Schmitt, 2006; Rose, 2011b, Banisaeid, 2013a, 2013b. Self-regulation is more process-oriented while language learning strategy is more product-oriented. Although it only encompasses the metacognitive strategy, the general domain of it is meaningfully wider than the strategic framework. It covers some aspects in the learning process as motivation, goals and self-efficacy.Keywords: self-regulation, language learning strategy, L2 studies, educational psychology

  9. Morphological and Syntactic Transfer in Child L2 Acquisition of the English Dative Alternation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whong-Barr, Melinda; Schwartz, Bonnie D.

    2002-01-01

    Compares the acquisition of the English to- and for-dative alternation by native-speaking English, Japanese, and Korean children. Investigates whether second language learners (L2) like native language learners overextend the double-object variant and whether L2 learners, like L2 adults, transfer properties of the native language grammar.…

  10. Tense morphology and verb-second in Swedish L1 children, L2 children and children with SLI

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    Håkansson, Gisela

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the development of tense morphology and verb-second in different learner populations. Three groups of Swedish pre-school children are investigated longitudinally; ten L1 children, ten L2 children and ten children diagnosed with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Data was collected twice, with an interval of six months. The results at Time I reveal a significant difference between normally developing L1 children on the one hand and L2 children and children with SLI on t...

  11. A Study of Chinese and Japanese College Students’ L2 Learning Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Man-ping Chu; Tomoko Nakamura

    2010-01-01

    Learning styles, much related to motivation and cognitive strategies, has been one of the most frequently discussed topics in the field of foreign/second language (L2) education. There is a considerable body of research on learning styles stemming from the domain of psychology to the conceptual field. As individuals learn in different ways from time to time, from culture to culture, and from context to context, findings of such research can only explain a comparatively small group of peopl...

  12. The acquisition of interlanguage morphology : a study into the role of morphology in the L2 learner's mental lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Lowie, Wander Marius,

    1998-01-01

    Introduction 1.1 Morphology and second language learning If Dutch learners of English encounter a word like undoable, they may recognise it because they have seen it before and have remembered it. They may also fail to recognise it and guess the meaning of the word on the basis of the context. A third possibility is that they do not recognise the word and attempt to guess the meaning by decomposing the word into parts they do recognise and arrive at its meaning on the basis of these par...

  13. Learning L2 Vocabulary with American TV Drama From the Learner’s Perspective

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    Yu-Chia Wang

    2012-01-01

    Following the trend of computer assisted language learning (CALL), in Taiwan, most language classes now have equivalent media support for language teachers and learners. Implementing videos into classroom activities is one of the choices. The current study explores the process of implementing American TV drama in L2 vocabulary learning from learners’ perspectives. Twenty-eight Taiwanese EFL adult learners participate in the study. Authentic video clips from three different American dramas- “H...

  14. The Impact of Blended e-Learning on Undergraduate Academic Essay Writing in English (L2)

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    Ferriman, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a quasi-experimental study into the impact of a blended e-learning environment on academic writing assignments in English (L2) at a Thai international college. An experimental group of 15 students used an on-line bulletin board, as well as face-to-face (F2F) communication in class, to share information for essay topics they…

  15. Language Experience in L2 Phonological Learning: Effects of Psycholinguistic and Sociolinguistic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimovich, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss language experience in second language (L2) phonological learning, with a particular focus on lexical frequency, attention to form, and ethnic identity as factors that influence the role of language experience. First, several difficulties associated with the study of language experience are discussed. Then,…

  16. Learning Exponents of Number on First Exposure to an L2

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    Carroll, Susanne E.; Widjaja, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Number lends itself to the study of how input interacts with transferred first language (L1) knowledge to facilitate or impede second language (L2) learning. We present data from adult English speakers exposed for the first time to Indonesian, a language that expresses number through bare noun phrases, reduplication and numeral + classifier…

  17. Task-based Language Learning in Bilingual Montessori Elementary Schools: Customizing Foreign Language Learning and Promoting L2 Speaking Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Winnefeld

    2012-01-01

    Foreign language learning has been a part of German elementary schools for several years now. Montessori schools focusing on individual learning, i.e. mostly independent from the teacher and based on auto-education, interest, and free choice, are also asked to teach an L2. The original lack of a concept of L2 learning for this environment has brought forth different approaches. Bilingual education seems to be feasible and applicable in Montessori education. The downside to this is that even i...

  18. The Effect of Learning English (L2) on Learning of Arabic Literacy (L1) in the Primary School

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    Hussien, Abdelaziz M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of learning English (L2) on learning to read and spell connected texts accurately in Arabic (L1). The author selected a sample of 83 (38 males and 45 females; 45 bilinguals and 38 monolinguals) native Arabic-speaking fourth-graders in Egypt. Students completed the author-developed Oral Reading Accuracy Measure…

  19. Active Learning through Materials Development: A Project for the Advanced L2 Classroom

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    Katrina Daly Thompson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Building on the notion of active learning, the assumption that students learn more when given opportunities to practice using their skills and to receive feedback on their performance, this article de-scribes a project undertaken in an Advanced (third-year Swahili course in which students were given the opportunity to develop L2 materials for computer-mediated peer instruction. The article exam-ines the goals, design and results of the project in light of the litera-ture on active learning and learner autonomy, and suggests how the project might be improved in order to serve as a model for other Ad-vanced L2 courses.

  20. Collaborative Concept Mapping as a Pre-Writing Strategy for L2 Learning: A Korean Application

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    Yongjin Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at examining the use of concept mapping technique in a course module for Korean language learning with U.S. college students, who were prompted to engage in collaborative writing planning. The study assumed that concept mapping enhances students’ communicative interaction to promote their L2 writing. One hundred and twenty-three participants were recruited from three different proficiency level classes (beginning, intermediate, and advanced classes. Data were collected during three writing sessions: pretest of writing, individual planning, and collaborative planning. The MANCOVA results on the five components of composition score showed that the effect of collaborative concept mapping on L2 writing significantly differed across the three class levels. The study suggested practical implications for the use of collaborative mapping tasks in L2 writing contexts.

  1. EFFECTS OF L2 LEARNING ORIENTATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION INTENTIONS ON SELF-REGULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wen-Ta; Chang, Yu-Jen; Cheng, Hsing-Fu

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a classic L2 learning orientation framework and a multi-faceted implementation intention construct were used to predict self-regulation. Attention was particularly paid to the way in which different types of implementation intentions predicted the self-regulatory capacity. A two-phase research design was executed. A pilot was conducted to ensure the reliability and validity of the scales. In the main study, a series of regression analyses examined the links among the variables of interest. The modeling results indicated that the effects of the integrative and instrumental orientations were substantially diminished after the implementation intentions were incorporated into the orientation structure. The empirical findings strongly suggest the need for L2 learners to utilize strategic planning in response to situational and temporal cues in the process of goal pursuit. Further discussions focused on the effects of both orientations and implementation intentions on the self-regulatory capacity in language learning. PMID:26241097

  2. Investigating the Relationship between the Morphological Processing of Regular and Irregular Words and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Masrai; James Milton

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between the morphological processing of regular and irregular words and second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition. In considering that monolingual Arabic speakers derive a large number of new words from roots by leaning heavily on the regularity of rules in Arabic (Bar & Dershowitz, 2012; Habash, 2010), they are expected to experience difficulty when developing the lexicon of a language with less regular rules, such as English. To examine ...

  3. Language play, a collaborative resource in children’s L2 learning

    OpenAIRE

    ?ekait?, Asta; Aronsson, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Within communicative language teaching, ‘natural’language has had a privileged position, and a focus on formhas been seen as something inauthentic or as something thatis inconsequential for learning (for a critique, see Kramschand Sullivan 1996; Cook 1997). Yet in the present study of animmersion classroom, it was found that children with limitedL2 proficiency recurrently employed form-focused language playin spontaneous peer conversations. Our work involves a distinctfocus on multiparty talk...

  4. The Effect of Learning English (L2) on Learning of Arabic Literacy (L1) in the Primary School

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelaziz M. Hussien

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of learning English (L2) on learning to read and spell connected texts accurately in Arabic (L1). The author selected a sample of 83 (38 males and 45 females; 45 bilinguals and 38 monolinguals) native Arabic-speaking fourth-graders in Egypt. Students completed the author-developed Oral Reading Accuracy Measure and Spelling Accuracy Measure. Interestingly, results revealed that the bilingual (Arabic-English) students performed better than their monolingual (A...

  5. Learning through L2--Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and English as Medium of Instruction (EMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannagat, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has been promoted by the European Union as a means to achieve multilingualism. While in Germany and other European countries the trend to use the L2 as a medium of instruction is increasing, in Hong Kong, however, we see a converse development. Many schools switched from English as a medium of…

  6. The Relationship between Strategic Reading Instruction, Student Learning of L2-Based Reading Strategies and L2 Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkakoson, Songyut

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between strategic reading instruction, the process of learning second language-based reading strategies and English reading achievement for Thai university students of science and technology. In a course in reading general English texts for 16?weeks, 82 students were taught using a strategies-based approach…

  7. Task-based Language Learning in Bilingual Montessori Elementary Schools: Customizing Foreign Language Learning and Promoting L2 Speaking Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Winnefeld

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language learning has been a part of German elementary schools for several years now. Montessori schools focusing on individual learning, i.e. mostly independent from the teacher and based on auto-education, interest, and free choice, are also asked to teach an L2. The original lack of a concept of L2 learning for this environment has brought forth different approaches. Bilingual education seems to be feasible and applicable in Montessori education. The downside to this is that even in a bilingual classroom the Montessori way of learning may not allow for very much oral production of the foreign language. The role of L2 production (cf. Swain 1985, 1995, 2005 for language acquisition has been theoretically claimed and empirically investigated. Output can have a positive influence on L2 learning (cf. e.g. Izumi 2002, Keck et al. 2006. This also applies to interaction (cf. Long 1996, where negotiation of meaning and modified output are factors supporting L2 development (cf. e.g. de la Fuente 2002, McDonough 2005. Task-based Language Learning (TBLL presents itself as one way to promote oral language production and to provide opportunities for meaning-negotiation. Especially tasks with required information exchange and a closed outcome have been shown to be beneficial for the elicitation of negotiation of meaning and modified output. This paper argues that TBLL is a promising approach for the facilitation of L2 production and thus the development of speaking skills in a Montessori context. It also hypothesizes that TBLL can be implemented in a bilingual Montessori environment while still making the Montessori way of learning possible. Different tasks on various topics, examples of which are presented in this article, can lay the foundation for this. Offering such tasks in a bilingual Montessori elementary classroom promises to foster language production and the use of communication strategies like negotiation of meaning, both being facilitative for L2 acquisition. This hypothesis remains to be tested in future research.

  8. The Role of Dynamic Contrasts in the L2 Acquisition of Spanish Past Tense Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Laura; Tracy-Ventura, Nicole; Arche, Maria J.; Mitchell, Rosamond; Myles, Florence

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the second language acquisition of Spanish past tense morphology by three groups of English speakers (beginners, intermediates and advanced). We adopt a novel methodological approach--combining oral corpus data with controlled experimental data--in order to provide new evidence on the validity of the Lexical Aspect Hypothesis…

  9. L2 Grammatical Gender in a Complex Morphological System: The Case of German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Patti; Juffs, Alan

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the nature of naturalistic learners' difficulty with grammatical gender in a complex morphological system, the longitudinal production data of an early naturalistic L1-Italian and L1-Turkish learner who are acquiring German are examined in light of current theories of gender within Chomsky's (1995) Minimalist Program. After…

  10. L2 Grammatical Gender in a Complex Morphological System: The Case of German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Patti; Juffs, Alan

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the nature of naturalistic learners' difficulty with grammatical gender in a complex morphological system, the longitudinal production data of an early naturalistic L1-Italian and L1-Turkish learner who are acquiring German are examined in light of current theories of gender within Chomsky's (1995) Minimalist Program. After…

  11. Matching Vocabulary Learning Process with Learning Outcome in L2 Academic Writing: An Exploratory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory case study of two undergraduates links vocabulary learning approaches with lexical quality measured in academic writing. Employing an array of qualitative data, it is shown that in a "semi-language-rich" learning context, Chinese learners may dispense with rote learning and engage in a more natural learning approach in which…

  12. The learner’s mother tongue in the l2 learning-teaching symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hitotuzi, Nilton

    2009-01-01

    This paper has a two-fold purpose. One is to review the stances of language-oriented theorists, who are practicing foreign/second-language teachers and learners from various parts of the world, regarding the long-standing controversy over whether or not the learner’s mother tongue plays a positive role in the foreign/second-language learning-teaching context. A second purpose is to offer, from a non-native-speaker L2-teacher standpoint, some suggestions on when and how learners’ native langua...

  13. A Case Study on the Effects of an L2 Writing Instructional Model for Blended Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Lee; Lee, Chung Hyun

    2013-01-01

    This case study explores EFL (English as a foreign language) students' perceptions toward a prototype of an instructional model for second language (L2) writing in blended learning and the effects of the model on the development of L2 writing skills in higher education. This model is primarily founded on the process-oriented writing approach…

  14. Comments on Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Barry Lee

    2012-01-01

    Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?" (2011) offers some constructive criticism regarding the conventional terminology used in second language (L2) acquisition research and language pedagogy. Although the author finds much of their evidence reasonable and is…

  15. Assisting Your Child's Learning in L2 Is Like Teaching Them to Ride a Bike: A Study on Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Rigoberto; Camelo Gámez, Linda Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with parental involvement as a strategy to assist young learners in their efforts to learn an L2. It discusses an 18-month experience involving ten young learners, their parents, and teachers, in the development of another language (L2). The parents had expressed that they were unable to support their children's development in…

  16. Assessing Input Enhancement as Positive Factor and Its Impact on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Fariborz Pishdadi Motlagh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Input enhancement's role to promote learners’ awareness in L2 contexts has caused a tremendous amount of research. Conspicuously, by regarding all aspects of input enhancement, the study aimed to find out how differently many kinds of input enhancement factors such as bolding, underlining, and capitalizing impact on L2 learners’ vocabulary acquiring. Furthermore, the study was conducted through a quasi-experimental design with a proficiency test to find how homogeneous the groups are. Four classes were selected as the experimental groups (n =80, and each class was conducted by one of the input enhancement main categories compared with the control group. Subjects attended in eight sessions to make them familiar with advantages of input enhancement in relation to vocabulary learning. Each group received different strategies but control group received no treatment and then, the researcher taught and employed those inputs in texts along with target words. Learners’ progress was measured during the eight sessions of employing those inputs in responding to vocabulary questions. One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, One-way ANOVAs series along with LSD and post hoc comparisons showed that three inputs were effective in responding to target vocabulary words and they compared and contrasted with control group but the bolding group did better than the other groups. Finally, bolding target words were more effective in fostering L2 learners’ vocabulary knowledge learning. These outcomes propose that using input enhancement to answer target words are the most useful factors, especially bolding as a significant input in this study outperformed the other ones in developing learners’ awareness to answer vocabulary tests. It can also be concluded that capitalizing is the least effective input compared to underlining and bolding in terms of their efficacy.Keywords: Focus on form and Implicit Fonf, Input enhancement as focus on form, Vocabulary

  17. Investigating the Efficacy of an Intensive English Program and the L2 Learners’ Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lee Su Ping

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Past research has found that many pre-university L2 learners, having completed an Intensive English Program (IEP still have difficulty in undertaking various disciplines in English-speaking tertiary institutions and continue to exhibit numerous linguistic problems (Bialystok, 2001, Celce Murcia 2001. The purpose of this paper is to present the findings on the investigation of L2 learners’ English proficiency in reading, writing, grammar, listening and speaking upon their completion of an Intensive English (IE program using their IELTS (Academic, in-house exams and English Placement Tests (EPT scores, and the efficacy of IE program.  IELTS test is chosen for this study due to its increasing popularity in Malaysia and its internationally recognised value and quality.  The study was conducted in two parts. In Part One, all 72 Level 4 IE students were given an in-house EPT (English Placement Test pre-test on their entry and another EPT post-test on their exit, and then their pre-test and post-test results were compared.  In Part Two, 22 volunteers sat the IELTS test at the end of the program. The IELTS results of the 22 volunteers were compared with those who did not.  Data were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. This paper hopes to shed some light on (i whether or not L2 learners’ English language proficiency can be significantly enhanced and influenced by an intensive English program and (ii how leaners’ perception of their own learning strategies influence their learning progress. 

  18. Narrative and identity construction: an analysis of the L2 Learning process

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Antônio Caldeira, Andrade.

    Full Text Available A Aquisição de uma Segunda Língua (ASL) tem sido enfocada por vários pesquisadores que estudaram o processo sob diversas perspectivas (ex.: Ellis, 1997; Lantolf, 2000; Gardner, 1968), para poderem interpretar como os aprendizes adquirem a L2. Entretanto, esses estudos têm se limitado aos processos c [...] ognitivos e a outros fatores (cultural e sócio-cognitivo, por exemplo), em vez de focalizar as experiências dos aprendizes. Em virtude disso, este estudo investiga as experiências de aprendizes por meio de um grupo de auto-narrativas registradas pelo Projeto AMFALE (Aprendendo com memórias de falantes e de aprendizes de línguas estrangeiras), tendo como suporte básico o trabalho desenvolvido por Leppänen e Kalaja (2002), no qual as autoras, com base na teoria de Vladimir Propp sobre a morfologia do conto de fadas (2000), investigam o processo de aprendizagem de L2 a partir de auto-narrativas que refletem o processo heróico, ainda que árduo, dos contos de fadas, detalhado por Propp. Para tanto, o artigo se divide em duas partes. A primeira faz uma breve revisão do processo de construção de identidade, da importância da narrativa autobiográfica como expressão de identidade, chegando, por fim, aos critérios de análise de autobiografias no processo de aprendizagem de L2, identificados por Leppänen e Kalaja (2002). A segunda parte do estudo analisa alguns exemplos de autobiografias do projeto AMFALE sob a luz das referidas teorias. Abstract in english Second Language Acquisition (SLA) has been the focus of many linguists who have studied the process through varied perspectives, (e.g. Ellis, 1997; Lantolf, 2000; Gardner, 1968, to quote but a few) so that they may be able to interpret the way learners gather information regarding a second language [...] process. However, such foci have been limited to cognitive processes and other factors (e.g. cultural, socio-cognitive) rather than placed on the learners' experiences themselves. In view of this, this paper investigates learners' experiences through the analysis of a group of self narratives recorded by the AMFALE (Aprendendo com memórias de falantes e de aprendizes de língua estrangeira)² project, while, at the same time, analyzes such autobiographies in the light of Leppänen and Kalaja's (2002) work on autobiographies as learners' identities constructions, based on Vladimir Propp's book Morphology of the Folktale (2000). The study is divided in two parts: the first one briefly reviews the process of identity construction and the importance of autobiographies as a means of expression of the self. Besides, it also focuses on the criteria set forth by Leppänen and Kalaja (2002) for the analysis of autobiographies, based on Vladimir Propp's book Morphology of the folktale (2000). The second part focuses on the analyses of AMFALE autobiographies as stated above.

  19. Design of soft morphological filters by learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Pertti T.; Kuosmanen, Pauli

    1994-05-01

    The choice and detailed design of the structuring elements play a pivotal role in soft morphological processing of images. This paper proposes a learning method for the optimization of the structuring elements of soft morphological filters under given optimization criterium. The learning method is based on simulated annealing. Experimental results depicted herein illustrate that the proposed method can be applied to finding optimal structuring systems in practical situations.

  20. The Effects of Giving and Receiving Marginal L1 Glosses on L2 Vocabulary Learning by Upper Secondary Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samian, Hosein Vafadar; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon; Mohebbi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study that investigated the effect of giving and receiving marginal L1 glosses on L2 vocabulary learning. To that end, forty nine Iranian learners of English were assigned to three different experimental conditions including marginal L1 glosses Giver (n = 17), marginal L1 glosses Receiver (n = 17), and no…

  1. L1 and L2 Distance Effects in Learning L3 Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepens, Job J.; der Slik, Frans; Hout, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    Many people speak more than two languages. How do languages acquired earlier affect the learnability of additional languages? We show that linguistic distances between speakers' first (L1) and second (L2) languages and their third (L3) language play a role. Larger distances from the L1 to the L3 and from the L2 to the L3 correlate with lower…

  2. Focus on Meaning : Mapping the semantic and conceptual representation of Chinese (L2) word in Chinese vocabulary learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun; Wang Jingjing, Jenny

    Abstract This study examines the effect of mapping between the semantic and conceptual representation of target words ?????, and ?on Chinese (L2) vocabulary learning at a university class. Students (N=25) were the 2nd-year Chinese –major students at one university in Denmark. They were given tests recognizing new vocabulary (two-, three and four-character words) in a series of simple meaning recognition tests administered by the authors over three weeks. The test sets consist of vocabulary with target words that were given semantic and conceptual explanation by the authors in the previous week’s lessons. Students use a multiple choice to indicate whether a given item had a correct meaning in a given vocabulary. Data from controllers (N=3) who are native Chinese language teachers are also collected and analyzed. The findings indicate that the mapping between semantic and conceptual representation of Chinese (L2) words can have a measurable effect on students’ efficacy of (Nation 2011) vocabulary learning inthe classroom. The findings also reveal that conceptual representation of Chinese (L2) words reinforce the students’ reliance on L 1 by building a link between L 1semantic representations and L 2 semantics. Finally, the pedagogical implications for teaching Chinese (L2) are discussed as well. Key words: Chinese word, semantic representation, conceptual representation, vocabulary teaching

  3. Galaxy morphology - an unsupervised machine learning approach

    CERN Document Server

    Schutter, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Structural properties posses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being ...

  4. An Investigation into the Modality Specificity of L2 Learners' STM Abilities in Learning Vocabulary via PDAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Khazaie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Parallel with the rapid growth of wireless technology and potentials of mobile learning for language teaching/learning, employing mobile devices in language learning seems indispensable. To this end, designing learning materials suitable for different types of mobile devices regarding dual coding (DCT and cognitive load (CLT theories seems inevitable. In this study, multimedia were employed for designing two types of learning materials. Since short-term memory plays an important role in language learning, learners’ visual and verbal short-term memories were taken into consideration, too. 161 L2 Learners aged 19 and 23 years old participated in the major phases of an experiment via personal digital assistant (PDA. Based on their scores on the English vocabulary recognition and recall (EVRR tests and the statistical analysis of the results, it was revealed that delivery of learning materials with pictorial and written annotations combined rather than delivery of learning materials without such annotations to learners with high-visual and high-verbal abilities, learners with high-visual but low-verbal ability, and learners with low-visual but high-verbal ability results in better vocabulary learning outcomes. However, this was not the case for learners with low-visual and low-verbal abilities. This study acknowledges the relation between STM and the relevant modalities of materials presentation.Keywords: Mobile learning, PDA, Verbal and visual ability, Vocabulary learning

  5. Learning More, Perceiving More? A Comparison of L1 Cantonese--L2 English--L3 French Speakers and L1 Cantonese--L2 English Speakers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Wai Lan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study examining the relationship between language learning and perceived language differences. Two groups of native Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong, L1 Cantonese--L2 English (CE) and L1 Cantonese--L2 English--L3 French (CEF), were asked to complete two tasks: a placement test in English (as well as in French for the CEF…

  6. Learning More, Perceiving More? A Comparison of L1 Cantonese--L2 English--L3 French Speakers and L1 Cantonese--L2 English Speakers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Wai Lan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study examining the relationship between language learning and perceived language differences. Two groups of native Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong, L1 Cantonese--L2 English (CE) and L1 Cantonese--L2 English--L3 French (CEF), were asked to complete two tasks: a placement test in English (as well as in French for the CEF…

  7. Lexical and semantic representations of L2 cognate and noncognate words acquisition in children : evidence from two learning methods

    OpenAIRE

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

    2012-01-01

    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyze the effect of two learning methods (picture-based vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and noncognates) in early stages of children’s L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age= 10.87 years; SD= 0....

  8. The Effects of Techniques of Vocabulary Portfolio on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Baftani, Fahimeh Nasiri

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different techniques of vocabulary portfolio including word map, word wizard, concept wheel, visual thesaurus, and word rose on L2 vocabulary comprehension and production, a sample of 75 female EFL learners of Kish Day Language Institute in Karaj, Iran were selected. They were in five groups and each group received…

  9. Teaching, Learning, and Developing L2 French Sociolinguistic Competence: A Sociocultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Compernolle, Remi A.; Williams, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this article investigates the development of sociolinguistic competence among second-year (US university-level) L2 learners of French who were given systematic instruction on sociolinguistic variation as part of their normal coursework. We focus on the variable use of the negative morpheme "ne" in verbal negation. Drawing…

  10. Effects of Interactive Chat versus Independent Writing on L2 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tare, Medha; Golonka, Ewa M.; Vatz, Karen; Bonilla, Carrie L.; Crooks, Carolyn; Strong, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the importance of interaction for second language (L2) acquisition by analyzing outcomes from two types of out-of-class activities. The study compared: (a) interactive homework, completed via text chat, and (b) individual homework, completed via independent writing. In a between-subjects design, participants in two…

  11. Study Abroad, Previous Language Experience, and Spanish L2 Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Pascual, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates second language (L2) development of Spanish verbal morphology, subject omissions, and subject-verb (SV) inversions by learners in two different proficiency levels and learning contexts. Oral narratives from 40 L2 learners at the intermediate and advanced levels, both at home and in a study abroad (SA) program, were examined…

  12. Learning and Retaining Specialized Vocabulary from Textbook Reading: Comparison of Learning Outcomes through L1 and L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gablasova, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acquisition of specialized vocabulary from L1 and L2 textbook reading by 64 Slovak high school students who were intermediate or advanced users of English. The students were divided into two groups: One group read the academic texts in their L1, the other group in their L2. In a posttest and a delayed posttest, they…

  13. Learning and Retaining Specialized Vocabulary from Textbook Reading: Comparison of Learning Outcomes through L1 and L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gablasova, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acquisition of specialized vocabulary from L1 and L2 textbook reading by 64 Slovak high school students who were intermediate or advanced users of English. The students were divided into two groups: One group read the academic texts in their L1, the other group in their L2. In a posttest and a delayed posttest, they…

  14. Multi-Task Feature Learning Via Efficient l2,1-Norm Minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jun; Ye, Jieping

    2012-01-01

    The problem of joint feature selection across a group of related tasks has applications in many areas including biomedical informatics and computer vision. We consider the l2,1-norm regularized regression model for joint feature selection from multiple tasks, which can be derived in the probabilistic framework by assuming a suitable prior from the exponential family. One appealing feature of the l2,1-norm regularization is that it encourages multiple predictors to share similar sparsity patterns. However, the resulting optimization problem is challenging to solve due to the non-smoothness of the l2,1-norm regularization. In this paper, we propose to accelerate the computation by reformulating it as two equivalent smooth convex optimization problems which are then solved via the Nesterov's method-an optimal first-order black-box method for smooth convex optimization. A key building block in solving the reformulations is the Euclidean projection. We show that the Euclidean projection for the first reformulation...

  15. Galaxy morphology - An unsupervised machine learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutter, A.; Shamir, L.

    2015-09-01

    Structural properties poses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being analyzed. The source code of the method is publicly available, and the protocol of the experiment is included in the paper so that the experiment can be replicated, and the method can be used to analyze user-defined datasets of galaxy images.

  16. Differential expression of Meis2, Mab21l2 and Tbx3 during limb development associated with diversification of limb morphology in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mengyao; Wang, Yao; Fang, Lu; Irwin, David M; Zhu, Tengteng; Zhang, Junpeng; Zhang, Shuyi; Wang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Bats are the only mammals capable of self-powered flight using wings. Differing from mouse or human limbs, four elongated digits within a broad wing membrane support the bat wing, and the foot of the bat has evolved a long calcar that spread the interfemoral membrane. Our recent mRNA sequencing (mRNA-Seq) study found unique expression patterns for genes at the 5' end of the Hoxd gene cluster and for Tbx3 that are associated with digit elongation and wing membrane growth in bats. In this study, we focused on two additional genes, Meis2 and Mab21l2, identified from the mRNA-Seq data. Using whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) we validated the mRNA-Seq results for differences in the expression patterns of Meis2 and Mab21l2 between bat and mouse limbs, and further characterize the timing and location of the expression of these two genes. These analyses suggest that Meis2 may function in wing membrane growth and Mab21l2 may have a role in AP and DV axial patterning. In addition, we found that Tbx3 is uniquely expressed in the unique calcar structure found in the bat hindlimb, suggesting a role for this gene in calcar growth and elongation. Moreover, analysis of the coding sequences for Meis2, Mab21l2 and Tbx3 showed that Meis2 and Mab21l2 have high sequence identity, consistent with the functions of genes being conserved, but that Tbx3 showed accelerated evolution in bats. However, evidence for positive selection in Tbx3 was not found, which would suggest that the function of this gene has not been changed. Together, our findings support the hypothesis that the modulation of the spatiotemporal expression patterns of multiple functional conserved genes control limb morphology and drive morphological change in the diversification of mammalian limbs. PMID:25166052

  17. The Impact of Choice on EFL Students' Motivation and Engagement with L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han-Chung; Huang, Hung-Tzu; Hsu, Chun-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates EFL college learners' motivation and engagement during English vocabulary learning tasks. By adopting self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000), the study looked into the impact of autonomy on college students' task motivation and engagement with vocabulary learning tasks and their general English…

  18. The Effects of L1 and L2 e-Glosses on Incidental Vocabulary Learning of Junior High-School English Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Si-Min; Vongpumivitch, Viphavee; Chang, Jason S.; Liou, Hsien-Chin

    2014-01-01

    While researchers have examined the effectiveness of various online gloss types on incidental L2 vocabulary learning, little research on online gloss languages has been conducted. Previous attempts which compared the effects of L1 and L2 glosses have reported mixed results. To fill the gaps, this study examined the effectiveness of Chinese and…

  19. The Effects of L1 and L2 e-Glosses on Incidental Vocabulary Learning of Junior High-School English Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Si-Min; Vongpumivitch, Viphavee; Chang, Jason S.; Liou, Hsien-Chin

    2014-01-01

    While researchers have examined the effectiveness of various online gloss types on incidental L2 vocabulary learning, little research on online gloss languages has been conducted. Previous attempts which compared the effects of L1 and L2 glosses have reported mixed results. To fill the gaps, this study examined the effectiveness of Chinese and…

  20. Online multilingual vocabulary system and its application in L2 learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruko Miyakoda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the field of second language teaching, vocabulary has been one of the most neglected areas in the classroom. Although language teachers/ instructors are well aware of the importance of vocabulary, there is not enough time in the classroom to actually “teach” vocabulary. Therefore, we need to find ways to promote autonomous vocabulary learning so that students can make good use of their time outside theclassrooms.In this study, we present an online vocabulary learning system that we have developed. The results obtained from our evaluation experiment indicate that our system is more effective in retaining the meaning of the words compared to the traditional learning method.As an example of applying this system to language learning, we will give a demonstration of a Japanese onomatopoeia dictionary that we are compiling. Onomatopoeia are especially troublesome for learners of the Japanese language. Although they are frequently used in both written and spoken Japanese, they are very difficult to translate to other languages. We demonstrate that by employing our system, learners are better able to understand the meaning and the context of eachlexical item.

  1. An Observation Tool for Effective L2 Pedagogy in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, Rick; Koopman, Gerrit Jan; Anikina, Yulia; Westhoff, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is becoming a popular and widespread practice of immersion education. In the Netherlands, for example, over 90 secondary schools offer a CLIL strand. Most CLIL teachers, however, are nonnative speakers of the target language, and do not have a professional background in language pedagogy.…

  2. Reading and Learning from L2 Text: Effects of Reading Goal, Topic Familiarity, and Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiba, Yukie; Fukaya, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of reading goal, topic-familiarity, and language proficiency on text comprehension and learning. English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students with high and low topic-familiarity read and recalled a text. Some were told in advance to expect a recall task in a particular language--the first language (L1) or second…

  3. Promoting Pre-service Second Language (L2) Teacher Learning via Narrative: A Sociocultural Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Arshavskaya; Anne Elrod Whitney

    2014-01-01

    This study constitutes a qualitative investigation of a series of interactions between an experienced teacher educator and a pre-service teacher in the context of a teaching English as a second language (ESL) practicum blog. The study demonstrates how the activity of writing a dialogic blog can facilitate teacher professional development. Responding to the recent call to investigate the ways in which teacher engagement in writing (Johnson & Golombek, 2011) can assist teacher learning and ...

  4. Gender Differences in L2 Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning in the Video-based CALL Program

    OpenAIRE

    Lu-Fang Lin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether there were significant differences between males and females in comprehension, vocabulary acquisition and vocabulary retention in the video-based computer assisted language learning (CALL) program. In total, 74 male and 43 female university students taking Freshman English course in Taiwan joined this study. A quantitative analysis of video comprehension tests, vocabulary immediate tests, and vocabulary retention tests was conducted. Two types of videotexts ranked ...

  5. An Analysis of the Potential of a Computer-mediated learning Course for Vocabulary Learning in L2

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contributions a computer-mediated blended course can make for learning vocabulary in French as a Foreign Language (FFL). This course included class and on-line sessions, using Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) tools (forum and chat), for a written macro-task by French-learning Cypriot students accompanied in distance learning by FFL tutors. In the first part we present difficulties in vocabulary learning as well as in written production. We also tackle two centra...

  6. Promoting Pre-service Second Language (L2 Teacher Learning via Narrative: A Sociocultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Arshavskaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study constitutes a qualitative investigation of a series of interactions between an experienced teacher educator and a pre-service teacher in the context of a teaching English as a second language (ESL practicum blog. The study demonstrates how the activity of writing a dialogic blog can facilitate teacher professional development. Responding to the recent call to investigate the ways in which teacher engagement in writing (Johnson & Golombek, 2011 can assist teacher learning and given the urge to promote conceptual ways of understanding teaching on the part of the novice teachers (Johnson, 2009, this paper presents a case study that shows both the novice’s growth as expressed through writing and reflection in the blog as well the teacher educator’s moves designed to foster the novice’s learning. A sociocultural perspective on human cognitive development (Vygotsky, 1978 was used as a theoretical framework for tracing the novice’s development and capturing the transformative power of the novice’s narration as well as the characteristics of the teacher educator’s mediation. Our findings indicate that when the teacher educator’s mediation is strategically designed, engagement in narrative through a dialogic blog can be a powerful tool for stimulating a novice’s more expert understanding of ESL teaching and encouraging the application of that understanding in practice.

  7. L2 Students’ Comments on Language Exchange Communities in Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Balç?kanl?

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: EFL learners are rarely given opportunities to interact with native speakers and “…to do something with a language”. In Turkish settings, language learners mostly complain that they do not have enough opportunities to interact with native speakers, and class hours are too limited to acquire a language and more importantly they are not taught expressions that help them express themselves in daily contexts.Purpose of Study: This study aimed at investigating EFL (English as a Foreign Language learners’ experiences in a Language Exchange Community, namely xLingo.Method: 16 students from a state university spent time on language exchange communities. The researcher met these students once a week to make sure that everything was going fine. The students used xLingo for almost six months. The researcher interviewed them through the five questions that were earlier developed and piloted by the researcher himself.Findings and Results: The findings mostly focused on four aspects namely language development, autonomy, culture and self-confidence. Conclusions and Recommendations: Given the challenges Turkish EFL learners have to face in the process of language learning, language exchange communities are believed to open up more possibilities for language learners to get more comprehensible input and to interact with more native speakers and more importantly to do something with a language. In order to make best use of these communities, it is a mandatory step that language teachers be introduced to the concept along with practical applications and that these communities should be integrated into language testing system.

  8. Developing Critical L2 Digital Literacy through the Use of Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Learning Management Systems such as Moodle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Second Language (L2) Digital Literacy is of emerging importance within English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Korea, and will evolve to become regarded as the most critical component of overall L2 English Literacy. Computer-based Internet-hosted Learning Management Systems (LMS), such as the popular open-source Moodle, are rapidly being adopted worldwide for distance education, and are also being applied to blended (hybrid) education. In EFL Education, they have a special potential: by setting the LMS to force English to be used exclusively throughout a course website, the meta-language can be made the target L2 language. Of necessity, students develop the ability to use English to navigate the Internet, access and contribute to online resources, and engage in computer-mediated communication. Through such pragmatic engagement with English, students significantly develop their L2 Digital Literacy.

  9. Evolutionary Learning Algorithm for Multi-layer Morphological Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    He Chunmei

    2013-01-01

    Morphological Neural Network (MNN) is a novel and important neural network and it has many applications such as image processing and pattern recognition. It makes sense to research the learning algorithm of MNN and its application. A method based on genetic algorithm is presented to train and implement multi-layer morphological neural network in this study. The algorithm calculates the weights and biases of morphological neural network and the genetic algorithm automatically acquire the learn...

  10. L2 Vocabulary Learning from Reading: Explicit and Tacit Lexical Knowledge and the Role of Learner and Item Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgort, Irina; Warren, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates acquisition of second language (L2) vocabulary from reading a connected authentic text. Advanced and upper-intermediate L2 (English) participants read a long expository text for general understanding, with embedded critical vocabulary items (pseudowords). Explicit knowledge of the critical items was examined using a meaning…

  11. Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: evidence from two learning methods in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

    2012-08-01

    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyse the effect of two learning methods (picture- vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and non-cognates) in early stages of children's L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age = 10.87 years; SD= 0.85), participated in the study. None of them had prior knowledge of Basque (the L2 in this study). After a learning phase in which L2 words were learned either by a picture- or a word-based method, children were tested in a backward-word translation recognition task at two times (immediately vs. one week later). Results showed that the participants made more errors when rejecting semantically related than semantically unrelated words as correct translations (semantic interference effect). The magnitude of this effect was higher in the delayed test condition regardless of the learning method. Moreover, the overall performance of participants from the word-based method was better than the performance of participants from the picture-word method. Results were discussed concerning the most significant bilingual lexical processing models. PMID:22804703

  12. Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Shaikh, Danish; Støy, Kasper

    Hand-coding locomotion controllers for modular robots is dif?cult due to their polymorphic nature. Instead, we propose to use a simple and distributed reinforcement learning strategy. ATRON modules with identical controllers can be assembled in any con?guration. To optimize the robot’s locomotion...... speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy’s performance on different robot con?gurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast...... as possible. We conclude that the learning strategy is effective and may be a practical approach to design gaits....

  13. Aussie! Aussie! Aussie! L2! L3! L4!: Inspiring Language Learning and Maintaining Our Common Wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.; Elliot, Kerry; Liu, Mei Hui

    2003-01-01

    Provides ideas for inspiring language Learning and maintaining Australia's common wealth as a multicultural society. Focuses on hands-on activities that stimulate language learning communities to negotiate and promote excitement and enthusiasm for languages, while creating community support. (Author/VWL)

  14. Assessing Differences and Similarities between Instructed Heritage Language Learners and L2 Learners in Their Knowledge of Spanish Tense-Aspect and Mood (TAM) Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrul, Silvina; Perpinan, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of the aspectual difference between the preterit and imperfect in the past tense and the acquisition of the contrast between subjunctive and indicative mood are classic problem areas in second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish by English-speaking learners (Collentine, 1995, 1998, 2003; Salaberry, 1999; Slabakova & Montrul, 2002;…

  15. Task-based incidental vocabulary learning in L2 Arabic: The role of proficiency and task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the claim that word learning in a second language are contingent upon a task’s involvement load (i.e. the amount of need, search, and evaluation it imposes, as proposed by Laufer and Hulstijn (2001. Fifty-three English-speaking learners of Arabic were assigned to one of three vocabulary learning tasks that varied in the degree of involvement: reading comprehension with glosses (low, fill-in-the-gap task (medium, and sentence writing (high. Ten words, selected based on a pretest, were targeted in the tasks. Results showed a main effect of task, with the sentence writing task yielding the highest rates of vocabulary learning, followed by the gap-fill task, and finally the reading comprehension task. A significant correlation was found between accuracy of performance across participants and their subsequent vocabulary acquisition in the immediate posttest. Within groups, only the performance of the writing group correlated significantly with their posttest scores. Results of the present study validate the hypothesis and point to multiple factors at play in incidental vocabulary acquisition. The study provides further arguments to refine the hypothesis and implement pedagogical practices that accommodate incidental learning in foreign language settings.

  16. Effects of Phonological Input as a Pre-Listening Activity on Vocabulary Learning and L2 Listening Comprehension Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Kei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold. The first goal is to examine the effects of phonological input on students' vocabulary learning. The second is to discuss how different pre­-listening activities affect students' second language listening comprehension. The participants were first-­year students at a Japanese university. There were two…

  17. Tracking "Learning Behaviours" in the Incidental Acquisition of Two Dimensional Adjectives by Japanese Beginner Learners of L2 English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Natsuko; Ellis, Rod

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine both the process and product of vocabulary learning in a task-based instructional context. The article reports a study that investigated the acquisition of two dimensional adjectives ("big" and "small") by six-year-old Japanese children who were complete beginners. It tracked the…

  18. Becoming an L2 Learner (Again): How a Brief Language Learning Experience Sparked Connections with SLA Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Ross

    2015-01-01

    A brief "language learning experience" (LLE) in Thai was integrated into a second language development course as part of postgraduate TESOL study at an Australian university. Sixty primary and secondary teachers from a range of schools evaluated the impact of the LLE by means of a questionnaire; the teachers proved highly affirming of…

  19. The Efficacy of Explicit Grammar Instruction and Its Impact on L2 Rule-Learning: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Raafat

    2009-01-01

    It is crucial that foreign language teachers know well what kinds of grammar teaching strategies best aid learning in the classroom in order to adjust their teaching toward a practical and successful approach. Much of the debate about how to help EFL learners achieve grammatical proficiency centers on the implicit versus explicit, or deductive…

  20. Enhancement of Automatization through Vocabulary Learning Using CALL: Can Prompt Language Processing Lead to Better Comprehension in L2 Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeshi; Matsunuma, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Our study aims to optimize a multimedia application for vocabulary learning for English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Our study is based on the concept that difficulty in reading a text in a second language is due to the need for more working memory for word decoding skills, although the working memory must also be used for text comprehension…

  1. On the Relationship between Self-regulated Learning Components and L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Ali Zarei; Gamar Hatami

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, self-regulation has been the center of heated debate in educational psychology. The present study attempted to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' self-regulated learning components and vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension .To fulfill this objective, a 60-item vocabulary and reading comprehension TOEFL test was administered to a sample of 250 male and female college students majoring in English Teaching, English Language Translation, a...

  2. Unsupervised Machine Learning to Track Galaxy Morphological Evolution in CANDELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peth, Michael; Lotz, J. M.; Freeman, P. E.; McPartland, C.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We use unsupervised machine learning techniques to study the evolution of galaxy morphology at 0 Gini coefficient (G), Asymmetry (A), the second-order moment of brightest 20% light (M_20), and three new statistics, Multi mode (M), Intensity (I) and Deviation (D). We measure these morphology statistics in 4 different HST wavebands: F160W (H), F125W, F814W and F606W. This allows us to consistently measure a single rest-frame passband across the redshift range. We discuss the implications for the evolution of the Hubble sequence and galaxy mergers over the last 10 billion years.

  3. Effects of acoustic and semantic contexts when learning to identify L2 phonemes in words and sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuma, Yuko; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko

    2001-05-01

    Laboratory training experiment was conducted in order to examine the effect of acoustic and semantic contexts when learning second language phoneme perception. Fifty minimal pairs of English words contrasting in /r/ and /l/ were produced by native speakers of American English in three conditions; in isolation (WD), within semantically neutral carrier sentences (NS), and within semantically contextual carrier sentences (CS). Participants were native speakers of Japanese, and were divided into three groups; each was trained to identify /r/ and /l/ in one of above three conditions. In pretest, identification accuracy varied by condition in the order, NStrained with CS stimuli improved the ability to identify CS stimuli from pretest to post-test, but not WD and NS stimuli. In contrast, the effect of training using WD or NS stimuli generalized to all the stimulus conditions. These results suggest that the perception training utilizing the auditory input, in which acoustic information is the only clue to identify phonemes, is effective in cultivation of aural comprehension. Implications for foreign language education will be discussed. [Work supported by TAO, Japan.

  4. Development of Relative Clause Constructions in English L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how relative clause (RC constructions develop in the acquisition of English as a second language (L2. The acquisition of RC constructions has been the focus of much research in the field of language acquisition, but a majority of L2 studies in this area is experimental based on the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy (NPAH (Keenan & Comrie, 1977. In this study, the spontaneous speech production by a Japanese primary school child, learning English in a naturalistic environment, was audio-recorded regularly over two years, and the development of RC constructions was compared with the acquisition of other English morphological and syntactic structures as represented within Processability Theory (PT (Pienemann, 1998; Pienemann, Di Biase, & Kawaguchi, 2005; Pienemann & Keßler, 2011. Although PT predicts that subordinate clauses are acquired at the highest stage in processability hierarchy, the results in this longitudinal study show that some types of RC constructions emerge at earlier stages in L2 English acquisition. The results also show that RC constructions in the Japanese child’s English L2 develop in the similar way to those reported in L1 studies (e.g., Diessel, 2004.Keywords: relative clause constructions, English L2, Processability Theory, the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy, Japanese child

  5. ?????????? ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? L_2. I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???????? ?. ?.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available ? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? [0,+? ? ??????? L 2 ? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????????????? ????. ???????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????. ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? - ?????? ? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????????.Some problems of aproximations of functions on half-interval [0,+? in the L 2-metric with certain weight by entire functions of exponential growth are studied. Modules of continuity which used in problems are constructed with help of generalized translations of Bessel. Direct theorems of Jacson type are proved. Nikolskii - Besov type function spaces are defined and their description are obtained in terms of the best approximations.

  6. ?????????? ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? L_2.II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???????? ?. ?.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available ? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? [0, +?? ? ??????? L 2 ? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????????????? ????. ???????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????. ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? - ?????? ? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????????. ????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?????? [17], ?????????????? ? ?????????? ??????? "????? ??????. ???. ??????????". ?????? ???????? ????????? §3, ? ????? §4 ? §5. ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? [17].Some problems of aproximations of functions on half-interval [0,+oo in the L2-metric with certain weight by entire functions of exponential growth are studied. Modules of continuity which used in problems are constructed with help of generalized translations of Bessel. Direct theorems of Jacson type are proved. Nikolskii-Besov type function spaces are defined and their description are obtained in terms of the best approximations.

  7. Reading Aloud Activity in L2 and Cerebral Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Osamu; Ikeda, Maiko; Mizumoto, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the cerebral mechanism of reading aloud activities in L2 learners. These activities have been widely used in L2 learning and teaching, and its effect has been reported in various Asian L2 learning contexts. However, the reasons for its effectiveness have not been examined. In order to fill in this gap, two studies using a…

  8. L2 Plasma Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The second LaGrange point, 1.5 million miles from the Earth in the anti-solar direction, is becoming an important destination for scientific spacecraft. The quasi-stable gravity field requires little energy resources for station keeping and astronomical missions-infrared and microwave in particular-find the minimal impact from Earth albedo radiation and limited restrictions on viewing directions a tremendous advantage in their mission design. Spacecraft design for L2 missions will have to consider the plasma environments of the ambient solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail from energies of a few 10s of an eV through 10 s of keV in addition to enhanced energetic particle populations from 10s to l000 keV during solar energetic particle events. This presentation will provide a background on the appropriate L2 charged particle environments at L2 and describe modeling efforts at MSFC to develop environment specification tools for the L2 plasma environment.

  9. Effects of age of learning on voice onset time: categorical perception of Swedish stops by near-native L2 speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stölten, Katrin; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Hyltenstam, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effects of age of onset (AO) of L2 acquisition on the categorical perception of the voicing contrast in Swedish word-initial stops varying in voice onset time (VOT). Three voicing continua created on the basis of natural Swedish word pairs with /p-b/, /t-d/, /k-/ in initial position were presented to 41 Spanish early (AO 12) near-native speakers of L2 Swedish. Fifteen native speakers of Swedish served as controls. Categorizations were influenced by AO and listener status as L1/L2 speaker, in that the late learners deviated the most from native-speaker perception. In addition, only a small minority of the late learners perceived the voicing contrast in a way comparable to native-speaker categorization, while most early L2 learners demonstrated nativelike categorization patterns. However, when the results were combined with the L2 learners' production of Swedish voiceless stops (Stölten, 2005; Stölten, Abrahamsson & Hyltenstam, in press), nativelike production and perception was never found among the late learners, while a majority of the early learners still exhibited nativelike production and perception. It is concluded that, despite their being perceived as mother-tongue speakers of Swedish by native listeners, the late learners do not, after detailed phonetic scrutiny, exhibit a fully nativelike command of Swedish VOT. Consequently, being near-native rather than nativelike speakers of their second language, these individuals do not constitute the evidence necessary to reject the hypothesis of one or several critical (or sensitive) periods for language acquisition. PMID:25536842

  10. Combining Hand-crafted Rules and Unsupervised Learning in Constraint-based Morphological Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Oflazer, K; Oflazer, Kemal; Tur, Gokhan

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a constraint-based morphological disambiguation approach that is applicable languages with complex morphology--specifically agglutinative languages with productive inflectional and derivational morphological phenomena. In certain respects, our approach has been motivated by Brill's recent work, but with the observation that his transformational approach is not directly applicable to languages like Turkish. Our system combines corpus independent hand-crafted constraint rules, constraint rules that are learned via unsupervised learning from a training corpus, and additional statistical information from the corpus to be morphologically disambiguated. The hand-crafted rules are linguistically motivated and tuned to improve precision without sacrificing recall. The unsupervised learning process produces two sets of rules: (i) choose rules which choose morphological parses of a lexical item satisfying constraint effectively discarding other parses, and (ii) delete rules, which delete parses sati...

  11. Learning morphological phenomena of modern Greek an exploratory approach

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Kotsanis; A. Kokkinos Dimitrios; A.G. Manousopoulou; Papakonstantinou, G.

    1996-01-01

    Educational technology is influenced by and closely related to the fields of generative epistemology, Artificial Intelligence, and the learning sciences. Relevant research literature refers to the term constructionism (Papert, 1993) and exploratory learning (diSessa et al, 1995). Constructionism and exploratory learning are a synthesis of the constructivist theory of Piaget and the opportunities offered by technology to education on thinking concretely, on learning while constructing intellig...

  12. Unsupervised Discovery of Phonological Categories through Supervised Learning of Morphological Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Daelemans, Walter; Berck, Peter; Gillis, Steven

    1996-01-01

    We describe a case study in the application of {\\em symbolic machine learning} techniques for the discovery of linguistic rules and categories. A supervised rule induction algorithm is used to learn to predict the correct diminutive suffix given the phonological representation of Dutch nouns. The system produces rules which are comparable to rules proposed by linguists. Furthermore, in the process of learning this morphological task, the phonemes used are grouped into phonol...

  13. HABILIDADES COMUNICATIVAS EN L2 MEDIATIZADAS POR LA TECNOLOGIA EN EL CONTEXTO DE LOS ENFOQUES POR TAREAS Y COOPERATIVO Habilidades comunicativas em L2 mediatizadas pela tecnologia no contexto dos enfoques por tarefas e cooperativo Communicative abilities in L2 mediated by technology in the context of task based teaching and cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie Quintanilla Espinoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este artículo es determinar cómo los principios metodológicos del enfoque basado en tareas, el aprendizaje cooperativo y la metodología CALL pueden ser utilizados de manera combinada en el diseño de actividades para el desarrollo de las habilidades lingüísticas. Con este objetivo, se explora evidencia empírica acerca de la efectividad de esta metodología en el aprendizaje de inglés como lengua extranjera en un estudio cuasiexperimental pre- y post- test grupo control. Los resultados obtenidos revelan un mayor incremento en el aprendizaje del grupo experimental que utilizó la metodología integrada en comparación con el grupo control que trabajó con una metodología tradicional. Esto sugiere que el uso combinado del enfoque basado en tareas, el aprendizaje cooperativo y la metodología CALL sería beneficioso para el desarrollo de las habilidades lingüísticas.O objetivo principal deste artigo é determinar como os princípios teóricos do enfoque baseado em tarefas, a aprendizagem cooperativa e a metodologia CALL podem ser utilizados de maneira combinada no desenho de atividades para a melhora das habilidades lingüísticas. Com este objetivo, explora-se a evidência empírica a respeito da efetividade desta metodologia na aprendizagem do inglês como língua estrangeira num estudo cuasi-experimental com um pré- e pós-teste e um grupo controle. Os resultados obtidos revelam um maior incremento na aprendizagem do grupo experimental que utilizou a metodologia integrada em comparação com o grupo controle que trabalhou com uma metodologia tradicional. Isto sugere que o uso combinado do enfoque baseado em tarefas, a aprendizagem cooperativa e a metodologia CALL seria benéfico para o desenvolvimento das habilidades lingüísticas.The main objective of this article is to portray how the theoretical principles of task-based teaching, cooperative learning and CALL can be used together in the design of activities for the improvement of linguistic abilities. To achieve this, empirical evidence was examined in order to determine the efficiency of this integrated methodology vs. The traditional one commonly used for teaching English as a foreign language. Both methods were contrasted and tested in an experimental pre/post test control group research design. the results show that the experimental group, which used the integrated methodology, had a considerable language improvement compared to the control group that used a traditional one. This suggests that an integrated methodology using the approach of the task-based teaching, the cooperative learning and CALL would be beneficial for the improvement of linguistic abilities.

  14. The Learner´s Mother Tongue in the L2 Learning-Teaching Symbiosis La lengua materna del estudiante en la simbiosis entre enseñanza y aprendizaje de una segunda lengua

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton Hitotuzi

    2006-01-01

    This paper has a two-fold purpose. One is to review the stances of language-oriented theorists, who are practicing foreign/second-language teachers and learners from various parts of the world, regarding the long-standing controversy over whether or not the learner´s mother tongue plays a positive role in the foreign/second-language learning-teaching context. A second purpose is to offer, from a non-native-speaker L2-teacher standpoint, some suggestions on when and how learners´ native langua...

  15. Learning morphological phenomena of modern Greek an exploratory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kotsanis

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Educational technology is influenced by and closely related to the fields of generative epistemology, Artificial Intelligence, and the learning sciences. Relevant research literature refers to the term constructionism (Papert, 1993 and exploratory learning (diSessa et al, 1995. Constructionism and exploratory learning are a synthesis of the constructivist theory of Piaget and the opportunities offered by technology to education on thinking concretely, on learning while constructing intelligible entities, and on interacting with multimedia objects, rather than the direct acquisition of knowledge and facts. These views are based on the approach that learners can take substantial control of their own learning in an appropriately designed physical and cultural environment (Harel, 1991. In parallel, most of the studies of the Vygotskian framework focus on the role of language in the learning procedure, considering conceptual thought to be impossible outside an articulated verbal thinking. Moreover, the specific use of words is considered to be the most relevant cause for childhood and adolescent differentiation (Vygotsky, 1962.

  16. Morphological learning in a novel language: A cross-language comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Viktória; Waris, Otto; Vaquero, Lucía; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Being able to extract and interpret the internal structure of complex word forms such as the English word dance+r+s is crucial for successful language learning. We examined whether the ability to extract morphological information during word learning is affected by the morphological features of one's native tongue. Spanish and Finnish adult participants performed a word-picture associative learning task in an artificial language where the target words included a suffix marking the gender of the corresponding animate object. The short exposure phase was followed by a word recognition task and a generalization task for the suffix. The participants' native tongues vary greatly in terms of morphological structure, leading to two opposing hypotheses. On the one hand, Spanish speakers may be more effective in identifying gender in a novel language because this feature is present in Spanish but not in Finnish. On the other hand, Finnish speakers may have an advantage as the abundance of bound morphemes in their language calls for continuous morphological decomposition. The results support the latter alternative, suggesting that lifelong experience on morphological decomposition provides an advantage in novel morphological learning. PMID:25396284

  17. Analysis of LOFT Tests L2-2, L2-3 and L3-0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes LOFT Tests L2-2, L2-3, and L3-0 and presents conclusions reached from analysis of these tests. The LOFT L2 series of tests, called the power ascension series, originally consisted of six tests. The first four tests, L2-1 through L2-4, were identical except for step-wise increases in core power for each test. Comparison of these tests, and the nonnuclear Test L1-5, was planned to evaluate the effect of core power on system and ECC behavior during large cold leg break LOCA's. Tests L2-5 and L2-6 were to provide parametric investigations of the effect of loss of offsite power and prepressurized fuel. Prior to the start of the L2 series, it was decided Test L2-1 was not necessary due to the information learned from the LOFT nonnuclear tests and PBF lead rod tests. Tests L2-2 and L2-3 are described. The posttest analysis of Tests L2-2 and L2-3 is discussed, and conclusions reached from the comparisons of the experimental data to computer calculations presented. In addition, the results and implications of computer calculations on a commercial size PWR with the same model used for LOFT are presented. Finally, Test L3-0 is described and conclusions reached from it introduced

  18. Teaching and Learning Morphology: A Reflection on Generative Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Shane

    2012-01-01

    Students' knowledge of morphology can play a critical role in vocabulary development, and by extension, reading comprehension and writing. This reflection describes the nature of this knowledge and how it may be developed through the examination of generative vocabulary knowledge and the role of the spelling system in developing this knowledge. In…

  19. Similarity in L2 Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Shannon L.

    2013-01-01

    Adult second language (L2) learners often experience difficulty producing and perceiving non-native phonological contrasts. Even highly proficient bilinguals, who have been exposed to an L2 for long periods of time, struggle with difficult contrasts, such as /r/-/l/ for Japanese learners of English. To account for the relative ease or difficulty…

  20. Experiência em sala de aula: evidência empírica da complexidade no ensino e aprendizagem de LE / Classroom experience: empirical evidence of complexity in l2 teaching and learning

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura Stella, Miccoli; Carolina Vianini A., Lima.

    Full Text Available Este artigo argumenta pela compreensão do construto experiência, como um Sistema Adaptativo Complexo, tendo em vista que, para compreendê-la, toda experiência encapsula um processo, no qual outros eventos que a perpassam são trazidos à tona. Para tal, partimos da pesquisa sobre experiências, apresen [...] tando trechos de relatos de estudantes e professores sobre eventos vivenciados em salas de aula de língua estrangeira (LE), como evidência empírica de conceitos da complexidade, aplicados aos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE. Explicitamos, assim, a relação entre experiência, como construto, e caos / complexidade, como teoria, para compreender a natureza dos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE em salas de aula. Abstract in english This article argues for understanding the construct of experience as a complex adaptive system since experience, as a process, encapsulates other events that permeate it, bringing them to the fore. To this end, we briefly review research on experience and present excerpts from students’ and teachers [...] ’ report data of events experienced in the foreign language classrooms as empirical evidence of applying complexity theory concepts to understand the processes of foreign language teaching and learning. Thus, the explicit relationship between experience, as a construct, and chaos / complexity, as a theory, play a role for understanding the nature of classroom foreign language teaching and learning.

  1. On the Relationship between Iranian L2 Teachers' Pedagogical Beliefs and L2 Learners' Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharajabian, Maryam; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    The present study employed a descriptive survey design to investigate L2 learners' attitudes towards language learning, and the possible effects of teachers' beliefs on learners' attitudes. Participants were chosen from among 2 groups: Twenty EFL teachers were asked to take part in this study and 80 from a pool of 213 learners at 2 language…

  2. Unsupervised Discovery of Phonological Categories through Supervised Learning of Morphological Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Daelemans, W; Gillis, S; Daelemans, Walter; Berck, Peter; Gillis, Steven

    1996-01-01

    We describe a case study in the application of {\\em symbolic machine learning} techniques for the discovery of linguistic rules and categories. A supervised rule induction algorithm is used to learn to predict the correct diminutive suffix given the phonological representation of Dutch nouns. The system produces rules which are comparable to rules proposed by linguists. Furthermore, in the process of learning this morphological task, the phonemes used are grouped into phonologically relevant categories. We discuss the relevance of our method for linguistics and language technology.

  3. Fault-tolerant gait learning and morphology optimization of a polymorphic walking robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Larsen, JØrgen Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experiments with a morphology-independent, life-long strategy for online learning of locomotion gaits. The experimental platform is a quadruped robot assembled from the LocoKit modular robotic construction kit. The learning strategy applies a stochastic optimization algorithm to optimize eight open parameters of a central pattern generator based gait implementation. We observe that the strategy converges in roughly ten minutes to gaits of similar or higher velocity than a manually designed gait and that the strategy readapts in the event of failed actuators. We also optimize offline the reachable space of a foot based on a reference design but finds that the reality gap hardens the successfully transference to the physical robot. To address this limitation, in future work we plan to study co-learning of morphological and control parameters directly on physical robots.

  4. Variations autour de la tâche dans l'enseignement / apprentissage des langues aujourd'hui What kind of tasks are used for L2 teaching and learning today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Nissen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se donne pour objectif d'identifier les types de tâches, et leurs dénominateurs communs, qui sont présentés aujourd'hui – où "l'approche par les tâches" est soutenue par le Conseil de l'Europe – aux apprenants. Il analyse pour cela les articles issus de deux numéros de revues et un ouvrage collectif récents. Il apparaît que la grande majorité des scénarios pédagogiques s'y inscrit dans la perspective actionnelle... du moins d'après la déclaration des auteurs, car leur définition de ce qu'est une tâche ne correspond pas toujours à celle du CECR. Pour le public visé, étudiants ou professionnels, on propose le plus souvent des mono-tâches, mais également des projets, ou encore des simulations avec un enchaînement de plusieurs tâches. Elles s'inscrivent généralement dans la (future réalité sociale des apprenants, mais certaines laissent également la place à des thèmes artistiques ou (interculturels. Contrairement à ce que l'on aurait pu attendre dans une démarche qui responsabilise l'apprenant, le recours à Internet n'est pas toujours systématique.At a time when action- and task-based learning is sustained by the European Council, this paper explores which types of tasks are given to second language learners today and what aspects these tasks have in common. The paper analyses two recent issues of scientific journals and one collective book. The analysis shows that the majority of pedagogical scenarios described in these texts claim to adopt an action- and task-based approach. However, in reality the way they define a task does not always correspond to the definition given by the European Framework of Reference for Languages. The described tasks are exclusively dedicated to higher and professional education; they are mostly single tasks, but they can also be projects and simulations including several successive tasks. They generally correspond to the learners' (future reality, with themes that are nevertheless sometimes a little bit less “pragmatic”, like artistic or (intercultural ones. Contrary to what one might have expected within an approach that gives responsibility to the learner and where public access to the learners' productions is valued, the pedagogical scenarios do not systematically integrate the use of the Internet.

  5. Negative evidence in L2 acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dahl

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the L2 acquisition of differences between Norwegian and English passives, and presents data to show that the acquisition of these differences by Norwegian L2 acquirers of English cannot be fully explained by positive evidence, cues, conservativism or economy. Rather, it is argued, it is natural to consider whether indirect negative evidence may facilitate acquisition by inferencing. The structures in focus are impersonal passive constructions with postverbal NPs and passive constructions with intransitive verbs. These sentences are ungrammatical in English. Chomsky (1981 proposes that this is a result of passive morphology absorbing objective case in English. There is no such case to be assigned to the postverbal NP in impersonal passives. In passive constructions with intransitive verbs, the verb does not assign objective case, so that there is no case for the passive morphology to absorb. Thus, impersonal passives have to be changed into personal passives, where the NP receives nominative case, and the objective case is free to go to the passive morphology. Intransitive verbs, however, cannot be used in the passive voice at all. Both the structures discussed in this article, i.e. are grammatical in Norwegian. However, the options available in English, viz. personal passives and active sentences, are equally possible. Åfarli (1992 therefore proposes that Norwegian has optional case absorption (passive morphology optionally absorbs case. On the basis on such observations, we may propose a parameter with the settings [+case absorption] for English, and [-case absorption], signifying optional case absorption, for Norwegian. This means that none of the structures that are grammatical in English can function as positive evidence for the [+case absorption] setting, since they are also grammatical in optional case absorption languages. The question is how this parameter is set.

  6. From rote learning to system building: acquiring verb morphology in children and connectionist nets.

    OpenAIRE

    PLUNKETT, K; Marchman, V

    1993-01-01

    The traditional account of the acquisition of English verb morphology supposes that a dual architecture underlies the transition from early rote-learning processes (in which past tense forms of verbs are correctly produced) to the systematic treatment of verbs (in which irregular verbs are prone to error). A connectionist account supposes that this transition can occur in a single mechanism (in the form of a neural network) driven by gradual quantitative changes in the size of the training se...

  7. Automatic Feedback for L2 Prosody Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bonneau, Anne; Colotte, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    We have designed automatic feedback for the realisation of the prosody of a foreign language. Besides classical F0 displays, two kinds of feedback are provided to learners, each of them based upon a comparison between a reference and the learner's production. The first feedback, a diagnosis, provided both in the form of a short text and visual displays such as arrows, comes from an acoustic evaluation of the learner's realisation; it deals with two prosodic cues: the melodic curve, and phonem...

  8. Combining human and machine learning for morphological analysis of galaxy images

    CERN Document Server

    Kuminski, Evan; Wallin, John; Shamir, Lior

    2014-01-01

    The increasing importance of digital sky surveys collecting many millions of galaxy images has reinforced the need for robust methods that can perform morphological analysis of large galaxy image databases. Citizen science initiatives such as Galaxy Zoo showed that large datasets of galaxy images can be analyzed effectively by non-scientist volunteers, but since databases generated by robotic telescopes grow much faster than the processing power of any group of citizen scientists, it is clear that computer analysis is required. Here we propose to use citizen science data for training machine learning systems, and show experimental results demonstrating that machine learning systems can be trained with citizen science data. Our findings show that the performance of machine learning depends on the quality of the data, which can be improved by using samples that have a high degree of agreement between the citizen scientists. The source code of the method is publicly available.

  9. Learning to map variation-standard forms in Basque using a limited parallel corpus and the standard morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Etxeberria Uztarroz, Izaskun; Alegría Loinaz, Iñaki; Hulden, Mans; Uria Garin, Larraitz

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores three different methods of learning to map variant word form (dialectal or diachronic) to standard ones from a limited parallel corpus of standard and variant texts, given that a computational description of the standard morphology is available.

  10. Development of Relative Clause Constructions in English L2

    OpenAIRE

    Yumiko Yamaguchi; Satomi Kawaguchi

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how relative clause (RC) constructions develop in the acquisition of English as a second language (L2). The acquisition of RC constructions has been the focus of much research in the field of language acquisition, but a majority of L2 studies in this area is experimental based on the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy (NPAH) (Keenan & Comrie, 1977). In this study, the spontaneous speech production by a Japanese primary school child, learning English in a naturalistic ...

  11. Authenticity in oral communication of instructed L2 learners

    OpenAIRE

    Nowicka, Agnieszka; WILCZY?SKA, Weronika

    2011-01-01

    The skill of producing oral discourse in L2 is commonly considered to be difficult to foster in instructional setting. However, the main problem appears to be ensuring an authenticity of speaking both in personal, internal sense and in the social, socio-linguistic dimension. The main claim of here-discussed person centered approach is that both of these dimensions, although distinct, do not need to be treated in L2 learning as systematically separate and incompatible ones. On the contrary,...

  12. From Number Agreement to the Subjunctive: Evidence for Processability Theory in L2 Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carrie L.

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to typological plausibility of Processability Theory (PT) (Pienemann, 1998, 2005) by providing empirical data that show that the stages predicted by PT are followed in the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish syntax and morphology. In the present article, the PT stages for L2 Spanish morphology and syntax are first…

  13. Distinct morphological processing of recently learned compound words: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczer, Laura; Timmer, Kalinka; Bavassi, Luz; Schiller, Niels O

    2015-12-10

    Our vocabulary is, at least in principle, infinite. We can create new words combining existing ones in meaningful ways to form new linguistic expressions. The present study investigated the morphological processing of novel compound words in overt speech production. Native speakers of Dutch learned a series of new compounds (e.g. appelgezicht, 'apple-face') that were later used as primes in a morphological priming task. In this protocol, primes were compound words morphologically related to a target's picture name (e.g. appelgezicht was used for a picture of an apple, Dutch appel). The novel primes were compared with corresponding familiar compounds sharing a free morpheme (e.g. appelmoes, 'applesauce') and with unrelated compounds. Participants were required to read aloud words and to name pictures in a long-lag design. Behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) data were collected in two sessions, separated by 48h. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological related words. Notably, our results show that novel compounds have a stronger priming effect than familiar compounds in both sessions, which is expressed in a marked reduction in target naming latencies and a decrease in the N400 amplitude. These results suggest that participants focused more on the separate constituents when reading novel primes than in the case of existing compounds. PMID:26505918

  14. L1 and L2 Strategy Use in Reading Comprehension of Chinese EFL Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yea-Ru; Ernst, Cheryl; Talley, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This study revealed the relationship between L1 (Mandarin Chinese) and L2 (English) strategy use in L2 reading comprehension by focusing on the correlation of L1 reading ability, L2 proficiency and employed reading strategies. The participants, 222 undergraduates learning English as a foreign language (EFL), were classified into skilled and…

  15. CALL--Enhanced L2 Listening Skills--Aiming for Automatization in a Multimedia Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Maria Jesus Blasco

    2009-01-01

    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening…

  16. Investigating an Innovative Computer Application to Improve L2 Word Recognition from Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Joshua; O'Toole, John Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recognise words from the aural modality is a critical aspect of successful second language (L2) listening comprehension. However, little research has been reported on computer-mediated development of L2 word recognition from speech in L2 learning contexts. This report describes the development of an innovative computer application…

  17. La création de pages Internet dans le cadre de parcours individualisé : la place de la méthodologie dans l'apprentissage des langues. Creating Internet Pages for L2 Self-learning : Where Methodology Fits In

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joline Boulon

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Les projets en ligne tracent un parcours utile pour un travail de compréhension globale, et c’est donc à partir du projet que nous cherchons à développer une méthodologie précise pour les tâches que nous demandons aux apprenants. Cependant, l’input compréhensible n’est pas suffisant pour un apprentissage de toutes les compétences d’une L2. Un travail qui ne demande jamais d’analyse au niveau de la structure de la langue ou des formes ne peut pas sensibiliser suffisamment les apprenants pour qu’ils aient une interlangue qui se développe. Il nous semble que le projet doit être inscrit dans un cadre qui trace un parcours méthodologique très précis tout en permettant à l’apprenant un travail autant de précision que de compréhension globale. Nous prenons un exemple pour illustrer ce que nous sommes en train de créer sur les pages Internet.On line language projects suggest worthwhile steps to take for overall comprehension work, which is why we have chosen to use projects to develop a specific methodology for tasks that we have our learners do. However, comprehensible input is insufficient for learning all of the language skills. Work that never demands an analysis of language structure or form cannot make learners sufficiently aware of the language in order to have their interlanguage develop. It seems to us that projects should include a very specific methodology that allows learners to work on precision as well as overall comprehension. We discuss an example of the pages we are in the process of creating on Internet.

  18. Personalized versus Normal Practice of L2 Speaking on Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ayda Rahmani

    2015-01-01

    Personalized learning is a self-initiated, self-directed or self-prioritized pursuit which gives the learner a degree of choice about the process of learning i.e. what to learn, how to learn and when to learn. Of course personalized learning does not indicate unlimited choice; because, L2 learners will still have targets to be met. However, it provides learners with the opportunity to learn in ways that suit their individual learning styles. The L2 learner should have the opportunity to freel...

  19. Teaching L2 Spanish Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, Anita K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of training on the perception of Spanish stress, an important feature in the Spanish verbal morphology system. Participants were two intact classes of native English speakers enrolled in a six-week session of second-semester Spanish, as well as native English and native Spanish control groups. During the…

  20. Translation and Short-Term L2 Vocabulary Retention: Hindrance or Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the role that active translation may have in second language (L2) vocabulary learning. Some research suggests that translation might be an effective cognitive strategy for L2 vocabulary learning. Participants were 191 native French-speaking students enrolled in a TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) program.The study…

  1. A interação e o processo de negociação em L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Eliana Bassi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma investigação sobre a interação e as negociações desencadeadas por atividades comunicativas em uma sala de aula de nível básico de francês como segunda língua (L2. A partir da teoria sociointeracionista (Vygotsky, 1998, os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o processo interacional incentiva a troca de informações entre os aprendizes, favorecendo a negociação, e, também, que os aprendizes utilizaram estratégias de mediação para realizar as suas negociações. Os aprendizes receberam input modificado e tiveram mais oportunidades para a produção de output compreensível. Este relato, portanto, mostra que, ao negociar para a compreensão e a produção de textos em L2, os aprendizes se comprometeram, tornando-se agentes responsáveis e, sobretudo, colaboradores do processo de ensino/aprendizagem da L2.This paper investigated the interaction and the negotiations generated by communicative activities proposed in a French as a second language (L2 basic class. Based on the socio-interactionist theory (Vygotsky, 1998, the results show that the interactional process encourages the exchange of information among learners, helping negotiation. Besides that, learners also use mediating strategies to do the negotiations. The learners receive modified input and have more opportunities to produce comprehensible output. This paper, therefore, shows that, to negotiate, to understand and to produce L2 texts, the learners committed themselves, becoming responsible agents, and, above all, collaborators in the L2 learning/teaching process.

  2. A interação e o processo de negociação em L2

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia Eliana, Bassi; Deise Prina, Dutra.

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma investigação sobre a interação e as negociações desencadeadas por atividades comunicativas em uma sala de aula de nível básico de francês como segunda língua (L2). A partir da teoria sociointeracionista (Vygotsky, 1998), os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o processo i [...] nteracional incentiva a troca de informações entre os aprendizes, favorecendo a negociação, e, também, que os aprendizes utilizaram estratégias de mediação para realizar as suas negociações. Os aprendizes receberam input modificado e tiveram mais oportunidades para a produção de output compreensível. Este relato, portanto, mostra que, ao negociar para a compreensão e a produção de textos em L2, os aprendizes se comprometeram, tornando-se agentes responsáveis e, sobretudo, colaboradores do processo de ensino/aprendizagem da L2. Abstract in english This paper investigated the interaction and the negotiations generated by communicative activities proposed in a French as a second language (L2) basic class. Based on the socio-interactionist theory (Vygotsky, 1998), the results show that the interactional process encourages the exchange of informa [...] tion among learners, helping negotiation. Besides that, learners also use mediating strategies to do the negotiations. The learners receive modified input and have more opportunities to produce comprehensible output. This paper, therefore, shows that, to negotiate, to understand and to produce L2 texts, the learners committed themselves, becoming responsible agents, and, above all, collaborators in the L2 learning/teaching process.

  3. Noun, Verb, or Adjective? L2 Learners' Sensitivity to Cues to Word Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyzik, Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates learners' knowledge of word classes (i.e. noun, verb, adjective) in their second language (L2). Although some L2 studies have examined the problem of word class indirectly through a focus on vocabulary and the teaching of derivational morphology (Morin, 2003, 2006; Schmitt & Zimmerman, 2002), little is known about learners'…

  4. Measurements of Development in L2 Written Production: The Case of L2 Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenying

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates measures for second language (L2) writing development. A T-unit, which has been found the most satisfactory unit of analysis for measuring L2 development in English, is extended to measure L2 Chinese writing development through a cross-sectional design in this study. Data were collected from three L2 Chinese learner groups…

  5. ASC Trilab L2 Codesign Milestone 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, Christian Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Simon David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dinge, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lin, Paul T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vaughan, Courtenay T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cook, Jeanine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Edwards, Harold C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rajan, Mahesh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoekstra, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    For the FY15 ASC L2 Trilab Codesign milestone Sandia National Laboratories performed two main studies. The first study investigated three topics (performance, cross-platform portability and programmer productivity) when using OpenMP directives and the RAJA and Kokkos programming models available from LLNL and SNL respectively. The focus of this first study was the LULESH mini-application developed and maintained by LLNL. In the coming sections of the report the reader will find performance comparisons (and a demonstration of portability) for a variety of mini-application implementations produced during this study with varying levels of optimization. Of note is that the implementations utilized including optimizations across a number of programming models to help ensure claims that Kokkos can provide native-class application performance are valid. The second study performed during FY15 is a performance assessment of the MiniAero mini-application developed by Sandia. This mini-application was developed by the SIERRA Thermal-Fluid team at Sandia for the purposes of learning the Kokkos programming model and so is available in only a single implementation. For this report we studied its performance and scaling on a number of machines with the intent of providing insight into potential performance issues that may be experienced when similar algorithms are deployed on the forthcoming Trinity ASC ATS platform.

  6. Review of Social Interaction and L2 Classroom Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    aus der Wieschen, Maria Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Social Interaction and L2 Classroom Discourse investigates interactional practices in L2 classrooms. Using Conversation Analysis, the book unveils the processes underlying the co-construction of mutual understanding in potential interactional troubles in L2 classrooms – such as claims of insufficient knowledge (as previously described by Sert 2011) – and their resolutions. Sert defines “L2” as “an umbrella term that stands for a(n) second/foreign/additional language used in an instructed language learning setting” (p.1) – and throughout his book he uses a diverse dataset, ranging from language taster sessions over foreign language classrooms in monolingual contexts to English as an Additional Language settings in a multilingual context. This variety of settings allows him to examine a range of verbal and non-verbal features of classroom interaction, for example how code-switching is used in multilingual settings, and what the role of multimodal (such as gestures and gaze) and epistemic (for instance claims of insufficient knowledge and epistemic status checks) resources employed by students and teachers is. The book is structured in three sections: survey (Chapters 2 and 3), analysis (Chapters 4-6), and application (Chapters 7 and 8). A central focus throughout the entire book is classroom interactional competence and its influence on language learning.

  7. Peer Review Practices of L2 Doctoral Students in the Natural Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Sandström, Karyn

    2016-01-01

    Writing research articles in English is a common requirement in doctoral studies in the natural sciences; however, learning to write the research article genre is challenging, particularly in a foreign language (L2). A potential resource for learning the RA genre is giving and receiving peer review. L2 writers at the undergraduate level have been found to benefit from PR, but less  is known about the learning of L2 writers at the graduate level who are writing for specialized discourse commun...

  8. Identifying Correlation between Reading Strategies Instruction and L2 Text Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Sumaira Qanwal; Shahzad Karim

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at exploring correlation between reading strategies instruction and proficiency in text comprehension. The task is carried out by investigating the current practices of teaching and learning of L2 reading comprehension skills of the higher level L2 learners of English in Pakistan. In this regard, initially, the extent to which teachers incorporate reading strategies instruction into their teaching of ESL reading skills is analyzed; and students’ proficiency in L2 ...

  9. Phantom Word Activation in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broersma, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2008-01-01

    L2 listening can involve the phantom activation of words which are not actually in the input. All spoken-word recognition involves multiple concurrent activation of word candidates, with selection of the correct words achieved by a process of competition between them. L2 listening involves more such activation than L1 listening, and we report two…

  10. L2 English Intonation: Relations between Form-Meaning Associations, Access to Meaning, and L1 Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Llebaria, Marta; Colantoni, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Although there is consistent evidence that higher levels of processing, such as learning the form-meaning associations specific to the second language (L2), are a source of difficulty in acquiring L2 speech, no study has addressed how these levels interact in shaping L2 perception and production of intonation. We examine the hypothesis of whether…

  11. MOTHER TONGUE (L1) Vis-A-Vis OTHER TONGUE (L2)?

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Behera

    2012-01-01

    Learning a language is always a difficult thing and more so when it comes to learning a second language (L2) for it reflects the complexity of learning a language which is the other tongue rather than the mother tongue of a person. The present paper proposes to focus on the prospects and benefits of the skill-based learning of the L2. All learners, as such pick up a language by two means: a) acquisition of one's own language/mother tongue, and b) learning another language. Acquisition is a su...

  12. The Impact of CLIL on L2 Vocabulary Development and Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthou, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether students involved in CLIL are able to learn content through the medium of L2 and simultaneously exhibit significant gains in L2 vocabulary knowledge. Two experiments were set up in two public primary schools. Two groups of 6th grade students participated in each experiment. The first group was taught three 80-minute…

  13. Long-Term Crosslinguistic Transfer of Skills from L1 to L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of first language (L1) skills in elementary school and second language (L2) learning in high school. Students classified as high-, average-, and low-proficiency L2 learners were compared on L1 achievement measures of reading, spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, and listening comprehension…

  14. College Students' Possible L2 Self Development in an EFL Context during the Transition Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ying; Wan, Zhi Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the field of second language learning motivation, the studies on process-oriented nature of possible L2 selves are scarce. In order to address this research gap, this study explored how a group of five Chinese non-English-major undergraduates developed their possible L2 selves during the transition year from high school to university. The…

  15. L2 and L3 Ultimate Attainment: An Investigation of Two Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermas, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the upper limit of ultimate attainment in the L2 French and L3 English of trilingual learners. The learners are native speakers of Moroccan Arabic who started learning L2 French at eight and L3 English at 16. They are advanced in both languages. Four constructions representing the verb movement and null subject parameter were…

  16. L2-Proficiency-Dependent Laterality Shift in Structural Connectivity of Brain Language Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Huadong; van Leeuwen, Tessa Marije; Dediu, Dan; Roberts, Leah; Norris, David G; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests and DTI scans were obtained from German students before and after they completed an intensive 6-week course of the Dutch language. In the initial learning stage, with increasing L2 proficiency, the hemispheric dominance of the Brodmann area (BA) 6-temporal pathway (mainly along the arcuate fasciculus) shifted from the left to the right hemisphere. With further increased proficiency, however, lateralization dominance was again found in the left BA6-temporal pathway. This result is consistent with reports in the literature that imply a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere in L2 processing especially for less proficient L2 speakers. This is the first time that an L2 proficiency-dependent laterality shift in the structural connectivity of language pathways during L2 acquisition has been observed to shift from left to right and back to left hemisphere dominance with increasing L2 proficiency. The authors additionally find that changes in fractional anisotropy values after the course are related to the time elapsed between the two scans. The results suggest that structural connectivity in (at least part of) the perisylvian language network may be subject to fast dynamic changes following language learning. PMID:25594261

  17. The Ethnic Group Affiliation and L2 Proficiency Link: Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    With economic globalisation making second language (L2) learning inevitable throughout the world, understanding what factors facilitate success is a socioeconomic necessity. This paper examined the role of social factors, those related to ethnic group affiliation (EGA), in the development of L2 proficiency. Although numerous studies have…

  18. Non-optionality at Zulu L2 first syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibusisiwe Dube

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Valueless Features Hypothesis of Eubank (1993/94; 1994; 1996 proposes that certain types of apparently optional syntactic processes that appear in initial and not in mature state grammars are due to a lack of specification of inflectional feature values at the initial state of grammatical knowledge. Thus the apparent optionality in the placement of medial adverbs vis-a-vis thematic or finite main verbs evident in the early stages of second language (L2 acquisition is attributed to non-transfer of the strength values of morphological features instantiated in the learners' first language (LJ. This paper provides experimental evidence from Zulu L2 acquisition of verb raising by English native speakers, which suggests non-optionality in the early developmental stages of L2 syntax. The paper suggests that the initial obligaloriness of a non-verb raising syntactic analysis evident in the early stages of Zulu L2 acquisition is LJ -based; indicating transfer of [- strong] Vfeatures in T instantiated in English. Die 'Valueless Features Hypothesis' van Eubank' (1993/94; 1994; 1996 stel voor dat sekere tipes skynbare opsionele sintaktiese prosesse wat by aanvanklike grammatikas voorkom, maar nie by grammatikas in 'n gevorderde stadium nie, die gevolg is van 'n gebrek aan spesifikasie van infleksionele kenmerkwaardes tydens die aanvanklike stadium van grammatikale kennis. Derhalwe word die skynbare opsionaliteit in die plasing van tussenbywoorde teenoor tematiese of hoofwerkwoorde in 'npersoonsvorm wat by die vroee stadiums van die aankweek van 'n tweede taal (L2 duidelik blyk, toegeskryf aan die nie-oordrag van die kragwaardes van morfologiese kenmerke wat in die leerder se eerste taal (LJ geinstansieer is. Hierdie skripsie lewer eksperimentele bewyse van werkwoordverheffing by die aanleer van Zulu (L2 deur aangebore Engelssprekendes, wat nie-opsionaliteit in die vroee ontwikkelingstadia van L2- sinsleer suggereer. Die skripsie stel voor dat die aanvanklike verpligting van 'n niewerkwoordverhejJende sintaktiese ontleding, wat in die vroee stadium by die aanleer van Zulu L2 voorkom, L1-gebaseer is; wat dui op 'n oordrag van [- sterk} V-kenmerke in T wat in Engels geinstansieer is.

  19. L2 Phonology Learning among Young-Adult Learners of English: Effects of Regular Classroom-based Instruction and L2 Proficiency / Enseñanza de la fonética de una segunda lengua en contextos escolares: Un análisis de las prácticas pedagógicas y sus efectos en el aprendizaje del inglés en jóvenes universitarios

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana, Morales Pech; Jesús, Izquierdo.

    Full Text Available A través de una metodología mixta, el presente estudio examinó el impacto de un curso de Fonología inglesa en la adquisición de sonidos vocálicos y consonánticos de estudiantes universitarios de inglés de nivel básico (n=4), pre-intermedio (n=8) e intermedio (n=6). El curso fue impartido por un prof [...] esor de inglés durante 16 semanas, cinco horas a la semana. Para determinar los efectos del curso, los estudiantes participaron en dos actividades orales durante una entrevista al inicio y fin del curso. Durante el mismo, se observaron nueve clases y el instructor reportó las actividades implementadas. Los análisis de varianza revelaron cambios positivos en la pronunciación de todos los estudiantes. En las observaciones y los reportes se constató una enseñanza fonológica sistematizada y focalizada a través de actividades variadas. Los resultados sugieren que este tipo de enseñanza permite a los estudiantes contrarrestar los efectos negativos que factores biológicos y la influencia de la lengua materna tienen durante el aprendizaje. Abstract in english Using a mixed methodology, this study examines the impact of a university-level English phonology course on the acquisition of vowel and consonant sounds in that language, by beginning (n = 4), pre-intermediate (n = 8) and intermediate-level (n = 6) students. The 5-hour-a-week, 16-week course was ta [...] ught by teacher of English. To determine the effects of the course, students participated in two oral activities during an interview at the beginning of the course, and another at the end. During these interview, nine classes were observed, and the instructor reported the activities implemented. The analysis of variance revealed positive changes in all the students pronunciation students. Observations and reports verified the presence of systematic and focused phonological teaching through a variety of activities. The results suggest that this type of teaching allows students to counteract the negative effects which biological factors and the influence of the mother tongue have on learning.

  20. Relations among L1 Reading, L2 Knowledge, and L2 Reading: Revisiting the Threshold Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi-Pyo

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to test the threshold hypothesis in second/foreign language (L2) reading by investigating the relations among first language (L1) reading, L2 knowledge, and L2 reading comprehension in a sample of 2666 (1333 males and 1333 females) Korean EFL high school students. Three different methods of data analysis were utilized after…

  1. $L^{2}$-determinant class and approximation of $L^{2}$-Betti numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Schick, T

    1998-01-01

    A standing conjecture in L2-cohomology is that every finite CW-complex X is of L2-determinant class. In this paper, we prove this whenever the fundamental group belongs to a large class of groups containing e.g. all extensions of residually finite groups with amenable quotients, all residually amenable groups and free products of these. If, in addition, X is L2-acyclic, we also prove that the L2-determinant is a homotopy invariant. Even in the known cases, our proof of homotopy invariance is much shorter and easier than the previous ones. Under suitable conditions we give new approximation formulas for L2-Betti numbers.

  2. EX1202L2 Dive Operations Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All information and available data about Dive Operations on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico Exploration between 20120319 and 20120407

  3. EX1304L2 Dive Operations Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All information and available data about Dive Operations on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S. Canyons Exploration between 20130731 and...

  4. EX1404L2 Dive Operations Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All information and available data about Dive Operations on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1404L2: Our Deepwater Backyard: Exploring the Atlantic Canyons and...

  5. Language aptitude for pronunciation in advanced second language (L2) learners: behavioural predictors and neural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaochen; Ackermann, Hermann; Martin, Jason A; Erb, Michael; Winkler, Susanne; Reiterer, Susanne M

    2013-12-01

    Individual differences in second language (L2) aptitude have been assumed to depend upon a variety of cognitive and personality factors. Especially, the cognitive factor phonological working memory has been conceptualised as language learning device. However, strong associations between phonological working memory and L2 aptitude have been previously found in early-stage learners only, not in advanced learners. The current study aimed at investigating the behavioural and neurobiological predictors of advanced L2 learning. Our behavioural results showed that phonetic coding ability and empathy, but not phonological working memory, predict L2 pronunciation aptitude in advanced learners. Second, functional neuroimaging revealed this behavioural trait to be correlated with hemodynamic responses of the cerebral network of speech motor control and auditory-perceptual areas. We suggest that the acquisition of L2 pronunciation aptitude is a dynamic process, requiring a variety of neural resources at different processing stages over time. PMID:23273501

  6. An Application of the L2 Motivational Self System to Motivate Elementary School English Learners in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    I will describe a program that I developed to motivate grade five elementary school learners of English in Singapore to put more time and effort into learning English by enhancing their vision of their Ideal second language (L2) self and making their goals for learning English more clear and specific. The Ideal L2 self is the representation of the…

  7. Digital Game-Based Learning (DGBL) in the L2 Classroom: The Impact of the UN's Off-the-Shelf Videogame, Food Force, on Learner Affect and Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Schmidt, Matthew; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-method study explored the impact of "Food Force (FF)", a UN-sponsored off-the-shelf videogame, on learner affect and vocabulary learning and retention in a Japanese as a second/foreign language classroom. The videogame was integrated into an existing curriculum and two studies were performed. In Study 1 (n = 9), new vocabulary…

  8. Digital Game-Based Learning (DGBL) in the L2 Classroom: The Impact of the UN's Off-the-Shelf Videogame, Food Force, on Learner Affect and Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Schmidt, Matthew; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-method study explored the impact of "Food Force (FF)", a UN-sponsored off-the-shelf videogame, on learner affect and vocabulary learning and retention in a Japanese as a second/foreign language classroom. The videogame was integrated into an existing curriculum and two studies were performed. In Study 1 (n = 9), new vocabulary…

  9. Personalized versus Normal Practice of L2 Speaking on Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayda Rahmani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Personalized learning is a self-initiated, self-directed or self-prioritized pursuit which gives the learner a degree of choice about the process of learning i.e. what to learn, how to learn and when to learn. Of course personalized learning does not indicate unlimited choice; because, L2 learners will still have targets to be met. However, it provides learners with the opportunity to learn in ways that suit their individual learning styles. The L2 learner should have the opportunity to freely choose a series of activities, already predisposed by the teacher, to improve and develop L2 proficiency. This is because human beings have different ways to learn and process information; and, these different ways of learning are independent of each other. In other words, learning styles and techniques differ across individuals; thus, personalized learning provides L2 learners to freely choose the activities they enjoy the most. So it is a student-centered learning method in which the interests and the preferences of the learner is taken into account.The present study is an investigation of a personalized versus normal practice of L2 proficiency. For this purpose an OPT (Oxford Placement Test was given to a total of 80 Iranian EFL learners. Then, 40 of them who were considered as intermediate learners were selected for the purpose of the study. The participants were randomly divided into two groups i.e. an experimental group and a control group. Both groups were pretested prior to the study. Then, the experimental group received the treatment in the form of personalized learning (games-based learning, songs, music, stories, English tongue twisters and the materials that the subjects were most interested in for ten sessions while the control group received a normal practice of speaking proficiency (based on New Interchange course books. After ten sessions, both groups were post tested. Then the results of the posttests were subjects of statistical analysis (independent-samples t-test. The results indicated that the experimental group did better than the control group and there is a significant difference between the mean scores of the experimental group who were exposed to a personalized learning and the control group who received a normal practice of oral proficiency i.e. a placebo. Based on the results of this study, L2 learner’ interests in carrying out joyful L2 activities can help to reach promising results.Keywords: Personalized learning, Oral proficiency, EFL learners, Communication

  10. Investigating L2 Refusals: A Case Study of Chinese Native Speakers’ L2 Pragmatic Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Xiufeng Tian

    2014-01-01

    The speech act the researcher studies in this paper is refusal which, according to Ellis (2008), involves high level of pragmatic competence of the speaker, especially when it is compared with other speech acts like apology and request. Refusal seems to be particularly high-demanding for L2 learners, for L2 linguistic proficiency might be the hindrance. The researcher studies on one Chinese L2 learner’s pragmatic competence by focusing on the pragmatic strategies adopted in his L2 refus...

  11. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovi? Nebojša J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disease with a slowly progressive course and characterized by increased levels of hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. In this condition clinical features mainly consist of mental deterioration, ataxia and motor deficits. Case Outline. The patient is a 16-year-old girl, the first and only child of healthy, non-consanguineous parents of Serbian origin. At the age of 4 years her walk became unsteady and ataxic. Other signs of cerebellar involvement were soon observed. Head circumference was above two standard deviations (55 cm. Mild mental retardation was revealed by formal intelligence testing (IQ 60. MR examination of the brain showed confluent subcortical white matter lesions spread centripetally, and atrophy of the cerebellar vermis with involvement of dentate nuclei, without deep white matter abnormalities. Laboratory investigation revealed increased amounts and a very large peak of HGA in urine and plasma. Enantiomeric analysis confirmed the L-configuration (>90% establishing the diagnosis of L-2-HGA. The first epileptic seizure, partial with secondary generalization, occurred at age of 8 years. Favorable seizure control was achieved. A slow progression of neurological impairment was noted. Therapeutic trials with oral coenzyme Q10 and with oral riboflavin showed no biochemical and clinical effects. Recently, the diagnosis was proven by the presence of a mutation in the L-2-HGA gene. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of L-2-HGA in Serbia. L-2-HGA must be considered in the differential diagnosis based on specific findings in cranial MRI.

  12. A new approach to the learning of dental morphology, function, and esthetics: the "2D-3D-4D" concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    A concept is proposed for an approach to the learning of dental morphology and occlusion. Dental morphology, function, and esthetics should reflect a fundamental driving force, that is, the faithful emulation of the natural dentition's structural (functional, mechanical) and esthetic properties. The innovative part of the proposed approach is the emphasis on visual arts and the 2D-3D-4D aspect that starts with drawing (2D/3D) and continues with partial wax-up exercises that are followed by labial waxups and, finally, full wax-ups using innovative technical aids (electric waxers, prefabricated wax patterns, etc). Finally, the concept of layers (4D) and the histoanatomy of enamel/dentin and optical depth are taught through the realization of layering exercises (advanced acrylic mock-ups and composite resin restorations). All these techniques and materials are not only used to teach morphology and occlusion, but also constitute essential tools that will be of significant use for the student dentists and dental technologists in their future daily practice. The clinical significance of the presented methodology should allow not only students but also practicing dentists and dental technologists to help their youngest collaborators to develop a deep sense of morphology, function, and esthetics. PMID:25625126

  13. MOTHER TONGUE (L1 Vis-A-Vis OTHER TONGUE (L2?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Behera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning a language is always a difficult thing and more so when it comes to learning a second language (L2 for it reflects the complexity of learning a language which is the other tongue rather than the mother tongue of a person. The present paper proposes to focus on the prospects and benefits of the skill-based learning of the L2. All learners, as such pick up a language by two means: a acquisition of one's own language/mother tongue, and b learning another language. Acquisition is a subconscious and intuitive process, similar to that used by a child to pick up the first language (L1; and the second is conscious learning, in which a learner is aware of his/her own learning process.

  14. Literary Language in Development of L2 Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is believed that language in daily communication rather than literary language should be the target of learning in L2 education. This is mainly because literary language is said to be uncommon in life. This paper reports on a study in which some Hong Kong ESL learners’ English proficiency was re-examined through literary texts. These learners had reached intermediate or advanced levels of English prior to the study and were generally competent in daily English. However, many of them encountered difficulty in understanding literary language. Their proficiency in general English test could not match their performances in understanding literary works. The findings reveal that learners who are strong in general proficiency may not be good in understanding literary language. Lack of literary language in the curriculum results in a false and distorted picture about the learners’ proficiency. Literary language helps upgrade L2 learners’ real proficiency in the target language.Keywords: literature, literary language, L2 proficiency, reading competence

  15. LA ICLASSE – SMARTPHONE E ITALIANO L2/LS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Zanoli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mai come oggi le classi (di Italiano L2, ma non solo sono così fortemente colonizzate dal digitale. L’invasione si è palesata sotto forma di telefonini cellulari (smartphone e tablet dotati di connessione internet e infinite potenzialità sotto forma di applicazioni che possono sia aiutare il discente sia, se male impiegati, ostacolarlo dall’intraprendere un proficuo percorso di apprendimento. Compito dell’insegnante di lingua è circoscrivere l’influenza e l’uso di tali strumenti – che non sono mero techné, ma un modo di funzionare di una generazione – non  per vietarli ma per proporre un approccio e un loro utilizzo costruttivo quali mezzi dalle grandi potenzialità nell’apprendimento di una lingua straniera.     The 1st class – Smartphones and Italian L2/FL   Classrooms (for Italian L2, but not only have never before been so strongly digitally oriented. This invasion is made tangible by smartphones and tablets equipped with internet connections and infinite potential thanks to applications which can help students in their studies, or hinder them if used incorrectly. The language teacher’s task is to circumscribe the influence and use of these tools– which are not mere techné, but the way an entire generation functions – not to prohibit using them but to propose using them constructively, thanks to their great potential for foreign language learning.

  16. An Application of the L2 Motivational Self System to Motivate Elementary School English Learners in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Magid

    2013-01-01

    I will describe a program that I developed to motivate grade five elementary school learners of English in Singapore to put more time and effort into learning English by enhancing their vision of their Ideal second language (L2) self and making their goals for learning English more clear and specific. The Ideal L2 self is the representation of the L2 attributes that one wishes to possess if one is able to master one’s L2. The participants, who were separated into a control group and an experi...

  17. Using Multimedia Vocabulary Annotations in L2 Reading and Listening Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing Xu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of multimedia vocabulary annotation (MVA) in facilitating second language (L2) reading and listening activities. It examines the multimedia learning and multimedia language learning theories that underlie the MVA research, synthesizes the findings on MVA in the last decade, and identifies three underresearched areas on…

  18. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  19. L_2 Differentiability of Generalized Linear Models

    OpenAIRE

    Pupashenko, Daria; Ruckdeschel, Peter; Kohl, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    We derive conditions for $L_2$ differentiability of generalized linear models with error distributions not necessarily belonging to exponential families, covering both cases of stochastic and deterministic regressors. These conditions induce smoothness and integrability conditions for corresponding GLM-based time series models.

  20. Investigating L2 Performance in Text Chat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Shannon; Smith, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the linguistic complexity and lexical diversity of both overt and covert L2 output produced during synchronous written computer-mediated communication, also referred to as chat. Video enhanced chatscripts produced by university learners of German (N = 23) engaged in dyadic task-based chat interaction were coded and analyzed for…

  1. Analytic semigroups generated by an operator matrix in L^2(Omega X L^2(Omega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Badraoui

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the generation of analytic semigroups by an operator matrix in the space $L^2(Omegaimes L^2(Omega$. We assume that one of the diagonal elements is strongly elliptic and the other is weakly elliptic, while the sum of the non-diagonal elements is weakly elliptic.

  2. Integrating Meaning and Structure in L1-L2 and L2-L1 Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung Hyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2013-01-01

    This article examined the integration of semantic and morphosyntactic information by Korean learners of English as a second language (L2). In Experiment 1, L2 learners listened to English active or passive sentences that were either plausible or implausible and translated them into Korean. A significant number of Korean translations maintained the…

  3. Processing Focus Structure in L1 and L2 French: L2 Proficiency Effects on ERPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Robert V.; Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by focus processing among first language (L1) speakers and second language (L2) learners of French. Participants read wh-questions containing explicit focus marking, followed by responses instantiating contrastive and informational focus. We hypothesized that L2 proficiency would…

  4. Processing Focus Structure in L1 and L2 French: L2 Proficiency Effects on ERPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Robert V.; Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by focus processing among first language (L1) speakers and second language (L2) learners of French. Participants read wh-questions containing explicit focus marking, followed by responses instantiating contrastive and informational focus. We hypothesized that L2 proficiency would…

  5. Integrating Meaning and Structure in L1-L2 and L2-L1 Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung Hyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2013-01-01

    This article examined the integration of semantic and morphosyntactic information by Korean learners of English as a second language (L2). In Experiment 1, L2 learners listened to English active or passive sentences that were either plausible or implausible and translated them into Korean. A significant number of Korean translations maintained the…

  6. Striatal dysregulation of Cdk5 alters locomotor responses to cocaine, motor learning, and dendritic morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Douglas A.; RICHER, Edmond; Benkovic, Stanley A.; Hayashi, Kanehiro; Kansy, Janice W; Hale, Carly F.; Moy, Lily Y.; Kim, Yong; O'Callaghan, James P.; Tsai, Li-Huei; Greengard, Paul; Nairn, Angus C.; Cowan, Christopher W.; Diane B. Miller; Antich, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    Motor learning and neuro-adaptations to drugs of abuse rely upon neuronal signaling in the striatum. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) regulates striatal dopamine neurotransmission and behavioral responses to cocaine. Although the role for Cdk5 in neurodegeneration in the cortex and hippocampus and in hippocampal-dependent learning has been demonstrated, its dysregulation in the striatum has not been examined. Here we show that strong activation of striatal NMDA receptors produced p25, the tru...

  7. The development of L2 emergent literacy in Hong Kong Kindergarten children

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Lydia L.S.; Sylva, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores the development of emergent literacy in Hong Kong Kindergarten children who are learning English as a Second Language (L2). Two interrelated empirical studies have been conducted, and both aim to examine the contribution of code-related and oral language skills to predicting early L2 reading ability, controlling for home influences. The majority of research on emergent literacy has been conducted on First-Language (L1) English-speaking children, and it is possible that th...

  8. Learning Novel Morphology: The Role of Meaning and Orientation of Attention at Initial Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Emma; Williams, John; Liu, Xierong

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research has shown that suffixes--both inflectional and derivational--can be primed with adult native speakers, which informs our understanding of storage and access to morphology in mature systems. However, this line of research has not yet been conducted from an acquisition perspective: Little is known about whether or not…

  9. Earth Atmosphere Observatory Formation at L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Edward; Acikmese, A. Behcet; Breckenridge, William G.; Mecenka, Steven A.; Tubbs, Eldred F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a product of research supported by NASA under RASC (the Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts) program. It presents an overall system architecture, and covers issues of deployment, navigation, and control related to a formation of two spacecraft in the neighborhood of the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point (on the Sun-Earth line), that serves as an observatory of Earth's atmosphere. The observatory concept definition study was a multi-center NASA effort conducted in 2003, and covered a much wider scope than is presented in this focused paper.The Earth observatory at L2 is a unique design concept that can improve the knowledge and understanding of dynamic, chemical and radiative mechanisms that cause changes in the atmosphere, and can lead to the development of models and techniques to predict short and long-term climate changes.

  10. Deadbeat Response is l_2 Optimal.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ku?era, Vladimír

    New York : IEEE, 2008, s. 154-157 ISBN 978-1-4244-1687-5; ISBN 978-1-4244-1688-2. [The 3rd International Symposium on Communications, Control and Signal Processing. St. Julians (ML), 12.03.2008-14.03.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear systems * finite impulse response * L_2 norm minimization Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  11. On Estimating $L_2^2$ Divergence

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy, Akshay; Kandasamy, Kirthevasan; Poczos, Barnabas; Wasserman, Larry

    2014-01-01

    We give a comprehensive theoretical characterization of a nonparametric estimator for the $L_2^2$ divergence between two continuous distributions. We first bound the rate of convergence of our estimator, showing that it is $\\sqrt{n}$-consistent provided the densities are sufficiently smooth. In this smooth regime, we then show that our estimator is asymptotically normal, construct asymptotic confidence intervals, and establish a Berry-Ess\\'{e}en style inequality characterizi...

  12. Fehler, Fehleranalyse und Fehlerbenotung im Lichte des natuerlichen L2-Erwerbs. (Analysis and Grading of Errors in the Light of the L2 Acquisition Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wode, Henning

    1978-01-01

    Compares the error-grading system of Zydatiss (in 'Linguistik und Didaktik', No. 24, 1975) with examples from the "Natural L2 (Second Language) Acquisition" project, and raises the question of how far it is possible for a teacher to utilize the approach of a self-guided language-learning process. (IFS/WGA)

  13. The Bounded L2 Curvature Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Klainerman, Sergiu; Szeftel, Jeremie

    2012-01-01

    This is the main paper in a sequence in which we give a complete proof of the bounded $L^2$ curvature conjecture. More precisely we show that the time of existence of a classical solution to the Einstein-vacuum equations depends only on the $L^2$-norm of the curvature and a lower bound on the volume radius of the corresponding initial data set. We note that though the result is not optimal with respect to the standard scaling of the Einstein equations, it is nevertheless critical with respect to another, more subtle, scaling tied to its causal geometry; i.e. $L^2$ bounds on the curvature is the minimum requirement necessary to obtain lower bounds on the radius of injectivity of causal boundaries. We note also that, while the first nontrivial improvements for well posedness for quasilinear hyperbolic systems, in spacetime dimensions greater than 1+1 (based on Strichartz estimates) were obtained in \\cite{Ba-Ch1}, \\cite{Ba-Ch2}, \\cite{Ta1}, \\cite{Ta2}, \\cite{Kl-R1} and optimized in \\cite{Kl-R2}, \\cite{Sm-Ta}, th...

  14. L2 method for a soluble model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of describing scattering solutions of the Schroedinger equation by means of L2 functions is illustrated for a variable coupling constant in a simple separable potential model which admits an exact solution. The orthogonal polynomials generated by the L2 solution are shown to be positive definite only for a limited range of the coupling constant. Further, it is shown that the underlying Gaussian quadrature rule for the positive-definite region can be extended to the general case albeit with the consequence that the weights are no longer all positive. A simple expression for the weights in terms of the associated abscissas is derived for the model. To complete the analysis it is demonstrated that a renormalization procedure of the L2 functions to recover the scattering solutions is justified for arbitrary values of the coupling constant. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to test the Heller equivalent weight prescription and it is concluded that it works for all ranges of coupling strengths in the model

  15. Création et utilisation de ressources pédagogiques sur support numérique pour l'apprentissage d'une L2 : quelles compétences pour l'enseignant ? Designing and using digital learning resources for second language acquisition: what skills do teachers need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arthaud

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available À l'Université de Technologie de Belfort-Montbéliard, des ressources pédagogiques sur support numérique ont été créées afin d'être intégrées au dispositif d'enseignement d'une UV d'anglais destinée à des élèves-ingénieurs. Dans le cadre d'une recherche-action, la nature et la fonction de ces ressources ont été établies à la lumière de connaissances théoriques, et les effets de leur intégration ont fait l'objet de mesures. Cet article se concentre sur les compétences qui ont été requises pour mettre en place ces ressources : compétences dans les domaines de la didactique des langues et de la création de pages HTML. Une ébauche de référentiel métier est proposée. Même si les résultats de cette expérience semblent positifs, la question demeure de savoir s'il est possible d'être en même temps enseignant et concepteur de ressources sur support numérique. Des éléments de réponse se trouvent peut-être davantage du côté de la gestion du temps, de la motivation et des savoir-faire relationnels que du seul côté des compétences informatiques. Cette expérience n'a nullement pour vocation de fixer les règles d'un exemple à suivre. Néanmoins, elle illustre le fait que la recherche-action peut être un moyen efficace de canaliser la diversité des motivations des enseignants impliqués dans des démarches innovantes et de promouvoir la responsabilité déontologique et épistémologique, ce qui contribuera à l'amélioration des pratiques d'enseignement.At the University of Technology of Belfort-Montbéliard, digital learning resources have been designed for and integrated with the pedagogical structure of an English credit course for engineering students. Within an action research procedure, the nature and functions of these resources have been established in the light of theoretical knowledge, and the effects of this integration have been assessed. This article focuses on the skills - in the fields of language pedagogy and of HTML page design - that have been required to set up these resources. It puts forth a tentative inventory of them. Even if this experiment appears to be successful, the question remains as to whether it is feasible to be both a teacher and a digital resource designer at the same time. Part of the answer might have more to do with time-management, motivation and interpersonal skills than with computer literacy. This experiment is in no way meant to set the rules of an example to follow. However, it illustrates that action research may be an efficient means to channel the various motivations of innovative teachers and to promote deontological as well as epistemological responsibility, which will contribute to improving teaching practice.

  16. L2 Learners’ Proficiency Development through Noticing Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saber Alavi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study investigated the relationship between noticing of corrective feedback and L2 development considering the learners’ perspective on error correction. Specifically, it aimed to uncover the noticeability and effectiveness of recasts, prompts, a combination of the two, to determine a relationship between noticing of CF and learning of the past tense. The participants were four groups of college ESL learners (n = 40. Each group was assigned to a treatment condition, but the researcher taught the control group. CF was provided to learners in response to their mistakes in forming the past tense. While noticing of CF was assessed through immediate recall and questionnaire responses, learning outcomes were measured through picture description administered via pre-test, post-test, and delayed post-test design. Learner beliefs about CF were probed by means of a 40-item questionnaire. The results indicated that the noticeability of CF is dependent on the grammatical target it addresses and that the feedback techniques that push learners to self-correct alone or in combination with target exemplars are more effective in. In relation to the learning outcomes, the overall past tense accuracy increased more than that for questions, but there were no significant differences between the groups. Finally, in relation to the beliefs about CF, the participants’ responses centered on the importance of oral CF, recasts as CF technique, prompts as CF technique, and affective consequences of CF, two of which mediated the noticeability of the supplied CF, but none impacted the learning outcomes.

  17. Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two well-known texts that respectively describe learning and teaching, drawn from the work of Freud and Plato. These texts are considered in psychoanalytic terms using a methodology drawn from the philosophy of Luce Irigaray. In particular the article addresses Irigaray's approach to the analysis of speech and utterance as a…

  18. The Contribution of L1 Phonemic Awareness into L2 Reading: The Case of Arab EFL Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaboul, Yousef; Asassfeh, Sahail; Alshboul, Sabri; Alodwan, Talal

    2014-01-01

    Cross-language transfer is the extent, if any, to which phonological awareness in L1 facilitates learning to read in L2. This has been an area of investigation wherein researchers looked into the orthographic and phonological component processing skills L2 learners develop and utilize to facilitate word recognition. Given the difference between…

  19. Immunogenicity of an HPV-16 L2 DNA vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Hitzeroth, Inga I.; PASSMORE, Jo-Ann S.; Shephard, Enid; Stewart, Debbie; Müller, Martin; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Rybicki, Edward P.; Kast, W Martin

    2009-01-01

    The ability to elicit cross-neutralizing antibodies makes human papillomavirus (HPV) L2 capsid protein a possible HPV vaccine. We examined and compared the humoral response of mice immunised with a HPV-16 L2 DNA vaccine or with HPV-16 L2 protein. The L2 DNA vaccine elicited a non-neutralising antibody response unlike the L2 protein. L2 DNA vaccination suppressed the growth of L2-expressing C3 tumor cells, which is a T cell mediated effect, demonstrating that the lack of non-neutralizing antib...

  20. Vocabulary teaching strategies and conceptual representations of words in L2 in children: evidence with novice learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel; Piñeiro, Ana; Fraga, Isabel

    2009-09-01

    A controversial issue in bilingual research is whether in the early stages of L2 learning, access to the conceptual system involves mediation of L1 lexical representations [Kroll, J. F., & Stewart, E. (1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations. Journal of Memory and Language, 33, 149-174] or a direct route from the L2 word [Altarriba, J., & Mathis, K. M. (1997). Conceptual and lexical development in second language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 36, 550-568; Finkbeiner, M., & Nicol, J. (2003). Semantic category effects in second language word learning. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 369-383]. The main goal of this paper is to study, in a child population, whether the creation of conceptual representations for L2 words is possible, even after only one session of learning of the L2 vocabulary. Furthermore, we do so by examining the efficacy of two different L2 learning methods: L2-L1 association learning vs. L2-picture association learning. A translation recognition task was employed to test whether there was a difference between a semantically related pair and an unrelated pair across conditions (i.e., a semantic interference effect). Results showed a significant semantic interference effect-a conceptual effect-in children after just one vocabulary learning session. Importantly, the L2-picture method produced a greater semantic interference effect than the L2-L1 method. The implications of these findings for models of bilingual memory are examined. PMID:19084237

  1. KNET: A General Framework for Learning Word Embedding using Morphological Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Qing; Gao, Bin; Bian, Jiang; Qiu, Siyu; Liu, Tie-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Neural network techniques are widely applied to obtain high-quality distributed representations of words, i.e., word embeddings, to address text mining, information retrieval, and natural language processing tasks. Recently, efficient methods have been proposed to learn word embeddings from context that captures both semantic and syntactic relationships between words. However, it is challenging to handle unseen words or rare words with insufficient context. In this paper, in...

  2. Scoring diverse cellular morphologies in image-based screens with iterative feedback and machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Thouis R; Carpenter, Anne E.; Lamprecht, Michael R.; Moffat, Jason; Silver, Serena J.; Grenier, Jennifer K; Castoreno, Adam B.; Eggert, Ulrike S.; ROOT, DAVID E.; Golland, Polina; Sabatini, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Many biological pathways were first uncovered by identifying mutants with visible phenotypes and by scoring every sample in a screen via tedious and subjective visual inspection. Now, automated image analysis can effectively score many phenotypes. In practical application, customizing an image-analysis algorithm or finding a sufficient number of example cells to train a machine learning algorithm can be infeasible, particularly when positive control samples are not available and the phenotype...

  3. A Catalog of Visual-like Morphologies in the 5 CANDELS Fields Using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas-Company, M.; Gravet, R.; Cabrera-Vives, G.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Barro, G.; Bernardi, M.; Mei, S.; Shankar, F.; Dimauro, P.; Bell, E. F.; Kocevski, D.; Koo, D. C.; Faber, S. M.; Mcintosh, D. H.

    2015-11-01

    We present a catalog of visual-like H-band morphologies of ?50.000 galaxies (Hf160w Networks (ConvNets). The median redshift of the sample is ? 1.25. The algorithm is trained on GOODS-S, for which visual classifications are publicly available, and then applied to the other 4 fields. Following the CANDELS main morphology classification scheme, our model retrieves for each galaxy the probabilities of having a spheroid or a disk, presenting an irregularity, being compact or a point source, and being unclassifiable. ConvNets are able to predict the fractions of votes given to a galaxy image with zero bias and ?10% scatter. The fraction of mis-classifications is less than 1%. Our classification scheme represents a major improvement with respect to Concentration-Asymmetry-Smoothness-based methods, which hit a 20%–30% contamination limit at high z. The catalog is released with the present paper via the Rainbow database (http://rainbowx.fis.ucm.es/Rainbow_navigator_public/).

  4. A catalog of visual-like morphologies in the 5 CANDELS fields using deep-learning

    CERN Document Server

    Huertas-Company, M; Cabrera-Vives, G; Pérez-González, P G; Kartaltepe, J S; Barro, G; Bernardi, M; Mei, S; Shankar, F; Dimauro, P; Bell, E F; Kocevski, D; Koo, D C; Faber, S M; Mcintosh, D H

    2015-01-01

    We present a catalog of visual like H-band morphologies of $\\sim50.000$ galaxies ($H_{f160w}\\sim1.25$. The algorithm is trained on GOODS-S for which visual classifications are publicly available and then applied to the other 4 fields. Following the CANDELS main morphology classification scheme, our model retrieves the probabilities for each galaxy of having a spheroid, a disk, presenting an irregularity, being compact or point source and being unclassifiable. ConvNets are able to predict the fractions of votes given a galaxy image with zero bias and $\\sim10\\%$ scatter. The fraction of miss-classifications is less than $1\\%$. Our classification scheme represents a major improvement with respect to CAS (Concentration-Asymmetry-Smoothness)-based methods, which hit a $20-30\\%$ contamination limit at high z. The catalog is released with the present paper via the $\\href{http://rainbowx.fis.ucm.es/Rainbow_navigator_public}{Rainbow\\,database}$

  5. Transfer and Semantic Universals in the L2 Acquisition of the English Article System by Child L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Reyes, Alexandra; Soler, Inmaculada Gómez

    2016-01-01

    L2 learners' problems with English articles have been linked to learners' L1 and their access to universal semantic features (e.g., definiteness and specificity). Studies suggest that L2 adults rely on their L1 knowledge, while child L2 learners rely more on their access to semantic universals. The present study investigates whether child L2…

  6. Active learning of neuron morphology for accurate automated tracing of neurites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen Stepanyants

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Automating the process of neurite tracing from light microscopy stacks of images is essential for large-scale or high-throughput quantitative studies of neural circuits. While the general layout of labeled neurites can be captured by many automated tracing algorithms, it is often not possible to differentiate reliably between the processes belonging to different cells. The reason is that some neurites in the stack may appear broken due to imperfect labeling, while others may appear fused due to the limited resolution of optical microscopy. Trained neuroanatomists routinely resolve such topological ambiguities during manual tracing tasks by combining information about distances between branches, branch orientations, intensities, calibers, tortuosities, colors, as well as the presence of spines or boutons. Likewise, to evaluate different topological scenarios automatically, we developed a machine learning approach that combines many of the above mentioned features. A specifically designed confidence measure was used to actively train the algorithm during user-assisted tracing procedure. Active learning significantly reduces the training time and makes it possible to obtain less than 1% generalization error rates by providing few training examples. To evaluate the overall performance of the algorithm a number of image stacks were reconstructed automatically, as well as manually by several trained users, making it possible to compare the automated traces to the baseline inter-user variability. Several geometrical and topological features of the traces were selected for the comparisons. These features include the total trace length, the total numbers of branch and terminal points, the affinity of corresponding traces, and the distances between corresponding branch and terminal points. Our results show that when the density of labeled neurites is sufficiently low, automated traces are not significantly different from manual reconstructions obtained by trained users.

  7. A Review of Recent Research (2000-2008) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This review presents a broad picture of recent work on L2 Spanish in educational contexts. The thematic and geographic scope of the review is wide, in order to capture the diversity of learners and learning contexts of L2 Spanish, just two decades after teaching and learning the language gained impetus worldwide. Traditional second or foreign…

  8. Review of Recent Research (2002-2009) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 German (Part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerth, Johannes; Tschirner, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    This review of research on the learning, teaching, and assessment of L2 German may be particularly timely due to developments from within the profession as well as recent political changes which continue to have a strong bearing on the way L2 German is promoted, learned, taught and assessed. Far from representing an isolated field of research…

  9. Effects of Input Properties, Vocabulary Size, and L1 on the Development of Third Person Singular -"s" in Child L2 English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Paradis, Johanne; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the development of third-person singular (3SG) -"s" in children who learn English as a second language (L2). Adopting the usage-based perspective on the learning of inflection, we analyzed spontaneous speech samples collected from 15 English L2 children who were followed over a 2-year period. Assessing the…

  10. Orthographic Influence on the Phonological Development of L2 Learners of Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeon

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the influence of L2 orthographic representation on the phonological development of American English speakers learning Korean, addressing specifically the syllabification and resyllabification of Korean intervocalic obstruents and the intervocalic liquid phoneme. Although Korean and English both employ alphabetic writing…

  11. Does the Medium Really Matter in L2 Development? The Validity of Call Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Luis; Baralt, Melissa; Suh, Bo-Ram; Leow, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, an increasing number of educational institutions are redefining second/foreign language (L2) classrooms by enhancing--or even replacing--traditional face-to-face (FTF) instruction with computer-assisted language learning (CALL). However, are these curricular decisions supported by research? Overall, a cursory review of empirical studies…

  12. Exploring the Relationship between Reading Strategy Use and Multiple Intelligences among Successful L2 Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Azizullah; Rahimi Domakani, Masoud; Heidari, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, the multiple intelligences theory (MIT) proposed by Howard Gardner has renewed interest in learners' use of effective learning strategies and produced interesting results. This MIT-oriented study investigated the role of successful L2 readers' multiple intelligences in their effective use of reading strategies. To this…

  13. Character Reading Fluency, Word Segmentation Accuracy, and Reading Comprehension in L2 Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Helen H.; Jiang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between lower-level processing and general reading comprehension among adult L2 (second-language) beginning learners of Chinese, in both target and non-target language learning environments. Lower-level processing in Chinese reading includes the factors of character-naming accuracy, character-naming speed,…

  14. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ∼8 kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. - Highlights: • L2 is the minor antigen of the non-enveloped T=7d icosahedral Papillomavirus capsid. • L2 is a nuclear protein that can traffic to ND-10 and facilitate genome encapsidation. • L2 is critical for infection and must be cleaved by furin. • L2 is a broadly protective vaccine antigen recognized by neutralizing antibodies

  15. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Joshua W. [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Roden, Richard B.S., E-mail: roden@jhmi.edu [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ∼8 kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. - Highlights: • L2 is the minor antigen of the non-enveloped T=7d icosahedral Papillomavirus capsid. • L2 is a nuclear protein that can traffic to ND-10 and facilitate genome encapsidation. • L2 is critical for infection and must be cleaved by furin. • L2 is a broadly protective vaccine antigen recognized by neutralizing antibodies.

  16. Review of Social Interaction and L2 Classroom Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    aus der Wieschen, Maria Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Social Interaction and L2 Classroom Discourse investigates interactional practices in L2 classrooms. Using Conversation Analysis, the book unveils the processes underlying the co-construction of mutual understanding in potential interactional troubles in L2 classrooms – such as claims of insufficient knowledge (as previously described by Sert 2011) – and their resolutions. Sert defines “L2” as “an umbrella term that stands for a(n) second/foreign/additional language used in an instructed languag...

  17. GLI ERRORI DI ITALIANO L1 ED L2: INTERFERENZA E APPRENDIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Solarino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Si può oggi affrontare il tema degli errori di italiano da una prospettiva che possa giovare contemporaneamente a docenti di italiano L1 ed L2? Noi pensiamo di sì: la ricerca glottodidattica sembra aver ormai apprestato un terreno comune alle due situazioni di apprendimento, sgombrando il campo da vecchi pregiudizi e distinzioni che appaiono ormai superate. Attraverso la contrapposizione di concetti quali “lingua parlata/lingua scritta”,  “errori di lingua / errori di linguaggio”, “apprendimento spontaneo/apprendimento guidato”, “italiano L1/italiano L2”, “errori di apprendimento/errori di interferenza, si indicano diversi criteri per la interpretazione degli errori e la loro valutazione in relazione alle cause, alle situazioni comunicative, ai contesti o allo stadio di evoluzione dell’apprendimento della lingua.     Errors in italian L1 and L2: interference and learning   Can errors in Italian be approached in a way that benefits both L1 and L2 Italian teachers? We believe so: glottodidactic research seems to have prepared a common terrain for these two learning situations, clearing the field of old prejudices and obsolete distinctions.  Through the juxtaposition of concepts like “spoken language/written language”, “language errors/speech errors”, “spontaneous learning/guided learning”, “L1 Italian/L2 Italian”, “learning errors/interference errors”, different criteria for interpreting errors and evaluating them in relation to their causes, to communicative situations, to contexts and the developmental state in learning a language are singled out.

  18. VIDEOGIOCHI E ITALIANO L2/LS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Zanoli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L'articolo prende in considerazione alcune ipotesi sull'uso del videogioco nell'insegnamento/apprendimento della lingua straniera supportate dall'analisi di alcuni videogames per uso didattico. Pur non nascondendo le difficoltà che l'insegnante può incontrare nell'integrare il videogioco nel percorso di insegnamento/apprendimento di una lingua straniera in classe, diversi sono i motivi per i quali il videogioco può essere considerato un efficace strumento di apprendimento linguistico. Innanzitutto perché gli input linguistici possono essere numerosi e vari, in secondo luogo perché è vettore di lingua che coinvolge i diversi sensi e diverse operazioni cognitive e, in terzo luogo perché trasforma il processo dell'apprendimento da simbolico a esperienziale. Infine perché si tratta di un mezzo divertente capace di creare interesse ad apprendere offrendo opportunità straordinarie in quanto attiva negli apprendenti, soprattutto più giovani, due fattori chiave per un apprendimento solido e duraturo: l'esperienza e la motivazione, elementi che spesso le metodologie tradizionali trascurano. A conclusione dell'articolo viene proposta di attività didattica di italiano LS con una serie di suggerimenti per l'insegnante.   This article discusses the use of videogames in teaching/learning a foreign language and analyzes a few didactic videogames. While not underestimating the difficulties that teachers may have in integrating videogames in the teaching/learning process in a classroom, there are different reasons why videogames can be considered effective tools for language learning. First of all, the linguistic input is varied and rich, and secondly it is a way of engaging different senses and cognitive processes, and in the third place it transforms learning from something symbolic to something experiential. Finally, it is an amusing way to generate interest in learning by offering an extraordinary opportunity, since it activates two key aspects for solid and long-lasting learning, especially in younger students: experience and motivation.  These aspects are often overlooked in more traditional methods. The article concludes with examples of didactic activities for Italian FL teaching and a series of suggestions for the teacher.

  19. IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2 CON LE CANZONI. UN CONTRIBUTO DIDATTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Mauroni

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Il presente contributo si inserisce nel filone degli studi che hanno messo in evidenza la potenziale ricchezza della canzone come strumento di facilitazione dell’apprendimento della L2, e come mezzo per l’approccio al testo letterario per studenti di italiano L1, additandone il carattere di attività particolarmente efficace e ‘consonante’ con una prospettiva umanistico-affettiva, comunicativa, nonché socio-costruttivista. In queste pagine sono presentate alcune attività didattiche (pensate ora per gli apprendenti di italiano L2, ora per gli studenti di italiano L1 formulate a partire da alcuni testi del cantautore Claudio Baglioni (Io sono qui, Le vie dei Colori, Bolero, Fammi andar via tratti dall’album Io sono qui, 1995, edizioni CBS. I testi qui didattizzati sono utilizzabili in diverse prospettive: grammaticale, lessicale, retorica, socio-culturale, ecc.; e per diversi livelli di competenza linguistica (L2: A1-C1; L1.     Learning italian l2 through song.  A didactic contribution   This article is part of a series of studies which focus on the potential richness of songs as tools for facilitating L2 learning, as well as being a way to approach literary texts for L1 Italian students, being a particularly effective activity from a humanistic-affective, communicative and socio-constructivist point of view.  A few didactic activities are presented (designed for L2 Italian learners, or for L1 Italian learners based on songs by Claudio Baglioni (Io sono qui, Le vie dei Colori, Bolero, Fammi andar via from the album Io sono qui, 1995, edizioni CBS.  The texts were adapted for diverse didactic uses: grammatical, lexical, rhetorical, socio-cultural, etc and for different levels of linguistic competence (L2: A1-C1, L1

  20. L2TTMON Monitoring Program for L2 Topological Trigger in H1 Experiment - User's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring software for the L2 Topological Trigger in H1 experiment consists of two parts working on two different computers. The hardware read-out and data processing is done on a fast FIC 8234 computer working with the OS9 real time operating system. The Macintosh Quadra is used as a Graphic User Interface for accessing the OS9 trigger monitoring software. The communication between both computers is based on the parallel connection between the Macintosh and the VME crate, where the FIC computer is placed. The special designed protocol (client-server) is used to communicate between both nodes. The general scheme of monitoring for the L2 Topological Trigger and detailed description of using of the monitoring software in both nodes are given in this guide. (author)

  1. MANIPULATING L2 LEARNERS' ONLINE DICTIONARY USE AND ITS EFFECT ON L2 WORD RETENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Elke Peters

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the effect of two enhancement techniques on L2 learners' look-up behaviour during a reading task and word retention afterwards amongst Flemish learners of German: a Vocabulary Test Announcement and Task-induced Word Relevance. Eighty-four participants were recruited for this study. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1) not forewarned of an upcoming vocabulary test (incidental condition) or 2) forewarned of a vocabulary test (intentional condition). Task-indu...

  2. The Role of L1 and L2 Working Memory in Literal and Inferential Comprehension in L2 Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Cem; Ercetin, Gulcan

    2010-01-01

    Reading span as a measure of L1 or L2 working memory capacity is shown to be related to L2 reading comprehension. Albeit limited, there is research on the relationship between both L1 and L2 reading spans and their roles in L2 reading comprehension, yet these studies take reading as a global construct rather than delving into its multi-level…

  3. The Role of L1 and L2 Working Memory in Literal and Inferential Comprehension in L2 Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Cem; Ercetin, Gulcan

    2010-01-01

    Reading span as a measure of L1 or L2 working memory capacity is shown to be related to L2 reading comprehension. Albeit limited, there is research on the relationship between both L1 and L2 reading spans and their roles in L2 reading comprehension, yet these studies take reading as a global construct rather than delving into its multi-level…

  4. Musical morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, M Mallar; Vuust, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Morphologic measures have long been used to determine the patho-anatomical signature of different neurologic disorders. However, these measures can also be used to determine effects of specific learning tasks and quantifiable human abilities on cerebral structure. Musicians provide interesting op...... analyses in the music and neuroscience literature and provide some results from our own analysis of rhythmic ability in a cohort of musicians....

  5. Musical morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, M Mallar; Vuust, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Morphologic measures have long been used to determine the patho-anatomical signature of different neurologic disorders. However, these measures can also be used to determine effects of specific learning tasks and quantifiable human abilities on cerebral structure. Musicians provide interesting opportunities for this type of analysis as their various skills, such as rhythmic ability and pitch and harmony discrimination (acquired through years of practicing and playing) can be quantified and compa...

  6. Relationships among L1 Print Exposure and Early L1 Literacy Skills, L2 Aptitude, and L2 Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Authors examined the relationship between individual differences in L1 print exposure and differences in early L1 skills and later L2 aptitude, L2 proficiency, and L2 classroom achievement. Participants were administered measures of L1 word decoding, spelling, phonemic awareness, reading comprehension, receptive vocabulary, and listening…

  7. L2 Learners' Assessments of Accentedness, Fluency, and Comprehensibility of Native and Nonnative German Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Mary Grantham

    2014-01-01

    In early stages of classroom language learning, many adult second language (L2) learners communicate primarily with one another, yet we know little about which speech stream characteristics learners tune into or the extent to which they understand this lingua franca communication. In the current study, 25 native English speakers learning German as…

  8. On the effects of L2 perception and of individual differences in L1 production on L2 pronunciation

    OpenAIRE

    Kartushina, Natalia; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2014-01-01

    The speech of late second language (L2) learners is generally marked by an accent. The dominant theoretical perspective attributes accents to deficient L2 perception arising from a transfer of L1 phonology, which is thought to influence L2 perception and production. In this study we evaluate the explanatory role of L2 perception in L2 production and explore alternative explanations arising from the L1 phonological system, such as for example, the role of L1 production. Specifically we examine...

  9. FENÓMENOS DE REDUCCIÓN VOCÁLICA POR HABLANTES COLOMBIANOS DE INGLÉS COMO L2: UN ESTUDIO ACÚSTICO / VOWEL REDUCTION PHENOMENA BY COLOMBIAN SPANISH SPEAKERS OF L2 ENGLISH: AN ACOUSTIC STUDY / FENÔMENOS DE REDUÇÃO VOCÁLICA POR FALANTES COLOMBIANOS DE INGLÊS COMO L2: UM ESTUDO ACÚSTICO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kelly Johanna, Vera Diettes.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou as capacidades de um grupo de falantes de inglês como segunda língua (L2), quando percebiam e produzia a vogal inglesa Schwa. Avaliaram-se as hipóteses propostas pelo Modelo de Aprendizagem da Fala (Speech Learning Model [SML, por sua sigla em inglês]), as quais sugerem que os fa [...] lantes de L2 poderiam criar categorias fonéticas para novos sons. Tomou-se a ortografia como uma possível variável que afeta as habilidades dos falantes de L2. O estudo foi realizado em três etapas: a primeira avaliou as capacidades iniciais dos falantes de L2; a segunda consistiu num treinamento fonético em processos de redução vocálica e Schwa; finalmente, a terceira avaliou as mesmas instâncias depois do treinamento. Os resultados sugerem que os falantes tenham sido influenciados pela ortografia e tenham percebido e produzido Schwas que se assemelhavam a suas vogais nativas. Abstract in spanish Este estudio evaluó las capacidades de un grupo de hablantes de inglés como segunda lengua (L2), cuando percibían y producía la vocal inglesa Schwa. Se evaluaron las hipótesis propuestas por el Modelo de Aprendizaje del Habla (Speech Learning Model [SML, por sus siglas en inglés]), las cuales sugier [...] en que los hablantes de L2 podrían crear categorías fonéticas para sonidos nuevos. Se tomó la ortografía como una posible variable que afecta las habilidades de los hablantes de L2. El estudio se realizó en tres etapas: la primera evaluó las capacidades iniciales de los hablantes de L2; la segunda consistió en un entrenamiento fonético en procesos de reducción vocálica y Schwa, y, finalmente, la tercera evaluó las mismas instancias después del entrenamiento. Los resultados sugieren que los hablantes fueron influenciados por la ortografía y percibieron y produjeron Schwas que asemejaban sus vocales nativas. Abstract in english This study assessed the performances of a group of speakers of L2 English when perceiving and producing the English vowel Schwa. It evaluated the hypotheses proposed by the Speech Learning Model (SML), developed by Flege and colleagues (1988, 1992, 1999, and 2002), which suggest that L2 speakers are [...] capable of creating phonetic categories for new L2 sounds. The effect of orthography was chosen as a variable that could affect L2 speakers’ abilities. The study was carried out in three stages: the first one evaluated initial L2 speakers’ perceptual and productive abilities; stage two consisted of pronunciation training in vowel reduction processes; and stage three evaluated performances after training. Results suggest that Second Language (L2) speakers were influenced by the orthography; therefore, they perceived and produced Schwas as instances of their native vowels.

  10. Learning to Characterize Submarine Lava Flow Morphology at Seamounts and Spreading Centers using High Definition Video and Photomosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundis, A. T.; Sautter, L. R.; Kelley, D. S.; Delaney, J. R.; Kerr-Riess, M.; Denny, A. R.; Elend, M.

    2010-12-01

    In August, 2010 the UW ENLIGHTEN ’10 expedition provided ~140 hours of seafloor HD video footage at Axial Seamount, the most magmatically robust submarine volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. During this expedition, direct imagery from an Insite Pacific HD camera mounted on the ROV Jason 2 was used to classify broad expanses of seafloor where high power (8 kw) and high bandwidth (10 Gb/s) fiber optic cable will be laid as part of the Regional Scale Nodes (RSN) component of the NSF funded Ocean Observatories Initiative. The cable will provide power and two-way, real-time communication to an array of >20 sensors deployed at the summit of the volcano and at active sites of hydrothermal venting to investigate how active processes within the volcano and at seafloor hot springs within the caldera are connected. In addition to HD imagery, over 10,000 overlapping photographs from a down-looking still camera were merged and co-registered to create high resolution photomosaics of two areas within Axial’s caldera. Thousands of additional images were taken to characterize the seafloor along proposed cable routes, allowing optimal routes to be planned well in advance of deployment. Lowest risk areas included those free of large collapse basins, steep flow fronts and fissures. Characterizing the modes of lava distribution across the seafloor is crucial to understanding the construction history of the upper oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges. In part, reconstruction of crustal development and eruptive histories can be inferred from surface flow morphologies, which provide insights into lava emplacement dynamics and effusion rates of past eruptions. An online resource is under development that will educate students about lava flow morphologies through the use of HD video and still photographs. The objective of the LavaFlow exercise is to map out a proposed cable route across the Axial Seamount caldera. Students are first trained in appropriate terminology and background content to learn to recognize and identify various lava flow morphologies and volcanic features. They then conduct a virtual ROV Jason 2 dive using video and still photographs, and characterize the terrain. Their observations are supplemented by the integration of high resolution (1 m scale resolution) bathymetry collected with a RESON SeaBat 7125 sonar mounted on Jason 2 during ENLIGHTEN’10. Students visualize the bathymetry in 2D and 3D using CARIS HIPS 7.0 software. COVE (Collaborative Ocean Visualization Environment) geospatial software is then used to plan and map out an optimal cable route. The LavaFlow exercise allows students to employ the same technologies used by the RSN team for designing the Axial Seamount cabled observatory infrastructure. When completed in 2014, real-time HD imagery, geophysical, chemical and biological sensors will provide data in real-time from this site to educators throughout the US and globe via the Internet.

  11. Interactions between text chat and audio modalities for L2 communication and feedback in the synthetic world Second Life.

    OpenAIRE

    Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the interactions between text chat and audio modalities in L2 interaction in a synthetic (virtual) world and observes whether the text chat modality was used for corrective feedback and the characteristics of the latter. This is examined within the context of a hybrid Content and Language Integrated Learning design workshop. This course involved 17 students of architecture whose L2 was either French or English and for which the synthetic world environment Seco...

  12. Interactions between text chat and audio modalities for L2 communication in the synthetic world Second Life.

    OpenAIRE

    Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    The interest in synthetic worlds for both language education (Cooke-Plagwitz, 2008; Molka-Danielson & Deutschmann, 2009) and architectural design (Gu. et al., 2009; Garner et al, 2011), coupled with the need of architects to develop adequate foreign language (L2) skills facilitating mobility and employability, led to the design of "Building Fragile Spaces." This hybrid Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) course was held in Spring 2011. It included distance French and English L2 ac...

  13. The Interrelationship of Autonomy, Motivation, and Academic Performance of Persian L2 Learners in Distance Education Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Hashemian; Kamal Heidari Soureshjani

    2011-01-01

    Among various variables affecting the learning of a language, motivation and autonomy play salient roles. The present study aimed at investigating the possible relationship among autonomy, motivation, and academic performance of Persian L2 learners. To do so, 60 Persian L2 learners from Shahrekord Payam-e-Noor University were randomly selected to see whether or not autonomy, motivation, and academic performance are interrelated. Two questionnaires, one for autonomy and one for motivation, wer...

  14. Initiating round robins in the L2 classroom - preliminary observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    Complementing recent interactional research on the contingent operation of online task accomplishment, this paper deals with a specific way of organizing and managing tasks in plenary L2 classrooms – namely the round robin. This may seem like a “traditional” and rigid form of classroom organization that reduces students’ contributions to responses to the teacher’s elicitations. This paper shows that although the round robin puts certain interactional features out of play, it is nonetheless done in and through participants’ mutual orientation to the ongoing activity. The paper describes the sequential position in which round robins are initiated and how this is talked and embodied into being by the participants as well as the design of the turn that initiates the round robin activity. Relevant to the initiation and further development of the round robin are the physical arrangement of the classroom and artefacts and graphic structures that are used not only as mediating tools in the (supposed) learning relevant activity, but also as structurally relevant features to organize the ongoing interaction, in which these activities emerge.

  15. Blogging Identity: How L2 Learners Express Themselves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyomi FUJII

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses language learning and identity, particularly pertaining to intermediate-advanced-level Japanese-language learners, focusing on their target language and identity expression through their interactions with peers and Japanese college students. When learners of Japanese express their identities while interacting with others in their target language, they feel a gap between the self-image they want to present, and the image they are capable of presenting in Japanese (Siegal, 1994, 1995, 1996. Along with adjusting their L1 and L2 usage depending on their interlocutor (Kurata 2007, learners also use different sentence-ending styles depending on the role they want to assume (Cook 2008. By conducting a case study, the present inquiry attempts to address how learners of Japanese express their identities through blog conversations, focusing on their language choice and expressions. Results suggest that participants use the formal endings for self-presentation and projection of their student and classmate identity. However, when expressing emotion some students preferred informal endings, or sentence-final particles.

  16. Mental Lexicon, Working Memory and L2 (English Vocabulary in Polish Students with and without Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta ?ockiewicz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between access to the mental lexicon, working memory and knowledge of English (L2 vocabulary. Analyses were undertaken amongst monolingual speakers of Polish (26 with dyslexia, 24 without who studied English as a second language as part of their compulsory educational programme at school. We assumed that students with dyslexia would manifest deficits in access to the mental lexicon and verbal working memory, and would have a limited L2 vocabulary. We also assumed that better access to the mental lexicon facilitates knowledge of English (L2 vocabulary, and that this relationship is present in both the criterion and the control group. All of the students participated in both parts of the assessment, the group part (i.e., questionnaire, IQ test, two vocabulary tasks and the individual part (i.e., psychological measures: verbal working memory, RAN, verbal fluency, and single word reading in L1 task. We found that students with dyslexia exhibited deficits in the speed of access to data from the mental lexicon. The predictive function of memory for vocabulary was more conspicuous in the control group; in the criterion group, the result might constitute a risk factor for L2 vocabulary acquisition in dyslexia, which may manifest with increased proficiency in word knowledge. Poor vocabulary knowledge renders the L2 learning experience difficult, as it impairs students’ reading comprehension, writing and conversational skills.

  17. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and L2 Reading Skill among Iranian EFL University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Khooei Oskooei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between multiple intelligences (MI and foreign language (L2 reading skill among Iranian EFL sophomores. Multiple intelligences and L2 reading measurements of participants – 29 males and 69 females who were selected from four intact classes – were obtained through McKenzie’s (1999 Multiple Intelligences Inventory and reading part of a Preliminary English Test PET, respectively, and then Pearson’s correlation analysis was run to determine the degree of the relationship between each component of multiple intelligences and L2 reading skill. Afterwards, through a multiple regression analysis those components of multiple intelligences which acted as the predictors of L2 reading skill were identified and the power of each predictor was calculated. The results of the correlation analyses revealed that linguistic-verbal, logical-mathematical, spatial, and interpersonal intelligences were significantly correlated with reading skill. In addition, the results showed that linguistic-verbal, interpersonal, and logical-mathematical intelligences were the best predictors of L2 reading skill scores of the participants. The results of the study can help coursebook designers, educational planners, foreign language institutes, teachers, learners and their parents to provide and use different methods of teaching and learning.Keywords: multiple intelligences, general intelligence, reading comprehension, university students, EFL

  18. Calibration of comprehension and performance in L2 reading

    OpenAIRE

    Seda SARAC; Betul TARHAN

    2009-01-01

    Comprehension monitoring is crucial for successful reading. Although the researchers appreciate the importance of comprehension monitoring in L2 reading, there are only a few studies done on the comprehension monitoring ability of L2 readers. The main aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension monitoring abilities of university students while reading expository texts in L2. The results showed that the students’ were not able to calibrate their comprehension at above chance level w...

  19. An Investigation of Personality and L2 Oral Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengdong Gan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates one dimension of personality, extroversion-introversion, and examines its potential impact on learner L2 oral performance. The study is innovative in that it analyzes not only the correlation between degree of extroversion and assessment scores based on analytic scoring but also the correlation between degree of extroversion and the discourse measures of accuracy, fluency and complexity commonly used as indices of L2 task performance in the L2 research. The data for th...

  20. Lexical Inventions: French Interlanguage as L2 versus L3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated "lexical inventions" in the advanced oral French of 39 native Dutch-speakers, 32 of whom had French as a second language (L2) and English as a third language (L3), with the others having L2 English and L3 French. A higher proportion of lexical inventions produced by French L2 speakers derived from non-standard use of…

  1. L’italiano L2 : auto-apprendimento e narratività. Materiali multimediali di italiano L2 per bambini e ragazzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Favaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Normal 0 14 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Insegnare l'italiano come seconda lingua ai bambini e ragazzi di recente immigrazione è un percorso  delicato e complesso che  fa ormai parte  dei compiti professionali ";ordinari"; dei docenti che operano nelle classi sempre più multiculturali e plurilingui. La modalità di insegnamento/apprendimento della L2 più diffusa ed efficace è quella integrata: l'alunno non italofono è inserito nella classe comune e, parallelamente, in determinati momenti, frequenta il laboratorio  di italiano L2. Per  sostenere  questo modello integrato e accompagnare il  viaggio dentro l'italiano dei bambini e dei ragazzi neoarrivati, servono materiali didattici flessibili e ricchi di proposte, utilizzabili in maniera autonoma e in piccolo gruppo; proponibili in maniera tradizionale o anche attraverso la LIM; adatti a sviluppare competenze diverse, proprie della lingua per comunicare, dell'italiano scritto e propedeutiche all'apprendimento del curricolo comune. I due corsi di italiano L2  che vengono presentati nell'ultima parte dell'articolo rispondono a queste esigenze, in quanto a sono rivolti l'uno ai bambini e l'altro ai ragazzi stranieri neo arrivati; b si propongono  il passaggio dal livello prebasico ai livelli A1, A2 e B1 del QCERL; c si basano su un forte impianto narrativo che sviluppa coinvolgimento e identificazione; d sono attenti allo sviluppo della lingua orale e dello scritto, dell'italiano per comunicare e per lo studio; e hanno una chiara caratterizzazione interculturale.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Teaching Italian as a second language to newly immigrated children and young people is a delicate and complex undertaking which has become part of the job for teachers working in increasingly multicultural and multilingual classes.  The most widespread and effective way of teaching/learning the L2 is the integrated approach: the non-Italian-speaking child is placed in an ordinary class and, parallel to this, there are times when (she attends a workshop of Italian as a second language.  To support this integrated approach and accompany the new arrivals in their journey into the Italian language, flexible teaching/learning materials are needed, with a wealth of suggestions that can be used independently and with a small group; they should be suitable for use either traditionally or through LIM and appropriate for developing different competences in the language of communication, written Italian and preparation for learning in the core curriculum.  The two courses of Italian as L2 presented in the final part of the article satisfy these demands since a the former is intended for newly-arrived children from abroad and the latter for newly-arrived young people; b they are intended for the shift from pre-elementary to levels A1, A2 and B1 of the QCERL; c they are founded on a solid narrative basis which develops involvement and identification; d they take into careful account the development of the oral and written language, and that of Italian

  2. Explicit Grammar Instruction and the Acquisition of Second Language Verbal Morphology: A Framework for Generalized Learning in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugher, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation outlines a framework for understanding variation in ultimate attainment and syntactic structure in second language acquisition by positing a distinction between competence-based and generalized learning processes. Within this framework, competence-based learning is theorized to employ inductive learning processes to acquire a…

  3. The Motivation of L2 Learners: Does it decrease with age?

    OpenAIRE

    Pauline Ghenghesh

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the motivation of a heterogeneous group of students studying English as a foreign language at the International School in Tripoli area. The aim of the study was to find out the extent to which various factors affect students’ motivation and achievement in second/foreign language learning particularly as they enter the senior high school. The research also looked into the temporal dimension of L2 motivation to see if the students’ motivation changes as they enter the se...

  4. Shrinkage degree in $L_2$-re-scale boosting for regression

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Lin; Lin, Shaobo; Wang, Yao; Xu, Zongben

    2015-01-01

    Re-scale boosting (RBoosting) is a variant of boosting which can essentially improve the generalization performance of boosting learning. The key feature of RBoosting lies in introducing a shrinkage degree to re-scale the ensemble estimate in each gradient-descent step. Thus, the shrinkage degree determines the performance of RBoosting. The aim of this paper is to develop a concrete analysis concerning how to determine the shrinkage degree in $L_2$-RBoosting. We propose two feasible ways to s...

  5. L2L European Project: a Serious Game for Leadership Training

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Ara, María Ángeles; Quero Castellano, Soledad; Botella Arbona, Cristina; Bretón-López, Juana; Baños Rivera, Rosa María

    2011-01-01

    Effective leaders manage the underlying group dynamics in ways that help the team meet its objectives. Leaders need people management skills, resource management and organization. Despite the offer of leadership skills training programs, effective and valid training in these areas is scarce and it is usually available only in master programs of high quality or large corporations. The Learn 2 Lead (L2L) Project consortium has designed and developed a leadership skills t...

  6. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students’ Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2

    OpenAIRE

    Karbalaei Alireza

    2010-01-01

    The notion of “learner beliefs” has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners’ beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers’ beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading in Engl...

  7. Proficiency and Sequential Organization of L2 Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gahtani, Saad; Roever, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    L2 requests in developmental pragmatics research are commonly investigated using non-interactive data collection techniques or sidelining the larger discourse sequence in which the request proper is embedded. This study takes a different approach to the study of L2 requests. In a cross-sectional design, we collected role play data from learners at…

  8. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  9. L2 Teachers' Experience of CALL Technology Education and the Use of Computer Technology in the Classroom: The Case of Franklin County, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kwang Hee

    2009-01-01

    Primary issues concerned with CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) teacher education are twofold: Integration of CALL technology into foreign and second language (L2) teacher education programs and L2 teachers' integration of CALL technology into their classroom. While increased attention has been paid to the former, only a small body of…

  10. Toward Independent L2 Readers: Effects of Text Adjuncts, Subject Knowledge, L1 Reading, and L2 Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Hammadou Sullivan, JoAnn; Strube, Michael

    2014-01-01

    With 97 learners in an advanced Spanish course, the study examines the effects of textual enhancement adjuncts, prior subject knowledge, first language (L1) reading ability, and second language (L2) Spanish proficiency on L2 comprehension of scientific passages. Readings included two texts with two types of embedded questions: a pause or written…

  11. Seroepidemiology of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) L2 and Generation of L2-Specific Human Chimeric Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joshua W; Jagu, Subhashini; Wu, Wai-Hong; Viscidi, Raphael P; Macgregor-Das, Anne; Fogel, Jessica M; Kwak, Kihyuck; Daayana, Sai; Kitchener, Henry; Stern, Peter L; Gravitt, Patti E; Trimble, Cornelia L; Roden, Richard B S

    2015-07-01

    Presently, the seroprevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid antigen L2-reactive antibody is not well understood, and no serologic standard exists for L2-specific neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, we screened a total of 1,078 serum samples for HPV16 L2 reactivity, and these were obtained from four prior clinical studies: a population-based (n = 880) surveillance study with a high-risk HPV DNA prevalence of 10.8%, a cohort study of women (n = 160) with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and two phase II trials in women with high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) receiving imiquimod therapy combined with either photodynamic therapy (PDT) (n = 19) or vaccination with a fusion protein comprising HPV16 L2, E7, and E6 (TA-CIN) (n = 19). Sera were screened sequentially by HPV16 L2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then Western blot. Seven of the 1,078 serum samples tested had L2-specific antibodies, but none were detectably neutralizing for HPV16. To develop a standard, we substituted human IgG1 sequences into conserved regions of two rodent monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for neutralizing epitopes at HPV16 L2 residues 17 to 36 and 58 to 64, creating JWW-1 and JWW-2, respectively. These chimeric MAbs retained neutralizing activity and together reacted with 33/34 clinically relevant HPV types tested. In conclusion, our inability to identify an HPV16 L2-specific neutralizing antibody response even in the sera of patients with active genital HPV disease suggests the subdominance of L2 protective epitopes and the value of the chimeric MAbs JWW-1 and JWW-2 as standards for immunoassays to measure L2-specific human antibodies. PMID:25972404

  12. Role of L2 cysteines in papillomavirus infection and neutralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanam Balasubramanyam

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vaccination of mice with minor capsid protein L2 or passive transfer with the L2-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody RG-1 protects against human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 challenge. Here we explored the nature of the RG-1 epitope and its contribution to viral infectivity. RG-1 bound equivalently HPV16 L2 residues 17-36 with or without an intact C22-C28 disulphide bridge. HPV16 L2 mutations K20A, C22A, C22S, C28A, C28S, or P29A prevented RG-1 binding, whereas Y19A, K23A or Q24A had no impact. Mutation of either C22 or C28 to alanine or serine compromises HPV16 pseudoviral infectivity both in vitro and in the murine vaginal tract, but does not impact pseudovirion assembly. Despite their lack of infectivity, HPV16 pseudovirions containing C22S or C28S mutant L2 bind to cell surfaces, are taken up, and expose the 17-36 region on the virion surface as for wild type HPV16 pseudovirions suggesting normal furin cleavage of L2. Mutation of the second cysteine residue in Bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1 L2 to serine (C25S dramatically reduced the infectivity of BPV1 pseudovirions. Surprisingly, in contrast to the double mutation in HPV16 L2, the BPV1 L2 C19S, C25S double mutation reduced BPV1 pseudovirion infectivity of 293TT cells by only half.

  13. L2-Betti numbers of locally compact groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henrik Densing

    in algebraic groups over local elds, and Kac-Moody lattices. We also extend the vanishing of reduced L2-cohomology for countable amenable groups, a well known theorem due to Cheeger and Gromov, to cover all amenable, second countable, unimodular locally compact groups.......We introduce a notion of L2-Betti numbers for locally compact, second countable, unimodular groups. We study the relation to the standard notion of L2-Betti numbers of countable discrete groups for lattices. In this way, several new computations are obtained for countable groups, including lattices...

  14. Effects of L2 Exposure on L1 Grammar

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, M

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the effects of prolonged L2 exposure on L1 grammar, and seeks to understand the extent to which mental representations of the L1 are modified under influence of the L2. The constructions under examination are overt and null subjects in Italian L1, Dutch L2 and how these forms are used to track reference in discourse. Since Italian and Dutch show the same degree of specificity at a discourse-pragmatics level--distinct interpretations are mapped to distinct forms--the repres...

  15. IL FILM A LEZIONE DI ITALIANO L2: GLI ESAMI AL CINEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Albizzati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Può il film rivelarsi uno strumento utile a lezione di italiano L2? Quali sono i limiti ed i vantaggi dell’utilizzo di materiale audiovisivo autentico in aula? Come strutturare un’attività basata sulla visione di un film italiano in lingua originale? Quali strategie mette in atto l’apprendente per comprendere un film nella L2? “Il film a lezione di italiano L2: gli esami al cinema” cerca di rispondere a queste domande attraverso una riflessione sull’utilità del cinema a lezione e proponendo un’attività didattica basata sulla visione di sequenze tratte da film italiani. Considerando la pellicola come documento di civiltà, veicolo di una lingua viva e “in situazione” ed esperienza di apprendimento plurisensoriale, l’articolo mette in luce come l’apprendimento dell’italiano L2 possa trarre beneficio dall’utilizzo in aula di materiali audiovisivi autentici quali i film, se opportunamente selezionati e didattizzati. Dalla riflessione alla pratica: dopo aver identificato obiettivi, destinatari ed i loro bisogni linguistico-comunicativi, viene presentata un’attività basata sulla didattizzazione di tre sequenze che hanno come tema centrale l’esame universitario orale. Ponendo i bisogni linguistico-comunicativi dei discenti al centro si scoprirà che, se opportunamente didattizzato, un film o parte di esso può trasformarsi in materiale didattico estremamente utile ai fini dell’apprendimento di una L2, nonché fonte inesauribile di spunti a partire dai quali l’insegnante può creare attività didattiche originali e stimolanti non solo linguistiche ma anche interculturali. Movies during italian l2 lessons: exams at the cinemaAre movies useful tools during Italian L2 lessons? What are the limits and advantages of using authentic audio-visual materials in the classroom? How can an activity based on viewing an Italian film in the original language be structured? What strategies do learners use to understand movies in L2? “Movies during Italian L2 Lessons: exams at the cinema” tries to answer these questions regarding the use of films in class and proposes an activity using clips from Italian films. Movies are social documents, vehicles for experiencing living, “situated” language and multi-sensory learning. The article sheds light on how L2 classes can benefit from the use of authentic audio-visual materials such as movies if properly selected and didacticized. From reflection to practice: after identifying objectives, target groups and their linguistic and communicative needs, an activity based on the using three didacticized clips centered on university oral exams is presented. Putting the linguistic-communicative needs of learners at the center shows that, if properly didacticized, a film or a clip constitutes extremely useful educational material for L2 learning, as well as an inexhaustible source of ideas from which the teacher can create original and stimulating educational activities which are not only linguistic but also intercultural.

  16. Empirical Comparison of Evaluation Methods for Unsupervised Learning of Morphology Comparaison empirique des méthodes d'évaluation de l'apprentissage non-supervisé de la morphologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Virpioja

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Unsupervised and semi-supervised learning of morphology provide practical solutions for processing morphologically rich languages with less human labor than the traditional rule-based analyzers. Direct evaluation of the learning methods using linguistic reference analyses is important for their development, as evaluation through the final applications is often time consuming. However, even linguistic evaluation is not straightforward for full morphological analysis, because the morpheme labels generated by the learning method can be arbitrary. We review the previous evaluation methods for the learning tasks and propose new variations. In order to compare the methods, we perform an extensive meta-evaluation using the large collection of results from the Morpho Challenge competitions.

  17. Okeanos Explorer (EX1503L2): Tropical Exploration (Mapping II)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During EX-15-03L2, multibeam data will be collected 24 hours a day and XBT casts will be conducted at an interval defined by prevailing oceanographic conditions,...

  18. L^2-Betti Numbers of Algebras and Equivalence Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Rustad, Simen

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, we consider the L^2-Betti numbers associated to algebras and equivalence relations. For algebras, we expand upon the motivation between Connes and Shlyakhtenko's definition of L^2-Betti numbers of tracial algebras, and give an alternative definition of these numbers through an excision-type theorem. For equivalence relations we consider the definitions given by Gaboriau and Sauer and show that they coincide, in the process proving a theorem of Gaboriau. The methods used are st...

  19. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Hua Chen; Paul Baker

    2010-01-01

    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., lexical bundles) in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively. Published academic writing was found to exhibit the widest range of lexical bundles whereas L2 student writing showed the smallest range. Furthermore, som...

  20. $L^2$ estimates for the $\\bar \\partial$ operator

    OpenAIRE

    McNeal, Jeffery D.; Varolin, Dror

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey article about $L^2$ estimates for the $\\bar \\partial$ operator. After a review of the basic approach that has come to be called the "Bochner-Kodaira Technique", the focus is on twisted techniques and their applications to estimates for $\\bar \\partial$, to $L^2$ extension theorems, and to other problems in complex analysis and geometry, including invariant metric estimates and the $\\bar \\partial$-Neumann Problem.

  1. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students' Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2 (Creencias de estudiantes universitarios iraníes EFL e hindúes ESL acerca de las estrategias de lectura en L2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    The notion of "learner beliefs" has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners' beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers' beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study…

  2. Vocabulary Teaching Strategies and Conceptual Representations of Words in L2 in Children: Evidence with Novice Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesana, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel; Pineiro, Ana; Fraga, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    A controversial issue in bilingual research is whether in the early stages of L2 learning, access to the conceptual system involves mediation of L1 lexical representations [Kroll, J. F., & Stewart, E. (1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations.…

  3. A Video-Based CALL Program for Proficient and Less-Proficient L2 Learners' Comprehension Ability, Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates first whether news video in a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) program can foster second language (L2) comprehension and incidental acquisition of adjectives, nouns, and verbs. Second, this study examines the relationship between the participants' vocabulary acquisition and their video comprehension. The…

  4. L1 and L2 Picture Naming in Mandarin-English Bilinguals: A Test of Bilingual Dual Coding Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Debra; Poh, Rebecca Pei Yun; Paivio, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the nature of bilinguals' conceptual representations and the links from these representations to words in L1 and L2. Specifically, we tested an assumption of the Bilingual Dual Coding Theory that conceptual representations include image representations, and that learning two languages in separate contexts can result in…

  5. L1 and L2 Picture Naming in Mandarin-English Bilinguals: A Test of Bilingual Dual Coding Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Debra; Poh, Rebecca Pei Yun; Paivio, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the nature of bilinguals' conceptual representations and the links from these representations to words in L1 and L2. Specifically, we tested an assumption of the Bilingual Dual Coding Theory that conceptual representations include image representations, and that learning two languages in separate contexts can result in…

  6. Fostering Metacognitive Genre Awareness in L2 Academic Reading and Writing: A Case Study of Pre-Service English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negretti, Raffaella; Kuteeva, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Although the concept of metacognition has received considerable attention for its impact on learning across disciplinary areas, it has not been sufficiently discussed in the context of L2 academic reading and writing. In this paper, we bring together two theoretical frameworks, genre analysis and metacognition theory, and discuss the concept of…

  7. Interactions between Text Chat and Audio Modalities for L2 Communication and Feedback in the Synthetic World "Second Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the interactions between text chat and audio modalities in L2 communication in a synthetic (virtual) world and observes whether the text chat modality was used for corrective feedback and the characteristics of the latter. This is examined within the context of a hybrid content and language integrated learning…

  8. The multipath and SNR Quality in civil code L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polezel, W. G.; Souza, E. M.; Monico, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    The new generation of GPS satellites, with the addition of the new L2C civil code, may provide to the users better positioning capabilities. The new code in the L2 may increase the signal robustness, improve resistance to interference, reduce tracking noise and consequently, improve accuracy and provide better positioning inside buildings and in wooded areas. The second civil frequency code will eliminate the need of using fragile semi- codeless tracking techniques currently used in connection with L2. The L2C has a different structure that allows civil and military share the same code. L2C owns two codes of different length: moderate code (CM) and long code (CL). The CM was chosen to have 10.230 chips repeated to every 20 millisecond. The CL was chosen to have 767250 chips with period of 1.5 second. The main reasons for these choices were due to excellent correlation properties. Furthermore, L2C enhances performance by having no data modulation on CL code, which improves, among others, the threshold tracking performance. Comparing the L2C acquisition with the C/A, the CM code is ten times longer than the C/A and the two components have half the total power. This is an important feature for many low-power applications. Although this signal has several advantages, some investigations about its performance are necessary, mainly about the provided accuracy under some effects, for example, multipath. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the L2C signal, as well as its quality using some parameters, such as Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and multipath level (MP). The experiment was realized at Sao Paulo State University UNESP in Presidente Prudente, Brazil. The data were collected by two receivers of different brands, both able to collect the L2C signal, and connected to the same antenna, thought the use of a splitter. The results showed that the MP and SNR values were better for the modernized satellites. Furthermore, the SNR values of the two receivers were similar while the MP values of one receiver showed better results than the other model. Therefore, the satellites with L2C code presented, as expected, better performance than those not modernized satellites in relation to SNR and MP.

  9. A L2HGDH initiator methionine codon mutation in a Yorkshire terrier with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    OpenAIRE

    Farias Fabiana HG; Zeng Rong; Johnson Gary S; Shelton G D; Paquette Dominique; O’Brien Dennis P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a metabolic repair deficiency characterized by elevated levels of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological signs associated with the disease in humans and dogs include seizures, ataxia and dementia. Case presentation Here we describe an 8?month old Yorkshire terrier that presented with episodes of hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. Between episodes, the dog’s behavior and neurologic examinations were...

  10. The Effect of Concept Mapping on Iranian Pre-intermediate L2 Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Tabatabaei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Teachers are always looking for innovative ways to help students improve their reading comprehension. One popular method is the use of graphic organizers such as concept maps. This study examined the use of concept maps (a meta cognitive technique to aid reading comprehension of Iranian pre- intermediate L2 learners in one of the language institutes in Shiraz. The researcher wanted to find appropriate answers to the following research questions 1 does the application of concept mapping technique have any significant effect on Iranian pre-intermediate L2 reading comprehension 2 do Iranian pre-intermediate L2learners have positive attitude toward the application of concept maps in their reading classes? For this, 30 pre-intermediate L2 learners were selected and assigned as experimental group. This experimental group received instruction on how to use concept mapping technique as a pre-reading activity. This group took part in language classes twice a week for one hour and half and reading activities covered thirty minutes of the whole class and also they completed two thirty-minutes reading comprehension tests, one as the pre-test and the other as the post-test. The results of Wilcoxon Sign Rank test showed that the participants in concept mapping group performed better in post-test than in pre-test administration. Moreover, the results of Chi-square revealed that, on the whole, L2 learners had positive attitudes toward using concept mapping technique in reading classes. This study had theoretical as well as pedagogical implication in the field of second/ foreign teaching and learning.

  11. The Role of L1 Transfer on L2 and Pedagogical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui YAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of L1 transfer on the acquisition of L2 has always been the subject of controversary in the field of L2 learning and bilingual education. This article intends to examine controversial views about the transfer of L1 on the acquisition of L2 from the theories of Contrastive Analysis (CA, Contrastive Rhetoric (CR and Creative Construction (CC and Constructive Underlying Proficiency (CUP, hopefully offering an extensive analysis of the L1 transfer.
    Keywords: Contrastive Analysis; Contrastive Rhetoric; Creative Construction; Constructive Underlying Proficiency

    Résumé: Le rôle du transfert de la L1 dans l'acquisition de la L2 a toujours fait l'objet de controverses dans le domaine de l'apprentissage d'une deuxième langue et de l'enseignement bilingue. Cet article vise à examiner les vues controversées au sujet du transfert de la L1 dans l'acquisition de L2 à partir des théories de l'analyse contrastive (CA, de la rhétorique contrastive (CR, de la construction créative (CC et de la compétence constructive sous-jacente (CUP, en espérant offrir une vaste analyse sur le transfert de la L1.
    Mots-clés: analyse contrastive; rhétorique contrastive; construction creative; compétence constructive sous-jacente

  12. La nozione di Grammatica e l’insegnamento di L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ciliberti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Il tema del mio contributo riguarda la nozione di Grammatica ed il suo insegnamento in contesti di apprendimento non spontaneo di lingue2. Prima di affrontarlo prendo brevemente in considerazione il concetto di lingua ‒ sovraordinato a quello di Grammatica ‒ per indagare come esso sia stato più frequentemente inteso nelle scienze del linguaggio e nell’insegnamento di L2. Analizzo poi due modi di guardare alla Grammatica, rappresentativi di posizioni apparentemente distanti ma in realtà complementari: Grammatica nella comunicazione e Grammatica della comunicazione: vale a dire Grammatica intesa come sistema formale e strutturale e Grammatica vista invece come un importante strumento dell’agire sociale. Mi soffermo infine sulla rilevanza descrittiva ed applicativa che le due prospettive assumono nell’insegnamento/apprendimento di L2 in quanto atte a far acquisire consapevolezza metalinguistica attraverso la riflessione, da un lato, su tutte le regolarità presenti nel linguaggio e non soltanto su quelle di tipo formale e frasale, d’altro lato, attraverso la riflessione sull’intersezione ed i raccordi esistenti tra Grammatica ed interazione.  The notion of grammar and L2 teaching This paper studies the concept of teaching grammar in non-spontaneous L2 learning contexts. First we briefly consider the concept of language – that of the higher-level Grammar – to investigate how it has most frequently been understood in language sciences and L2 teaching. Then we analyze two ways of looking at grammar, which appear to be distant but are actually complementary: grammar in communication and the grammar of communication, namely grammar as a formal, structuralsystem and grammar as an important instrument for social action. We reflect on the descriptive and applicablerelevance that these two perspectives take on in L2 teaching/learning. Thisreflection, on the one hand, is aimed at the acquisition ofmetalinguistic awareness aboutall the regularities of language, not only the formal and phrasal ones, while on the other hand, we reflect onabout the intertwining and connection between grammar and interaction.

  13. Introduction. Beyond the Obvious: Do Second Language Learners Process Inflectional Morphology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, Kira

    2010-01-01

    Given that this special issue is devoted to the acquisition and processing of inflectional morphology by second language (L2) learners, the question in the title may appear redundant. However, recent research on first language (L1) and L2 morphological processing has challenged basic assumptions about the status of inflectional morphology in…

  14. The Age Factor in L2 Acquisition : An empirical investigation into the choice of +/-- human relative pronouns by Spanish learners of English and the resetting of parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, Mª Ángeles

    2001-01-01

    A positive approach to Second Language (L2) acquisition is to follow Chomsky's (1981) Principles and Parameters theory. Following the latest approach of the Minimalist Program (Chomsky 1995), the question of whether language acquisition involves the acquisition of morphological features that define a particular language is discussed. We would also like to examine age-related effects (Birdsong 2000) and L2 development in the acquisition of one particular linguistic phenomenon, relative clauses...

  15. L’apprendimento della lingua della medicina in L2: due manuali a confronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Insegnare la lingua speciale della medicina ad una classe di apprendenti L2 implica considerare diverse problematiche relative alle peculiarità del codice settoriale (variazioni diafasiche, particolarità del lessico, tecnicismi collaterali, ma anche relative al pubblico di apprendenti non italofono (tipologia, interessi, livello di apprendimento. Il panorama editoriale italiano offre pochi strumenti dedicati: tra questi Donatella Troncarelli, Dica 33. Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, 1994 e Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma edizioni, 2004. Questo studio intende mettere a confronto i due testi sottolineandone le caratteristiche e l’impostazione glottodidattica ed evidenziando come il contenuto linguistico sia proposto, quali siano le abilità favorite, quali gli obiettivi di apprendimento e quali gli strumenti forniti. Particolare attenzione viene prestata al lessico registrato nei glossari dei volumi.  Learning the language of medicine in l2: a comparison of two textbooks Teaching the special language of medicine to a class of L2 learners implies considering various issues related to the peculiarities of the sector-specific jargon (diphasic variations, peculiarities of vocabulary, collateral technicalities, also related to non-Italian-speaking learners (type, interests, level of learning. Italian publishers offer few dedicated tools: these include Donatella Troncarelli, Dica 33.Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, 1994 and Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma editions, 2004. This study aims to compare the two texts, highlighting their features and language teaching setting, showing how linguistic content is proposed, which skills are promoted, what the learning objectives are and what tools are provided. Particular attention is paid to the vocabulary in the glossaries.

  16. Spectral measurements with spatial resolution in the L-2 stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of experimental investigations into behaviour of light impurities in the l-2 stellarator plasma are given. Diagnostic apparatuses for chord measurements of luminescence intensity in ion lines and a technique of recalculation for local intensity are described. A value of electron temperature in the area of luminescence maximum of impurity ion was evaluated from results of measurements and numerical count. It constitutes half of a value of ion ionization potential. Electron temperature profile in periphery of plasma filament was constructed on the basis of spectral measurements. Its dynamics during several modes of the l-2 stellarator operation is investigated

  17. A L2HGDH initiator methionine codon mutation in a Yorkshire terrier with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farias Fabiana HG

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a metabolic repair deficiency characterized by elevated levels of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological signs associated with the disease in humans and dogs include seizures, ataxia and dementia. Case presentation Here we describe an 8?month old Yorkshire terrier that presented with episodes of hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. Between episodes, the dog’s behavior and neurologic examinations were normal. A T2 weighted MRI of the brain showed diffuse grey matter hyperintensity and a urine metabolite screen showed elevated 2-hydroxyglutaric acid. We sequenced all 10 exons and intron-exon borders of L2HGDH from the affected dog and identified a homozygous A to G transition in the initiator methionine codon. The first inframe methionine is at p.M183 which is past the mitochondrial targeting domain of the protein. Initiation of translation at p.M183 would encode an N-terminal truncated protein unlikely to be functional. Conclusions We have identified a mutation in the initiation codon of L2HGDH that is likely to result in a non-functional gene. The Yorkshire terrier could serve as an animal model to understand the pathogenesis of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria and to evaluate potential therapies.

  18. Identifying Correlation between Reading Strategies Instruction and L2 Text Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Qanwal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at exploring correlation between reading strategies instruction and proficiency in text comprehension. The task is carried out by investigating the current practices of teaching and learning of L2 reading comprehension skills of the higher level L2 learners of English in Pakistan. In this regard, initially, the extent to which teachers incorporate reading strategies instruction into their teaching of ESL reading skills is analyzed; and students’ proficiency in L2 text comprehension is evaluated. Subsequently, correlation between the two variables is identified by applying Pearson Product-moment correlational test on the statistical scores attained for each variable. The research has employed both quantitative and qualitative measures for data collection and analysis. The research instruments include a questionnaire for students pertaining to the availability of reading strategy instruction, and a reading comprehension test. The results acquired through the collected data and their statistical analyses have highlighted a strong positive correlation between reading strategies instruction and learners’ proficiency in text comprehension.

  19. L2 Reading Motivation among Sri Lankan University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Kusumi Vasantha; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of the motivational processes that facilitated the text comprehension among 406 Sri Lankan university students in Sri Lanka. Students' L2 text comprehension and reading motivation were assessed using a reading comprehension test and a reading motivation and attitude questionnaire. The Principal Componential…

  20. Correspondences, von Neumann algebras and holomorphic $L^2$ torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Carey, A L; Mathai, V; Carey, Alan L.; Farber, Michael; Mathai, Varghese

    1997-01-01

    Given a holomorphic Hilbertian bundle on a compact complex manifold, we introduce the notion of holomorphic $L^2$ torsion, which lies in the determinant line of the twisted $L^2$ Dolbeault cohomology and represents a volume element there. Here we utilise the theory of determinant lines of Hilbertian modules over finite von Neumann algebras as developed in an earlier paper by the authors. This specialises to the Ray-Singer-Quillen holomorphic torsion in the finite dimensional case. We compute a metric variation formula for the holomorphic $L^2$ torsion, which shows that it is not in general independent of the choice of Hermitian metrics on the complex manifold and on the holomorphic Hilbertian bundle, which are needed to define it. We therefore initiate the theory of correspondences of determinant lines, that enables us to define a relative holomorphic $L^2$ torsion for a pair of flat Hilbertian bundles, which we prove is independent of the choice of Hermitian metrics on the complex manifold and on the flat Hi...

  1. L1-L2 Sentence Translation in Classroom Grammar Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    L1-L2 translation of separate sentences is one kind of task format used by mainstream EFL teachers to assess their learners' grammatical accuracy. Aimed at improving teacher-written translation items, this study analyses linguistic features potentially causing such decontextualized cues (and their target responses) to sound odd or untypical of…

  2. Phonetics Instruction Improves Learners' Perception of L2 Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Explicit phonetics instruction can help second language (L2) learners to moderately improve their pronunciation, but less is known about how the instruction affects learners' perception, even though there is evidence that perception and pronunciation are related. This study provided phonetics instruction to students (n = 46) studying Spanish as a…

  3. Generators with interior degeneracy on spaces of L^2 type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genni Fragnelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider operators in divergence and in nondivergence form with degeneracy at the interior of the space domain. Characterizing the domain of the operators, we prove that they generate positive analytic semigroups on spaces of L^2 type. Finally, some applications to linear and semilinear parabolic evolution problems and to linear hyperbolic ones are presented.

  4. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  5. L1-L2 Sentence Translation in Classroom Grammar Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    L1-L2 translation of separate sentences is one kind of task format used by mainstream EFL teachers to assess their learners' grammatical accuracy. Aimed at improving teacher-written translation items, this study analyses linguistic features potentially causing such decontextualized cues (and their target responses) to sound odd or untypical of…

  6. Discourse Connectives in L1 and L2 Argumentative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Discourse connectives (DCs) are multi-functional devices used to connect discourse segments and fulfill interpersonal levels of discourse. This study investigates the use of selected 80 DCs within 11 categories in the argumentative essays produced by L1 and L2 university students. The analysis is based on the International Corpus Network of Asian…

  7. Awareness of L1/L2 Differences: Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Ahlem; Lightbown, Patsy M.; Spada, Nina

    2010-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the extent to which francophone learners of English as a second language (ESL) are aware of the differences between French and English question formation and how such awareness relates to their L2 performance. Three tasks were administered to 58 grades 5 and 6 francophone ESL learners. In a grammaticality…

  8. Raising Learners' Awareness through L1-L2 Teacher Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Pamela; White, Joanna; Busque, Christine

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in teacher collaboration across mother tongue and second language curricula. However, cross-curricular collaboration in reading strategy instruction has seldom been investigated. We report a two-year study involving collaboration between the French first language (L1) and English second language (L2) teachers in an…

  9. Task-Induced Strategic Processing in L2 Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiba, Yukie

    2013-01-01

    Strategic text processing was investigated for English as a foreign language learners who processed and recalled a text when they read for expression, for image, and for critique. The results indicated that, although the amount of content recall (i.e., products of comprehension) was similar, the relative contributions of second language (L2

  10. L2 Blogging: Who Thrives and Who Does Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rainbow Tsai-Hung

    2015-01-01

    While research has reported generally enthusiastic results regarding L2 blogging, some studies have found contrasting blogging experiences among individual learners. Consequently, this study investigated the factors underlying such discrepancies by exploring 33 EFL learners' experiences of participating in a blog project at a Taiwanese university.…

  11. Learner Perceptions of Instruction in L2 Pragmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanshan

    2009-01-01

    In Taiwan, pragmatic competence has often been a neglected area in English education. Learners may be linguistically competent, but do not know how to use L2 appropriately. Through the teaching of complaint behaviors, the author demonstrates how pragmatic components can be incorporated into a college-level language classroom. After the…

  12. Rigidity and $L^2$ cohomology of hyperbolic manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Carron, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    When $X=\\Gamma\\backslash \\H^n$ is a real hyperbolic manifold, it is already known that if the critical exponent is small enough then some cohomology spaces and some spaces of $L^2$ harmonic forms vanish. In this paper, we show rigidity results in the borderline case of these vanishing results.

  13. Chinese L2 Literacy Practices: Material and Sociocultural Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo-Philip, Stephanie Wingyan

    2014-01-01

    Although there has been research on literacy as a sociocultural practice, L2 literacy researchers have yet to incorporate and consider how the material characteristics of a writing system interact with sociocultural factors in shaping literacy practices. Drawing on conceptions of literacy as a sociocultural practice, psycholinguistic and…

  14. On Written Corrective Feedback in L2 Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Truscott (1996) questions the practicability of grammar correction, and he believes that written corrective feedback (WCF) is not only a waste of time, but even harmful to the students as well. This has led to a great deal of discussion and research on WCF in second-language (L2) writing. Ferris (1999) is the representative opponent of Truscott's…

  15. L2 Quality as a Competitive Edge - Project Presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Marianne Grove; Kastberg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    In our paper we would like to present an interdisciplinary project "L2 as a Competitive Edge". We'll be doing this by first giving you a project overview in section 0. The overview will then in the section 1 and 2 be followed by a presentation of two of the most interesting themes, serving as point...

  16. L2 Reading Motivation among Sri Lankan University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Kusumi Vasantha; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of the motivational processes that facilitated the text comprehension among 406 Sri Lankan university students in Sri Lanka. Students' L2 text comprehension and reading motivation were assessed using a reading comprehension test and a reading motivation and attitude questionnaire. The Principal Componential…

  17. Consideraciones metodológicas sobre la evaluación de la competencia oral en L2 / Methodological Considerations Concerning the Assessment of Oral Competency in a Second Language (L2)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, González-Such; Jesús Miguel, Jornet Meliá; Margarita, Bakieva.

    Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza una revisión acerca de las consideraciones metodológicas para la evaluación de la competencia oral en el aprendizaje de una segunda lengua (L2). Se analizan las características del constructo y su definición. En este caso, se refieren al ámbito competencial, que incluye l [...] a competencia en comprensión oral y la de expresión oral. Asimismo, se revisan conceptos referidos al modo en que diseñar instrumentos y/o técnicas evaluativas para la evaluación de las competencias que la integran y cuestiones respecto a fiabilidad, validez y establecimiento de puntos de corte. Abstract in english In this paper, methodological considerations are reviewed regarding the assessment of oral competence in the learning of a second language (L2). The characteristics of the construct and its definition are analyzed, including competence in listening comprehension and oral expression. Furthermore, con [...] cepts such as the design of instruments and/or evaluative techniques for the assessment of the competencies are examined as well as issues related to reliability, validity and cut off points.

  18. L’ACQUISIZIONE DEI SEGNALI DISCORSIVI IN ITALIANO L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Jafrancesco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo presenta i risultati di una ricerca sull’acquisizione dei segnali discorsivi (SD in italiano L2, condotta su un corpus di parlato di studenti universitari in mobilità accademica, presenti nell’università di Firenze e inseriti in percorsi formativi di italiano L2 presso il Centro Linguistico di Ateneo. Il principale obiettivo dello studio è indagare l’italiano di stranieri relativamente a questo tratto specifico al fine di individuare eventuali sequenze acquisizionali, contribuendo a delineare lo sviluppo della competenza sociopragmatica degli apprendenti nei livelli di competenza proposti nel Quadro comune europeo di riferimento per le lingue (QCER Si analizza, in particolare, l’uso dei SD nel parlato dialogico degli informanti nei Livelli basico, indipendente e competente del QCER – con riferimento al modello tassonomico dei SD proposto da Bazzanella nella Grande grammatica italiana di consultazione (1995, integrato, in relazione allo specifico contesto, con nuove funzioni – evidenziando i principali macrofenomeni emersi, con l’intento inoltre di riflettere su come i dati dell’acquisizione dell’italiano L2 possono rappresentare un punto di riferimento per la definizione di percorsi formativi coerenti con i processi naturali di sviluppo della competenza.Acquisition of discourse markers in Italian L2The paper presents the results of a study on the acquisition of discourse markers (SD in Italian L2 students, conducted on a corpus of spoken language by university students at the University of Florence who attended Italian L2 language course at the University Language Center. The main objective of the study was to investigate the Italian of foreigners in relation to this specific trait in order to identify possible acquisitional sequences, helping shape the development of learners' socio-pragmatic competence levels proposed in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR. In particular, we analyzed the use of SD in the spoken dialogue between students at the basic, independent and competent CEFR levels, with reference to the taxonomic SD model proposed by Bazzanella in the Grande grammatica italiana di consultazione (1995. In relation to the specific context, we integrated new features, focusing on key macro-phenomena that emerged, with the intention of considering how L2 data acquisition can be a reference point for the definition of training consistent with the natural processes of competence development.

  19. LA DIDATTICA DELL’ITALIANO L2 A DETENUTI STRANIERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bonfanti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available L’insegnamento dell’italiano L2 all’interno degli istituti penitenziari è diventata un’esigenza fondamentale, data la crescente presenza di detenuti stranieri nelle strutture detentive del nostro Paese.Il presente lavoro analizza le peculiarità dell’insegnamento dell’italiano L2 a detenuti stranieri: ruolo e caratteristiche del docente, bisogni e motivazioni dell’apprendente, problematiche legate al contesto specifico di apprendimento. In particolare si intende mettere in evidenza il ruolo primario della scrittura come mezzo fondamentale per svolgere attività quotidiane (padroneggiare regolamenti, richieste, “domandine” e come strumento per la rieducazione.Per meglio comprendere le specificità dell’insegnamento in questo contesto, viene presentato un sillabo per apprendenti detenuti redatto da Antonella Benucci ed in appendice due interviste rivolte a docenti della Casa Circondariale di Monza.TEACHING ITALIAN L2 TO FOREIGN INMATESTeaching Italian L2 in prisons has become a basic need, given the growing number of foreign detainees in Italian prisons.This paper analyzes the peculiarity of teaching Italian L2 to foreign inmates: the teacher’s role and characteristics, the student’s needs and motivations, problems linked to the specific setting. We highlight the primary role of writing as a fundamental means for carrying out daily activities (mastering rules, requests, “small questions” and as a re-education tool.To better understand the specificity of teaching in this context, a syllabus for detainees compiled by Antonella Benucci is presented and there are two interviews with teachers working in a prison in Monza.

  20. Status of the T2L2/Jason2 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exertier, Pierre; Samain, Etienne; Bonnefond, Pascal; Guillemot, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    The T2L2 (Time Transfer by Laser Link) project, developed by CNES and OCA will permit the synchronization of remote ultra stable clocks and the determination of their performances over intercontinental distances. The principle of the experiment derives from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology with dedicated space equipment. T2L2 was accepted in 2005 to be on board the Jason2 altimetry satellite. The payload consists of both event timer and photo detection modules. The system uses the ultra-stable quartz oscillator of DORIS as on-board reference clock on one hand, and the Laser Reflector Array, making T2L2 a real two-way time transfer system on the other hand. The expected time stability of the T2L2 instrument (detection and timing), referenced by the DORIS oscillator and including all internal error sources should be at the level of 10-12 ps at 1 s and mode), data noises (of different sources, SLR and T2L2), and first error budget and time stability of ground to space time transfers. The paper describes the space experiment and highlights the different steps of the data processing after a first year of operations (between July 2008 and June 2009). We show the time stability which can be reached when a laser station is equipped with an Hydrogen Maser or a Cesium clock as a time reference; thus, the first estimations give 7 ps over 30 s. We conclude by presenting the campaigns of ground to ground time transfers already planned between the Paris Observatory and different places in Europe.

  1. The Inseparability of Cognition and Emotion in Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Merrill

    2013-01-01

    The scholarly literature about the process of second language (L2) learning has focused to a considerable extent on cognitive processes. Left aside are questions about how emotions fit into an understanding of L2 learning. One goal of this plenary is to demonstrate that we have limited our understanding of L2 learning by failing to take into…

  2. Grammatical Gender Processing in L2: Electrophysiological Evidence of the Effect of L1-L2 Syntactic Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, Alice; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of proficiency and similarity between the first and the second language on grammatical gender processing in L2. In three experiments, we manipulated gender agreement violations within the determiner phrase (DP), between the determiner and the noun (Experiment 1), the postposed adjective and the noun (Experiment 2)…

  3. Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in L2 Learners: Some Effects of Bilinguality on L1 and L2 Processing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussias, Paola E.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates whether proficient second language (L2) speakers of Spanish and English use the same parsing strategies as monolinguals when reading temporarily ambiguous sentences containing a complex noun phrase followed by a relative clause, such as "Peter fell in love with the daughter of the psychologist who studied in California."…

  4. Grammatical Gender Processing in L2: Electrophysiological Evidence of the Effect of L1-L2 Syntactic Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, Alice; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of proficiency and similarity between the first and the second language on grammatical gender processing in L2. In three experiments, we manipulated gender agreement violations within the determiner phrase (DP), between the determiner and the noun (Experiment 1), the postposed adjective and the noun (Experiment 2)…

  5. Acquiring native-like intonation in Dutch and Spanish:Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners

    OpenAIRE

    van Maastricht, L.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Krahmer, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    ACQUIRING NATIVE-LIKE INTONATION IN DUTCH AND SPANISH Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners Introduction Learning more about the interaction between the native language (L1) and the target language (L2) has been the aim of many studies on second language acquisition (SLA). Where the first studies mostly focussed on the influence of the L1 on the L2, later studies showed that the opposite is also possible, making linguistic transfer a bi-directional phenomenon...

  6. Spatially resolved spectral measurements in the L-2 stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on the behavior of light impurities in the plasma of the L-2 stellarator are reported. The diagnostic apparatus used for chord measurements of the emission intensity in the ion lines is described. The method for converting the results of these measurements to the local intensity is also described. The experimental results are used along with numerical calculations to estimate the electron temperature in the region corresponding to the maximum emission of the impurity ions. This temperature is found to be half the ionization potential of the ion. The electron temperature profile at the periphery of the plasma column is constructed from the spectral measurements. The dynamics of this profile in several operating regimes of the L-2 is studied

  7. Spatially resolved spectral measurements in the L-2 stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voronov, G.S.; Larionova, N.F.

    1982-11-01

    Experiments on the behavior of light impurities in the plasma of the L-2 stellarator are reported. The diagnostic apparatus used for chord measurements of the emission intensity in the ion lines is described. The method for converting the results of these measurements to the local intensity is also described. The experimental results are used along with numerical calculations to estimate the electron temperature in the region corresponding to the maximum emission of the impurity ions. This temperature is found to be half the ionization potential of the ion. The electron temperature profile at the periphery of the plasma column is constructed from the spectral measurements. The dynamics of this profile in several operating regimes of the L-2 is studied.

  8. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh; Ms. Georgia Kakourou; Dr. Pamela Greenwell

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2) was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of othe...

  9. The state complexity of L^2 and L^k

    OpenAIRE

    Rampersad, Narad

    2004-01-01

    We show that if M is a DFA with n states over an arbitrary alphabet and L = L(M), then the worst-case state complexity of L^2 is n*2^n - 2^{n-1}. If, however, M is a DFA over a unary alphabet, then the worst-case state complexity of L^k is kn-k+1 for all k >= 2.

  10. Differences in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Yingli Wang

    2012-01-01

    Since the first contrastive rhetoric study by Kaplan in 1966, many studies have been produced, and over several decades of development, there have been many contributions gained from previous contrastive rhetoric studies. In this article, many kinds of differences existing in L1 and L2 academic writing have been discussed. I will categorize the differences in three major parts as following: differences in the level of lexicon, differences in the level of sentence, and differences in the level...

  11. Feedback in L2 writing: the students' perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vokic, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    Given the disparate views in L2 writing literature on what constitutes effective teacher feedback, this qualitative study approached this issue from the student’s perspective. In order to examine what constitutes effective teacher feedback from the student’s standpoint, fifty-four student responses to three drastically different feedback styles were analyzed. The results of this preliminary study are partially in line with Hyland (1998), since it was found that whether a ...

  12. Heat wave modulation experiments in the L-2M stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akulina, D.; Batanov, G.; Berezhetskii, M.; Gladkov, G.; Grebenshchikov, S.; Estrada, T.; Fedyanin, O.; Kharchev, N.; Kholnov, Yu.; Kolik, L.; Larionova, N.; Likin, K.; Luna, Elena de la; Meshcheryakov, A.; Sanchez, J.; Sarksyan, K.; Sbitnikova, I

    2001-01-01

    The heat wave modulation was used in ECRH experiments in the L-2M stellarator to determine the absorption region and the thermal diffusion coefficient. The temperature response of the plasma was followed by ECE and SXR diagnostics. It is shown that the absorption region has a nonlocal character, and its size is dependent on the magnetic field. The estimated value of the electron thermal diffusivity coefficient turns out to be higher than expected.

  13. Acquiring Persian Object Marking : Balochi learners of L2 Persian

    OpenAIRE

    Bohnacker, Ute; Mohammadi, Somaye

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the second language acquisition of Persian object marking by 237 nativeBalochi-speaking children from age eight to eleven. The combination of Balochi and Persian has not beenstudied from an acquisitional perspective, although it widely occurs in southeastern Iran. This paperstudies the second language (L2) development of direct and indirect object marking after two and threeyears of exposure to Persian at school, vs. a control group of 133 monolingual native Persian ch...

  14. Learner Perceptions of Instruction in L2 Pragmatics

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanshan Chen

    2009-01-01

    In Taiwan, pragmatic competence has often been a neglected area in English education. Learners may be linguistically competent, but do not know how to use L2 appropriately. Through the teaching of complaint behaviors, the author demonstrates how pragmatic components can be incorporated into a college-level language classroom. After the instruction, the self reports of the forty participants showed a positive attitude toward such instruction. They also reported that the teaching materials were...

  15. Investigation of peripheral plasma on the L-2 stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the L-2 stellarator periphery plasma is investigated. A good correlation for the radial distribution of the electron temperature Tc near the scrape-off region measured by laser scattering, optical and probe techniques is demonstrated. Probe measurements of Tc are higher than optical measurements near the chamber wall. The radial plasma density distribution outside the scrape-off region is measured

  16. L2 use and stimulus complexity in perceived acceent ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Astrid Zerla; Bahr, Ruth Huntley; Bryant, Judith Becker

    2005-04-01

    Listener perception of accentedness has been shown to be influenced by experience with L2 (measured by length of residence in US). However, frequency of L1 use and degree of linguistic complexity (defined by the number of non-native phonetic features targeted) may provide more insight into the role of experience in the perception of accentedness. Three groups of listeners (monolingual English and Spanish [L1] speakers divided into two groups of high and low use of English [L2]) rated the accentedness of bilingual speakers who spoke with varying degrees of accentedness. The speakers read sentences adapted from Magan (1998) to include linguistic aspects likely to be difficult for native Spanish speakers. Listeners performed similarly in rating speakers degree of accent. Amount of daily L1 use only influenced the ratings of the slightly accented group; the high-use bilingual group rated these speakers as more accented than the native English group, regardless of level of linguistic difficulty. These results suggest that the high-use groups lack of L2 experience made them less perceptually sensitive to certain phonetic features of English. Because speakers did not make the predicted target errors, the listener groups may have based their ratings on features not targeted in this investigation.

  17. COMPUTING THE VOCABULARY DEMANDS OF L2 READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Cobb

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic computing can make two important contributions to second language (L2 reading instruction. One is to resolve longstanding research issues that are based on an insufficiency of data for the researcher, and the other is to resolve related pedagogical problems based on insufficiency of input for the learner. The research section of the paper addresses the question of whether reading alone can give learners enough vocabulary to read. When the computer’s ability to process large amounts of both learner and linguistic data is applied to this question, it becomes clear that, for the vast majority of L2 learners, free or wide reading alone is not a sufficient source of vocabulary knowledge for reading. But computer processing also points to solutions to this problem. Through its ability to reorganize and link documents, the networked computer can increase the supply of vocabulary input that is available to the learner. The development section of the paper elaborates a principled role for computing in L2 reading pedagogy, with examples, in two broad areas, computer-based text design and computational enrichment of undesigned texts.

  18. An Investigation of Personality and L2 Oral Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengdong Gan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates one dimension of personality, extroversion-introversion, and examines its potential impact on learner L2 oral performance. The study is innovative in that it analyzes not only the correlation between degree of extroversion and assessment scores based on analytic scoring but also the correlation between degree of extroversion and the discourse measures of accuracy, fluency and complexity commonly used as indices of L2 task performance in the L2 research. The data for this study were drawn from oral performances by 39 Cantonese-mother-tongue Form 4 (that is, Grade 9 secondary school ESL students engaging in school-based oral English assessment that has recently been implemented across secondary schools in Hong Kong. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was used to measure the students’ degree of extroversion. The findings indicate no significant correlations between degree of extroversion and students’ assessment scores, and between degree of extroversion and those discourse-based measures. In addition, further in-depth analysis of the discourse and interactional behavior of two students classified as an extrovert and an introvert based on their scores on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, suggests that in the context of group oral discussion described in this study, extroversion/introversion might impact in some way on learner discourse and interactional behavior only in the extreme cases, yet this influence seemed not reflected in the assessment scores assigned.

  19. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of L2 Puppis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhuo; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations of the L2 Puppis system suggest that the Mira-like variable may be in the early stages of forming a bipolar planetary nebula (PN). As one of nearest and brightest AGB stars, and due to its status as a binary, L2 Puppis serves as a benchmark object for studying the late-stages of stellar evolution. We perform global, three-dimensional, adaptive-mesh-refinement hydrodynamic simulations of the L2 Puppis system with AstroBEAR. The broad-band spectral-energy-distribution (SED) and synthetic observational images are post-processed from our simulations using the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D. Given the reported binary parameters, we are able to reproduce the current observational data if a short pulse of dense material is released from the AGB star with a velocity sufficient to escape the primary but not the binary. Such a situation could emanate from a thermal pulse, be induced by a periastron passage of the secondary, or could be launched if the primary ingests a planet.

  20. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students' Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2 Creencias de estudiantes universitarios iraníes EFL e hindúes ESL acerca de las estrategias de lectura en L2

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Karbalaei

    2010-01-01

    The notion of "learner beliefs" has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners' beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers' beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading in E...

  1. Sitio Web interactivo para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología del sistema muscular / Interactive Website to learn the morphology of the muscular system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Orliany, Alboniga Álvarez; Iraida, Hidalgo Gato Castillo; Niurka, Cabrera Vázquez; Rafael, Capote Martínez; Dariel, Díaz Díaz.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Debido al desarrollo científico técnico alcanzado, se han insertado las tecnologías de la informática y las comunicaciones al proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de la disciplina Morfofisiología Humana. Se realizó una investigación de innovación tecnológica, en el área de pregrado de la Educación Médica, [...] en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río; con el objetivo de elaborar un sistema de medios de enseñanza para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular. Se utilizaron los métodos empíricos, las encuestas a estudiantes, entrevistas a profesores de la asignatura y a los profesores asesores, criterio de expertos para validar el producto. Los métodos teóricos: histórico, lógico y sistémico, fueron utilizados en la revisión bibliográfica y el análisis documental que sustenta el estudio. Las guías de estudio se elaboraron por el modelo "WebQuest" y los ejercicios interactivos con el programa "exelearning". El sistema de medios de enseñanza se ubicó en el sitio Web "MioloWeb", elaborado con "Joomla 1.7". El contenido está estructurado en subtemas y en cada uno de ellos, se facilita al estudiante una variedad de materiales educativos computarizados, que permitirán el aprendizaje activo, consciente y desarrollador de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular, propiciando la interacción del estudiante de forma activa con los contenidos, la vinculación con las estrategias curriculares, la autoevaluación en la guía de estudio y en los ejercicios interactivos. Abstract in english Communicative and information technologies have been introduced in the teaching-learning process of Human Morphology Subject. A research paper of technological innovation was carried out in the pre-graduate area of Medical Education belonging to the University of Medical Sciences in Pinar del Rio, w [...] ith the purpose of creating a system of teaching aids to learn the human morphology of the muscular system. Empirical methods used were: surveys to students and interviews to professors and consultants of the subject, in addition to the criteria of the experts to validate the product; using also the theoretical methods: historical-logic and systemic to conduct the literature review and documentary analysis to support the study. Study guides were created following “WebQuest” model and interactive exercises using “exelearning” program. The system of teaching aids was built-in to “MioloWeb” Website, created with “Joomla 1.7”. The content is structured into subtopics and in every one of them, a variety of educational computerized materials is facilitated to the students, allowing this way an active, conscious and expanded learning of the human morphology of the muscular system, favoring at the same time a dynamic interaction of the student with the contents, the connection with the curricular strategies, and self-evaluation which was included in the guide of study plus interactive exercises.

  2. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Iranian EFL Learners’ Level of L2 Lexical Knowledge: The Case of Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Biria; Abbas Mehrabi Boshrabadi; Elham Nikbakht

    2014-01-01

    Human cognitive competence represents individuals’ subconscious knowledge of abilities, talents, and mental skills collectively called “multiple intelligences (MIs)”, which play a pivotal role in facilitating human learning. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to determine the magnitude of the relationship existing between multiple intelligences and Iranian EFL learners’ level of second language (L2) lexical knowledge on one hand and the partializing impact of gender on the othe...

  3. Review of L-2M Stellarator Recent Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchepetov, S. V.; Akulina, D. K.; Batanov, G. M.; Berezhetskii, M. S.; Fedyanin, O. I.; Gladkov, G. A.; Grebenshchikov, S. E.; Kharchev, N. K.; Khol, Y. V.; Kovrizhnykh, L. M.; Kuznetsov, A. B.; Larionova, N. F.; Letunov, A. A.; Logvinenko, V. P.; Malykh, N. I.; Meshcheryakov, A. I.; Pshenichnikov, A. A.; Sarksyan, K. A.; Skvortsova, N. N.; Vasilkov, D. G.; Voronova, E. V.; Voronov, G. S.

    2005-07-01

    The latest experimental results of L-2M are presented and discussed. Solitary edge localized transport events (SELEs) that drastically differ from edge localized modes (ELMs) normally observed at other devices are presented here. Mirnov signals are inert to SELE. After SELE plasma energy slowly monotonically increase up to the end of the discharge(as well as the average plasma density n). SELEs are indicated only at sufficiently high plasma densities, and for the given value of average density they appear only at higher heating powers. Mirnov signals are inert to SELE. We can say with a fair degree of confidence that SELE indicate the transition to the regime with better confinement.We discuss also in passing whether high frequency components of electromagnetic oscillations can play role in plasma transport. Plasma confinement in non-standard L-2M configurations that are obtained by the decrease of current in the helical windings with four equal steps to the half of initial value was investigated. It is shown that the decrease of the total energy with the rotational transform value is significantly more pessimistic than that following from the International Stellarator Scaling ISS95. Another possibility to change the configuration is the use of co/contra ohmic current within the standard configuration of L-2M. With the value of co injected current confinement initially slightly improves. Higher positive currents lead to definite degradation of the confinement connected with strong MHD activity. Contra injected (negative) currents lead to moderate decrease of electron temperature at given average density and heating power. MHD activity in this case is much smaller than that of co injected current. (Author)

  4. Review of L-2M Stellarator Recent Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest experimental results of L-2M are presented and discussed. Solitary edge localized transport events (SELEs) that drastically differ from edge localized modes (ELMs) normally observed at other devices are presented here. Mirnov signals are inert to SELE. After SELE plasma energy slowly monotonically increase up to the end of the discharge(as well as the average plasma density n). SELEs are indicated only at sufficiently high plasma densities, and for the given value of average density they appear only at higher heating powers. Mirnov signals are inert to SELE. We can say with a fair degree of confidence that SELE indicate the transition to the regime with better confinement.We discuss also in passing whether high frequency components of electromagnetic oscillations can play role in plasma transport. Plasma confinement in non-standard L-2M configurations that are obtained by the decrease of current in the helical windings with four equal steps to the half of initial value was investigated. It is shown that the decrease of the total energy with the rotational transform value is significantly more pessimistic than that following from the International Stellarator Scaling ISS95. Another possibility to change the configuration is the use of co/contra ohmic current within the standard configuration of L-2M. With the value of co injected current confinement initially slightly improves. Higher positive currents lead to definite degradation of the confinement connected with strong MHD activity. Contra injected (negative) currents lead to moderate decrease of electron temperature at given average density and heating power. MHD activity in this case is much smaller than that of co injected current. (Author)

  5. Ohmic plasma heating in the L-2 stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives the results of the first experiments on the L-2 stellarator, put into operation at the end of l975. The L-2 stellarator consists of a toroidal magnetic trap with a double (l=2) helical field. The major diameter of the torus D=200 cm, and the cross-sectional diameter of the vacuum chamber d=35 cm. The maximum magnetic field B0=20 kG (in the experiments under consideration, B00=20 kG, determined from stability and equilibrium conditions, is 1017 eV cm-3. Ohmic heating of the plasma was used in the first stage of the studies. At a current I approximately equal to 20 kA, a plasma with density n barsub(e) approximately equal to 1013 cm-3 was obtained, with a mean electron temperature T barsub(e) approximately equal to 300 eV and an effective charge Zsub(eff) approximately 3. The energy life-time of the plasma tausub(E) approximately equal to 6-8 ms approximately equal to 3.6x10-8a2B perpendicular, where B perpendicular = (Bsub(S)+Bsub(I)) perpendicular; (Bsub(S)) perpendicular is the average transversal stellarator field, (Bsub(I)) perpendicular is the current poloidal field. The relationship with the Bohm time tausub(Bohm) can be written tausub(E) approximately equal to (40-50) tausub(Bohm). At a current reaching a certain critical value Isub(cr)=2.5 B0 (a/g), corresponding to the total angle of rotational transform on the axis of rotational transformsub(?)(0) approximately equal to 1, the appearance of helical perturbations with n/m=1/1, limiting the magnitude of the plasma current, was observed. (author)

  6. The Role of Experience in the Acquisition and Production of Diminutives and Gender in Spanish: Evidence from L2 Learners and Heritage Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrul, Silvina; de la Fuente, Israel; Davidson, Justin; Foote, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether type of early language experience provides advantages to heritage speakers over second language (L2) learners with morphology, and investigated knowledge of gender agreement and its interaction with diminutive formation. Diminutives are a hallmark of Child Directed Speech in early language development and a highly…

  7. The Effect of Using Print Media on Children’s L2 Literacy Development: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoor Tavakoli; Saeedeh Esmae’li

    2013-01-01

    This paper tries to examine the effect of using print media in the classroom on the children’s L2 literacy development in an EFL context. Since reading is regarded as a chief goal, in many second/foreign language teaching situations, it receives a special focus. Media as a tool for language learning/teaching, can help both instructed and non-instructed learners to overcome the difficult task of language learning. In order to determine the effects of print media usage on the development ...

  8. English L2 reading getting to the bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Birch, Barbara M

    2014-01-01

    English L2 Reading, Third Edition offers teachers research-based insights into bottom-up skills in reading English as a second language and a solid foundation on which to build reading instruction. Core linguistic and psycholinguistic concepts are presented within the context of their application to teaching. The goal is to balance or supplement (not replace) top-down approaches and methodologies with effective low-level options for teaching English reading. The text's pedagogical features- Questions, Study Guide Questions. Discussion Questions, Spotlight on Teaching sections- engage readers o

  9. Non-optionality at Zulu L2 first syntax

    OpenAIRE

    Sibusisiwe Dube

    2008-01-01

    The Valueless Features Hypothesis of Eubank (1993/94; 1994; 1996) proposes that certain types of apparently optional syntactic processes that appear in initial and not in mature state grammars are due to a lack of specification of inflectional feature values at the initial state of grammatical knowledge. Thus the apparent optionality in the placement of medial adverbs vis-a-vis thematic or finite main verbs evident in the early stages of second language (L2) acquisition is attributed to non-t...

  10. A Contrastive Study of L1 and L2 Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Moinzadeh; Salman Dezhara; Omid Rezaei

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to give a comprehensive and all out analysis of the processes and aspects involved in first and second language acquisition and learning since this may cause a better selection of the teaching materials, methodologies, techniques and also a more efficient deployment and implementation of them in second or foreign language learning classes.

  11. L2 Reading in Multilingual Eritrea: The Influences of L1 Reading and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Beckman, Danielle; Kurvers, Jeanne; Kroon, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    A major question in L2 reading research is whether L2 reading is a language or a reading problem. Existing research, mainly carried out in Western contexts, demonstrates that L2 reading is influenced by L1 reading and L2 proficiency. This study applied the L2 reading theory in a non-Western context (Eritrea, East Africa) with L1 reading acquired…

  12. SYNCHRONOUS CMC, WORKING MEMORY, AND L2 ORAL PROFICIENCY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Payne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently a number of quasi-experimental studies have investigated the potential of a cross-modality transfer of second language competency between real-time, conversational exchange via text and speech (Abrams, 2003; Beauvious, 1998; Kost, 2004; Payne & Whitney, 2002. Payne and Whitney employed Levelt's (1989 model of language production and concepts from working memory as a rationale for a hypothesized connection between synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC and second language (L2 speech and as a basis for predicting the differential contributions of SCMC to the L2 oral proficiency development.This study extends the psycholinguistic framework reported in Payne and Whitney (2002 with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explore how individual differences in working memory capacity may affect the frequency of repetition and other patterns of language use in chatroom discourse. Working memory capacity was measured by a reading span and nonword repetition test. Oral proficiency was measured with a speaking task that solicited a 5-minute speech sample and was scored based on a holistic scale. The data collected from 20 chat sessions were analyzed for occurrences of repetition and relexicalization, as well as language output measures. Findings suggest a connection between working memory and language output as measured in this study.

  13. The transformative potential of action research and ICT in the Second Language (L2 classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farren Margaret

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the transformative potential of action research and information and communications technology (ICT in the second language (L2 classroom. Two enquiries from teacher-researchers are detailed in the article. Their engagement in a collaborative professional development Masters programme was pivotal in designing and implementing ICT creatively in their classroom. Gee (2008 advocates the use of the preferred media of our classroom students in order to address their learning. Prensky (2001 urges us to feel the fear and do it anyway with our digital native classes. A post-primary teacher and a primary teacher show us how they felt the fear, did it and transformed aspects of their own teaching in the process. The Masters programme required the teachers to engage with innovative practices, informed by their own values, and integrate technologies that were new to them into their repertoire of classroom strategies. Peer validation meetings with colleagues enabled meaningful insights to emerge from the research. The teachers improve and transform their second language (L2 practice in collaboration and validation with others.

  14. James Webb Space Telescope - L2 Communications for Science Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Jones, Ronald; Fatig, Curtis; Wasiak, Francis

    2008-01-01

    JWST is the first NASA mission at the second Lagrange point (L2) to identify the need for data rates higher than 10 megabits per second (Mbps). JWST will produce approximately 235 Gigabits of science data every day that will be downlinked to the Deep Space Network (DSN). To get the data rates desired required moving away from X-band frequencies to Ka-band frequencies. To accomplish this transition, the DSN is upgrading its infrastructure. This new range of frequencies are becoming the new standard for high data rate science missions at L2. With the new frequency range, the issues of alternatives antenna deployment, off nominal scenarios, NASA implementation of the Ka-band 26 GHz, and navigation requirements will be discussed in this paper. JWST is also using Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standard process for reliable file transfer using CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). For JWST the use of the CFDP protocol provides level zero processing at the DSN site. This paper will address NASA implementations of Ground Stations in support of Ka-band 26 GHz and lesson learned from implementing a file base (CFDP) protocol operational system.

  15. Effects of task repetition on L2 oral performance / Efeitos da repetição de tarefas na produção oral em L2

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kyria Rebeca, Finardi.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo parte do pressuposto de que falar um segundo idioma (L2) é uma habilidade cognitiva complexa (FORTKAMP, 2000) cuja execução parece envolver uma compensação entre os diferentes objetivos da fala, principalmente entre a fluência, a acurácia e a complexidade (BYGATE, 1996, 1999, 2001b; FOST [...] ER e SKEHAN, 1996; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998). Bygate (2001b) estudou os efeitos da familiaridade com a tarefa na produção oral em L2. Ele mostrou que na repetição de uma narrativa há ganhos, principalmente em termos de complexidade da fala, mas esse ganhos ocorrem em detrimento de outros aspectos, principalmente da perda na acurácia da fala. Este estudo investigou se os resultados reportados por Bygate (2001b) seriam similares no caso da repetição de uma tarefa de descrição. Segundo Robinson (2001), a descrição é uma tarefa menos complexa do que uma narrativa. Quatro medidas de produção oral foram calculadas seguindo Fortkamp (2000): fluência, acurácia, complexidade e densidade lexical. Os resultados deste estudo indicam ganhos em termos de complexidade de fala e esses ganhos parecem ter sido alcançados, principalmente, às custas da acurácia, portanto, corroborando resultados de Bygate (2001b) para essa condição de tarefa. Abstract in english This study departs from the assumption that speaking an L2 is a complex cognitive ability (FORTKAMP, 2000) whose execution seems to involve tradeoff effects among the different goals of speech production, mainly among fluency, accuracy and complexity (BYGATE, 1998, 1999, 2001b; FOSTER e SKEHAN, 1996 [...] ; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998). Bygate (2001b) studied the effects of task familiarity on L2 speech performance. He found that in repeating a narrative task there were gains in terms of complexity of speech and these gains were achieved at the cost of a loss especially in accuracy. The present study investigated whether the results reported in Bygate (2001b) would be similar in the case of a repetition of a picture description task. According to Robinson (2001), a description is less complex than a narrative task. Four measures of speech performance were calculated following Fortkamp (2000): fluency, accuracy, complexity and lexical density. Results indicate gains in complexity and these gains seem to have been paid, especially by gains in accuracy, thus corroborating Bygate´s (2001b) findings for this task condition.

  16. Effects of task repetition on L2 oral performance Efeitos da repetição de tarefas na produção oral em L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyria Rebeca Finardi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study departs from the assumption that speaking an L2 is a complex cognitive ability (FORTKAMP, 2000 whose execution seems to involve tradeoff effects among the different goals of speech production, mainly among fluency, accuracy and complexity (BYGATE, 1998, 1999, 2001b; FOSTER e SKEHAN, 1996; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998. Bygate (2001b studied the effects of task familiarity on L2 speech performance. He found that in repeating a narrative task there were gains in terms of complexity of speech and these gains were achieved at the cost of a loss especially in accuracy. The present study investigated whether the results reported in Bygate (2001b would be similar in the case of a repetition of a picture description task. According to Robinson (2001, a description is less complex than a narrative task. Four measures of speech performance were calculated following Fortkamp (2000: fluency, accuracy, complexity and lexical density. Results indicate gains in complexity and these gains seem to have been paid, especially by gains in accuracy, thus corroborating Bygate´s (2001b findings for this task condition.Este estudo parte do pressuposto de que falar um segundo idioma (L2 é uma habilidade cognitiva complexa (FORTKAMP, 2000 cuja execução parece envolver uma compensação entre os diferentes objetivos da fala, principalmente entre a fluência, a acurácia e a complexidade (BYGATE, 1996, 1999, 2001b; FOSTER e SKEHAN, 1996; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998. Bygate (2001b estudou os efeitos da familiaridade com a tarefa na produção oral em L2. Ele mostrou que na repetição de uma narrativa há ganhos, principalmente em termos de complexidade da fala, mas esse ganhos ocorrem em detrimento de outros aspectos, principalmente da perda na acurácia da fala. Este estudo investigou se os resultados reportados por Bygate (2001b seriam similares no caso da repetição de uma tarefa de descrição. Segundo Robinson (2001, a descrição é uma tarefa menos complexa do que uma narrativa. Quatro medidas de produção oral foram calculadas seguindo Fortkamp (2000: fluência, acurácia, complexidade e densidade lexical. Os resultados deste estudo indicam ganhos em termos de complexidade de fala e esses ganhos parecem ter sido alcançados, principalmente, às custas da acurácia, portanto, corroborando resultados de Bygate (2001b para essa condição de tarefa.

  17. Cognição e aprendizagem de L2: o que nos diz a pesquisa nos paradigmas simbólico e conexionista

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mailce, Mota; Márcia Cristina, Zimmer.

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os principais aspectos teóricos de dois paradigmas de investigação da cognição humana _ o simbólico e o conexionista _ e discute como a pesquisa em cada paradigma tem fomentado os estudos sobre aprendizagem de L2. O paradigma simbólico postula a existência de representações men [...] tais através de regras lógicas e símbolos para explicar a aquisição e a utilização do conhecimento. O paradigma conexionista parte da premissa de que o processamento cognitivo está relacionado à maneira pela qual os neurônios se interconectam no cérebro. A partir dessas duas abordagens, o artigo examina como construtos tais como tipos de conhecimento, tipos de memória, processamento do insumo e atenção são apresentados nas duas teorias e como vêm sendo utilizados na pesquisa em L2. Abstract in english This paper presents the main tenets of two paradigms of investigation of human cognition _ the symbolic and the connectionist _ and discusses how research in each paradigm has fed studies in L2 learning. The symbolic paradigm explains the acquisition and use of knowledge through the existence of men [...] tal representations, logical rules, and symbols. The connectionist paradigm claims that human cognitive processing is related to how neurons are interconnected in the brain. The paper also examines how constructs such as types of knowledge, types of memory, input processing, and attention are presented in the two theories and how these constructs relate to current L2 research.

  18. Inference with formal analogical proportions: application to the automatic learning of morphology Du quatrième de proportion comme principe inductif : une proposition et son application à l'apprentissage de la morphologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Stroppa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an analogical learning model which exploits the notion of formal analogical proportions; this approach requires the ability to define these proportions and to implement them efficiently. We propose an algebraic definition of this notion, which applies to a large range of structured objects: words, attribute-value structures, labeled trees. We test this inference model by applying it to the task of learning morphological analyses of unknown forms. We can assess the validity of the approach thanks to experimental results that are given for several lexicons.

  19. The Use of Newspapers for L2 Reading: Practical Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Luque-Agulló; Lucas Gonz??lez-Fernández

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays the acquisition of literacy skills in the foreign language is a highly demanding task cognitively speaking. To improve this learning process, this paper presents a three-fold approach using print and virtual newspapers: first, a brief theoretical revision of the issues involved in learning how to read in a foreign language or transfer L1 reading skills to the foreign language, second, a wide selection of activities to be used when working with newspapers, and third, two sessions that...

  20. Going Blended: New Challenges for Second Generation L2 Tutors

    OpenAIRE

    Nissen, Elke; Tea, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second generation tutors within blended learning courses link the face-to-face and online course modalities - in their representations as well as through their pedagogical activities - and which aspects help them to feel involved in the course. The methodology used is a qualitative analysis of interviews with seven tutors of three different blended learning courses. The results show that most tutors indeed had difficulties gaining a deeper insight into the course desig...

  1. L’apport des TICE et de l’écriture collaborative au développement des compétences écrites dans l’acquisition/apprentissage d’une L2 Can new technologies and collaborative writing contribute to better written performance in second language acquisition/learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Bonnassies

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une recherche-action en école d’ingénieurs, nous avons cherché à développer un savoir et un savoir-faire propre à la technique du compte-rendu. Cet objectif était facilité par des activités langagières et des procédures formalisées sous forme de grilles d’auto-évaluation. L’apprentissage se déroulait dans un environnement collaboratif et s’appuyait sur des outils informatisés. En conséquence, nous avons comparé deux situations d’apprentissage autour de ces questions : dans quelle mesure une tâche médiatisée par l’ordinateur permet une meilleure appropriation de la technique d’écriture et, une fois acquis, ce savoir faire peut-il être transféré quel que soit le support ?This field research is aimed at teaching the report writing technique to engineering students through various language activities and self-assessment grids. They worked in a collaborative environment using new technologies. We compared two learning situations to show how computer-mediated tasks help improve the written performance and how this know-how is transferred to other learning situations.

  2. Telescope Formation at L2 for Observing Earth's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Edward; Acikmese, Behcet; Breckenridge, William; Macenka, Steven; Hein, Randall; Tubbs, Eldred

    2007-01-01

    Two documents describe a proposed Earth-atmosphere observatory to orbit the Sun at the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point -- a point of unstable equilibrium in the shadow of the Earth, about 1.5 million km from the Earth along an outward projection of the Earth-Sun axis. The observatory would comprise two spacecraft flying in precision formation: (1) a primary-aperture spacecraft, from which would be deployed a 25-m diameter membrane primary mirror aimed at the Earth, and (2) a secondary-telescope spacecraft at the focal plane of the primary mirror, 125-m distant along the axis towards the Earth. The secondary telescope would be aimed at the primary mirror and slowly rotated to scan the focused annular image of the visible illuminated portion of the Earth's atmosphere during continuous occultation of the Sun.

  3. New Physics in ΔL = 2 neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a general framework to constrain ΔL = 2 processes by measuring observables associated with neutrino-antineutrino oscillations in π± decays. First, we use this formalism as a new strategy for detecting the CP-violating phases and the effective mass of muon Majorana neutrinos. Within the generic framework of quantum field theory, we compute the non-factorizable probability for producing a pair of same-charged muons in π± decays as a distinctive signature of νμ-ν*μ. Using the neutrino-antineutrino oscillation probability reported by MINOS collaboration, a new stringent bound on the effective muon-neutrino mass is derived. Secondly, we interpret the production of the pair of same-charged muons as a result of lepton number violating (LNV) interactions at the neutrino source, which allow us to constrain New Physics.

  4. Initiating round robins in the L2 classroom - preliminary observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    that reduces students’ contributions to responses to the teacher’s elicitations. This paper shows that although the round robin puts certain interactional features out of play, it is nonetheless done in and through participants’ mutual orientation to the ongoing activity. The paper describes the......Complementing recent interactional research on the contingent operation of online task accomplishment, this paper deals with a specific way of organizing and managing tasks in plenary L2 classrooms – namely the round robin. This may seem like a “traditional” and rigid form of classroom organization...... sequential position in which round robins are initiated and how this is talked and embodied into being by the participants as well as the design of the turn that initiates the round robin activity. Relevant to the initiation and further development of the round robin are the physical arrangement of the...

  5. Plasma energy balance in the L-2M stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from studies of the effect of the discharge parameters (in particular, plasma density and heating power) and the characteristics of the magnetic configuration (e.g., rotational transform) on the confinement of a low-pressure plasma during electron-cyclotron resonance heating in the L-2M stellarator. An analysis shows that the plasma energy in the steady-state phase of a discharge is fairly well described by the product of power functions of the plasma density, heating power, and rotational transform: W = W0 ne?nP?p???. The energy scalings constructed in terms of the parameters in the initial stage of free plasma decay and those in the steady-state phase are close to one another. The dynamic analysis of the plasma energy decay is now under way

  6. Optimized L2-Orthogonal STC CPM for 3 Antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Hesse, Matthias; Deneire, Luc

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce further our recently designed family of L2 orthogonal Space-Time codes for CPM. With their advantage of maintaining both the constant envelope properties of CPM, the diversity of Space-Time codes and moreover orthogonality, and thus reduced decoding complexity, these codes are also full rate, even for more than two transmitting antennas. The issue of power efficiency for these codes is first dealt with by proving that the inherent increase in bandwidth in these systems is quite moderate. It is then detailed how the initial state of the code influences the coding gain and has to be optimized. For the two and three antennas case, we determine the optimal values by computer simulations and show how the coding gain and therewith the bit error performance are significantly improved by this optimization.

  7. IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2/LS CON TESTI TEATRALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminia Ardissino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio tratta dell'impiego di testi teatrali come fonti di esercizi per l'apprendimento dell'italiano L2/LS. Dopo alcune riflessioni teoriche, si presentano sei proposte di lavoro, con relative soluzioni, adatte a studenti del livello B2-C2 del quadro di riferimento. Si tratta di esercizi ricavati da drammi in un unico atto di Pirandello (La morsa e Lumìe di Sicilia, da Verga (un confronto fra Cavalleria rusticana nella forma drammatica e novellistica, e da Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre. Ogni proposta sfrutta una peculiarità del testo teatrale che si costituisce nell'incontro di dialoghi con didascalie. Anzitutto si tratta di comprendere come si costruiscono i personaggi, quindi di vedere la funzione delle didascalie in relazione al testo, infine di riflettere sulle diverse modalità in cui avvengono i dialoghi, includendo le forme di silenzio. Il testo teatrale appare così molto adatto ad esercizi di lingua, perché mette in gioco le capacità interpretative e immaginative degli studenti, li fa discutere e parlare sulla base delle loro intuizioni.   This paper investigates the use of play scripts as inspiration for Italian L2/FL exercises. After a brief discussion on theory, six project proposals and their solutions, suitable for B2-C2 level students, are presented.  These exercises are based on one-act plays by Pirandello (La Morsa and Lumìe di Sicilia, Verga (a comparison between Cavalleria Rusticana in drama and narrative forms and Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre.  Each project focuses on a specific aspect of the script  and is made up of dialogues with captions. After the way the characters are constructed is investigated, then the function of the captions in relation to the texts is considered, and finally students reflect on the different ways the dialogues are presented, including the pauses. Play scripts lend themselves to language exercises, because they encourage students to use their interpretation skills and imaginations to talk about their intuitions and ideas.

  8. Design of dialogic eLearning-to-learn: metalearning as pedagogical methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2008-01-01

    networked e Learning based on Learning-to-Learn (L2L), it makes a plea for L2L in a dialogic global learning context, offering a vision of global democratic citizens able to engage in critical dialogue with fellow learners. http://www.inderscience.com/search/index.php?action=record&rec_id=17675&prev......This paper presents a perspective emphasising Meta learning (ML) as the most significant and pertinent feature for promoting a democratic, collaborative eLearning-to-Learn (eL2L) phenomenon in a global context. Through attempting to understand and clarify the powers of pedagogical design of global...

  9. Design of dialogic eLearning-to-learn: metalearning as pedagogical methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective emphasising Meta learning (ML) as the most significant and pertinent feature for promoting a democratic, collaborative eLearning-to-Learn (eL2L) phenomenon in a global context. Through attempting to understand and clarify the powers of pedagogical design of global networked e Learning based on Learning-to-Learn (L2L), it makes a plea for L2L in a dialogic global learning context, offering a vision of global democratic citizens able to engage in critical dialogue with fellow learners. http://www.inderscience.com/search/index.php?action=record&rec_id=17675&prevQuery=&ps=10&m=or

  10. La conscience morphologique est-elle une variable importante dans l'apprentissage de la lecture? / Morphological awareness: an important variable in learning to read? / Consciência morfológica é uma variável importante na aprendizagem da leitura?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nathalie, Marec-Breton; Anne-Sophie, Besse; Carine, Royer.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é uma revisão sistemática de trabalhos que tratam da relação entre consciência morfológica e aprendizagem da leitura. Esta síntese permite confirmar que a consciência morfológica contribui realmente para a aprendizagem da leitura (tanto no nível da instalação das habilidades de dec [...] odificação quanto no nível do desenvolvimento da compreensão). No entanto, parece que não são todos os mesmos aspectos da consciência morfológica que são ligados às capacidades de decodificação e às capacidades de compreensão. Logo, novas pesquisas deverão ser desenvolvidas para melhor apreender os papéis respectivos de cada um dos componentes da consciência morfológica. Abstract in english The present article is a concise review of researches addressing the links between morphological awareness and learning reading. This review points out that morphological awareness actually contributes to learning reading (both at the level of decoding skills installation and at the level of compreh [...] ension development). However, it seems that there are different aspects of morphological awareness which are bound to decoding and comprehension capacities. Further researches must be, thus, carried out to better highlight the respective roles of each of the components of morphological awareness.

  11. The Relations among L1 (Spanish) Literacy Skills, L2 (English) Language, L2 Text Reading Fluency, and L2 Reading Comprehension for Spanish-Speaking ELL First Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relations of L2 (i.e., English) oral reading fluency, silent reading fluency, word reading automaticity, oral language skills, and L1 literacy skills (i.e., Spanish) to L2 reading comprehension for Spanish-speaking English language learners in the first grade (N = 150). An analysis was conducted for the entire sample as well as…

  12. Morphological knowledge and literacy acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, William E; Carlisle, Joanne F; Goodwin, Amanda P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities is to bring to the attention of researchers and educators studies on morphology and literacy that either involve students with learning difficulties or have educational implications for teaching such students. In our introduction, we first provide background information about morphological knowledge and consider the role of morphology in literacy, focusing on findings that are relevant for instruction of students who struggle with reading and writing. Next we present an overview of the studies included in this issue, organized by current issues concerning the role of morphological knowledge in literacy. Collectively, the articles in this issue suggest that students with weaker literacy skills tend to lag behind their peers in morphological knowledge but that all students are likely to benefit from morphological instruction. Morphological interventions hold promise, especially for students who face challenges in language learning and literacy, but additional research is needed to provide a basis for informed decisions about the design of effective morphological interventions. PMID:24219917

  13. The Effects of Late Acquisition of L2 and the Consequences of Immigration on L1 for Semantic and Morpho-Syntactic Language Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherag, Andre; Demuth, Lisa; Rosler, Frank; Neville, Helen J.; Roder, Brigitte

    2004-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that some aspects of a second language (L2) might be learned easier than others if a language is learned late. On the other hand, non-use might result in a loss of language skills in one's native, i.e. one's first language (L1) (language attrition). To study which, if any, aspects of language are affected by either late…

  14. A Study of the Relationship between Korean Non-Native English Speaking Teachers' Prior Teaching Experience and Their L2 Pragmatic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Ku

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to explore five Korean NNESTs' L2 pragmatic competence and its relationship with their teaching experiences using DCT questionnaires of English request. This study in particular examined (1) five Korean NNESTs pragmatic competencies in English requests, (2) the relationship between their English teaching and learning…

  15. Exploring Motivational Profiles through Language Learning Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amy S.; Vásquez, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the language learning narratives of 3 NNS foreign language teachers. It uses as a theoretical framework the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) (Dörnyei, 2009) but adds the dimension of psychological reactance (Brehm, 1966). Our findings indicate that the L2MSS underestimates the relationship between "I" and…

  16. Using Gamification to Enhance Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Flores, Jorge Francisco

    2015-01-01

    One major competence for learners in the 21st century is acquiring a second language (L2). Based on this, L2 instruction has integrated new concepts to motivate learners in their pursue of achieving fluency. A concept that is adaptable to digital natives and digital immigrants that are learning a L2 is Gamification. As a pedagogical strategy,…

  17. Working Memory Capacity, Inhibitory Control and the Role of L2 Proficiency in Aging L1 Dutch Speakers of Near-Native L2 English

    OpenAIRE

    Merel Keijzer

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the intricate relationship between working memory (WM) capacity and inhibitory control as a function of both L2 proficiency and age. In both its design and research questions, this study closely follows Gass & Lee’s work, where both L1 and L2 Reading Span Tasks (as measures of WM capacity) and L1 and L2 Stroop interference tasks (to measure inhibitory control) were administered. In this study, the test battery is augmented by both an L1 and L2 C-test of overall languag...

  18. Early literacy experiences constrain L1 and L2 reading procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, Adeetee

    2015-01-01

    Computational models of reading posit that there are two pathways to word recognition, using sublexical phonology or morphological/orthographic information. They further theorize that everyone uses both pathways to some extent, but the division of labor between the pathways can vary. This review argues that the first language one was taught to read, and the instructional method by which one was taught, can have profound and long-lasting effects on how one reads, not only in one's first language, but also in one's second language. Readers who first learn a transparent orthography rely more heavily on the sublexical phonology pathway, and this seems relatively impervious to instruction. Readers who first learn a more opaque orthography rely more on morphological/orthographic information, but the degree to which they do so can be modulated by instructional method. Finally, readers who first learned to read a highly opaque morphosyllabic orthography use less sublexical phonology while reading in their second language than do other second language learners and this effect may be heightened if they were not also exposed to an orthography that codes for phonological units during early literacy acquisition. These effects of early literacy experiences on reading procedure are persistent despite increases in reading ability. PMID:26483714

  19. Going Blended: New Challenges for Second Generation L2 Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Elke; Tea, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second generation tutors within blended learning courses link the face-to-face and online course modalities--in their representations as well as through their pedagogical activities--and which aspects help them to feel involved in the course. The methodology used is a qualitative analysis of interviews with seven tutors of…

  20. Task Design for L2 Oral Practice in Audioblogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Christine; Borges, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The development of oral skills poses a challenge in language teaching whether this takes place face-to-face, through distance education or in blended learning contexts. Two main problems arise: first of all students don't have enough opportunity to use their target language orally, and secondly, students oral performance is mostly unrecorded and…

  1. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning. PMID:26094128

  2. Induction of L1 and L2 β-Lactamases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia▿

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Rouh-Mei; Huang, Kuang-Jay; Wu, Lii-Tzu; Hsiao, Ying-Ju; Yang, Tsuey-Ching

    2007-01-01

    Isogenic L1 and L2 gene knockout mutants of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KJ (KJΔL1 and KJΔL2, respectively) were constructed by xylE gene replacement. Induction kinetics of the L1 and L2 genes were evaluated by testing catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity in the mutants. The results suggested that the induction of the L1 and L2 genes was differentially regulated.

  3. Alternative Models of Self-regulation and Implications for L2 Strategy Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Ranalli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the proposal of Dörnyei and colleagues (Dörnyei, 2005; Tseng, Dörnyei, & Schmitt, 2006 to replace the construct of learning strategy with that of self-regulation and thus shift the research focus from specific strategic behaviors to a trait that is seen to underlie them. I argue that before doing so, we need a fuller understanding of what self-regulation entails and how it might intersect with traditional concerns of second language strategy research. To contribute to this understanding, I highlight alternative conceptualizations of self-regulation and then use data from my doctoral research to illustrate one in particular, the COPES model of self-regulated learning (Winne & Hadwin, 1998. This model’s explanatory power is contrasted with that of Dörnyei and colleagues’ conceptualization to show that, depending on the model one adopts, self-regulation is not only compatible with the study of specific strategies but useful for shedding new light on strategy research and integrating it with research in other related areas, such as L2 motivation.

  4. The perceptual magnet effect (PME) in L2 consonants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kota

    2005-09-01

    The perceptual magnet effect (PME) has been investigated in conjunction with L1 vowels and consonants. However, there has been a paucity of examinations of the effect in L2 speech perception. The present study used the methodology of Iverson and Kuhl [P. Iverson and P. K. Kuhl, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 1130-1140 (1996)] to examine whether Japanese speakers who have had exposure to English-speaking environments for more than 1 year exhibit the PME for /r/ and /l/. Eighteen synthetic stimuli were generated. Ten Japanese speakers and 12 American English speakers participated in an identification and rating task. Each participant engaged in ten experimental sessions (ten sessions of each of the 18 stimuli). They chose either /ra/ or /la/ and gave a rating with a 1-7 scale. They also underwent a similarity scaling task to determine the similarity of 306 pairs of the 18 stimuli with a 1-7 scale. The results indicated that, while the English speakers demonstrated the PME, some native speakers of Japanese did exhibit the PME and prefer some exemplars of English /r/ and /l/ over others. The results also revealed that other Japanese speakers exhibited reorganized perceptual space without the PME.

  5. Teaching Requests to L2 Learners of Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Langer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In many language classrooms, the teaching of pragmatic forms is often ignored at all learner levels. This paper – part of a larger study that encompassed four speech acts – examines the benefits of explicit instruction of requests for beginning, intermediate, and advanced L2 learners of Spanish. The participants took a pre-test and post-test to measure the pragmatic gains over the course of an academic quarter, while the experimental groups from each level received specific lessons in pragmatic use of Spanish and the control group received no extra treatment during their courses. While the treatment consisted of provided online lessons on the common uses of four speech acts in Spanish, this paper focuses on the formulation of requests. The results show that the students that received the treatment had higher scores on the Dialogue Completion Test than the control group. Furthermore, the intermediate level showed the most improvement, suggesting that this is the optimal level for pragmatic development because learners at this level are the most receptive to the acquisition of requests. This investigation shows that the explicit teaching of requests is effective and should be addressed in the Spanish language classroom at all levels, especially at the intermediate level.

  6. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2 was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of other infective agents. For these reasons, glycosidases are likely to provide important information regarding the general behaviour of this bacterium. Ten different glycosides bound to p-nitrophenol (pNP substrate were tested. Assays were performed on lysed and unlysed chlamydial extracts.Our results provided strong evidence for the existence of glycosidase activity in C.trachomatis, strain SA2F peaking at pH 5.0 and pH 7.5-8.0 There was a high enzymatic activity against p-NPa mannopyranoside and p-NP b-N acetylglucosamine with a recovery of 88% suggesting that the enzymes were present on the bacterial surface. Activity against these sugars, which form part of either the extracellular filler or in endoplasmic reticulum may suggest of a possible mechanism of cellular invasion.

  7. Wavelet Decomposition Method for $L_2/$/TV-Image Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Fornasier, M.

    2012-07-17

    In this paper, we show additional properties of the limit of a sequence produced by the subspace correction algorithm proposed by Fornasier and Schönlieb [SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 47 (2009), pp. 3397-3428 for L 2/TV-minimization problems. An important but missing property of such a limiting sequence in that paper is the convergence to a minimizer of the original minimization problem, which was obtained in [M. Fornasier, A. Langer, and C.-B. Schönlieb, Numer. Math., 116 (2010), pp. 645-685 with an additional condition of overlapping subdomains. We can now determine when the limit is indeed a minimizer of the original problem. Inspired by the work of Vonesch and Unser [IEEE Trans. Image Process., 18 (2009), pp. 509-523], we adapt and specify this algorithm to the case of an orthogonal wavelet space decomposition for deblurring problems and provide an equivalence condition to the convergence of such a limiting sequence to a minimizer. We also provide a counterexample of a limiting sequence by the algorithm that does not converge to a minimizer, which shows the necessity of our analysis of the minimizing algorithm. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  8. Recent results of ECRH experiments on L-2M stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reported from experimental study of ECH heated plasma in the L-2M stellarator with special emphasis on studying the turbulent processes. It is shown that the total plasma energy at fixed total heating power is strongly dependent on the plasma position. Visible degradation of plasma confinement is observed for the inward shifted magnetic configurations where the stability conditions of ideal interchange MHD modes are violated. However, even in this case the situation can be improved by decreasing the average radius of the plasma boundary with the help of graphite limiter resulting in the increase of the Shafranov shift of magnetic surfaces and deepening of the magnetic well due to the effect of self-stabilization. This in turn causes stabilization of ideal MHD interchange modes and visible increase in plasma energy and volume average value of beta. Statistical properties of turbulence was studied both for the central part of the plasma column and for the plasma edge. It is shown that one of the critical factors determining the coherent structures and turbulent fluxes in the edge plasma is the radial electric field. (author)

  9. Optimal Decompositions of Translations of $L^{2}$-functions

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Palle E T

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we offer a computational approach to the spectral function for a finite family of commuting operators, and give applications. Motivated by questions in wavelets and in signal processing, we study a problem about spectral concentration of integral translations of functions in the Hilbert space $L^{2}(\\mathbb{R}^{n})$. Our approach applies more generally to families of $n$ arbitrary commuting unitary operators in a complex Hilbert space $\\mathcal{H}$, or equivalent the spectral theory of a unitary representation $U$ of the rank-$n$ lattice $\\mathbb{Z}^{n}$ in $\\mathbb{R}^{n}$. Starting with a non-zero vector $\\psi \\in \\mathcal{H}$, we look for relations among the vectors in the cyclic subspace in $\\mathcal{H}$ generated by $\\psi$. Since these vectors $\\{U(k)\\psi | k \\in \\mathbb{Z}^{n}\\}$ involve infinite ``linear combinations," the problem arises of giving geometric characterizations of these non-trivial linear relations. A special case of the problem arose initially in work of Kolmogorov under th...

  10. Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

  11. Factors influencing subcellular localization of the human papillomavirus L2 minor structural protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two structural proteins form the capsids of papillomaviruses. The major structural protein L1 is the structural determinant of the capsids and is present in 360 copies arranged in 72 pentamers. The minor structural protein L2 is estimated to be present in twelve copies per capsid. Possible roles for L2 in interaction with cell surface receptors and in virion uptake have been suggested. As previously reported, L2 localizes in subnuclear domains identified as nuclear domain 10 (ND10). As it was demonstrated that L2 is able to recruit viral and cellular proteins to ND10, a possible role for L2 as a mediator in viral assembly has been proposed. In this study, we determined factors influencing the localization of L2 at ND10. Under conditions of moderate L2 expression level and in the absence of heterologous viral components, we observed that, in contrast to previous reports, L2 is mainly distributed homogeneously throughout the nucleus. L2, however, is recruited to ND10 at a higher expression level or in the presence of viral components derived from vaccinia virus or from Semliki Forest virus. We observed that translocation of L2 to ND10 is not a concentration-dependent accumulation but rather seems to be triggered by yet unidentified cellular factors. In contrast to HPV 11 and 16 L2, the HPV 18 L2 protein seems to require L1 for efficient nuclear accumulation

  12. A Prerequisite to L1 Homophone Effects in L2 Spoken-Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…

  13. Grammatical Gender in Adult L2 Acquisition: Relations between Lexical and Syntactic Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Holger

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify the causes of inflectional variability in adult second-language (L2) acquisition, this study investigates lexical and syntactic aspects of gender processing in real-time L2 production and comprehension. Twenty advanced to near-native adult first language (L1) English speakers of L2 German and 20 native controls were tested in…

  14. Phonological Memory and the Acquisition of Grammar in Child L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul; Messer, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show that second language (L2) learners with large phonological memory spans outperform learners with smaller memory spans on tests of L2 grammar. The current study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and L2 grammar in more detail than has been done earlier. Specifically, we asked how phonological memory…

  15. Pragmatic and Grammatical Competence, Length of Residence, and Overall L2 Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Case, Rod E.; Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the influence of length of residence in the target language community and overall L2 proficiency on L2 pragmatic competence with a reference to L2 grammatical competence. Participants were 126 international students in the US with two academic levels of English proficiency from 17 countries, speaking 20 languages. A…

  16. Seeking out Challenges to Develop L2 Self-Confidence: A Language Learner's Journey to Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwads, Emily; Roger, Peter Stewart

    2015-01-01

    As one constituent of second language (L2) motivation, L2 "self-­confidence" has been shown to be a significant predictor of language proficiency. More recently, L2 self-­confidence has been studied as part of the "willingness to communicate" (WTC) construct. Less is known, however, about the processes by which learners develop…

  17. Perceptual Filtering in L2 Lexical Memory: A Neural Network Approach to Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory has…

  18. Can Bilinguals See It Coming? Word Anticipation in L2 Sentence Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, Alice; Martin, Clara D.; Moreno, Eva M.; Costa, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Why is it more difficult to comprehend a 2nd (L2) than a 1st language (L1)? In the present article we investigate whether difficulties during L2 sentence comprehension come from differences in the way L1 and L2 speakers anticipate upcoming words. We recorded the brain activity (event-related potentials) of Spanish monolinguals, French-Spanish late…

  19. Mathematical morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Najman, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoretical foun

  20. Quantifying the Quality Difference between L1 and L2 Essays: A Rating Procedure with Bilingual Raters and L1 and L2 Benchmark Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillema, Marion; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

    2013-01-01

    It is the consensus that, as a result of the extra constraints placed on working memory, texts written in a second language (L2) are usually of lower quality than texts written in the first language (L1) by the same writer. However, no method is currently available for quantifying the quality difference between L1 and L2 texts. In the present…

  1. Quantifying the Quality Difference between L1 and L2 Essays: A Rating Procedure with Bilingual Raters and L1 and L2 Benchmark Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillema, Marion; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

    2013-01-01

    It is the consensus that, as a result of the extra constraints placed on working memory, texts written in a second language (L2) are usually of lower quality than texts written in the first language (L1) by the same writer. However, no method is currently available for quantifying the quality difference between L1 and L2 texts. In the present…

  2. Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-11-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands. PMID:21767061

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of highly thermostable L2 lipase from the newly isolated Bacillus sp. L2

    OpenAIRE

    Shariff, Fairolniza Mohd; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Ali, Mohd Shukuri Mohamad; Chor, Adam Leow Thean; Basri, Mahiran; Salleh, Abu Bakar

    2010-01-01

    Thermostable recombinant L2 lipase from thermophilic Bacillus sp. L2 has been crystallized by using counter-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.7?Å resolution. The crystal belongs to the primitive orthorhombic space group P212121 with unit-cell parameters a = 87.44, b = 94.90, c = 126.46?Å.

  4. How Strategic Use of L1 in an L2-Medium Mathematics Classroom Facilitates L2 Interaction and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Nicole Judith

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in and hence a growing number of research studies on content and language integrated learning (CLIL) over the past two decades. One of the on-going debates in CLIL is on bilingualism versus monolingualism, or the role of the first language (L1) in subject teaching. So far, very few research projects have been…

  5. How Strategic Use of L1 in an L2-Medium Mathematics Classroom Facilitates L2 Interaction and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Nicole Judith

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in and hence a growing number of research studies on content and language integrated learning (CLIL) over the past two decades. One of the on-going debates in CLIL is on bilingualism versus monolingualism, or the role of the first language (L1) in subject teaching. So far, very few research projects have been…

  6. Impact of English Orthography on L2 Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Aslam Sipra

    2013-01-01

    English language has become unavoidable being a global language in the present era. Whether it is a field of business, technology or education, its significance can’t be denied. Thus, majority of the world is learning and speaking English owing to its dire need. Unfortunately, despite staining through different reforms, the orthography of English language failed to become learners’ friendly as it seems to be a queer language for the beginners. The present study describes the ways how English ...

  7. Ajustes Conversacionales para el Aprendizaje de Contenidos en L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta de Dios

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende describir las interacciones conversacionales entre el alumnado en las aulas AICLE. Nos preguntamos si hay un vínculo entre las características de las interacciones y el aprendizaje de contenidos no lingüísticos y, si es así, qué tipo de ajustes fomentan dicho aprendizaje. Las aulas AICLE son los entornos ideales para estudiar el vínculo entre ajustes conversacionales y aprendizaje de contenidos porque, al no ser en la lengua materna del alumnado, se dan más ajustes conversacionales que en las clases en lengua materna.---------------------------------------------This article pursues to describe conversational adjustments among students in CLIL classes. We wonder if there is a link between the characteristics of the interactions and the learning of non-linguistic contents and, if there is, what kind of adjustments promote such learning. CLIL classes are the ideal environments to study the link between conversational adjustments and the learning of contents because, since they are not in the students’ mother tongue, conversational adjustments occur more frequently than in classes in mother tongue.

  8. Working memory capacity across L2 speech proficiency levels / Capacidade de memória de trabalho através de níveis de proficiência oral em L2

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gicele Vergine Vieira, Prebianca; Kyria Rebeca, Finardi; Janaina, Weissheimer.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investiga se a capacidade de memória de trabalho (CMT) varia entre idiomas e níveis de proficiência na fala em L2. Seguindo sugestões em Finardi e Weissheimer (2009) e Prebianca (2010) que demonstraram que a CMT varia em função do nível de proficiência da fala em L2, o presente trabalho [...] analisou três níveis de proficiência (elementar, intermediário e avançado) e dois idiomas (L1-português e L2-inglês). Dois testes de MT foram usados, um em L1 e outro em L2, ambos na modalidade oral. Sessenta estudantes adultos de inglês como língua estrangeira participaram no estudo: 19 elementares, 19 intermediários e 22 avançados. Resultados dos testes Kruskal-Wallis e Mann-Whitney corroboraram Finardi e Weissheimer (2009) e Prebianca (2010) sugerindo que a CMT medida com um teste de amplitude da fala em L2 parece confundir a relação entre níveis de proficiência oral e CMT. Abstract in english This study investigates whether working memory capacity (WMC) varies across languages and in the course of L2 speech proficiency levels. Following suggestions in Finardi and Weissheimer (2009) and Prebianca (2010), who found that WMC varied as a function of L2 speech proficiency, the present study a [...] ssessed three proficiency levels (elementary, intermediate and advanced) and two languages (L1-Portuguese and L2-English). Two WM tests were used, one in the L1 and another in the L2, both in the speaking mode. Sixty adult learners of English as a foreign language participated in the study: 19 elementary, 19 intermediate and 22 advanced learners. Results of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests corroborate Finardi and Weissheimer (2009) and Prebianca (2010) suggesting that WMC measured with a speaking span test in L2 seems to conflate the relationship between speech proficiency levels and WMC.

  9. Do the Four Clades of the mtDNA Haplogroup L2 Evolve at Different Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torroni, Antonio; Rengo, Chiara; Guida, Valentina; Cruciani, Fulvio; Sellitto, Daniele; Coppa, Alfredo; Calderon, Fernando Luna; Simionati, Barbara; Valle, Giorgio; Richards, Martin; Macaulay, Vincent; Scozzari, Rosaria

    2001-01-01

    Forty-seven mtDNAs collected in the Dominican Republic and belonging to the African-specific haplogroup L2 were studied by high-resolution RFLP and control-region sequence analyses. Four sets of diagnostic markers that subdivide L2 into four clades (L2L2d) were identified, and a survey of published African data sets appears to indicate that these clades encompass all L2 mtDNAs and harbor very different geographic/ethnic distributions. One mtDNA from each of the four clades was completely sequenced by means of a new sequencing protocol that minimizes time and expense. The phylogeny of the L2 complete sequences showed that the two mtDNAs from L2b and L2d seem disproportionately derived, compared with those from L2a and L2c. This result is not consistent with a simple model of neutral evolution with a uniform molecular clock. The pattern of nonsynonymous versus synonymous substitutions hints at a role for selection in the evolution of human mtDNA. Regardless of whether selection is shaping the evolution of modern human mtDNAs, the population screening of L2 mtDNAs for the mutations identified by our complete sequence study should allow the identification of marker motifs of younger age with more restricted geographic distributions, thus providing new clues about African prehistory and the origin and relationships of African ethnic groups. PMID:11595973

  10. Automatic quantitative morphological analysis of interacting galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Shamir, Lior; Holincheck, Anthony; Wallin, John

    2013-01-01

    The large number of galaxies imaged by digital sky surveys reinforces the need for computational methods for analyzing galaxy morphology. While the morphology of most galaxies can be associated with a stage on the Hubble sequence, morphology of galaxy mergers is far more complex due to the combination of two or more galaxies with different morphologies and the interaction between them. Here we propose a computational method based on unsupervised machine learning that can quantitatively analyz...

  11. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Iranian EFL Learners’ Level of L2 Lexical Knowledge: The Case of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Biria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human cognitive competence represents individuals’ subconscious knowledge of abilities, talents, and mental skills collectively called “multiple intelligences (MIs”, which play a pivotal role in facilitating human learning. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to determine the magnitude of the relationship existing between multiple intelligences and Iranian EFL learners’ level of second language (L2 lexical knowledge on one hand and the partializing impact of gender on the other. For this purpose, from the population of the senior undergraduate students majoring in translation at Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan (Isfahan Branch, Isfahan, Iran, a sample of 88 students, 24 males and 64 females, were randomly selected. First, Mckenzie’s (1999 MIs Inventory was administered to specify the size of individual types of intelligences in each learner’s MIs composite. Then, the learners were provided with Nation’s (2001 receptive level test a week later to gauge their level of L2 lexical knowledge. The findings revealed that the scores on MIs inventory correlated positively with those of L2 lexical knowledge. Alternatively, different types of intelligences served as useful predictors for estimating the quality of learners’ vocabulary knowledge. Finally, it was found out that gender did indeed have a different effect regarding the learners’ vocabulary knowledge.

  12. L’AUTOBIOGRAFIA LINGUISTICA NELL’INSEGNAMENTO-APPRENDIMENTO DELL’ITALIANO L2/LS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Groppaldi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L'autobiografia linguistica è una attività particolarmente utile nell'insegnamento-apprendimento di una lingua straniera. L'apprendente immigrato è invitato a narrare in prima persona le esperienze linguistico-comunicative nella propria L1, nella L2 /LS che sta apprendendo e/o nella lingua seconda che ha acquisito come lingua di comunicazione e di studio nel suo paese di origine, le relazioni umane ed emotive che accompagnano  o hanno accompagnato queste esperienze, le situazioni che ne hanno favorito o ostacolato l'apprendimento. Con l'autobiografia linguistica l'apprendente straniero costruisce, attraverso la scrittura e quindi attraverso un processo di esplicitazione e di riflessione consapevole,  un ponte tra "là" e "qui", tra paese d'origine e il paese di arrivo, tra la vita "prima" e la vita "dopo" lo strappo della migrazione. Ricompone e dà senso alla propria storia, nelle due lingue, esprime affetti ed emozioni, rinomina il mondo e se ne riappropria ricostruendo insieme la propria identità, esplora se stesso e si fa conoscere ai suoi pari e all'insegnante in un rapporto di condivisione e di comprensione reciproca: si crea un contesto non di integrazione, ma di inclusione. A sua volta il docente può meglio comprendere le strategie di apprendimento dell'apprendente, la sua personalità, le sue difficoltà e progettare strategie didattiche più efficaci, perché più individuali e orientate al successo nella comunicazione e nell'apprendimento.   Linguistic autobiography is especially useful in the teaching and learning of a foreign language. The foreign learner is asked to narrate, in the first person, his/her linguistic-communicative experiences in their L1 and in the L2/FL which they are learning and/or in the second language they have acquired for communication or study in their home country, focusing on the emotional and human relationships which accompanied this experience and the situations which encouraged or blocked the learning. Through writing, speaking and thoughtful reflection, linguistic autobiography helps the foreign learner to construct a bridge between "there" and "here", between the home and the host country, between life "before" and "after" the shock of migration. This practice reorganizes and gives meaning to one's own history in both languages, through the expression of feelings and emotions, by defining and reclaiming the world as well as reconstructing identity, exploring oneself and showning oneself to peers and teachers in an environment of mutual sharing and understanding.  It creates a context for inclusion, not just integration. The teacher, in turn, can better understand the student's learning strategies, his/her personality and difficulties and thus plan more effective didactic interventions, since they are individualized and aimed at success in communication and learning.

  13. VLT/NACO Imaging of the Nearest AGB Star, L2 Puppis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montargès, M.; Kervella, P.; Ridgway, S. T.; Perrin, G.; Chesneau, O.

    2015-08-01

    AGB stars are the most important contributors to the chemical enrichment of the Galaxy. During their later evolutionary stages they experience intense pulsations and eject most of their layers as they become planetary nebulae (PNe). The process leading to the formation of bipolar PNe remains poorly understood. It is assumed that the circumstellar disk of an AGB star could collimate the stellar wind to form a bipolar PN, yet very few of these disks have been observed. Using the adaptive-optics system of the VLT/NACO instrument at the Paranal Observatory and a "lucky imaging" technique, our team obtained near-infrared diffraction-limited images of the nearest AGB star, L2 Puppis. The deconvolved images reveal a dark structure in front of the star whose morphology and photometry match a dusty edge-on disk of olivine and pyroxene modeled with a Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code. The L band images also show a loop structure, possibly the signature of an interacting hidden companion.

  14. Working memory capacity, inhibitory control and the role of l2 proficiency in aging l1 dutch speakers of near-native l2 english.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijzer, Merel

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the intricate relationship between working memory (WM) capacity and inhibitory control as a function of both L2 proficiency and age. In both its design and research questions, this study closely follows Gass & Lee's work, where both L1 and L2 Reading Span Tasks (as measures of WM capacity) and L1 and L2 Stroop interference tasks (to measure inhibitory control) were administered. In this study, the test battery is augmented by both an L1 and L2 C-test of overall language proficiency. Participants were 63 L1 Dutch speakers of L2 English, who had been immersed in an L2 environment for a considerable amount of time. Their data were set off against those of 54 monolingual Dutch speakers and 56 monolingual English speakers. At the time of testing, all the bilingual participants had a near-native command of English and their L1 and L2 WM scores were not found to be significantly different. However, discrepancies did occur in Stroop test scores of inhibition, where the bilinguals performed better in their L2 English than L1 Dutch. These main effects often contradicted the results found in Gass & Lee's study, who examined less proficient L2 learners. An aging effect was furthermore found: older subjects consistently performed more poorly on WM and inhibition tasks than their younger peers. These results can shed light on how individual factors like WM capacity and inhibitory control interact in successful late bilinguals and how these dynamics shift with advanced age. PMID:24961529

  15. Working Memory Capacity, Inhibitory Control and the Role of L2 Proficiency in Aging L1 Dutch Speakers of Near-Native L2 English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merel Keijzer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the intricate relationship between working memory (WM capacity and inhibitory control as a function of both L2 proficiency and age. In both its design and research questions, this study closely follows Gass & Lee’s work, where both L1 and L2 Reading Span Tasks (as measures of WM capacity and L1 and L2 Stroop interference tasks (to measure inhibitory control were administered. In this study, the test battery is augmented by both an L1 and L2 C-test of overall language proficiency. Participants were 63 L1 Dutch speakers of L2 English, who had been immersed in an L2 environment for a considerable amount of time. Their data were set off against those of 54 monolingual Dutch speakers and 56 monolingual English speakers. At the time of testing, all the bilingual participants had a near-native command of English and their L1 and L2 WM scores were not found to be significantly different. However, discrepancies did occur in Stroop test scores of inhibition, where the bilinguals performed better in their L2 English than L1 Dutch. These main effects often contradicted the results found in Gass & Lee’s study, who examined less proficient L2 learners. An aging effect was furthermore found: older subjects consistently performed more poorly on WM and inhibition tasks than their younger peers. These results can shed light on how individual factors like WM capacity and inhibitory control interact in successful late bilinguals and how these dynamics shift with advanced age.

  16. Una estrategia para favorecer la comprensión y el aprendizaje en las Ciencias Morfológicas: Presentaciones en PowerPoint. [ A strategy to improve the comprehension and learning in morphological science: powerpoint presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranza, Miriam L. y Celaya, Gabriela

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hypertext to the Morphological Sciences in biological area was developed and evaluated. The application with format of digital atlas approaches Anatomical, Histological and Functional concepts about the man and animals in integrated form. PowerPoint presentation was developed to operators which experience in the handling of software are limited. This digital resource was qualified as a good complement of other didactic materials. In this knowledge area offers opportunity to develop significant knowledge to improve the understanding and learning through an interactive methodology

  17. Computer-Mediated Corrective Feedback and the Development of L2 Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Sauro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study that investigated the impact of two types of computer-mediated corrective feedback on the development of adult learners’ L2 knowledge: (1 corrective feedback that reformulates the error in the form of recasts, and (2 corrective feedback that supplies the learner with metalinguistic information about the nature of the error. High intermediate and advanced adult learners of English (n=23 from an intact class at a Swedish university were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (two feedback conditions and one control and were randomly paired with English native speakers. During task-based interaction via text-chat, the learners received focused corrective feedback on omission of the zero article with abstract noncount nouns (e.g., employment, global warming, culture. Computer-delivered pretests, posttests and delayed posttests of knowledge (acceptability judgments measured learning outcomes. Results showed no significant advantage for either feedback type on immediate or sustained gains in target form knowledge, although the metalinguistic group showed significant immediate gains relative to the control condition.

  18. Teaching to suppress L1 processes in L2. PTLC 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Dziubalska-Ko?aczyk, Katarzyna; Balas, Anna; Rojczyk, Arkadiusz; Schwartz, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Advanced second language learners in a formal setting can suppress many L1) processes in L2 pronunciation when provided with sufficient exposure to L2 and metacompetence. This paper shows how imitation in L2 teaching can be enhanced on the basis of current phonetic research and how complex allophonic processes such as nasal vocali zation and glottal stop insertion can be suppressed using “repair” – a method of providing learners with adequ...

  19. L^2 stability estimates for shock solutions of scalar conservation laws using the relative entropy method

    OpenAIRE

    Leger, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We consider scalar nonviscous conservation laws with strictly convex flux in one spatial dimension, and we investigate the behavior of bounded L^2 perturbations of shock wave solutions to the Riemann problem using the relative entropy method. We show that up to a time-dependent translation of the shock, the L^2 norm of a perturbed solution relative to the shock wave is bounded above by the L^2 norm of the initial perturbation.

  20. The Effect of Lengthened Writing Approach on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Liu

    2009-01-01

    Based on empirical research and qualitative analysis, this paper aims to explore the effects of Lengthened Writing Approach on L2 vocabulary acquisition. The results show that, during L2 vocabulary teaching process, the proper application of Lengthened Writing Approach can effectively facilitate the memorization of new words, and this teaching approach is welcomed by most subjects. This study highlights the role of Lengthened Writing Approach in L2 vocabulary acquisition, and sheds light on t...

  1. L 2 Stability Estimates for Shock Solutions of Scalar Conservation Laws Using the Relative Entropy Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Nicholas

    2011-03-01

    We consider scalar nonviscous conservation laws with strictly convex flux in one spatial dimension, and we investigate the behavior of bounded L 2 perturbations of shock wave solutions to the Riemann problem using the relative entropy method. We show that up to a time-dependent translation of the shock, the L 2 norm of a perturbed solution relative to the shock wave is bounded above by the L 2 norm of the initial perturbation.

  2. Adult ESL Korean Readers' Responses about Their Reading in L1 Korean and L2 English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Misun

    2010-01-01

    In this research study I explore: (a) beliefs Korean ESL readers have about reading in L1 and L2 prior to the Retrospective Miscue Analysis (RMA) sessions, (b) how their beliefs about reading affect the way they read in L1 and L2 and their evaluation of themselves as readers in L1 and L2 reading, and (c) change of their beliefs about reading and…

  3. Unveiling the Mystery: Investigating L2 Reading Motivation in an EFL Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Sirin, Petek; Göktürk Saglam, Asli Lidice

    2012-01-01

    Research in L2 reading motivation has gained impetus and provided many insights into understanding the components of motivation and factors that affect L2 learners in terms of reading motivation. Although many studies can be found on L1 reading motivation, studies on L2 reading motivation seem to be relatively meager. Since action research encompasses a sequence of events and an approach to problem solving, the present study addressed to examine whether; (1) this sample of Turkish University ...

  4. L2 Students’ Comments on Language Exchange Communities in Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Cem Balç?kanl?

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: EFL learners are rarely given opportunities to interact with native speakers and “…to do something with a language”. In Turkish settings, language learners mostly complain that they do not have enough opportunities to interact with native speakers, and class hours are too limited to acquire a language and more importantly they are not taught expressions that help them express themselves in daily contexts.Purpose of Study: This study aimed at investigating EFL (English as a ...

  5. Working memory capacity and speech production in L2: evidences from a picture description task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyria Finardi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is an experimental study which aimed at investigating theralationsship between working memory capacity and measuresof L2 speech performance in a picture description task. The mainassumption underlying the present study was that L2 speaking isa complex cognitive task which is carried out within theconstraints of a limited-capacity system, namely, working memory.In this system, there are trade-off effects between the storage andprocessing functions of working memory just as in L2 speakingthere are trade-off effects among fluency, accuracy and complexitywhen L2 learners perform under processing pressure.

  6. Review of the Influence of L1 in L2 Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Zhanming WANG

    2014-01-01

    L1 has a significant influence on second language study. However, how L1 influence L2 is very complicated and abstract. But to study the mechanism of how L1 influence L2 is significant because L2 acquisition is making contribution on many fields like education and psychology. L1 is one of the central elements influencing SLA. In this course paper, we are going to overview what linguists have done about L1 and L2 and what approaches and theories they have made.

  7. Morphological Family Size Effects in Young First and Second Language Learners: Evidence of Cross-Language Semantic Activation in Visual Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Marlies; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined to what extent young second language (L2) learners showed morphological family size effects in L2 word recognition and whether the effects were grade-level related. Turkish-Dutch bilingual children (L2) and Dutch (first language, L1) children from second, fourth, and sixth grade performed a Dutch lexical decision task on words…

  8. Effects of Feedback Timing on Second Language Vocabulary Learning: Does Delaying Feedback Increase Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Feedback, or information given to learners regarding their performance, is found to facilitate second language (L2) learning. Research also suggests that the timing of feedback (whether it is provided immediately or after a delay) may affect learning. The purpose of the present study was to identify the optimal feedback timing for L2 vocabulary…

  9. Galaxy Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Buta, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or...

  10. l-2-Haloacid dehalogenase from Ancylobacter aquaticus UV5: Sequence determination and structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajit; Pillay, Balakrishna; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2016-02-01

    A novel 25kDa l-2-haloacid dehalogenase (l-2-DhlB) from a recently isolated Ancylobacter aquaticus strain UV5 indigenous to contaminated site in South Africa is reported here with its gene sequence. The enzyme was purified to 22.1-fold increase in specific activity of 72.9U/mg protein when the organism was grown in medium supplemented with 5mM 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA). l-2-DhlB was optimally active at pH 9.0 and 37°C with poor stability at 50°C, retaining 50% of its activity after 30min, but inactivated rapidly at 60°C. l-2-DhlB catalyzed monochloroacetate (MCA) with Km and Vmax values of 0.47mM and 2.4?M/min, respectively. l-2-DhlB exhibited the kcat value of 4.8/min. Expression of about 100% relative activity of l-2-DhlB on the substrate l-2-monochloropropionate (l-2-MCPA) as compared to 5% on d-2-monochloropropionate (d-2-MCPA) suggested that l-2-DhlB belongs to the family of l-2-haloacid dehalogenases. ES-mass spectroscopy and bioinformatics tools resulted in 693bp ORF sequence corresponding to 230 amino acid protein. NCBI-BLAST of l-2-DhlB resulted in the detection of a putative conserved domain of hypothetical haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like superfamily and subfamily IA. PMID:26645146

  11. COMPETENZA PRAGMATICA IN ITALIANO L2: L’USO DEI SEGNALI DISCORSIVI DA PARTE DEGLI APPRENDENTI CROATI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Nigoević

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Questo contributo esplora la produzione dialogica in italiano da parte degli apprendenti di lingua materna croata con l’obiettivo di determinare la loro competenza interazionale e pragmatica in italiano L2. Particolare attenzione si è rivolta ad un aspetto caratteristico della produzione dialogica, ai segnali discorsivi ‒ espedienti dialogici per eccellenza. I parlanti nativi usano segnali discorsivi con una vasta gamma di funzioni dialogiche, mentre l’acquisizione dei segnali discorsivi italiani è un territorio relativamente inesplorato e i segnali discorsivi vengono raramente insegnati. in maniera esplicita. La capacità di riconoscere e utilizzare i segnali discorsivi italiani adeguatamente, vale a dire secondo le loro funzioni pragmatiche, rivela il livello della competenza pragmatica dell’apprendente di una lingua straniera. Ai fini dello studio presente, gli apprendenti di italiano sono stati classificati in diversi gruppi in base alla durata dell’ istruzione (principianti, intermedi, avanzati e/o al tipo di ambiente di apprendimento (studenti universitari, corsi di lingua straniera, “full immersion”. L’analisi si è concentrata maggiormente sulla frequenza d’uso e su alcune funzioni dei segnali discorsivi italiani adoperati. Lo scopo di questo studio era quello di esaminare la differenza tra l’uso dei segnali discorsivi relativo ai diversi livelli e ambienti educativi della lingua italiana da parte degli apprendenti croati di italiano L2 e di osservare le caratteristiche di una possibile influenza derivata dal L1.     Pragmatic competence in Italian L2: the use of discourse signals in Croatian-speaking learners This contribution explores the dialogue production of Croatian-speaking learners of Italian as a second language (L2 with the objective to determine their competence in L2 interactions. Special attention is paid to one particular aspect of dialogue production, discourse markers -dialogical expedients par excellence. Native speakers use discourse markers for a wide variety of dialogue functions, while the acquisition of (Italian discourse markers is a relatively unexplored area and discourse markers are hardly ever explicitly taught. The ability to recognize and use Italian discourse markers correctly, in terms of their pragmatic functions, reveals the learners’ pragmatic competence. For this particular study, the learners of Italian were classified in different groups according to length of instruction (basic, elementary, advanced and/or type of learning environment (university students, foreign language courses, “full immersion”. The analysis focused on the frequency of use and some functions of Italian discourse markers. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference between the Italian learners’ use of discourse markers and to observe the instances of a possible L1 influence.

  12. Tense-Aspect Morphology in the Advanced English L2 Variety: Exploring Semantic, Discourse and Cross-linguistic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Vraciu, Eleonora Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    La tesi pertany a una línia d'estudis recentment iniciada amb l'objectiu de descriure la varietat de l'anglès avançat. Proposem una anàlisi integral d'una sèrie de factors semàntics, discursius i interlingüístics que conformen l'ús de la morfologia verbal que empren aprenents avançats catalans i francesos d'anglès idioma estranger; específicament dues poblacions d'especialistes de l'anglès (estudiants de Filologia Anglesa i professors d'anglès a la universitat). A partir d'un corpus de narrac...

  13. Lepton flavour violating decays of $\\mu$ and $\\tau$ lepton in a gauge group $SU_L(2)\\times SU_R(2)\\times SU_l(2)$

    CERN Document Server

    Fayyazuddin,

    2016-01-01

    A model for electroweak unification based on gauge group $ SU_L(2)\\times SU_R(2)\\times SU_l(2) $ for leptons is formulated. The group $SU_l(2)$ is in the lepton space.The left handed leptons and anti-leptons are assigned to the fundamental representation $(2,2,\\bar{2})$ of the group.The left- right symmetric gauge group $ SU_L(2)\\times SU_R(2)\\times U_{Y_1}(1) $ is contained in the above group for leptons. Out of three vector bossons $ Y_\\mu^\\pm $,$Y_{3\\mu}$ of $SU_l(2)$,the charged vector bosons $Y_\\mu^\\pm$ mediate the lepton number violating $ \\mu$ and $\\tau$ decays. The neutral vector bosson $ Y_{3\\mu}$ with coupling constant $ g_{Y}$ plays the same role as the vector bosson $B_{1\\mu}$ with coupling constant $g_1$ associated with Abelian part $ U_{Y_1}(1)$ with $Y_1=\\mp1$ for leptons and anti leptons. The left handed quarks and anti quarks are assigned to representations (2,1) and (1,2) with $Y_1=\\pm \\frac{1}{3}$ of the left-right symmetric gauge group. The lepton number violating $\\mu~and~\\tau$ decays sim...

  14. Acquisition of Article Semantics by Child and Adult L2-English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionin, Tania; Zubizarreta, Maria Luisa; Philippov, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines article use in the L2-English of adult and child speakers of Russian, an article-less language. In earlier work on articles in adult L2-English, Ionin, Ko and Wexler (2004) proposed that speakers of article-less L1s fluctuate between dividing English articles on the basis of definiteness vs. specificity, as a result of direct…

  15. Dense definiteness and boundedness of composition operators in $L^2$-spaces via inductive limits

    OpenAIRE

    Budzynski, Piotr; Planeta, Artur

    2014-01-01

    The questions of dense definiteness and boundedness of composition operators in $L^2$-spaces are studied by means of inductive limits of operators. Methods based on projective systems of measure spaces and inductive limits of $L^2$-spaces are developed. Illustrative examples are presented.

  16. Resolving Referential Conflicts in L2 Interaction: The Effect of Proficiency and Interactive Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, George; Macdonald, Doris

    1990-01-01

    Examines resolution of referential conflicts in second-language (L2) interaction in two different pairings of L2 learners. Pairs where the higher proficiency member was in the dominant role engaged in little interactive behavior, whereas pairs where the less proficient member was dominant engaged in substantial negotiation and interaction and were…

  17. Resolving Referential Conflicts in L2 Interaction: The Effect of Proficiency and Interactive Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, George; Macdonald, Doris

    1990-01-01

    Examines resolution of referential conflicts in second-language (L2) interaction in two different pairings of L2 learners. Pairs where the higher proficiency member was in the dominant role engaged in little interactive behavior, whereas pairs where the less proficient member was dominant engaged in substantial negotiation and interaction and were…

  18. Extensive Reading and Development of Different Aspects of L2 Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Junko

    2008-01-01

    Extensive reading has been drawing increasing attention from L2 educators as a potentially effective form of L2 reading instruction. However, some researchers argue that it is not easy to observe the benefits of extensive reading in the short term. The present study was motivated by the need to elucidate the differential effects of extensive…

  19. Developing an Online Placement Exam for Spanish Heritage Speakers and L2 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potowski, Kim; Parada, MaryAnn; Morgan-Short, Kara

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and piloting of an adaptive, online placement exam that will be administered to L2 and heritage learners of Spanish at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Particular attention is given to the structure of the exam and the linguistic strategies employed to distinguish heritage speakers from L2 learners.…

  20. The Effects of Hypertext Glosses on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jee Hwan

    2010-01-01

    In the field of second language acquisition (SLA), "comprehensible input" (Krashen, 1985) has been considered a critical factor to help learners acquire foreign and second languages (L2). From this perspective, the notion of extensive or free voluntary reading (Day & Bamford, 1998; Krashen, 1993) has emerged that L2 learners should be given more…

  1. Gender in Italian-German Bilinguals: A Comparison with German L2 Learners of Italian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    This study compares mastery of gender assignment and agreement in Italian by adult Italian-German bilinguals who have acquired two languages simultaneously (2L1), and by adult German highly proficient second language learners (L2ers) of Italian. Our data show that incompleteness in bilingual acquisition and in second language (L2) acquisition…

  2. Developmental Trends and L1 Effects in Early L2 Learners' Onset Cluster Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Anne-Michelle; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on English onset cluster production in spontaneous speech samples of 10 children aged 5;04-6;09 from Chinese and Hindi/Punjabi first language (L1) backgrounds, each with less than a year of exposure to English. The results suggest commonalities between early second language (L2) learners and both monolingual and adult L2…

  3. German Pitches in English: Production and Perception of Cross-Varietal Differences in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of cross-varietal prosodic characteristics of two German varieties, Northern Standard German (NG) and Swiss German (SG), on the production and perception of foreign accent in L2 Belfast English. The analysis of production data revealed differences in the realisation of nuclear pitch accents in L1 German and L2…

  4. The Role of Hypercorrection in the Acquisition of L2 Phonemic Contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Fred R.; Iverson, Gregory K.; Song, Jae Yung

    2013-01-01

    This article reports empirical findings from an ongoing investigation into the acquisition of second-language (L2) phonemic contrasts. Specifically, we consider the status and role of the phenomenon of hypercorrection in the various stages through which L2 learners develop and internalize a target language (TL) contrast. We adopt the prevailing…

  5. Listening in a Multilingual World: The Challenges of Second Language (L2) Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Research into language acquisition and oral language use was examined in order to identify key factors that contribute to the successful acquisition of second language (L2) listening ability. The factors were grouped into three major domains: affective, cognitive, and interpersonal. It is claimed that in each domain, proficient L2 listeners have…

  6. Near soliton dynamics and singularity formation for L2 critical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This survey reviews the state of the art concerning singularity formation for two canonical dispersive problems: the L2 critical non-linear Schrödinger equation and the L2 critical generalized KdV equation. In particular, the currently very topical question of classifying flows with initial data near a soliton is addressed. Bibliography: 72 titles

  7. The Effects of Hypertext Glosses on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jeehwan

    2011-01-01

    This study examines (1) the effects of hypertext gloss use on L2 vocabulary acquisition in computerized reading contexts; (2) which specific combination of either text-only (single) or text + visual (multiple) hypertext glosses is more effective on L2 vocabulary acquisition; and (3) potential moderators to systematically account for between study…

  8. English L1 and L2 Speakers' Knowledge of Lexical Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, Tatiana M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the ongoing debate about the use of lexical bundles by first (L1) and second language (L2) speakers of English. The study consists of two experiments that examined whether L1 and L2 English speakers displayed any knowledge of lexical bundles as holistic units and whether their knowledge was…

  9. Concatenative and Nonconcatenative Plural Formation in L1, L2, and Heritage Speakers of Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albirini, Abdulkafi; Benmamoun, Elabbas

    2014-01-01

    This study compares Arabic L1, L2, and heritage speakers' (HS) knowledge of plural formation, which involves concatenative and nonconcatenative modes of derivation. Ninety participants (divided equally among L1, L2, and heritage speakers) completed two oral tasks: a picture naming task (to measure proficiency) and a plural formation task. The…

  10. Task Response and Text Construction across L1 and L2 Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study, undertaken from a socio-cognitive perspective, aims to investigate the effects of intensive preparatory high school training in L1 and/or L2 essay writing for university entrance exams. The analysis focuses on the task response and structural features in L1 (Japanese) and L2 (English) essays written by first-year Japanese…

  11. The Status of the Auxiliary "Do" in L1 and L2 English Negative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Susana

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of whether negative sentences containing auxiliary "do" in L1 and L2 English share the same underlying syntactic representation. To this end, I compare the negative sentences produced by 77 bilingual (Spanish/Basque) L2 learners of English with the corresponding data available for L1 acquirers reported on in Schutze…

  12. L1 Use during L2 Writing: An Empirical Study of a Complex Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weijen, Daphne; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

    2009-01-01

    This study examined writers' use of their first language (L1) while writing in their second language (L2). Twenty students each wrote four short argumentative essays in their L1 (Dutch) and four in their L2 (English) under think-aloud conditions. We analysed whether L1 use varied between writers and tasks, and whether it was related to general…

  13. The Amount, Purpose, and Reasons for Using L1 in L2 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Campa, Juliane C.; Nassaji, Hossein

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the amount, the purposes, and the reasons why L1 is used in L2 classrooms. Data consist of video and audio recording of samples of two instructors' L2 classes over the course of a 12-week semester in two second-year German conversation university courses, instructor interviews, and stimulated recall sessions. Results revealed…

  14. English L1 and L2 Speakers' Knowledge of Lexical Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, Tatiana M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the ongoing debate about the use of lexical bundles by first (L1) and second language (L2) speakers of English. The study consists of two experiments that examined whether L1 and L2 English speakers displayed any knowledge of lexical bundles as holistic units and whether their knowledge was…

  15. The Influence of Schema and Cultural Difference on L1 and L2 Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-sheng

    2010-01-01

    Reading in L1 shares numerous basic elements with reading in L2, and the processes also differ greatly. Intriguing questions involve whether there are two parallel cognitive processes at work, or whether there are processing strategies that accommodate both L1 and L2. This paper examines how reading in L1 is different from and similar to reading…

  16. L1-L2 Convergence in Clausal Packaging in Japanese and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amanda; Gullberg, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates L1-L2 convergence among bilinguals at an intermediate (CEFR-B2) level of L2 proficiency, focusing on the clausal packaging of Manner and Path of motion. Previous research has shown cross-linguistic differences between English and Japanese in this domain (Allen et al., 2003; Kita & Ozyurek, 2003, though note Brown &…

  17. Sidestepping Our "Scare Words": Genre as a Possible Bridge between L1 and L2 Compositionists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costino, Kimberly A.; Hyon, Sunny

    2011-01-01

    In light of the increasing student diversity in U.S. university composition classrooms, there is a strong need for collaboration between L1 and L2 writing specialists. Differences in the lexicons of our two fields, however, as well as the philosophical differences embedded in our word choices, can hinder productive L1-L2 communication. The purpose…

  18. A Study of Relationships between L1 Pragmatic Transfer and L2 Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Jiemin

    2012-01-01

    Studies in interlanguage pragmatics have shown that L2 learners' proficiency has an influence on the occurrences of L1 pragmatic transfer. However, questions remain whether the relationship between L1 pragmatic transfer and L2 proficiency is positive or negative. This paper is designed to study L1 pragmatic transfer in requests made by Chinese…

  19. L2 Reading Comprehension and Its Correlates: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Hee; Yamashita, Junko

    2014-01-01

    The present meta-analysis examined the overall average correlation (weighted for sample size and corrected for measurement error) between passage-level second language (L2) reading comprehension and 10 key reading component variables investigated in the research domain. Four high-evidence correlates (with 18 or more accumulated effect sizes: L2…

  20. L1 Use during L2 Writing: An Empirical Study of a Complex Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weijen, Daphne; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

    2009-01-01

    This study examined writers' use of their first language (L1) while writing in their second language (L2). Twenty students each wrote four short argumentative essays in their L1 (Dutch) and four in their L2 (English) under think-aloud conditions. We analysed whether L1 use varied between writers and tasks, and whether it was related to general…

  1. Estimativos L^2 para una clase de operadores pseudodiferenciales de?nidos en el toro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duván Cardona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se establecen estimativos L 2 para operadores pseudodiferenciales definidos en el toro. Los operadores considerados surgen del estudio de operadores entre grupos abelianos localmente compactos. Abstract. In this work we establish L 2 estimates from pseudo-differential operators defined on the torus. Such operators arise from the study of operators on locally compact abelian groups.

  2. Conventional Expressions as a Pragmalinguistic Resource: Recognition and Production of Conventional Expressions in L2 Pragmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the source of second language (L2) learners' low use of conventional expressions--one part of pragmalinguistic competence--by investigating the relationship between recognition and production of conventional expressions in L2 pragmatics. Two tasks--an aural recognition task and an oral production task--were completed by 122…

  3. The Roles of First Language and Proficiency in L2 Processing of Spanish Clitics: Global Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert Hanson, Aroline E.; Carlson, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the roles of first language (L1) and second language (L2) proficiency in the processing of preverbal clitics in L2 Spanish by considering the predictions of four processing theories--the Input Processing Theory, the Unified Competition Model, the Amalgamation Model, and the Associative-Cognitive CREED. We compared the performance of L1…

  4. L2 Acquisition of Bulgarian Clitic Doubling: A Test Case for the Interface Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivan P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand the testing ground of the Interface Hypothesis (Sorace, 2006) by investigating the degree to which second language (L2) learners of Bulgarian with English as their first language (L1) had acquired the pragmatic function of clitic doubling as a topicality marker. Advanced and intermediate L2 speakers of…

  5. Exploring the Potential Relationship between Eye Gaze and English L2 Speakers' Responses to Recasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kim; Crowther, Dustin; Kielstra, Paula; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated whether joint attention through eye gaze was predictive of second language (L2) speakers' responses to recasts. L2 English learners (N = 20) carried out communicative tasks with research assistants who provided feedback in response to non-targetlike (non-TL) forms. Their interaction was audio-recorded and their…

  6. Effects of Age of L2 Acquisition on L1 Event Conceptualization Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylund, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the effects that the age of onset (AO) of second language (L2) acquisition exerts on the attrition of first language (L1) event conceptualization patterns. The subjects studied are L1 Spanish-L2 Swedish bilinguals living in Sweden. The specific research questions addressed in the study concern the role of AO in endpoint…

  7. Mediation Strategies in L2 Writing Processes: A Case Study of Two Korean Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yon-Soo; Pyun, Danielle Ooyoung

    2013-01-01

    With the recent rise of sociocultural theory in second-language acquisition, attempts have been made to understand L2 learners' uses of different resources in writing, based on their cultural, historical, and institutional contexts. In line with L2 writing research within the sociocultural paradigm, this study investigates the writing strategies…

  8. Possibility of Crosslingual Transfer: A Comparative Study of Chinese (L1) and English (L2) Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, An E.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports a comparative study of first language (L1) Chinese and second language (L2) English lessons in Hong Kong secondary schools. Aiming to explore how to take advantage of L1 academic proficiency for the benefit of L2 development, the study asked how Chinese and English lessons compare in terms of the content knowledge covered and…

  9. Toward a Tripartite Model of L2 Reading Strategy Use, Motivations, and Learner Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Hiromori, Tomohito; Nakayama, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes a tripartite model of L2 reading strategy use, reading motivations, and general learner beliefs by examining the relationships among them in an L2 context. Reading strategy instruction was performed for 360 first-year university students enrolled in a reading-based course, in expectation of affecting their motivations…

  10. Implicit Knowledge, Explicit Knowledge, and Achievement in Second Language (L2) Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Implicit and explicit knowledge of the second language (L2) are two central constructs in the field of second language acquisition (SLA). In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in obtaining valid and reliable measures of L2 learners' implicit and explicit knowledge (e.g., Bowles, 2011; R. Ellis, 2005). The purpose of the present study…

  11. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

  12. Task Response and Text Construction across L1 and L2 Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study, undertaken from a socio-cognitive perspective, aims to investigate the effects of intensive preparatory high school training in L1 and/or L2 essay writing for university entrance exams. The analysis focuses on the task response and structural features in L1 (Japanese) and L2 (English) essays written by first-year Japanese…

  13. Vibrational spectroscopic and theoretical study of 3,5-dimethyl-1-thiocarboxamide pyrazole (L) and the complexes Co2L2Cl4, Cu2L2Cl4 and Cu2L2Br2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper we report a joint experimental and theoretical study of 3,5-dimethyl-1-thiocarboxamide pyrazole (L) and its complexes Co2L2Cl4, Cu2L2Cl4 and Cu2L2Br2. DFT computations were used to model the structural and bonding properties of the title compounds as well as to derive a reliable force field for the normal coordinate analysis of L. The computations indicated the importance of hydrogen bonding interactions in stabilising the global minimum structures on the potential energy surfaces. In contrast to the S-bridged binuclear Cu2L2Br2 complex found in the crystal, our computations predicted the formation of (CuLBr)2 dimers in the isolated state stabilized by very strong (53 kJ/mol) N-H...Br hydrogen bonding interactions. On the basis of FT-IR and FT-Raman experiments and the DFT-derived scaled quantum mechanical force field we carried out a complete normal coordinate analysis of L. The FT-IR spectra of the three complexes were interpreted using the present assignment of L, literature data and computed results

  14. Status of the L2 and Lunar Charged Particle Environment Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Diekmann, Anne M.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The L2 Charged Particle Environment (L2-CPE) model is an engineering tool which provides free field charged particle environments for distant magnetotail, magnetosheath, and solar wind environments. L2-CPE is intended for use in assessing contributions from low energy radiation environments (4.1 keV to few MeV) to radiation dose in thin materials used in construction of spacecraft to be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 point. This paper describes the status of the current version of the L2-CPE model including structure of the model used to organize plasma environments into solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail environments, the algorithms used to estimate radiation fluence in sparsely sampled environments, the updated graphical user interface, and output options for flux and fluence environments. In addition, we describe the status and plans for updating the model to include environments relevant to lunar programs.

  15. River morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs

  16. 26 CFR 1.167(l)-2 - Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-1969 property representing growth in capacity. 1.167(l)-2 Section 1.167(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(l)-2 Public utility property; election as to post-1969 property representing growth in capacity. (a) In general. Section 167(l)(2) prescribes...

  17. Nonnativeness in Near-Native Child L2 Starters of Japanese: Age and the Acquisition of Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tomomi

    2014-01-01

    Many age-related second language (L2) studies have confirmed that young children have a better chance to become nativelike in L2 acquisition than adults. The current study investigated whether age effects exist in the L2 acquisition of Japanese and whether nativelike proficiency is guaranteed for early child L2 starters after constant target…

  18. Didattica multicanale integrata: il fumetto parlante. Un’esperienza di scrittura creativa collaborativa in un corso di italiano L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Santalucia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo, nella premessa, parte da riferimenti a S. Papert e al costruzionismo, per focalizzarsi poi su alcuni aspetti dell’ultimo lavoro di A.Pian che, con l’ elaborazione del concetto di didattica multicanale integrata, indica una prospettiva ulteriore per l’integrazione di strumenti tecnologici nei processi di insegnamento/apprendimento.Nella fase seguente questo lavoro illustra un esperimento di scrittura creativa collaborativa in un corso di Italiano L2 blended, effettuato attraverso un sistema wiki e la successiva elaborazione integrata di testo, immagini e narrazione orale in un “fumetto parlante”. Uno degli obiettivi fondamentali del progetto è stato quello di valutare se, e in quale modo, il percorso effettuato in un ambiente online potesse favorire lo sviluppo della competenza comunicativa da parte dei corsisti, insieme a quello di analizzare i codici linguistici attivati nell’interazione. Non ultimo, l’obiettivo di verificare la possibilità che i corsisti potessero sperimentare un percorso per la creazione di un oggetto didattico che possa dare anche “piacere estetico” nella fruizione.  Integrated multi-channel teaching: the cartoon speaker.An experience in collaborative creative writing in an Italian L2 course The article begins with references to S. Papert and constructionism, then focuses on certain aspects of the work of A. Pian, who elaborated the concept of integrated multi-channel learning, indicating a further perspective for the integration of technological tools in the teaching/learning process. An experiment in a blended Italian L2 collaborative creative writing course was carried out using a wiki system and the subsequent processing of the integrated text, images and storytelling into a “speech bubble”. A key objective of the project was to assess whether, and in what way, an online environment could favor the development of communicative competence on the part of the students, along with the analysis of the linguistic codes activated in the interaction. Last but not least, there was the objective to verify the possibility that the participants could create a learning object that would also give “aesthetic pleasure” when used.

  19. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students’ Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karbalaei Alireza

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The notion of “learner beliefs” has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners’ beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers’ beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading in English. 190 undergraduate college students completed the Survey of Reading Strategies questionnaire. The results indicated that the subjects in both groups reported almost similar patterns of strategy awareness while reading; however, Indians reported more awareness of global, support and total metacognitive reading strategies than Iranians while no significant difference was reported when using problem-solving strategies. These results can contribute to the necessity of reading strategies training in both contexts. La noción de “creencias del estudiante” ha ganado mucha atención en el ámbito de la adquisición de la segunda lengua. Aunque se han realizado diferentes estudios sobre las creencias de los estudiantes respecto al aprendizaje de la lengua, poco se ha investigado acerca de las creencias de los lectores de segunda lengua y su relación con estrategias de lectura. Este estudio investigó si había diferencias significativas entre los lectores de inglés como lengua extranjera y los lectores de inglés como segunda lengua en cuanto a la conciencia lectora y el uso de estrategias metacognitivas cuando leen en inglés. Ciento noventa estudiantes de pregrado completaron el cuestionario sobre estrategias lectoras. Los resultados mostraron que los sujetos de los dos grupos reportaron un patrón casi similar al uso de conciencia de estrategia mientras leían. Sin embargo, los estudiantes indios reportaron ser más conscientes respecto a estrategias metacognitivas lectoras totales, globales y de apoyo que los estudiantes iraníes, mientras que no se hallaron diferencias significativas al usar estrategias para la resolución de problemas. Estos resultados pueden contribuir a la necesidad de capacitación en estrategias lectoras en ambos contextos.

  20. Asimmetrie L1/L2: una sfida nella didattica di “lingua e traduzione”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Salmon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetries Between L1 and L2: a Challenge in the Teaching of "Language and Translation" Language teaching is deeply connected to the cognitive and brain sciences. The attribution of meaning of linguistic messages depends on the interaction between the communicant’s brain and the external world. The interaction is based on the cognitive and emotional experience shared by a L-community. Competence in L2 is acquired by the development of an internal data base of contextualised .units of living speech. (Lurija 1976. L2 teaching is particularly successful when the L2 units are inscribed in memory by means of the functionally equivalent L1 units. Selection of the L1/L2 correspondent units is due to the principle of markedness: each unit of L1 has a functional equivalent in one and only one unit of the L2. Because of the interlingual asymmetries (a set of Italian/Russian examples is given, functional equivalence differs from morphosyntactic and lexical equivalence. The competency in ascribing a degree of markedness to each linguistic unit needs the regular implicit acquisition of the L2 intonational and prosodic system; the processes of the metalinguistic conscious reflection are instead a .hindrance. to the procedural acting of a “living speaker”.

  1. Nuclear import strategies of high-risk HPV18 L2 minor capsid protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the nuclear import strategies of high-risk HPV18 L2 minor capsid protein. HPV18 L2 interacts with Kap ?2 adapter, and Kap ?2 and Kap ?3 nuclear import receptors. Moreover, binding of RanGTP to either Kap ?2 or Kap ?3 inhibits their interaction with L2, suggesting that these Kap ?/L2 complexes are import competent. Mapping studies show that HPV18 L2 contains two NLSs: in the N-terminus (nNLS) and in the C-terminus (cNLS), both of which can independently mediate nuclear import. Both nNLS and cNLS form a complex with Kap ?2?1 heterodimer and mediate nuclear import via a classical pathway. The nNLS is also essential for the interaction of HPV18 L2 with Kap ?2 and Kap ?3. Interestingly, both nNLS and cNLS interact with the viral DNA and this DNA binding occurs without nucleotide sequence specificity. Together, the data suggest that HPV18 L2 can interact via its NLSs with several Kaps and the viral DNA and may enter the nucleus via multiple import pathways mediated by Kap ?2?1 heterodimers, Kap ?2 and Kap ?3

  2. Nuclear import strategies of high-risk HPV18 L2 minor capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucevsek, K; Daley, J; Darshan, M S; Bordeaux, J; Moroianu, J

    2006-08-15

    We have investigated the nuclear import strategies of high-risk HPV18 L2 minor capsid protein. HPV18 L2 interacts with Kap alpha2 adapter, and Kap beta2 and Kap beta3 nuclear import receptors. Moreover, binding of RanGTP to either Kap beta2 or Kap beta3 inhibits their interaction with L2, suggesting that these Kap beta/L2 complexes are import competent. Mapping studies show that HPV18 L2 contains two NLSs: in the N-terminus (nNLS) and in the C-terminus (cNLS), both of which can independently mediate nuclear import. Both nNLS and cNLS form a complex with Kap alpha2beta1 heterodimer and mediate nuclear import via a classical pathway. The nNLS is also essential for the interaction of HPV18 L2 with Kap beta2 and Kap beta3. Interestingly, both nNLS and cNLS interact with the viral DNA and this DNA binding occurs without nucleotide sequence specificity. Together, the data suggest that HPV18 L2 can interact via its NLSs with several Kaps and the viral DNA and may enter the nucleus via multiple import pathways mediated by Kap alpha2beta1 heterodimers, Kap beta2 and Kap beta3. PMID:16733063

  3. L2-stability of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near global Maxwellians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a L2-stability theory of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system for the two-species collisional plasma. We show that in a perturbative regime of a global Maxwellian, the L2-distance between two strong solutions can be controlled by that between initial data in a Lipschitz manner. Our stability result extends earlier results [Ha, S.-Y. and Xiao, Q.-H., “A revisiting to the L2-stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near global Maxwellians,” (submitted) and Ha, S.-Y., Yang, X.-F., and Yun, S.-B., “L2 stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near a global Maxwellian,” Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 197, 657–688 (2010)] on the L2-stability of the Boltzmann equation to the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent external forces. As a direct application of our stability result, we show that classical solutions in Duan et al. [“Optimal large-time behavior of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system in the whole space,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 24, 1497–1546 (2011)] and Guo [“The Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near Maxwellians,” Invent. Math. 153(3), 593–630 (2003)] satisfy a uniform L2-stability estimate. This is the first result on the L2-stability of the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent field equations in three dimensions

  4. TCF7L2 is a master regulator of insulin production and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuedan; Park, Soo-Young; Su, Jing; Bailey, Kathleen; Ottosson-Laakso, Emilia; Shcherbina, Liliya; Oskolkov, Nikolay; Zhang, Enming; Thevenin, Thomas; Fadista, João; Bennet, Hedvig; Vikman, Petter; Wierup, Nils; Fex, Malin; Rung, Johan; Wollheim, Claes; Nobrega, Marcelo; Renström, Erik; Groop, Leif; Hansson, Ola

    2014-12-15

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed >60 loci associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the underlying causal variants and functional mechanisms remain largely elusive. Although variants in TCF7L2 confer the strongest risk of T2D among common variants by presumed effects on islet function, the molecular mechanisms are not yet well understood. Using RNA-sequencing, we have identified a TCF7L2-regulated transcriptional network responsible for its effect on insulin secretion in rodent and human pancreatic islets. ISL1 is a primary target of TCF7L2 and regulates proinsulin production and processing via MAFA, PDX1, NKX6.1, PCSK1, PCSK2 and SLC30A8, thereby providing evidence for a coordinated regulation of insulin production and processing. The risk T-allele of rs7903146 was associated with increased TCF7L2 expression, and decreased insulin content and secretion. Using gene expression profiles of 66 human pancreatic islets donors', we also show that the identified TCF7L2-ISL1 transcriptional network is regulated in a genotype-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrate that not only synthesis of proinsulin is regulated by TCF7L2 but also processing and possibly clearance of proinsulin and insulin. These multiple targets in key pathways may explain why TCF7L2 has emerged as the gene showing one of the strongest associations with T2D. PMID:25015099

  5. Examinando a relação L1-L2 na pedagogia de ensino de ESL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heloísa Augusta Brito de, Mello.

    Full Text Available Neste artigo procuro refletir sobre como a relação L1-L2 tem sido tratada nas teorias de aquisição de línguas, na política e na pedagogia de ensino de L2, em especial no ensino de inglês como segunda língua (ESL). Ao longo do estudo, argumento que o ensino de L2 pode se beneficiar do uso da L1 na sa [...] la de aula, principalmente quando se trata de crianças em processo de escolarização por meio da L2, ao invés de se concentrar no modelo ideal monolíngüe. O cenário que deu origem a essas reflexões é uma sala de aula de ESL de uma escola de imersão em inglês situada na região centro-oeste do Brasil. Abstract in english This article seeks to reflect on how L1-L2 relationship has been treated in second language theories, policy and pedagogy, mainly in the teaching of English as a second language (ESL). It is argued that language teaching pedagogy would benefit by paying attention to the use of L1 in the L2 classroom [...] , especially in the case of whole schooling through L2, rather than concentrating primarily on the ideal monolingual model. The scenery that motivated these reflections is an ESL classroom of an English immersion school located in the central part of Brazil

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of highly thermostable L2 lipase from the newly isolated Bacillus sp. L2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermostable recombinant L2 lipase from thermophilic Bacillus sp. L2 has been crystallized by using counter-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to the primitive orthorhombic space group P212121 with unit-cell parameters a = 87.44, b = 94.90, c = 126.46 Å. Purified thermostable recombinant L2 lipase from Bacillus sp. L2 was crystallized by the counter-diffusion method using 20% PEG 6000, 50 mM MES pH 6.5 and 50 mM NaCl as precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.7 Å resolution using an in-house Bruker X8 PROTEUM single-crystal diffractometer system. The crystal belonged to the primitive orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 87.44, b = 94.90, c = 126.46 Å. The asymmetric unit contained one single molecule of protein, with a Matthews coefficient (VM) of 2.85 Å3 Da?1 and a solvent content of 57%

  7. Multiwavelet Packets and Frame Packets of $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d)$

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biswaranjan Behera

    2001-11-01

    The orthonormal basis generated by a wavelet of $L^2(\\mathbb{R})$ has poor frequency localization. To overcome this disadvantage Coifman, Meyer, and Wickerhauser constructed wavelet packets. We extend this concept to the higher dimensions where we consider arbitrary dilation matrices. The resulting basis of $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d)$ is called the multiwavelet packet basis. The concept of wavelet frame packet is also generalized to this setting. Further, we show how to construct various orthonormal bases of $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d)$ from the multiwavelet packets.

  8. The role of task sequencing in L2 development as mediated by working memory capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Levkina, Mayya

    2014-01-01

    [cat] Aquesta dissertació ha estat motivada per l'interès creixent en la seqüenciació de tasques en el disseny curricular de la L2, per una banda, i la manca d'estudis empírics, d'altra banda, on la seqüenciació de tasques i els seus efectes en el desenvolupament de la L2 seria basat en la teoria i investigat empíricament. D'altra banda, no hi ha hagut investigació dut a terme per veure quina és la funció mediadora de capacitat de memòria operativa en el desenvolupament de la L2 a través de l...

  9. L1: MADRINHA OU MADRASTA? – O PAPEL DA L1 NA AQUISIÇÃO DA L2*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELOÍSA AUGUSTA BRITO DE MELLO

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo discuto o papel da L1 no desenvolvimento da competência em L2 bem como na aquisição de conhecimentos. Ao longo de minhas reflexões, argumento que o ensino de L2 pode se beneficiar do uso da L1 na sala de aula, principalmente quando se trata de crianças em processo de escolarização por meio da L2, ao invés de se concentrar no modelo ideal monolíngüe. O cenárioque deu origem a essas reflexões é uma sala de aula de ESL de uma escola de imersão em inglês situada na região centro-oeste do Brasil.

  10. A Protective and Broadly Cross-Neutralizing Epitope of Human Papillomavirus L2?

    OpenAIRE

    Gambhira, Ratish; Karanam, Balasubramanyam; Jagu, Subhashini; Roberts, Jeffrey N; Buck, Christopher B.; Bossis, Ioannis; Alphs, Hannah; Culp, Timothy; Christensen, Neil D.; Roden, Richard B S

    2007-01-01

    We generated a monoclonal antibody, RG-1, that binds to highly conserved L2 residues 17 to 36 and neutralizes human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) and HPV18. Passive immunotherapy with RG-1 was protective in mice. Antiserum to the HPV16 L2 peptide comprising residues 17 to 36 (peptide 17-36) neutralized pseudoviruses HPV5, HPV6, HPV16, HPV 18, HPV31, HPV 45, HPV 52, HPV 58, bovine papillomavirus 1, and HPV11 native virions. Depletion of HPV16 L2 peptide 17-36-reactive antibodies from cross-neutral...

  11. The Relationship between Phonological Memory, L2 Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Size of Iranian High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Ghazanfar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phonological memory (PM is viewed as one of the key elements in language learning. The present study was an effort to investigate the relationship between PM, reading comprehension, and vocabulary size of Iranian high school EFL learners. The participants were 58 high school freshmen and senior students. Administering Oxford Quick Placement Test (QPT, the participants were divided into two groups of proficiency, i.e. elementary and lower intermediate. Afterwards, two measures of PM, namely nonword repetition (NWRP and nonword recognition (NWRC tests, a reading comprehension test, and Schmitt’s vocabulary levels test were administered. The results showed a significant relationship between reading comprehension, vocabulary size, and PM measures at both levels of proficiency. Moreover, the regression analyses showed that NWRC can be a better predictor of L2 learners’ performance on reading comprehension at the lower intermediate level, and NWRC was found to be a better predictor of vocabulary size for both groups of language proficiency.

  12. La video clase y la multimedia como medio de enseñanza-aprendizaje de los contenidos morfológicos / The videoconference and multimedia as teaching-learning means for morphologic contents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nieves E, Garriga Alfonso; Iliana, Robainas Fiallo; Dayren, Fernández Santamaría; Dunieska, Quiñones Cabrera; Rolando Ernesto, Medina Robainas.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En la última década, la videoconferencia y la multimedia están siendo percibidas como los medios con más posibilidades didácticas en contextos de enseñanza superior. En sus inicios, la videoconferencia suplió las limitaciones espacio-temporales de la educación a distancia. Progresivamente, este medi [...] o fue encontrando un reconocimiento en instituciones convencionales de enseñanza propiciado por el desarrollo de experiencias de calidad basadas en la incorporación de recursos externos al aula. Desde una perspectiva instrumentalista, los medios son soportes materiales de información que deben reflejar la realidad de la forma más perfecta posible. Responden a un modelo estándar de alumno y a una cultura escolar homogénea, y se consideran por sí mismos instrumentos generadores de aprendizajes. Las características del diseño didáctico y computacional de un entorno hipermedia para aprender se intenta conectar a la concepción de promover el aprendizaje utilizando la computadora. El entorno consiste en un conjunto de actividades basadas en andamiajes tendientes a inducir la construcción de significados mediante la activa participación del estudiante. Abstract in english During the last decade, the videoconference and multimedia are being perceived as the means with more didactic possibilities in the context of the high education. At the beginning, the videoconference helped avoiding limitations of the distance learning. Progressively, this means began to be recogni [...] zed in conventional teaching institutions because of the development of qualitative experiences based on the usage of out-class resources. From an instrumentalist perspective, the means are material supports of the information that should express the reality in the most possible perfect way. They answer to a standard model of students and to a homogeneous school culture, and are considered, by themselves, as instruments generating learning. The characteristics of a computational and didactic design of a hypermedia setting to learn are intended to be linked to a conception of promoting learning using computers. The setting is a group of activities based on structures tending to induce the construction of meanings through the active participation of the student.

  13. How does language distance between L1 and L2 affect the L2 brain network? An fMRI study of Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Say Young; Qi, Ting; Feng, Xiaoxia; Ding, Guosheng; Liu, Li; Cao, Fan

    2016-04-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that language distance between first language (L1) and second language (L2) influences the assimilation and accommodation pattern in Korean-Chinese-English trilinguals. The distance between English and Korean is smaller than that between Chinese and Korean in terms of orthographic transparency, because both English and Korean are alphabetic, whereas Chinese is logographic. During fMRI, Korean trilingual participants performed a visual rhyming judgment task in three languages (Korean: KK, Chinese: KC, English: KE). Two L1 control groups were native Chinese and English speakers performing the task in their native languages (CC and EE, respectively). The general pattern of brain activation of KC was more similar to that of CC than KK, suggesting accommodation. Higher accuracy in KC was associated with decreased activation in regions of the KK network, suggesting reduced assimilation. In contrast, the brain activation of KE was more similar to that of KK than EE, suggesting assimilation. Higher accuracy in KE was associated with decreased activation in regions of the EE network, suggesting reduced accommodation. Finally, an ROI analysis on the left middle frontal gyrus revealed greater activation for KC than for KE, suggesting its selective involvement in the L2 with more arbitrary mapping between orthography and phonology (i.e., Chinese). Taken together, the brain network involved in L2 reading is similar to the L1 network when L2 and L1 are similar in orthographic transparency, while significant accommodation is expected when L2 is more opaque than L1. PMID:26673115

  14. O papel da consciência morfológica para a alfabetização em leitura El papel de las habilidades morfológicas y la alfabetización en la lectura The role of morphological awareness in reading learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da Mota

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as habilidades metalingüísticas três parecem ajudar o leitor aprendiz a aprender a ler e escrever: a consciência fonológica, a consciência sintática e a consciência morfológica. Das três habilidades, a menos estudada é a consciência morfológica. No entanto, este estado de coisas está mudando e está se formando um novo corpo de conhecimento sobre o papel das habilidades morfológicas e a alfabetização. À medida que esse campo de pesquisa avança novas questões teóricas e metodológicas vão sendo levantadas. Com base na literatura publicada recentemente na área, este artigo discute algumas destas questões.Entre las habilidades metalingüísticas, tres parecen ayudar el lector aprendiz a aprender a leer y escribir: la conciencia fonológica, la consciencia sintática, y la conciencia morfológica. De las tres habilidades, la que es menos estudiada es la conciencia morfológica. Sin embargo, este estado de cosas están cambiando y un nuevo cuerpo de conocimiento se está formando sobre el papel de las habilidades morfológicas y la alfabetización. En la medida que ese campo de pesquisa avanza, nuevas cuestiones teóricas y metodológicas se van levantando. Con base en la literatura publicada recientemente en el área, este artículo debate algunas de estas cuestiones.Among the metalinguistic abilities three seem to help children to learn to read and to write: phonological awareness, syntactic awareness and morphological awareness. Of the three abilities, the least studied one is morphological awareness. However, this state of things is changing and a new body of knowledge has been formed about the role of morphological abilities in literacy. As this field of research advances, new theoretical and methodological questions are raised. Based on recent published literature in this field, this article discusses some of these questions.

  15. miR-29b attenuates tumorigenicity and stemness maintenance in human glioblastoma multiforme by directly targeting BCL2L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Joo; Choi, Young Eun; Kim, Eun Sook; Han, Young-Hoon; Park, Myung-Jin; Bae, In Hwa

    2015-07-30

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor and exhibits aggressive and invasive behavior. We previously identified four miRNAs-miR-29b, 494, 193a-3p, and 30e-with enhanced expression in GBM following treatment of ionizing radiation by miRNA microarray analysis. In this study, we found that only miR-29b inhibited tumor cell migration and invasion by reducing MMP-2 activity via phospho-AKT/?-catenin signaling, and stimulated a more epithelial-like morphology. Moreover, miR-29b inhibits angiogenesis by attenuating tube formation and the expression of VEGF and Ang-2, and stemness maintenance in GBM cells, as demonstrated by decreasing neurosphere formation and cancer stem cell marker protein expression. These findings support the anti-tumor properties of miR-29b in human GBM cells. Furthermore, miR-29b expression was inversely proportional to that of BCL2L2 mRNA or protein in various cancer cell types. Interestingly, BCL2L2 mRNA is highly expressed in the mesenchymal type of GBM. To further elucidate the relationship between miR-29b and BCL2L2 in GBM, we performed co-transfection reporter assays and determined that miR-29b downregulates BCL2L2 expression by directly binding its 3'UTR. Finally, we confirmed that BCL2L2 repression is of central importance to miR-29b anti-tumor activity using functional assays to examine cell migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and stemness. From these data, we propose that miR-29b may be a useful therapeutic agent in GBM. PMID:26155940

  16. Pre-IceBridge LVIS L2 Geolocated Ground Elevation and Return Energy Quartiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Pre-IceBridge LVIS L2 Geolocated Ground Elevation and Return Energy Quartiles (BLVIS2) data set contains ground elevation measurements taken in 2007 over...

  17. IceBridge Geometrics 823A Cesium Magnetometer L2 Geolocated Magnetic Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge Geometrics 823A Cesium Magnetometer L2 Geolocated Magnetic Anomalies (IMGEO2) data set contains magnetic anomaly measurements taken over...

  18. IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L2 Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L2 Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets (ILUTP2) data set contains surface range values for Antarctica and Greenland derived...

  19. EX1504L2 Dive06 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  20. EX1304L2 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S....

  1. EX1304L2 Dive05 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S....

  2. EX1504L2 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  3. EX1504L2 Dive11 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  4. EX1504L2 Dive17 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  5. EX1504L2 Dive01 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  6. EX1504L2 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  7. EX1504L2 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  8. EX1504L2 Dive10 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  9. EX1504L2 Dive13 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  10. EX1504L2 Dive14 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1504L2: Campaign to...

  11. Cohomologie $L^2$ des vari\\'{e}t\\'{e}s QALE

    CERN Document Server

    Carron, G

    2005-01-01

    We give a topological interpretation of the space of $L^2$ harmonis forms of some QALE manifolds introduced by D. Joyce. We introduce a analytical criterium which make possible the used of Mayer-Vietoris sequence.

  12. SAFARI 2000 MODIS MOD04_L2 Aerosol Data, GRANT Format, for Southern Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The subset of the MODIS MOD04_L2 aerosol product provided in this data set represents the swaths that coincide with known times of the South African Weather...

  13. IceBridge Geometrics 823A Cesium Magnetometer L2 Geolocated Magnetic Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge Geometrics 823A Cesium Magnetometer L2 Geolocated Magnetic Anomalies (IMGEO2) data set contains magnetic anomaly measurements taken over...

  14. EX1304L2 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S....

  15. EX1404L2 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1404L2: Our Deepwater...

  16. EX1202L2 Dive16 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico...

  17. EX1205L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1205L2: Northeast Canyons and...

  18. EX1304L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S. Canyons...

  19. Working memory capacity and L2 speech production in a picture description task with repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyria Finardi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O estudo investiga a relação entre a capacidade de memória de trabalho e os ganhos na produção oral em L2 durante uma tarefa de descrição de figura com repetição. Partindo de Fortkamp (2000 que encontrou correlações entre a capacidade de memória de trabalho e medidas de produção oral em L2 e Bygate (2001b que mostrou que na repetição de tarefas os participantes ganham em complexidade de fala em detrimento, principalmente da acurácia e da fluência, este estudo propõe que pode haver correlações entre os ganhos na complexidade da fala em L2 e a capacidade de memória de trabalho. Resultados do experimento mostram ganhos na complexidade da fala em L2, mas os mesmos não correlacionam com a capacidade de memória de trabalho. A falta de correlações é explicada em razão do pequeno número de participantes que não permitiu variação na capacidade de memória de trabalho.

  20. EX1004L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1004L2: Exploration Indonesia - Bitung...