WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Planning, Recasts, and Learning of L2 Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated two issues: (1) whether availability of planning time affects learners' ability to notice and learn from recasts in the input; and (2) whether pre-task or online planning is more effective. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups that formed the treatment conditions: a no planning group (N = 13), a pre-task…

Romanova, Natalia

2010-01-01

2

L2 motivation in foreign language learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study, which involved 130 US fourth to ninth graders enrolled in Chinese as a foreign language classrooms,intended to test Dörnyei’s L2 Motivation Self System and the seven motivational constructs identified in hisprevious study, and investigate whether the constructs found in this study differ based on the following differences:(a gender, (b grade level, and (c starting age of learning a foreign language. This study found four motivationalconstructs: instrumentality-dominant, attitudes toward the L2 speaker/community-dominant, learners’ perceptionof their parents’ proficiency in Chinese, and milieu. In addition, this study found a significant interactive effectbetween grade level and starting age of learning a foreign language. The younger learners in the foreign languagelate starter group perceived their parents as having higher proficiency in Chinese than how the older learners inthe late starter group perceived their parents.

Ko-Yin Sung

2013-10-01

3

Morphological Congruency and the Acquisition of L2 Morphemes  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the proposal that the presence of a similar morpheme in the learner's first and second languages (L2) facilitates morphological development in the L2. Advanced Russian and Japanese speakers of English as a second language performed a self-paced reading task in which they read English sentences word by word for…

Jiang, Nan; Novokshanova, Eugenia; Masuda, Kyoko; Wang, Xin

2011-01-01

4

Input frequencies in processing of verbal morphology in L1 and L2: Evidence from Russian  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we take a usage-based perspective on the analysis of data from the acquisition of verbal morphology by Norwegian adult learners of L2 Russian, as compared to children acquiring Russian as an L1. According to the usage-based theories, language learning is input-driven and frequency of occurrence of grammatical structures and lexical items in the input plays a key role in this process. We have analysed to what extent the acquisition and processing of Russian verbal morphology by children and adult L2 learners is dependent on the input factors, in particular on type and token frequencies. Our analysis of the L2 input based on the written material used in the instruction shows a different distribution of frequencies as compared to the target language at large. The results of the tests that elicited present tense forms of verbs belonging to four different inflectional classes (-AJ-, -A-, -I-, and -OVA- have demonstrated that for both Russian children and L2 learners type frequency appears to be an important factor, influencing both correct stem recognition and generalisations. The results have also demonstrated token frequency effects. For L2 learners we observed also effects of formal instruction and greater reliance on morphological cues. In spite of the fact that L2 learners did not match completely any of the child groups, there are many similarities between L1 and L2 morphological processing, the main one being the role of frequency.

Tatiana Chernigovskaya

2011-02-01

5

Knowledge sources in L2 learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Should one bother to teach grammar to second language (L2) learners of English? The purpose of this article is to examine the hypothesis that there is an interface between explicit and implicit knowledge sources. Three groups of learners at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University were asked to articulate, first without a prompt and then with a prompt, the grammatical rules they were applying to correct common errors.  The test results suggest that ...

Diana Ayliff

2011-01-01

6

Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?  

Science.gov (United States)

References to the term "incidental vocabulary learning" have become very commonplace not only in second language (L2) acquisition research, but also in empirical research into second and foreign language pedagogy, very often in contrast to "intentional language learning". The former term is associated with more natural language learning, that is,…

Bruton, Anthony; Lopez, Miguel Garcia; Mesa, Raquel Esquiliche

2011-01-01

7

Relative Importance of Learning Variables on L2 Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, the results of a pilot study investigating the relative importance of various learner variables on L2 performance are presented. The study was conducted with the participation of forty students enrolled in a beginning Spanish class at a large midwestern university. The CANAL?S test, FLCAS and SILL surveys were administered to evaluate language learning aptitude, anxiety and learning strategy use. Demographic data and exam grades were also recorded. The data was first analyzed within the framework of a causal model with correlational and multiple regression analyses. A second step involved the evaluation of the relative importance of the learner variables. Third, the validity of the causality postulated between foreign language anxiety and L2 performance was examined. Overall, this paper confirmed the prevailing role played by language learning aptitude and anxiety, and demonstrated the applicability of a multivariate model to analyze the impact of individual differences on L2 performance.

Olivares-Cuhat, Gabriela

2010-01-01

8

Appraisal Systems in L2 vs. L3 Learning Experiences  

Science.gov (United States)

This article offers a comment on the ways multilingual language users perceive their L2 and L3 learning experiences at the level of appraisals, that is, variables that "assign value to current stimuli based on past experience". In the theoretical part of the article the concept of appraisals is introduced and briefly outlined from the different…

Gabrys-Barker, Danuta

2011-01-01

9

Styles and learning strategies in teaching Croatian as L2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the complexity of learning in general, as well as second language learning, it is very important for language teachers to create a classroom environment where their students can achieve their maximum during the given period. The first part of this paper gives an overview of the literature dealing with the differences between cognitive and learning style, as well as learning strategies. It was found that learners achieve the best results in learning when learning circumstances are appropriate to their cognitive and learning styles. Language learners are found to be influenced by different methods of learning not only by their cognitive styles, but depending on their age. Research in sla associated with the styles and learning strategies did not confirm that all relevant differentiations for learning in general play an important role in language learning (e.g. field-dependence research in sla is not conclusive. However, findings are useful for language teachers, hence they should, among other things, be instructed to identify the cognitive style and learning style typical of their students, to offer them a variety of appropriate activities. Therefore the second and the third part of the paper offer some basic characteristics of analytic and global cognitive styles, as well as audio, visual and kinesthetic learning styles, along with some useful activities for Croatian L2 learners with each of them.

Zrinka Kolakovi?

2010-10-01

10

Grapho-Morphological Awareness in Spanish L2 Reading: How Do Learners Use This Metalinguistic Skill?  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper contributes to the literature on the transferability of grapho-morphological awareness (GMA) for second language (L2) learners by analysing L2 learners' knowledge of morphology in reading. GMA helps readers to identify grammatical categories, infer meanings of unfamiliar words, and access stored lexical information. Previous research…

Miguel, Nausica Marcos

2012-01-01

11

A reappraisal of motivation: the cornerstone of L2 learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article is aimed at increasing teacher awareness of the most relevant issues involved in motivation. It examines the importance of motivation in L2 learning, its types and sources, as well as detailing the various factors which influence it. Its focus is twofold, in that it concentrates not only on the student but also on the teacher, using authoritative sources to back up its line of argument. It aims at both clarifying the role of teachers in student motivation and the importance of...

Castro Calvi?n, Jose?

1991-01-01

12

Learning the Morphological Diversity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article proposes a new method for image separation into a linear combination of morphological components. Sparsity in global dictionaries is used to extract the cartoon and oscillating content of the image. Complicated texture patterns are extracted by learning adapted local dictionaries that sparsify patches in the image. These global and local sparsity priors together with the data fidelity define a non-convex energy and the separation is obtained as a stationary point of this energy. ...

Peyre?, Gabriel; Fadili, Jalal; Starck, Jean Luc

2010-01-01

13

The Relationship between Nonverbal Immediacy, Caring and L2 Student Learning (Spanish).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated: the relationship between second language (L2) students' perceptions of teacher caring and learning; the relationship between L2 students' perceptions of nonverbal immediacy (e.g., eye contact, gestures, movement within the classroom, smiling, vocal variety, and use of humor) and learning; and the relationship between L2…

Garrott, Carl L.

14

L1 and L2 Word Recognotion in Finnish. Examining L1 Effects on L2 Processing of Morphological Complexity and Morphophonological Transparency  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effect of the first language (L1) on the visual word recognition of inflected nouns in second language (L2) Finnish by native Russian and Chinese speakers. Case inflection is common in Russian and in Finnish but nonexistent in Chinese. Several models have been posited to describe L2 morphological processing. The unified…

Vainio, Seppo; Anneli, Pajunen; Hyona, Jukka

2014-01-01

15

The Relation between Teachers‘ Self-beliefs of L2 Learning and In-class Practices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the relationship between Teachers’ self-belief of L2 learning and in-class practices and decisions. Thirty L2 teachers and 50 L2 learners participated in this study. To assess the learners’ general proficiency level, a standard Proficiency test (Oxford Placement Test, 2010) was administered. The participants were given a questionnaire including 22 questions specialized in teacher institutional design. Thirty teachers were observed by the researcher along with t...

Frezia sheikhol-Eslami; Hamid Allami

2012-01-01

16

Effects of Perceptual Learning Style Preferences on L2 Lexical Inferencing  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of perceptual learning style preferences on L2 lexical inferencing and whether learners with certain perceptual learning styles benefited more from an explicitly instructional program. Joy Reid's (1995) Perceptual Learning Style Preferences (PLSP) Inventory and a lexical inferencing test…

Shen, Ming-yueh

2010-01-01

17

L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children: Effects of Learning Method and Cognate Status  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or word-mediated learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German. We examined children from fourth and eighth grades in a school setting. After a learning phase during which L2 words were…

Tonzar, Claudio; Lotto, Lorella; Job, Remo

2009-01-01

18

Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

2014-01-01

19

Effects of Word and Fragment Writing during L2 Vocabulary Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined how writing (copying) target words and word fragments affects intentional second language (L2) vocabulary learning. English-speaking first-semester learners of Spanish attempted to learn 24 Spanish nouns via word-picture repetition in three conditions: (1) word writing, (2) fragment writing, and (3) no writing. After the…

Barcroft, Joe

2007-01-01

20

L1 AND L2 GLOSSES: THEIR EFFECTS ON INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of L1 and L2 glosses on incidental vocabulary learning in a multimedia environment. The investigation included the effects of additional pictorial cues in L1 and L2 glosses, and how these additions affect vocabulary learning. The analyses of a mixed design repeated measures 2 (L1, L2 X 2 (picture, no picture X 2 (immediate test, delayed test analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated no significant differences between L1 and L2 glosses for definition-supply and recognition tasks and showed significant differences between picture (text-plus-picture and no-picture (text-only glosses for definition-supply test only. The results also revealed significant interaction effects between languages and tests indicating that L1 and L2 groups showed different patterns of vocabulary retention over time. Findings suggest that both L1 and L2 glosses are effective for incidental vocabulary learning, but long-term retention may differ between the two types; and that the effect of additional visual cues on vocabulary learning may rely on the nature of the tasks given.

Makoto Yoshii

2006-09-01

 
 
 
 
21

Cultural conceptualisations in learning English as an L2: Examples from Persian-speaking learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditionally, many studies of second language acquisition (SLA were based on the assumption that learning a new language mainly involves learning a set of grammatical rules, lexical items, and certain new sounds and sound combinations. However, for many second language learners, learning a second language may involve contact and interactions with new systems of conceptualising experience. Many learners bring the conceptual system that they have developed while learning their L1 into the learning of an L2, assuming that every single unit of conceptualisation in their repertoire has an equivalent in the conceptual system associated with the L2. This is never the case. In this paper, I will explicate some cultural conceptualisations that speakers of Persian may bring into the task of learning English as an L2 and discuss some possible implications of this process for intercultural sense making. The chapter begins with a background on the notion of cultural conceptualisation and then moves into the discussion of Persian cultural conceptualisations in L2 learning.

Farzad Sharifian

2013-01-01

22

Assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phonemes governs L2 learning in adulthood: a behavioral and ERP study  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM), articulatory similarity/dissimilarity between sounds of the second language (L2) and the native language (L1) governs L2 learnability in adulthood and predicts L2 sound perception by naïve listeners. We performed behavioral and neurophysiological experiments on two groups of university students at the first and fifth years of the English language curriculum and on a group of naïve listeners. Categorization and discrimination tests, as well as the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response to L2 sound changes, showed that the discriminatory capabilities of the students did not significantly differ from those of the naïve subjects. In line with the PAM model, we extend the findings of previous behavioral studies showing that, at the neural level, classroom instruction in adulthood relies on assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phoneme categories and does not trigger improvement in L2 phonetic discrimination. Implications for L2 classroom teaching practices are discussed.

Grimaldi, Mirko; Sisinni, Bianca; Gili Fivela, Barbara; Invitto, Sara; Resta, Donatella; Alku, Paavo; Brattico, Elvira

2014-01-01

23

Assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phonemes governs L2 learning in adulthood: a behavioral and ERP study.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM), articulatory similarity/dissimilarity between sounds of the second language (L2) and the native language (L1) governs L2 learnability in adulthood and predicts L2 sound perception by naïve listeners. We performed behavioral and neurophysiological experiments on two groups of university students at the first and fifth years of the English language curriculum and on a group of naïve listeners. Categorization and discrimination tests, as well as the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response to L2 sound changes, showed that the discriminatory capabilities of the students did not significantly differ from those of the naïve subjects. In line with the PAM model, we extend the findings of previous behavioral studies showing that, at the neural level, classroom instruction in adulthood relies on assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phoneme categories and does not trigger improvement in L2 phonetic discrimination. Implications for L2 classroom teaching practices are discussed. PMID:24860470

Grimaldi, Mirko; Sisinni, Bianca; Gili Fivela, Barbara; Invitto, Sara; Resta, Donatella; Alku, Paavo; Brattico, Elvira

2014-01-01

24

Enhancing L2 students' listening transcription ability through a focus on morphological awareness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Morphological awareness (MA), defined as the ability to understand the morphemic structure of the words, has been reported to affect various aspects of second language performance including reading comprehension ability, spelling performance, etc. But the concept has been far less treated with reference to l2 listening. Against this background, this study investigated the link between MA and listening transcription ability of Iranian pre-university students. To this aim, 40 pre-university students participated in the study and were assigned to control and experimental groups. Prior to giving any instruction regarding the morphological character of English words, the two groups were given three short listening passages to transcribe as pre-tests. The results of the independent-samples t test run for the purpose of comparing the means of the two groups in the pre-test revealed no significant difference between the two groups in their listening transcription ability. The experimental group, then, received five 1-h sessions briefing them on the morphological realization of English words. The two groups were then given three short listening passages to transcribe as their as post-tests. The results of the independent-samples t tests attested to the significant difference between the two groups; thus, supporting the relationship between MA and listening transcription ability. PMID:22935851

Karimi, Mohammad Nabi

2013-10-01

25

Assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phonemes governs L2 learning in adulthood – A behavioral and ERP study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM, acoustic similarity/dissimilarity between sounds of the second language (L2 and the native language (L1 governs L2 learnability in adulthood and predicts L2 sound perception by naïve listeners. We performed behavioral and neurophysiological experiments on two groups of university students at the first and fifth years of the English language curriculum and on a group of naïve listeners. Categorization and discrimination tests, as well as the mismatch negativity (MMN brain response to L2 sound changes, showed that the discriminatory capabilities of the students did not significantly differ from those of the naïve subjects. In line with the PAM model, we extend the findings of previous behavioral studies showing that, at the neural level, classroom instruction in adulthood relies on assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phoneme categories and does not trigger improvement in L2 phonetic discrimination.

MirkoGrimaldi

2014-05-01

26

Task-based Language Learning in Bilingual Montessori Elementary Schools: Customizing Foreign Language Learning and Promoting L2 Speaking Skills  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Foreign language learning has been a part of German elementary schools for several years now. Montessori schools focusing on individual learning, i.e. mostly independent from the teacher and based on auto-education, interest, and free choice, are also asked to teach an L2. The original lack of a concept of L2 learning for this environment has brought forth different approaches. Bilingual education seems to be feasible and applicable in Montessori education. The downside to this is that even i...

2012-01-01

27

L2-norm multiple kernel learning and its application to biomedical data fusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper introduces the notion of optimizing different norms in the dual problem of support vector machines with multiple kernels. The selection of norms yields different extensions of multiple kernel learning (MKL such as L?, L1, and L2 MKL. In particular, L2 MKL is a novel method that leads to non-sparse optimal kernel coefficients, which is different from the sparse kernel coefficients optimized by the existing L? MKL method. In real biomedical applications, L2 MKL may have more advantages over sparse integration method for thoroughly combining complementary information in heterogeneous data sources. Results We provide a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the L2 optimization of kernels in the dual problem with the L2 coefficient regularization in the primal problem. Understanding the dual L2 problem grants a unified view on MKL and enables us to extend the L2 method to a wide range of machine learning problems. We implement L2 MKL for ranking and classification problems and compare its performance with the sparse L? and the averaging L1 MKL methods. The experiments are carried out on six real biomedical data sets and two large scale UCI data sets. L2 MKL yields better performance on most of the benchmark data sets. In particular, we propose a novel L2 MKL least squares support vector machine (LSSVM algorithm, which is shown to be an efficient and promising classifier for large scale data sets processing. Conclusions This paper extends the statistical framework of genomic data fusion based on MKL. Allowing non-sparse weights on the data sources is an attractive option in settings where we believe most data sources to be relevant to the problem at hand and want to avoid a "winner-takes-all" effect seen in L? MKL, which can be detrimental to the performance in prospective studies. The notion of optimizing L2 kernels can be straightforwardly extended to ranking, classification, regression, and clustering algorithms. To tackle the computational burden of MKL, this paper proposes several novel LSSVM based MKL algorithms. Systematic comparison on real data sets shows that LSSVM MKL has comparable performance as the conventional SVM MKL algorithms. Moreover, large scale numerical experiments indicate that when cast as semi-infinite programming, LSSVM MKL can be solved more efficiently than SVM MKL. Availability The MATLAB code of algorithms implemented in this paper is downloadable from http://homes.esat.kuleuven.be/~sistawww/bioi/syu/l2lssvm.html.

De Moor Bart

2010-06-01

28

Learning L2 Vocabulary with American TV Drama From the Learner’s Perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Following the trend of computer assisted language learning (CALL), in Taiwan, most language classes now have equivalent media support for language teachers and learners. Implementing videos into classroom activities is one of the choices. The current study explores the process of implementing American TV drama in L2 vocabulary learning from learners’ perspectives. Twenty-eight Taiwanese EFL adult learners participate in the study. Authentic video clips from three different American...

Yu-Chia Wang

2012-01-01

29

The Effect of Conceptual Metaphors on Learning Idioms by L2 Learners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the effect of conceptual metaphors on learning idioms by L2 learners. Seventy juniors participated in this study. They were grouped into two: Group 1 as the experimental group and Group 2 as the control group. Group 1 (n = 40) learned the idioms by conceptual metaphors and Group 2 (n = 30) by traditional methods. The participants were given a pretest in order to check the comprehension and production of idioms, metaphors, and conceptual metaphors. After the pretest, the id...

Elham Rahmani Samani; Mahmood Hashemian

2012-01-01

30

Classification of L2 Vocabulary Learning Strategies: Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses  

Science.gov (United States)

This research presents a classification theory for the L2 vocabulary learning strategies. Based on the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of strategies that adult Chinese English learners used, this theory identifies six categories, four of which are related to the cognitive process in lexical acquisition and the other two are…

Zhang, Bo; Li, Changyu

2011-01-01

31

Language Experience in L2 Phonological Learning: Effects of Psycholinguistic and Sociolinguistic Variables  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this paper is to discuss language experience in second language (L2) phonological learning, with a particular focus on lexical frequency, attention to form, and ethnic identity as factors that influence the role of language experience. First, several difficulties associated with the study of language experience are discussed. Then,…

Trofimovich, Pavel

2011-01-01

32

Learning L2 Vocabulary with American TV Drama From the Learner’s Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following the trend of computer assisted language learning (CALL, in Taiwan, most language classes now have equivalent media support for language teachers and learners. Implementing videos into classroom activities is one of the choices. The current study explores the process of implementing American TV drama in L2 vocabulary learning from learners’ perspectives. Twenty-eight Taiwanese EFL adult learners participate in the study. Authentic video clips from three different American dramas- “How I met your mother”, “The King of Queens”, and “Reba” are adopted. After three sessions of class activities including clip watching, class discussion, word listing, etc., students complete a 4-likert scale questionnaire and are individually interviewed by the researcher to give their opinions. The results reveal positive comments on the facilitative role of TV drama in learning new vocabulary as previous studies suggested, but learners’ comments point out some crucial factors while learning L2 vocabulary with TV drama. First of all, the interest level and the familiarity of the content is an important factor. In addition, the images, subtitles and repetition help participants to “remember” the target words. Other factors such as the authenticity of the language, the contextual meaning of the words, and the dramatic performances all contribute to the learning of the L2 vocabulary. In the end of the study, working memory system, the context, acquisition-learning hypothesis (Krashen, 1981, and noticing hypothesis (Schmidt, 1990 are further discussed. 

Yu-Chia Wang

2012-06-01

33

Selecting ELL Textbooks: A Content Analysis of L2 Learning Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although middle school teachers use a variety of ELL textbooks, many lack effective criteria to critically select materials that represent a wide range of L2 learning strategies. This study analyzed the illustrated and written content of 33 ELL textbooks to determine the range of L2 learning strategies represented. The researchers chose an intentional, convenience sample from each textbook to form the corpus they analyzed. They sought to answer the question: To what extent do middle school ELL texts depict frequency and variation of language learning strategies in illustrations and written texts? To measure the content, the researchers developed a coding instrument to track how frequently each of 15 language learning strategies was portrayed. They concluded that 6 of the 33 textbooks had a good to excellent range of L2 learning strategies in both illustrated and written representation. The study provides recommendations for teachers regarding selection of ELL textbooks appropriate for their students along with a sample coding instrument for their use.

Jeffrey T LaBelle

2010-07-01

34

The Impact of Learning Contexts on Proficiency, Attitudes, and L2 Communication: Creating an Imagined International Community  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyses the effects of learning contexts on proficiency development as well as attitudinal and behavioral changes. At a Japanese high school where content-based L2 instruction in global studies is a feature of education, TOEFL scores, international posture, L2 WTC, and frequency of communication in L2 were assessed in the participants'…

Yashima, Tomoko; Zenuk-Nishide, Lori

2008-01-01

35

Collaborative Concept Mapping as a Pre-Writing Strategy for L2 Learning: A Korean Application  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed at examining the use of concept mapping technique in a course module for Korean language learning with U.S. college students, who were prompted to engage in collaborative writing planning. The study assumed that concept mapping enhances students’ communicative interaction to promote their L2 writing. One hundred and twenty-three participants were recruited from three different proficiency level classes (beginning, intermediate, and advanced classes). Data were collected dur...

2013-01-01

36

The Effect of Conceptual Metaphors on Learning Idioms by L2 Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the effect of conceptual metaphors on learning idioms by L2 learners. Seventy juniors participated in this study. They were grouped into two: Group 1 as the experimental group and Group 2 as the control group. Group 1 (n = 40 learned the idioms by conceptual metaphors and Group 2 (n = 30 by traditional methods. The participants were given a pretest in order to check the comprehension and production of idioms, metaphors, and conceptual metaphors. After the pretest, the idioms were instructed to both groups. The first group received conceptual metaphor instruction and the second group the traditional methods. The idiom instruction lasted for one semester. Then, the posttest was given to the participants. Result showed that conceptual metaphors had a significant effect on learning idioms by the L2 participants (Group 1. Results also pointed to the fact that the effect of conceptual metaphors on learning idioms was more than that of traditional methods. Group 2 could learn idioms, but failed to draw the meaning of idioms because their metaphorical awareness had not developed.

Elham Rahmani Samani

2012-01-01

37

The Effect of Learning English (L2 on Learning of Arabic Literacy (L1 in the Primary School  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of learning English (L2 on learning to read and spell connected texts accurately in Arabic (L1. The author selected a sample of 83 (38 males and 45 females; 45 bilinguals and 38 monolinguals native Arabic-speaking fourth-graders in Egypt. Students completed the author-developed Oral Reading Accuracy Measure and Spelling Accuracy Measure. Interestingly, results revealed that the bilingual (Arabic-English students performed better than their monolingual (Arabic counterparts on the two literacy variables: oral reading accuracy (ORA and spelling accuracy (SA. The discussion concludes that learning English (L2 has a positive effect on students’ oral reading accuracy and spelling accuracy in Arabic (L1.

Abdelaziz M. Hussien

2014-02-01

38

The Learner’s Mother Tongue in the L2 Learning-Teaching Symbiosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper has a two-fold purpose. One is to review the stances of language-oriented theorists, who are practicing foreign/second-language teachers and learners from various parts of the world, regarding the long-standing controversy over whether or not the learner’s mother tongue plays a positive role in the foreign/second-language learning-teaching context. A second purpose is to offer, from a non-native-speaker L2-teacher standpoint, some suggestions on when and how learners’ native la...

Hitotuzi Nilton

2006-01-01

39

Comments on Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?"  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?" (2011) offers some constructive criticism regarding the conventional terminology used in second language (L2) acquisition research and language pedagogy. Although the author finds much of their evidence reasonable and is…

Reynolds, Barry Lee

2012-01-01

40

The Role of Grammar Awareness in Learning English Wh-Movement by Chinese L2 Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This experimental study aimed at examining the role of grammar awareness in learning English wh-movement by Chinese EFL learners. Eighty adult native speakers of Chinese took grammaticality judgment tests (GJT in order to find out whether they were constrained by Chinese wh-in-situ parameters. The mean scores of the GJT in the pretest and posttest were compared to observe the effect of the grammar awareness-raising model (GARM guided instruction on wh-movement. Both within-group and between-group comparisons showed that when L2 learners were aware of the target linguistic phenomenon, their performance in judging the grammaticality of the wh-movement was improved. It is concluded that the role of grammar awareness in learning English wh-movement is positively related to the subjects’ performance in GJT.

Kun Hou

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

Grammatical Error Diagnosis in Fluid Construction Grammar: A Case Study in L2 Spanish Verb Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Construction grammar (CG) has been proposed as an adequate grammatical formalism for building intelligent language tutoring systems because it is highly compatible with the learning strategies observed in second language learning. Unfortunately, the lack of computational CG implementations has made it impossible in the past to corroborate these…

Beuls, Katrien

2014-01-01

42

Narrative and identity construction: an analysis of the L2 Learning process  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Second Language Acquisition (SLA has been the focus of many linguists who have studied the process through varied perspectives, (e.g. Ellis, 1997; Lantolf, 2000; Gardner, 1968, to quote but a few so that they may be able to interpret the way learners gather information regarding a second language process. However, such foci have been limited to cognitive processes and other factors (e.g. cultural, socio-cognitive rather than placed on the learners' experiences themselves. In view of this, this paper investigates learners' experiences through the analysis of a group of self narratives recorded by the AMFALE (Aprendendo com memórias de falantes e de aprendizes de língua estrangeira² project, while, at the same time, analyzes such autobiographies in the light of Leppänen and Kalaja's (2002 work on autobiographies as learners' identities constructions, based on Vladimir Propp's book Morphology of the Folktale (2000. The study is divided in two parts: the first one briefly reviews the process of identity construction and the importance of autobiographies as a means of expression of the self. Besides, it also focuses on the criteria set forth by Leppänen and Kalaja (2002 for the analysis of autobiographies, based on Vladimir Propp's book Morphology of the folktale (2000. The second part focuses on the analyses of AMFALE autobiographies as stated above.A Aquisição de uma Segunda Língua (ASL tem sido enfocada por vários pesquisadores que estudaram o processo sob diversas perspectivas (ex.: Ellis, 1997; Lantolf, 2000; Gardner, 1968, para poderem interpretar como os aprendizes adquirem a L2. Entretanto, esses estudos têm se limitado aos processos cognitivos e a outros fatores (cultural e sócio-cognitivo, por exemplo, em vez de focalizar as experiências dos aprendizes. Em virtude disso, este estudo investiga as experiências de aprendizes por meio de um grupo de auto-narrativas registradas pelo Projeto AMFALE (Aprendendo com memórias de falantes e de aprendizes de línguas estrangeiras, tendo como suporte básico o trabalho desenvolvido por Leppänen e Kalaja (2002, no qual as autoras, com base na teoria de Vladimir Propp sobre a morfologia do conto de fadas (2000, investigam o processo de aprendizagem de L2 a partir de auto-narrativas que refletem o processo heróico, ainda que árduo, dos contos de fadas, detalhado por Propp. Para tanto, o artigo se divide em duas partes. A primeira faz uma breve revisão do processo de construção de identidade, da importância da narrativa autobiográfica como expressão de identidade, chegando, por fim, aos critérios de análise de autobiografias no processo de aprendizagem de L2, identificados por Leppänen e Kalaja (2002. A segunda parte do estudo analisa alguns exemplos de autobiografias do projeto AMFALE sob a luz das referidas teorias.

Luiz Antônio Caldeira Andrade

2007-01-01

43

Morphological Segmentation on Learned Boundaries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Colour information is usually not enough to segment natural complex scenes. Texture contains relevant information that segmentation approaches should consider. Martin et al. [Learning to detect natural image boundaries using local brightness, color, and texture cues, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 26 (5) (2004) 530-549] proposed a particularly interesting colour-texture gradient. This gradient is not suitable for Watershed-based approaches because it contains g...

Hanbury, Allan; Marcotegui, Beatriz

2009-01-01

44

The Effect of Multimedia Glosses on Online Computerized L2 Text Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning of Iranian EFL Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different types of multimedia glosses, namely text, picture, and text plus picture on online computerized L2 text comprehension and vocabulary learning of junior high school students. About 60 female Iranian junior high school students were selected from a population pool of 102 volunteers based on their performance on a standard English proficiency test (Nelson. Afterwards, they were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 15, three gloss groups, subsequently exposed to the research treatment and one control group. Taking advantage of the results of the pilot study, some words of the computerized written texts were glossed and hyperlinked by a computer software program. When the students clicked on hyperlinked words, a new page appeared and showed the word with a definition in English (textual gloss group, a picture (pictorial gloss group, or a combination of both definition and picture (textual plus pictorial gloss group. Participants in each experimental group read the texts under one of the three mentioned conditions. Statistical analyses of the results reveal that 1 all multimedia gloss groups comprehended computerized L2 texts significantly better than the control group, 2 A significant difference between the multimedia gloss groups and the control group in the production of the target vocabulary items was found. 3 The mix gloss group insignificantly outperformed the textual and pictorial gloss groups in computerized L2 text comprehension, and 4 regarding vocabulary learning, the mix gloss group significantly outperformed the other two gloss groups. Hence, the findings of this study indicate that utilizing computers and multimedia glosses can be influential in language teaching in general and online L2 text comprehension as well as incidental vocabulary learning in particular.

Nasrin Shams

2011-05-01

45

Teaching, Learning, and Developing L2 French Sociolinguistic Competence: A Sociocultural Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

The study reported in this article investigates the development of sociolinguistic competence among second-year (US university-level) L2 learners of French who were given systematic instruction on sociolinguistic variation as part of their normal coursework. We focus on the variable use of the negative morpheme "ne" in verbal negation. Drawing…

van Compernolle, Remi A.; Williams, Lawrence

2012-01-01

46

Multi-Task Feature Learning Via Efficient l2,1-Norm Minimization  

CERN Multimedia

The problem of joint feature selection across a group of related tasks has applications in many areas including biomedical informatics and computer vision. We consider the l2,1-norm regularized regression model for joint feature selection from multiple tasks, which can be derived in the probabilistic framework by assuming a suitable prior from the exponential family. One appealing feature of the l2,1-norm regularization is that it encourages multiple predictors to share similar sparsity patterns. However, the resulting optimization problem is challenging to solve due to the non-smoothness of the l2,1-norm regularization. In this paper, we propose to accelerate the computation by reformulating it as two equivalent smooth convex optimization problems which are then solved via the Nesterov's method-an optimal first-order black-box method for smooth convex optimization. A key building block in solving the reformulations is the Euclidean projection. We show that the Euclidean projection for the first reformulation...

Liu, Jun; Ye, Jieping

2012-01-01

47

The Effects of L1 and L2 e-Glosses on Incidental Vocabulary Learning of Junior High-School English Students  

Science.gov (United States)

While researchers have examined the effectiveness of various online gloss types on incidental L2 vocabulary learning, little research on online gloss languages has been conducted. Previous attempts which compared the effects of L1 and L2 glosses have reported mixed results. To fill the gaps, this study examined the effectiveness of Chinese and…

Hu, Si-Min; Vongpumivitch, Viphavee; Chang, Jason S.; Liou, Hsien-Chin

2014-01-01

48

Social and Individual Frame Factors in L2 Learning: Comparative Aspects.  

Science.gov (United States)

A large number of factors are considered in their role in second language learning. Individual factors include language aptitude, personality, attitudes and motivation, and the role of the speaker's native language. Teacher factors involve the method of instruction, the sex of the teacher, and a teacher's training and competence, while…

Ekstrand, Lars H.

49

CMC-Based Projects and L2 Learning: Confirming the Importance of Nativisation  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the spread of reliable desktop audio and videoconferencing facilities, some CMC-based projects still rely on asynchronous written environments, if only because of the temporal constraints of synchronicity (Guichon, 2009; Develotte, Guichon & Vincent, 2010). Yet speaking is usually the skill students most need to improve when learning

Grosbois, Muriel

2011-01-01

50

Gender Differences in L2 Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning in the Video-based CALL Program  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined whether there were significant differences between males and females in comprehension, vocabulary acquisition and vocabulary retention in the video-based computer assisted language learning (CALL) program. In total, 74 male and 43 female university students taking Freshman English course in Taiwan joined this study. A quantitative analysis of video comprehension tests, vocabulary immediate tests, and vocabulary retention tests was conducted. Two types of videotexts ranked ...

Lu-Fang Lin

2011-01-01

51

Estilos de pensamiento Cognitive styles: an approach to autonomous learning in L2 adult students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El siguiente artículo resume los resultados de una investigación descriptivo-cualitativa sobre estilos cognitivos o de pensamiento, llevado a cabo con miembros del programa de extensión académica en la UPB, con el objetivo de describir los estilos de pensamiento de los estudiantes que les permitan reconocer y utilizar estrategias meta cognitivas para desarrollar un nivel consciente de responsabilidad y autonomía en el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera. El marco teórico de este estudio se basa en conceptos tales como estilos cognitivos, estrategias meta cognitivas, aptitud, así como la autonomía y la responsabilidad en el aprendizaje. Los instrumentos diseñados para la recopilación de datos fueron un test sobre estilos cognitivos, en segundo lugar, un cuestionario semiestructurado con los siguientes ítems: proceso de toma de decisiones, la auto descripción como aprendices, las percepciones del estudiante sobre el papel del profesor, incluido el uso de estrategias meta cognitivas, tercero , una entrevista abierta con el objetivo de medir el impacto que tiene el concebir un proceso de aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera desde la perspectiva de los estilos de pensamiento. Los resultados mostraron la expectativa de los estudiantes para reconocer las capacidades humanas, la necesidad de adquirir la competencia estratégica, la necesidad real de participar abiertamente en la planificación de metas y objetivos, y en la auto-evaluación formativa del proceso de aprendizaje, así como el deseo de pasar de un proceso centrado en tareas, a un proceso centrado en la autonomía. The following article sums up the findings of a descriptive-qualitative research on cognitive styles carried out with members of the Academic Extension program at the UPB, aiming at describing the cognitive styles of students that enable them to recognize and use metacognitive strategies in order to develop a conscious level of autonomy and responsibility in learning a foreign language. This study was theoretically supported by concepts such as cognitive styles, metacognitive strategies, aptitude in learning, as well as autonomy and responsibility. The instruments used in the data collection procedures were first a test on cognitive styles, second, a semi structured questionnaire on decision making process, self description as learners, student´s perceptions on the teacher´s role, including the use of metacognitive strategies, third, an open interview aiming at measuring the impact of being aware of learning a foreign language from the perspective of cognitive styles. Results showed students’ inner expectations to recognize human abilities, the need to acquire strategic competence, the real need to openly participate in planning of goals and objectives, self assessment on formative learning process, as well as turning to be autonomous centered learners, rather that task oriented students.

Atehortúa Atehortúa José Nicolás

2010-01-01

52

Transfer of reading-related cognitive skills in learning to read Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among Chinese elementary school children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated transfer of reading-related cognitive skills between learning to read Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among Chinese children in Hong Kong. Fifty-three Grade 2 students were tested on word reading, phonological, orthographic and rapid naming skills in Chinese (L1) and English (L2). The major findings were: (a) significant correlations between Chinese and English measures in phonological awareness and rapid naming, but not in orthographic skills; (b) significant unique con...

2009-01-01

53

Language Learning Strategies (LLSs and L2 motivation associated with L2 pronunciation development in pre-service teachers of English Estrategias de Aprendizaje de una Lengua y motivación L2 asociadas al desarrollo de la pronunciación de una L2 en estudiantes de Pedagogía en Inglés  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study seeks to uncover the psychosocial mechanisms used by pre-service teachers of English with the purpose of developing an L2 phonological system, within a framework of language learning strategies (LLSs The study makes use of a case study methodology and collects information through a semi-structured interview, whose results are interpreted in light of Oxford's (1990 taxonomy. The results corroborate to some extent findings made in previous studies, amongst which are: (i ample use of indirect strategies, amongst which metacognitive, planning and monitoring stand out; (ii greater potential of metacognitive strategies when accompanied by use of direct strategies such as mental images, applying images and sounds, practising, analysing/reasoning, and paying attention; and (iii the mobilisation power of motivation in connection with a strategy repertoire.La presente investigación busca develar los mecanismos sicosociales que utilizan los profesores de inglés de pre-servicio destacados en su desarrollo fonológico en inglés como L2, canalizados a través de estrategias de aprendizaje de una lengua. La investigación hace uso de la metodología de estudio de caso y recaba información de los dos participantes a través de la entrevista semi-estructurada, cuyos resultados son analizados a la luz de la taxonomía propuesta por Oxford (1990. Los resultados corroboran en cierta medida estudios anteriores en los siguientes sentidos: (i los participantes hacen amplio uso de estrategias indirectas, entre las cuales destacan las estrategias metacognitivas, planificación del aprendizaje y monitoreo; (ii las estrategias metacognitivas se ven potenciadas cuando entran en contacto con el uso de estrategias directas, tales como la creación de imágenes mentales, aplicación de imagen y sonido, práctica, razonamiento cognitivo y foco atencional; y (iii la motivación se presenta como variable movilizadora del repertorio de estrategias de aprendizaje.

Mauricio Véliz C

2012-01-01

54

Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) and L2 motivation associated with L2 pronunciation development in pre-service teachers of English / Estrategias de Aprendizaje de una Lengua y motivación L2 asociadas al desarrollo de la pronunciación de una L2 en estudiantes de Pedagogía en Inglés  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La presente investigación busca develar los mecanismos sicosociales que utilizan los profesores de inglés de pre-servicio destacados en su desarrollo fonológico en inglés como L2, canalizados a través de estrategias de aprendizaje de una lengua. La investigación hace uso de la metodología de estudio [...] de caso y recaba información de los dos participantes a través de la entrevista semi-estructurada, cuyos resultados son analizados a la luz de la taxonomía propuesta por Oxford (1990). Los resultados corroboran en cierta medida estudios anteriores en los siguientes sentidos: (i) los participantes hacen amplio uso de estrategias indirectas, entre las cuales destacan las estrategias metacognitivas, planificación del aprendizaje y monitoreo; (ii) las estrategias metacognitivas se ven potenciadas cuando entran en contacto con el uso de estrategias directas, tales como la creación de imágenes mentales, aplicación de imagen y sonido, práctica, razonamiento cognitivo y foco atencional; y (iii) la motivación se presenta como variable movilizadora del repertorio de estrategias de aprendizaje. Abstract in english This study seeks to uncover the psychosocial mechanisms used by pre-service teachers of English with the purpose of developing an L2 phonological system, within a framework of language learning strategies (LLSs) The study makes use of a case study methodology and collects information through a semi- [...] structured interview, whose results are interpreted in light of Oxford's (1990) taxonomy. The results corroborate to some extent findings made in previous studies, amongst which are: (i) ample use of indirect strategies, amongst which metacognitive, planning and monitoring stand out; (ii) greater potential of metacognitive strategies when accompanied by use of direct strategies such as mental images, applying images and sounds, practising, analysing/reasoning, and paying attention; and (iii) the mobilisation power of motivation in connection with a strategy repertoire.

Mauricio, Véliz C.

55

Developing Critical L2 Digital Literacy through the Use of Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Learning Management Systems such as Moodle  

Science.gov (United States)

Second Language (L2) Digital Literacy is of emerging importance within English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Korea, and will evolve to become regarded as the most critical component of overall L2 English Literacy. Computer-based Internet-hosted Learning Management Systems (LMS), such as the popular open-source Moodle, are rapidly being adopted worldwide for distance education, and are also being applied to blended (hybrid) education. In EFL Education, they have a special potential: by setting the LMS to force English to be used exclusively throughout a course website, the meta-language can be made the target L2 language. Of necessity, students develop the ability to use English to navigate the Internet, access and contribute to online resources, and engage in computer-mediated communication. Through such pragmatic engagement with English, students significantly develop their L2 Digital Literacy.

Meurant, Robert C.

56

Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hand-coding locomotion controllers for modular robots is difficult due to their polymorphic nature. Instead, we propose to use a simple and distributed reinforcement learning strategy. ATRON modules with identical controllers can be assembled in any configuration. To optimize the robotâ??s locomotion speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategyâ??s performance on different robot configurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast as possible. We conclude that the learning strategy is effective and may be a practical approach to design gaits.

Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko

2009-01-01

57

Evolutionary Learning Algorithm for Multi-layer Morphological Neural Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphological Neural Network (MNN is a novel and important neural network and it has many applications such as image processing and pattern recognition. It makes sense to research the learning algorithm of MNN and its application. A method based on genetic algorithm is presented to train and implement multi-layer morphological neural network in this study. The algorithm calculates the weights and biases of morphological neural network and the genetic algorithm automatically acquire the learning rate. After that, the trained morphological neural network is applied to image restoration. The image restoration simulation and a comparison with the median filter are shown in the end. It shows that the morphological neural network is a quite good method applied to image restoration.

He Chunmei

2013-01-01

58

The Roles of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Working Memory in L2 Grammar and Vocabulary Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyzed phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and working memory (WM) and their relationship with vocabulary and grammar learning in an artificial foreign language. Nonword repetition, nonword recognition, and listening span were used as memory measures. Participants learned the singular forms of vocabulary for an artificial foreign…

Martin, Katherine I.; Ellis, Nick C.

2012-01-01

59

Impact of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) on pancreatic islet function and morphology in mice and men  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Common genetic variations in the gene encoding transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) reveal the strongest association with type 2-diabetes known to date. These lead to impaired insulin production and output, but the mechanisms of disease remain incompletely known. In this issue of Diabetologia, two publications provide new insights into TCF7L2-dependent diabetes.

Renstro?m, E.

2012-01-01

60

Impact of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) on pancreatic islet function and morphology in mice and men.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Common genetic variations in the gene encoding transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) reveal the strongest association with type 2-diabetes known to date. These lead to impaired insulin production and output, but the mechanisms of disease remain incompletely known. In this issue of Diabetologia, two publications provide new insights into TCF7L2-dependent diabetes.

Renstro?m, Erik

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

The Influence of Incidental and Intentional Vocabulary Acquisition and Vocabulary Strategy Use on Learning L2 Vocabularies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the role of incidental and intentional vocabulary acquisition in addition to the influence of language learning strategy: namely, the use of vocabulary strategy by Iranian EFL learners in learning new vocabularies. Accordingly, this study is two-faceted. First, Part A examines the difference between different modes of presentation, incidental and intentional learning of new vocabularies (i.e., incidental, etymology-based intentional, and meaning-based intentional, and acquisition of new vocabularies. Part B investigates the impact of the use of language learning strategies—in this case vocabulary and reading strategy use using The Language Strategy Use Inventory—on the learning of new vocabularies. Part A, studying the influence of incidental as opposed to intentional presentation and acquisition of vocabularies, involved 30 students (i.e., 26 males and 4 females. Part B of the study, investigating the role of vocabulary learning strategy use, involved 59 students (i.e., 49 males and 10 females. The results of Part A shown by t-test indicate that, as far as performance of the students on a test of vocabulary acquisition is concerned, there is no significant difference between the two modes—incidental and intentional learning. However, for the same part, linear regression proved that among the vocabularies presented through different modes of presentation, it is vocabularies learned through meaning-based intentional mode that is the most predictive of the performance of the students on a test of vocabulary acquisition. Moreover, as for part B, the study found that there is a positive, but weak, correlation between the students’ vocabulary strategy use – measured by students filling out a self-report questionnaire entitled The Language Strategy Use Inventory developed by Cohen, A, Oxford, L. R, and Chi. J. – and their learning of new vocabularies. Finally, the findings of part B of the study indicate that, as the degree to which the students’ use of vocabulary strategy use increases, so does their use of reading strategy use.

Alireza Tayebi

2011-01-01

62

Effects of Interactive versus Simultaneous Display of Multimedia Glosses on L2 Reading Comprehension and Incidental Vocabulary Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the effects of interactive versus simultaneous display of visual and verbal multimedia information on incidental vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of learners of English with lower proficiency levels. In the interactive display condition, learners were allowed to select the type of multimedia information whereas the…

Türk, Emine; Erçetin, Gülcan

2014-01-01

63

The Effects of Task Involvement Load on L2 Incidental Vocabulary Learning: A Meta-Analytic Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This meta-analytic study provides a systematic statistical synthesis of the effects of output tasks on second or foreign incidental vocabulary learning. A total of 12 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Five mediator variables were examined: design quality, types of output task, time on task, genres of text, and text-target word ratios.…

Huang, Shufen; Willson, Victor; Eslami, Zohreh

2012-01-01

64

On the Relationship between Self-regulated Learning Components and L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the past two decades, self-regulation has been the center of heated debate in educational psychology. The present study attempted to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' self-regulated learning components and vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension .To fulfill this objective, a 60-item vocabulary and reading comprehension TOEFL test was administered to a sample of 250 male and female college students majoring in English Teaching, English Language Translation, a...

Abbas Ali Zarei; Gamar Hatami

2012-01-01

65

Assessing the Effect of Lexical Aspect and Grounding on the Acquisition of L2 Spanish Past Tense Morphology among L1 English Speakers  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study compares the relative effect of inherent lexical aspect and discursive grounding on the use of L2 Spanish Preterit and Imperfect. The study is based on the analysis of responses to a written 40-item discourse-based forced-choice task among 286 English-speaking learners of Spanish. The analysis of data (repeated measures ANOVA)…

Salaberry, Maximo Rafael

2011-01-01

66

Relationship between L1 and L2 Word-Level Reading and Phonological Processing in Adults Learning English as a Second Language  

Science.gov (United States)

Word-level reading and phonological processing measures were administered in English and Chinese to adult ESL students whose first language (L1) was Mandarin and whose second language (L2) was English. Instructors also identified students who may be at risk for L2 reading difficulties based on specific identification criteria. L2 phonological…

Harrison, Gina L.; Krol, Lisa

2007-01-01

67

Combining Hand-crafted Rules and Unsupervised Learning in Constraint-based Morphological Disambiguation  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents a constraint-based morphological disambiguation approach that is applicable languages with complex morphology--specifically agglutinative languages with productive inflectional and derivational morphological phenomena. In certain respects, our approach has been motivated by Brill's recent work, but with the observation that his transformational approach is not directly applicable to languages like Turkish. Our system combines corpus independent hand-crafted constraint rules, constraint rules that are learned via unsupervised learning from a training corpus, and additional statistical information from the corpus to be morphologically disambiguated. The hand-crafted rules are linguistically motivated and tuned to improve precision without sacrificing recall. The unsupervised learning process produces two sets of rules: (i) choose rules which choose morphological parses of a lexical item satisfying constraint effectively discarding other parses, and (ii) delete rules, which delete parses sati...

Oflazer, K; Oflazer, Kemal; Tur, Gokhan

1996-01-01

68

?????????? ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? L_2.II  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? [0, +?? ? ??????? L 2 ? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????????????? ????. ???????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????. ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? - ?????? ? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????????. ????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?????? [17], ?????????????? ? ?????????? ??????? "????? ??????. ???. ??????????". ?????? ???????? ????????? §3, ? ????? §4 ? §5. ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? [17].Some problems of aproximations of functions on half-interval [0,+oo in the L2-metric with certain weight by entire functions of exponential growth are studied. Modules of continuity which used in problems are constructed with help of generalized translations of Bessel. Direct theorems of Jacson type are proved. Nikolskii-Besov type function spaces are defined and their description are obtained in terms of the best approximations.

???????? ?. ?.

2001-01-01

69

?????????? ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? L_2. I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? [0,+? ? ??????? L 2 ? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????????????? ????. ???????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????. ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? - ?????? ? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????????.Some problems of aproximations of functions on half-interval [0,+? in the L 2-metric with certain weight by entire functions of exponential growth are studied. Modules of continuity which used in problems are constructed with help of generalized translations of Bessel. Direct theorems of Jacson type are proved. Nikolskii - Besov type function spaces are defined and their description are obtained in terms of the best approximations.

???????? ?. ?.

2000-01-01

70

Storage and recall capabilities of fuzzy morphological associative memories with adjunction-based learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

We recently employed concepts of mathematical morphology to introduce fuzzy morphological associative memories (FMAMs), a broad class of fuzzy associative memories (FAMs). We observed that many well-known FAM models can be classified as belonging to the class of FMAMs. Moreover, we developed a general learning strategy for FMAMs using the concept of adjunction of mathematical morphology. In this paper, we describe the properties of FMAMs with adjunction-based learning. In particular, we characterize the recall phase of these models. Furthermore, we prove several theorems concerning the storage capacity, noise tolerance, fixed points, and convergence of auto-associative FMAMs. These theorems are corroborated by experimental results concerning the reconstruction of noisy images. Finally, we successfully employ FMAMs with adjunction-based learning in order to implement fuzzy rule-based systems in an application to a time-series prediction problem in industry. PMID:20870391

Valle, Marcos Eduardo; Sussner, Peter

2011-01-01

71

L2 Plasma Environments  

Science.gov (United States)

The second LaGrange point, 1.5 million miles from the Earth in the anti-solar direction, is becoming an important destination for scientific spacecraft. The quasi-stable gravity field requires little energy resources for station keeping and astronomical missions-infrared and microwave in particular-find the minimal impact from Earth albedo radiation and limited restrictions on viewing directions a tremendous advantage in their mission design. Spacecraft design for L2 missions will have to consider the plasma environments of the ambient solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail from energies of a few 10s of an eV through 10 s of keV in addition to enhanced energetic particle populations from 10s to l000 keV during solar energetic particle events. This presentation will provide a background on the appropriate L2 charged particle environments at L2 and describe modeling efforts at MSFC to develop environment specification tools for the L2 plasma environment.

Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.

2003-01-01

72

The Role of Morphological Awareness in Reading Comprehension among Typical and Learning Disabled Native Arabic Speakers  

Science.gov (United States)

This work examines the role of morphological awareness in contrast to phonological processing in reading comprehension amongst two groups of native Arabic children: a group with learning disabilities (LD) and a mainstream group who were matched to the LD group in age or reading level. Measures of reading comprehension fluency, phonological skills,…

Mahfoudhi, Abdessatar; Elbeheri, Gad; Al-Rashidi, Mousa; Everatt, John

2010-01-01

73

Morphology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The guidelines for morphological annotation contain the layers that are necessary for understanding the structure of the words in the object language: morphological segmentation, glossing, and annotation of part-of-speech.

2007-01-01

74

Morphology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The guidelines for morphological annotation contain the layers that are necessary for understanding the structure of the words in the object language: morphological segmentation, glossing, and annotation of part-of-speech.

2009-01-01

75

The Learner´s Mother Tongue in the L2 Learning-Teaching Symbiosis La lengua materna del estudiante en la simbiosis entre enseñanza y aprendizaje de una segunda lengua  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper has a two-fold purpose. One is to review the stances of language-oriented theorists, who are practicing foreign/second-language teachers and learners from various parts of the world, regarding the long-standing controversy over whether or not the learner´s mother tongue plays a positive role in the foreign/second-language learning-teaching context. A second purpose is to offer, from a non-native-speaker L2-teacher standpoint, some suggestions on when and how learners´ native lang...

Nilton Hitotuzi

2006-01-01

76

Fault-tolerant gait learning and morphology optimization of a polymorphic walking robot  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents experiments with a morphology-independent, life-long strategy for online learning of locomotion gaits. The experimental platform is a quadruped robot assembled from the LocoKit modular robotic construction kit. The learning strategy applies a stochastic optimization algorithm to optimize eight open parameters of a central pattern generator based gait implementation. We observe that the strategy converges in roughly ten minutes to gaits of similar or higher velocity than a manually designed gait and that the strategy readapts in the event of failed actuators. We also optimize offline the reachable space of a foot based on a reference design but finds that the reality gap hardens the successfully transference to the physical robot. To address this limitation, in future work we plan to study co-learning of morphological and control parameters directly on physical robots.

Christensen, David Johan; Larsen, Jørgen Christian

2013-01-01

77

Children benefit from morphological relatedness when they learn to spell new words  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of morphologically related words often helps in selecting among spellings of sounds in French. For instance, final /wa/ may be spelled oi (e.g., envoi ‘sendoff’, oit (e.g., exploit ‘exploit’, ois (e.g., siamois, ‘siamese’, or oie (e.g., joie ‘joy’. The morphologically complex word exploiter ‘to exploit’, with a pronounced t, can be used to indicate that the stem exploit is spelled with a silent t. We asked whether 8-year-old children benefited from such cues to learn new spellings. Children read silently stories which included two target nonwords, one presented in an opaque condition and the other in a morphological condition. In the opaque condition, the sentence provided semantic information (e.g., a vensois is a musical instrument but no morphological information that could justify the spelling of the target word’s final sound. Such justification was available in the morphological condition (e.g., the vensoisist plays the vensois instrument, which justifies that vensois includes a final silent s. Thirty minutes after having read the stories, children’s orthographic learning was assessed by asking them to choose the correct spelling of each nonword from among three phonologically plausible alternatives (e.g., vensois, vensoit, vensoie. Children chose correct spellings more often in the morphological condition than the opaque condition, even though the root (vensois had been presented equally often in both conditions. That is, children benefited from information about the spelling of the morphologically complex word to learn the spelling of the stem.

SebastienPacton

2013-10-01

78

Negotiated Interaction in the L2 Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper reports on an approximate replication of Foster's (1998) study on the negotiation of meaning. Foster investigated the interactional adjustments produced by L2 English learners working on different types of language learning tasks in a classroom setting. The replication study duplicates the methods of data collection and data…

Eckerth, Johannes

2009-01-01

79

Individual Differences in the Acquisition of a Complex L2 Phonology: A Training Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Many learners of a foreign language (L2) struggle to correctly pronounce newly learned speech sounds, yet many others achieve this with apparent ease. Here we explored how a training study of learning complex consonant clusters at the very onset of L2 acquisition can inform us about L2 learning in general and individual differences in particular.…

Hanulikova, Adriana; Dediu, Dan; Fang, Zhou; Basnakova, Jana; Huettig, Falk

2012-01-01

80

Machine Learning of Phonologically Conditioned Noun Declensions For Tamil Morphological Generators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents machine learning solutions to a practical problem of Natural Language Generation (NLG), particularly the word formation in agglutinative languages like Tamil, in a supervised manner. The morphological generator is an important component of Natural Language Processing in Artificial Intelligence. It generates word forms given a root and affixes. The morphophonemic changes like addition, deletion, alternation etc., occur when two or more morphemes or words j...

Rajan, K.; Ramalingam, Dr V.; Ganesan, Dr M.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Machine learning based analysis of biochemical and morphologic parameters in patients with dialysis related amyloidosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dialysis related amyloidosis is the accumulation and deposition of beta(2)-microglobulin derived fibrils in bones and joints, due to insufficient elimination during therapy or slowly progressing renal failure. The aim of this study was to analyse biochemical, morphologic and anamnestic parameters that may be relevant for the onset and developement of dialysis related amyloidosis. In addition to standard statistical procedures, we also applied the machine-learning based methods of data mining ...

Baris?ic?, Igor; Wilhelm, Vladimir; S?tambuk, Nikola; Karaman, Ksenija; Jankovic?, Stipan; Konjevoda, Pas?ko; Pokric?, Biserka

2002-01-01

82

Experiência em sala de aula: evidência empírica da complexidade no ensino e aprendizagem de LE / Classroom experience: empirical evidence of complexity in l2 teaching and learning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo argumenta pela compreensão do construto experiência, como um Sistema Adaptativo Complexo, tendo em vista que, para compreendê-la, toda experiência encapsula um processo, no qual outros eventos que a perpassam são trazidos à tona. Para tal, partimos da pesquisa sobre experiências, apresen [...] tando trechos de relatos de estudantes e professores sobre eventos vivenciados em salas de aula de língua estrangeira (LE), como evidência empírica de conceitos da complexidade, aplicados aos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE. Explicitamos, assim, a relação entre experiência, como construto, e caos / complexidade, como teoria, para compreender a natureza dos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE em salas de aula. Abstract in english This article argues for understanding the construct of experience as a complex adaptive system since experience, as a process, encapsulates other events that permeate it, bringing them to the fore. To this end, we briefly review research on experience and present excerpts from students? and teachers [...] ? report data of events experienced in the foreign language classrooms as empirical evidence of applying complexity theory concepts to understand the processes of foreign language teaching and learning. Thus, the explicit relationship between experience, as a construct, and chaos / complexity, as a theory, play a role for understanding the nature of classroom foreign language teaching and learning.

Miccoli, Laura Stella; Lima, Carolina Vianini A..

83

Experiência em sala de aula: evidência empírica da complexidade no ensino e aprendizagem de LE Classroom experience: empirical evidence of complexity in l2 teaching and learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo argumenta pela compreensão do construto experiência, como um Sistema Adaptativo Complexo, tendo em vista que, para compreendê-la, toda experiência encapsula um processo, no qual outros eventos que a perpassam são trazidos à tona. Para tal, partimos da pesquisa sobre experiências, apresentando trechos de relatos de estudantes e professores sobre eventos vivenciados em salas de aula de língua estrangeira (LE, como evidência empírica de conceitos da complexidade, aplicados aos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE. Explicitamos, assim, a relação entre experiência, como construto, e caos / complexidade, como teoria, para compreender a natureza dos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE em salas de aula.This article argues for understanding the construct of experience as a complex adaptive system since experience, as a process, encapsulates other events that permeate it, bringing them to the fore. To this end, we briefly review research on experience and present excerpts from students’ and teachers’ report data of events experienced in the foreign language classrooms as empirical evidence of applying complexity theory concepts to understand the processes of foreign language teaching and learning. Thus, the explicit relationship between experience, as a construct, and chaos / complexity, as a theory, play a role for understanding the nature of classroom foreign language teaching and learning.

Laura Stella Miccoli

2012-01-01

84

Lexical representation of novel L2 contrasts  

Science.gov (United States)

There is much interest among psychologists and linguists in the influence of the native language sound system on the acquisition of second languages (Best, 1995; Flege, 1995). Most studies of second language (L2) speech focus on how learners perceive and produce L2 sounds, but we know of only two that have considered how novel sound contrasts are encoded in learners' lexical representations of L2 words (Pallier et al., 2001; Ota et al., 2002). In this study we investigated how native speakers of English encode Japanese consonant quantity contrasts in their developing Japanese lexicons at different stages of acquisition (Japanese contrasts singleton versus geminate consonants but English does not). Monolingual English speakers, native English speakers learning Japanese for one year, and native speakers of Japanese were taught a set of Japanese nonwords containing singleton and geminate consonants. Subjects then performed memory tasks eliciting perception and production data to determine whether they encoded the Japanese consonant quantity contrast lexically. Overall accuracy in these tasks was a function of Japanese language experience, and acoustic analysis of the production data revealed non-native-like patterns of differentiation of singleton and geminate consonants among the L2 learners of Japanese. Implications for theories of L2 speech are discussed.

Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Masuda, Kyoko

2005-04-01

85

Metalinguistic Knowledge, Metalingual Knowledge, and Proficiency in L2 Spanish  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of metalinguistic knowledge of language and knowledge of technical terms (i.e. metalingual knowledge) in second language (L2) learning and use is a matter of controversy in the field of Second Language Acquisition. This paper examines the development of these two types of knowledge in adult university-level learners of L2 Spanish, and…

Gutierrez, Xavier

2013-01-01

86

L2 Motivation and Personality as Predictors of the Second Language Proficiency: Role of the Big Five Traits and L2 Motivational Self System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This study examined the predictability of the L2 proficiency by personality and L2 motivational self system variables among 141 Iranian EFL university students. Participants completed Transparent Bipolar Inventory (Goldberg, 1992 as a personality measure, L2 motivational self system (Papi, 2010, and a self-rated measure of second language proficiency. Regression analyses showed that extroversion and openness to experience accounted for 13% of the variance in L2 proficiency; and ideal L2 self and L2 learning experience accounted for 35% of the variance in L2 proficiency. Further, extroversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and openness explained 25% of the variance of in ideal L2 self; neuroticism and conscientiousness explained 24% of the variance in ought-to L2 self; and conscientiousness and extroversion explained 26% of the variance in L2 learning experience. Hierarchical regressions also showed that L2 motivation is a more powerful predictor of L2 proficiency.

Key words: Second language proficiency; Big Five traits; Ideal L2 self; Ought to L2 self; L2 learning experience; Motivation

Zargham Ghapanchi

2011-12-01

87

The Learner´s Mother Tongue in the L2 Learning-Teaching Symbiosis / La lengua materna del estudiante en la simbiosis entre enseñanza y aprendizaje de una segunda lengua  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish El presente artículo tiene dos propósitos. Uno es examinar las posturas de expertos en el área del lenguaje, docentes de lengua extranjera o segunda lengua y aprendices de varias partes del mundo en relación con la controversia que ha existido desde hace mucho tiempo respecto a si la lengua materna [...] del estudiante desempeña o no un papel positivo en el contexto de la enseñanza y aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera o de una segunda lengua. Un segundo objetivo es ofrecer desde un punto de vista de un profesor no nativo de segunda lengua, algunas sugerencias sobre cuándo y cómo la lengua materna de los aprendices puede ser una ventaja en el proceso de aprendizaje de otra lengua. Esto implica que la lengua materna del aprendiz puede ser un instrumento valioso a disposición de profesores de lengua extranjera o segunda lengua de todo el mundo, en sus aulas de clase. Abstract in english This paper has a two-fold purpose. One is to review the stances of language-oriented theorists, who are practicing foreign/second-language teachers and learners from various parts of the world, regarding the long-standing controversy over whether or not the learner´s mother tongue plays a positive r [...] ole in the foreign/second-language learning-teaching context. A second purpose is to offer, from a non-native-speaker L2-teacher standpoint, some suggestions on when and how learners´ native language can be capitalised on in the process of learning another language. This implies that the learner´s mother tongue can be a valuable tool at the disposal of foreign/second-language teachers in their classrooms worldwide.

Hitotuzi, Nilton.

88

The Learner´s Mother Tongue in the L2 Learning-Teaching Symbiosis La lengua materna del estudiante en la simbiosis entre enseñanza y aprendizaje de una segunda lengua  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper has a two-fold purpose. One is to review the stances of language-oriented theorists, who are practicing foreign/second-language teachers and learners from various parts of the world, regarding the long-standing controversy over whether or not the learner´s mother tongue plays a positive role in the foreign/second-language learning-teaching context. A second purpose is to offer, from a non-native-speaker L2-teacher standpoint, some suggestions on when and how learners´ native language can be capitalised on in the process of learning another language. This implies that the learner´s mother tongue can be a valuable tool at the disposal of foreign/second-language teachers in their classrooms worldwide.El presente artículo tiene dos propósitos. Uno es examinar las posturas de expertos en el área del lenguaje, docentes de lengua extranjera o segunda lengua y aprendices de varias partes del mundo en relación con la controversia que ha existido desde hace mucho tiempo respecto a si la lengua materna del estudiante desempeña o no un papel positivo en el contexto de la enseñanza y aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera o de una segunda lengua. Un segundo objetivo es ofrecer desde un punto de vista de un profesor no nativo de segunda lengua, algunas sugerencias sobre cuándo y cómo la lengua materna de los aprendices puede ser una ventaja en el proceso de aprendizaje de otra lengua. Esto implica que la lengua materna del aprendiz puede ser un instrumento valioso a disposición de profesores de lengua extranjera o segunda lengua de todo el mundo, en sus aulas de clase.

Nilton Hitotuzi

2006-10-01

89

Correlations os L2 strategy selection with L2 experience and anxiety  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The significance of language learning for a small country, such as Hungary, is indispensable. Yet, although situated in the middle of the multilingual European business and cultural environment, an incredible 58% of the Hungarian population still only speaks its mother tongue (Eurobarométer, 2006). The present article discusses the potential causes of low L2 performance through discussion of a survey of a student population of 18-23 year-olds at the Agricultural Sciences Faculty of Debrecen ...

Tar Ildikó; Tar Ildikó (1959-) (angol-magyar nyelv és irodalom szakos tanár)

2008-01-01

90

Discrepancies between L2 Teacher and L2 Learner Beliefs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This state of the art article overviews the literature on discrepancies between foreign language teacher and learner beliefs. In the first section, the author draws the reader’s attention to the significance of discrepancies between the L2 teacher and L2 learner perceptions and provides a synopsis of both practical-anecdotal and empirical evidence on the possible consequences of such discrepancies. In the second part of this paper, drawing upon relevant literature, the author suggests some ways of overcoming discrepancies between teachers and learners’ understandings concerning foreign language practices.

Zehra Gabillon

2012-10-01

91

Biosystematic studies on Dactylis L. 2. Original research. 2.1. Morphological differentiation and occurrence of representatives of the genus Dactylis in Poland. 2.1.1. Field studies and experimental cultures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author presents the results of a statistical and populational analysis of the morphological characters of the genus Dactylis. Biometric studies of natural populations were carried out simultaneously with observations of samples from experimental cultures. It has been recognized that in Poland the genus Dactylis is represented by one species, D. glomerata L., within which three subspecies have been distinguished: subsp. glomerata, subsp. aschersoniana (Graebn. Thell. and subsp. slovenica (Dom. Dom. The author gives a key to the determination of these subspecies.

Marta Mizianty

1988-12-01

92

Cohomologie $L^2$ et parabolicite  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We obtain a topological interpretation for the space of $L^2$ harmonic forms for some complete Riemannian manifold : when the geometry at infinity is the geometry of a simply connected nilpotent Lie group, when the geometry at infinity is a symmetric space with non positive curvature and also when the geometry at infinity is parabolic.

Carron, Gilles

2004-01-01

93

On weighted L^2 cohomology  

CERN Multimedia

Consider a complete orientable manifold with countably many components. Suppose that its homology is infinitely generated in some degree. Then there is no choice of weight function for which the natural map from weighted L^2 cohomology to de Rham cohomology is surjective in that degree.

Miller, J G

2006-01-01

94

CALL--Enhanced L2 Listening Skills--Aiming for Automatization in a Multimedia Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening…

Mayor, Maria Jesus Blasco

2009-01-01

95

A Study of Age Influence in L2 Acquisition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study of the second language (L2) acquisition has drawn more and more attention since the 1960s. This paper tries to explore the influence of learners’ age factor as well as the other factors related to age in L2 acquisition. Considering the fact that most learners are adolescents and adults in the current foreign language education, we find it quite necessary to compare and analyze their advantages and disadvantages in foreign language learning and their learning styles, so as to impro...

Chao Zhang

2009-01-01

96

Noticing in L2 writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study investigated the ways L2 learners of English reflect on their use of English while completing a writing task and the strategies learners apply in order to resolve their language-related problems. Factors which might have some influence on the learners' noticing and problem-solving behaviour were explored using a qualitative, inductive research approach involving the detailed analyses of ten participants. Think-aloud protocols and stimulated recall interviews were used to investigate...

2013-01-01

97

Deconstructing Gender Stereotyping through Literature in L2  

Science.gov (United States)

While it is generally accepted that literature fosters (inter)cultural learning, few qualitative studies have sought to understand in what ways interculturality is developed. This article investigates the development of Spanish L2 students' intercultural awareness through the reading of a short story entitled "Norma y Ester" by Argentine writer,…

Yulita, Leticia

2010-01-01

98

Teaching L2 Spanish Stress  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the effects of training on the perception of Spanish stress, an important feature in the Spanish verbal morphology system. Participants were two intact classes of native English speakers enrolled in a six-week session of second-semester Spanish, as well as native English and native Spanish control groups. During the…

Saalfeld, Anita K.

2012-01-01

99

A interação e o processo de negociação em L2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma investigação sobre a interação e as negociações desencadeadas por atividades comunicativas em uma sala de aula de nível básico de francês como segunda língua (L2. A partir da teoria sociointeracionista (Vygotsky, 1998, os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o processo interacional incentiva a troca de informações entre os aprendizes, favorecendo a negociação, e, também, que os aprendizes utilizaram estratégias de mediação para realizar as suas negociações. Os aprendizes receberam input modificado e tiveram mais oportunidades para a produção de output compreensível. Este relato, portanto, mostra que, ao negociar para a compreensão e a produção de textos em L2, os aprendizes se comprometeram, tornando-se agentes responsáveis e, sobretudo, colaboradores do processo de ensino/aprendizagem da L2.This paper investigated the interaction and the negotiations generated by communicative activities proposed in a French as a second language (L2 basic class. Based on the socio-interactionist theory (Vygotsky, 1998, the results show that the interactional process encourages the exchange of information among learners, helping negotiation. Besides that, learners also use mediating strategies to do the negotiations. The learners receive modified input and have more opportunities to produce comprehensible output. This paper, therefore, shows that, to negotiate, to understand and to produce L2 texts, the learners committed themselves, becoming responsible agents, and, above all, collaborators in the L2 learning/teaching process.

Cláudia Eliana Bassi

2004-01-01

100

Inputs for L2 Acquisition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Major approaches of describing or examining linguistic data from a potential target language (input) are analyzed for adequacy in addressing the concerns of second language learning theory. Suggestions are made for making the best of these varied concepts of input and for reformulation of a unified concept. (MSE)

Saleemi, Anjum P.

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Automated three-dimensional reconstruction and morphological analysis of dendritic spines based on semi-supervised learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

A dendritic spine is a small membranous protrusion from a neuron's dendrite that typically receives input from a single synapse of an axon. Recent research shows that the morphological changes of dendritic spines have a close relationship with some specific diseases. The distribution of different dendritic spine phenotypes is a key indicator of such changes. Therefore, it is necessary to classify detected spines with different phenotypes online. Since the dendritic spines have complex three dimensional (3D) structures, current neuron morphological analysis approaches cannot classify the dendritic spines accurately with limited features. In this paper, we propose a novel semi-supervised learning approach in order to perform the online morphological classification of dendritic spines. Spines are detected by a new approach based on wavelet transform in the 3D space. A small training data set is chosen from the detected spines, which has the spines labeled by the neurobiologists. The remaining spines are then classified online by the semi-supervised learning (SSL) approach. Experimental results show that our method can quickly and accurately analyze neuron images with modest human intervention. PMID:24877014

Shi, Peng; Huang, Yue; Hong, Jinsheng

2014-05-01

102

Automated three-dimensional reconstruction and morphological analysis of dendritic spines based on semi-supervised learning  

Science.gov (United States)

A dendritic spine is a small membranous protrusion from a neuron's dendrite that typically receives input from a single synapse of an axon. Recent research shows that the morphological changes of dendritic spines have a close relationship with some specific diseases. The distribution of different dendritic spine phenotypes is a key indicator of such changes. Therefore, it is necessary to classify detected spines with different phenotypes online. Since the dendritic spines have complex three dimensional (3D) structures, current neuron morphological analysis approaches cannot classify the dendritic spines accurately with limited features. In this paper, we propose a novel semi-supervised learning approach in order to perform the online morphological classification of dendritic spines. Spines are detected by a new approach based on wavelet transform in the 3D space. A small training data set is chosen from the detected spines, which has the spines labeled by the neurobiologists. The remaining spines are then classified online by the semi-supervised learning (SSL) approach. Experimental results show that our method can quickly and accurately analyze neuron images with modest human intervention.

Shi, Peng; Huang, Yue; Hong, Jinsheng

2014-01-01

103

L(2)-cohomology of arithmetic varieties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The L(2)-cohomology of arithmetic quotients of bounded symmetric domains is studied. We establish the conjecture of Zucker equating the L(2)-cohomology of these spaces to the intersection cohomology of their Baily-Borel compactifications. PMID:16593866

Saper, L; Stern, M

1987-08-01

104

L2-cohomology of arithmetic varieties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The L2-cohomology of arithmetic quotients of bounded symmetric domains is studied. We establish the conjecture of Zucker equating the L2-cohomology of these spaces to the intersection cohomology of their Baily-Borel compactifications.

Saper, Leslie; Stern, Mark

1987-01-01

105

Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots : Proceedings of the International Symposium on Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hand-coding locomotion controllers for modular robots is dif?cult due to their polymorphic nature. Instead, we propose to use a simple and distributed reinforcement learning strategy. ATRON modules with identical controllers can be assembled in any con?guration. To optimize the robot?s locomotion speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy?s performance on different robot con?gurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast as possible. We conclude that the learning strategy is effective and may be a practical approach to design gaits.

Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko

106

CALL-enhanced L2 listening skills – aiming for automatization in a multimedia environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening comprehension research, as they are the foundations of our methodological proposal. It also establishes a set of criteria for the design and pedagogical ex...

Blasco Mayor, Mari?a Jesu?s

2009-01-01

107

Academic difficulties for L2 medical students in Hungary  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study discusses the first results of a survey on the academic competences of L2 medical students (DEOEC, University of Debrecen) from non-Hungarian countries, who pursue their undergraduate medical diploma courses in English. Of the four basic learning skills, the comprehensive study will focus on students' reading, writing and oral skills. Our research results, derived from the Study Skill Checklist (source: Cook Counseling Centre, Virginia Tech Research University) and interviews, teste...

Tar Ildikó; Tánczos Judit; Wiwczaroski, Troy B.; Tar Ildikó (1959-) (angol-magyar nyelv és irodalom szakos tanár); Tánczos Judit (1959-) (pszichológus, klinikai szakpszichológus); Wiwczaroski, Troy B.

2010-01-01

108

Role of prosody in segmental perception in L2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on the role of prosody in segmental perception of CCV cluster vs. CVCV in French by Japanese speakers learning French. We studied Japanese speakers' perception of minimal pair words in French of the type /bl?t/ vs. /bul?t/ embedded in different intonation contours, with higher or lower F0 on the cluster. Results indicate that tonal prominence facilitates the perception of segmental sequences in L2.

2010-01-01

109

A spatio-temporal latent atlas for semi-supervised learning of fetal brain segmentations and morphological age estimation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal neuroimaging requires reference models that reflect the normal spectrum of fetal brain development, and summarize observations from a representative sample of individuals. Collecting a sufficiently large data set of manually annotated data to construct a comprehensive in vivo atlas of rapidly developing structures is challenging but necessary for large population studies and clinical application. We propose a method for the semi-supervised learning of a spatio-temporal latent atlas of fetal brain development, and corresponding segmentations of emerging cerebral structures, such as the ventricles or cortex. The atlas is based on the annotation of a few examples, and a large number of imaging data without annotation. It models the morphological and developmental variability across the population. Furthermore, it serves as basis for the estimation of a structures' morphological age, and its deviation from the nominal gestational age during the assessment of pathologies. Experimental results covering the gestational period of 20-30 gestational weeks demonstrate segmentation accuracy achievable with minimal annotation, and precision of morphological age estimation. Age estimation results on fetuses suffering from lissencephaly demonstrate that they detect significant differences in the age offset compared to a control group. PMID:24080527

Dittrich, Eva; Riklin Raviv, Tammy; Kasprian, Gregor; Donner, René; Brugger, Peter C; Prayer, Daniela; Langs, Georg

2014-01-01

110

L2 Phonology Learning among Young-Adult Learners of English: Effects of Regular Classroom-based Instruction and L2 Proficiency / Enseñanza de la fonética de una segunda lengua en contextos escolares: Un análisis de las prácticas pedagógicas y sus efectos en el aprendizaje del inglés en jóvenes universitarios  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish A través de una metodología mixta, el presente estudio examinó el impacto de un curso de Fonología inglesa en la adquisición de sonidos vocálicos y consonánticos de estudiantes universitarios de inglés de nivel básico (n=4), pre-intermedio (n=8) e intermedio (n=6). El curso fue impartido por un prof [...] esor de inglés durante 16 semanas, cinco horas a la semana. Para determinar los efectos del curso, los estudiantes participaron en dos actividades orales durante una entrevista al inicio y fin del curso. Durante el mismo, se observaron nueve clases y el instructor reportó las actividades implementadas. Los análisis de varianza revelaron cambios positivos en la pronunciación de todos los estudiantes. En las observaciones y los reportes se constató una enseñanza fonológica sistematizada y focalizada a través de actividades variadas. Los resultados sugieren que este tipo de enseñanza permite a los estudiantes contrarrestar los efectos negativos que factores biológicos y la influencia de la lengua materna tienen durante el aprendizaje. Abstract in english Using a mixed methodology, this study examines the impact of a university-level English phonology course on the acquisition of vowel and consonant sounds in that language, by beginning (n = 4), pre-intermediate (n = 8) and intermediate-level (n = 6) students. The 5-hour-a-week, 16-week course was ta [...] ught by teacher of English. To determine the effects of the course, students participated in two oral activities during an interview at the beginning of the course, and another at the end. During these interview, nine classes were observed, and the instructor reported the activities implemented. The analysis of variance revealed positive changes in all the students pronunciation students. Observations and reports verified the presence of systematic and focused phonological teaching through a variety of activities. The results suggest that this type of teaching allows students to counteract the negative effects which biological factors and the influence of the mother tongue have on learning.

Diana, Morales Pech; Jesús, Izquierdo.

111

In the loop: a social network approach to the willingness to communicate in the L2 (L2 WTC)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the conceptual importance of investigating the social context(s) in which second-language (L2) learning and use take place, the decade-old “social turn” within the field of second-language acquisition (SLA) has yet to produce a “parsimonious system of valid and generalizable parameters to describe contextual characteristics” (Dörnyei, 2009a, p. 238). Accordingly, investigating social network structure has recently been suggested as a general approach to examining the link be...

Gallagher, Hugh Colin

2012-01-01

112

Digital Game-Based Learning (DGBL) in the L2 Classroom: The Impact of the UN's Off-the-Shelf Videogame, Food Force, on Learner Affect and Vocabulary Retention  

Science.gov (United States)

This mixed-method study explored the impact of "Food Force (FF)", a UN-sponsored off-the-shelf videogame, on learner affect and vocabulary learning and retention in a Japanese as a second/foreign language classroom. The videogame was integrated into an existing curriculum and two studies were performed. In Study 1 (n = 9), new vocabulary…

Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Schmidt, Matthew; Hayashi, Kentaro

2014-01-01

113

Accurate diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions from nuclear morphology using supervised learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Follicular lesions of the thyroid remain significant diagnostic challenges in surgical pathology and cytology. The diagnosis often requires considerable resources and ancillary tests including immunohistochemistry, molecular studies, and expert consultation. Visual analyses of nuclear morphological features, generally speaking, have not been helpful in distinguishing this group of lesions. Here we describe a method for distinguishing between follicular lesions of the thyroid based on nuclear morphology. The method utilizes an optimal transport-based linear embedding for segmented nuclei, together with an adaptation of existing classification methods. We show the method outputs assignments (classification results) which are near perfectly correlated with the clinical diagnosis of several lesion types' lesions utilizing a database of 94 patients in total. Experimental comparisons also show the new method can significantly outperform standard numerical feature-type methods in terms of agreement with the clinical diagnosis gold standard. In addition, the new method could potentially be used to derive insights into biologically meaningful nuclear morphology differences in these lesions. Our methods could be incorporated into a tool for pathologists to aid in distinguishing between follicular lesions of the thyroid. In addition, these results could potentially provide nuclear morphological correlates of biological behavior and reduce health care costs by decreasing histotechnician and pathologist time and obviating the need for ancillary testing. PMID:24835183

Ozolek, John A; Tosun, Akif Burak; Wang, Wei; Chen, Cheng; Kolouri, Soheil; Basu, Saurav; Huang, Hu; Rohde, Gustavo K

2014-07-01

114

Learning a Language, Learning About Language, and Learning To Be Literate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the value of second language (L2) learning and suggests that students who learn an L2 in school can develop literacy skills faster than students who do not learn an L2. Examines the role of metalinguistic awareness, the role of language learning in literacy development, and literacy in its cultural context. (Author/VWL)

Liddicoat, Anthony J.

2001-01-01

115

Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses two well-known texts that respectively describe learning and teaching, drawn from the work of Freud and Plato. These texts are considered in psychoanalytic terms using a methodology drawn from the philosophy of Luce Irigaray. In particular the article addresses Irigaray's approach to the analysis of speech and utterance as a…

Peers, Chris

2012-01-01

116

Defining and Operationalising L2 Complexity  

Science.gov (United States)

This chapter takes a critical look at complexity in L2 research. We demonstrate several problems in the L2 literature in terms of how complexity has been defined and operationalised as a construct. In the first part of the chapter we try to unravel its highly complex, multidimensional nature by presenting a taxonomic model that identifies major…

Bulte, Bram; Housen, Alex

2012-01-01

117

Language aptitude for pronunciation in advanced second language (L2) learners: behavioural predictors and neural substrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Individual differences in second language (L2) aptitude have been assumed to depend upon a variety of cognitive and personality factors. Especially, the cognitive factor phonological working memory has been conceptualised as language learning device. However, strong associations between phonological working memory and L2 aptitude have been previously found in early-stage learners only, not in advanced learners. The current study aimed at investigating the behavioural and neurobiological predictors of advanced L2 learning. Our behavioural results showed that phonetic coding ability and empathy, but not phonological working memory, predict L2 pronunciation aptitude in advanced learners. Second, functional neuroimaging revealed this behavioural trait to be correlated with hemodynamic responses of the cerebral network of speech motor control and auditory-perceptual areas. We suggest that the acquisition of L2 pronunciation aptitude is a dynamic process, requiring a variety of neural resources at different processing stages over time. PMID:23273501

Hu, Xiaochen; Ackermann, Hermann; Martin, Jason A; Erb, Michael; Winkler, Susanne; Reiterer, Susanne M

2013-12-01

118

Non-optionality at Zulu L2 first syntax  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Valueless Features Hypothesis of Eubank (1993/94; 1994; 1996 proposes that certain types of apparently optional syntactic processes that appear in initial and not in mature state grammars are due to a lack of specification of inflectional feature values at the initial state of grammatical knowledge. Thus the apparent optionality in the placement of medial adverbs vis-a-vis thematic or finite main verbs evident in the early stages of second language (L2 acquisition is attributed to non-transfer of the strength values of morphological features instantiated in the learners' first language (LJ. This paper provides experimental evidence from Zulu L2 acquisition of verb raising by English native speakers, which suggests non-optionality in the early developmental stages of L2 syntax. The paper suggests that the initial obligaloriness of a non-verb raising syntactic analysis evident in the early stages of Zulu L2 acquisition is LJ -based; indicating transfer of [- strong] Vfeatures in T instantiated in English. Die 'Valueless Features Hypothesis' van Eubank' (1993/94; 1994; 1996 stel voor dat sekere tipes skynbare opsionele sintaktiese prosesse wat by aanvanklike grammatikas voorkom, maar nie by grammatikas in 'n gevorderde stadium nie, die gevolg is van 'n gebrek aan spesifikasie van infleksionele kenmerkwaardes tydens die aanvanklike stadium van grammatikale kennis. Derhalwe word die skynbare opsionaliteit in die plasing van tussenbywoorde teenoor tematiese of hoofwerkwoorde in 'npersoonsvorm wat by die vroee stadiums van die aankweek van 'n tweede taal (L2 duidelik blyk, toegeskryf aan die nie-oordrag van die kragwaardes van morfologiese kenmerke wat in die leerder se eerste taal (LJ geinstansieer is. Hierdie skripsie lewer eksperimentele bewyse van werkwoordverheffing by die aanleer van Zulu (L2 deur aangebore Engelssprekendes, wat nie-opsionaliteit in die vroee ontwikkelingstadia van L2- sinsleer suggereer. Die skripsie stel voor dat die aanvanklike verpligting van 'n niewerkwoordverhejJende sintaktiese ontleding, wat in die vroee stadium by die aanleer van Zulu L2 voorkom, L1-gebaseer is; wat dui op 'n oordrag van [- sterk} V-kenmerke in T wat in Engels geinstansieer is.

Sibusisiwe Dube

2008-08-01

119

Scoring diverse cellular morphologies in image-based screens with iterative feedback and machine learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many biological pathways were first uncovered by identifying mutants with visible phenotypes and by scoring every sample in a screen via tedious and subjective visual inspection. Now, automated image analysis can effectively score many phenotypes. In practical application, customizing an image-analysis algorithm or finding a sufficient number of example cells to train a machine learning algorithm can be infeasible, particularly when positive control samples are not available and the phenotype...

Jones, Thouis R.; Carpenter, Anne E.; Lamprecht, Michael R.; Moffat, Jason; Silver, Serena J.; Grenier, Jennifer K.; Castoreno, Adam B.; Eggert, Ulrike S.; Root, David E.; Golland, Polina; Sabatini, David M.

2009-01-01

120

Teacher Written Feedback on L2 Student Writings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the past few decades, a great number of researches have been conducted on the teacher written feedback and its influence on L2 student writings. The researches are mainly concerned with the major types, and the characteristics of the feedback as well as student reactions to the feedback, or the impact of teacher written feedback and that of peer feedback, indicating that feedback is still a fundamental element of a process approach to writing. This paper has taken a further consideration on the appropriate, effective and efficient teacher written feedback on L2 student writings by engaging students’ mind with minimal marking and by ensuring students’ positive feelings with demonstrated improvement, which enables students to expand their language and ideas, the ultimate goal of their learning in writing. Thus, the paper presents the four principles of producing effective teacher written feedback.

Yayun Wen

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

GLI ERRORI DI ITALIANO L1 ED L2: INTERFERENZA E APPRENDIMENTO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Si può oggi affrontare il tema degli errori di italiano da una prospettiva che possa giovare contemporaneamente a docenti di italiano L1 ed L2? Noi pensiamo di sì: la ricerca glottodidattica sembra aver ormai apprestato un terreno comune alle due situazioni di apprendimento, sgombrando il campo da vecchi pregiudizi e distinzioni che appaiono ormai superate. Attraverso la contrapposizione di concetti quali “lingua parlata/lingua scritta”,  “errori di lingua / errori di linguaggio”, “apprendimento spontaneo/apprendimento guidato”, “italiano L1/italiano L2”, “errori di apprendimento/errori di interferenza, si indicano diversi criteri per la interpretazione degli errori e la loro valutazione in relazione alle cause, alle situazioni comunicative, ai contesti o allo stadio di evoluzione dell’apprendimento della lingua.     Errors in italian L1 and L2: interference and learning   Can errors in Italian be approached in a way that benefits both L1 and L2 Italian teachers? We believe so: glottodidactic research seems to have prepared a common terrain for these two learning situations, clearing the field of old prejudices and obsolete distinctions.  Through the juxtaposition of concepts like “spoken language/written language”, “language errors/speech errors”, “spontaneous learning/guided learning”, “L1 Italian/L2 Italian”, “learning errors/interference errors”, different criteria for interpreting errors and evaluating them in relation to their causes, to communicative situations, to contexts and the developmental state in learning a language are singled out.

Rosaria Solarino

2011-02-01

122

L2 Cohomology of the Bergman metric  

Science.gov (United States)

The L2 cohomology of the Bergman metric is infinite dimensional in the middle degree and vanishes for all other degrees. Asymptotic expansions are given for the Schwartz kernels of the corresponding projections onto harmonic forms.

Donnelly, Harold; Fefferman, Charles

1983-01-01

123

L(2) Cohomology of the Bergman metric.  

Science.gov (United States)

The L(2) cohomology of the Bergman metric is infinite dimensional in the middle degree and vanishes for all other degrees. Asymptotic expansions are given for the Schwartz kernels of the corresponding projections onto harmonic forms. PMID:16593319

Donnelly, H; Fefferman, C

1983-05-01

124

Musical morphology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Morphologic measures have long been used to determine the patho-anatomical signature of different neurologic disorders. However, these measures can also be used to determine effects of specific learning tasks and quantifiable human abilities on cerebral structure. Musicians provide interesting opportunities for this type of analysis as their various skills, such as rhythmic ability and pitch and harmony discrimination (acquired through years of practicing and playing) can be quantified and compared using distinct morphologic analyses. Here, we review magnetic resonance imaging-based morphologic analyses in the music and neuroscience literature and provide some results from our own analysis of rhythmic ability in a cohort of musicians.

Chakravarty, M Mallar; Vuust, Peter

2009-01-01

125

LA ICLASSE – SMARTPHONE E ITALIANO L2/LS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mai come oggi le classi (di Italiano L2, ma non solo sono così fortemente colonizzate dal digitale. L’invasione si è palesata sotto forma di telefonini cellulari (smartphone e tablet dotati di connessione internet e infinite potenzialità sotto forma di applicazioni che possono sia aiutare il discente sia, se male impiegati, ostacolarlo dall’intraprendere un proficuo percorso di apprendimento. Compito dell’insegnante di lingua è circoscrivere l’influenza e l’uso di tali strumenti – che non sono mero techné, ma un modo di funzionare di una generazione – non  per vietarli ma per proporre un approccio e un loro utilizzo costruttivo quali mezzi dalle grandi potenzialità nell’apprendimento di una lingua straniera.     The 1st class – Smartphones and Italian L2/FL   Classrooms (for Italian L2, but not only have never before been so strongly digitally oriented. This invasion is made tangible by smartphones and tablets equipped with internet connections and infinite potential thanks to applications which can help students in their studies, or hinder them if used incorrectly. The language teacher’s task is to circumscribe the influence and use of these tools– which are not mere techné, but the way an entire generation functions – not to prohibit using them but to propose using them constructively, thanks to their great potential for foreign language learning.

Filippo Zanoli

2012-02-01

126

The Role of Gender in L2 Interaction. Socialization via L2 Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given the importance placed on student-student interaction in today's second language (L2) classroom, this article seeks to examine target language interaction models presented to L2 students. Specifically, this investigation reviews how male and female interaction styles are presented to L2 leamers in target language scripts such as textbook and workbook dialogues and audio segments in order to determine whether or not pedagogical materials reinforce stereotypical gender-typed interaction...

Gascoigne, Carolyn

2003-01-01

127

Relations among L1 Reading, L2 Knowledge, and L2 Reading: Revisiting the Threshold Hypothesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study attempted to test the threshold hypothesis in second/foreign language (L2 reading by investigating the relations among first language (L1 reading, L2 knowledge, and L2 reading comprehension in a sample of 2666 (1333 males and 1333 females Korean EFL high school students. Three different methods of data analysis were utilized after closely looking into the methods of data analysis of the current literature on a language threshold. Statistical analysis revealed that the contribution of L1 reading and L2 knowledge to L2 reading was significant and substantial in the main and interaction effects, accounting for 54 percent of variance of L2 reading comprehension in tandem. However, the correlation of L1 reading to L2 reading showed, in general, a decreasing trend in accordance with the improvement of L2 knowledge, which is in contrast with the notion of a threshold level. This result of a language threshold was discussed in terms of a broad construct of language transfer and the interactive approach to reading in an L2.

Gi-Pyo Park

2013-11-01

128

A child's development of interactional competence in a Swedish L2 classroom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores a child's emergent second language (L2) interactional competence during her first year in a Swedish immersion classroom. Within the theoretical framework of situated learning, it focuses on how she acquires expertise in a specific classroom practice: multiparty classroom talk. The data cover three periods (the early, middle, and late phases) of her first school year. The methods adopted combine a microanalytic approach with ethnographic fieldwork analyses of L2 socializati...

Cekaite Thunqvist, Asta

2007-01-01

129

Review Article: A Tree in the Wood--A Review of Research on L2 Chinese Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been considerable research in Chinese as a second language (L2) in recent years, particularly in its morphological and syntactic aspects. This article reviews research in these aspects with reference to the broader discipline of second language acquisition (SLA) and suggests that L2 Chinese research has contributed to SLA through…

Zhao, Yang

2011-01-01

130

The Effect of Lengthened Writing Approach on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on empirical research and qualitative analysis, this paper aims to explore the effects of Lengthened Writing Approach on L2 vocabulary acquisition. The results show that, during L2 vocabulary teaching process, the proper application of Lengthened Writing Approach can effectively facilitate the memorization of new words, and this teaching approach is welcomed by most subjects. This study highlights the role of Lengthened Writing Approach in L2 vocabulary acquisition, and sheds light on the college English learning and teaching.

Jing Liu

2009-02-01

131

Analytic semigroups generated by an operator matrix in L^2(Omega X L^2(Omega  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article concerns the generation of analytic semigroups by an operator matrix in the space $L^2(Omegaimes L^2(Omega$. We assume that one of the diagonal elements is strongly elliptic and the other is weakly elliptic, while the sum of the non-diagonal elements is weakly elliptic.

Salah Badraoui

2012-09-01

132

$L^2$-boundedness and $L^2$-compactness of a class of Fourier integral operators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we study the $L^2$-boundedness and $L^2$-compactness of a class of Fourier integral operators. These operators are bounded (respectively compact if the weight of the amplitude is bounded (respectively tends to 0.

Bekkai Messirdi

2006-03-01

133

Integrating Meaning and Structure in L1-L2 and L2-L1 Translations  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examined the integration of semantic and morphosyntactic information by Korean learners of English as a second language (L2). In Experiment 1, L2 learners listened to English active or passive sentences that were either plausible or implausible and translated them into Korean. A significant number of Korean translations maintained the…

Lim, Jung Hyun; Christianson, Kiel

2013-01-01

134

Are Alphabetic Language-Derived Models of L2 Reading Relevant to L1 Logographic Background Readers?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we argue that second language (L2) reading research, which has been informed by studies involving first language (L1) alphabetic English reading, may be less relevant to L2 readers with non-alphabetic reading backgrounds, such as Chinese readers with an L1 logographic (Chinese character) learning history. We provide both…

Ehrich, John Fitzgerald; Zhang, Lawrence Jun; Mu, Jon Congjun; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

2013-01-01

135

Learning to Characterize Submarine Lava Flow Morphology at Seamounts and Spreading Centers using High Definition Video and Photomosaics  

Science.gov (United States)

In August, 2010 the UW ENLIGHTEN ’10 expedition provided ~140 hours of seafloor HD video footage at Axial Seamount, the most magmatically robust submarine volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. During this expedition, direct imagery from an Insite Pacific HD camera mounted on the ROV Jason 2 was used to classify broad expanses of seafloor where high power (8 kw) and high bandwidth (10 Gb/s) fiber optic cable will be laid as part of the Regional Scale Nodes (RSN) component of the NSF funded Ocean Observatories Initiative. The cable will provide power and two-way, real-time communication to an array of >20 sensors deployed at the summit of the volcano and at active sites of hydrothermal venting to investigate how active processes within the volcano and at seafloor hot springs within the caldera are connected. In addition to HD imagery, over 10,000 overlapping photographs from a down-looking still camera were merged and co-registered to create high resolution photomosaics of two areas within Axial’s caldera. Thousands of additional images were taken to characterize the seafloor along proposed cable routes, allowing optimal routes to be planned well in advance of deployment. Lowest risk areas included those free of large collapse basins, steep flow fronts and fissures. Characterizing the modes of lava distribution across the seafloor is crucial to understanding the construction history of the upper oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges. In part, reconstruction of crustal development and eruptive histories can be inferred from surface flow morphologies, which provide insights into lava emplacement dynamics and effusion rates of past eruptions. An online resource is under development that will educate students about lava flow morphologies through the use of HD video and still photographs. The objective of the LavaFlow exercise is to map out a proposed cable route across the Axial Seamount caldera. Students are first trained in appropriate terminology and background content to learn to recognize and identify various lava flow morphologies and volcanic features. They then conduct a virtual ROV Jason 2 dive using video and still photographs, and characterize the terrain. Their observations are supplemented by the integration of high resolution (1 m scale resolution) bathymetry collected with a RESON SeaBat 7125 sonar mounted on Jason 2 during ENLIGHTEN’10. Students visualize the bathymetry in 2D and 3D using CARIS HIPS 7.0 software. COVE (Collaborative Ocean Visualization Environment) geospatial software is then used to plan and map out an optimal cable route. The LavaFlow exercise allows students to employ the same technologies used by the RSN team for designing the Axial Seamount cabled observatory infrastructure. When completed in 2014, real-time HD imagery, geophysical, chemical and biological sensors will provide data in real-time from this site to educators throughout the US and globe via the Internet.

Fundis, A. T.; Sautter, L. R.; Kelley, D. S.; Delaney, J. R.; Kerr-Riess, M.; Denny, A. R.; Elend, M.

2010-12-01

136

Characteristics of Motivated L2 Class Groups: From Language Teachers’ and Students’ Perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In most learning situations, learners are learning with their peers, and the teacher is teaching to a class, not to an individual learner. As it is indisputable that learners conceptualize their learning as occurring in a group, it is logical to assume that the class group has some effect on learners’ learning. Thus, it could be constructive to investigate the characteristics of a motivating classroom environment and how teachers can help cultivate a more comforting learning environment fostered by a motivating environment. This research focuses on exploring the characteristics of a motivating L2 classroom environment from both language teachers’ and learners’ perspectives. A questionnaire with both closed- and open-ended questions was distributed to approximately 100 college L2 learners studying at a private language college (from three English learning class groups. These class groups’ English teachers were also interviewed to share their ideas of what comprised a motivating environment. Both the questionnaire and interview data suggest the importance of good interaction in a motivating L2 environment. The data also reveal the importance of teacher enthusiasm toward teaching, positive learning attitude in students, a strong cohesiveness group, and positive group norms.

Lilian Ya-hui Chang

2014-06-01

137

Review of Recent Research (2002-2009) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 German (Part 2)  

Science.gov (United States)

This review of research on the learning, teaching, and assessment of L2 German may be particularly timely due to developments from within the profession as well as recent political changes which continue to have a strong bearing on the way L2 German is promoted, learned, taught and assessed. Far from representing an isolated field of research…

Eckerth, Johannes; Tschirner, Erwin

2010-01-01

138

Impact of English Orthography on L2 Acquisition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available English language has become unavoidable being a global language in the present era. Whether it is a field of business, technology or education, its significance can’t be denied. Thus, majority of the world is learning and speaking English owing to its dire need. Unfortunately, despite staining through different reforms, the orthography of English language failed to become learners’ friendly as it seems to be a queer language for the beginners. The present study describes the ways how English orthography becomes impediment for EFL learners. It elucidates how learners in general and Urdu learners of English language in particular, are influenced by its deep orthography. The article reviews the interesting history of English orthography. Moreover, it reveals the phonological relationship between Urdu and English Consonants that causes inferences based on grapheme to phoneme conversion. The study highlights problems posed by English vowels resulting in wrong assumptions by L2 learners from English orthography. It sums up showing the significance of phonological awareness of English spellings to avoid wrong L2 phonology.

Muhammad Aslam Sipra

2013-01-01

139

The Definition and Measurement of L2 Explicit Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of theories of second language L2 acquisition acknowledge a role for explicit L2 knowledge. However, the testing of these theories remains problematic because of the lack of a widely accepted means for measuring L2 explicit knowledge. This article seeks to address this lacuna by examining L2 explicit knowledge from two perspectives.…

Ellis, Rod

2004-01-01

140

Examining the Impact of L2 English on L3 Selves: A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

In this Swedish case study of four upper secondary students engaged in simultaneous second language (L2; English) and third language (L3; Spanish, French and Russian) learning, a possible selves perspective was used to investigate the impact of English on L3 motivation. Using a maximum variation sampling strategy, participants were selected from a…

Henry, Alastair

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Character Reading Fluency, Word Segmentation Accuracy, and Reading Comprehension in L2 Chinese  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the relationships between lower-level processing and general reading comprehension among adult L2 (second-language) beginning learners of Chinese, in both target and non-target language learning environments. Lower-level processing in Chinese reading includes the factors of character-naming accuracy, character-naming speed,…

Shen, Helen H.; Jiang, Xin

2013-01-01

142

An Application of the L2 Motivational Self System to Motivate Elementary School English Learners in Singapore  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available I will describe a program that I developed to motivate grade five elementary school learners of English in Singapore to put more time and effort into learning English by enhancing their vision of their Ideal second language (L2 self and making their goals for learning English more clear and specific. The Ideal L2 self is the representation of the L2 attributes that one wishes to possess if one is able to master one’s L2. The participants, who were separated into a control group and an experimental group, lacked both confidence in their English and the motivation to study it. They also had negative attitudes toward studying English. During the training program, which consisted of a series of workshops, I asked the participants in the experimental group to imagine scripted imagery situations to enhance their vision of their Ideal L2 self. I also helped these participants to develop clear and specific goals and action plans for learning English. The mixed methods longitudinal study, which lasted four months, employed a series of questionnaires and interviews in order to assess the participants’ motivational development. The main findings were that 90% of the participants in the experimental group became more motivated to learn English, more confident in their English, and exhibited more positive attitudes toward learning English as a result of the program.  Only 50% of the participants became motivated, 75% became more confident, and 90% improved their attitudes toward learning English in the control group.

Michael Magid

2013-10-01

143

Recursos de inferência lexical em L2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os resultados de um estudo sobre os recursos empregados para a realização de inferências lexicais por dezesseis sujeitos proficientes em leitura em L2, com base em Nassaji (2003. As principais questões sob investigação eram: (a quais são as estratégias e as fontes de conhecimento utilizadas pelos leitores?; (b há uma relação entre tipo de recurso utilizado e desempenho inferencial? A análise dos dados revelou que releitura e análise foram as estratégias preferenciais dos sujeitos, o mesmo valendo para as fontes de conhecimento discursivo e morfológico. Além disso, apesar de esses recursos terem sido empregados com eficácia na maioria dos casos, não foi possível estabelecer correlação entre tipos de estratégias e de fontes de conhecimento mais utilizados e desempenho inferencial dos sujeitos.

Baldo, Alessandra

2009-01-01

144

The L2 Passionate Interactional Imperative (for short “The L2 Pie”: It’s Hot or It’s Not!  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the American Association of Applied Linguistics (AAAL 2011 conference, John Schumann described how Lee, Dina, Joaquin, Mates & Schumann’s (2010 interactional instinct unfolds between infants and caregivers such that learning an L1 is assured in normal development through emotional bonding between infants and caregivers which is substantiated by motivation, proficiency, and opportunities (all co-constructing concepts. In subsequent second language learning at an older age, these three characteristics are not environmentally and contextually assured, and this seems to account for a great part of the shortcomings of much of the late-L2 instruction in the world (Lee, Dina, Joaquin, Mates & Schumann, 2010.

Tim Murphey

2011-06-01

145

IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2 CON LE CANZONI. UN CONTRIBUTO DIDATTICO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Il presente contributo si inserisce nel filone degli studi che hanno messo in evidenza la potenziale ricchezza della canzone come strumento di facilitazione dell’apprendimento della L2, e come mezzo per l’approccio al testo letterario per studenti di italiano L1, additandone il carattere di attività particolarmente efficace e ‘consonante’ con una prospettiva umanistico-affettiva, comunicativa, nonché socio-costruttivista. In queste pagine sono presentate alcune attività didattiche (pensate ora per gli apprendenti di italiano L2, ora per gli studenti di italiano L1 formulate a partire da alcuni testi del cantautore Claudio Baglioni (Io sono qui, Le vie dei Colori, Bolero, Fammi andar via tratti dall’album Io sono qui, 1995, edizioni CBS. I testi qui didattizzati sono utilizzabili in diverse prospettive: grammaticale, lessicale, retorica, socio-culturale, ecc.; e per diversi livelli di competenza linguistica (L2: A1-C1; L1.     Learning italian l2 through song.  A didactic contribution   This article is part of a series of studies which focus on the potential richness of songs as tools for facilitating L2 learning, as well as being a way to approach literary texts for L1 Italian students, being a particularly effective activity from a humanistic-affective, communicative and socio-constructivist point of view.  A few didactic activities are presented (designed for L2 Italian learners, or for L1 Italian learners based on songs by Claudio Baglioni (Io sono qui, Le vie dei Colori, Bolero, Fammi andar via from the album Io sono qui, 1995, edizioni CBS.  The texts were adapted for diverse didactic uses: grammatical, lexical, rhetorical, socio-cultural, etc and for different levels of linguistic competence (L2: A1-C1, L1

Elisabetta Mauroni

2011-07-01

146

Textual Constraints in L2 Lexical Disambiguation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examined the role of textual constraints, rather than previous knowledge, in resolving lexical ambiguities in second-language learning. Twenty ambiguous words with differing Portuguese translations were selected, disambiguated based on collocation, and tested with a concordancer, using a 20,000,000-word English language corpus of expository text.…

Leffa, Vilson J.

1998-01-01

147

VIDEOGIOCHI E ITALIANO L2/LS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L'articolo prende in considerazione alcune ipotesi sull'uso del videogioco nell'insegnamento/apprendimento della lingua straniera supportate dall'analisi di alcuni videogames per uso didattico. Pur non nascondendo le difficoltà che l'insegnante può incontrare nell'integrare il videogioco nel percorso di insegnamento/apprendimento di una lingua straniera in classe, diversi sono i motivi per i quali il videogioco può essere considerato un efficace strumento di apprendimento linguistico. Innanzitutto perché gli input linguistici possono essere numerosi e vari, in secondo luogo perché è vettore di lingua che coinvolge i diversi sensi e diverse operazioni cognitive e, in terzo luogo perché trasforma il processo dell'apprendimento da simbolico a esperienziale. Infine perché si tratta di un mezzo divertente capace di creare interesse ad apprendere offrendo opportunità straordinarie in quanto attiva negli apprendenti, soprattutto più giovani, due fattori chiave per un apprendimento solido e duraturo: l'esperienza e la motivazione, elementi che spesso le metodologie tradizionali trascurano. A conclusione dell'articolo viene proposta di attività didattica di italiano LS con una serie di suggerimenti per l'insegnante.   This article discusses the use of videogames in teaching/learning a foreign language and analyzes a few didactic videogames. While not underestimating the difficulties that teachers may have in integrating videogames in the teaching/learning process in a classroom, there are different reasons why videogames can be considered effective tools for language learning. First of all, the linguistic input is varied and rich, and secondly it is a way of engaging different senses and cognitive processes, and in the third place it transforms learning from something symbolic to something experiential. Finally, it is an amusing way to generate interest in learning by offering an extraordinary opportunity, since it activates two key aspects for solid and long-lasting learning, especially in younger students: experience and motivation.  These aspects are often overlooked in more traditional methods. The article concludes with examples of didactic activities for Italian FL teaching and a series of suggestions for the teacher.

Filippo Zanoli

2010-09-01

148

L2 harmonic forms and the structure of complete manifolds  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the relation between the existence of L2 harmonic one-forms on a complete noncompact manifold and its structure. In particular, we prove an improved Bochner inequality for L2 harmonic one-forms and demonstrate that in the equality case the set of L2 harmonic one-forms spans a totally geodesic submanifold

Nelia Charalambous

2007-01-01

149

The Contribution of L1 Phonemic Awareness into L2 Reading: The Case of Arab EFL Readers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cross-language transfer is the extent, if any, to which phonological awareness in L1 facilitates learning to read in L2. This has been an area of investigation wherein researchers looked into the orthographic and phonological component processing skills L2 learners develop and utilize to facilitate word recognition. Given the difference between the orthographic systems of Arabic (L1 and English (L2, how difficult is it for beginning Arab EFL learners to develop these skills? Arab EFL learners seem to have difficulty with prelexical word recognition processes leading to slower and perhaps even less accurate L2 word recognition skills. This study examines the possibility of transferring Arabic phonological awareness to learning English. Results are reported, most important of which is the confirmation of cross-language transfer.

Yousef Alshaboul

2014-02-01

150

Interactional Feedback and the Impact of Attitude and Motivation on Noticing L2 Form  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A number of second language (L2 studies have recently discovered the positive impacts of interactional feedback (IF in L2 development by connecting the underlying processes such as noticing. The current study followed a two-fold purpose: first to examine the impact of IF on noticing question forms in Iranian L2 classroom context and secondly to investigate the possible effects of motivation and attitude on noting IF. IF was provided to experimental group learners in response to their production problems with question forms. Learners’ noticing was assessed through on-line learning journals, introspective comments while checking with audiotapes, and questionnaire responses. Learners’ motivation was also assessed using Gardner’s (1996 attitude/motivation test. The results point to a positive relationship between IF in the classroom and the learners’ reports about question forms of English. The results also confirmed the existence of a positive correlation between motivation and noticing.

Mohammad Amin Bassiri

2011-11-01

151

An Overview of L-2-Hydroxyglutarate Dehydrogenase Gene (L2HGDH) Variants: A Genotype-Phenotype Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is a rare, neurometabolic disorder with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Affected individuals only have neurological manifestations, including psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and more variably macrocephaly, or epilepsy. The diagnosis of L2HGA can be made based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical analysis, and mutational analysis of L2HGDH. About 200 patients with elevated concentrations of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) in the...

2010-01-01

152

The Role of L1 and L2 Working Memory in Literal and Inferential Comprehension in L2 Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

Reading span as a measure of L1 or L2 working memory capacity is shown to be related to L2 reading comprehension. Albeit limited, there is research on the relationship between both L1 and L2 reading spans and their roles in L2 reading comprehension, yet these studies take reading as a global construct rather than delving into its multi-level…

Alptekin, Cem; Ercetin, Gulcan

2010-01-01

153

Interactions between text chat and audio modalities for L2 communication and feedback in the synthetic world Second Life.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports on a study of the interactions between text chat and audio modalities in L2 interaction in a synthetic (virtual) world and observes whether the text chat modality was used for corrective feedback and the characteristics of the latter. This is examined within the context of a hybrid Content and Language Integrated Learning design workshop. This course involved 17 students of architecture whose L2 was either French or English and for which the synthetic world environment Seco...

Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

2013-01-01

154

Relationships among L1 Print Exposure and Early L1 Literacy Skills, L2 Aptitude, and L2 Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

Authors examined the relationship between individual differences in L1 print exposure and differences in early L1 skills and later L2 aptitude, L2 proficiency, and L2 classroom achievement. Participants were administered measures of L1 word decoding, spelling, phonemic awareness, reading comprehension, receptive vocabulary, and listening…

Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

2012-01-01

155

A Comparative Study of Intuitive-imitative and Analytic-linguistic Approaches towards Teaching English Vowels to L2 Learners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In spite of the importance of pronunciation in L2 learning, its training has remained largely neglected in the field of English language teaching (ELT) and does not have a secure place in most L2 curricula (Setter & Jenkins, 2005). On the importance of teaching speech features, Celce-Murcia, Brinton, and Goodwin (1996) introduce the intuitive-imitative approach, an approach that deals with listening and imitating the sounds and rhythms of an L2 without explicit teaching. It can be done by usi...

Mahmood Hashemian; Batool Fadaei

2011-01-01

156

La nozione di Grammatica e l’insegnamento di L2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Il tema del mio contributo riguarda la nozione di Grammatica ed il suo insegnamento in contesti di apprendimento non spontaneo di lingue2. Prima di affrontarlo prendo brevemente in considerazione il concetto di lingua ? sovraordinato a quello di Grammatica ? per indagare come esso sia stato più frequentemente inteso nelle scienze del linguaggio e nell’insegnamento di L2. Analizzo poi due modi di guardare alla Grammatica, rappresentativi di posizioni apparentemente distanti ma in realtà complementari: Grammatica nella comunicazione e Grammatica della comunicazione: vale a dire Grammatica intesa come sistema formale e strutturale e Grammatica vista invece come un importante strumento dell’agire sociale. Mi soffermo infine sulla rilevanza descrittiva ed applicativa che le due prospettive assumono nell’insegnamento/apprendimento di L2 in quanto atte a far acquisire consapevolezza metalinguistica attraverso la riflessione, da un lato, su tutte le regolarità presenti nel linguaggio e non soltanto su quelle di tipo formale e frasale, d’altro lato, attraverso la riflessione sull’intersezione ed i raccordi esistenti tra Grammatica ed interazione.  The notion of grammar and L2 teaching This paper studies the concept of teaching grammar in non-spontaneous L2 learning contexts. First we briefly consider the concept of language – that of the higher-level Grammar – to investigate how it has most frequently been understood in language sciences and L2 teaching. Then we analyze two ways of looking at grammar, which appear to be distant but are actually complementary: grammar in communication and the grammar of communication, namely grammar as a formal, structuralsystem and grammar as an important instrument for social action. We reflect on the descriptive and applicablerelevance that these two perspectives take on in L2 teaching/learning. Thisreflection, on the one hand, is aimed at the acquisition ofmetalinguistic awareness aboutall the regularities of language, not only the formal and phrasal ones, while on the other hand, we reflect onabout the intertwining and connection between grammar and interaction.

Anna Ciliberti

2013-07-01

157

QUALCHE RIFLESSIONE SULLA DIDATTICA DI L2 ISPIRATA ALLA RECENTE RICERCA ACQUISIZIONALE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sulla base di recenti studi di linguistica acquisizionale e di ricerche sull’apprendimento di L2 in classe, attente al ruolo dell’input e di fattori cognitivi (fra cui Doughty, 2003; Gass, 2003, 2005; Housen, Pierrard, 2005; Dörnyei, 2009; Sanz, Leow, 2011; Gass, Mackey, 2012, il contributo presenta alcune riflessioni in chiave applicativa, di didattica acquisizionale (Rastelli 2009, relative ai possibili risvolti didattici che tali studi possono suggerire nei contesti di istruzione di L2.  Fra i temi toccati vi sono il trattamento dell’input, il ruolo del noticing e dell’accessibilità al processing in L2, la focalizzazione sulla forma nella didattica, il feedback del docente e il suo approccio all’“errore” dell’apprendente, considerati alla luce di ricerche relative all’efficacia acquisizionale di tali elementi (Norris, Ortega, 2000; Russell, Spada, 2006; Ellis et al., 2009.   A few reflections on L2 language teaching inspired by recent research on language acquisition   Based on recent studies on language acquisition and on L2 learning in the classroom, with attention paid to the role of input and cognitive factors (see Doughty, 2003; Gass, 2003, 2005; Housen, Pierrard, 2005; Dörnyei, 2009; Sanz, Leow, 2011; Gass, Mackey, 2012, this paper presents a few reflections in terms of application of acquisitional teaching (Rastelli 2009, regarding the possible impact that these studies suggest in L2 teaching contexts.  The themes addressed regard input, the role of noticing and the accessibility of processing in L2, focusing on form in teaching, the feedback from the teacher and the approach used for  learners’ “errors” considered in light of studies regarding the acquisitional effectiveness of these elements (Norris, Ortega, 2000; Russell, Spada, 2006; Ellis et al., 2009.

Marina Chini

2012-02-01

158

Effects of l1 processing experience on l2 morphological awareness Effects of l1 processing experience on l2 morphological awareness  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To be an efficient and effective reader of a second language, one must develop cumulative insight into the internal structure of words, as well as acquire the necessary skills for using such insight in facilitating lexical processing and enhancing reading comprehension. In recent time, the growing recognition of the significance of these capabilities has led to a rapidly expanding body of research on intraword awareness, particularly among psychologists and reading specialists. Inasmuch ...

Keiko Koda; Estuko Takahashi; Michel Fender

2008-01-01

159

INITIATING ROUND ROBINS IN THE L2 CLASSROOM – PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Complementing recent interactional research on the contingent operation of online task accomplishment, this paper deals with a specific way of organizing and managing tasks in plenary L2 classrooms – namely the round robin. This may seem like a “traditional” and rigid form of classroom organization that reduces students’ contributions to responses to the teacher’s elicitations. This paper shows that although the round robin puts certain interactional features out of play, it is nonetheless done in and through participants’ mutual orientation to the ongoing activity. The paper describes the sequential position in which round robins are initiated and how this is talked and embodied into being by the participants as well as the design of the turn that initiates the round robin activity. Relevant to the initiation and further development of the round robin are the physical arrangement of the classroom and artefacts and graphic structures that are used not only as mediating tools in the (supposed learning relevant activity, but also as structurally relevant features to organize the ongoing interaction, in which these activities emerge.

Kristian MORTENSEN

2011-04-01

160

Initiating round robins in the L2 classroom - preliminary observations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Complementing recent interactional research on the contingent operation of online task accomplishment, this paper deals with a specific way of organizing and managing tasks in plenary L2 classrooms â?? namely the round robin. This may seem like a â??traditionalâ? and rigid form of classroom organization that reduces studentsâ?? contributions to responses to the teacherâ??s elicitations. This paper shows that although the round robin puts certain interactional features out of play, it is nonetheless done in and through participantsâ?? mutual orientation to the ongoing activity. The paper describes the sequential position in which round robins are initiated and how this is talked and embodied into being by the participants as well as the design of the turn that initiates the round robin activity. Relevant to the initiation and further development of the round robin are the physical arrangement of the classroom and artefacts and graphic structures that are used not only as mediating tools in the (supposed) learning relevant activity, but also as structurally relevant features to organize the ongoing interaction, in which these activities emerge.

Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students’ Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The notion of “learner beliefs” has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners’ beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers’ beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading...

2010-01-01

162

Peer Review Comments Provided by High- and Low-Proficiency L2 Learners: A Comparative Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explored the variations in peer review comments provided by L2 writers of high and low proficiencies. Two sampling procedures were used. First, convenience sampling was used to locate a college essay composition course as the setting of the study. Second, purposeful sampling was used to identify high- and low-performing writers as the subjects, from whom the peer review comments were collected and analyzed. An instruction-learning cycle on argumentative essay writing was conducted ...

Hui-Chuan Liao; Ya-Fen Lo

2012-01-01

163

L2L European Project: a Serious Game for Leadership Training  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effective leaders manage the underlying group dynamics in ways that help the team meet its objectives. Leaders need people management skills, resource management and organization. Despite the offer of leadership skills training programs, effective and valid training in these areas is scarce and it is usually available only in master programs of high quality or large corporations. The Learn 2 Lead (L2L) Project consortium has designed and developed a leadership skills t...

Pe?rez Ara, Mari?a A?ngeles; Quero Castellano, Soledad; Botella Arbona, Cristina; Breto?n-lo?pez, Juana; Ban?os Rivera, Rosa Mari?a

2011-01-01

164

O léxico mental no ensino e aprendizagem de vocabulário na L2 (Alemão  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide some insights into the concept of mental lexicon (above all its conceptual basis and to emphasize the cognitive purport its implementation could bring to the often neglected domain of vocabulary learning in L2 (German, as far as the different phases and types of lexical processing are concerned (ranging from sensory reception up to understanding, memorizing and retrieval of lexical units

Ana Maria Bernardo

2010-01-01

165

The Perception of Lexical Similarities Between L2 English and L3 Swedish  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study investigates lexical similarity perceptions by students of Swedish as a foreign language (L3) with a good yet non-native proficiency in English (L2). The general theoretical framework is provided by studies in transfer of learning and its specific instance, transfer in language acquisition. It is accepted as true that all previous linguistic knowledge is facilitative in developing proficiency in a new language. However, a frequently reported phenomenon is that students see s...

Utgof, Darja

2008-01-01

166

Neonatal exposure to permethrin pesticide causes lifelong fear and spatial learning deficits and alters hippocampal morphology of synapses  

Science.gov (United States)

Background During the neurodevelopmental period, the brain is potentially more susceptible to environmental exposure to pollutants. The aim was to determine if neonatal exposure to permethrin (PERM) pesticide, at a low dosage that does not produce signs of obvious abnormalities, could represent a risk for the onset of diseases later in the life. Methods Neonatal rats (from postnatal day 6 to 21) were treated daily by gavage with a dose of PERM (34 mg/kg) close to the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL), and hippocampal morphology and function of synapses were investigated in adulthood. Fear conditioning, passive avoidance and Morris water maze tests were used to assess cognitive skills in rats, whereas electron microscopy analysis was used to investigate hippocampal morphological changes that occurred in adults. Results In both contextual and tone fear conditioning tests, PERM-treated rats showed a decreased freezing. In the passive avoidance test, the consolidation of the inhibitory avoidance was time-limited: the memory was not impaired for the first 24 h, whereas the information was not retained 72 h following training. The same trend was observed in the spatial reference memories acquired by Morris water maze. In PERM-treated rats, electron microscopy analysis revealed a decrease of synapses and surface densities in the stratum moleculare of CA1, in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and in the mossy fibers of the hippocampal areas together with a decrease of perforated synapses in the stratum moleculare of CA1 and in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. Conclusions Early-life permethrin exposure imparts long-lasting consequences on the hippocampus such as impairment of long-term memory storage and synaptic morphology.

2014-01-01

167

An interesting case of metabolic dystonia: L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria.  

Science.gov (United States)

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA), a neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the L-2 hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L-2-HGDH) gene, presents with psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, extrapyramidal symptoms, macrocephaly and seizures. Characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings include subcortical cerebral white matter abnormalities with T2 hyperintensities of the dentate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and caudate nucleus. The diagnosis can be confirmed by elevated urinary L-2 hydroxyglutaric acid and mutational analysis of the L-2-HGDH gene. We report two siblings with dystonia diagnosed by classical neuroimaging findings with elevated urinary 2 hydroxyglutaric acid. Riboflavin therapy has shown promising results in a subset of cases, thus highlighting the importance of making the diagnosis in these patients. PMID:24753671

Balaji, Padma; Viswanathan, V; Chellathurai, Amarnath; Panigrahi, Debasis

2014-01-01

168

An interesting case of metabolic dystonia: L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria  

Science.gov (United States)

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA), a neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the L-2 hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L-2-HGDH) gene, presents with psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, extrapyramidal symptoms, macrocephaly and seizures. Characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings include subcortical cerebral white matter abnormalities with T2 hyperintensities of the dentate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and caudate nucleus. The diagnosis can be confirmed by elevated urinary L-2 hydroxyglutaric acid and mutational analysis of the L-2-HGDH gene. We report two siblings with dystonia diagnosed by classical neuroimaging findings with elevated urinary 2 hydroxyglutaric acid. Riboflavin therapy has shown promising results in a subset of cases, thus highlighting the importance of making the diagnosis in these patients.

Balaji, Padma; Viswanathan, V.; Chellathurai, Amarnath; Panigrahi, Debasis

2014-01-01

169

Lexical Inventions: French Interlanguage as L2 versus L3.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study investigated "lexical inventions" in the advanced oral French of 39 native Dutch-speakers, 32 of whom had French as a second language (L2) and English as a third language (L3), with the others having L2 English and L3 French. A higher proportion of lexical inventions produced by French L2 speakers derived from non-standard use of…

Dewaele, Jean-Marc

1998-01-01

170

Sur la L2-cohomologie des varietes a courbure negative  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We give a topological interpretation of the space of L2-harmonic forms on finite-volume manifolds with sufficiently pinched negative curvature. We give examples showing that this interpretation fails if the curvature is not sufficiently pinched and that our result is sharp with respect to the pinching constants. The method consists first in comparing L2-cohomology with weighted L2-cohomology thanks to previuos works done by T. Ohsawa, and then in identifying these weighted s...

Yeganefar, Nader

2002-01-01

171

Role of L2 cysteines in papillomavirus infection and neutralization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Vaccination of mice with minor capsid protein L2 or passive transfer with the L2-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody RG-1 protects against human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) challenge. Here we explored the nature of the RG-1 epitope and its contribution to viral infectivity. RG-1 bound equivalently HPV16 L2 residues 17-36 with or without an intact C22-C28 disulphide bridge. HPV16 L2 mutations K20A, C22A, C22S, C28A, C28S, or P29A prevented RG-1 binding, whereas Y19A...

Gambhira Ratish; Jagu Subhashini; Karanam Balasubramanyam; Day Patricia M; Roden Richard

2009-01-01

172

A gene encoding a putative FAD-dependent L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase is mutated in L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to identify the biochemical and genetic defect in L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, a neurometabolic disorder characterized by the presence of elevated concentrations of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid. Evidence is provided for the existence in rat tissues of a FAD-dependent enzyme catalyzing specifically the oxidation of L-2-hydroxyglutarate to alpha-ketoglutarate. This enzyme is mainly expressed in liver and kidney but also at low...

2004-01-01

173

An overview of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase gene (L2HGDH) variants: a genotype-phenotype study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is a rare, neurometabolic disorder with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Affected individuals only have neurological manifestations, including psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and more variably macrocephaly, or epilepsy. The diagnosis of L2HGA can be made based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical analysis, and mutational analysis of L2HGDH. About 200 patients with elevated concentrations of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) in the urine were referred for chiral determination of 2HG and L2HGDH mutational analysis. All patients with increased L2HG (n=106; 83 families) were included. Clinical information on 61 patients was obtained via questionnaires. In 82 families the mutations were detected by direct sequence analysis and/or multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA), including one case where MLPA was essential to detect the second allele. In another case RT-PCR followed by deep intronic sequencing was needed to detect the mutation. Thirty-five novel mutations as well as 35 reported mutations and 14 nondisease-related variants are reviewed and included in a novel Leiden Open source Variation Database (LOVD) for L2HGDH variants (http://www.LOVD.nl/L2HGDH). Every user can access the database and submit variants/patients. Furthermore, we report on the phenotype, including neurological manifestations and urinary levels of L2HG, and we evaluate the phenotype-genotype relationship.

Steenweg, Marjan E; Jakobs, Cornelis

2010-01-01

174

Processability Approach to Arabic L2 Teaching and Syllabus Design  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to identify the relationship between the developmental hierarchy in the acquisition of Arabic as a second language (Arabic L2) and formal classroom instruction. It provides a general presentation of the current debate on the influence of formal instruction in the acquisition of L2. Special attention is given to the subset of…

Al Shatter, Ghassan

2011-01-01

175

Pointwise bounds for $L^2$ eigenfunctions on locally symmetric spaces  

CERN Multimedia

We prove pointwise bounds for $L^2$ eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on locally symmetric spaces with $\\mathbb{Q}$-rank one if the corresponding eigenvalues lie below the continuous part of the $L^2$ spectrum. Furthermore, we use these bounds in order to obtain some results concerning the $L^p$ spectrum.

Ji, Lizhen

2010-01-01

176

The Amount of English Use: Effects on L2 Speech  

Science.gov (United States)

The amount of second language (L2) use has significant influence on native speakers' comprehension of L2 learners' speech. Nonetheless, few empirical studies examine how differences in the amount of language use affect the intelligibility and comprehensibility of nonnative speakers' reading and spontaneous speech. This study aims to…

Vo, Son Ca; Vo, Yen Thi Hoang; Vo, Quyen Thanh

2014-01-01

177

Peer Response to L2 Student Writing: Patterns and Expectations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports the corrective feedback patterns in L2 writing and the student writers’ preferences for peer feedback. The study examines the actual focus of peer review and the types of corrective feedback provided in L2 composing process. Sixteen L2 matriculation students at a Malaysian university took part in five peer review sessions, responded to a debriefing questionnaire, and participated in an interview session after completing the peer review activities. Results show that peer responses to writing focused more on clarity of feedback unlike writer expectations which focused more on grammar correction. The study confirms the relevance of peer review as an alternative feedback delivery system in L2 writing and suggests that peer corrective feedback provides teachers with important perspectives about the L2 students’ language and writing knowledge.

Abdel Rahman Abdalla Salih

2013-01-01

178

Digital Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Have you ever wanted to look into the shape and structure of a suckermouth armored catfish? Well, the Digital Morphology website makes that possible. Created as part of the National Science Foundation Digital Library at The University of Texas at Austin, this library includes hundreds of 2D and 3D visualizations of the internal and external structure of living and extinct vertebrates, and a number of invertebrates as well. These images are generated by a X-ray CT scanner, which has greater resolution and penetrating power than a conventional medical diagnostic CAT scanner. Visitors can browse the library by scientific name, common name, or the popular What's New? area. The homepage includes eight different overview pages, which provide narrative essays and images of dinosaurs, tapirs, bats, and primates. The site also has a Learn More section which provides additional material on X-ray CT's and the science behind 3D printing.

2012-03-23

179

On the Relation of Locus of Control and L2 Reading and Writing Achievement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Locus of control, a psychological construct, has been the focus of attention in recent decades. Psychologists have discussed the effect of locus of control on achieving life goals in social/psychological interactions. While learning a foreign language involves both social interactions and psychological processes, the role and relation of locus of control in foreign language achievement is seemingly overlooked. This study is, therefore, concerned with examining the relationship between EFL learners' locus of control (LOC and their L2 reading and writing achievement. Using Internal Control Index as the main instrument of the study and measuring L2 reading and writing achievements of 136 undergraduate students studying English as their major in two universities followed by an interview, the researchers examined the relation of their locus of control and their writing and reading comprehension achievements. The results of the study indicated that locus of control had a positive correlation with their L2 reading and writing achievement. Also the results of the interviews supported the information obtained from the questionnaires. The researchers have pinpointed to the importance of inculcating a sense of responsibility in EFL learners to improve their LOC orientation which might result in higher achievements in L2 reading and writing.

Behzad Ghonsooly

2011-11-01

180

The Effects of Word Exposure Frequency and Elaboration of Word Processing on Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition through reading has claimed that repeated encounters with unfamiliar words and the relative elaboration of processing these words facilitate word learning. However, so far both variables have been investigated in isolation. To help close this research gap, the current study…

Eckerth, Johannes; Tavakoli, Parveneh

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

A Comparative Study of Intuitive-imitative and Analytic-linguistic Approaches towards Teaching English Vowels to L2 Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In spite of the importance of pronunciation in L2 learning, its training has remained largely neglected in the field of English language teaching (ELT and does not have a secure place in most L2 curricula (Setter & Jenkins, 2005. On the importance of teaching speech features, Celce-Murcia, Brinton, and Goodwin (1996 introduce the intuitive-imitative approach, an approach that deals with listening and imitating the sounds and rhythms of an L2 without explicit teaching. It can be done by using audiotapes, videos, and computer programs. On the other hand, a majority of L2 teachers use the analytic-linguistic approach, an approach in which they use explicit and structured teaching of speech features by articulatory descriptions, charts of speech, phonetic alphabet, and vowel charts. This study was an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of intuitive-imitative and analytic-linguistic approaches on teaching pure vowels and diphthongs, and also, sought to examine whether elementary L2 learners respond differently to the abovementioned approaches. The participants were 40 Iranian L2 learners attending a language school in Isfahan in the form of 2 elementary classes. In one class, English vowels were taught through intuitive-imitative approach, and in the other one, through analytic-linguistic approach. Then, the participants ? audio-recorded data were given to an English native-speaker instructor to be rated. The results of the paired samples t test and comparing means indicated that the L2 learners taught through the intuitive-imitative approach had a better pronunciation in diphthongs, and accordingly, the L2 learners taught through the analytic-linguistic approach outperformed in pure vowels. The study could have some implications for L2 research and pedagogy that will be discussed throughout the paper.

Batool Fadaei

2011-09-01

182

Cross-linguistic Transfer (from L1 to L2, L2 to L1, and L2 to L3 of Reading Strategies in a Multicompetent Mind  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taking a process and product view of reading, this paper attempts to explore the relationship between languages in one mind from Cook’s multi-competence perspective. According to multi-competence view, L1 and L2 (or L2s which are in one mind form a linguistic super-system (Cook, 2004 and not systems which are completely separate. In studies of language transfer, the general idea is that languages have effects on each other. To the purpose of this paper, three studies conducted by the author on the effects of L1 on L2, L2 on L1, and L2 on L3 will be provided. The common finding in all these studies is improvements in the process of reading in any given language will result in improvements in the process of reading in other languages. However, the same transferability power that can be conceived for the process of reading cannot be conceived for the product of reading as factors such as directionality of transfer and language proficiency interfere with this. It is recommended that since the process aspect of reading in different languages in one mind is transferable, native or foreign language teachers take this aspect of the relationship between languages as seriously as possible so that its effects can be witnessed both in the language of instruction and other languages that exist in the mind of the reader, be it L1, L2 or any further language.  An advantage of this is that an increase in the process or reading will also result in an increase in the product of reading both in the language of instruction and any other language in mind if other conditions are met.

Seyed Hassan Talebi

2013-03-01

183

MANIPULATING L2 LEARNERS' ONLINE DICTIONARY USE AND ITS EFFECT ON L2 WORD RETENTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explored the effect of two enhancement techniques on L2 learners' look-up behaviour during a reading task and word retention afterwards amongst Flemish learners of German: a Vocabulary Test Announcement and Task-induced Word Relevance. Eighty-four participants were recruited for this study. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1 not forewarned of an upcoming vocabulary test (incidental condition or 2 forewarned of a vocabulary test (intentional condition. Task-induced Word Relevance was operationalized by a reading comprehension task. The relevance factor comprised two levels: plus-relevant and minus-relevant target words. Plus-relevant words needed to be looked up and used receptively in order to answer the comprehension questions. In other words, the reading comprehension task could not be accomplished without knowing the meaning of the plus-relevant words. The minus-relevant target words, on the other hand, were not linked to the reading comprehension questions. Our findings show a significant effect of Test Announcement and Word Relevance on whether a target word is looked up. In addition, Word Relevance also affects the frequency of clicks on target words. Word retention is only influenced by Task-induced Word Relevance. The effect of Word Relevance is durable.

Elke Peters

2007-02-01

184

L2-Betti numbers of locally compact groups  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We introduce a notion of L2-Betti numbers for locally compact, second countable, unimodular groups. We study the relation to the standard notion of L2-Betti numbers of countable discrete groups for lattices. In this way, several new computations are obtained for countable groups, including lattices in algebraic groups over local elds, and Kac-Moody lattices. We also extend the vanishing of reduced L2-cohomology for countable amenable groups, a well known theorem due to Cheeger and Gromov, to cover all amenable, second countable, unimodular locally compact groups.

Petersen, Henrik Densing

2012-01-01

185

The Role of L1 in L2 Idiom Comprehension  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study investigated the role of first language (L1) transfer in Iranian EFL learners' second language (L2) idiom comprehension. It was also sought to understand whether there is any significant difference between learners of different proficiency levels and their use of L1 in decoding L2 idioms. To do this, the participants of different levels of language proficiency were asked to participate in this study. The L2 idioms were categorized based on their similarity to L1 into thre...

Saeed Taki; Muhammad Reza Namy Soghady

2013-01-01

186

Design of dialogic eLearning-to-learn: metalearning as pedagogical methodology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a perspective emphasising Meta learning (ML) as the most significant and pertinent feature for promoting a democratic, collaborative eLearning-to-Learn (eL2L) phenomenon in a global context. Through attempting to understand and clarify the powers of pedagogical design of global networked e Learning based on Learning-to-Learn (L2L), it makes a plea for L2L in a dialogic global learning context, offering a vision of global democratic citizens able to engage in critical dialogue with fellow learners. http://www.inderscience.com/search/index.php?action=record&rec_id=17675&prevQuery=&ps=10&m=or

Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

2008-01-01

187

The bilingual L2 advantage in recognition memory.  

Science.gov (United States)

To better understand the mechanisms by which bilingual proficiency impacts memory processes, two recognition memory experiments were conducted with matched monolingual and bilingual samples. In Experiment 1, monolingual speakers of English and Spanish studied high- and low-frequency words under full attention or cognitive load conditions. In Experiment 2, Spanish-English bilingual participants studied high- and low-frequency words under full-attention conditions in each language. For both monolinguals and bilinguals, low-frequency words were better recognized than high-frequency words. The central new findings were that bilingual recognition was more accurate in the less fluent language (L2) than in the more fluent language (L1) and that bilingual L2 recognition was more accurate than monolingual recognition. The bilingual L2 advantage parallels word frequency effects in recognition and is attributed to the greater episodic distinctiveness of L2 words, relative to L1 words. PMID:23606134

Francis, Wendy S; Strobach, E Natalia

2013-12-01

188

The Motivation of L2 Learners: Does it decrease with age?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the motivation of a heterogeneous group of students studying English as a foreign language at the International School in Tripoli area. The aim of the study was to find out the extent to which various factors affect students’ motivation and achievement in second/foreign language learning particularly as they enter the senior high school. The research also looked into the temporal dimension of L2 motivation to see if the students’ motivation changes as they enter the senior high school. One hundred and forty four students from thirty five nationalities learning English and five teachers participated in the completion of the questionnaire surveys. Twenty students and three teachers took part in the semi-structured interviews. Data were drawn from students’ examination results and a combined quantitative-qualitative approach in which student and teacher questionnaire surveys were followed by a round of student and teacher interviews. The results of the ‘Student’s Motivation Questionnaire’ show that L2 motivation in the sample decreases with age: The results of one-way analyses of variance across the five age groups investigated show that the older learners tend to score significantly lower on the motivational scales and the interviews data gives further support to this finding. There are a number of influential factors that affect learners’ motivation: in particular the role of the teacher was seen fundamental in determining the attitude to the language and in supplying motivation. Other external factors include aspects related to the learning context.

Pauline Ghenghesh

2010-02-01

189

Analysis of Complimenting in L1 vs. L2 Written Discourse: A Case Study of Iranian Students Writing Review Letters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to compare and contrast complimenting as used in L1 (Farsi and L2 (English writings of Iranian students in a foreign language learning context. For the purpose, sixty five university senior students majoring in English and taking the specialized course called "essay writing" were selected for the study. First, they were instructed how to write review letters on their classmates' essays in both L1 and L2 and then their letters were analyzed on the basis of the framework provided by Johnson and Roen (1992, and Chafe and Danielwicz (1987. The results indicated that Iranian students (female and male did not make significantly different uses of L1 and L2 complimenting in terms of form and strategies. Also, the gender of the addressees was not accommodated to by the addressors differently as regards the use of form and strategies of complimenting in L1 and L2. The results suggest that L1 and L2, if used under some formal class based conditions, tend to become maximally similar, showing no transfer of L1 potentiality into L2.

Gholam Reza Zarei

2011-04-01

190

The Effect of Persian L2 Learners’ Proficiency Level on their Degree of Observing Subjacency in L2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This experimental study examined how L2 learners’ L2 proficiency level affected their performance in GJ tasks while rendering WH-questions using a repeated measures design. Participants included 60 female Persian EFL participants from the Islamic Azad University - Khorasgan Branch - at two levels of English proficiency (i.e. High- and Low-Intermediate levels. The instruments (i.e. explicit written, implicit written, oral stimulus, and no stimulus GJ tasks involved rendering different cases of subjacency in four consecutive time settings for four weeks per each GJ task by each participant. The results revealed that L2 proficiency level is of no significant effects on the L2 learners’ performance on WH-questions.

Ahmad Reza Lotfi

2011-12-01

191

Consideraciones metodológicas sobre la evaluación de la competencia oral en L2 / Methodological Considerations Concerning the Assessment of Oral Competency in a Second Language (L2)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se realiza una revisión acerca de las consideraciones metodológicas para la evaluación de la competencia oral en el aprendizaje de una segunda lengua (L2). Se analizan las características del constructo y su definición. En este caso, se refieren al ámbito competencial, que incluye l [...] a competencia en comprensión oral y la de expresión oral. Asimismo, se revisan conceptos referidos al modo en que diseñar instrumentos y/o técnicas evaluativas para la evaluación de las competencias que la integran y cuestiones respecto a fiabilidad, validez y establecimiento de puntos de corte. Abstract in english In this paper, methodological considerations are reviewed regarding the assessment of oral competence in the learning of a second language (L2). The characteristics of the construct and its definition are analyzed, including competence in listening comprehension and oral expression. Furthermore, con [...] cepts such as the design of instruments and/or evaluative techniques for the assessment of the competencies are examined as well as issues related to reliability, validity and cut off points.

José, González-Such; Jesús Miguel, Jornet Meliá; Margarita, Bakieva.

192

On the Role of Phonological Processing in L2 Reading  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper provides a review of ideas and research regarding the role of phonological processing as a bottom-up, component processing mechanism in second language reading comprehension. Firstly, it sketches a brief history of approaches and theoretical models towards L2 reading comprehension in the SLA literature. Secondly, it acknowledges the fact that with the undue dominance of top-down psycholinguistic models, the role of bottom-up processes in L2 reading has been systematically neglected. And finally an accumulated body of literature is presented which comprehensively delineates the studies carried out to examine the contributory role of phonological processing as a type of bottom-up proceesing in L2 reading.

Jalil Fat?hi

2012-01-01

193

Equilibrium and stability analysis of L = 2 Helical Heliac devices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A L = 2 Helical Heliac (HH) is a newly proposed helical-axis configuration of a Heliac type in which toroidal coils and a center conductor is replaced by L = 2 helical coils with a double helix. The authors have studied the equilibrium and stability properties of HH devices as well as the vacuum properties. The main results are as follows: (1) the values of rotational transform increase as the helical displacement of a helical coil axis increases; (2) the displacement of a magnetic axis outwards for finite beta plasma confinement is inversely proportional to the helical displacement of a helical coil axis; (3) there is an example of the L = 2 HH magnetic configuration with a magnetic well depth {approximately} 4.5% and well region r{sub well}/r{sub max} {approximately} 100%; (4) by adjusting vertical field coil current, plasma in some HH magnetic configurations turns into Mercier stable in whole regions for beta values more than 1%.

Osabe, Y.; Kano, K.; Kogoshi, S. [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Kovalev, D.; Katsurai, M. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Yamada, H.; Sato, K.

1996-12-31

194

Neutron transport operators in C and L2 spaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the stationary neutron transport equation (in its integral form) in plane and spherical symmetry. The investigation is carried out in both L2 and C spaces, by means of standard methods of functional analysis. The equivalence between the eigenvalue problems in the two spaces is proved, and the space C seems often to be more appropriate than L2 for investigating the main properties of the eigenfunctions. Results of functional analysis are applied in establishing some properties of the eigenvalues and the eigenfunctions. Moreover, the continuous dependence of neutron flux on optical and spatial parameters is shown

1976-01-01

195

$L_2$ discrepancy of linearly digit scrambled Zaremba point sets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We give an exact formula for the $L_2$ discrepancyof a class of generalized two-dimensional Hammersley point sets in base $b$, namely generalized Zaremba point sets.For the construction of such point sets one needs sequences of permutations of the form $\\pi_l(k=\\alpha k +l \\pmod{b}$ for $k,l \\in {0,\\ldots,b-1}$. As a corollary we obtain a condition on these sequences which yields the best possible order of $L_2$ discrepancy of generalized Zaremba point sets in the sense of Roth's lower bound, with very small leading constants.

Gottlieb Pirsic

2011-12-01

196

Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students' Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2 Creencias de estudiantes universitarios iraníes EFL e hindúes ESL acerca de las estrategias de lectura en L2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The notion of "learner beliefs" has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners' beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers' beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are read...

2010-01-01

197

Topic familiarity, passage sight vocabulary, and L2 lexical inferencing: An investigation in the Iranian EFL context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of topic familiarity and passage sight vocabulary on L2 lexical inferencing in the EFL (English as a foreign language learning context of Iran. 114 undergraduate university students read four narratives (2 more and 2 less familiar constructed by Pulido (2000 containing 32 nonsense words. The meanings of the target words were inferred and difficulty in guessing was rated. Analyses of the repeated-measures design reveal (1 a strong impact of topic familiarity and an independent effect of passage sight vocabulary on L2 lexical inferencing, (2 significant impact of passage sight vocabulary and no significant effect of topic familiarity on the perceived difficulty/ease in L2 lexical inferencing, and (3 no significant interaction between topic familiarity and passage sight vocabulary on L2 lexical inferencing and difficulty/ease in L2 lexical inferencing. The significance of the findings pertaining to lexical inferencing is discussed, and practical pedagogical implications and applications are presented.

Atef-Vahid, Sara

2013-01-01

198

Task-Induced Strategic Processing in L2 Text Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

Strategic text processing was investigated for English as a foreign language learners who processed and recalled a text when they read for expression, for image, and for critique. The results indicated that, although the amount of content recall (i.e., products of comprehension) was similar, the relative contributions of second language (L2

Horiba, Yukie

2013-01-01

199

The Role of Individual Differences in L2 Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the role of individual differences in second language (L2) speech has been extensively studied, the impact of individual differences on the process of second language writing and the written product has been a neglected area of research. In this paper, I review the most important individual difference factors that might explain variations…

Kormos, Judit

2012-01-01

200

Correspondences, von Neumann algebras and holomorphic $L^2$ torsion  

CERN Document Server

Given a holomorphic Hilbertian bundle on a compact complex manifold, we introduce the notion of holomorphic $L^2$ torsion, which lies in the determinant line of the twisted $L^2$ Dolbeault cohomology and represents a volume element there. Here we utilise the theory of determinant lines of Hilbertian modules over finite von Neumann algebras as developed in an earlier paper by the authors. This specialises to the Ray-Singer-Quillen holomorphic torsion in the finite dimensional case. We compute a metric variation formula for the holomorphic $L^2$ torsion, which shows that it is not in general independent of the choice of Hermitian metrics on the complex manifold and on the holomorphic Hilbertian bundle, which are needed to define it. We therefore initiate the theory of correspondences of determinant lines, that enables us to define a relative holomorphic $L^2$ torsion for a pair of flat Hilbertian bundles, which we prove is independent of the choice of Hermitian metrics on the complex manifold and on the flat Hi...

Carey, A L; Mathai, V; Carey, Alan L.; Farber, Michael; Mathai, Varghese

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Discretization of the continuum spectra using L2 basis sets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief discussion on the basis set problem associated to bound states calculations is presented. The possibility of a discrete-basis-set representation of the continuum states of atoms and molecules is discussed and a criterium to select an adequate L2 basis to represent the continuum is presented. (A.C.A.S.)

1988-09-11

202

L2 Gender Facilitation and Inhibition in Spoken Word Recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation investigates the role of grammatical gender facilitation and inhibition in second language (L2) learners' spoken word recognition. Native speakers of languages that have grammatical gender are sensitive to gender marking when hearing and recognizing a word. Gender facilitation refers to when a given noun that is preceded by an…

Behney, Jennifer N.

2011-01-01

203

Epilogue: Exploring L2 Writing-SLA Interfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

In this closing commentary, I first briefly recognize areas that have made the dialogue between the fields of second language (L2) writing and second language acquisition (SLA) difficult in the past. I then offer some comments on the interfaces that are brought to the fore by the contributions gathered in the special issue. The themes explored are…

Ortega, Lourdes

2012-01-01

204

Calogero model and sL(2,R) algebra  

CERN Multimedia

The Calogero model with external harmonic oscillator potential is discussed from sL(2,R) algebra point of view. Explicit formulae for functions with exponential time behaviour are given; in particular, the integrals of motion are constructed and their involutiveness demonstrated. The superintegrability of the model appears to be a simple consequence of the formalism.

Gonera, C

1999-01-01

205

Nonlocal and Multivariate Mathematical Morphology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The generalization of mathematical morphology to multivariate images is addressed in this paper. The proposed approach is fully unsupervised and consists in constructing a complete lattice from an image as a rank transformation together with a learned ordering of vectors. This unsupervised ordering of vectors relies on three steps: dictionary learning, manifold learning and out of sample extension. In addition to providing an efficient way to construct a vectorial ordering, nonlocal configura...

2012-01-01

206

German pupils’ awareness of English-French cognates and false friends : an investigation of L2 to L3 transfer  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis (CAH) proposes that similarities and differences between a first (L1) and second (L2) language may lead to positive and negative transfer, respectively. An experiment exploring recognition of cognates and false friends was conducted to investigate lexical transfer for German native speakers learning English and French. Differences in recognition accuracies of cognates and false friends were found, indicating that cognates were easier for learners to identif...

Brunner, Marie-louise B.; Ankerstein, Carrie A.

2013-01-01

207

Teaching Writing Skills Based on a Genre Approach to L2 Primary School Students: An Action Research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article, based on research findings, examines the effect of implementing a genre approach to develop writing competency of Year 5 and 6 L2 primary school students. Using action research, the genre approach was implemented over a 10-week term with two lessons per week in a culturally and linguistically diverse ESL class in a South Australian public metropolitan primary school. Two specific genres, Report and Essay writing, were taught using a three-staged teaching and learning cy...

Hyejeong Ahn

2012-01-01

208

Grammatical Gender Processing in L2: Electrophysiological Evidence of the Effect of L1-L2 Syntactic Similarity  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the effect of proficiency and similarity between the first and the second language on grammatical gender processing in L2. In three experiments, we manipulated gender agreement violations within the determiner phrase (DP), between the determiner and the noun (Experiment 1), the postposed adjective and the noun (Experiment 2)…

Foucart, Alice; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

2011-01-01

209

The Effect of Using Print Media on Children’s L2 Literacy Development: A Longitudinal Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper tries to examine the effect of using print media in the classroom on the children’s L2 literacy development in an EFL context. Since reading is regarded as a chief goal, in many second/foreign language teaching situations, it receives a special focus. Media as a tool for language learning/teaching, can help both instructed and non-instructed learners to overcome the difficult task of language learning. In order to determine the effects of print media usage on the developme...

Mansoor Tavakoli; Saeedeh Esmae’li

2013-01-01

210

Singularity and L2-dimension of self-similar measures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We study self-similar measures defined by iterated function systems with overlaps. ? The contraction ratios of maps are allowed to be exponentially commensurable. ? We formulate a new method to compute the L2-dimension of the measures. ? Our results allow us to determine the singularity of these measures. ? The results complement existing ones on almost everywhere absolute continuity. - Abstract: We study self-similar measures defined by non-uniformly contractive iterated function systems of similitudes with overlaps. In the case the contraction ratios of the similitudes are exponentially commensurable, we describe a method to compute the L2-dimension of the associated self-similar measures. Our result allows us to determine the singularity of some of such measures.

2012-03-01

211

[DPY19L2 gene and globozoospermia: an update].  

Science.gov (United States)

Globozoospermia is a severe teratozoospermia, and the cases with 100% round-headed sperm are rare clinically. Globozoospermia is generally characterized by absence or abnormality of acrosome, accompanied by round-headed sperm with deranged midpiece and tails. The acrosome normally contains the enzymes that enable sperm to fertilize oocytes, while defective sperm cannot independently fertilize oocytes either in vivo or in vitro, and therefore globozoospermia makes males infertile clinically. Recent studies show that the deletion of the DPY19L2 (dpy-19-like 2) gene is a major cause of globozoospermia. This paper updates the relationship between DPY19L2 and globozoospermia to provide some evidence for further studies on the gene diagnosis and molecular mechanisms of globozoospermia. PMID:23214256

Wu, Qiu-Yue; Li, Na; Xia, Xin-Yi; Yin, Zhi-Min

2012-11-01

212

Amenable L2-theoretic methods and knot concordance  

CERN Document Server

We introduce new obstructions to topological knot concordance. These are obtained from amenable groups in Strebel's class, possibly with torsion, using a recently suggested $L^2$-theoretic method due to Orr and the author. Concerning $(h)$-solvable knots which are defined in terms of certain Whitney towers of height $h$ in bounding 4-manifolds, we use the obstructions to reveal new structure in the knot concordance group not detected by prior known invariants: for any $n>1$ there are $(n)$-solvable knots which are not $(n.5)$-solvable (and therefore not slice) but have vanishing Cochran-Orr-Teichner $L^2$-signature obstructions as well as Levine algebraic obstructions and Casson-Gordon invariants.

Cha, Jae Choon

2010-01-01

213

Some Sharp L^2 Inequalities for Dirac Type Operators  

CERN Document Server

We use the spectra of Dirac type operators on the sphere $S^{n}$ to produce sharp $L^{2}$ inequalities on the sphere. These operators include the Dirac operator on $S^{n}$, the conformal Laplacian and Paenitz operator. We use the Cayley transform, or stereographic projection, to obtain similar inequalities for powers of the Dirac operator and their inverses in $\\mathbb{R}^{n}$.

Balinsky, Alexander

2007-01-01

214

8-Meter UV/Optical Space Telescope at L2  

Science.gov (United States)

The unprecedented mass/volume capability of an Ares V enables the launch of 8 meter class monolithic space telescopes to the Earth-Sun L2 point. NASA MSFC has determined that a 6 to 8 meter class telescope using a massive high-TRL ground observatory class monolithic primary mirror is feasible. Mature, High-TRL design enables early deployment. Science Instruments, Expendables and Limited Life Components can be replace periodically via Spacecraft Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking.

Stahl, H. Philip

2008-01-01

215

Some Sharp L^2 Inequalities for Dirac Type Operators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We use the spectra of Dirac type operators on the sphere $S^n$ to produce sharp $L^2$ inequalities on the sphere. These operators include the Dirac operator on $S^n$, the conformal Laplacian and Paenitz operator. We use the Cayley transform, or stereographic projection, to obtain similar inequalities for powers of the Dirac operator and their inverses in ${mathbb R}^n$.

Alexander Balinsky

2007-11-01

216

Approximating $L^2$ torsion on amenable covering spaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It was pointed out to us that the proof of a crucial lemma (Lemma 5.3) in the paper is incorrect. Thus the approximation theorem (Theorem 0.1) for L^2 torsion of an amenable covering of a finite simplicial complex remains unproved. However, results and proofs of the first four sections (in particular, the approximation theorem (Theorem 0.3) for the spectral density function of an amenable covering) are correct.

Dodziuk, Jozef; Mathai, Varghese; Yates, Stuart

2000-01-01

217

L2 Quality as a Competitive Edge - Project Presentation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In our paper we would like to present an interdisciplinary project "L2 as a Competitive Edge". We'll be doing this by first giving you a project overview in section 0. The overview will then in the section 1 and 2 be followed by a presentation of two of the most interesting themes, serving as point of departure for further discussion. The two themes are "The evaluation of language quality" and "Method - an Integrated Approach".

Ditlevsen, Marianne Grove; Kastberg, Peter

2000-01-01

218

Acquiring Persian Object Marking : Balochi learners of L2 Persian  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper investigates the second language acquisition of Persian object marking by 237 nativeBalochi-speaking children from age eight to eleven. The combination of Balochi and Persian has not beenstudied from an acquisitional perspective, although it widely occurs in southeastern Iran. This paperstudies the second language (L2) development of direct and indirect object marking after two and threeyears of exposure to Persian at school, vs. a control group of 133 monolingual native Persian ch...

Bohnacker, Ute; Mohammadi, Somaye

2013-01-01

219

Singular Integrals Associated to Hypersurfaces $L^{2}$ Theory  

CERN Multimedia

We consider singular integrals associated to a classical Calder\\'on-Zygmund kernel $K$ and a hypersurface given by the graph of $\\varphi(\\psi(t))$ where $\\varphi$ is an arbitrary $C^1$ function and $\\psi$ is a smooth convex function of finite type. We give a characterization of those Calder\\'on-Zygmund kernels $K$ and convex functions $\\psi$ so that the associated singular integral operator is bounded on $L^2$ for all $C^1$ functions $\\varphi$.

Wainger, S; Ziesler, S; Wainger, Stephen; Wright, James; Ziesler, Sarah

1997-01-01

220

Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays  

Science.gov (United States)

The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV) and auditory-only (A-only) Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two…

Motohashi-Saigo, Miki; Hardison, Debra M.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Unbounded Subnormal Composition Operators in L2-Spaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A criterion for subnormality of unbounded composition operators in L2-spaces, written in terms of measurable families of probability measures satisfying the so-called consistency condition, is established. It becomes a new characterization of subnormality in the case of bounded composition operators. Pseudo-moments of a measurable family of probability measures that satisfies the consistency condition are proved to be given by the Radon-Nikodym derivatives which appear in La...

Budzynski, Piotr; Jablonski, Zenon Jan; Jung, Il Bong; Stochel, Jan

2013-01-01

222

Semiparametric density estimation by local L_2-fitting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article examines density estimation by combining a parametric approach with a nonparametric factor. The plug-in parametric estimator is seen as a crude estimator of the true density and is adjusted by a nonparametric factor. The nonparametric factor is derived by a criterion called local L_2-fitting. A class of estimators that have multiplicative adjustment is provided, including estimators proposed by several authors as special cases, and the asymptotic theories are ...

Naito, Kanta

2004-01-01

223

An Investigation of Personality and L2 Oral Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates one dimension of personality, extroversion-introversion, and examines its potential impact on learner L2 oral performance. The study is innovative in that it analyzes not only the correlation between degree of extroversion and assessment scores based on analytic scoring but also the correlation between degree of extroversion and the discourse measures of accuracy, fluency and complexity commonly used as indices of L2 task performance in the L2 research. The data for this study were drawn from oral performances by 39 Cantonese-mother-tongue Form 4 (that is, Grade 9 secondary school ESL students engaging in school-based oral English assessment that has recently been implemented across secondary schools in Hong Kong. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was used to measure the students’ degree of extroversion. The findings indicate no significant correlations between degree of extroversion and students’ assessment scores, and between degree of extroversion and those discourse-based measures. In addition, further in-depth analysis of the discourse and interactional behavior of two students classified as an extrovert and an introvert based on their scores on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, suggests that in the context of group oral discussion described in this study, extroversion/introversion might impact in some way on learner discourse and interactional behavior only in the extreme cases, yet this influence seemed not reflected in the assessment scores assigned.

Zhengdong Gan

2011-11-01

224

The Role of L1 in L2 Idiom Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of first language (L1 transfer in Iranian EFL learners' second language (L2 idiom comprehension. It was also sought to understand whether there is any significant difference between learners of different proficiency levels and their use of L1 in decoding L2 idioms. To do this, the participants of different levels of language proficiency were asked to participate in this study. The L2 idioms were categorized based on their similarity to L1 into three groups of identical, similar and different. A think-aloud protocol analysis was performed and participants were asked to verbalize their thoughts as they read the target idioms in order to detect the strategies they used. The results showed that the most favoured strategy used by learners of different levels was translation. Translation to L1 (Persian was also the most-frequent strategy in decoding similar, identical and different types of idioms. It was also revealed that generally the participants of different levels were significantly different from each other in using strategies.

Saeed Taki

2013-07-01

225

CONSIDERAZIONI SULLA DIDATTICA DELL’ITALIANO L2 IN SVIZZERA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L'articolo propone alcune considerazioni sulla didattica dell'italiano come L2 in Svizzera, partendo da una breve disamina della posizione che l'italiano ha in Svizzera all'interno del suo territorio e nei Cantoni non italofoni. Si è dunque trattato della didattica dell'italiano L2 in Svizzera abbozzando i tratti principali che caratterizzano la didattica fuori e all'interno del territorio italofono. Si è anche proposta una lista di alcuni lessemi marcati in diatopia che caratterizzano l'italiano in Svizzera, sottolineando come questi e altri tratti più squisitamente sociolinguistici possano indurre a considerare anche l'italiano come una lingua pluricentrica, con le implicazioni che questo concetto ha per la didattica dell'italiano L2 in Svizzera, anche dal punto di vista della riflessione metalinguistica.   The paper proposes some considerations concerning teaching Italian as a second language in Switzerland. Through a brief description of the position of Italian inside the Swiss quadrilingualism the teaching approaches are discussed taking into account the peculiar situation inside and outside the Italian territory. Besides the paper presents a list of some common lexemes diatopically marked inducing, along with sociolinguistic parameters, at considering Italian as a pluricentric language with the implication the concept may have concerning the teaching of Italian as a second language in Switzerland.

Elena Maria Pandolfi

2010-09-01

226

Tense and temporality: a comparison between children learning a second language and children with SLI.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares the morphosyntax of children with SLI to the morphosyntax of children acquiring a second language (L2) to determine whether the optional infinitive phenomenon (M. Rice, K. Wexler, & P. Cleave, 1995; K. Wexler, 1994) is evident in both learner groups and to what extent cross-learner similarities exist. We analyzed spontaneous production data from French-speaking children with SLI, English-speaking L2 learners of French, and French-speaking controls, all approximately 7 years old. We examined the children's use of tense morphology, temporal adverbials, agreement morphology, and distributional contingencies associated with finiteness. Our findings indicate that the use of morphosyntax by children with SLI and by L2 children has significant similarities, although certain specific differences exist. Both the children with SLI and the L2 children demonstrate optional infinitive effects in their language use. These results have theoretical and clinical relevance. First, they suggest that the characterization of the optional infinitive phenomenon in normal development as a consequence of very early neurological change may be too restrictive. Our data appear to indicate that the mechanism underlying the optional infinitive phenomenon extends to normal (second) language learning after the primary acquisition years. Second, they indicate that tense-marking difficulty may not be an adequate clinical marker of SLI when comparing children with impairment to both monolingual and bilingual peers. A more specific clinical marker would be more effective in diagnosing disordered populations in a multilingual context. PMID:11386472

Paradis, J; Crago, M

2000-08-01

227

L2 Motivation and Personality as Predictors of the Second Language Proficiency: Role of the Big Five Traits and L2 Motivational Self System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the predictability of the L2 proficiency by personality and L2 motivational self system variables among 141 Iranian EFL university students. Participants completed Transparent Bipolar Inventory (Goldberg, 1992) as a personality measure, L2 motivational self system (Papi, 2010), and a self-rated measure of second language proficiency. Regression analyses showed that extroversion and openness to experience accounted for 13% of the variance in L2 proficiency; and ide...

Zargham Ghapanchi; Gholam Hassan Khajavy; Seyyedeh Fatemeh Asadpour

2011-01-01

228

Morphological reversals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The term morphological reversal describes the situation where the members of a morphological opposition switch their functions in some context (as with Hebrew gender marking, where -Ø~-a marks masculine~feminine with adjectives but feminine~masculine with numerals). There is a long tradition of polemic against the notion that morphology can encode systematic reversals, and an equally long tradition of reintroducing them under different names (e.g. polarity, exchange rules or morphosyntactic ...

Baerman, M.

2007-01-01

229

Currentless plasma production and heating by ECR in the L-2 stellarator. L-2 Team and ECRH Team  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By using a gyrotron with 200 kW microwave power, ? = 1 cm a gaussian-like microwave beam is transmitted to the L-2 vessel. The waves of extraordinary polarisation are launched from the strong field side with microwave power PHF=100 kW and puls duration up to 10 ms. Slow density growth rate is necessary for successful plasma heating. The heating has a resonance behaviour upon Bo and rather high efficiency Pabsorbed/PHF 30-50%

1984-09-24

230

Profiles of More and Less Successful L2 Learners: A Cluster Analysis Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This retrospective study examined L1 achievement, intelligence, L2 aptitude, and L2 proficiency profiles of 208 students completing two years of high school L2 courses. A cluster analysis was performed to determine whether distinct cognitive and achievement profiles of more and less successful L2 learners would emerge. The results of…

Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore

2012-01-01

231

Cognição e aprendizagem de L2: o que nos diz a pesquisa nos paradigmas simbólico e conexionista  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os principais aspectos teóricos de dois paradigmas de investigação da cognição humana _ o simbólico e o conexionista _ e discute como a pesquisa em cada paradigma tem fomentado os estudos sobre aprendizagem de L2. O paradigma simbólico postula a existência de representações mentais através de regras lógicas e símbolos para explicar a aquisição e a utilização do conhecimento. O paradigma conexionista parte da premissa de que o processamento cognitivo está relacionado à maneira pela qual os neurônios se interconectam no cérebro. A partir dessas duas abordagens, o artigo examina como construtos tais como tipos de conhecimento, tipos de memória, processamento do insumo e atenção são apresentados nas duas teorias e como vêm sendo utilizados na pesquisa em L2.This paper presents the main tenets of two paradigms of investigation of human cognition _ the symbolic and the connectionist _ and discusses how research in each paradigm has fed studies in L2 learning. The symbolic paradigm explains the acquisition and use of knowledge through the existence of mental representations, logical rules, and symbols. The connectionist paradigm claims that human cognitive processing is related to how neurons are interconnected in the brain. The paper also examines how constructs such as types of knowledge, types of memory, input processing, and attention are presented in the two theories and how these constructs relate to current L2 research.

Mailce Mota

2005-01-01

232

L(2)-INDEX Theorems for Perturbed Dirac Operators.  

Science.gov (United States)

The L^2-index theorems are becoming increasingly relevant to topology, global geometry and mathematical physics. In our dissertation we propose a direct generalization of the following L ^2-index theorem, due to Callias:. Let Sigma be the spinor space over IR^{rm n} , n odd, and D the Dirac operator on C^ infty(IR^{rm n}, Sigmaotimesdoubc^{ rm m}). Let L be the perturbation of D by sqrt{-1}Id otimes Phi, where Phi in C^ infty(IR^{rm n}, End(doubc^{rm m})) is Hermitean, asymptotically homogeneous of degree 0, and Phi^2 is positive outside some compact set. Then L is a Fredholm elliptic differential operator, and if U is the unitarization of Phi at infinity, i.e., U = |Phi |^{-1}Phi outside a compact set, one hasrm L^2 {-}index(L) = {1over 2({n -1over2})!}{[ {sqrt{-1}over 8pi} ]^{n-1over2} }{limlimits_{Rto infty} _{S_{R}} }intlimits_{n-1}tr U(dU)^{n-1}. The above formula suggests that the L ^2-index depends only on the geometry of the space at infinity and on the spectral properties of the potential Phi there. Our main result is the following L^2 -index theorem:. Let M be a odd dimensional Riemannian spin manifold with a warped end W = (varepsilon{, }infty) times _{rm f}N, f in{rm C}^infty((varepsilon {,}infty)), f>0 and f(r) to infty if r to infty. Let S be a spinor-type bundle over M and let A in C^infty(M, End(S)) be a skew-Hermitean endomorphism such that A commutes with the Clifford action on S, A|_{ rm W} is independent of the radial direction r, and -A^2 is positive at infinity. Then the perturbed Dirac operator D + A, where D is the Dirac operator on S, is a Fredholm operator and L^2-index (D + A) = index ( delta_{rm R})_sp {+}{+}. Here (delta _{rm R})_sp{+}{+ }:rm C^infty(N, (S _{rm R})_sp{+}{+ }) to C^ infty(N, (S_{rm R})_sp{+}{-}) is the Dirac operator on the bundle {rm (S_{R})_sp{+}{+ }={{it s}in S| _{{R}times Nequiv N}| (-A^2)^{-{1over2 }}A{it s}} =sqrt{ -1s}, {rm cliff} ( {partialoverpartial r})s= sqrt{-1s}} over the compact even dimensional spin manifold {R } times N equiv N. The methods of proof involve index-preserving deformation theory, separation of variables for perturbed Dirac operators on manifolds with warped ends, and the use of the relative index theorem of Gromov and Lawson.

Anghel, Nicolae

233

Review of L-2M Stellarator Recent Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The latest experimental results of L-2M are presented and discussed. Solitary edge localized transport events (SELEs) that drastically differ from edge localized modes (ELMs) normally observed at other devices are presented here. Mirnov signals are inert to SELE. After SELE plasma energy slowly monotonically increase up to the end of the discharge(as well as the average plasma density n). SELEs are indicated only at sufficiently high plasma densities, and for the given value of average density they appear only at higher heating powers. Mirnov signals are inert to SELE. We can say with a fair degree of confidence that SELE indicate the transition to the regime with better confinement.We discuss also in passing whether high frequency components of electromagnetic oscillations can play role in plasma transport. Plasma confinement in non-standard L-2M configurations that are obtained by the decrease of current in the helical windings with four equal steps to the half of initial value was investigated. It is shown that the decrease of the total energy with the rotational transform value is significantly more pessimistic than that following from the International Stellarator Scaling ISS95. Another possibility to change the configuration is the use of co/contra ohmic current within the standard configuration of L-2M. With the value of co injected current confinement initially slightly improves. Higher positive currents lead to definite degradation of the confinement connected with strong MHD activity. Contra injected (negative) currents lead to moderate decrease of electron temperature at given average density and heating power. MHD activity in this case is much smaller than that of co injected current. (Author)

Shchepetov, S. V.; Akulina, D. K.; Batanov, G. M.; Berezhetskii, M. S.; Fedyanin, O. I.; Gladkov, G. A.; Grebenshchikov, S. E.; Kharchev, N. K.; Khol, Y. V.; Kovrizhnykh, L. M.; Kuznetsov, A. B.; Larionova, N. F.; Letunov, A. A.; Logvinenko, V. P.; Malykh, N. I.; Meshcheryakov, A. I.; Pshenichnikov, A. A.; Sarksyan, K. A.; Skvortsova, N. N.; Vasilkov, D. G.; Voronova, E. V.; Voronov, G. S.

2005-07-01

234

Strong limit theorems in noncommutative L2-spaces  

CERN Document Server

The noncommutative versions of fundamental classical results on the almost sure convergence in L2-spaces are discussed: individual ergodic theorems, strong laws of large numbers, theorems on convergence of orthogonal series, of martingales of powers of contractions etc. The proofs introduce new techniques in von Neumann algebras. The reader is assumed to master the fundamentals of functional analysis and probability. The book is written mainly for mathematicians and physicists familiar with probability theory and interested in applications of operator algebras to quantum statistical mechanics.

Jajte, Ryszard

1991-01-01

235

The Use of Newspapers for L2 Reading: Practical Activities  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nowadays the acquisition of literacy skills in the foreign language is a highly demanding task cognitively speaking. To improve this learning process, this paper presents a three-fold approach using print and virtual newspapers: first, a brief theoretical revision of the issues involved in learning how to read in a foreign language or transfer L1 reading skills to the foreign language, second, a wide selection of activities to be used when working with newspapers, and third, two sessions that...

Gloria Luque-Agulló; Lucas González-Fernández

2012-01-01

236

Mathematical morphology  

CERN Multimedia

Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoret

Najman, Laurent

2013-01-01

237

Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle  

Science.gov (United States)

Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

Meurant, Robert C.

238

L2pB1: a new player in autoimmunity.  

Science.gov (United States)

L2pB1 cells (PD-L2positive B1 cells) are a newly discovered subpopulation of B1 B cells. L2pB1 cells are noted for the expression of PD-L2 (CD273, B7-DC), a ligand for the inhibitory receptor PD-1, which distinguishes this subpopulation from other B1 B cells that lack PD-L2, namely, L2nB1 cells (PD-L2negative B1 cells). PD-L2 gene expression is regulated differently in B1 B cells as compared to macrophages and dendritic cells. L2pB1 cells share many commonly known B1 cell features with L2nB1 cells. These include spontaneous IgM secretion, constitutive ERK activation, elevated co-stimulatory molecule expression, skewing of T cell differentiation, and unique proliferative responsiveness (to LPS, PMA, but not anti-IgM). However, L2pB1 cells express a biased Ig repertoire that is enriched for self-reactivity as compared with L2nB1 cells. Further, L2pB1 cells present antigen more potently than L2nB1 cells. In addition, L2pB1 cells switch Ig isotype more readily from IgM to IgG1 and IgG2b upon cytokine stimulation. Moreover, increased numbers of L2pB1 cells are present in murine models of lupus and this correlates with increased serum anti-dsDNA titers. These characteristics suggest that L2pB1 cells may play a pathophysiological role in autoimmune dyscrasias. In this report we review the special features of L2pB1 cells and how they may contribute to autoimmunity. PMID:21195478

Zhong, Xuemei; Rothstein, Thomas L

2011-06-01

239

Bounded and $L^2$ Harmonic Forms on Universal Covers  

CERN Document Server

We relate the positivity of the curvature term in the Weitzenbock formula for the Laplacian on p-forms on a complete manifold to the existence of bounded and $L^2$ harmonic forms. In the case where the manifold is the universal cover of a compact manifold, we obtain topological and geometric information about the compact manifold. For example, we show that a compact manifold cannot admit one metric with pinched negative curvature and another metric with positive Weitzenbock term on two-forms. Many of these results can be thought of as differential form analogues of Myers' theorem. We also give pinching conditions on certain sums of sectional curvatures which imply the positivity of the curvature term, and hence yield vanishing theorems. In particular, we construct a compact manifold with planes of negative sectional curvature at each point and which satisfies the hypothesis of our vanishing theorems.

Elworthy, K D; Rosenberg, S I; Li, Xue-Mei; Rosenberg, Steven

1997-01-01

240

Telescope Formation at L2 for Observing Earth's Atmosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

Two documents describe a proposed Earth-atmosphere observatory to orbit the Sun at the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point -- a point of unstable equilibrium in the shadow of the Earth, about 1.5 million km from the Earth along an outward projection of the Earth-Sun axis. The observatory would comprise two spacecraft flying in precision formation: (1) a primary-aperture spacecraft, from which would be deployed a 25-m diameter membrane primary mirror aimed at the Earth, and (2) a secondary-telescope spacecraft at the focal plane of the primary mirror, 125-m distant along the axis towards the Earth. The secondary telescope would be aimed at the primary mirror and slowly rotated to scan the focused annular image of the visible illuminated portion of the Earth's atmosphere during continuous occultation of the Sun.

Mettler, Edward; Acikmese, Behcet; Breckenridge, William; Macenka, Steven; Hein, Randall; Tubbs, Eldred

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Threshold solutions for the focusing $L^{2}$ -supercritical NLS Equations  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the $L^2$-supercritical and $\\dot{H}^1$-subcritical nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation in $H^1$. In \\cite{G1} and \\cite{yuan}, the mass-energy quantity $M(Q)^{\\frac{1-s_{c}}{s_{c}}}E(Q)$ has been shown to be a threshold for the dynamical behavior of solutions of the equation. In the present paper, we study the dynamics at the critical level $M(u)^{\\frac{1-s_{c}}{s_{c}}}E(u)=M(Q)^{\\frac{1-s_{c}}{s_{c}}}E(Q)$ and classify the corresponding solutions using modulation theory, non-trivially generalize the results obtained in \\cite{holmer3} for the 3D cubic Schr\\"{o}dinger equation.

Guo, Qing

2011-01-01

242

MHD waves in the L-2 stellarator with ohmic heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental results on the fluctuations of the poloidal magnetic field during ohmic heating of the plasma in the L-2 stellerator are discussed. Kink modes were studied by correlation analysis of signals from magnetic probes. The presence of a region with l> or =1 at the periphery of the plasma column does not drive an m = 1, n = 1 instability. The experiments show that waves with high mode indices (m/n = 4/3, 5/4, and 6/5) grow at the periphery. The dependence of these modes on the ratio I/sub p//B/sub T/ and the size of the plasma column is studied. The experimental data agree well with theoretical predictions

1985-05-01

243

IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2/LS CON TESTI TEATRALI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Il saggio tratta dell'impiego di testi teatrali come fonti di esercizi per l'apprendimento dell'italiano L2/LS. Dopo alcune riflessioni teoriche, si presentano sei proposte di lavoro, con relative soluzioni, adatte a studenti del livello B2-C2 del quadro di riferimento. Si tratta di esercizi ricavati da drammi in un unico atto di Pirandello (La morsa e Lumìe di Sicilia, da Verga (un confronto fra Cavalleria rusticana nella forma drammatica e novellistica, e da Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre. Ogni proposta sfrutta una peculiarità del testo teatrale che si costituisce nell'incontro di dialoghi con didascalie. Anzitutto si tratta di comprendere come si costruiscono i personaggi, quindi di vedere la funzione delle didascalie in relazione al testo, infine di riflettere sulle diverse modalità in cui avvengono i dialoghi, includendo le forme di silenzio. Il testo teatrale appare così molto adatto ad esercizi di lingua, perché mette in gioco le capacità interpretative e immaginative degli studenti, li fa discutere e parlare sulla base delle loro intuizioni.   This paper investigates the use of play scripts as inspiration for Italian L2/FL exercises. After a brief discussion on theory, six project proposals and their solutions, suitable for B2-C2 level students, are presented.  These exercises are based on one-act plays by Pirandello (La Morsa and Lumìe di Sicilia, Verga (a comparison between Cavalleria Rusticana in drama and narrative forms and Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre.  Each project focuses on a specific aspect of the script  and is made up of dialogues with captions. After the way the characters are constructed is investigated, then the function of the captions in relation to the texts is considered, and finally students reflect on the different ways the dialogues are presented, including the pauses. Play scripts lend themselves to language exercises, because they encourage students to use their interpretation skills and imaginations to talk about their intuitions and ideas.

Erminia Ardissino

2010-09-01

244

The Relations among L1 (Spanish) Literacy Skills, L2 (English) Language, L2 Text Reading Fluency, and L2 Reading Comprehension for Spanish-Speaking ELL First Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the relations of L2 (i.e., English) oral reading fluency, silent reading fluency, word reading automaticity, oral language skills, and L1 literacy skills (i.e., Spanish) to L2 reading comprehension for Spanish-speaking English language learners in the first grade (N = 150). An analysis was conducted for the entire sample as well as…

Kim, Young-Suk

2012-01-01

245

La video clase y la multimedia como medio de enseñanza-aprendizaje de los contenidos morfológicos The videoconference and multimedia as teaching-learning means for morphologic contents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En la última década, la videoconferencia y la multimedia están siendo percibidas como los medios con más posibilidades didácticas en contextos de enseñanza superior. En sus inicios, la videoconferencia suplió las limitaciones espacio-temporales de la educación a distancia. Progresivamente, este medio fue encontrando un reconocimiento en instituciones convencionales de enseñanza propiciado por el desarrollo de experiencias de calidad basadas en la incorporación de recursos externos al aula. Desde una perspectiva instrumentalista, los medios son soportes materiales de información que deben reflejar la realidad de la forma más perfecta posible. Responden a un modelo estándar de alumno y a una cultura escolar homogénea, y se consideran por sí mismos instrumentos generadores de aprendizajes. Las características del diseño didáctico y computacional de un entorno hipermedia para aprender se intenta conectar a la concepción de promover el aprendizaje utilizando la computadora. El entorno consiste en un conjunto de actividades basadas en andamiajes tendientes a inducir la construcción de significados mediante la activa participación del estudiante.During the last decade, the videoconference and multimedia are being perceived as the means with more didactic possibilities in the context of the high education. At the beginning, the videoconference helped avoiding limitations of the distance learning. Progressively, this means began to be recognized in conventional teaching institutions because of the development of qualitative experiences based on the usage of out-class resources. From an instrumentalist perspective, the means are material supports of the information that should express the reality in the most possible perfect way. They answer to a standard model of students and to a homogeneous school culture, and are considered, by themselves, as instruments generating learning. The characteristics of a computational and didactic design of a hypermedia setting to learn are intended to be linked to a conception of promoting learning using computers. The setting is a group of activities based on structures tending to induce the construction of meanings through the active participation of the student.

Nieves E Garriga Alfonso

2009-08-01

246

75 FR 28469 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS332L2 Helicopters  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-14] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS332L2 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal...adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS332L2 helicopters. This AD...

2010-05-21

247

Learning to read  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

More and more, schools all over the world are meeting the culturally and linguistically diverse classroom. Whilst this growing phenomenon offers an abundance of new experiences and learning opportunities to students and teachers alike, it can also present some challenges. For example, children learning English as a second language (L2 Learners) and who are entering into an English-speaking school can sometimes experience difficulties in becoming familiar with the phonological system of the...

Holdaway, Joanna

2007-01-01

248

The Relationship between Reading Comprehension and Figurative Competence in L2 Learners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Though many L2 studies have explored the development of figurative language competence (e.g., Cain, Oakhill, & Lemmon, 2005; Li, 2010), few studies have examined the relationship between idiom comprehension and L2 learners’ reading comprehension in consonance with their proficiency levels. This study aimed at assessing the relationship between comprehending opaque and transparent idioms and L2 learners’ ability to comprehend a text. It was hypothesized that an L2 learner’s p...

Sanaz Doroodi; Mahmood Hashemian

2011-01-01

249

The Use of Newspapers for L2 Reading: Practical Activities  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays the acquisition of literacy skills in the foreign language is a highly demanding task cognitively speaking. To improve this learning process, this paper presents a three-fold approach using print and virtual newspapers: first, a brief theoretical revision of the issues involved in learning how to read in a foreign language or transfer L1 reading skills to the foreign language, second, a wide selection of activities to be used when working with newspapers, and third, two sessions that exploit newspapers in the classroom which can constitute part of a wider lesson plan for Students preparing the English test for the University Entrance Exam (2nd of Bachillerato in the Spanish Educative System.

Gloria Luque-Agulló

2012-08-01

250

Error Analysis: Sources of L2 Learners’ Errors  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many scholars in the field of EA have stressed the significance of second language learners' errors. Corder (1967), for instance, in his influential article, remarks that "they are significant in three different ways. First, to the teacher, in that they show how far towards the goal the learner has progressed. Second, they provide to the researcher evidence of how a language is acquired, what strategies the learner is employing in his learning of a language. Thirdly, they are indisputable to ...

Pooneh Heydari; Bagheri, Mohammad S.

2012-01-01

251

Error Analysis: Sources of L2 Learners’ Errors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many scholars in the field of EA have stressed the significance of second language learners' errors. Corder (1967, for instance, in his influential article, remarks that "they are significant in three different ways. First, to the teacher, in that they show how far towards the goal the learner has progressed. Second, they provide to the researcher evidence of how a language is acquired, what strategies the learner is employing in his learning of a language. Thirdly, they are indisputable to the learner himself because we can regard the making of errors as a device the learner uses in order to learn" (p. 161. The present paper mostly illustrates fundamental background studies done in the field of Error Analysis. There is the hope that the paper helps EFL teachers and educators to become familiar with the most frequent errors committed by EFL learners leading them to make more objective decisions about how to go about adopting appropriate teaching strategies to help EFL students learn better.

Pooneh Heydari

2012-08-01

252

Perceptual Filtering in L2 Lexical Memory: A Neural Network Approach to Second Language Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory has…

Nelson, Robert

2012-01-01

253

L(2,1-Labeling Number of the Product and the Join Graph on Two Fans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L(2,1-labeling number of the product and the join graph on two fans are discussed in this paper, we proved that L(2,1-labeling number of the product graph on two fans is ?(G ? ?+3 , L(2,1-labeling number of the join graph on two fans is ?(G ? 2?+3.

Sumei Zhang

2013-06-01

254

On the expected diameter of an L2-bounded martingale  

CERN Document Server

It is shown that the ratio between the expected diameter of an L2-bounded martingale and the standard deviation of its last term cannot exceed sqrt(3). Moreover, a one-parameter family of stopping times on standard Brownian Motion is exhibited, for which the sqrt(3) upper bound is attained. These stopping times, one for each cost-rate c, are optimal when the payoff for stopping at time t is the diameter D(t) obtained up to time t minus the hitherto accumulated cost c t. A quantity related to diameter, maximal drawdown (or rise), is introduced and its expectation is shown to be bounded by sqrt(2) times the standard deviation of the last term of the martingale. These results complement the Dubins and Schwarz respective bounds 1 and sqrt(2) for the ratios between the expected maximum and maximal absolute value of the martingale and the standard deviation of its last term. Dynamic programming (gambling theory) methods are used for the proof of optimality.

Dubins, Lester E; Meilijson, Isaac

2008-01-01

255

Trajectory design for space missions to libration point L2.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work is focused on the detection and computation of "free" transfer trajectories from parking orbits around the Earth to quasiperiodic orbits around the collinear libration point L(2), in the Sun-Earth system; no correction or insertion maneuvers into the final orbits have been considered. The circular restricted three-body problem is the mathematical model used to describe the motion of a spacecraft, in the gravitational field of the two primaries, computed by integrating the nonlinearized equations of motion. A shooting method has been designed and developed to determine the increment of velocity required for the perigee maneuver, which injects a spacecraft into its transfer trajectory: first the velocity boundary for the Earth escape/capture condition is detected and then an iterative bisection method is applied until the burnout velocity, tangential to the parking orbit, leads the spacecraft to its final Lissajous orbit. For a launch from Kourou at local noon, Ariane5 GTO and Soyuz GTO "equivalent" have been studied and compared, considering fuel minimization for the transfer maneuver and general mission constraints, as maximum excursion of the final Lissajous orbit from the ecliptic plane and eclipses avoidance during the mission. This analysis highlights advantages and drawbacks of various parking orbits. Mission goals are the key factor for the tradeoff among orbit selection, launch options, and the other constraints, fixed by mission requirements. PMID:16510417

Di Salvo, Alessio

2005-12-01

256

Quantifying the Quality Difference between L1 and L2 Essays: A Rating Procedure with Bilingual Raters and L1 and L2 Benchmark Essays  

Science.gov (United States)

It is the consensus that, as a result of the extra constraints placed on working memory, texts written in a second language (L2) are usually of lower quality than texts written in the first language (L1) by the same writer. However, no method is currently available for quantifying the quality difference between L1 and L2 texts. In the present…

Tillema, Marion; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

2013-01-01

257

Computer Assisted Language Learning: Using L1 Software with L2 Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of two types of commercially available Apple computer educational software in English for the development of accuracy and fluency in students of English as a second language is described. One type of program is aimed at the drilling and practice of grammar in English. Some of these programs have interesting formats and allow the teacher to…

Baltra, Armando

258

Hábitos de aprendizaje y rendimiento académico en la asignatura morfofisiología-II de la carrera de estomatología / Learning habits and academic performance in the II- Morphology and Physiology subject in Dentistry major  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish RESUMEN La asignatura Morfofisiología II que se imparte en primer año de la carrera de Estomatología resultó la de más bajo rendimiento académico. Objetivo: Caracterizar los hábitos de aprendizaje del estudiante de primer año de Estomatología, teniendo en cuenta su relación con sus diferencias indiv [...] iduales y rendimiento académico en la asignatura. Método: Se realizó una investigación descriptiva y de corte transversal en la asignatura Morfofisiología II, de la carrera de Estomatología de la provincia de Pinar del Río al finalizar el primer semestre del curso 2008-2009. La muestra estuvo constituida por 52 estudiantes de primer año, que cursan la carrera en la sede central. Se les aplicó una encuesta, cuyo cuestionario permitió evaluar sus hábitos de aprendizaje, y el nivel de motivación hacia la carrera y la asignatura. Los datos fueron procesados utilizando la estadística descriptiva y la prueba Ji cuadrado, con un nivel de confianza del 95 %. Resultados: Se encontraron malos hábitos de aprendizaje, en la mayoría de ellos no existió relación significativa entre hábitos de aprendizaje con respecto a la vía de ingreso y nota final de los estudiantes, resaltó la elevada motivación encontrada tanto por la carrera como por la asignatura, la variable motivación no guardó relación significativa con la nota final alcanzada. Se concluye que a pesar de los resultados alcanzados estos no influyeron significativamente en los resultados de la asignatura, gracias a las estrategias de enseñaza trazadas por el colectivo de profesores, pero sí indican la necesidad de establecer acciones con vistas al desarrollo de su aprendizaje autónomo Abstract in english ABSTRACT II-Morphology and Physiology subject taught to the first grade students of Dentistry had the lowest academic performance. Objective: Characterizing the learning habits in the student of first grade of dentistry subject having in mind the relationship with the individual differences and the [...] subject academic performance. Method: A descriptive and cross sectional research on the Morphology and Physiology subject in the dentistry students in Pinar del Rio city at ending the first semester of 2008-2009 course. The sample comprised of 52 students in the first grade of the dentistry major. A survey allowed us to know their learning habits and the level of motivation on the subject. Data were processed using descriptive statistics and the chi square test with a 95% of level of confidence. Results: It was found bad learning habits; in most of them there was no significative relationship between the learning habits and the way of admittance and the final mark of the students; a remarkably high motivation was observed on the major and the subject; the variable "motivation" had no significative relationship with the final mark achieved. It is concluded that the results obtained had no significative influence on the results of the subject thanks to the learning strategies proposed by the faculty but they do indicate the necessity of establishing prospective actions for the development of the autonomic learning

Juan Félix, Albert Díaz; Ada Esther, González Cordero; Norma, Laborí Puentes; Mayra, Llano Lazo.

259

NON SOLO LINGUA. I CORSI DI ITALIANO L2 PER DONNE MIGRANTI TRA BISOGNI LINGUISTICI E DESIDERIO DI INTEGRAZIONE.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Come si organizza un corso di italiano L2 per donne migranti? Perché questi corsi si differenziano dalle altre proposte formative rivolte ad adulti immigrati? Basandosi sulle indicazioni del vademecum Tutte le mamme a scuola, il presente contributo cerca di rispondere a queste domande analizzando i bisogni linguistici delle donne migranti, interrogandosi su quale italiano insegnare, su quale metodo didattico adottare con particolare attenzione all’approccio autobiografico e all’“imparare facendo” e presentando i libri di testo rivolti a questa tipologia di apprendenti. Le tre interviste in appendice, raccolte in tre diversi centri che si occupano di corsi di italiano L2 per donne immigrate, raccontano come tutte queste indicazioni possano essere messe in pratica per cercare di soddisfare quel desiderio di integrazione e promozione sociale di cui le allieve si fanno portatrici,  che rende la classe di lingua non solo il luogo in cui si impara a parlare italiano, ma anche un laboratorio sociale in cui sperimentare modi diversi di approcciarsi e di considerare la diversità.     Not only language. Italian L2 for migrant women between linguistic needs and the desire for integration.   How is an Italian L2 course organized for migrant women? Why are these courses different from other classes designed for adult immigrants? Based on the indications in the handbook Tutte le mamme a scuola, this article tries to answer these questions analyzing the linguistic needs of migrant women, considering what Italian should be taught, what teaching method should be used with special attention placed on the autobiographical approach and “learning by doing”. The three interviews in the appendix, from three different centers which offer Italian L2 courses to immigrant women, tell about how these indications can be put into practice to satisfy the desire for the integration and social inclusion of these students, making the language class more than a place where Italian is learned, but it becomes a social laboratory where different approaches can be tried out and diversities can be made evident.

Viviana Solcia

2012-02-01

260

Synthesis, integration, and restriction and modification of mycoplasma virus L2 DNA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mycoplasma virus L2 is an enveloped, nonlytic virus containing double-stranded, superhelical DNA. The L2 virion contains about 7 to 8 major proteins identified by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but the virion has no discernible capsid structure. It has been suggested that the L2 virion is a DNA-protein condensation surrounded by a lipid-protein membrane. The host for mycoplasma virus L2 is Acholeplasma laidlawii. A. laidlawii has no cell wall and contains a small genome, 1 x 10/sup 9/ daltons, which is two to three times smaller than that of most bacteria. Infection of A. laidlawii by L2 is nonlytic. The studies in this thesis show that L2 DNA synthesis begins at about 1 hour of infection and lasts throughout the infection. Viral DNA synthesis is inhibited by chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and novobiocin. Packaging of L2 DNA into progeny virus is also inhibited by chloramphenicol and novobiocin. It is concluded that protein synthesis and probably DNA gyrase activity are required for L2 DNA synthesis, and for packaging of L2 DNA into progeny virus. DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrate that L2 DNA integrates into the host cell during infection, and subsequent to infection the cells are mycoplasma virus L2 lysogens. The viral site of integration has been roughly mapped. L2 virus is restricted and modified by A. laidlawii strains JA1 and K2. The nature of the modification in strain K2 has been elucidated. Two L2 variants containing insertions in the viral DNA were identified in these studies. Restriction endonuclease cleavage maps of these variants have been determined. DNA from L2 and another isolate of L2, MV-Lg-L 172, are compared in these studies. 74 references, 33 figures, 6 tables. (ACR)

Dybvig, K.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Working memory capacity across L2 speech proficiency levels / Capacidade de memória de trabalho através de níveis de proficiência oral em L2  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo investiga se a capacidade de memória de trabalho (CMT) varia entre idiomas e níveis de proficiência na fala em L2. Seguindo sugestões em Finardi e Weissheimer (2009) e Prebianca (2010) que demonstraram que a CMT varia em função do nível de proficiência da fala em L2, o presente trabalho [...] analisou três níveis de proficiência (elementar, intermediário e avançado) e dois idiomas (L1-português e L2-inglês). Dois testes de MT foram usados, um em L1 e outro em L2, ambos na modalidade oral. Sessenta estudantes adultos de inglês como língua estrangeira participaram no estudo: 19 elementares, 19 intermediários e 22 avançados. Resultados dos testes Kruskal-Wallis e Mann-Whitney corroboraram Finardi e Weissheimer (2009) e Prebianca (2010) sugerindo que a CMT medida com um teste de amplitude da fala em L2 parece confundir a relação entre níveis de proficiência oral e CMT. Abstract in english This study investigates whether working memory capacity (WMC) varies across languages and in the course of L2 speech proficiency levels. Following suggestions in Finardi and Weissheimer (2009) and Prebianca (2010), who found that WMC varied as a function of L2 speech proficiency, the present study a [...] ssessed three proficiency levels (elementary, intermediate and advanced) and two languages (L1-Portuguese and L2-English). Two WM tests were used, one in the L1 and another in the L2, both in the speaking mode. Sixty adult learners of English as a foreign language participated in the study: 19 elementary, 19 intermediate and 22 advanced learners. Results of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests corroborate Finardi and Weissheimer (2009) and Prebianca (2010) suggesting that WMC measured with a speaking span test in L2 seems to conflate the relationship between speech proficiency levels and WMC.

Gicele Vergine Vieira, Prebianca; Kyria Rebeca, Finardi; Janaina, Weissheimer.

262

Interpretation of English reflexives by child and adult L2 learners  

CERN Document Server

This book casts new light on the debate of adult L2 learners' access to Universal Grammar (UG) by comparing the performance of adult L2 learners with that of child L2 learners. The study in this book compares Arabic- and Chinese-speaking child and adult L2 learners' acquisition of English reflexives, particularly concentrating on the differences between child and adult L2 learners in terms of their a) acquisition of the local binding of English reflexives, b) obedience of UG constraints on re...

Kafri, Amer Al

2013-01-01

263

ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY AND L2 SPEECH DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo investiga se a capacidade de memória operacional de um indivíduo varia de acordo com sua proficiência oral na língua estrangeira (L2. Setenta e nove alunos das universidades federais da Bahia e de Santa Catarina foram distribuídos em dois grupos de proficiência (básico e intermediário e submetidos a uma adaptação em L2 do Teste de Amplitude de Memória Oral de Daneman (1991. Correlações positivas e estatisticamente significativas parecem indicar que a capacidade de memória operacional do indivíduo varia em função do seu nível de proficiência oral em L2.PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Aquisição de L2, memória operacional, proficiência em L2.

KYRIA FINARDI e JANAINA WEISSHEIMER

2008-04-01

264

Contribution to Vocabulary Learning via Mobiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As mobile connectedness continues to sweep across the landscape, the value of deploying mobile technology at the service of learning and teaching seems to be both self-evident and unavoidable. To this end, this study employed multimedia to develop three types of vocabulary learning materials. Due to the importance of short-term memory in the realm of vocabulary learning, careful consideration was given to the L2 learners’ different visual and verbal short-term memories. 158 L2 learners aged 18-23 participated in the major phases of vocabulary learning experiment through mobile. Based on their scores on the English Vocabulary and Recall tests and statistical analysis of the results it was revealed that L2 learners with high-visual and high-verbal abilities find it easier to learn the content presented with both pictorial and written annotations. However, L2 learners with low-visual and low-verbal abilities benefit from learning materials presented without annotations. Furthermore, delivery of learning materials with pictorial annotation to learners with high-visual ability and the delivery of learning materials with written annotation to learners with high-verbal ability result in better vocabulary learning. The findings of this study could perform as a roadmap in creating learning materials for mobile learning English language.

Saeed Khazaie

2011-02-01

265

Processing morphologically complex words in second-language learners: The effect of proficiency.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study explored how the processing of morphologically complex words in second-language (L2) learners changes as their proficiency increases. ERPs were recorded from highly proficient and less proficient L2 learners, using the repetition priming paradigm. Three experimental conditions were investigated: morphological related/unrelated pairs, semantically related/unrelated pairs, and form related/unrelated pairs. The presence of priming in each condition was assessed by comparing responses to targets preceded by related primes with those preceded by unrelated primes. ERP results showed that highly proficient L2 learners demonstrated priming effect within 350-550ms in the morphological condition, associating with an N400 reduction, while less proficient L2 learners showed no morphological priming effect within the N400 range. Besides, form priming effect was observed in both highly proficient and less proficient L2 learners within 400-450ms and 450-500ms, and semantic inhibiting effect was observed in both groups within 450-500ms, suggesting that less proficient L2 learners were equally sensitive to the word form and meaning. The ERP results indicate that highly proficient L2 learners manifest rule-based decomposition, while less proficient L2 learners rely more on lexical storage in processing morphologically complex words. Less proficient L2 learners have not developed the decomposing mechanism, despite their sensitivity to word form and meaning. The way in which morphologically complex words are processed in L2 learners does change as their proficiency increases, validating the predictions of the declarative/procedural model. PMID:24824457

Liang, Lijuan; Chen, Baoguo

2014-07-01

266

Learning Vocabulary in EFL Contexts through Vocabulary Learning Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vocabulary learning is one of the major challenges foreign language learners face during the processof learning a language. One way to alley the burden is to assist students in becoming independent learners duringthe process of L2 vocabulary learning. This could be achieved through instructing learners to apply vocabularylearning strategies as efficiently as possible. The main pursuit of the present article is to suggest a framework fortraining EFL learners in vocabulary learning strategies. In so doing, an account of different taxonomies ofvocabulary learning strategies and a rationale for strategy training are presented.

Lotfi GHAZAL

2007-10-01

267

Galaxy Morphology  

CERN Document Server

Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or between a perturbation and the basic state of a stellar disk, can also drive secular transformations. In this series of lectures, I review many aspects of galaxy morphology with a view to delineating some of the possible evolutionary pathways between different galaxy types.

Buta, Ronald J

2013-01-01

268

Working Memory Capacity, Inhibitory Control and the Role of L2 Proficiency in Aging L1 Dutch Speakers of Near-Native L2 English  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the intricate relationship between working memory (WM capacity and inhibitory control as a function of both L2 proficiency and age. In both its design and research questions, this study closely follows Gass & Lee’s work, where both L1 and L2 Reading Span Tasks (as measures of WM capacity and L1 and L2 Stroop interference tasks (to measure inhibitory control were administered. In this study, the test battery is augmented by both an L1 and L2 C-test of overall language proficiency. Participants were 63 L1 Dutch speakers of L2 English, who had been immersed in an L2 environment for a considerable amount of time. Their data were set off against those of 54 monolingual Dutch speakers and 56 monolingual English speakers. At the time of testing, all the bilingual participants had a near-native command of English and their L1 and L2 WM scores were not found to be significantly different. However, discrepancies did occur in Stroop test scores of inhibition, where the bilinguals performed better in their L2 English than L1 Dutch. These main effects often contradicted the results found in Gass & Lee’s study, who examined less proficient L2 learners. An aging effect was furthermore found: older subjects consistently performed more poorly on WM and inhibition tasks than their younger peers. These results can shed light on how individual factors like WM capacity and inhibitory control interact in successful late bilinguals and how these dynamics shift with advanced age.

Merel Keijzer

2013-08-01

269

Molecular Function of TCF7L2: Consequences of TCF7L2 Splicing for Molecular Function and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

TCF7L2 harbors the variant with the strongest effect on type 2 diabetes (T2D) identified to date, yet the molecular mechanism as to how variation in the gene increases the risk for developing T2D remains elusive. The phenotypic changes associated with the risk genotype suggest that T2D arises as a consequence of reduced islet mass and/or impaired function, and it has become clear that TCF7L2 plays an important role for several vital functions in the pancreatic islet. TCF7L2 comprises 17 exons...

Hansson, Ola; Zhou, Yuedan; Renstro?m, Erik; Osmark, Peter

2010-01-01

270

Arguing for the Use of Portfolio in L2 Classrooms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pursuing the traditional assessment in education has been a subject of considerable debate among educational experts particularly in language teaching. Depending on the needs of societies, suitable facilities, the purposes of the curricula, and highly educational demands, alternative assessment has been considered to meet the required outcomes. Portfolio, the most well-known of alternative assessments, is generally considered a purposeful collection of student work that shows the student’s effort, progress, and achievement in a target area as it not only provides a source for assessment but also enhances learning opportunities. Teachers, students, and researchers need to be well briefed on the benefits of portfolio in the classrooms. However, portfolio is not a perfect assessment tool specially with respect to grading on a large scale, its subjective design, logistic application, and reliability. To enjoy a probable foolproof assessment in language teaching, newer methods and approaches that assist a better and more authentic assessment should be welcomed.

Ghasemali Azadi

2011-05-01

271

Non-academic L2 Users: A Neglected Research Pool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available English Language Teaching (ELT articles are published and their results are relied on without delving into their methodological credibility. A research study cannot be considered valid unless its population is precisely determined and defined. This article shows the considerable size of non-academic English learners in Iran and argues that the population in ELT research should not be limited only to university and school students who are easily accessible but it should also include the sizeable non-academic sector. To do this, 170 PhD dissertations and MA theses in TEFL were randomly selected. The result showed that only less than 9% of the participants belonged to non-academic sector. The article also argues that there is wrong overgeneralization of even the existing ELT academic researches to non-academic situation. Finally it compares academic and non-academic English learners to show how the latter are highly motivated to learn.

Talebinezhad, Mohammad Reza

2005-01-01

272

Development of human papillomavirus chimaeric L1/L2 candidate vaccines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines based on the L1 capsid protein have been shown to be efficient prophylactic vaccines, albeit type-specific. As a first step to investigate the feasibility of extending protection against non-vaccine types, HPV-16 L1 chimaeras were generated. The region downstream of L1 amino acid (aa) 413 was replaced with selected cross-neutralising epitopes (aa 108-120; 56-81 and 17-36) derived from the HPV-16 L2 protein, generating proteins designated SAF, L2.56 and L2.17, respectively. The chimaera L1BPV containing BPV-1 L2 peptide aa 1-88 was similarly constructed. The chimaeras were evaluated for expression in insect cells; their ability to form particles was studied by electron microscopy, and their immunogenicity was evaluated in mice. SAF, L2.56 and L2.17 proteins were expressed to high concentrations in insect cells and elicited HPV-16 pseudovirus-neutralising anti-L1 antibodies. L2.56 and L2.17 also elicited anti-L2 antibodies. L1BPV was a poor vaccine candidate due to low levels of expression with concomitant lack of immunogenicity. All chimaeras assembled into tertiary structures. The results indicate that chimaeric L1 vaccines incorporating cross-neutralising L2 peptides could be promising second-generation prophylactic HPV vaccine candidates. PMID:23636405

McGrath, Marieta; de Villiers, Gillian K; Shephard, Enid; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

2013-10-01

273

Reduction in Tcf7l2 Expression Decreases Diabetic Susceptibility in Mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The WNT signaling pathway effector gene TCF7L2 has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unclear how this gene affects diabetic pathogenesis. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of Tcf7l2 haploinsufficiency on metabolic phenotypes in mice.Experimental Design: Tcf7l2 knockout (Tcf7l-/- mice were generated. Because of the early mortality of Tcf7l2-/- mice, we characterized the metabolic phenotypes of heterozygous Tcf7l2+/- mice in comparison to the wild-type controls. The mice were fed a normal chow diet or a high fat diet (HFD for 9 weeks.Results: The Tcf7l2+/- mice showed significant differences from the wild-type mice with regards to body weight, fasting glucose and insulin levels. Tcf7l2+/- mice displayed improved glucose tolerance. In the liver of Tcf7l2+/- mice fed on the HFD, reduced lipogenesis and hepatic triglyceride levels were observed when compared with those of wild-type mice. Furthermore, the Tcf7l2+/- mice fed on the HFD exhibited decreased peripheral fat deposition. Immunohistochemistry in mouse pancreatic islets showed that endogenous expression of Tcf7l2 was upregulated in the wild-type mice, but not in the Tcf7l2+/- mice, after feeding with the HFD. However, the haploinsufficiency of Tcf7l2 in mouse pancreatic islets resulted in little changes in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.Conclusion: These results suggest that decreased expression of Tcf7l2 confers reduction of diabetic susceptibility in mice via regulation on the metabolism of glucose and lipid.

Hyekyung Yang, Qing Li, Jong-Hwan Lee, Yan Shu

2012-01-01

274

Morphological metamorphosis in relapsing lymphoblastic leukemia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Blast cell morphology was assessed at diagnosis and subsequent bone marrow relapse in 33 unselected patients with lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Each marrow was classified 'blind' according to the French-American-British (FAB) criteria, and it was found that 19 of 24 (79%) patients initially typed as FAB L1 changed to FAB L2 during the course of their disease, but no patient made the reverse morphological change (p is less than 0.001). Five patients retained FAB L1 appearances; these included ...

Lilleyman, J. S.; Britton, J. A.; Laycock, B. J.

1981-01-01

275

River morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs

1966-01-00

276

Evidence for Association between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and TCF7L2 and Glucose Intolerance in Women with PCOS and TCF7L2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Context and Objective: Of the recently identified type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) susceptibility loci, transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) confers the greatest relative risk for T2D and significantly predicts conversion to T2D in persons with impaired glucose tolerance. TCF7L2 is, therefore, also a strong candidate gene for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine disorder characterized by androgen excess and menstrual irregularities and associated with insulin resistance and a ...

2009-01-01

277

Zebrafish Tg(7.2mab21l2:EGFP)ucd2 Transgenics Reveal a Unique Population of Retinal Amacrine Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose Amacrine cells constitute a diverse, yet poorly characterized, cell population in the inner retina. Here, the authors sought to characterize the morphology, molecular physiology, and electrophysiology of a subpopulation of EGFP-expressing retinal amacrine cells identified in a novel zebrafish transgenic line. Methods After 7.2 kb of the zebrafish mab21l2 promoter was cloned upstream of EGFP, it was used to create the Tg(7.2mab21l2:EGFP)ucd2 transgenic line. Transgenic EGFP expression was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy in whole mount embryos, followed by detailed analysis of EGFP-expressing amacrine cells using fluorescence microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and electrophysiology. Results A 7.2-kb fragment of the mab21l2 promoter region is sufficient to drive transgene expression in the developing lens and tectum. Intriguingly, EGFP was also observed in differentiated amacrine cells. EGFP-labeled amacrine cells in Tg(7.2mab21l2:EGFP)ucd2 constitute a novel GABA- and glycine-negative amacrine subpopulation. Morphologically, EGFP-expressing cells stratify in sublamina 1 to 2 (type 1 OFF) or sublamina 3 to 4 (type 1 ON) or branch diffusely (type 2). Electrophysiologically, these cells segregate into amacrine cells with somas in the vitreal part of the INL and linear responses to current injection or, alternatively, amacrine cells with somas proximal to the IPL and active oscillatory voltage signals. Conclusions The novel transgenic line Tg(7.2mab21l2:EGFP) ucd2 uncovers a unique subpopulation of retinal amacrine cells.

Cederlund, Maria L.; Morrissey, Maria E.; Baden, Tom; Scholz, Dimitri; Vendrell, Victor; Lagnado, Leon; Connaughton, Victoria P.; Kennedy, Breandan N.

2014-01-01

278

The Effect of Lengthened Writing Approach on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on empirical research and qualitative analysis, this paper aims to explore the effects of Lengthened Writing Approach on L2 vocabulary acquisition. The results show that, during L2 vocabulary teaching process, the proper application of Lengthened Writing Approach can effectively facilitate the memorization of new words, and this teaching approach is welcomed by most subjects. This study highlights the role of Lengthened Writing Approach in L2 vocabulary acquisition, and sheds light on t...

Jing Liu

2009-01-01

279

Domänen des Kapsidproteins L2 humanpathogener Papillomviren für die Interaktion mit viralen und zellulären Bindungspartnern  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Die Kapsidproteine L1 und L2 von humanen Papillomviren (HPV) werden im Cytoplasma infizierter Keratinocyten synthetisiert und gelangen unabhängig voneinander in den Kern (Florin et al. 2002b). L2 lokalisiert in speziellen Kerndomänen, sog. ND10, und induziert die Reorganisation dieser Kernstrukturen: L2-abhängig akkumuliert der transkriptionelle Modulator Daxx verstärkt in ND10 und außerdem kommt es zum Ausschluss des transkriptionellen Aktivators Sp100 aus diesen Domänen (Florin et al....

2004-01-01

280

L 2 Stability Estimates for Shock Solutions of Scalar Conservation Laws Using the Relative Entropy Method  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider scalar nonviscous conservation laws with strictly convex flux in one spatial dimension, and we investigate the behavior of bounded L 2 perturbations of shock wave solutions to the Riemann problem using the relative entropy method. We show that up to a time-dependent translation of the shock, the L 2 norm of a perturbed solution relative to the shock wave is bounded above by the L 2 norm of the initial perturbation.

Leger, Nicholas

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
281

Gabor-like systems in L2(Rd) and extensions to wavelets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper we show how to construct a certain class of orthonormal bases in L2(Rd) starting from one or more Gabor orthonormal bases in L2(Rd). Each such basis can be obtained acting on a single function ?(x) element of L2(Rd) with a set of unitary operators which operate as translation and modulation operators in suitable variables. The same procedure is also extended to frames and wavelets. Many examples are discussed

2008-08-22

282

COMPETENZA PRAGMATICA IN ITALIANO L2: L’USO DEI SEGNALI DISCORSIVI DA PARTE DEGLI APPRENDENTI CROATI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Questo contributo esplora la produzione dialogica in italiano da parte degli apprendenti di lingua materna croata con l’obiettivo di determinare la loro competenza interazionale e pragmatica in italiano L2. Particolare attenzione si è rivolta ad un aspetto caratteristico della produzione dialogica, ai segnali discorsivi ? espedienti dialogici per eccellenza. I parlanti nativi usano segnali discorsivi con una vasta gamma di funzioni dialogiche, mentre l’acquisizione dei segnali discorsivi italiani è un territorio relativamente inesplorato e i segnali discorsivi vengono raramente insegnati. in maniera esplicita. La capacità di riconoscere e utilizzare i segnali discorsivi italiani adeguatamente, vale a dire secondo le loro funzioni pragmatiche, rivela il livello della competenza pragmatica dell’apprendente di una lingua straniera. Ai fini dello studio presente, gli apprendenti di italiano sono stati classificati in diversi gruppi in base alla durata dell’ istruzione (principianti, intermedi, avanzati e/o al tipo di ambiente di apprendimento (studenti universitari, corsi di lingua straniera, “full immersion”. L’analisi si è concentrata maggiormente sulla frequenza d’uso e su alcune funzioni dei segnali discorsivi italiani adoperati. Lo scopo di questo studio era quello di esaminare la differenza tra l’uso dei segnali discorsivi relativo ai diversi livelli e ambienti educativi della lingua italiana da parte degli apprendenti croati di italiano L2 e di osservare le caratteristiche di una possibile influenza derivata dal L1.     Pragmatic competence in Italian L2: the use of discourse signals in Croatian-speaking learners This contribution explores the dialogue production of Croatian-speaking learners of Italian as a second language (L2 with the objective to determine their competence in L2 interactions. Special attention is paid to one particular aspect of dialogue production, discourse markers -dialogical expedients par excellence. Native speakers use discourse markers for a wide variety of dialogue functions, while the acquisition of (Italian discourse markers is a relatively unexplored area and discourse markers are hardly ever explicitly taught. The ability to recognize and use Italian discourse markers correctly, in terms of their pragmatic functions, reveals the learners’ pragmatic competence. For this particular study, the learners of Italian were classified in different groups according to length of instruction (basic, elementary, advanced and/or type of learning environment (university students, foreign language courses, “full immersion”. The analysis focused on the frequency of use and some functions of Italian discourse markers. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference between the Italian learners’ use of discourse markers and to observe the instances of a possible L1 influence.

Magdalena Nigoevi?

2012-02-01

283

L^2 Castelnuovo-de Franchis, the cup product lemma, and filtered ends of Kaehler manifolds  

CERN Multimedia

Simple approaches to the proofs of the L^2 Castelnuovo-de Franchis theorem and the cup product lemma which give new versions are developed. For example, suppose u and v are two linearly independent closed holomorphic 1-forms on a bounded geometry connected complete Kaehler manifold X with v in L^2. According to a version of the L^2 Castelnuovo-de Franchis theorem obtained in this paper, if u and v are pointwise linearly dependent, then there exists a surjective proper holomorphic mapping of X onto a Riemann surface for which u and v are pull-backs. Previous versions required both forms to be in L^2.

Ramachandran, Terrence Napier Mohan

2007-01-01

284

Input of Chunks and Its Effects on L2 Learners’ Listening Competency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study tires to explore the effectiveness of acquisition of chunks to improve L2 learners’ listening competency. An empirical study is designed and conducted on the basis of theory of chunks and information processing mode. Analysis of the experimental data shows that acquisition of chunks can effectively help L2 learners to improve their listening competency. Result of the experiment reveals that the number of chunks closely correlates with L2 learners’ listening scores, because chunks can boost L2 learners’ efficiency of processing language information and predicate information while listening.

Jingwei Tang

2013-07-01

285

ARE THEY WATCHING? TEST-TAKER VIEWING BEHAVIOR DURING AN L2 VIDEO LISTENING TEST  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The accessibility of video technology has made it possible to utilize both the auditory and visual channels to present listening texts in the second language (L2) classroom and on L2 listening tests. However, there has been little research investigating the extent to which L2 listeners actually watch the video monitor when presented with a listening video text. The current study investigated test-taker behavior on an L2 video listening test. Thirty-six test-takers were videotaped while taking...

2007-01-01

286

The RNA-Binding Protein, ZFP36L2, Influences Ovulation and Oocyte Maturation  

Science.gov (United States)

ZFP36L2 protein destabilizes AU-rich element-containing transcripts and has been implicated in female fertility. In the C57BL/6NTac mouse, a mutation in Zfp36l2 that results in the decreased expression of a form of ZFP36L2 in which the 29 N-terminal amino acid residues have been deleted, ?N-ZFP36L2, leads to fertilized eggs that arrest at the two-cell stage. Interestingly, homozygous ?N-Zfp36l2 females in the C57BL/6NTac strain release 40% fewer eggs than the WT littermates (Ramos et al., 2004), suggesting an additional defect in ovulation and/or oocyte maturation. Curiously, the same ?N-Zfp36l2 mutation into the SV129 strain resulted in anovulation, prompting us to investigate a potential problem in ovulation and oocyte maturation. Remarkably, only 20% of ?N-Zfp36l2 oocytes in the 129S6/SvEvTac strain matured ex vivo, suggesting a defect on the oocyte meiotic maturation process. Treatment of ?N-Zfp36l2 oocytes with a PKA inhibitor partially rescued the meiotic arrested oocytes. Furthermore, cAMP levels were increased in ?N-Zfp36l2 oocytes, linking the cAMP/PKA pathway and ?N-Zfp36l2 with meiotic arrest. Since ovulation and oocyte maturation are both triggered by LHR signaling, the downstream pathway was investigated. Adenylyl cyclase activity was increased in ?N-Zfp36l2 ovaries only upon LH stimulation. Moreover, we discovered that ZFP36L2 interacts with the 3?UTR of LHR mRNA and that decreased expression levels of Zfp36l2 correlates with higher levels of LHR mRNA in synchronized ovaries. Furthermore, overexpression of ZFP36L2 decreases the endogenous expression of LHR mRNA in a cell line. Therefore, we propose that lack of the physiological down regulation of LHR mRNA levels by ZFP36L2 in the ovaries is associated with anovulation and oocyte meiotic arrest.

Ball, Christopher B.; Rodriguez, Karina F.; Stumpo, Deborah J.; Ribeiro-Neto, Fernando; Korach, Kenneth S.; Blackshear, Perry J.; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Ramos, Silvia B. V.

2014-01-01

287

The Development of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in the Written Production of L2 French  

Science.gov (United States)

The present longitudinal case study investigated the development of fluency, complexity and accuracy--and the possible relationships between them--in the written production of L2 French. We assessed fluency and complexity in five intermediate learners by means of conventional indicators for written L2 (cf. Wolfe-Quintero et al. 1998), while…

Gunnarsson, Cecilia

2012-01-01

288

An efficient synthetic route to stable bis(carbene)borylenes [(L1)(L2)BH].  

Science.gov (United States)

Two-electron reduction of bis(carbene) boronium salts allows for the preparation of unsymmetrically substituted nucleophilic boron derivatives of type (L1)(L2)BH, which are characterized by X-ray crystallography. A single electron reduction of the same starting materials leads to the corresponding boron-centered radical cations (L1)(L2)BH?(+), X(-). PMID:24909943

Ruiz, David A; Melaimi, Mohand; Bertrand, Guy

2014-06-24

289

TCF7L2, dietary carbohydrate, and risk of type 2 diabetes in US women123  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: TCF7L2 is the strongest type 2 diabetes (T2D) locus identified to date, and evidence suggests it plays an important role in insulin synthesis, processing, and secretion. Dietary factors that increase the insulin demand might enhance the risk of T2D associated with TCF7L2 variants.

Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Qi, Lu; Kraft, Peter; Hu, Frank B.

2009-01-01

290

Reduction in Tcf7l2 Expression Decreases Diabetic Susceptibility in Mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: The WNT signaling pathway effector gene TCF7L2 has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unclear how this gene affects diabetic pathogenesis. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of Tcf7l2 haploinsufficiency on metabolic phenotypes in mice.

Yang, Hyekyung; Li, Qing; Lee, Jong-hwan; Shu, Yan

2012-01-01

291

A Study of the Impact of Recasts on Tense Consistency in L2 Output.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports on a small-scale study of recasts--a form of corrective feedback. Subjects were eight adult second language learners (L2) of English. Data consisted of oral and written narratives primed by cartoon series and produced by both subjects in both groups. Recasts were found to be successful because they heightened the L2 learners awareness and…

Han, ZhaoHong

2002-01-01

292

Becoming 'American-Italian": An Immigrant's Narrative of Acquiring English as an L2  

Science.gov (United States)

This article tells the story of a child immigrant's L2 acquisition process. The narrative demonstrates the effects of social and academic factors on motivation to acquire an L2 and the result of immigration at a young age on cultural identity formation. The article begins by discussing the need for research into sociocultural factors in the second…

Amicucci, Ann N.

2012-01-01

293

L2 Acquisition of Bulgarian Clitic Doubling: A Test Case for the Interface Hypothesis  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to expand the testing ground of the Interface Hypothesis (Sorace, 2006) by investigating the degree to which second language (L2) learners of Bulgarian with English as their first language (L1) had acquired the pragmatic function of clitic doubling as a topicality marker. Advanced and intermediate L2 speakers of…

Ivanov, Ivan P.

2012-01-01

294

The Impact of Vocabulary Preparation on L2 Listening Comprehension, Confidence and Strategy Use  

Science.gov (United States)

Building on previous studies of the effects of planning on second language learners' (L2) oral narratives and writing, this research reports an investigation of the effects of vocabulary preparation prior to a listening comprehension test on L2 learners' vocabulary performance, listening comprehension, confidence levels and strategy use. The…

Chang, Anna Ching-Shyang

2007-01-01

295

Thinking with Your Hands: Speech-Gesture Activity during an L2 Awareness-Raising Task  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on a study of second language (L2) French learners' self-generated use of gesture to think through and resolve a metalinguistic awareness-raising task during small-group work with an expert mediator. Although the use of gesture in L2 communication and pedagogy has recently received increasing attention, little research has…

van Compernolle, Remi A.; Williams, Lawrence

2011-01-01

296

Sidestepping Our "Scare Words": Genre as a Possible Bridge between L1 and L2 Compositionists  

Science.gov (United States)

In light of the increasing student diversity in U.S. university composition classrooms, there is a strong need for collaboration between L1 and L2 writing specialists. Differences in the lexicons of our two fields, however, as well as the philosophical differences embedded in our word choices, can hinder productive L1-L2 communication. The purpose…

Costino, Kimberly A.; Hyon, Sunny

2011-01-01

297

Child L2 English Acquisition of Subject Properties in an Immersion Bilingual Context  

Science.gov (United States)

Although thoroughly analysed in adult second language acquisition (L2A), the acquisition of subject properties in child L2A has not received so much attention and the majority of studies deal with longitudinal data or only with a single subject property. This study contributes new cross-sectional data from 5-year-old Spanish children acquiring…

Ballester, Elizabet Pladevall

2012-01-01

298

Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

Lu, Yanbin

2010-01-01

299

L1-L2 Convergence in Clausal Packaging in Japanese and English  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates L1-L2 convergence among bilinguals at an intermediate (CEFR-B2) level of L2 proficiency, focusing on the clausal packaging of Manner and Path of motion. Previous research has shown cross-linguistic differences between English and Japanese in this domain (Allen et al., 2003; Kita & Ozyurek, 2003, though note Brown &…

Brown, Amanda; Gullberg, Marianne

2013-01-01

300

Implicit Knowledge, Explicit Knowledge, and Achievement in Second Language (L2) Spanish  

Science.gov (United States)

Implicit and explicit knowledge of the second language (L2) are two central constructs in the field of second language acquisition (SLA). In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in obtaining valid and reliable measures of L2 learners' implicit and explicit knowledge (e.g., Bowles, 2011; R. Ellis, 2005). The purpose of the present study…

Gutierrez, Xavier

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Disruption of the complement anaphylatoxin receptor C5L2 exacerbates inflammation in allergic contact dermatitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complement anaphylatoxin C5a is a critical mediator of allergic contact dermatitis, bridging essential aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. This anaphylatoxin functions by interacting with two 7-transmembrane segment receptors, the C5aR and C5L2. The C5aR is a classical G protein coupled receptor, whereas C5L2 is deficient in coupling to G proteins because of variations in the sequence. Our previous work in human neutrophils revealed a unique role for C5L2 in negatively modulating anaphylatoxin receptor mediated cellular activation through interactions with ?-arrestin. When C5L2 is deficient, C5aR-mediated ?-arrestin signaling is greatly enhanced. The work described in this study was undertaken first to determine the effect of C5L2 deficiency in a murine model of contact sensitivity, and second to determine whether the resultant exacerbation of inflammatory parameters reflects a negative modulatory function of C5L2 on the C5aR. First, we find dramatic increases in inflammation in C5L2(-/-) animals compared with wild type mice. Second, these increases are completely reversed following administration of mAb against the C5aR. Thus, in allergic contact sensitivity, as in isolated human neutrophils, C5L2 functions to suppress C5a-C5aR-mediated responses, further underscoring its role as a negative regulator of anaphylatoxin activity. PMID:24043888

Wang, Ruobing; Lu, Bao; Gerard, Craig; Gerard, Norma P

2013-10-15

302

Lexical Knowledge in L1 and L2 Third and Fifth Graders.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study investigated the lexical knowledge of 40 Turkish-Dutch bilingual children aged 9 and 11 years and living in the Netherlands. Results indicate important differences between available lexical knowledge in the first language (L1) and second language (L2); children allot to L1 words less extensive and less varied meaning aspects than to L2…

Verhallen, Marianne; Schoonen, Rob

1998-01-01

303

German Pitches in English: Production and Perception of Cross-Varietal Differences in L2  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examines the effect of cross-varietal prosodic characteristics of two German varieties, Northern Standard German (NG) and Swiss German (SG), on the production and perception of foreign accent in L2 Belfast English. The analysis of production data revealed differences in the realisation of nuclear pitch accents in L1 German and L2…

Ulbrich, Christiane

2013-01-01

304

Vanshing of $L^2$-cohomology and property (T) for groups acting on simplicial complexes  

CERN Document Server

We extend Ballmann and Swiatkowski's work on $L^2$-cohomology of groups acting on simplicial complexes and provide further vanishing results of $L^2$-cohomologies. In particular, we give a new criterion for property (T) for groups acting on an n-dimensional simplcial complex.

Oppenheim, Izhar

2011-01-01

305

Global attractor for weakly damped Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations in $L^2(\\R)$  

CERN Document Server

We prove that the weakly damped nonlinear Schr\\"odinger flow in $L^2(\\mathbb{R})$ provides a dynamical system which possesses a global attractor. The proof relies on the continuity of the Schr\\"odinger flow for the weak topology in $L^2(\\R)$.

Goubet, Olivier

2009-01-01

306

Global attractor for weakly damped Nonlinear Schrödinger equations in $L^2(\\R)$  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We prove that the weakly damped nonlinear Schrödinger flow in $L^2(\\mathbb{R})$ provides a dynamical system which possesses a global attractor. The proof relies on the continuity of the Schrödinger flow for the weak topology in $L^2(\\R)$.

2009-01-01

307

Bounding quantities related to the packing density of 1(L+1)L...2  

CERN Multimedia

We bound several quantities related to the packing density of the patterns 1(L+1)L...2. These bounds sharpen results of B\\'ona, Sagan, and Vatter and give a new proof of the packing density of these patterns, originally computed by Stromquist in the case L=2 and by Price for larger L. We end with comments and conjectures.

Hildebrand, M

2004-01-01

308

Status of the L2 and Lunar Charged Particle Environment Models  

Science.gov (United States)

The L2 Charged Particle Environment (L2-CPE) model is an engineering tool which provides free field charged particle environments for distant magnetotail, magnetosheath, and solar wind environments. L2-CPE is intended for use in assessing contributions from low energy radiation environments (4.1 keV to few MeV) to radiation dose in thin materials used in construction of spacecraft to be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 point. This paper describes the status of the current version of the L2-CPE model including structure of the model used to organize plasma environments into solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail environments, the algorithms used to estimate radiation fluence in sparsely sampled environments, the updated graphical user interface, and output options for flux and fluence environments. In addition, we describe the status and plans for updating the model to include environments relevant to lunar programs.

Minow, Joseph I.; Diekmann, Anne M.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.

2007-01-01

309

Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students’ Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The notion of “learner beliefs” has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners’ beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers’ beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading in English. 190 undergraduate college students completed the Survey of Reading Strategies questionnaire. The results indicated that the subjects in both groups reported almost similar patterns of strategy awareness while reading; however, Indians reported more awareness of global, support and total metacognitive reading strategies than Iranians while no significant difference was reported when using problem-solving strategies. These results can contribute to the necessity of reading strategies training in both contexts. La noción de “creencias del estudiante” ha ganado mucha atención en el ámbito de la adquisición de la segunda lengua. Aunque se han realizado diferentes estudios sobre las creencias de los estudiantes respecto al aprendizaje de la lengua, poco se ha investigado acerca de las creencias de los lectores de segunda lengua y su relación con estrategias de lectura. Este estudio investigó si había diferencias significativas entre los lectores de inglés como lengua extranjera y los lectores de inglés como segunda lengua en cuanto a la conciencia lectora y el uso de estrategias metacognitivas cuando leen en inglés. Ciento noventa estudiantes de pregrado completaron el cuestionario sobre estrategias lectoras. Los resultados mostraron que los sujetos de los dos grupos reportaron un patrón casi similar al uso de conciencia de estrategia mientras leían. Sin embargo, los estudiantes indios reportaron ser más conscientes respecto a estrategias metacognitivas lectoras totales, globales y de apoyo que los estudiantes iraníes, mientras que no se hallaron diferencias significativas al usar estrategias para la resolución de problemas. Estos resultados pueden contribuir a la necesidad de capacitación en estrategias lectoras en ambos contextos.

Karbalaei Alireza

2010-11-01

310

Feedback on Washback of EFL Tests on ELT in L2 Classroom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every year, competence-based tests for the students of all grades in Iranian high schools are introduced. Such tests are the certain components of high school curriculum; therefore, very much attention should be academically paid to them and particularly to their impact on teaching and learning. This study identifies the possible washback effect of English language tests on English language teaching in high schools and further describes the nature of the washback effect in the context of Iran. In order to do so, the booklets of the English language tests for final exams of all four high schools levels in June 2012 were first analysed. Then, thirty EFL classrooms were randomly observed and a questionnaire was filled up by the teachers of those classes to collect their feedback on the washback effect of the tests. Another questionnaire was filled up by thirty students who were randomly chosen from the same classes for their feedback on the washback as well. The analysed collected data indicates that there is a strong relationship between classroom teaching and what the final tests measure showing the presence of washback in all four levels of English language classes in high schools of Iran which is due largely to the scope of university matriculation in Iran. The results also explain that the nature of existing washback on what EFL teachers teach in L2 classes is negative. The negative impact is possibly resulted due to the existing restrictions of teaching and teachers in Iranian schools to meet the needs of the students just for matriculation. 

Ghasemali Azadi

2013-08-01

311

Automatic quantitative morphological analysis of interacting galaxies  

CERN Multimedia

The large number of galaxies imaged by digital sky surveys reinforces the need for computational methods for analyzing galaxy morphology. While the morphology of most galaxies can be associated with a stage on the Hubble sequence, morphology of galaxy mergers is far more complex due to the combination of two or more galaxies with different morphologies and the interaction between them. Here we propose a computational method based on unsupervised machine learning that can quantitatively analyze morphologies of galaxy mergers and associate galaxies by their morphology. The method works by first generating multiple synthetic galaxy models for each galaxy merger, and then extracting a large set of numerical image content descriptors for each galaxy model. These numbers are weighted using Fisher discriminant scores, and then the similarities between the galaxy mergers are deduced using a variation of Weighted Nearest Neighbor analysis such that the Fisher scores are used as weights. The similarities between the ga...

Shamir, Lior; Wallin, John

2013-01-01

312

A comparative assessment of the L1 and L2 reading performance of Grade 7 learners in English  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of English and the indigenous languages in South African schooling is highly contested. Research endorses the mother tongue (L1 as the most appropriate language of learning and teaching (LoLT and the basis for the addition of a second language (L2. However, in South Africa English is the preferred LoLT and English proficiency is integral to academic achievement. This article reports on an investigation of Grade 7 Xitsonga-speaking learners’ reading performance in English and in Xitsonga. Based on a study of the literature on the link between language proficiency and academic success, an empirical inquiry assessed the reading performance of grade 7 Xitsonga-speaking learners using a standardised test in English and in Xitsonga. Learners’ reading performance in both Xitsonga, their L1, and English, their LoLT since grade 4, was poor.

Tintswalo V Manyike

2011-08-01

313

Web 2.0 and Second Language Learning: What Does the Research Tell Us?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews current research on the use of Web 2.0 technologies in second language (L2) learning. Its purpose is to investigate the theoretical perspectives framing it, to identify some of the benefits of using Web 2.0 technologies in L2 learning, and to discuss some of the limitations. The review reveals that blogs and wikis have been…

Wang, Shenggao; Vasquez, Camilla

2012-01-01

314

Examinando a relação L1-L2 na pedagogia de ensino de ESL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste artigo procuro refletir sobre como a relação L1-L2 tem sido tratada nas teorias de aquisição de línguas, na política e na pedagogia de ensino de L2, em especial no ensino de inglês como segunda língua (ESL. Ao longo do estudo, argumento que o ensino de L2 pode se beneficiar do uso da L1 na sala de aula, principalmente quando se trata de crianças em processo de escolarização por meio da L2, ao invés de se concentrar no modelo ideal monolíngüe. O cenário que deu origem a essas reflexões é uma sala de aula de ESL de uma escola de imersão em inglês situada na região centro-oeste do Brasil.This article seeks to reflect on how L1-L2 relationship has been treated in second language theories, policy and pedagogy, mainly in the teaching of English as a second language (ESL. It is argued that language teaching pedagogy would benefit by paying attention to the use of L1 in the L2 classroom, especially in the case of whole schooling through L2, rather than concentrating primarily on the ideal monolingual model. The scenery that motivated these reflections is an ESL classroom of an English immersion school located in the central part of Brazil

Heloísa Augusta Brito de Mello

2005-01-01

315

Executive control modulates cross-language lexical activation during L2 reading: evidence from eye movements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Models of bilingual reading such as Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002) do not predict a central role for domain-general executive control during bilingual reading, in contrast with bilingual models from other domains, such as production (e.g., the Inhibitory Control Model; Green, 1998). We thus investigated whether individual differences among bilinguals in domain-general executive control modulate cross-language activation during L2 sentence reading, over and above other factors such as L2 proficiency. Fifty French-English bilinguals read L2-English sentences while their eye movements were recorded, and they subsequently completed a battery of executive control and L2 proficiency tasks. High- and low-constraint sentences contained interlingual homographs (chat = "casual conversation" in English, "a cat" in French), cognates (piano in English and French), or L2-specific control words. The results showed that greater executive control among bilinguals but not L2 proficiency reduced cross-language activation in terms of interlingual homograph interference. In contrast, increased L2 proficiency but not executive control reduced cross-language activation in terms of cognate facilitation. These results suggest that models of bilingual reading must incorporate mechanisms by which domain-general executive control can alter the earliest stages of bilingual lexical activation. PMID:24446754

Pivneva, Irina; Mercier, Julie; Titone, Debra

2014-05-01

316

Asimmetrie L1/L2: una sfida nella didattica di “lingua e traduzione”.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Asymmetries Between L1 and L2: a Challenge in the Teaching of "Language and Translation" Language teaching is deeply connected to the cognitive and brain sciences. The attribution of meaning of linguistic messages depends on the interaction between the communicant’s brain and the external world. The interaction is based on the cognitive and emotional experience shared by a L-community. Competence in L2 is acquired by the development of an internal data base of contextualised .units of living speech. (Lurija 1976. L2 teaching is particularly successful when the L2 units are inscribed in memory by means of the functionally equivalent L1 units. Selection of the L1/L2 correspondent units is due to the principle of markedness: each unit of L1 has a functional equivalent in one and only one unit of the L2. Because of the interlingual asymmetries (a set of Italian/Russian examples is given, functional equivalence differs from morphosyntactic and lexical equivalence. The competency in ascribing a degree of markedness to each linguistic unit needs the regular implicit acquisition of the L2 intonational and prosodic system; the processes of the metalinguistic conscious reflection are instead a .hindrance. to the procedural acting of a “living speaker”.

Laura Salmon

2004-12-01

317

Trajectory and stability of Lagrangian point $L_2$ in the Sun-Earth system  

CERN Multimedia

This paper describes design of the trajectory and analysis of the stability of collinear point $L_2$ in the Sun-Earth system. The modified restricted three body problem with additional gravitational potential from the belt is used as the model for the Sun-Earth system. The effect of radiation pressure of the Sun and oblate shape of the Earth are considered. The point $L_2$ is asymptotically stable upto a specific value of time $t$ correspond to each set of values of parameters and initial conditions. The results obtained from this study would be applicable to locate a satellite, a telescope or a space station around the point $L_2$.

Kushvah, Badam Singh

2010-01-01

318

Proficient Pair of Replacement Algorithms on L1 and L2 Cache for Merge Sort  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Memory hierarchy is used to compete the processors speed. Cache memory is the fast memory which is used to conduit the speed difference of memory and processor. The access patterns of Level 1 cache (L1) and Level 2 cache (L2) are different, when CPU not gets the desired data in L1 then it accesses L2. Thus the replacement algorithm which works efficiently on L1 may not be as efficient on L2. Similarly various applications such as Matrix Multiplication, Web, Fast Fourier Tran...

Gupta, Richa; Tokekar, Sanjiv

2010-01-01

319

L1: MADRINHA OU MADRASTA? – O PAPEL DA L1 NA AQUISIÇÃO DA L2*  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste artigo discuto o papel da L1 no desenvolvimento da competência em L2 bem como na aquisição de conhecimentos. Ao longo de minhas reflexões, argumento que o ensino de L2 pode se beneficiar do uso da L1 na sala de aula, principalmente quando se trata de crianças em processo de escolarização por meio da L2, ao invés de se concentrar no modelo ideal monolíngüe. O cenárioque deu origem a essas reflexões é uma sala de aula de ESL de uma escola de imersão em inglês situada na região centro-oeste do Brasil.

HELOÍSA AUGUSTA BRITO DE MELLO

2004-01-01

320

RELATIONSHIP AMONG INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY, NOTICING, AND L2 SPEECH PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Working memory is the human cognitive system in charge of the simultaneous and temporary processing and storage of information in the performance of complex cognitive tasks. A long tradition of research has shown that individual differences in working memory capacity are related to level of performance in these tasks. In the present study, we examine the relationship among individual differences in working memory capacity, noticing, and L2 speech production. It is suggested that working memory capacity is related to accuracy in L2 speech production but not to the ability to notice L2 formal aspects in the input.

Mailce Borges Mota Fortkamp

2007-09-01

 
 
 
 
321

Sobre a aquisição de uma língua semi-pro-drop como L2 =On the L2 acquisition of a semi-pro-drop language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo apresenta um experimento sobre a aquisição de L2 da Restrição do Pronome Pleno (RPP, Overt Pronoun Constraint, um princípio universal que refere ao fato que as línguas de sujeito nulo não permitem que um pronome pleno seja ligado por um antecedente quantificado (e. g. *Ninguémi acha que elei é estúpido. O objetivo era testar o conhecimento deste princípio com falantes nativos de português brasileiro (PB e falantes de inglês e espanhol, aprendizes de PB como L2 e L3, respectivamente. A questão principal desta pesquisa era se é mais provável que os falantes nativos do PB observem o princípio ou não, mas também se os aprendizes de L2 e L3 do PB se comportariam como os falantes nativos, como falantes de uma língua típica de sujeito nulo ou de acordo com a sua língua nativa. Assumindo o Bilinguismo Universal de Roeper (1999 e utilizando uma tarefa experimental baseada em Kanno (1997 e Rothman e Iverson (2007 a-c, mostrou-se que os controles nativos de PB não se comportaram como falantes de línguas típicas de sujeito nulo em relação à RPP. Além disso, os aprendizes de L2 e L3 do PB se comportaram de forma semelhante aos controles, independente das línguas adquiridas anteriormente.

Molsing, Karina Veronica

2011-01-01

322

An Attempt towards Learner Autonomy in L2 (English) an L3 (Arabic) Reading through Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategy Instruction (CMRSI) in L2  

Science.gov (United States)

This experimental study was intended to raise learner autonomy among Iranian native speakers of Persian in their L2 (English) and L3 (Arabic) reading comprehension through cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies instruction (CMRSI). The subjects of the study were divided into intermediate and advanced English language proficiency levels and…

Talebi, Seyed Hassan

2009-01-01

323

Bilingual Lexical Access during L1 Sentence Reading: The Effects of L2 Knowledge, Semantic Constraint, and L1-L2 Intermixing  

Science.gov (United States)

Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function…

Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

2011-01-01

324

Embodiment and second-language: automatic activation of motor responses during processing spatially associated L2 words and emotion L2 words in a vertical Stroop paradigm.  

Science.gov (United States)

Converging evidence suggests that understanding our first-language (L1) results in reactivation of experiential sensorimotor traces in the brain. Surprisingly, little is known regarding the involvement of these processes during second-language (L2) processing. Participants saw L1 or L2 words referring to entities with a typical location (e.g., star, mole) (Experiment 1 & 2) or to an emotion (e.g., happy, sad) (Experiment 3). Participants responded to the words' ink color with an upward or downward arm movement. Despite word meaning being fully task-irrelevant, L2 automatically activated motor responses similar to L1 even when L2 was acquired rather late in life (age >11). Specifically, words such as star facilitated upward, and words such as root facilitated downward responses. Additionally, words referring to positive emotions facilitated upward, and words referring to negative emotions facilitated downward responses. In summary our study suggests that reactivation of experiential traces is not limited to L1 processing. PMID:24681402

Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

2014-05-01

325

Learning to Learn  

Science.gov (United States)

Everyone learns in a different way--for some, learning comes naturally, but for others it can be a real struggle. Many negative experiences of education are a result of individuals not knowing how they learn most effectively, or believing that they do not have the capacity to learn well. Addressing the issues of how individuals learn can help…

Roberts, Dominic

2010-01-01

326

A leitura em língua estrangeira e os efeitos da frequência e da consistência do insumo lexical em L2 / L2 reading and the effects of frequency and consistency of the L2 lexical input  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho investiga o papel da consistência e da frequência do input lexical na leitura em L2 de forma a destacar duas importantes características do conexionismo dinamicista na leitura: a combinação não-linear de restrições probabilísticas e a divisão de trabalho. Essas características são comp [...] lementares e, juntas, explicam a alta interação observada em investigações baseadas na premissa de que o input é uma combinação rica de diferentes tipos de informação cujas tendências emergentes guiam a aquisição. Para ilustrar isso, são apresentadas evidências de dois estudos, que tratam: 1) da interação entre os efeitos da frequência e da consistência do input lexical na prevalência da assimilação vocálica durante uma tarefa de leitura de palavras com estudantes brasileiros de inglês; 2) do papel dos fonastemas na construção da compreensão textual em inglês (L2). Abstract in english This paper looks into the role of lexical input consistency and frequency in L2 reading to highlight two important features of dynamic connectionism in reading: nonlinear combination of probabilistic constraints and division of labour. Such features are complementary and together they account for th [...] e interaction observed in investigations grounded on the postulate that the input is a rich combination of different types of information whose emerging biases guide acquisition. For that purpose, evidence is presented from two studies, which deal with: 1) the interaction between the effects of English lexical frequency and consistency in the prevalence of vowel assimilation during a word naming task among Brazilian students of English; 2) the role of phonastemes in building textual comprehension in English (L2).

Márcia C, Zimmer.

327

A Reflection on "The Language Learning Potential" of Written CF  

Science.gov (United States)

For more than 30 years, different opinions about whether written corrective feedback (CF) is a worthwhile pedagogical practice for L2 learning and acquisition have been voiced. Despite the arguments for and against its potential to help L2 learners acquire the target language and the inconclusive findings across studies that have sought answers to…

Bitchener, John

2012-01-01

328

Functional Connectivity Changes in Second Language Vocabulary Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional connectivity changes in the language network (Price, 2010), and in a control network involved in second language (L2) processing (Abutalebi & Green, 2007) were examined in a group of Persian (L1) speakers learning French (L2) words. Measures of network integration that characterize the global integrative state of a network (Marrelec,…

Saidi, Ladan Ghazi; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Pelegrini-Issac, Melani; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana-Ines

2013-01-01

329

IL FENOMENO DELL’ALTERNANZA L1/L2 NELL’INSEGNAMENTO DELL’ITALIANO COME LINGUA STRANIERA. ANALISI DI UN CORPUS DI INTERAZIONI DIDATTICHE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La modalità plurilingue della comunicazione in classi di lingua straniera può rientrare tra le strategie pedagogiche a disposizione dell’insegnante per il raggiungimento di precisi scopi didattici e formativi. Partendo da una breve analisi sul significato di parlante plurilingue e plurilinguismo stesso, in questo articolo si è voluto esaminare come si attua una educazione al plurilinguismo in contesti formativi e, in particolare, se e come l’utilizzo della L1 può costituire uno strumento di supporto all’insegnamento e all’apprendimento di una lingua straniera. A questo scopo sono stati analizzati i dati raccolti presso l’Università di Coventry durante corsi di italiano L2 per studenti anglofoni. I fenomeni di contatto linguistico L1/L2 più frequenti e significativi sono stati suddivisi in base al parlante e alle loro funzioni.   The phenomena of l1/l2 alternation in the teaching of italian as a foreign language. analysis of a corpus of didactic interactions Multilingual communication in foreign language classrooms can be considered as one of the teacher’s pedagogical  strategies to achieve specific educational aims. Through a brief analysis of the meaning of multilingual speakers and multilingualism, this article examines how an education to multilingualism in teaching contexts is carried out and, in particular, if and how the use of the L1 can be a helpful tool for the foreign language teaching and learning. For this purpose the data collected at Coventry University during Italian (L2 classrooms for English students were examined. The more common and meaningful phenomena of linguistic contact between L1 and L2 were grouped according to the speaker and to their functions.

Paola Arrigoni

2012-02-01

330

ARE THEY WATCHING? TEST-TAKER VIEWING BEHAVIOR DURING AN L2 VIDEO LISTENING TEST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The accessibility of video technology has made it possible to utilize both the auditory and visual channels to present listening texts in the second language (L2 classroom and on L2 listening tests. However, there has been little research investigating the extent to which L2 listeners actually watch the video monitor when presented with a listening video text. The current study investigated test-taker behavior on an L2 video listening test. Thirty-six test-takers were videotaped while taking a listening test composed of six separate video texts, and the amount of time test-takers made eye contact with the video monitor was computed. An analysis of the data indicated that the group of participants oriented to the video monitor 69% of the time while the video text was played. In addition, the study yielded valuable information concerning the consistency of the test-takers’ viewing behavior.

Elvis Wagner

2007-02-01

331

Explicit L2 inequalities for parabolic and pseudoparabolic equations with Neumann boundary conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Explicit L2 inequalities are derived for second and third order diffusion equations with Neumann boundary conditions. Such inequalities are useful in approximating solutions to partial differential equations by the method of a priori inequalities.

J. R. Kuttler

1978-03-01

332

The Critical Period of L2 Acquisition Studies: Implications for Researchers in Chinese EFL Context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the studies centring on the Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH, the major contributor to early L2 instruction in China. It firstly finds out that, in recent studies of CP in L2 acquisition settings (roughly after the year of 2000; a lot more variables besides the age factor have been integrated. The critical period studies in L2 settings has triggered diverse and even competing versions; while in Chinese EFL context, the critical period studies are still in its initial stage, i.e., concentrating on Ages of Onset (AOs . The paper thus points out the implications of the CP studies in L2 settings for researches in Chinese EFL context.

Wuhan Zhu

2011-11-01

333

Cohomologie $L^2$ des vari\\'{e}t\\'{e}s QALE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We give a topological interpretation of the space of $L^2$ harmonis forms of some QALE manifolds introduced by D. Joyce. We introduce a analytical criterium which make possible the used of Mayer-Vietoris sequence.

Carron, Gilles

2005-01-01

334

Blowup for the Damped $L^{2}$-Critical Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger Equation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider the Cauchy problem for the $L^{2}$-critical damped nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. We prove existence and stability of finite time blowup dynamics with the log-log blow-up speed for $\\|\

Darwich, Mohamad

2011-01-01

335

Unique splicing pattern of the TCF7L2 gene in human pancreatic islets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Intronic variation in the TCF7L2 gene exhibits the strongest association to type 2 diabetes observed to date, but the mechanism whereby this genetic variation translates into altered biological function is largely unknown. A possible explanation is a genotype-dependent difference in the complex splicing pattern; however, this has not previously been characterised in pancreatic or insulin target tissues. Here, the detailed TCF7L2 splicing pattern in five human tissues is described and dependence on risk genotype explored.

Osmark, P; Hansson, O

2009-01-01

336

GOCE SSTI L2 tracking losses and their impact on POD performance:  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The state-of-the-art GOCE Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking Instrument (SSTI) delivers high-quality GPS data with an almost continuous 1 Hz data rate, which allows for very Precise Orbit Determination (POD). Despite this good performance, the GPS receiver shows occasional unexpected L2 tracking losses, which mainly occur close to the geomagnetic poles and, to a lesser extent, also along the geomagnetic equator. The number of unexpected L2 tracking losses varies in time and shows some correlatio...

Den Ijssel, J. A. A.; Visser, P. N. A. M.; Doornbos, E. N.; Meyer, U.; Bock, H.; Ja?ggi, A.

2011-01-01

337

On Chinese EFL Learners’ Homonym Processing in Relation to Their Organization of L2 Mental Lexicon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Based on the models of lexical ambiguity resolution and the organization of L2 mental lexicon proposed by previous researchers in recent years, this paper aimed at investigating the correlation between the Chinese EFL learners’ homonym processing in relation to their organization of L2 mental lexicon through cross-modal sentence-priming lexical decision tasks and word association tasks completed by both English major and non-English major students. The results showed that there is a positiv...

Xiumei Yu; Zhenyu Xu; Lan Sun

2011-01-01

338

Object Pronouns in German L3 Syntax: Evidence for the L2 Status Factor  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies on L3 lexicon, and recently also some on L3 syntax, have convincingly shown a qualitative difference between the acquisition of a true L2 and the subsequent acquisition of an L3. Some studies even indicate that L2 takes on a stronger role than L1 in the initial state of L3 syntax (e.g. Bardel and Falk, 2007; Rothman and Cabrelli…

Falk, Ylva; Bardel, Camilla

2011-01-01

339

Working memory capacity and L2 University Students comprehension of linear texts and hypertexts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between working memory capacity and L2 reading comprehension of both linear texts and hypertexts. Three different instruments were used to measure comprehension (recall, comprehension questions and perception of contradictions) and the Reading Span Test (Daneman & Carpenter, 1980) was used as a measure of working memory capacity. Forty-two speakers of English as an L2 from two different L1 backgrounds (21 Brazilians and 21 Chinese)...

Ingrid Fontanini; Lêda Maria Braga Tomitch

2009-01-01

340

A Multimeric L2 Vaccine for Prevention of Animal Papillomavirus Infections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is unclear what level of neutralizing antibody is sufficient to protect cattle from experimental bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV4) challenge. Markedly lower, and often undetected, serum neutralizing antibody titers were associated with protection in cattle vaccinated with BPV4 L2 as compared to L1 VLP. We hypothesized that vaccination with concatemers of the N-terminal protective epitopes of L2 derived from multiple animal papillomavirus types would enhance the breadth and strength of im...

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

A Computational Investigation of Cohesion and Lexical Network Density in L2 Writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study used a new computational linguistics tool, the Coh-Metrix, to investigate and measure the differences in cohesion and lexical network density between native speaker and non-native speaker writing, as well as to investigate L2 proficiency level differences in cohesion and lexical network density. This study analyzed data from three corpora with the Coh-Metrix: the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE) as an L2 higher proficiency group, the Louvain Corpus&...

2012-01-01

342

Reframing one's experience: Face, identity and roles in L2 argumentative discourse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper argues that the field of interlanguage pragmatics – the study of L2 use and development – has neglected facework strategies that are directed towards the speaker rather than the hearer. These strategies serve to present particular identities and qualities of the speaker. This is exemplified through examples from L2 learners of German at three different levels of proficiency taking part in an argumentation task and retrospective interviews with thee learners. The analysis shows ...

2008-01-01

343

Based on combination of L2TP and IPSec VPN security technology research  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report is written to provide a method of building secure VPN by combination of L2TP and IPSec in order to meet the requirements of secure transmission of data and improve the VPN security technology. It remedies the secured short comes of L2TP Tunneling Protocol Tunneling Protocol and IPSec security. Simulation and analysis show that the construction method can improve the security of data transmission, and the simulation results of VPN is valuable for security prof...

Ya-qin Fan; Chi Li; Chao Sun

2012-01-01

344

Comparative testicular transcriptome of wild type and globozoospermic Dpy19l2 knock out mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BackgroundGlobozoospermia is a male infertility phenotype characterized by the presence in the ejaculate of near 100% acrosomeless round-headed spermatozoa with normal chromosomal content. Following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) these spermatozoa give a poor fertilization rate and embryonic development. We showed previously that most patients have a 200 kb homozygous deletion, which includes DPY19L2 whole coding sequence. Furthermore we showed that the DPY19L2 protein is loca...

Karaouze?ne, Thomas; El Atifi, Miche?le; Issartel, Jean-paul; Grepillat, Marianne; Coutton, Charles; Martinez, Delphine; Arnoult, Christophe; Ray, Pierre

2013-01-01

345

The Relationship between (Meta)cognitive Strategies and Reading Comprehension in Iranian Female L2 Learners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study aimed to examine the possible effects of the Iranian elementary female L2 learners’ (meta)cognitive reading strategy knowledge on their reading comprehension in 3 different stages of reading, that is, prereading, while-reading, and postreading phases. In order to control the language proficiency factor, 40 L2 learners were selected through the application of the Oxford Placement Test. The participants belonged to 2 different age groups. Twenty of them were selected from th...

2012-01-01

346

Finite-dimensional duality on the generalized Lie algebra s l(2)q  

Science.gov (United States)

We show a local duality between the left and right finite-dimensional representations on the enveloping algebra of s l(2)q, the generalized Lie algebra introduced by Lyubashenko and Sudbery. This duality works in a general context of algebras satisfying certain algebraic properties; our goal in this paper is to prove that the enveloping algebra of s l(2)q satisfies these abstract properties.

Jara, P.; Jódar, J.

2002-04-01

347

Differences in adult L2 grammars of Lithuanian: The case of gender agreement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article presents results obtained from an empirical investigation into the acquisition of gender agreement in Lithuanian as a second language (L2). A total of 59 L2 learners of Lithuanian and 10 Lithuanian native speakers, as controls, took part in this study. The participants came from diverse ?rst language (L1) backgrounds (i.e., Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Latvian, and English). The data were collected using a written translation task. The results of the study showed some st...

Simona Ma?iukaité

2008-01-01

348

Identification and characterization of the human Cdc2l2 gene promoter.  

Science.gov (United States)

The CDK11 (cyclin-dependent kinase 11, formerly known as PITSLRE) protein kinases are part of the large family of p34(cdc2)-related kinases and have been shown to play a role in cell cycle progression, RNA processing and apoptosis. They are encoded by two genes-cell division control like 1 (Cdc2L1) and cell division control like 2 (Cdc2L2). To date, little is known about the transcription factors controlling their expression. To understand the mechanisms underlying the regulation of CDK11 gene expression, we cloned and identified the Cdc2L2 promoter and determined its transcriptional regulatory elements. By deletion analysis, a region between nucleotides -145 and +10 was identified to be critical for basal level transcription of the Cdc2L2 gene. Sequencing analysis revealed that the proximal promoter of the Cdc2L2 gene is GC rich and does not contain TATA and CAAT boxes. However, multiple consensus and near consensus transcription factor binding sites were found to be present in this region, such as two Ets-1, one cAMP-responsive element (CRE) and one TCF11/LCR-F1/Nrf1 binding sites. Site-directed mutagenesis and transfection studies revealed that all these binding sites were necessary to achieve sustained transcriptional activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that transcription factors Ets-1 and CREB bind to the Cdc2L2 promoter elements, indicating their potential role in the transcriptional regulation of Cdc2L2 gene. More importantly, Ets-1, CREB and phosphorylated CREB were found binding to the endogenous Cdc2L2 promoter using chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay. Our results provide the foundation for further studies into the regulation of Cdc2L2 gene expression in normal homeostasis and cancer. PMID:15087126

Feng, Yongmei; Goulet, Anne-Christine; Nelson, Mark A

2004-04-14

349

A new sequential algorithm for L2-approximation and application to Monte-Carlo integration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We design a new stochastic algorithm (called SALT) that sequentially approximates a given function in L2 w.r.t. a probability measure, using a finite sample of the distribution. By increasing the sets of approximating functions and the simulation effort, we compute a L2-approximation with higher and higher accuracy. The simulation effort is tuned in a robust way that ensures the convergence under rather general conditions. Then, we apply SALT to build efficient control variates for accurate n...

Gobet, Emmanuel; Surana, Khushboo

2014-01-01

350

Low Parametric Sensitivity Realizations with relaxed L2-dynamic-range-scaling constraints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a new dynamic-range scaling for the implementation of filters/controllers in state-space form. Relaxing the classical L2-scaling constraints by specific fixed-point considerations allows for a higher degree of freedom for the optimal L2-parametric sensitivity problem. However, overflows in the implementation are still prevented. The underlying constrained problem is converted into an unconstrained problem for which a solution can be provided. This leads to realizations whi...

Hilaire, Thibault

2009-01-01

351

The Effect of Using Print Media on Children’s L2 Literacy Development: A Longitudinal Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper tries to examine the effect of using print media in the classroom on the children’s L2 literacy development in an EFL context. Since reading is regarded as a chief goal, in many second/foreign language teaching situations, it receives a special focus. Media as a tool for language learning/teaching, can help both instructed and non-instructed learners to overcome the difficult task of language learning. In order to determine the effects of print media usage on the development of children’s foreign language reading abilities, 30 children aged between 7-8 familiar to English alphabet were selected. Based on DIBELS performance, participants were homogenized and assigned as low group. According to National Reading Panel, story books, magazines and newspapers were used to teach five areas of reading proficiency, i.e. phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and text comprehension. After one year of instruction, based on DIBELS performance, participants were assigned to medium and high groups; implying the effect of direct instruction and print media usage in classrooms for developing foreign language reading abilities. 

Mansoor Tavakoli

2013-05-01

352

A Novel Pair of Replacement Algorithms for L1 and L2 Cache for FFT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Processors speed is much faster than memory; to bridge this gap cache memory is used. This paper proposes a preeminent pair of replacement algorithms for Level 1 cache (L1 and Level 2 cache (L2 respectively for the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. The access patterns of L1 and L2 are different, when CPU does not get the desired data in L1 then it refers to L2. Thus the replacement algorithm which works efficiently for L1 may not be efficient for L2. With the memory access pattern of FFT, the paper has simulated and analyzed the behavior of various existing replacement algorithms on L1 and L2 respectively. The replacement algorithms which are taken into consideration are: Least Recently Used (LRU, Least Frequently Used (LFU and First In First Out (FIFO.This paper has also proposed new replacement algorithms for L1 (FFTNEW1 and for L2 (FFTNEW2 respectively for the same application. Simulation results shows that by applying the proposed pair of replacement algorithms miss rates are considerably reduced.

Ms. Richa Gupta

2010-01-01

353

A Computational Investigation of Cohesion and Lexical Network Density in L2 Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study used a new computational linguistics tool, the Coh-Metrix, to investigate and measure the differences in cohesion and lexical network density between native speaker and non-native speaker writing, as well as to investigate L2 proficiency level differences in cohesion and lexical network density. This study analyzed data from three corpora with the Coh-Metrix: the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE as an L2 higher proficiency group, the Louvain Corpus of Native English Essays (LOCNESS as a native speaker baseline, and a collected EFL corpus from Indonesia for the L2 lower proficiency data. Statistical investigation of the Coh-Metrix results revealed that five out of six Coh-Metrix variables used in this study did not detect proficiency level differences in L2 but the tool was consistently able to distinguish between L2 and native speaker writing. Differences included that L2 writing contains more argument overlap, more semantic overlap, more frequent content words, fewer abstract verb hyponyms and less causal content than native speaker writing.

Clarence Green

2012-06-01

354

A critical role for C5L2 in the pathogenesis of experimental allergic asthma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complement fragment C5a plays dual roles in the development of experimental allergic asthma. It protects from pulmonary allergy by a regulatory effect on dendritic cells during allergen sensitization, but is proallergic during the effector phase. C5a can bind to two distinct receptors (i.e., C5a receptor and C5a receptor-like 2 [C5L2]). The functional role of C5L2 in vivo remains enigmatic. In this study, we show in two models of OVA- and house dust mite (HDM)-induced experimental allergic asthma that C5L2-deficient mice are protected from the development of airway hyperresponsiveness, Th2 cytokine production, eosinophilic airway inflammation, serum IgE, or mucus production. Surprisingly, HDM-induced experimental asthma in C5L2-deficient mice was associated with increased pulmonary IL-17A production and increased airway neutrophil numbers. To directly assess the role of C5L2 on myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) during allergen sensitization, we performed single or repeated adoptive transfers of C5L2-deficient mDCs into wild-type mice. HDM-pulsed C5L2-deficient mDCs induced strong Th2 cytokine production, which was associated with marked IFN-? and IL-17A production, decreased eosinophil numbers, and reduced IgE production as compared with HDM-pulsed mDCs from wild-type mice. HDM stimulation of C5L2(-/-) mDCs in vitro resulted in production of Th17-promoting cytokine IL-23, which was absent in wild-type mDCs. Our findings suggest that C5L2 acts at the mDC/T cell interface to control the development of Th1 and Th17 cells in response to airway HDM exposure. Furthermore, it drives Th2 immune responses independent of mDCs, suggesting a complex role for C5L2 in the development of experimental allergic asthma. PMID:20974988

Zhang, Xun; Schmudde, Inken; Laumonnier, Yves; Pandey, Manoj K; Clark, Jennifer R; König, Peter; Gerard, Norma P; Gerard, Craig; Wills-Karp, Marsha; Köhl, Jörg

2010-12-01

355

Early L2 English Teaching in Iceland. A literature review of possible L2 effects on L1 early literacy development  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis examines what effects early English instruction as a foreign language instruction may have on early literacy development in the first language. English exposure is high in Iceland and in light of recent changes in the curriculum for Icelandic grammar schools, where English instruction begins at ever lower levels; several questions have been left unanswered. Although not much research has been conducted on the possible effects of early L2 instruction on L1 literacy development, a...

2010-01-01

356

A critical function of Mad2l2 in primordial germ cell development of mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of primordial germ cells (PGCs) involves several waves of epigenetic reprogramming. A major step is following specification and involves the transition from the stably suppressive histone modification H3K9me2 to the more flexible, still repressive H3K27me3, while PGCs are arrested in G2 phase of their cycle. The significance and underlying molecular mechanism of this transition were so far unknown. Here, we generated mutant mice for the Mad2l2 (Mad2B, Rev7) gene product, and found that they are infertile in both males and females. We demonstrated that Mad2l2 is essential for PGC, but not somatic development. PGCs were specified normally in Mad2l2(-/-) embryos, but became eliminated by apoptosis during the subsequent phase of epigenetic reprogramming. A majority of knockout PGCs failed to arrest in the G2 phase, and did not switch from a H3K9me2 to a H3K27me3 configuration. By the analysis of transfected fibroblasts we found that the interaction of Mad2l2 with the histone methyltransferases G9a and GLP lead to a downregulation of H3K9me2. The inhibitory binding of Mad2l2 to Cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) could arrest the cell cycle in the G2 phase, and also allowed another histone methyltransferase, Ezh2, to upregulate H3K27me3. Together, these results demonstrate the potential of Mad2l2 in the regulation of both cell cycle and the epigenetic status. The function of Mad2l2 is essential in PGCs, and thus of high relevance for fertility. PMID:24009519

Pirouz, Mehdi; Pilarski, Sven; Kessel, Michael

2013-08-01

357

C5L2, a nonsignaling C5A binding protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

C5a anaphylatoxin, a potent inflammatory mediator, is known to act through a specific G protein coupled receptor. However, some of the complex effects of C5a in vivo may not be explained solely by the deletion of the known receptor. Here, we show that an orphan receptor, identified as C5L2, is a high affinity C5a binding protein. Unlike the previously described C5aR, C5L2 is obligately uncoupled from heterotrimeric G proteins, in part by virtue of an amino acid alteration in the so-called DRY sequence at the end of the third transmembrane segment. Both human and murine C5L2 bear a leucine for arginine replacement at this site. C5L2, when transfected into several cell types, is weakly phosphorylated in transfected cells following binding of C5a but does not induce significant activation of MAP kinases, mediate calcium flux, or stimulate chemotaxis. Bone marrow cells from wild type respond robustly to C5a with induction and suppression of a number of inflammation related genes. In contrast, C5a receptor deficient mice, which bear C5L2 alone, do not respond to C5a with changes in gene transcription by microarray analyses. Biophysical properties of the C5L2, including slow ligand on and off rates, absence of internalization, and relatively high affinity for the C5a des Arg metabolite, suggest that this receptor may serve to modulate C5a biological functions in vivo. Finally, in contrast to previous reports, we find absolutely no interaction of C5L2 with other anaphylatoxins C3a and C4a. PMID:12899627

Okinaga, Shoji; Slattery, Dubhfeasa; Humbles, Alison; Zsengeller, Zsusanna; Morteau, Olivier; Kinrade, Michele Bennett; Brodbeck, Robbin M; Krause, James E; Choe, Hye-Ryun; Gerard, Norma P; Gerard, Craig

2003-08-12

358

A Contrastive Study of English-Arabic Noun Morphology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study aims at comparing and contrasting English and Arabic noun morphology to determine the points where they differ. These differences are the main cause of difficulty in the learning of the second language. Teaching will be directed at those points where there are structural differences. This in turn determines what the teacher has to teach and what the learner has to learn. The whole focus of the present analysis will be confined to noun morphology in both languages.

Jamal Azmi Salim

2013-01-01

359

The Impact of an Online Learning Community Project on University Chinese as a Foreign Language Students' Motivation  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the impact of an online learning community project on university students' motivation in learning Chinese as a foreign language. A newly proposed second language (L2) motivation theory--the L2 motivational self system (Dornyei, 2005, 2009)--guided this study. A concurrent transformative mixed-methods design was employed to…

Cai, Shengrong; Zhu, Wei

2012-01-01

360

Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological and Orthographic Processing Skills from Spanish L1 to English L2  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous cross-language research has focused on L1 phonological processing and its relation to L2 reading. Less extensive is the research on the effect that L1 orthographic processing skill has on L2 reading and spelling. This study was designed to investigate how reading and spelling acquisition in English (L2) is influenced by phonological and…

Sun-Alperin, M. Kendra; Wang, Min

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Plasticity of recurrent l2/3 inhibition and gamma oscillations by whisker experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Local recurrent networks in neocortex are critical nodes for sensory processing, but their regulation by experience is much less understood than for long-distance (translaminar or cross-columnar) projections. We studied local L2/3 recurrent networks in rat somatosensory cortex during deprivation-induced whisker map plasticity, by expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in L2/3 pyramidal cells and measuring light-evoked synaptic currents in ex vivo S1 slices. In columns with intact whiskers, brief light impulses evoked recurrent excitation and supralinear inhibition. Deprived columns showed modestly reduced excitation and profoundly reduced inhibition, providing a circuit locus for disinhibition of whisker-evoked responses observed in L2/3 in vivo. Slower light ramps elicited sustained gamma frequency oscillations, which were nearly abolished in deprived columns. Reduction in gamma power was also observed in spontaneous LFP oscillations in L2/3 of deprived columns in vivo. Thus, L2/3 recurrent networks are a powerful site for homeostatic modulation of excitation-inhibition balance and regulation of gamma oscillations. PMID:24094112

Shao, Yu R; Isett, Brian R; Miyashita, Toshio; Chung, Jason; Pourzia, Olivia; Gasperini, Robert J; Feldman, Daniel E

2013-10-01

362

DPY19L2 deletion as a major cause of globozoospermia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Globozoospermia, characterized by round-headed spermatozoa, is a rare (globozoospermia, we showed that the four out of five analyzed infertile brothers carried a homozygous deletion of 200 kb on chromosome 12 encompassing only DPY19L2. Very similar deletions were found in three additional unrelated patients, suggesting that DPY19L2 deletion is a major cause of globozoospermia, given that 19% (4 of 21) of the analyzed patients had such deletion. The deletion is most probably due to a nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR), because the gene is surrounded by two low copy repeats (LCRs). We found DPY19L2 deletion in patients from three different origins and two different breakpoints, strongly suggesting that the deletion results from recurrent events linked to the specific architectural feature of this locus rather than from a founder effect, without fully excluding a recent founder effect. DPY19L2 is associated with a complete form of globozoospermia, as is the case for the first two genes found to be associated with globozoospermia, SPATA16 or PICK1. However, in contrast to SPATA16, for which no pregnancy was reported, pregnancies were achieved, via intracytoplasmic sperm injection, for two patients with DPY19L2 deletion, who then fathered three children. PMID:21397063

Koscinski, Isabelle; Elinati, Elias; Fossard, Camille; Redin, Claire; Muller, Jean; Velez de la Calle, Juan; Schmitt, Françoise; Ben Khelifa, Mariem; Ray, Pierre F; Ray, Pierre; Kilani, Zaid; Barratt, Christopher L R; Viville, Stéphane

2011-03-11

363

Immunization with a consensus epitope from human papillomavirus L2 induces antibodies that are broadly neutralizing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vaccines targeting conserved epitopes in the HPV minor capsid protein, L2, can elicit antibodies that can protect against a broad spectrum of HPV types that are associated with cervical cancer and other HPV malignancies. Thus, L2 vaccines have been explored as alternatives to the current HPV vaccines, which are largely type-specific. In this study we assessed the immunogenicity of peptides spanning the N-terminal domain of L2 linked to the surface of a highly immunogenic bacteriophage virus-like particle (VLP) platform. Although all of the HPV16 L2 peptide-displaying VLPs elicited high-titer anti-peptide antibody responses, only a subset of the immunogens elicited antibody responses that were strongly protective from HPV16 pseudovirus (PsV) infection in a mouse genital challenge model. One of these peptides, mapping to HPV16 L2 amino acids 65-85, strongly neutralized HPV16 PsV but showed little ability to cross-neutralize other high-risk HPV types. In an attempt to broaden the protection generated through vaccination with this peptide, we immunized mice with VLPs displaying a peptide that represented a consensus sequence from high-risk and other HPV types. Vaccinated mice produced antibodies with broad, high-titer neutralizing activity against all of the HPV types that we tested. Therefore, immunization with virus-like particles displaying a consensus HPV sequence is an effective method to broaden neutralizing antibody responses against a type-specific epitope. PMID:24962748

Tyler, Mitchell; Tumban, Ebenezer; Dziduszko, Agnieszka; Ozbun, Michelle A; Peabody, David S; Chackerian, Bryce

2014-07-23

364

Demotivating Factors for English Language Learning Among University Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Demotivation is a relatively new issue in the field of second/foreign Language (L2) learning motivation. Recognizing and removing barriers can have a marked effect on motivation and attention to learning in general and ESL/EFL learning in particular. Demotivating factors are essential factors which negatively influence the learner?s attitudes and behaviors and hence lead to undesired learning outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effectiv...

Reyhaneh Ghadirzadeh; Hashtroudi, Fariba P.; Omid Shokri

2012-01-01

365

Global existence for an L^2 critical Nonlinear Dirac equation in one dimension  

CERN Document Server

We prove global existence from $L^2$ initial data for a nonlinear Dirac equation known as the Thirring model. Local existence in $H^s$ for $s>0$, and global existence for $s>1/2$, has recently been proven by Selberg and Tesfahun by using $X^{s, b}$ spaces together with a type of null form estimate. In contrast, motivated by the recent work of Machihara, Nakanishi, and Tsugawa, we first prove local existence in $L^2$ by using null coordinates, where the time of existence depends on the profile of the initial data. To extend this to a global existence result we need to rule out concentration of $L^2$ norm, or charge, at a point. This is done by decomposing the solution into an approximately linear component and a component with improved integrability. We then prove global existence for all $s>0$.

Candy, Timothy

2011-01-01

366

Differences in adult L2 grammars of Lithuanian: The case of gender agreement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents results obtained from an empirical investigation into the acquisition of gender agreement in Lithuanian as a second language (L2. A total of 59 L2 learners of Lithuanian and 10 Lithuanian native speakers, as controls, took part in this study. The participants came from diverse ?rst language (L1 backgrounds (i.e., Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Latvian, and English. The data were collected using a written translation task. The results of the study showed some statistically significant differences between English speaking learners of Lithuanian and non-native English speaking learners of Lithuanian. The findings support the Full Transfer Full Access hypothesis (Schwartz, Sprouse 1994, 1996 which argues for the interaction of L1 transfer and Universal Grammar in the development of adult L2 grammars.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa4.06

Simona Ma?iukaité

2008-05-01

367

Working memory capacity and L2 University Students comprehension of linear texts and hypertexts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between working memory capacity and L2 reading comprehension of both linear texts and hypertexts. Three different instruments were used to measure comprehension (recall, comprehension questions and perception of contradictions and the Reading Span Test (Daneman & Carpenter, 1980 was used as a measure of working memory capacity. Forty-two speakers of English as an L2 from two different L1 backgrounds (21 Brazilians and 21 Chinese participated in the study. The results obtained signal to the fact that hypertexts might compromise comprehension, especially for low-span participants. The broad conclusion achieved in this study is that different variables including readers’ working memory capacity, their first language, and the mode of text presentation may interfere in L2 reading, and each one of these aspects might hamper, in different ways, the construction of a coherent mental representation of the text being read.

Lêda Maria Braga Tomitch

2009-12-01

368

COMPLEXITY AND INTERACTION: COMPARING THE DEVELOPMENT OF L1 AND L2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In research into first and second language development,the focus has mainly been either on the formal features of learner language alone (both L1 and L2 or on the interaction between learners and their caretakers (L1 or native speaker peers (L2. These research traditions have been kept apart even though it has been widely acknowledged that both first and second languages are appropriated essentially in social interaction. This paper aims to strengthen the connection between social and formal approaches by combining interactional views with those focusing on the structural complexity of learner language.Some excerpts from L1 and L2 interaction data (in the Finnish language are discussed. It is suggested that segmentation of linguistic material occurs in everyday situations and serves as a link between interaction and the growth of structural complexity in learner language. To situate this argument into a broader theoretical framework, various socially oriented research paradigms are briefly discussed.

Lea Nieminen

2011-01-01

369

The Dirichlet problem with L2-boundary data for elliptic linear equations  

CERN Document Server

The Dirichlet problem has a very long history in mathematics and its importance in partial differential equations, harmonic analysis, potential theory and the applied sciences is well-known. In the last decade the Dirichlet problem with L2-boundary data has attracted the attention of several mathematicians. The significant features of this recent research are the use of weighted Sobolev spaces, existence results for elliptic equations under very weak regularity assumptions on coefficients, energy estimates involving L2-norm of a boundary data and the construction of a space larger than the usual Sobolev space W1,2 such that every L2-function on the boundary of a given set is the trace of a suitable element of this space. The book gives a concise account of main aspects of these recent developments and is intended for researchers and graduate students. Some basic knowledge of Sobolev spaces and measure theory is required.

Chabrowski, Jan

1991-01-01

370

On the one-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation below L^2  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we review several recent results concerning well-posedness of the one-dimensional, cubic Nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLS) on the real line R and on the circle T for solutions below the L^2-threshold. We point out common results for NLS on R and the so-called "Wick ordered NLS" (WNLS) on T, suggesting that WNLS may be an appropriate model for the study of solutions below L^2(T). In particular, in contrast with a recent result of Molinet who proved that the solution map for the periodic cubic NLS equation is not weakly continuous from L^2(T) to the space of distributions, we show that this is not the case for WNLS.

Oh, Tadahiro

2010-01-01

371

Immunogenic assessment of plant-produced human papillomavirus type 16 L1/L2 chimaeras.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical cancer is caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV) and is a global concern, particularly in developing countries, which have ~80% of the burden. HPV L1 virus-like particle (VLP) type-restricted vaccines prevent new infections and associated disease. However, their high cost has limited their application, and cytological screening programmes are still required to detect malignant lesions associated with the nonvaccine types. Thus, there is an urgent need for cheap second-generation HPV vaccines that protect against multiple types. The objective of this study was to express novel HPV-16 L1-based chimaeras, containing cross-protective epitopes from the L2 minor capsid protein, in tobacco plants. These L1/L2 chimaeras contained epitope sequences derived from HPV-16 L2 amino acid 108-120, 56-81 or 17-36 substituted into the C-terminal helix 4 (h4) region of L1 from amino acid 414. All chimaeras were expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana via an Agrobacterium-mediated transient system and targeted to chloroplasts. The chimaeras were highly expressed with yields of ~1.2 g/kg plant tissue; however, they assembled differently, indicating that the length and nature of the L2 epitope affect VLP assembly. The chimaera containing L2 amino acids 108-120 was the most successful candidate vaccine. It assembled into small VLPs and elicited anti-L1 and anti-L2 responses in mice, and antisera neutralized homologous HPV-16 and heterologous HPV-52 pseudovirions. The other chimaeras predominantly assembled into capsomeres and other aggregates and elicited weaker humoral immune responses, demonstrating the importance of VLP assembly for the immunogenicity of candidate vaccines. PMID:23924054

Pineo, Catherine B; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

2013-10-01

372

Abductive Reasoning and Second Language Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although much work has been conducted on deductive and inductive approaches to second language learning, insufficient attention has been dedicated to abductive reasoning. This paper presents the results from an exploratory study on the processes that motivate initial hypothesis-making and their possible repercussions for L2 instruction. More specifically, the beginner foreign language learners’ ability to infer word meaning based on their overall linguistic knowledge (e.g., knowledge of the first language, knowledge of other foreign languages was tested in order to draw conclusions about abductive reasoning in L2 learning.

Gorana G. Zecevic Krneta

2012-03-01

373

Corrective Feedback in L2 Writing: Theoretical Perspectives, Empirical Insights, and Future Directions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The role of (written) corrective feedback (CF) in the process of acquiring a second language (L2) has been an issue of considerable controversy among theorists and researchers alike. Although CF is a widely applied pedagogical tool and its use finds support in SLA theory, practical and theoretical objections to its usefulness have been raised (e.g. Truscott, 1996; 1999; 2004; 2007; 2009). In the present paper, I start by summarizing the theoretical arguments underpinning the use of CF in L2 c...

2010-01-01

374

Based on combination of L2TP and IPSec VPN security technology research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report is written to provide a method of building secure VPN by combination of L2TP and IPSec in order to meet the requirements of secure transmission of data and improve the VPN security technology. It remedies the secured short comes of L2TP Tunneling Protocol Tunneling Protocol and IPSec security. Simulation and analysis show that the construction method can improve the security of data transmission, and the simulation results of VPN is valuable for security professionals to refer.

Chao Sun

2012-01-01

375

Mass concentration for the $L^2$-critical Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations of higher orders  

CERN Document Server

We consider the mass concentration phenomenon for the $L^2$-critical nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations of higher orders. We show that any solution $u$ to $iu_{t} + (-\\Delta)^{\\frac\\alpha 2} u =\\pm |u|^\\frac{2\\alpha}{d}u$, $u(0,\\cdot)\\in L^2$ for $\\alpha >2$, which blows up in a finite time, satisfies a mass concentration phenomenon near the blow-up time. We verify that as $\\alpha$ increases, the size of region capturing a mass concentration gets wider due to the stronger dispersive effect.

Chae, Myeongju; Lee, Sanghyuk

2009-01-01

376

An exact formula for the $L_{2}$ discrepancy of the shifted Hammersley point set  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this note we prove an exact formula for the $L_2$ discrepancy of the shifted two-dimensional Hammersley point set in base $2$. Our formula shows that this quantity only depends on the number of zero digits in the dyadic expansion of the shift and the cardinality of the point set. Our result is the solution to an open problem stated by O. Strauch. Further we obtain the best shifts from our formula and we show that the $L_2$ discrepancy of the shifted two-dimensional Hammersley point set in base $2$ satisfies a central limit theorem.

Peter Kritzer

2006-12-01

377

Global L2-boundedness theorems for a class of Fourier integral operators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The local $L^2$-mapping property of Fourier integral operators has been established in H\\"ormander \\cite{H} and in Eskin \\cite{E}. In this paper, we treat the global $L^2$-boundedness for a class of operators that appears naturally in many problems. As a consequence, we will improve known global results for several classes of pseudo-differential and Fourier integral operators, as well as extend previous results of Asada and Fujiwara \\cite{AF} or Kumano-go \\cite{Ku}. As an ap...

Ruzhansky, Michael; Sugimoto, Mitsuru

2003-01-01

378

On the asymptotic expansion of the curvature of perturbations of the $L_{2}$ connection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We establish that the Hitchin connection is a perturbation of the $L_{2}$-connection. We notice that such a formulation of the Hitchin connection does not necessarily require the manifold in question possessing a rigid family of Kähler structures. We then proceed to calculate the asymptotic expansion of general perturbations of the $L_{2}$-connection, and see when under certain assumptions such perturbations are flat and projectively flat. During the calculations we also found an asymptotic expansion of the projection operator $\\pi_{\\sigma}^{\\left(k\\right)}$ which projects onto the holomorphic sections of the k-th tensor of prequantum line bundle.

De, Amit

2013-01-01

379

The TCF7L2 locus and type 1 diabetes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background TCF7L2 belongs to a subfamily of TCF7-like HMG box-containing transcription factors, and maps to human chromosome 10q25.3. A recent study identified genetic association of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with this gene, correlated with diminished insulin secretion. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of genetic association between TCF7L2 and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods The SNP most significantly associated with T2D, rs7...

Qu Hui-Qi; Polychronakos Constantin

2007-01-01

380

Syntactic Analysis of L2 Learner Language : Looking closer at the Noun Phrase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper is a study of the noun phrase construction in L2 learner language and the base for the study are the tools for measuring syntactic maturity presented by Kellog W. Hunt (1966). Hunt and other scholars have used T-units, the smallest terminable unit in language, to analyze L2 learner language. This study however, analyzes the construction of the noun phrase instead of T-units. Although the focus differs there are many similarities between the method used in this study and in those an...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

The L2:L3 intensity ratio in soft X-ray emission spectra of 3d-metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present L2,3 X-ray emission spectra of the 3d-metals Ti through Cu. It is found that the ratio of the integrated non-resonant emission intensities of L2 to L3 emission, I(L2)/I(L3), is approximately two times smaller than the ratio of the core hole state degeneracies (L2/L3 = 1/2). Our atomic calculations show that the L2L3M4,5 Coster-Kronig transition is responsible for the reduction of the I(L2)/I(L3) intensity ratio and explains its gradual decrease with increasing atomic number among the 3d transition metals. For the resonant case we find that accounting for the core-hole interaction and local field effects via TDDFT satisfactorily explains the changes in the I(L2)/I(L3) ratio

2005-07-01

382

Learner Training for L2 Learners: A Selected Review of Content and Method.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is suggested, based on research findings on learner strategies, that second language curriculum planners and teachers can and should provide students with opportunities to refine their learning skills. This can be accomplished by expanding their repertoire of learning strategies and refining their awareness of aspects of language learning. A…

Wenden, Anita L.

383

Nuclear fuel rod behavior during LOFT experiment L2-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor is providing data to evaluate analytical models to predict the thermal-hydraulic and fuel rod response of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. The fuel rod response for the first nuclear loss-of-coolant experiment (LOCE), LOCE L2-2, is summarized

1979-05-02

384

Nuclear fuel rod behavior during LOFT experiment L2-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program is providing data to evaluate analytical models used to predict the thermal-hydraulic and fuel rod response of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. The fuel rod response for the first nuclear loss-of-coolant experiment (LOCE), LOCE L2-2, is summarized

1979-06-28

385

Raising the Linguistic Accuracy Level of Advanced L2 Writers with Written Corrective Feedback  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents the findings of a study that investigated (1) the extent to which written corrective feedback (CF) can help advanced L2 learners, who already demonstrate a high level of accuracy in two functional uses of the English article system (the use of "a" for first mention and "the" for subsequent or anaphoric mentions), further…

Bitchener, John; Knoch, Ute

2010-01-01

386

Corrective Feedback in L2 Writing: Theoretical Perspectives, Empirical Insights, and Future Directions  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of (written) corrective feedback (CF) in the process of acquiring a second language (L2) has been an issue of considerable controversy among theorists and researchers alike. Although CF is a widely applied pedagogical tool and its use finds support in SLA theory, practical and theoretical objections to its usefulness have been raised…

Van Beuningen, Catherine

2010-01-01

387

L1/L2/L3 Writing Development: Longitudinal Case Study of a Japanese Multicompetent Writer  

Science.gov (United States)

This longitudinal case study, supplemented by cross-sectional comparisons among five groups of writers with differing backgrounds, investigates how Natsu, a Japanese multilingual writer, developed her L1, L2 (English), and L3 (Chinese) writing competence over two and a half years. To create a comprehensive picture of this multilingual writer, the…

Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

2013-01-01

388

Cognate effects in sentence context depend on word class, L2 proficiency, and task.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noun translation equivalents that share orthographic and semantic features, called "cognates", are generally recognized faster than translation equivalents without such overlap. This cognate effect, which has also been obtained when cognates and noncognates were embedded in a sentence context, emerges from the coactivation of representations in two languages. The present study examined whether cognate facilitation in sentences is subject to effects of word class, reading proficiency in a second language (L2), and task demands. We measured eye movements (Experiment 1) and self-paced reading times (Experiment 2) for Dutch-English bilinguals reading L2 sentences that contained either a noun or a verb cognate. Results showed that cognate effects were smaller for verbs than for nouns. Furthermore, cognate facilitation was reduced for readers with a higher proficiency in L2 as expressed by self-ratings or reading speed in L2. Additionally, the results of the eye-movement study and the self-paced reading study indicated that the likelihood of observing cognate facilitation effects also depends on task demands. The obtained pattern of results helps to identify some of the boundaries of the cognate effect. PMID:24295513

Bultena, Sybrine; Dijkstra, Ton; van Hell, Janet G

2014-06-01

389

Computational Assessment of Lexical Differences in L1 and L2 Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed analysis of how lexical differences related to cohesion and connectionist models can distinguish first language (L1) writers of English from second language (L2) writers of English. Key to this analysis is the use of the computational tool Coh-Metrix, which measures cohesion and text difficulty at…

Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

2009-01-01

390

Interpreting Definiteness in a Second Language without Articles: The Case of L2 Russian  

Science.gov (United States)

This article investigates the second language (L2) acquisition of two expressions of the semantic feature [definite] in Russian, a language without articles, by English and Korean native speakers. Within the Feature Reassembly approach (Lardiere, 2009), Slabakova (2009) has argued that reassembling features that are represented overtly in the…

Cho, Jacee; Slabakova, Roumyana

2014-01-01

391

Experiment data report for LOFT Power Ascension Test L2-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Test L2-2 was the first test in the Power Ascension Test Series (Test Series L2) of nuclear full double-ended cold leg break tests conducted by the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. The specific objectives of Test L2-2 were to determine fuel rod-to-coolant heat transfer in the postcritical heat flux regime and to determine whether any cladding perforation occurs as a result of a 26.25 kW/m maximum linear heat generation rate (50% rated core power). To satisfy these objectives, the LOFT facility was configured to simulate a large (approx. 1000 MWe) pressurized water reactor loss-of-coolant accident resulting from a 200% double-ended offset shear break in the cold leg of the primary coolant system. The initial conditions in the primary coolant system intact loop were: hot leg temperature, 580.4 K; cold leg temperature, 557.7 K; pressure, 15.64 MPa; and intact loop flow, 194.2 kg/s. During system depressurization into a simulated containment, emergency core cooling water was injected into the primary coolant system cold leg to provide data on the effects of emergency core cooling on system thermal-hydraulic response. The experiment was successful in accomplishing these objectives. Recorded data for Test L2-2 are presented

1979-01-01

392

Achieving Reference in Talk-in-Interaction: L1 and L2 English Speakers' Conversation  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation examines conversations between L1 and L2 English speakers for interactional procedures whereby speakers make an initial reference to a target and achieve recognition of it, using the methodology of conversation analysis. Data comes from a series of conversations between two Korean adolescents and one American graduate student.…

Kim, Younhee

2009-01-01

393

Noticing and Uptake: Addressing Pre-Articulated Covert Problems in L2 Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

The assumption underlying research on feedback is that, in writing, feedback is something provided for what actually shows up in the learner's text. However, a new dimension may need to be added to the debate in light of the Noticing Hypothesis, the Output Hypothesis, and the emerging evidence on what L2 learners actually notice as they produce…

Hanaoka, Osamu; Izumi, Shinichi

2012-01-01

394

Failure mode effect and consequence analysis for LOFT's power ascension experiment ''L2-2''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents a failure mode effects and consequence analysis (FMECA) for all LOFT systems required for the power ascention experiment L2-2. The analysis identified component failure modes that could result in equipment damage and/or experiment delay

1978-01-01

395

The Acquisition of Interpretable Features in L2 Spanish: Personal "a"  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines the acquisition of interpretable features in English second language (L2) learners of Spanish by investigating the personal preposition a in Spanish. The distribution of a in direct object NPs relates to the animacy/specificity of the NP, the animacy/agentivity of the subject, and the semantics of the predicate (Torrego, 1998;…

Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro

2012-01-01

396

Some mixed Hodge structure on l^2-cohomology of covering of K\\"ahler manifolds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We give methods to compute l^2-cohomology groups of a covering manifolds obtained by removing pullback of a (normal crossing) divisor to a covering of a compact K\\"ahler manifold. We prove that in suitable quotient categories, these groups admit natural mixed Hodge structure whose graded pieces are given by expected Gysin maps.

Dingoyan, Pascal

2010-01-01

397

L2 EVIDENCE FOR THE STRUCTURE OF THE L1 LEXICON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper 1 suggest that L2 research could provide answers to questions concerning the structure of L1 grammars that cannot, as a matter of logic, be answered by only examining L1 data and intuitions. In other words, L2 data from an individual P can provide 'external' evidence bearing on the structure of P's L1 grammar, Ll,. This type of evidence will be particularly welcome where competing theories of Ll, are extensionally equivalent where they generate the sarne output representations. 1 am proposing, therefore, that L2 research need not restrict itself to maintaining consistency with work in theoretical linguistic modeling. Instead L2 research can itself make unique contributions to the general theory of grammar. In addition to potentially leading to fruitful results, the issues that provide the background to the discussion warrant examination on other grounds, since they help clarifj the goals of linguistic research and the compatibility of various frameworks of linguistic theory with their own stated goals.

Charles Reiss

2001-06-01

398

Metalinguistic Knowledge and Language Ability in University-Level L2 Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

Existing research indicates that instructed learners' L2 proficiency and their metalinguistic knowledge are moderately correlated. However, the operationalization of the construct of metalinguistic knowledge has varied somewhat across studies. Metalinguistic knowledge has typically been operationalized as learners' ability to correct, describe,…

Roehr, Karen

2008-01-01

399

Exploring a New Technique for Comparing Bilinguals' L1 and L2 Reading Speed  

Science.gov (United States)

Is it possible to tell whether bilinguals are able to read simple text in their two languages equally fluently? Is it thus possible to distinguish balanced bilinguals from unbalanced bilinguals with respect to reading fluency in their first language (L1) and second language (L2)? In this study, we avoided making direct comparisons between L1 and…

Gauvin, Hanna S.; Hulstijn, Jan H.

2010-01-01

400

Partial Word Knowledge: Frontier Words in the L2 Mental Lexicon  

Science.gov (United States)

The study set out to examine the partial word knowledge of native speakers, L2 advanced, and intermediate learners of English with regard to four word features from Richards' (1976) taxonomy of aspects describing what knowing a word entails. To capture partial familiarity, the participants completed in writing a test containing low and mid…

Zareva, Alla

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Fast wave eigenmodes in the L-2 stellarator during ICR plasma heating  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental results on propagation and damping of waves and excitation of eigenmodes during ICR plasma heating in the L-2 stellarator are presented and explained theoretically. In the theoretical model, plasma and magnetic field inhomogeneities and the presence of an Alfven resonance are included. The experimental results are in good agreement with the calculations

1986-11-13

402

L-2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria is a Diagnostic Indicator of Leukodystrophy: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive inherited neurometabolic disorder.It is characterized by slow progressive neurological dysfunction with cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, intellectual decline, and seizures. Herein, we report a case of a 7-year-old boy from Tehran whose symptoms and signs indicated leukoencephalopathy with macrocephaly and motor delay.

Mahmoud Reza ASHRAFI

2011-09-01

403

On non-$L^{2}$ solutions to the Seiberg-Witten equations  

CERN Multimedia

We show that a previous paper of Freund describing a solution to the Seiberg-Witten equations has a sign error rendering it a solution to a related but different set of equations. The non-$L^2$ nature of Freund's solution is discussed and clarified and we also construct a whole class of solutions to the Seiberg-Witten equations.

Adam, C; Nash, C

2000-01-01

404

The Tick Salivary Protein Sialostatin L2 Inhibits Caspase-1-Mediated Inflammation during Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Saliva from arthropod vectors facilitates blood feeding by altering host inflammation. Whether arthropod saliva counters inflammasome signaling, a protein scaffold that regulates the activity of caspase-1 and cleavage of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-18 into mature molecules, remains elusive. In this study, we provide evidence that a tick salivary protein, sialostatin L2, inhibits inflammasome formation during pathogen infection. We show that sialostatin L2 targets caspase-1 activity during host stimulation with the rickettsial agent Anaplasma phagocytophilum. A. phagocytophilum causes macrophage activation and hemophagocytic syndrome features. The effect of sialostatin L2 in macrophages was not due to direct caspase-1 enzymatic inhibition, and it did not rely on nuclear factor ?B or cathepsin L signaling. Reactive oxygen species from NADPH oxidase and the Loop2 domain of sialostatin L2 were important for the regulatory process. Altogether, our data expand the knowledge of immunoregulatory pathways of tick salivary proteins and unveil an important finding in inflammasome biology. PMID:24686067

Chen, Gang; Wang, Xiaowei; Severo, Maiara S; Sakhon, Olivia S; Sohail, Mohammad; Brown, Lindsey J; Sircar, Mayukh; Snyder, Greg A; Sundberg, Eric J; Ulland, Tyler K; Olivier, Alicia K; Andersen, John F; Zhou, Yi; Shi, Guo-Ping; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S; Kotsyfakis, Michail; Pedra, Joao H F

2014-06-01

405

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Explicit Instruction on Implicit and Explicit L2 Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effectiveness of explicit instruction on second language (L2) learners' implicit and explicit knowledge of English. Explicit instruction on the generic and non-generic use of English articles was delivered by CALL activities. Four tasks assessed acquisition: elicited imitation, oral production, grammaticality judgement, and…

Akakura, Motoko

2012-01-01

406

Eventive and Stative Passives in Spanish L2 Acquisition: A Matter of Aspect  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on an empirical study that examined knowledge of eventive and stative passives in the L2 Spanish grammar of L1 speakers of English. Although the two types of passive exist in English, the difference between them is not signaled in any specific way. In Spanish, in contrast, the distinction is marked by the choice of copula: "ser"…

De Garavito, Joyce Bruhn; Valenzuela, Elena

2008-01-01

407

The "Promise" of Three Methods of Word Association Analysis to L2 Lexical Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study is an attempt to empirically test and compare the results of three methods of word association (WA) analysis. Two of the methods--namely, associative commonality and nativelikeness, and lexico-syntactic patterns of associative organization--have been traditionally used in both first language (L1) and second language (L2

Zareva, Alla; Wolter, Brent

2012-01-01

408

Global, Local or Glocal? Identities of L2 Learners in English as a Lingua Franca Communication  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on an exploratory inquiry into the perceptions of a group of second language (L2) learners of English with regard to their identities in English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) communication contexts. Drawing upon data gathered from two rounds of in-depth interviews with nine participants from a Hong Kong university, the study found…

Sung, Chit Cheung Matthew

2014-01-01

409

Spectral Models for Orthonormal Wavelets and Multiresolution Analysis of $L^2({\\mathbb R})$  

CERN Document Server

Spectral representations of the dilation and translation operators on $L^2({\\mathbb R})$ are built through appropriate bases. Orthonormal wavelets and multiresolution analysis are then described in terms of rigid operator-valued functions defined on the functional spectral spaces. The approach is useful for computational purposes.

Gómez-Cubillo, F

2009-01-01

410

L1 and L2 Observatories for Earth Science Vision in the Post-2010 Era  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA's Post-2010 Earth Science Vision is partly built around a new paradigm called the Sensor Web, involving a collaborating set of sensors ranging from deep space, at the L1 and L2 (Lagrange) points, down to the ocean and land surfaces. L1 and L2 observatories, roughly 1.5 million km from Earth towards and away from the Sun, respectively, provide unique vantage points. from L1, the entire sunlit face of the Earth is visible, and from L2, the entire night side. In tandem, they can observe the entire Earth simultaneously, with much less stitching than now needed to patch together the five operational geostationary images. This makes new kinds of science possible, especially science requiring synoptic (simultaneous) observations over the whole globe. Triana, the pioneer of these kinds of observatories, is currently waiting for a launch opportunity. We will describe the novel features of the Triana mission, and of the L1 and L2 vantage points, with examples of the kinds of science that can be done from these points and examples of the way in which Earth observation from such great distances is pushing instrument technology.

Wiscombe, Warren; Herman, Jay; Valero, Francisco; Lau, William (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

411

Child L2 Development of Syntactic and Discourse Properties of Spanish Subjects  

Science.gov (United States)

The apparent optionality in the use of null and overt pronominal subjects and the apparently free word order or distribution of preverbal and postverbal subjects in Spanish obey a number of discourse-pragmatic constraints which play an important role in Spanish L2 subject development. Although research on subject properties at the syntax-discourse…

Pladevall Ballester, Elisabet

2010-01-01

412

Individual Differences and Text Genre in L2 French Reading Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

Reading in another language (L2) is a complex, multidimensional process dependent upon both reader-based and text-based factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of reader-based individual difference variables and of the text-based variable of genre in reading comprehension in French. The sample included 153 adult learners…

Foss, Julie A.

2009-01-01

413

Proficient Pair of Replacement Algorithms on L1 and L2 Cache for Merge Sort  

CERN Document Server

Memory hierarchy is used to compete the processors speed. Cache memory is the fast memory which is used to conduit the speed difference of memory and processor. The access patterns of Level 1 cache (L1) and Level 2 cache (L2) are different, when CPU not gets the desired data in L1 then it accesses L2. Thus the replacement algorithm which works efficiently on L1 may not be as efficient on L2. Similarly various applications such as Matrix Multiplication, Web, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) etc will have varying access pattern. Thus same replacement algorithm for all types of application may not be efficient. This paper works for getting an efficient pair of replacement algorithm on L1 and L2 for the algorithm Merge Sort. With the memory reference string of Merge Sort, we have analyzed the behavior of various existing replacement algorithms on L1. The existing replacement algorithms which are taken into consideration are: Least Recently Used (LRU), Least Frequently Used (LFU) and First In First Out (FIFO). After A...

Gupta, Richa

2010-01-01

414

The Effects of Input-Based and Output-Based Instruction on L2 Development  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of input and output on the development of L2 knowledge. Participants included 129 third-semester Persian learners of English enrolled in 5 intact EFL classrooms functioning as four experimental groups and one control group. Two experimental groups received two types of input-based instruction, which differed…

Rassaei, Ehsan

2012-01-01

415

On the $L^{2}$-critical nonlinear Schr\\"odinger Equation with a nonlinear damping  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider the Cauchy problem for the $L^{2}$-critical nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equation with a nonlinear damping. According to the power of the damping term, we prove the global existence or the existence of finite time blowup dynamics with the log-log blow-up speed for $\\|\

Darwich, Mohamad

2012-01-01

416

A multiplicative property characterizes quasinormal composition operators in $L^2$-spaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A densely defined composition operator in an $L^2$-space induced by a measurable transformation $\\phi$ is shown to be quasinormal if and only if the Radon-Nikodym derivatives $h_{\\phi^n}$ attached to powers $\\phi^n$ of $\\phi$ have the multiplicative property: $h_{\\phi^n} = h_{\\phi}^n$ almost everywhere for n = 0, 1, 2, ....

Budzynski, Piotr; Jablonski, Zenon Jan; Jung, Il Bong; Stochel, Jan

2012-01-01

417

The L1 vs. L2 Acquisition of English Interrogation. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 15.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several recent reports on the untutored second language acquisition of English have suggested that the same developmental sequence holds for the acquisition of the interrogative structures irrespective of whether English is acquired as a first language (L1) or a second language (L2). These studies have been conducted within the Klima & Bellugi…

Wode, Henning

418

Technetium(I) complexes Tc(CO)3BrL2 (L = phosphine, pyridine, isocyanide)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technetium pentacarbonyl bromide reacts with ?-acceptor ligands L (L = phosphine, pyridine, isocyanide) to form disubstituted compounds of the type Tc(CO)3BrL2. The stereochemistry of the complexes was established by infrared and 1H-NMR measurement. Chemical shifts and the half-widths of the 99Tc-NMR signals are discussed. (author)

1988-01-01

419

Monoallelic and biallelic mutations in MAB21L2 cause a spectrum of major eye malformations.  

Science.gov (United States)

We identified four different missense mutations in the single-exon gene MAB21L2 in eight individuals with bilateral eye malformations from five unrelated families via three independent exome sequencing projects. Three mutational events altered the same amino acid (Arg51), and two were identical de novo mutations (c.151C>T [p.Arg51Cys]) in unrelated children with bilateral anophthalmia, intellectual disability, and rhizomelic skeletal dysplasia. c.152G>A (p.Arg51His) segregated with autosomal-dominant bilateral colobomatous microphthalmia in a large multiplex family. The fourth heterozygous mutation (c.145G>A [p.Glu49Lys]) affected an amino acid within two residues of Arg51 in an adult male with bilateral colobomata. In a fifth family, a homozygous mutation (c.740G>A [p.Arg247Gln]) altering a different region of the protein was identified in two male siblings with bilateral retinal colobomata. In mouse embryos, Mab21l2 showed strong expression in the developing eye, pharyngeal arches, and limb bud. As predicted by structural homology, wild-type MAB21L2 bound single-stranded RNA, whereas this activity was lost in all altered forms of the protein. MAB21L2 had no detectable nucleotidyltransferase activity in vitro, and its function remains unknown. Induced expression of wild-type MAB21L2 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells increased phospho-ERK (pERK1/2) signaling. Compared to the wild-type and p.Arg247Gln proteins, the proteins with the Glu49 and Arg51 variants had increased stability. Abnormal persistence of pERK1/2 signaling in MAB21L2-expressing cells during development is a plausible pathogenic mechanism for the heterozygous mutations. The phenotype associated with the homozygous mutation might be a consequence of complete loss of MAB21L2 RNA binding, although the cellular function of this interaction remains unknown. PMID:24906020

Rainger, Joe; Pehlivan, Davut; Johansson, Stefan; Bengani, Hemant; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Williamson, Kathleen A; Ture, Mehmet; Barker, Heather; Rosendahl, Karen; Spranger, Jürgen; Horn, Denise; Meynert, Alison; Floyd, James A B; Prescott, Trine; Anderson, Carl A; Rainger, Jacqueline K; Karaca, Ender; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Jhangiani, Shalini; Muzny, Donna M; Seawright, Anne; Soares, Dinesh C; Kharbanda, Mira; Murday, Victoria; Finch, Andrew; Gibbs, Richard A; van Heyningen, Veronica; Taylor, Martin S; Yakut, Tahsin; Knappskog, Per M; Hurles, Matthew E; Ponting, Chris P; Lupski, James R; Houge, Gunnar; FitzPatrick, David R

2014-06-01

420

Computing Prosodic Morphology  

CERN Document Server

This paper establishes a framework under which various aspects of prosodic morphology, such as templatic morphology and infixation, can be handled under two-level theory using an implemented multi-tape two-level model. The paper provides a new computational analysis of root-and-pattern morphology based on prosody.

Kiraz, G A

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Analogy as a Tool for the Acquisition of English Verb Tenses among Low Proficiency L2 Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The teaching of English grammar to second language learners is usually a tedious, stressful and time consuming activity and even after all the effort, students have generally found these lessons boring and confusing. As such, innovative language instructors have been trying different approaches to the teaching of grammar in their classrooms. Using analogy as a tool for teaching is nothing new especially in science subjects such as Physics. In this comparative study however, analogy is used to teach English verb tenses to low proficiency L2 learners of English. The aim is to investigate the effects of using analogy as a tool for teaching English verb tenses. If using analogy is found to be effective, then it would be interesting to investigate to what extent it can be implemented in the low proficiency classroom. The analogy used has been creatively thought out and incorporated in the lesson with the help of innovative visual aids. A hundred and seventy-two pre-diploma students with low profiency levels of English were selected for this experiment. They were given a pre and post-test task before and after the lesson on verb tenses in order to determine whether the use of analogy implemented during the lesson had a favourable impact to learning. The test scores of the pre and post tests were then compared to verify the feasibility of using analogy in the lesson.

Soo Kum Yoke

2014-03-01

422

Pd2L2 metallacycles as molecular containers for small molecules.  

Science.gov (United States)

M(2)L(2) type metallacyclic complexes, [Pd(2)(L1)(2)Cl(4)]·1.5CH(2)Cl(2) (1), [Pd(2)(L1)(2)Cl(4)]·2CHCl(3) (2), [Pd(2)(L2)(2)Cl(4)]·2CH(2)Cl(2)·2CH(3)CN (3), [Pd(2)(L2)(2)Cl(4)]·2CHCl(3)·2CH(3)CN (4) and [Pd(2)(L3)(2)Cl(4)]·CH(2)Cl(2)·2CH(3)CN (5), have been prepared from three semi-rigid benzimidazol or benzotriazol ligands, 1,4-bis(benzimidazol-1-ylmethyl)-2,3,5,6-tetramethylbenzene (L1), 1,4-bis(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazol-1-ylmethyl)-2,3,5,6-tetramethylbenzene (L2) and 1,4-bis(benzotriazol-1-ylmethyl)-2,3,5,6-tetramethylbenzene (L3). All the complexes were structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and the phase purity was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) measurements. The solution structure of representative complex 1 was studied by (1)H NMR titration and ESI mass spectroscopy. The thermal stability and guest-exchange properties of 1, 3 and 4 were investigated, revealing that the Pd(2)L(2) metallacycles can act as a selective receptor for CH(2)Cl(2) or CHCl(3) guest molecules. The catalytic activity of 1 in Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction was also studied and 1 could be recycled at least 5 times under heterogeneous conditions, indicative of a potential self-supported catalyst. PMID:20967343

Zhang, Qian; He, Lisi; Liu, Jun-Min; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianyong; Su, Cheng-Yong

2010-12-14

423

Dissection of human papillomavirus type 33 L2 domains involved in nuclear domains (ND) 10 homing and reorganization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have recently shown that the minor capsid protein L2 of human papillomavirus type 33 (HPV33) recruits the transcriptional repressor Daxx into nuclear domains (ND) 10 and causes the loss of the transcriptional activator Sp100 from these subnuclear structures . In order to dissect L2 domains involved in nuclear translocation, ND10 homing, loss of Sp100, and recruitment of Daxx, a detailed deletion mutagenesis of L2 was performed. Using immunofluorescence and green fluorescent protein fusions, we have identified two nuclear localization signals (NLS) in the central and C-terminal part of L2, respectively, homologous to previously identified NLS in HPV6B L2 . We mapped the ND10 localization domain to within a 30 amino acid peptide in the C-terminal half of L2. L2-induced attraction of Daxx into ND10, coimmunoprecipitation of L2 and Daxx, as well as induction of the loss of Sp100 from ND10 require an intact ND10 localization domain. This domain contains conserved PXXP motives characteristic of some protein/protein interacting domains. Our data also suggest that the Daxx/L2 interaction may be the driving force for L2 accumulation in ND10

2003-09-15

424

Implicit vs. explicit learning in German noun plurals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the past few decades there has been a lot of debate about language learning and the opinion about the status of mental rule during the process of language learning is still divided between different researches. The present study examines learning morphology of German noun plurals based on rules, examples or on both, rules and examples. The results across these three experimental conditions suggest that the morphological patterns are learned more easily in the form of rules and thus, seem...

2008-01-01

425

Plasma energy balance at ECRH in the L-2M stellarator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments on ECR heating of plasma with reduced radiative energy losses were carried out in the L-2M stellarator (which a classical l=2, m=7 stellarator with large shear ?(0) = 0.185, ?(a) = 0.7; ?(2a/3) = 0.35 major radius R = 100 cm, plasma minor radius a = 11.5 cm, B0 = 1.34 T). A low level of radiative energy losses was attained due to improvement of boundary conditions after boronization of the vacuum chamber. In this work we study the influence of plasma density, heating power and parameters of magnetic configuration (mainly role rotation transform) on the energy confinement. To get database for plasma energy balance analysis ECRH experiments were carried out over a wide range of heating powers P = 100-300kW, plasma densities ne = (0.5-3.0).1013 cm -3 and angle of rotation transform ?(0) = 0.042-0.185. At ne = 2.65.1013 cm-3 and P = 250 kW, the plasma energy reached W = 650 J at Prad = 40 kW, and the energy confinement time was ?E = 2.5 ms. Because of reduced radiation power, the duration of the free plasma energy decay phase (after the heating power was switched off) increased substantially up to 10 ms. From data base obtained, it follows that the steady state of plasma in the L-2M is adequately described by Scaling-L2-05. It is significant that the free-decay phase also obey this law. Scaling L2-05 has some difference from the International Stellarator Scaling ISS95: WL205 = 146 ?2/30.774 ne0.778 P 0.27 ([W]=J, [ne]= 1013cm-3, [P]=KW) and WISS95 = 49.8 ?2/30.4 ne0.51 P0.41 (for L-2M parameters). Analysis of plasma energy balance had shown on existence some particularity for low and high density region: In the region ne ? 2.5.1013 cm -3 and W?450 J the energy confinement time ?E do not depend on the time (It means existence real energy confinement time ?E=const) In the region ne ? 0.6.1013 cm-3 and W?175J ITB (Inner transport barrier) has been detected. The magnetic and Te-profile measurements indicate the existence 'invariable' pressure profile in very wide region of the plasma energy (200 J ? W ? 650 J). It testifies to a weak dependence of heat transport on local pressure values or plasma energy. (author)

2005-10-03

426

WRITING STRATEGIES IN L1 AND L2: ARE THERE DIFERENCES? Estratégias de escrita em L1 e L2: EXISTEM DIFERENÃ?AS? pesquisar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The following paper discusses the L1 and L2 writing strategies of a group of 'Licenciatura' Students. The in-class study focused on revision strategies. It was observed that in the L2, there was more revision at the lexical and sintactic level; whereas, in the L1, there was more revision at the level of the paragraph and idea organization. It was concluded, however, that more research needs to be done in this area in order to come to firmer conclusions. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The following paper discusses the L1 and L2 writing strategies of a group of 'Licenciatura' Students. The in-class study focused on revision strategies. It was observed that in the L2, there was more revision at the lexical and sintactic level; whereas, in the L1, there was more revision at the level of the paragraph and idea organization. It was concluded, however, that more research needs to be done in this area in order to come to firmer conclusions. pesquisar Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The following paper discusses the L1 and L2 writing strategies of a group of 'Licenciatura' Students. The in-class study focused on revision strategies. It was observed that in the L2, there was more revision at the lexical and sintactic level; whereas, in the L1, there was more revision at the level of the paragraph and idea organization. It was concluded, however, that more research needs to be done in this area in order to come to firmer conclusions.

Dilys Karen Rees

1994-01-01

427

Interweaving meaning generation in science with learning to learn together processes using Web 2.0 tools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The literature of the science education does not offer much data concerning meaning generation (MG and learning to learn together (L2L2 processes. The objective of this paper is the study of how a group of students working with an on?line Platform, interact, collaborate and express themselves to generate meanings with regard to moving in 3d Newtonian spaces. The students create models of motions using 3d Juggler, a web?based half?baked microworld and communicate their ideas via the Platform’s shared workspaces. The study was implemented with a small number of Greek students (four of the 8th grade. The results of this study demonstrate that there is a relation between L2L2 processes and the creation of meanings in collectives as they use different web tools. After completing the scientific task (MG, the students of a Subgroup move to the Argumentation/Discussion tool to share with the other Subgroup the values of the parameters for which they attained their goal (L2L2 and MG processes. Distributed leadership and peer assessment are two of those L2L2 key aspects which dominate and influence students’ MG processes.

Zacharoula Smyrnaiou

2012-01-01

428

CONSTRUCTIONS AND OBSTRUCTIONS OF TEACHER EXPLANATION TO STUDENTS’ LEAR-NING: PERSPECTIVES OF STIBA SATYA WACANA STUDENTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated learners’ perspectives on how a teacher explanation can facilitate or hinder their learning. The results suggested that teacher’s use of mixed L1 and L2 in an explanation is preferred by most student-respondents since it can expedite their learning. Using only L2 is also preferred because students believe that it gives them more exposure to English and as English department students, they have to use English. It, however, can impede learning when teachers...

Debora Tri Ragawanti

2007-01-01

429

Exploring the Development of "Interest" in Learning English as a Foreign/Second Language  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper proposes a new conceptual perspective for understanding students' engagement in L2 learning, in particular the concept of interest development in learning English. It investigates situational features that trigger interest in learning English, employing data from interviews with non-native English speaking students studying in TESOL…

Tin, Tan Bee

2013-01-01

430

A Growth Curve Analysis of Novel Word Learning by Sequential Bilingual Preschool Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Longitudinal word learning studies which control for experience can advance understanding of language learning and potential intra- and inter-language relationships in developing bilinguals. We examined novel word learning in both the first (L1) and the second (L2) languages of bilingual children. The rate and shape of change as well as the role…

Kan, Pui Fong; Kohnert, Kathryn

2012-01-01

431

Dimensions of L2 Performance and Proficiency: Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in SLA. Language Learning & Language Teaching. Volume 32  

Science.gov (United States)

Research into complexity, accuracy and fluency (CAF) as basic dimensions of second language performance, proficiency and development has received increased attention in SLA. However, the larger picture in this field of research is often obscured by the breadth of scope, multiple objectives and lack of clarity as to how complexity, accuracy and…

Housen, Alex, Ed.; Kuiken, Folkert, Ed.; Vedder, Ineke, Ed.

2012-01-01

432

Further evidence for a 70, L=2 baryon multiplet (F/sub 35/ (1877) decay)  

CERN Document Server

The recently discovered f-wave dominance of the decay F/sub 35/(1877) to Delta pi is interpreted as requiring mixing between 56, L=2 and 70, L=2 baryon multiplets. This conclusion is drawn in the context of a broken version of SU(6)/sub W/. Further predictions include (a) the existence of a second prominent F/sub 15/ pi N resonance around 2 GeV in mass and (b) the more probable dominance of the 1.9 GeV enhancement seen in pi /sup +/p to Sigma /sup +/(1385)K/sup +/ by P/sub 33/ and P /sub 31/ rather than F/sub 37/ or F/sub 35/ resonances. (30 refs).

Faiman, D; Weyers, J

1973-01-01