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Sample records for l2 morphological learning

  1. Planning, Recasts, and Learning of L2 Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated two issues: (1) whether availability of planning time affects learners' ability to notice and learn from recasts in the input; and (2) whether pre-task or online planning is more effective. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups that formed the treatment conditions: a no planning group (N = 13), a pre-task…

  2. Embodied L2 Construction Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Søren W.; Wagner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This study uses conversation analysis (CA) to investigate the coupling of specific linguistic items with specific gestures in second language (L2) learning over time. In particular, we are interested in how gestures accompany learning of new vocabulary. CA-informed studies of gesture have previously shown the importance of embodiment in L2 use and…

  3. Input frequencies in processing of verbal morphology in L1 and L2: Evidence from Russian

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    Tatiana Chernigovskaya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we take a usage-based perspective on the analysis of data from the acquisition of verbal morphology by Norwegian adult learners of L2 Russian, as compared to children acquiring Russian as an L1. According to the usage-based theories, language learning is input-driven and frequency of occurrence of grammatical structures and lexical items in the input plays a key role in this process. We have analysed to what extent the acquisition and processing of Russian verbal morphology by children and adult L2 learners is dependent on the input factors, in particular on type and token frequencies. Our analysis of the L2 input based on the written material used in the instruction shows a different distribution of frequencies as compared to the target language at large. The results of the tests that elicited present tense forms of verbs belonging to four different inflectional classes (-AJ-, -A-, -I-, and -OVA- have demonstrated that for both Russian children and L2 learners type frequency appears to be an important factor, influencing both correct stem recognition and generalisations. The results have also demonstrated token frequency effects. For L2 learners we observed also effects of formal instruction and greater reliance on morphological cues. In spite of the fact that L2 learners did not match completely any of the child groups, there are many similarities between L1 and L2 morphological processing, the main one being the role of frequency.

  4. Gaming as extramural English L2 learning and L2 proficiency among young learners

    OpenAIRE

    Sylve?n, Liss Kerstin; Sundqvist, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Today, playing digital games is an important part of many young people’s everyday lives. Claims have been made that certain games, in particular massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) provide L2 English learners with a linguistically rich and cognitively challenging virtual environment that may be conducive to L2 learning, as learners get ample opportunities for L2 input and scaffolded interaction in the L2. In this paper, we present empirical evidence that L2 English pro...

  5. Gaming as Extramural English L2 Learning and L2 Proficiency among Young Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylven, Liss Kerstin; Sundqvist, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Today, playing digital games is an important part of many young people's everyday lives. Claims have been made that certain games, in particular massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) provide L2 English learners with a linguistically rich and cognitively challenging virtual environment that may be conducive to L2 learning, as…

  6. Knowledge sources in L2 learning

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    Diana Ayliff

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Should one bother to teach grammar to second language (L2 learners of English? The purpose of this article is to examine the hypothesis that there is an interface between explicit and implicit knowledge sources. Three groups of learners at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University were asked to articulate, first without a prompt and then with a prompt, the grammatical rules they were applying to correct common errors.  The test results suggest that there is a high correlation between what they seemingly know implicitly and the hidden, possibly previously explicit knowledge source on which they are drawing.  The article concludes by discussing some of the theoretical implications of the research.

  7. Age effects in L2 acquisition: ultimate attainment at the syntax-morphology interface

    OpenAIRE

    Komar, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a selective overview of studies that have examined age effects in second language (L2) acquisition. The focus was on adult second language learners and the L2 ultimate attainment at syntax-interface morphology, with particular attention given to the problematic case of inflectional morphology. We present different kinds of evidence including behavioural, descriptive and brain-based data. Although the main focus was on the syntax-morphology interface, other domains such as ...

  8. Learning the Morphological Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Peyré, Gabriel; Fadili, Jalal,; Starck, Jean Luc

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a new method for image separation into a linear combination of morphological components. Sparsity in global dictionaries is used to extract the cartoon and oscillating content of the image. Complicated texture patterns are extracted by learning adapted local dictionaries that sparsify patches in the image. These global and local sparsity priors together with the data fidelity define a non-convex energy and the separation is obtained as a stationary point of this energy. ...

  9. Influence of syllable structure on l2 auditory word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Megumi; Goya, Hideki

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the role of syllable structure in L2 auditory word learning. Based on research on cross-linguistic variation of speech perception and lexical memory, it was hypothesized that Japanese L1 learners of English would learn English words with an open-syllable structure without consonant clusters better than words with a closed-syllable structure and consonant clusters. Two groups of college students (Japanese group, N = 22; and native speakers of English, N = 21) learned paired English pseudowords and pictures. The pseudoword types differed in terms of the syllable structure and consonant clusters (congruent vs. incongruent) and the position of consonant clusters (coda vs. onset). Recall accuracy was higher for the pseudowords in the congruent type and the pseudowords with the coda-consonant clusters. The syllable structure effect was obtained from both participant groups, disconfirming the hypothesized cross-linguistic influence on L2 auditory word learning. PMID:24493208

  10. Grammar Teaching and Learning in L2: Necessary, but Boring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Gladys; Simard, Daphnee

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive inquiry-based study targeted second language (L2) high school students' (n = 2321) and teachers' (n = 45) beliefs and perceptions about grammar instruction, specifically about grammatical accuracy, corrective feedback, and diverse forms of grammar teaching and learning. Results showed only slight discrepancies between students'…

  11. Anonymity and Motivation in Asynchronous Discussions and L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Nihat; Mancilla, Rae; Mahalingappa, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates L2 attainment in asynchronous online environments, specifically possible relationships among anonymity, L2 motivation, participation in discussions, quality of L2 production, and success in L2 vocabulary learning. It examines, in asynchronous discussions, (a) if participation and (b) motivation contribute to L2 vocabulary…

  12. A reappraisal of motivation: the cornerstone of L2 learning

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Calvi?n, Jose?

    1991-01-01

    This article is aimed at increasing teacher awareness of the most relevant issues involved in motivation. It examines the importance of motivation in L2 learning, its types and sources, as well as detailing the various factors which influence it. Its focus is twofold, in that it concentrates not only on the student but also on the teacher, using authoritative sources to back up its line of argument. It aims at both clarifying the role of teachers in student motivation and the importance of...

  13. Learning L2 German Vocabulary through Reading: The Effect of Three Enhancement Techniques Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Elke; Hulstijn, Jan H.; Sercu, Lies; Lutjeharms, Madeline

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated three techniques designed to increase the chances that second language (L2) readers look up and learn unfamiliar words during and after reading an L2 text. Participants in the study, 137 college students in Belgium (L1 = Dutch, L2 = German), were randomly assigned to one of four conditions, forming combinations of two…

  14. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  15. Helping L2 Learners Reflect on Classroom Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kazuko

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a study that assigned Japanese students retrospective self-reporting tasks in which they were led to reflect upon their classroom second-language learning through self-analysis by reference to diaries, and by structured questionnaires and interviews on learning strategies, learner beliefs, and attitudes. (21 references) (Author/CK)

  16. Self-regulation from Educational Psychology to L2 Pedagogy: an Alternative to Language Learning Strategies

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    Maryam Banisaeid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Language learning strategy was the focus of many studies during the last two decades. Because of definitional fuzziness and unreliable instrument, the concept of language learning strategy was replaced by self-regulation in educational psychology. Subsequently, this shift affected L2 research. The notion of self-regulation is used in some L2 studies today (Tseng, Dörnyei & Schmitt, 2006; Rose, 2011b, Banisaeid, 2013a, 2013b. Self-regulation is more process-oriented while language learning strategy is more product-oriented. Although it only encompasses the metacognitive strategy, the general domain of it is meaningfully wider than the strategic framework. It covers some aspects in the learning process as motivation, goals and self-efficacy.Keywords: self-regulation, language learning strategy, L2 studies, educational psychology

  17. Extracting phonological patterns for L2 word learning: the effect of poor phonological awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2014-10-01

    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of Chinese-speaking six-grade students took a multi-trial L2 (English) word learning task after being exposed to a set of familiar words that rhymed with the target words. Children's PA was measured at grade 3. Children with relatively poorer L1 PA and those with better L1 PA did not differ in identifying the forms of the new words. However, children with poorer L1 PA demonstrated reduced performance in naming pictures with labels that rhymed with the pre-exposure words than with labels that did not rhyme with the pre-exposure words. Children with better L1 PA were not affected by the recurring rime shared by the pre-exposure words and the target words. These findings suggest that poor L1 PA may impede L2 word learning via difficulty in abstracting phonological patterns away from L2 input to scaffold word learning. PMID:24043509

  18. The acquisition of interlanguage morphology : a study into the role of morphology in the L2 learner's mental lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Lowie, Wander Marius,

    1998-01-01

    Introduction 1.1 Morphology and second language learning If Dutch learners of English encounter a word like undoable, they may recognise it because they have seen it before and have remembered it. They may also fail to recognise it and guess the meaning of the word on the basis of the context. A third possibility is that they do not recognise the word and attempt to guess the meaning by decomposing the word into parts they do recognise and arrive at its meaning on the basis of these par...

  19. A Study of Chinese and Japanese College Students’ L2 Learning Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Man-ping Chu; Tomoko Nakamura

    2010-01-01

    Learning styles, much related to motivation and cognitive strategies, has been one of the most frequently discussed topics in the field of foreign/second language (L2) education. There is a considerable body of research on learning styles stemming from the domain of psychology to the conceptual field. As individuals learn in different ways from time to time, from culture to culture, and from context to context, findings of such research can only explain a comparatively small group of peopl...

  20. Task-based Language Learning in Bilingual Montessori Elementary Schools: Customizing Foreign Language Learning and Promoting L2 Speaking Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Winnefeld

    2012-01-01

    Foreign language learning has been a part of German elementary schools for several years now. Montessori schools focusing on individual learning, i.e. mostly independent from the teacher and based on auto-education, interest, and free choice, are also asked to teach an L2. The original lack of a concept of L2 learning for this environment has brought forth different approaches. Bilingual education seems to be feasible and applicable in Montessori education. The downside to this is that even i...

  1. The Tense-Aspect System in Pidgins and Naturalistically Learned L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, J. Clancy

    2003-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of wider or narrower definitions of "pidginization" and "pidgin" are reviewed to determine the differences between pidgins and naturalistically learned second languages (L2s). It is argued that a wider definition is preferred because it avoids problematic counterexamples and captures generalizations that allow us…

  2. The Impact of Blended e-Learning on Undergraduate Academic Essay Writing in English (L2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriman, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a quasi-experimental study into the impact of a blended e-learning environment on academic writing assignments in English (L2) at a Thai international college. An experimental group of 15 students used an on-line bulletin board, as well as face-to-face (F2F) communication in class, to share information for essay topics they…

  3. Learning Exponents of Number on First Exposure to an L2

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    Carroll, Susanne E.; Widjaja, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Number lends itself to the study of how input interacts with transferred first language (L1) knowledge to facilitate or impede second language (L2) learning. We present data from adult English speakers exposed for the first time to Indonesian, a language that expresses number through bare noun phrases, reduplication and numeral + classifier…

  4. Learning L2 Vocabulary with American TV Drama From the Learner’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chia Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the trend of computer assisted language learning (CALL, in Taiwan, most language classes now have equivalent media support for language teachers and learners. Implementing videos into classroom activities is one of the choices. The current study explores the process of implementing American TV drama in L2 vocabulary learning from learners’ perspectives. Twenty-eight Taiwanese EFL adult learners participate in the study. Authentic video clips from three different American dramas- “How I met your mother”, “The King of Queens”, and “Reba” are adopted. After three sessions of class activities including clip watching, class discussion, word listing, etc., students complete a 4-likert scale questionnaire and are individually interviewed by the researcher to give their opinions. The results reveal positive comments on the facilitative role of TV drama in learning new vocabulary as previous studies suggested, but learners’ comments point out some crucial factors while learning L2 vocabulary with TV drama. First of all, the interest level and the familiarity of the content is an important factor. In addition, the images, subtitles and repetition help participants to “remember” the target words. Other factors such as the authenticity of the language, the contextual meaning of the words, and the dramatic performances all contribute to the learning of the L2 vocabulary. In the end of the study, working memory system, the context, acquisition-learning hypothesis (Krashen, 1981, and noticing hypothesis (Schmidt, 1990 are further discussed. 

  5. Effects of l1 processing experience on l2 morphological awareness Effects of l1 processing experience on l2 morphological awareness

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    Keiko Koda

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available To be an efficient and effective reader of a second language, one must develop cumulative insight into the internal structure of words, as well as acquire the necessary skills for using such insight in facilitating lexical processing and enhancing reading comprehension. In recent time, the growing recognition of the significance of these capabilities has led to a rapidly expanding body of research on intraword awareness, particularly among psychologists and reading specialists. Inasmuch as the resulting data base has clearly demonstrated that intraword awareness develops primarily through print processing experience (e.g., Yopp, 1988; Bowey, & Francis, 1991; Vellutino & Scanlon, 1987; Bertelson, Morais, Alegria, & Content, 1985; Morais, Cary, Alegria, & Bertelson, 1979; Perfetti, Beck, Bell & Hughes, 1987, we can expect that the nature of such awareness differs considerably from language to language, at least to the extent that their lexical structures vary. We also know that linguistic knowledge and processing skills transfer across languages among second language learners (e.g., Kilborn & Ito, 1989; Sasaki, 1992; Koda, 1993. Accordingly, we can both anticipate and infer that L2 lexical processing will be heavily constrained by L1 intraword structural knowledge. To be an efficient and effective reader of a second language, one must develop cumulative insight into the internal structure of words, as well as acquire the necessary skills for using such insight in facilitating lexical processing and enhancing reading comprehension. In recent time, the growing recognition of the significance of these capabilities has led to a rapidly expanding body of research on intraword awareness, particularly among psychologists and reading specialists. Inasmuch as the resulting data base has clearly demonstrated that intraword awareness develops primarily through print processing experience (e.g., Yopp, 1988; Bowey, & Francis, 1991; Vellutino & Scanlon, 1987; Bertelson, Morais, Alegria, & Content, 1985; Morais, Cary, Alegria, & Bertelson, 1979; Perfetti, Beck, Bell & Hughes, 1987, we can expect that the nature of such awareness differs considerably from language to language, at least to the extent that their lexical structures vary. We also know that linguistic knowledge and processing skills transfer across languages among second language learners (e.g., Kilborn & Ito, 1989; Sasaki, 1992; Koda, 1993. Accordingly, we can both anticipate and infer that L2 lexical processing will be heavily constrained by L1 intraword structural knowledge.

  6. Active Learning through Materials Development: A Project for the Advanced L2 Classroom

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    Katrina Daly Thompson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Building on the notion of active learning, the assumption that students learn more when given opportunities to practice using their skills and to receive feedback on their performance, this article de-scribes a project undertaken in an Advanced (third-year Swahili course in which students were given the opportunity to develop L2 materials for computer-mediated peer instruction. The article exam-ines the goals, design and results of the project in light of the litera-ture on active learning and learner autonomy, and suggests how the project might be improved in order to serve as a model for other Ad-vanced L2 courses.

  7. Galaxy morphology - an unsupervised machine learning approach

    CERN Document Server

    Schutter, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Structural properties posses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being ...

  8. The Effect of Learning English (L2) on Learning of Arabic Literacy (L1) in the Primary School

    OpenAIRE

    Hussien, Abdelaziz M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of learning English (L2) on learning to read and spell connected texts accurately in Arabic (L1). The author selected a sample of 83 (38 males and 45 females; 45 bilinguals and 38 monolinguals) native Arabic-speaking fourth-graders in Egypt. Students completed the author-developed Oral Reading Accuracy Measure and Spelling Accuracy Measure. Interestingly, results revealed that the bilingual (Arabic-English) students performed better than their monolingual (A...

  9. Learning through L2--Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and English as Medium of Instruction (EMI)

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    Wannagat, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has been promoted by the European Union as a means to achieve multilingualism. While in Germany and other European countries the trend to use the L2 as a medium of instruction is increasing, in Hong Kong, however, we see a converse development. Many schools switched from English as a medium of…

  10. Task-based Language Learning in Bilingual Montessori Elementary Schools: Customizing Foreign Language Learning and Promoting L2 Speaking Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Winnefeld

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language learning has been a part of German elementary schools for several years now. Montessori schools focusing on individual learning, i.e. mostly independent from the teacher and based on auto-education, interest, and free choice, are also asked to teach an L2. The original lack of a concept of L2 learning for this environment has brought forth different approaches. Bilingual education seems to be feasible and applicable in Montessori education. The downside to this is that even in a bilingual classroom the Montessori way of learning may not allow for very much oral production of the foreign language. The role of L2 production (cf. Swain 1985, 1995, 2005 for language acquisition has been theoretically claimed and empirically investigated. Output can have a positive influence on L2 learning (cf. e.g. Izumi 2002, Keck et al. 2006. This also applies to interaction (cf. Long 1996, where negotiation of meaning and modified output are factors supporting L2 development (cf. e.g. de la Fuente 2002, McDonough 2005. Task-based Language Learning (TBLL presents itself as one way to promote oral language production and to provide opportunities for meaning-negotiation. Especially tasks with required information exchange and a closed outcome have been shown to be beneficial for the elicitation of negotiation of meaning and modified output. This paper argues that TBLL is a promising approach for the facilitation of L2 production and thus the development of speaking skills in a Montessori context. It also hypothesizes that TBLL can be implemented in a bilingual Montessori environment while still making the Montessori way of learning possible. Different tasks on various topics, examples of which are presented in this article, can lay the foundation for this. Offering such tasks in a bilingual Montessori elementary classroom promises to foster language production and the use of communication strategies like negotiation of meaning, both being facilitative for L2 acquisition. This hypothesis remains to be tested in future research.

  11. Comments on Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?"

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    Reynolds, Barry Lee

    2012-01-01

    Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?" (2011) offers some constructive criticism regarding the conventional terminology used in second language (L2) acquisition research and language pedagogy. Although the author finds much of their evidence reasonable and is…

  12. A Case Study on the Effects of an L2 Writing Instructional Model for Blended Learning in Higher Education

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    So, Lee; Lee, Chung Hyun

    2013-01-01

    This case study explores EFL (English as a foreign language) students' perceptions toward a prototype of an instructional model for second language (L2) writing in blended learning and the effects of the model on the development of L2 writing skills in higher education. This model is primarily founded on the process-oriented writing approach…

  13. Matching Vocabulary Learning Process with Learning Outcome in L2 Academic Writing: An Exploratory Case Study

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    Ma, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory case study of two undergraduates links vocabulary learning approaches with lexical quality measured in academic writing. Employing an array of qualitative data, it is shown that in a "semi-language-rich" learning context, Chinese learners may dispense with rote learning and engage in a more natural learning approach in which…

  14. Phonological and orthographic cues enhance the processing of inflectional morphology. ERP evidence from L1 and L2 French

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    CherylFrenck-Mestre

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of two ERP experiments in which Spanish learners of French and native French controls show graded sensitivity to verbal inflectional errors as a function of the presence of orthographic and/or phonological cues when reading silently in French. In both experiments, verbal agreement was manipulated in sentential context such that subject verb agreement was either correct, ill-formed and orally-realized, involving both orthographic and phonological cues, or ill-formed and silent which involved only orthographic cues. The results of both experiments revealed more robust ERP responses to orally-realized than to silent inflectional errors. This was true for L2 learners as well as native controls, although the effect in the learner group was reduced in comparison to the native group. In addition, the combined influence of phonological and orthographic cues led to the largest differences between morphosyntactic conditions. Overall, the results suggest that the presence of phonological cues may enhance L2 readers’ sensitivity to morphology but that such may appear in L2 processing only when sufficient proficiency is attained. Moreover, both orthographic and phonological cues are used when available.

  15. The Relationship between Strategic Reading Instruction, Student Learning of L2-Based Reading Strategies and L2 Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkakoson, Songyut

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between strategic reading instruction, the process of learning second language-based reading strategies and English reading achievement for Thai university students of science and technology. In a course in reading general English texts for 16?weeks, 82 students were taught using a strategies-based approach…

  16. The Relationship between Nonverbal/Verbal Immediacy, Learning, and Caring by the Teacher in the L2 Spanish Classroom

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    Garrott, Carl L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the role of immediate behaviors on L2 Spanish students when presented with videos exhibiting verbal and nonverbal immediacy in permutations. Six sets of subjects (N = 320) viewed the videos and responded on a seven-step scale of perceived caring and one-item instrument on learning. The results…

  17. Focus on Meaning : Mapping the semantic and conceptual representation of Chinese (L2) word in Chinese vocabulary learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun; Wang Jingjing, Jenny

    Abstract This study examines the effect of mapping between the semantic and conceptual representation of target words ?????, and ?on Chinese (L2) vocabulary learning at a university class. Students (N=25) were the 2nd-year Chinese –major students at one university in Denmark. They were given tests recognizing new vocabulary (two-, three and four-character words) in a series of simple meaning recognition tests administered by the authors over three weeks. The test sets consist of vocabulary with target words that were given semantic and conceptual explanation by the authors in the previous week’s lessons. Students use a multiple choice to indicate whether a given item had a correct meaning in a given vocabulary. Data from controllers (N=3) who are native Chinese language teachers are also collected and analyzed. The findings indicate that the mapping between semantic and conceptual representation of Chinese (L2) words can have a measurable effect on students’ efficacy of (Nation 2011) vocabulary learning inthe classroom. The findings also reveal that conceptual representation of Chinese (L2) words reinforce the students’ reliance on L 1 by building a link between L 1semantic representations and L 2 semantics. Finally, the pedagogical implications for teaching Chinese (L2) are discussed as well. Key words: Chinese word, semantic representation, conceptual representation, vocabulary teaching

  18. Evolutionary Learning Algorithm for Multi-layer Morphological Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    He Chunmei

    2013-01-01

    Morphological Neural Network (MNN) is a novel and important neural network and it has many applications such as image processing and pattern recognition. It makes sense to research the learning algorithm of MNN and its application. A method based on genetic algorithm is presented to train and implement multi-layer morphological neural network in this study. The algorithm calculates the weights and biases of morphological neural network and the genetic algorithm automatically acquire the learn...

  19. Active Learning: Qualitative Inquiries into Vocabulary Instruction in Chinese L2 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Helen H.; Xu, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Active learning emerged as a new approach to learning in the 1980s. The core concept of active learning involves engaging students not only in actively exploring knowledge but also in reflecting on their own learning process in order to become more effective learners. Because the nonalphabetic nature of the Chinese writing system makes learning to…

  20. Implementing task-based learning of English as L2 at private courses for adult false-beginners in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Burkova, Ksenia

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is a comparative study between the Presentation-Practice-Production method (PPP) and the task-based language learning (TBL) approach. The context of the study is a private language school in Russia where the students who took part in the study were learning English as a second language (L2). The aim group of the research is adult false beginners.The research study compares the TBL approach to the PPP method through an analytical literature review. Then the action research study is...

  1. Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko

    2009-01-01

    Hand-coding locomotion controllers for modular robots is dif?cult due to their polymorphic nature. Instead, we propose to use a simple and distributed reinforcement learning strategy. ATRON modules with identical controllers can be assembled in any con?guration. To optimize the robot’s locomotion speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy’s performance on different robot con?gurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast as possible. We conclude that the learning strategy is effective and may be a practical approach to design gaits.

  2. An Analysis of the Potential of a Computer-mediated learning Course for Vocabulary Learning in L2

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contributions a computer-mediated blended course can make for learning vocabulary in French as a Foreign Language (FFL). This course included class and on-line sessions, using Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) tools (forum and chat), for a written macro-task by French-learning Cypriot students accompanied in distance learning by FFL tutors. In the first part we present difficulties in vocabulary learning as well as in written production. We also tackle two centra...

  3. Reading and Learning from L2 Text: Effects of Reading Goal, Topic Familiarity, and Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiba, Yukie; Fukaya, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of reading goal, topic-familiarity, and language proficiency on text comprehension and learning. English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students with high and low topic-familiarity read and recalled a text. Some were told in advance to expect a recall task in a particular language--the first language (L1) or second…

  4. Estilos de pensamiento Cognitive styles: an approach to autonomous learning in L2 adult students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atehortúa Atehortúa José Nicolás

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo resume los resultados de una investigación descriptivo-cualitativa sobre estilos cognitivos o de pensamiento, llevado a cabo con miembros del programa de extensión académica en la UPB, con el objetivo de describir los estilos de pensamiento de los estudiantes que les permitan reconocer y utilizar estrategias meta cognitivas para desarrollar un nivel consciente de responsabilidad y autonomía en el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera. El marco teórico de este estudio se basa en conceptos tales como estilos cognitivos, estrategias meta cognitivas, aptitud, así como la autonomía y la responsabilidad en el aprendizaje. Los instrumentos diseñados para la recopilación de datos fueron un test sobre estilos cognitivos, en segundo lugar, un cuestionario semiestructurado con los siguientes ítems: proceso de toma de decisiones, la auto descripción como aprendices, las percepciones del estudiante sobre el papel del profesor, incluido el uso de estrategias meta cognitivas, tercero , una entrevista abierta con el objetivo de medir el impacto que tiene el concebir un proceso de aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera desde la perspectiva de los estilos de pensamiento. Los resultados mostraron la expectativa de los estudiantes para reconocer las capacidades humanas, la necesidad de adquirir la competencia estratégica, la necesidad real de participar abiertamente en la planificación de metas y objetivos, y en la auto-evaluación formativa del proceso de aprendizaje, así como el deseo de pasar de un proceso centrado en tareas, a un proceso centrado en la autonomía. The following article sums up the findings of a descriptive-qualitative research on cognitive styles carried out with members of the Academic Extension program at the UPB, aiming at describing the cognitive styles of students that enable them to recognize and use metacognitive strategies in order to develop a conscious level of autonomy and responsibility in learning a foreign language. This study was theoretically supported by concepts such as cognitive styles, metacognitive strategies, aptitude in learning, as well as autonomy and responsibility. The instruments used in the data collection procedures were first a test on cognitive styles, second, a semi structured questionnaire on decision making process, self description as learners, student´s perceptions on the teacher´s role, including the use of metacognitive strategies, third, an open interview aiming at measuring the impact of being aware of learning a foreign language from the perspective of cognitive styles. Results showed students’ inner expectations to recognize human abilities, the need to acquire strategic competence, the real need to openly participate in planning of goals and objectives, self assessment on formative learning process, as well as turning to be autonomous centered learners, rather that task oriented students.

  5. The development and assessment of an active learning environment: cAcL(2), concept Advancement through chemistry Laboratory-Lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Deedee Ann

    Concept Advancement through Chemistry Laboratory-Lecture, or cAcL 2, was developed to establish an active learning environment in introductory chemistry courses. The program has incorporated elements believed to positively influence student performance and attitudes, namely, cooperative learning, hands-on activities, real-world applications, and engaging technology. A full year of curriculum materials was developed and pilot-tested in the classroom in order to achieve an active learning environment. The cAcL2 instructional approach was evaluated through both quantitative and qualitative means. The quantitative study of two sections of a first semester general chemistry course revealed that cAcL2 has a greater positive impact on student performance when compared to that of traditional lecture students. A subsequent qualitative study on a second semester general chemistry course gathered practical data on student problem solving and graphing abilities. The collected data provided insight on student practices allowing suggestions for classroom instructional strategies to be made. Attitudinal data from both the quantitative and qualitative studies revealed positive changes in student attitudes toward learning as well as recognition of the benefits and appreciation of the active learning environment offered by cAcL2.

  6. L2 Students’ Comments on Language Exchange Communities in Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Balç?kanl?

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: EFL learners are rarely given opportunities to interact with native speakers and “…to do something with a language”. In Turkish settings, language learners mostly complain that they do not have enough opportunities to interact with native speakers, and class hours are too limited to acquire a language and more importantly they are not taught expressions that help them express themselves in daily contexts.Purpose of Study: This study aimed at investigating EFL (English as a Foreign Language learners’ experiences in a Language Exchange Community, namely xLingo.Method: 16 students from a state university spent time on language exchange communities. The researcher met these students once a week to make sure that everything was going fine. The students used xLingo for almost six months. The researcher interviewed them through the five questions that were earlier developed and piloted by the researcher himself.Findings and Results: The findings mostly focused on four aspects namely language development, autonomy, culture and self-confidence. Conclusions and Recommendations: Given the challenges Turkish EFL learners have to face in the process of language learning, language exchange communities are believed to open up more possibilities for language learners to get more comprehensible input and to interact with more native speakers and more importantly to do something with a language. In order to make best use of these communities, it is a mandatory step that language teachers be introduced to the concept along with practical applications and that these communities should be integrated into language testing system.

  7. Developing Critical L2 Digital Literacy through the Use of Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Learning Management Systems such as Moodle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Second Language (L2) Digital Literacy is of emerging importance within English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Korea, and will evolve to become regarded as the most critical component of overall L2 English Literacy. Computer-based Internet-hosted Learning Management Systems (LMS), such as the popular open-source Moodle, are rapidly being adopted worldwide for distance education, and are also being applied to blended (hybrid) education. In EFL Education, they have a special potential: by setting the LMS to force English to be used exclusively throughout a course website, the meta-language can be made the target L2 language. Of necessity, students develop the ability to use English to navigate the Internet, access and contribute to online resources, and engage in computer-mediated communication. Through such pragmatic engagement with English, students significantly develop their L2 Digital Literacy.

  8. Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) and L2 motivation associated with L2 pronunciation development in pre-service teachers of English / Estrategias de Aprendizaje de una Lengua y motivación L2 asociadas al desarrollo de la pronunciación de una L2 en estudiantes de Pedagogía en Inglés

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauricio, Véliz C.

    Full Text Available La presente investigación busca develar los mecanismos sicosociales que utilizan los profesores de inglés de pre-servicio destacados en su desarrollo fonológico en inglés como L2, canalizados a través de estrategias de aprendizaje de una lengua. La investigación hace uso de la metodología de estudio [...] de caso y recaba información de los dos participantes a través de la entrevista semi-estructurada, cuyos resultados son analizados a la luz de la taxonomía propuesta por Oxford (1990). Los resultados corroboran en cierta medida estudios anteriores en los siguientes sentidos: (i) los participantes hacen amplio uso de estrategias indirectas, entre las cuales destacan las estrategias metacognitivas, planificación del aprendizaje y monitoreo; (ii) las estrategias metacognitivas se ven potenciadas cuando entran en contacto con el uso de estrategias directas, tales como la creación de imágenes mentales, aplicación de imagen y sonido, práctica, razonamiento cognitivo y foco atencional; y (iii) la motivación se presenta como variable movilizadora del repertorio de estrategias de aprendizaje. Abstract in english This study seeks to uncover the psychosocial mechanisms used by pre-service teachers of English with the purpose of developing an L2 phonological system, within a framework of language learning strategies (LLSs) The study makes use of a case study methodology and collects information through a semi- [...] structured interview, whose results are interpreted in light of Oxford's (1990) taxonomy. The results corroborate to some extent findings made in previous studies, amongst which are: (i) ample use of indirect strategies, amongst which metacognitive, planning and monitoring stand out; (ii) greater potential of metacognitive strategies when accompanied by use of direct strategies such as mental images, applying images and sounds, practising, analysing/reasoning, and paying attention; and (iii) the mobilisation power of motivation in connection with a strategy repertoire.

  9. The Roles of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Working Memory in L2 Grammar and Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Katherine I.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzed phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and working memory (WM) and their relationship with vocabulary and grammar learning in an artificial foreign language. Nonword repetition, nonword recognition, and listening span were used as memory measures. Participants learned the singular forms of vocabulary for an artificial foreign…

  10. Language Learning Motivation within the Context of Globalisation: An L2 Self within an Imagined Global Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This is a theoretical paper that attempts to re-conceptualize language learning motivation by taking into consideration the effects of globalisation on learners' sense of identity and how this impacts on the motivation to learn the unquestioned language of globalisation, English. I will argue that in EFL contexts it is learners' sense of…

  11. The Influence of Incidental and Intentional Vocabulary Acquisition and Vocabulary Strategy Use on Learning L2 Vocabularies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Alemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the role of incidental and intentional vocabulary acquisition in addition to the influence of language learning strategy: namely, the use of vocabulary strategy by Iranian EFL learners in learning new vocabularies. Accordingly, this study is two-faceted. First, Part A examines the difference between different modes of presentation, incidental and intentional learning of new vocabularies (i.e., incidental, etymology-based intentional, and meaning-based intentional, and acquisition of new vocabularies. Part B investigates the impact of the use of language learning strategies—in this case vocabulary and reading strategy use using The Language Strategy Use Inventory—on the learning of new vocabularies. Part A, studying the influence of incidental as opposed to intentional presentation and acquisition of vocabularies, involved 30 students (i.e., 26 males and 4 females. Part B of the study, investigating the role of vocabulary learning strategy use, involved 59 students (i.e., 49 males and 10 females. The results of Part A shown by t-test indicate that, as far as performance of the students on a test of vocabulary acquisition is concerned, there is no significant difference between the two modes—incidental and intentional learning. However, for the same part, linear regression proved that among the vocabularies presented through different modes of presentation, it is vocabularies learned through meaning-based intentional mode that is the most predictive of the performance of the students on a test of vocabulary acquisition. Moreover, as for part B, the study found that there is a positive, but weak, correlation between the students’ vocabulary strategy use – measured by students filling out a self-report questionnaire entitled The Language Strategy Use Inventory developed by Cohen, A, Oxford, L. R, and Chi. J. – and their learning of new vocabularies. Finally, the findings of part B of the study indicate that, as the degree to which the students’ use of vocabulary strategy use increases, so does their use of reading strategy use.

  12. Becoming an L2 Learner (Again): How a Brief Language Learning Experience Sparked Connections with SLA Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Ross

    2015-01-01

    A brief "language learning experience" (LLE) in Thai was integrated into a second language development course as part of postgraduate TESOL study at an Australian university. Sixty primary and secondary teachers from a range of schools evaluated the impact of the LLE by means of a questionnaire; the teachers proved highly affirming of…

  13. The Efficacy of Explicit Grammar Instruction and Its Impact on L2 Rule-Learning: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Raafat

    2009-01-01

    It is crucial that foreign language teachers know well what kinds of grammar teaching strategies best aid learning in the classroom in order to adjust their teaching toward a practical and successful approach. Much of the debate about how to help EFL learners achieve grammatical proficiency centers on the implicit versus explicit, or deductive…

  14. On the Relationship between Self-regulated Learning Components and L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Zarei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past two decades, self-regulation has been the center of heated debate in educational psychology. The present study attempted to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' self-regulated learning components and vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension .To fulfill this objective, a 60-item vocabulary and reading comprehension TOEFL test was administered to a sample of 250 male and female college students majoring in English Teaching, English Language Translation, and English Literature. The Persian version of “Self- regulation Trait Questionnaire” was administered to the same participants. Pearson correlation procedure was used to analyze data. Results indicated that the correlation between self-regulated learning components: planning, self -checking, effort and self-efficacy gave mixed results. That is to say, two of the correlation coefficients, self –checking and effort were significant while the other two, planning and self-efficacy, were non-significant.

  15. On the Relationship between Self-regulated Learning Components and L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Ali Zarei; Gamar Hatami

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, self-regulation has been the center of heated debate in educational psychology. The present study attempted to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' self-regulated learning components and vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension .To fulfill this objective, a 60-item vocabulary and reading comprehension TOEFL test was administered to a sample of 250 male and female college students majoring in English Teaching, English Language Translation, a...

  16. The Effect of Exposure to the Visual Medium on Learning Pronunciation and Word Stress of L2 Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Fotovatnia; Mahboubeh Omidi

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of exposure to the visual medium on learning pronunciation and word stress. Thirty junior high school students participated in this study. They were divided into an experimental and a control group each included 15 students. The participants were given a pretest in order to make sure that they were homogeneous with regard to their pronunciation and word stress. Both groups received instruction on key to phonetic symbols available in the back of their textbooks a...

  17. Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Blaszczak, Joanna; Dipper, Stefanie; Fanselow, Gisbert; Ishihara, Shinishiro; Petrova, Svetlana; Skopeteas, Stavros; Weskott, Thomas; Zimmermann, Malte

    2007-01-01

    The guidelines for morphological annotation contain the layers that are necessary for understanding the structure of the words in the object language: morphological segmentation, glossing, and annotation of part-of-speech.

  18. Children benefit from morphological relatedness when they learn to spell new words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacton, Sébastien; Foulin, Jean Noël; Casalis, Séverine; Treiman, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Use of morphologically related words often helps in selecting among spellings of sounds in French. For instance, final /wa/ may be spelled oi (e.g., envoi "sendoff"), oit (e.g., exploit "exploit"), ois (e.g., siamois, "siamese"), or oie (e.g., joie "joy"). The morphologically complex word exploiter "to exploit", with a pronounced t, can be used to indicate that the stem exploit is spelled with a silent t. We asked whether 8-year-old children benefited from such cues to learn new spellings. Children read silently stories which included two target nonwords, one presented in an opaque condition and the other in a morphological condition. In the opaque condition, the sentence provided semantic information (e.g., a vensois is a musical instrument) but no morphological information that could justify the spelling of the target word's final sound. Such justification was available in the morphological condition (e.g., the vensoisist plays the vensois instrument, which justifies that vensois includes a final silent s). 30 min after having read the stories, children's orthographic learning was assessed by asking them to choose the correct spelling of each nonword from among three phonologically plausible alternatives (e.g., vensois, vensoit, vensoie). Children chose correct spellings more often in the morphological condition than the opaque condition, even though the root (vensois) had been presented equally often in both conditions. That is, children benefited from information about the spelling of the morphologically complex word to learn the spelling of the stem. PMID:24109464

  19. Learning in student projects and morphological analysis of  Arctic particles.

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlberg, Alexander

    2012-01-01

      Abstract This master thesis is divided into two parts, one pedagogical and one engineering. The purpose of the pedagogical part of this master thesis was to investigate how students learn during projects. At the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, three larger student projects occurred where the students themselves developed an probe that was launched into the atmosphere. The supervisors of the projects wanted to find out how the students learn during the project. The thesis include...

  20. Children benefit from morphological relatedness when they learn to spell new words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SebastienPacton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of morphologically related words often helps in selecting among spellings of sounds in French. For instance, final /wa/ may be spelled oi (e.g., envoi ‘sendoff’, oit (e.g., exploit ‘exploit’, ois (e.g., siamois, ‘siamese’, or oie (e.g., joie ‘joy’. The morphologically complex word exploiter ‘to exploit’, with a pronounced t, can be used to indicate that the stem exploit is spelled with a silent t. We asked whether 8-year-old children benefited from such cues to learn new spellings. Children read silently stories which included two target nonwords, one presented in an opaque condition and the other in a morphological condition. In the opaque condition, the sentence provided semantic information (e.g., a vensois is a musical instrument but no morphological information that could justify the spelling of the target word’s final sound. Such justification was available in the morphological condition (e.g., the vensoisist plays the vensois instrument, which justifies that vensois includes a final silent s. Thirty minutes after having read the stories, children’s orthographic learning was assessed by asking them to choose the correct spelling of each nonword from among three phonologically plausible alternatives (e.g., vensois, vensoit, vensoie. Children chose correct spellings more often in the morphological condition than the opaque condition, even though the root (vensois had been presented equally often in both conditions. That is, children benefited from information about the spelling of the morphologically complex word to learn the spelling of the stem.

  1. Fault-tolerant gait learning and morphology optimization of a polymorphic walking robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Larsen, JØrgen Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experiments with a morphology-independent, life-long strategy for online learning of locomotion gaits. The experimental platform is a quadruped robot assembled from the LocoKit modular robotic construction kit. The learning strategy applies a stochastic optimization algorithm to optimize eight open parameters of a central pattern generator based gait implementation. We observe that the strategy converges in roughly ten minutes to gaits of similar or higher velocity than a manually designed gait and that the strategy readapts in the event of failed actuators. We also optimize offline the reachable space of a foot based on a reference design but finds that the reality gap hardens the successfully transference to the physical robot. To address this limitation, in future work we plan to study co-learning of morphological and control parameters directly on physical robots.

  2. Modeling the variability in brain morphology and lesion distribution in multiple sclerosis by deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosch, Tom; Yoo, Youngjin; Li, David K B; Traboulsee, Anthony; Tam, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Changes in brain morphology and white matter lesions are two hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology, but their variability beyond volumetrics is poorly characterized. To further our understanding of complex MS pathology, we aim to build a statistical model of brain images that can automatically discover spatial patterns of variability in brain morphology and lesion distribution. We propose building such a model using a deep belief network (DBN), a layered network whose parameters can be learned from training images. In contrast to other manifold learning algorithms, the DBN approach does not require a prebuilt proximity graph, which is particularly advantageous for modeling lesions, because their sparse and random nature makes defining a suitable distance measure between lesion images challenging. Our model consists of a morphology DBN, a lesion DBN, and a joint DBN that models concurring morphological and lesion patterns. Our results show that this model can automatically discover the classic patterns of MS pathology, as well as more subtle ones, and that the parameters computed have strong relationships to MS clinical scores. PMID:25485412

  3. Combining human and machine learning for morphological analysis of galaxy images

    CERN Document Server

    Kuminski, Evan; Wallin, John; Shamir, Lior

    2014-01-01

    The increasing importance of digital sky surveys collecting many millions of galaxy images has reinforced the need for robust methods that can perform morphological analysis of large galaxy image databases. Citizen science initiatives such as Galaxy Zoo showed that large datasets of galaxy images can be analyzed effectively by non-scientist volunteers, but since databases generated by robotic telescopes grow much faster than the processing power of any group of citizen scientists, it is clear that computer analysis is required. Here we propose to use citizen science data for training machine learning systems, and show experimental results demonstrating that machine learning systems can be trained with citizen science data. Our findings show that the performance of machine learning depends on the quality of the data, which can be improved by using samples that have a high degree of agreement between the citizen scientists. The source code of the method is publicly available.

  4. Combining Human and Machine Learning for Morphological Analysis of Galaxy Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuminski, Evan; George, Joe; Wallin, John; Shamir, Lior

    2014-11-01

    The increasing importance of digital sky surveys collecting many millions of galaxy images has reinforced the need for robust methods that can perform morphological analysis of large galaxy image databases. Citizen science initiatives such as Galaxy Zoo showed that large data sets of galaxy images can be analyzed effectively by nonscientist volunteers, but since databases generated by robotic telescopes grow much faster than the processing power of any group of citizen scientists, it is clear that computer analysis is required. Here, we propose to use citizen science data for training machine learning systems, and show experimental results demonstrating that machine learning systems can be trained with citizen science data. Our findings show that the performance of machine learning depends on the quality of the data, which can be improved by using samples that have a high degree of agreement between the citizen scientists. The source code of the method is publicly available.

  5. Effects of age of learning on voice onset time: categorical perception of Swedish stops by near-native L2 speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stölten, Katrin; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Hyltenstam, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effects of age of onset (AO) of L2 acquisition on the categorical perception of the voicing contrast in Swedish word-initial stops varying in voice onset time (VOT). Three voicing continua created on the basis of natural Swedish word pairs with /p-b/, /t-d/, /k-/ in initial position were presented to 41 Spanish early (AO 12) near-native speakers of L2 Swedish. Fifteen native speakers of Swedish served as controls. Categorizations were influenced by AO and listener status as L1/L2 speaker, in that the late learners deviated the most from native-speaker perception. In addition, only a small minority of the late learners perceived the voicing contrast in a way comparable to native-speaker categorization, while most early L2 learners demonstrated nativelike categorization patterns. However, when the results were combined with the L2 learners' production of Swedish voiceless stops (Stölten, 2005; Stölten, Abrahamsson & Hyltenstam, in press), nativelike production and perception was never found among the late learners, while a majority of the early learners still exhibited nativelike production and perception. It is concluded that, despite their being perceived as mother-tongue speakers of Swedish by native listeners, the late learners do not, after detailed phonetic scrutiny, exhibit a fully nativelike command of Swedish VOT. Consequently, being near-native rather than nativelike speakers of their second language, these individuals do not constitute the evidence necessary to reject the hypothesis of one or several critical (or sensitive) periods for language acquisition. PMID:25536842

  6. Negotiated Interaction in the L2 Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerth, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The present paper reports on an approximate replication of Foster's (1998) study on the negotiation of meaning. Foster investigated the interactional adjustments produced by L2 English learners working on different types of language learning tasks in a classroom setting. The replication study duplicates the methods of data collection and data…

  7. Analysis of LOFT Tests L2-2, L2-3 and L3-0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes LOFT Tests L2-2, L2-3, and L3-0 and presents conclusions reached from analysis of these tests. The LOFT L2 series of tests, called the power ascension series, originally consisted of six tests. The first four tests, L2-1 through L2-4, were identical except for step-wise increases in core power for each test. Comparison of these tests, and the nonnuclear Test L1-5, was planned to evaluate the effect of core power on system and ECC behavior during large cold leg break LOCA's. Tests L2-5 and L2-6 were to provide parametric investigations of the effect of loss of offsite power and prepressurized fuel. Prior to the start of the L2 series, it was decided Test L2-1 was not necessary due to the information learned from the LOFT nonnuclear tests and PBF lead rod tests. Tests L2-2 and L2-3 are described. The posttest analysis of Tests L2-2 and L2-3 is discussed, and conclusions reached from the comparisons of the experimental data to computer calculations presented. In addition, the results and implications of computer calculations on a commercial size PWR with the same model used for LOFT are presented. Finally, Test L3-0 is described and conclusions reached from it introduced

  8. L2 Motivation and Personality as Predictors of the Second Language Proficiency: Role of the Big Five Traits and L2 Motivational Self System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargham Ghapanchi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This study examined the predictability of the L2 proficiency by personality and L2 motivational self system variables among 141 Iranian EFL university students. Participants completed Transparent Bipolar Inventory (Goldberg, 1992 as a personality measure, L2 motivational self system (Papi, 2010, and a self-rated measure of second language proficiency. Regression analyses showed that extroversion and openness to experience accounted for 13% of the variance in L2 proficiency; and ideal L2 self and L2 learning experience accounted for 35% of the variance in L2 proficiency. Further, extroversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and openness explained 25% of the variance of in ideal L2 self; neuroticism and conscientiousness explained 24% of the variance in ought-to L2 self; and conscientiousness and extroversion explained 26% of the variance in L2 learning experience. Hierarchical regressions also showed that L2 motivation is a more powerful predictor of L2 proficiency.

    Key words: Second language proficiency; Big Five traits; Ideal L2 self; Ought to L2 self; L2 learning experience; Motivation

  9. HABILIDADES COMUNICATIVAS EN L2 MEDIATIZADAS POR LA TECNOLOGIA EN EL CONTEXTO DE LOS ENFOQUES POR TAREAS Y COOPERATIVO Habilidades comunicativas em L2 mediatizadas pela tecnologia no contexto dos enfoques por tarefas e cooperativo Communicative abilities in L2 mediated by technology in the context of task based teaching and cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie Quintanilla Espinoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este artículo es determinar cómo los principios metodológicos del enfoque basado en tareas, el aprendizaje cooperativo y la metodología CALL pueden ser utilizados de manera combinada en el diseño de actividades para el desarrollo de las habilidades lingüísticas. Con este objetivo, se explora evidencia empírica acerca de la efectividad de esta metodología en el aprendizaje de inglés como lengua extranjera en un estudio cuasiexperimental pre- y post- test grupo control. Los resultados obtenidos revelan un mayor incremento en el aprendizaje del grupo experimental que utilizó la metodología integrada en comparación con el grupo control que trabajó con una metodología tradicional. Esto sugiere que el uso combinado del enfoque basado en tareas, el aprendizaje cooperativo y la metodología CALL sería beneficioso para el desarrollo de las habilidades lingüísticas.O objetivo principal deste artigo é determinar como os princípios teóricos do enfoque baseado em tarefas, a aprendizagem cooperativa e a metodologia CALL podem ser utilizados de maneira combinada no desenho de atividades para a melhora das habilidades lingüísticas. Com este objetivo, explora-se a evidência empírica a respeito da efetividade desta metodologia na aprendizagem do inglês como língua estrangeira num estudo cuasi-experimental com um pré- e pós-teste e um grupo controle. Os resultados obtidos revelam um maior incremento na aprendizagem do grupo experimental que utilizou a metodologia integrada em comparação com o grupo controle que trabalhou com uma metodologia tradicional. Isto sugere que o uso combinado do enfoque baseado em tarefas, a aprendizagem cooperativa e a metodologia CALL seria benéfico para o desenvolvimento das habilidades lingüísticas.The main objective of this article is to portray how the theoretical principles of task-based teaching, cooperative learning and CALL can be used together in the design of activities for the improvement of linguistic abilities. To achieve this, empirical evidence was examined in order to determine the efficiency of this integrated methodology vs. The traditional one commonly used for teaching English as a foreign language. Both methods were contrasted and tested in an experimental pre/post test control group research design. the results show that the experimental group, which used the integrated methodology, had a considerable language improvement compared to the control group that used a traditional one. This suggests that an integrated methodology using the approach of the task-based teaching, the cooperative learning and CALL would be beneficial for the improvement of linguistic abilities.

  10. HABILIDADES COMUNICATIVAS EN L2 MEDIATIZADAS POR LA TECNOLOGIA EN EL CONTEXTO DE LOS ENFOQUES POR TAREAS Y COOPERATIVO / Communicative abilities in L2 mediated by technology in the context of task based teaching and cooperative learning / Habilidades comunicativas em L2 mediatizadas pela tecnologia no contexto dos enfoques por tarefas e cooperativo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Angie, Quintanilla Espinoza; Anita, Ferreira Cabrera.

    Full Text Available O objetivo principal deste artigo é determinar como os princípios teóricos do enfoque baseado em tarefas, a aprendizagem cooperativa e a metodologia CALL podem ser utilizados de maneira combinada no desenho de atividades para a melhora das habilidades lingüísticas. Com este objetivo, explora-se a ev [...] idência empírica a respeito da efetividade desta metodologia na aprendizagem do inglês como língua estrangeira num estudo cuasi-experimental com um pré- e pós-teste e um grupo controle. Os resultados obtidos revelam um maior incremento na aprendizagem do grupo experimental que utilizou a metodologia integrada em comparação com o grupo controle que trabalhou com uma metodologia tradicional. Isto sugere que o uso combinado do enfoque baseado em tarefas, a aprendizagem cooperativa e a metodologia CALL seria benéfico para o desenvolvimento das habilidades lingüísticas. Abstract in spanish El objetivo principal de este artículo es determinar cómo los principios metodológicos del enfoque basado en tareas, el aprendizaje cooperativo y la metodología CALL pueden ser utilizados de manera combinada en el diseño de actividades para el desarrollo de las habilidades lingüísticas. Con este obj [...] etivo, se explora evidencia empírica acerca de la efectividad de esta metodología en el aprendizaje de inglés como lengua extranjera en un estudio cuasiexperimental pre- y post- test grupo control. Los resultados obtenidos revelan un mayor incremento en el aprendizaje del grupo experimental que utilizó la metodología integrada en comparación con el grupo control que trabajó con una metodología tradicional. Esto sugiere que el uso combinado del enfoque basado en tareas, el aprendizaje cooperativo y la metodología CALL sería beneficioso para el desarrollo de las habilidades lingüísticas. Abstract in english The main objective of this article is to portray how the theoretical principles of task-based teaching, cooperative learning and CALL can be used together in the design of activities for the improvement of linguistic abilities. To achieve this, empirical evidence was examined in order to determine t [...] he efficiency of this integrated methodology vs. The traditional one commonly used for teaching English as a foreign language. Both methods were contrasted and tested in an experimental pre/post test control group research design. the results show that the experimental group, which used the integrated methodology, had a considerable language improvement compared to the control group that used a traditional one. This suggests that an integrated methodology using the approach of the task-based teaching, the cooperative learning and CALL would be beneficial for the improvement of linguistic abilities.

  11. Experiência em sala de aula: evidência empírica da complexidade no ensino e aprendizagem de LE Classroom experience: empirical evidence of complexity in l2 teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Stella Miccoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo argumenta pela compreensão do construto experiência, como um Sistema Adaptativo Complexo, tendo em vista que, para compreendê-la, toda experiência encapsula um processo, no qual outros eventos que a perpassam são trazidos à tona. Para tal, partimos da pesquisa sobre experiências, apresentando trechos de relatos de estudantes e professores sobre eventos vivenciados em salas de aula de língua estrangeira (LE, como evidência empírica de conceitos da complexidade, aplicados aos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE. Explicitamos, assim, a relação entre experiência, como construto, e caos / complexidade, como teoria, para compreender a natureza dos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE em salas de aula.This article argues for understanding the construct of experience as a complex adaptive system since experience, as a process, encapsulates other events that permeate it, bringing them to the fore. To this end, we briefly review research on experience and present excerpts from students’ and teachers’ report data of events experienced in the foreign language classrooms as empirical evidence of applying complexity theory concepts to understand the processes of foreign language teaching and learning. Thus, the explicit relationship between experience, as a construct, and chaos / complexity, as a theory, play a role for understanding the nature of classroom foreign language teaching and learning.

  12. Experiência em sala de aula: evidência empírica da complexidade no ensino e aprendizagem de LE / Classroom experience: empirical evidence of complexity in l2 teaching and learning

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura Stella, Miccoli; Carolina Vianini A., Lima.

    Full Text Available Este artigo argumenta pela compreensão do construto experiência, como um Sistema Adaptativo Complexo, tendo em vista que, para compreendê-la, toda experiência encapsula um processo, no qual outros eventos que a perpassam são trazidos à tona. Para tal, partimos da pesquisa sobre experiências, apresen [...] tando trechos de relatos de estudantes e professores sobre eventos vivenciados em salas de aula de língua estrangeira (LE), como evidência empírica de conceitos da complexidade, aplicados aos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE. Explicitamos, assim, a relação entre experiência, como construto, e caos / complexidade, como teoria, para compreender a natureza dos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE em salas de aula. Abstract in english This article argues for understanding the construct of experience as a complex adaptive system since experience, as a process, encapsulates other events that permeate it, bringing them to the fore. To this end, we briefly review research on experience and present excerpts from students’ and teachers [...] ’ report data of events experienced in the foreign language classrooms as empirical evidence of applying complexity theory concepts to understand the processes of foreign language teaching and learning. Thus, the explicit relationship between experience, as a construct, and chaos / complexity, as a theory, play a role for understanding the nature of classroom foreign language teaching and learning.

  13. From Number Agreement to the Subjunctive: Evidence for Processability Theory in L2 Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carrie L.

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to typological plausibility of Processability Theory (PT) (Pienemann, 1998, 2005) by providing empirical data that show that the stages predicted by PT are followed in the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish syntax and morphology. In the present article, the PT stages for L2 Spanish morphology and syntax are first…

  14. Variations autour de la tâche dans l'enseignement / apprentissage des langues aujourd'hui What kind of tasks are used for L2 teaching and learning today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Nissen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se donne pour objectif d'identifier les types de tâches, et leurs dénominateurs communs, qui sont présentés aujourd'hui – où "l'approche par les tâches" est soutenue par le Conseil de l'Europe – aux apprenants. Il analyse pour cela les articles issus de deux numéros de revues et un ouvrage collectif récents. Il apparaît que la grande majorité des scénarios pédagogiques s'y inscrit dans la perspective actionnelle... du moins d'après la déclaration des auteurs, car leur définition de ce qu'est une tâche ne correspond pas toujours à celle du CECR. Pour le public visé, étudiants ou professionnels, on propose le plus souvent des mono-tâches, mais également des projets, ou encore des simulations avec un enchaînement de plusieurs tâches. Elles s'inscrivent généralement dans la (future réalité sociale des apprenants, mais certaines laissent également la place à des thèmes artistiques ou (interculturels. Contrairement à ce que l'on aurait pu attendre dans une démarche qui responsabilise l'apprenant, le recours à Internet n'est pas toujours systématique.At a time when action- and task-based learning is sustained by the European Council, this paper explores which types of tasks are given to second language learners today and what aspects these tasks have in common. The paper analyses two recent issues of scientific journals and one collective book. The analysis shows that the majority of pedagogical scenarios described in these texts claim to adopt an action- and task-based approach. However, in reality the way they define a task does not always correspond to the definition given by the European Framework of Reference for Languages. The described tasks are exclusively dedicated to higher and professional education; they are mostly single tasks, but they can also be projects and simulations including several successive tasks. They generally correspond to the learners' (future reality, with themes that are nevertheless sometimes a little bit less “pragmatic”, like artistic or (intercultural ones. Contrary to what one might have expected within an approach that gives responsibility to the learner and where public access to the learners' productions is valued, the pedagogical scenarios do not systematically integrate the use of the Internet.

  15. Negative evidence in L2 acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dahl

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the L2 acquisition of differences between Norwegian and English passives, and presents data to show that the acquisition of these differences by Norwegian L2 acquirers of English cannot be fully explained by positive evidence, cues, conservativism or economy. Rather, it is argued, it is natural to consider whether indirect negative evidence may facilitate acquisition by inferencing. The structures in focus are impersonal passive constructions with postverbal NPs and passive constructions with intransitive verbs. These sentences are ungrammatical in English. Chomsky (1981 proposes that this is a result of passive morphology absorbing objective case in English. There is no such case to be assigned to the postverbal NP in impersonal passives. In passive constructions with intransitive verbs, the verb does not assign objective case, so that there is no case for the passive morphology to absorb. Thus, impersonal passives have to be changed into personal passives, where the NP receives nominative case, and the objective case is free to go to the passive morphology. Intransitive verbs, however, cannot be used in the passive voice at all. Both the structures discussed in this article, i.e. are grammatical in Norwegian. However, the options available in English, viz. personal passives and active sentences, are equally possible. Åfarli (1992 therefore proposes that Norwegian has optional case absorption (passive morphology optionally absorbs case. On the basis on such observations, we may propose a parameter with the settings [+case absorption] for English, and [-case absorption], signifying optional case absorption, for Norwegian. This means that none of the structures that are grammatical in English can function as positive evidence for the [+case absorption] setting, since they are also grammatical in optional case absorption languages. The question is how this parameter is set.

  16. CALL--Enhanced L2 Listening Skills--Aiming for Automatization in a Multimedia Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Maria Jesus Blasco

    2009-01-01

    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening…

  17. L1 and L2 Strategy Use in Reading Comprehension of Chinese EFL Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yea-Ru; Ernst, Cheryl; Talley, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This study revealed the relationship between L1 (Mandarin Chinese) and L2 (English) strategy use in L2 reading comprehension by focusing on the correlation of L1 reading ability, L2 proficiency and employed reading strategies. The participants, 222 undergraduates learning English as a foreign language (EFL), were classified into skilled and…

  18. Discrepancies between L2 Teacher and L2 Learner Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Zehra Gabillon

    2012-01-01

    This state of the art article overviews the literature on discrepancies between foreign language teacher and learner beliefs. In the first section, the author draws the reader’s attention to the significance of discrepancies between the L2 teacher and L2 learner perceptions and provides a synopsis of both practical-anecdotal and empirical evidence on the possible consequences of such discrepancies. In the second part of this paper, drawing upon relevant literature, the author suggests some wa...

  19. Authenticity in oral communication of instructed L2 learners

    OpenAIRE

    Nowicka, Agnieszka; Wilczyn?ska, Weronika

    2011-01-01

    The skill of producing oral discourse in L2 is commonly considered to be difficult to foster in instructional setting. However, the main problem appears to be ensuring an authenticity of speaking both in personal, internal sense and in the social, socio-linguistic dimension. The main claim of here-discussed person centered approach is that both of these dimensions, although distinct, do not need to be treated in L2 learning as systematically separate and incompatible ones. On the contrary,...

  20. A new approach to the learning of dental morphology, function, and esthetics: the "2D-3D-4D" concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    A concept is proposed for an approach to the learning of dental morphology and occlusion. Dental morphology, function, and esthetics should reflect a fundamental driving force, that is, the faithful emulation of the natural dentition's structural (functional, mechanical) and esthetic properties. The innovative part of the proposed approach is the emphasis on visual arts and the 2D-3D-4D aspect that starts with drawing (2D/3D) and continues with partial wax-up exercises that are followed by labial waxups and, finally, full wax-ups using innovative technical aids (electric waxers, prefabricated wax patterns, etc). Finally, the concept of layers (4D) and the histoanatomy of enamel/dentin and optical depth are taught through the realization of layering exercises (advanced acrylic mock-ups and composite resin restorations). All these techniques and materials are not only used to teach morphology and occlusion, but also constitute essential tools that will be of significant use for the student dentists and dental technologists in their future daily practice. The clinical significance of the presented methodology should allow not only students but also practicing dentists and dental technologists to help their youngest collaborators to develop a deep sense of morphology, function, and esthetics. PMID:25625126

  1. Empirical Comparison of Evaluation Methods for Unsupervised Learning of Morphology Comparaison empirique des méthodes d'évaluation de l'apprentissage non-supervisé de la morphologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Virpioja

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Unsupervised and semi-supervised learning of morphology provide practical solutions for processing morphologically rich languages with less human labor than the traditional rule-based analyzers. Direct evaluation of the learning methods using linguistic reference analyses is important for their development, as evaluation through the final applications is often time consuming. However, even linguistic evaluation is not straightforward for full morphological analysis, because the morpheme labels generated by the learning method can be arbitrary. We review the previous evaluation methods for the learning tasks and propose new variations. In order to compare the methods, we perform an extensive meta-evaluation using the large collection of results from the Morpho Challenge competitions.

  2. Translation and Short-Term L2 Vocabulary Retention: Hindrance or Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the role that active translation may have in second language (L2) vocabulary learning. Some research suggests that translation might be an effective cognitive strategy for L2 vocabulary learning. Participants were 191 native French-speaking students enrolled in a TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) program.The study…

  3. Discrepancies between L2 Teacher and L2 Learner Beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Gabillon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This state of the art article overviews the literature on discrepancies between foreign language teacher and learner beliefs. In the first section, the author draws the reader’s attention to the significance of discrepancies between the L2 teacher and L2 learner perceptions and provides a synopsis of both practical-anecdotal and empirical evidence on the possible consequences of such discrepancies. In the second part of this paper, drawing upon relevant literature, the author suggests some ways of overcoming discrepancies between teachers and learners’ understandings concerning foreign language practices.

  4. A Study of Age Influence in L2 Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The study of the second language (L2) acquisition has drawn more and more attention since the 1960s. This paper tries to explore the influence of learners’ age factor as well as the other factors related to age in L2 acquisition. Considering the fact that most learners are adolescents and adults in the current foreign language education, we find it quite necessary to compare and analyze their advantages and disadvantages in foreign language learning and their learning styles, so as to impro...

  5. A Study of Age Influence in L2 Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of the second language (L2 acquisition has drawn more and more attention since the 1960s. This paper tries to explore the influence of learners’ age factor as well as the other factors related to age in L2 acquisition. Considering the fact that most learners are adolescents and adults in the current foreign language education, we find it quite necessary to compare and analyze their advantages and disadvantages in foreign language learning and their learning styles, so as to improve their foreign language learning efficiency. In this paper comparisons and analyses are carried out on children, adolescents and adults to examine their characteristics respectively and their influences on language learning.

  6. Musical morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, M Mallar; Vuust, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Morphologic measures have long been used to determine the patho-anatomical signature of different neurologic disorders. However, these measures can also be used to determine effects of specific learning tasks and quantifiable human abilities on cerebral structure. Musicians provide interesting opportunities for this type of analysis as their various skills, such as rhythmic ability and pitch and harmony discrimination (acquired through years of practicing and playing) can be quantified and compared using distinct morphologic analyses. Here, we review magnetic resonance imaging-based morphologic analyses in the music and neuroscience literature and provide some results from our own analysis of rhythmic ability in a cohort of musicians.

  7. Enhancing Lexical Knowledge through L2 Medium Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Marjan Vosoughi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the L2 use rate in EFL classrooms through introducing three task conditions in learning lexical items. Date were collected from a group of freshman university students (male and female) studying in Islamic Azad university of Sabzevar, Iran. (N=73). Based on their performance on a Michigan TOEFL reading test battery, they were first randomly divided into three groups, each completing one of the three vocabulary learning tasks that varied in t...

  8. Learner Negotiation of L2 Form in Transcription Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennim, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Negotiation of language form is thought to engage learning processes by helping learners to notice gaps in their developing L2 and find target-like ways of filling them. Self-transcription, where learners work together to find language errors in recordings of their own oral output, is an awareness raising exercise that encourages such negotiation.…

  9. Combining human and machine learning for morphological analysis of galaxy images

    OpenAIRE

    Kuminski, Evan; George, Joe; Wallin, John; Shamir, Lior

    2014-01-01

    The increasing importance of digital sky surveys collecting many millions of galaxy images has reinforced the need for robust methods that can perform morphological analysis of large galaxy image databases. Citizen science initiatives such as Galaxy Zoo showed that large datasets of galaxy images can be analyzed effectively by non-scientist volunteers, but since databases generated by robotic telescopes grow much faster than the processing power of any group of citizen scien...

  10. The effects of learning to spell on children's awareness of morphology

    OpenAIRE

    T. Nunes; Bryant, P.; Bindman, M

    2006-01-01

    Because the spelling of many words in the English language (and in many other languages as well) depends on their morphemic structure, children have to have some knowledge about morphemes in order to learn to read and write. This raises the possibility that children gain much of their explicit knowledge about morphemes as a direct result of learning to read and to spell. We report two large-scale longitudinal studies that support the idea of this kind of causal connection. In the first study ...

  11. Relationship of L1 Skills and L2 Aptitude to L2 Anxiety on the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) has been challenged on the grounds that it may also assess language learning skills. In this study, 128 students who had been administered measures of first language (L1) skills in elementary school were followed from 1st to 10th grade. Fifty-three students had completed second language (L2)…

  12. Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two well-known texts that respectively describe learning and teaching, drawn from the work of Freud and Plato. These texts are considered in psychoanalytic terms using a methodology drawn from the philosophy of Luce Irigaray. In particular the article addresses Irigaray's approach to the analysis of speech and utterance as a…

  13. Altered gene regulation and synaptic morphology in Drosophila learning and memory mutants

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Zhuo; Buhl, Lauren K.; Quinn, William G.; Littleton, J. Troy

    2011-01-01

    Genetic studies in Drosophila have revealed two separable long-term memory pathways defined as anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) and long-lasting long-term memory (LLTM). ARM is disrupted in radish (rsh) mutants, whereas LLTM requires CREB-dependent protein synthesis. Although the downstream effectors of ARM and LLTM are distinct, pathways leading to these forms of memory may share the cAMP cascade critical for associative learning. Dunce, which encodes a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, and ...

  14. Manifold learning for automatically predicting articular cartilage morphology in the knee with data from the osteoarthritis initiative (OAI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, C.; Rao, A.; Bull, A. M. J.; Rueckert, D.

    2011-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative, debilitating disease with a large socio-economic impact. This study looks to manifold learning as an automatic approach to harness the plethora of data provided by the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). We construct several Laplacian Eigenmap embeddings of articular cartilage appearance from MR images of the knee using multiple MR sequences. A region of interest (ROI) defined as the weight bearing medial femur is automatically located in all images through non-rigid registration. A pairwise intensity based similarity measure is computed between all images, resulting in a fully connected graph, where each vertex represents an image and the weight of edges is the similarity measure. Spectral analysis is then applied to these pairwise similarities, which acts to reduce the dimensionality non-linearly and embeds these images in a manifold representation. In the manifold space, images that are close to each other are considered to be more "similar" than those far away. In the experiment presented here we use manifold learning to automatically predict the morphological changes in the articular cartilage by using the co-ordinates of the images in the manifold as independent variables for multiple linear regression. In the study presented here five manifolds are generated from five sequences of 390 distinct knees. We find statistically significant correlations (up to R2 = 0.75), between our predictors and the results presented in the literature.

  15. MOTHER TONGUE (L1) Vis-A-Vis OTHER TONGUE (L2)?

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Behera

    2012-01-01

    Learning a language is always a difficult thing and more so when it comes to learning a second language (L2) for it reflects the complexity of learning a language which is the other tongue rather than the mother tongue of a person. The present paper proposes to focus on the prospects and benefits of the skill-based learning of the L2. All learners, as such pick up a language by two means: a) acquisition of one's own language/mother tongue, and b) learning another language. Acquisition is a su...

  16. Teaching L2 Spanish Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, Anita K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of training on the perception of Spanish stress, an important feature in the Spanish verbal morphology system. Participants were two intact classes of native English speakers enrolled in a six-week session of second-semester Spanish, as well as native English and native Spanish control groups. During the…

  17. L2 and L3 Ultimate Attainment: An Investigation of Two Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermas, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the upper limit of ultimate attainment in the L2 French and L3 English of trilingual learners. The learners are native speakers of Moroccan Arabic who started learning L2 French at eight and L3 English at 16. They are advanced in both languages. Four constructions representing the verb movement and null subject parameter were…

  18. Isolated and Integrated Form-Focused Instruction: Effects on Different Types of L2 Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Nina; Jessop, Lorena; Tomita, Yasuyo; Suzuki, Wataru; Valeo, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    In this study we compared the effects of two types of form-focused instruction (FFI) on second language (L2) learning and their potential contributions to the development of different types of L2 knowledge. Both types of instruction were pre-emptive in nature, that is planned and teacher generated. In Integrated FFI attention to form was embedded…

  19. Long-Term Crosslinguistic Transfer of Skills from L1 to L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of first language (L1) skills in elementary school and second language (L2) learning in high school. Students classified as high-, average-, and low-proficiency L2 learners were compared on L1 achievement measures of reading, spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, and listening comprehension…

  20. L(2)-cohomology of arithmetic varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, L; Stern, M

    1987-08-01

    The L(2)-cohomology of arithmetic quotients of bounded symmetric domains is studied. We establish the conjecture of Zucker equating the L(2)-cohomology of these spaces to the intersection cohomology of their Baily-Borel compactifications. PMID:16593866

  1. L2-cohomology of arithmetic varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Saper, Leslie; Stern, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The L2-cohomology of arithmetic quotients of bounded symmetric domains is studied. We establish the conjecture of Zucker equating the L2-cohomology of these spaces to the intersection cohomology of their Baily-Borel compactifications.

  2. L2-cohomology of arithmetic varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, Leslie; Stern, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The L2-cohomology of arithmetic quotients of bounded symmetric domains is studied. We establish the conjecture of Zucker equating the L2-cohomology of these spaces to the intersection cohomology of their Baily-Borel compactifications. PMID:16593866

  3. Enhancing Lexical Knowledge through L2 Medium Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Vosoughi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the L2 use rate in EFL classrooms through introducing three task conditions in learning lexical items. Date were collected from a group of freshman university students (male and female studying in Islamic Azad university of Sabzevar, Iran. (N=73. Based on their performance on a Michigan TOEFL reading test battery, they were first randomly divided into three groups, each completing one of the three vocabulary learning tasks that varied in the amount of L1/L2 use they induced during a two month period. The tasks were 'Reading plus further L2 reading', 'Reading plus L1 translation only' and 'dictionary work'. The statistical analysis of the students' performance on vocabulary post-tests was performed through One-Way ANOVA followed with the post hoc Regression Scheffe test to analyze which task has created a meaningful mean variability at 0/05 for both between and within groups. The results showed the outperformance of the group receiving 'reading plus further L2 reading' tasks and not the tasks involving more L1 use. (p:<0.05 Possible implications of the study are presented in the light of Task Load Involvement Hypothesis by (Laufer & Hulstijn, 2001.

  4. An Application of the L2 Motivational Self System to Motivate Elementary School English Learners in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    I will describe a program that I developed to motivate grade five elementary school learners of English in Singapore to put more time and effort into learning English by enhancing their vision of their Ideal second language (L2) self and making their goals for learning English more clear and specific. The Ideal L2 self is the representation of the…

  5. L^2-Homology for von Neumann Algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Connes, Alain; Shlyakhtenko, Dimitri

    2003-01-01

    We define the notion of L^2 homology and L^2 Betti numbers for a tracial von Neumann algebra, or, more generally, for any involutive algebra with a trace. The definition of these invariants is obtained from the definition of L^2 homology for groups, using the ideas from the theory of correspondences. For the group algebra of a discrete group, our Betti numbers coincide with the L^2 Betti numbers of the group. We find a link between the first L^2 Betti number and free entropy...

  6. Measurements of Development in L2 Written Production: The Case of L2 Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenying

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates measures for second language (L2) writing development. A T-unit, which has been found the most satisfactory unit of analysis for measuring L2 development in English, is extended to measure L2 Chinese writing development through a cross-sectional design in this study. Data were collected from three L2 Chinese learner groups…

  7. Personalized versus Normal Practice of L2 Speaking on Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayda Rahmani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Personalized learning is a self-initiated, self-directed or self-prioritized pursuit which gives the learner a degree of choice about the process of learning i.e. what to learn, how to learn and when to learn. Of course personalized learning does not indicate unlimited choice; because, L2 learners will still have targets to be met. However, it provides learners with the opportunity to learn in ways that suit their individual learning styles. The L2 learner should have the opportunity to freely choose a series of activities, already predisposed by the teacher, to improve and develop L2 proficiency. This is because human beings have different ways to learn and process information; and, these different ways of learning are independent of each other. In other words, learning styles and techniques differ across individuals; thus, personalized learning provides L2 learners to freely choose the activities they enjoy the most. So it is a student-centered learning method in which the interests and the preferences of the learner is taken into account.The present study is an investigation of a personalized versus normal practice of L2 proficiency. For this purpose an OPT (Oxford Placement Test was given to a total of 80 Iranian EFL learners. Then, 40 of them who were considered as intermediate learners were selected for the purpose of the study. The participants were randomly divided into two groups i.e. an experimental group and a control group. Both groups were pretested prior to the study. Then, the experimental group received the treatment in the form of personalized learning (games-based learning, songs, music, stories, English tongue twisters and the materials that the subjects were most interested in for ten sessions while the control group received a normal practice of speaking proficiency (based on New Interchange course books. After ten sessions, both groups were post tested. Then the results of the posttests were subjects of statistical analysis (independent-samples t-test. The results indicated that the experimental group did better than the control group and there is a significant difference between the mean scores of the experimental group who were exposed to a personalized learning and the control group who received a normal practice of oral proficiency i.e. a placebo. Based on the results of this study, L2 learner’ interests in carrying out joyful L2 activities can help to reach promising results.Keywords: Personalized learning, Oral proficiency, EFL learners, Communication

  8. Quantitative analysis of mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in living cells using high-content imaging, machine learning, and morphological binning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Anthony P; Cameron, Robert B; Speiser, Jaime L; Wolf, Bethany J; Peterson, Yuri K; Schnellmann, Rick G; Beeson, Craig C; Rohrer, Bärbel

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the processes of mitochondrial dynamics (fission, fusion, biogenesis, and mitophagy) has been hampered by the lack of automated, deterministic methods to measure mitochondrial morphology from microscopic images. A method to quantify mitochondrial morphology and function is presented here using a commercially available automated high-content wide-field fluorescent microscopy platform and R programming-language-based semi-automated data analysis to achieve high throughput morphological categorization (puncta, rod, network, and large & round) and quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential. In conjunction with cellular respirometry to measure mitochondrial respiratory capacity, this method detected that increasing concentrations of toxicants known to directly or indirectly affect mitochondria (t-butyl hydroperoxide [TBHP], rotenone, antimycin A, oligomycin, ouabain, and carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone [FCCP]), decreased mitochondrial networked areas in cultured 661w cells to 0.60-0.80 at concentrations that inhibited respiratory capacity to 0.20-0.70 (fold change compared to vehicle). Concomitantly, mitochondrial swelling was increased from 1.4- to 2.3-fold of vehicle as indicated by changes in large & round areas in response to TBHP, oligomycin, or ouabain. Finally, the automated identification of mitochondrial location enabled accurate quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential by measuring intramitochondrial tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) fluorescence intensity. Administration of FCCP depolarized and administration of oligomycin hyperpolarized mitochondria, as evidenced by changes in intramitochondrial TMRM fluorescence intensities to 0.33- or 5.25-fold of vehicle control values, respectively. In summary, this high-content imaging method accurately quantified mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in hundreds of thousands of cells on a per-cell basis, with sufficient throughput for pharmacological or toxicological evaluation. PMID:25447550

  9. Review Article: A Tree in the Wood--A Review of Research on L2 Chinese Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable research in Chinese as a second language (L2) in recent years, particularly in its morphological and syntactic aspects. This article reviews research in these aspects with reference to the broader discipline of second language acquisition (SLA) and suggests that L2 Chinese research has contributed to SLA through…

  10. An Application of the L2 Motivational Self System to Motivate Elementary School English Learners in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Magid

    2013-01-01

    I will describe a program that I developed to motivate grade five elementary school learners of English in Singapore to put more time and effort into learning English by enhancing their vision of their Ideal second language (L2) self and making their goals for learning English more clear and specific. The Ideal L2 self is the representation of the L2 attributes that one wishes to possess if one is able to master one’s L2. The participants, who were separated into a control group and an expe...

  11. L2 Phonology Learning among Young-Adult Learners of English: Effects of Regular Classroom-based Instruction and L2 Proficiency / Enseñanza de la fonética de una segunda lengua en contextos escolares: Un análisis de las prácticas pedagógicas y sus efectos en el aprendizaje del inglés en jóvenes universitarios

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana, Morales Pech; Jesús, Izquierdo.

    Full Text Available A través de una metodología mixta, el presente estudio examinó el impacto de un curso de Fonología inglesa en la adquisición de sonidos vocálicos y consonánticos de estudiantes universitarios de inglés de nivel básico (n=4), pre-intermedio (n=8) e intermedio (n=6). El curso fue impartido por un prof [...] esor de inglés durante 16 semanas, cinco horas a la semana. Para determinar los efectos del curso, los estudiantes participaron en dos actividades orales durante una entrevista al inicio y fin del curso. Durante el mismo, se observaron nueve clases y el instructor reportó las actividades implementadas. Los análisis de varianza revelaron cambios positivos en la pronunciación de todos los estudiantes. En las observaciones y los reportes se constató una enseñanza fonológica sistematizada y focalizada a través de actividades variadas. Los resultados sugieren que este tipo de enseñanza permite a los estudiantes contrarrestar los efectos negativos que factores biológicos y la influencia de la lengua materna tienen durante el aprendizaje. Abstract in english Using a mixed methodology, this study examines the impact of a university-level English phonology course on the acquisition of vowel and consonant sounds in that language, by beginning (n = 4), pre-intermediate (n = 8) and intermediate-level (n = 6) students. The 5-hour-a-week, 16-week course was ta [...] ught by teacher of English. To determine the effects of the course, students participated in two oral activities during an interview at the beginning of the course, and another at the end. During these interview, nine classes were observed, and the instructor reported the activities implemented. The analysis of variance revealed positive changes in all the students pronunciation students. Observations and reports verified the presence of systematic and focused phonological teaching through a variety of activities. The results suggest that this type of teaching allows students to counteract the negative effects which biological factors and the influence of the mother tongue have on learning.

  12. Digital Game-Based Learning (DGBL) in the L2 Classroom: The Impact of the UN's Off-the-Shelf Videogame, Food Force, on Learner Affect and Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Schmidt, Matthew; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-method study explored the impact of "Food Force (FF)", a UN-sponsored off-the-shelf videogame, on learner affect and vocabulary learning and retention in a Japanese as a second/foreign language classroom. The videogame was integrated into an existing curriculum and two studies were performed. In Study 1 (n = 9), new vocabulary…

  13. GLI ERRORI DI ITALIANO L1 ED L2: INTERFERENZA E APPRENDIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Solarino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Si può oggi affrontare il tema degli errori di italiano da una prospettiva che possa giovare contemporaneamente a docenti di italiano L1 ed L2? Noi pensiamo di sì: la ricerca glottodidattica sembra aver ormai apprestato un terreno comune alle due situazioni di apprendimento, sgombrando il campo da vecchi pregiudizi e distinzioni che appaiono ormai superate. Attraverso la contrapposizione di concetti quali “lingua parlata/lingua scritta”,  “errori di lingua / errori di linguaggio”, “apprendimento spontaneo/apprendimento guidato”, “italiano L1/italiano L2”, “errori di apprendimento/errori di interferenza, si indicano diversi criteri per la interpretazione degli errori e la loro valutazione in relazione alle cause, alle situazioni comunicative, ai contesti o allo stadio di evoluzione dell’apprendimento della lingua.     Errors in italian L1 and L2: interference and learning   Can errors in Italian be approached in a way that benefits both L1 and L2 Italian teachers? We believe so: glottodidactic research seems to have prepared a common terrain for these two learning situations, clearing the field of old prejudices and obsolete distinctions.  Through the juxtaposition of concepts like “spoken language/written language”, “language errors/speech errors”, “spontaneous learning/guided learning”, “L1 Italian/L2 Italian”, “learning errors/interference errors”, different criteria for interpreting errors and evaluating them in relation to their causes, to communicative situations, to contexts and the developmental state in learning a language are singled out.

  14. L-2-hydroxiglutaric aciduria: Three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk incecik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available L-2-hydroxiglutaric aciduria is a rare, autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorder. The disease is characterized by intellectual disability, ataxia, extrapyramidal signs and seizures. Diagnosis is made by cranial magnetic resonance imaging and urine organic acid analysis. In this report, we presented three patients with L-2-hydroxiglutaric aciduria. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 868-871

  15. $L^2$-Alexander invariant for knots

    OpenAIRE

    Dubois, Je?ro?me; Wegner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of a new family of knot invariants: the $L^2$-Alexander invariant. A main result is to give a method of computation of the $L^2$-Alexander invariant of a knot complement using any presentation of default 1 of the knot group.

  16. Using Eye-Tracking to Investigate Topics in L2 Acquisition and L2 Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Leah; Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Second language (L2) researchers are becoming more interested in both L2 learners' knowledge of the target language and how that knowledge is put to use during real-time language processing. Researchers are therefore beginning to see the importance of combining traditional L2 research methods with those that capture the moment-by-moment…

  17. What’s in a Bot? L2 Lexical Development Mediated through ICALL

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Arispe

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) has made great strides to refocus its attention on the essential role that vocabulary plays in becoming a proficient L2 learner (Nation, 2001). Moreover, Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) has made advances in providing interactive online tools that help L2 learners strategically engage and work through their vocabulary development. This present study reports on how an Intelligent CALL tool (ICALL),...

  18. The development of L2 emergent literacy in Hong Kong Kindergarten children

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Lydia L. S.; Sylva, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores the development of emergent literacy in Hong Kong Kindergarten children who are learning English as a Second Language (L2). Two interrelated empirical studies have been conducted, and both aim to examine the contribution of code-related and oral language skills to predicting early L2 reading ability, controlling for home influences. The majority of research on emergent literacy has been conducted on First-Language (L1) English-speaking children, and it is possible that th...

  19. EX1404L2 Dive Operations Summary

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All information and available data about Dive Operations on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1404L2: Our Deepwater Backyard: Exploring the Atlantic Canyons and...

  20. EX1202L2 Dive Operations Summary

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All information and available data about Dive Operations on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico Exploration between 20120319 and 20120407

  1. EX1304L2 Dive Operations Summary

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All information and available data about Dive Operations on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S. Canyons Exploration between 20130731 and...

  2. L(2) Cohomology of the Bergman metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, H; Fefferman, C

    1983-05-01

    The L(2) cohomology of the Bergman metric is infinite dimensional in the middle degree and vanishes for all other degrees. Asymptotic expansions are given for the Schwartz kernels of the corresponding projections onto harmonic forms. PMID:16593319

  3. L2 Cohomology of the Bergman metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Harold; Fefferman, Charles

    1983-01-01

    The L2 cohomology of the Bergman metric is infinite dimensional in the middle degree and vanishes for all other degrees. Asymptotic expansions are given for the Schwartz kernels of the corresponding projections onto harmonic forms. PMID:16593319

  4. Exploring L2 Language Play as an Aid to SLL: A Case Study of Humour in NS--NNS Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nancy D.

    2005-01-01

    In the past few years researchers have begun to show an interest in humour and language play as it relates to second language learning (SLL). Tarone (2000) has suggested that L2 language play may be facilitative of SLL, in particular by developing sociolinguistic competence, as learners experiment with L2 voices; and by destabilizing the…

  5. Are Alphabetic Language-Derived Models of L2 Reading Relevant to L1 Logographic Background Readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, John Fitzgerald; Zhang, Lawrence Jun; Mu, Jon Congjun; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that second language (L2) reading research, which has been informed by studies involving first language (L1) alphabetic English reading, may be less relevant to L2 readers with non-alphabetic reading backgrounds, such as Chinese readers with an L1 logographic (Chinese character) learning history. We provide both…

  6. The Relationship between Morphological Awareness and Morphological Decomposition among English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Morphological awareness facilitates many reading processes. For this reason, L1 and L2 learners of English are often directly taught to use their knowledge of English morphology as a useful reading strategy for determining parts of speech and meaning of novel words. Over time, use of morphological awareness skills while reading develops into an…

  7. Fehler, Fehleranalyse und Fehlerbenotung im Lichte des natuerlichen L2-Erwerbs. (Analysis and Grading of Errors in the Light of the L2 Acquisition Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wode, Henning

    1978-01-01

    Compares the error-grading system of Zydatiss (in 'Linguistik und Didaktik', No. 24, 1975) with examples from the "Natural L2 (Second Language) Acquisition" project, and raises the question of how far it is possible for a teacher to utilize the approach of a self-guided language-learning process. (IFS/WGA)

  8. Literary Language in Development of L2 Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is believed that language in daily communication rather than literary language should be the target of learning in L2 education. This is mainly because literary language is said to be uncommon in life. This paper reports on a study in which some Hong Kong ESL learners’ English proficiency was re-examined through literary texts. These learners had reached intermediate or advanced levels of English prior to the study and were generally competent in daily English. However, many of them encountered difficulty in understanding literary language. Their proficiency in general English test could not match their performances in understanding literary works. The findings reveal that learners who are strong in general proficiency may not be good in understanding literary language. Lack of literary language in the curriculum results in a false and distorted picture about the learners’ proficiency. Literary language helps upgrade L2 learners’ real proficiency in the target language.Keywords: literature, literary language, L2 proficiency, reading competence

  9. LA ICLASSE – SMARTPHONE E ITALIANO L2/LS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Zanoli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mai come oggi le classi (di Italiano L2, ma non solo sono così fortemente colonizzate dal digitale. L’invasione si è palesata sotto forma di telefonini cellulari (smartphone e tablet dotati di connessione internet e infinite potenzialità sotto forma di applicazioni che possono sia aiutare il discente sia, se male impiegati, ostacolarlo dall’intraprendere un proficuo percorso di apprendimento. Compito dell’insegnante di lingua è circoscrivere l’influenza e l’uso di tali strumenti – che non sono mero techné, ma un modo di funzionare di una generazione – non  per vietarli ma per proporre un approccio e un loro utilizzo costruttivo quali mezzi dalle grandi potenzialità nell’apprendimento di una lingua straniera.     The 1st class – Smartphones and Italian L2/FL   Classrooms (for Italian L2, but not only have never before been so strongly digitally oriented. This invasion is made tangible by smartphones and tablets equipped with internet connections and infinite potential thanks to applications which can help students in their studies, or hinder them if used incorrectly. The language teacher’s task is to circumscribe the influence and use of these tools– which are not mere techné, but the way an entire generation functions – not to prohibit using them but to propose using them constructively, thanks to their great potential for foreign language learning.

  10. A Review of Recent Research (2000-2008) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This review presents a broad picture of recent work on L2 Spanish in educational contexts. The thematic and geographic scope of the review is wide, in order to capture the diversity of learners and learning contexts of L2 Spanish, just two decades after teaching and learning the language gained impetus worldwide. Traditional second or foreign…

  11. Review of Recent Research (2002-2009) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 German (Part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerth, Johannes; Tschirner, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    This review of research on the learning, teaching, and assessment of L2 German may be particularly timely due to developments from within the profession as well as recent political changes which continue to have a strong bearing on the way L2 German is promoted, learned, taught and assessed. Far from representing an isolated field of research…

  12. Relations among L1 Reading, L2 Knowledge, and L2 Reading: Revisiting the Threshold Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gi-Pyo Park

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to test the threshold hypothesis in second/foreign language (L2) reading by investigating the relations among first language (L1) reading, L2 knowledge, and L2 reading comprehension in a sample of 2666 (1333 males and 1333 females) Korean EFL high school students. Three different methods of data analysis were utilized after closely looking into the methods of data analysis of the current literature on a language threshold. Statistical analysis revealed that the contributi...

  13. The Role of Gender in L2 Interaction. Socialization via L2 Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gascoigne, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    Given the importance placed on student-student interaction in today's second language (L2) classroom, this article seeks to examine target language interaction models presented to L2 students. Specifically, this investigation reviews how male and female interaction styles are presented to L2 leamers in target language scripts such as textbook and workbook dialogues and audio segments in order to determine whether or not pedagogical materials reinforce stereotypical gender-typed interaction...

  14. Relations among L1 Reading, L2 Knowledge, and L2 Reading: Revisiting the Threshold Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi-Pyo Park

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to test the threshold hypothesis in second/foreign language (L2 reading by investigating the relations among first language (L1 reading, L2 knowledge, and L2 reading comprehension in a sample of 2666 (1333 males and 1333 females Korean EFL high school students. Three different methods of data analysis were utilized after closely looking into the methods of data analysis of the current literature on a language threshold. Statistical analysis revealed that the contribution of L1 reading and L2 knowledge to L2 reading was significant and substantial in the main and interaction effects, accounting for 54 percent of variance of L2 reading comprehension in tandem. However, the correlation of L1 reading to L2 reading showed, in general, a decreasing trend in accordance with the improvement of L2 knowledge, which is in contrast with the notion of a threshold level. This result of a language threshold was discussed in terms of a broad construct of language transfer and the interactive approach to reading in an L2.

  15. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovi? Nebojša J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disease with a slowly progressive course and characterized by increased levels of hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. In this condition clinical features mainly consist of mental deterioration, ataxia and motor deficits. Case Outline. The patient is a 16-year-old girl, the first and only child of healthy, non-consanguineous parents of Serbian origin. At the age of 4 years her walk became unsteady and ataxic. Other signs of cerebellar involvement were soon observed. Head circumference was above two standard deviations (55 cm. Mild mental retardation was revealed by formal intelligence testing (IQ 60. MR examination of the brain showed confluent subcortical white matter lesions spread centripetally, and atrophy of the cerebellar vermis with involvement of dentate nuclei, without deep white matter abnormalities. Laboratory investigation revealed increased amounts and a very large peak of HGA in urine and plasma. Enantiomeric analysis confirmed the L-configuration (>90% establishing the diagnosis of L-2-HGA. The first epileptic seizure, partial with secondary generalization, occurred at age of 8 years. Favorable seizure control was achieved. A slow progression of neurological impairment was noted. Therapeutic trials with oral coenzyme Q10 and with oral riboflavin showed no biochemical and clinical effects. Recently, the diagnosis was proven by the presence of a mutation in the L-2-HGA gene. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of L-2-HGA in Serbia. L-2-HGA must be considered in the differential diagnosis based on specific findings in cranial MRI.

  16. L^2-Betti numbers of hypersurface complements

    OpenAIRE

    Maxim, Laurentiu

    2012-01-01

    In \\cite{DJL07} it was shown that if $\\scra$ is an affine hyperplane arrangement in $\\C^n$, then at most one of the $L^2$--Betti numbers $b_i^{(2)}(\\C^n\\sm \\scra,\\id)$ is non--zero. In this note we prove an analogous statement for complements of complex affine hyperurfaces in general position at infinity. Furthermore, we recast and extend to this higher-dimensional setting results of \\cite{FLM,LM06} about $L^2$--Betti numbers of plane curve complements.

  17. A Mouse Model of L-2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria, a Disorder of Metabolite Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzem, Rim; Achouri, Younes; Marbaix, Etienne; Schakman, Olivier; Wiame, Elsa; Marie, Sandrine; Gailly, Philippe; Vincent, Marie-Françoise; Veiga-da-Cunha, Maria; Van Schaftingen, Emile

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to progress in our understanding of the pathophysiology of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria, due to a defect in L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase, by creating and studying a mouse model of this disease. L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase-deficient mice (l2hgdh-/-) accumulated L-2-hydroxyglutarate in tissues, most particularly in brain and testis, where the concentration reached ? 3.5 ?mol/g. Male mice showed a 30% higher excretion of L-2-hydroxyglutarate compared to female mice, supporting that this dicarboxylic acid is partially made in males by lactate dehydrogenase C, a poorly specific form of this enzyme exclusively expressed in testes. Involvement of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase in the formation of L-2-hydroxyglutarate was supported by the commensurate decrease in the formation of this dicarboxylic acid when down-regulating this enzyme in mouse l2hgdh-/- embryonic fibroblasts. The concentration of lysine and arginine was markedly increased in the brain of l2hgdh-/- adult mice. Saccharopine was depleted and glutamine was decreased by ? 40%. Lysine-?-ketoglutarate reductase, which converts lysine to saccharopine, was inhibited by L-2-hydroxyglutarate with a Ki of ? 0.8 mM. As low but significant activities of the bifunctional enzyme lysine-?-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase were found in brain, these findings suggest that the classical lysine degradation pathway also operates in brain and is inhibited by the high concentrations of L-2-hydroxyglutarate found in l2hgdh-/- mice. Pathological analysis of the brain showed significant spongiosis. The vacuolar lesions mostly affected oligodendrocytes and myelin sheats, as in other dicarboxylic acidurias, suggesting that the pathophysiology of this model of leukodystrophy may involve irreversible pumping of a dicarboxylate in oligodendrocytes. Neurobehavioral testing indicated that the mice mostly suffered from a deficit in learning capacity. In conclusion, the findings support the concept that L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a disorder of metabolite repair. The accumulation of L-2-hydroxyglutarate exerts toxic effects through various means including enzyme inhibition and glial cell swelling. PMID:25763823

  18. Digital Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    Have you ever wanted to look into the shape and structure of a suckermouth armored catfish? Well, the Digital Morphology website makes that possible. Created as part of the National Science Foundation Digital Library at The University of Texas at Austin, this library includes hundreds of 2D and 3D visualizations of the internal and external structure of living and extinct vertebrates, and a number of invertebrates as well. These images are generated by a X-ray CT scanner, which has greater resolution and penetrating power than a conventional medical diagnostic CAT scanner. Visitors can browse the library by scientific name, common name, or the popular What's New? area. The homepage includes eight different overview pages, which provide narrative essays and images of dinosaurs, tapirs, bats, and primates. The site also has a Learn More section which provides additional material on X-ray CT's and the science behind 3D printing.

  19. Entropy, Determinants, and L2-Torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hanfeng

    2012-01-01

    We show that for any amenable group \\Gamma and any Z\\Gamma-module M of type FL with vanishing Euler characteristic, the entropy of the natural \\Gamma-action on the Pontryagin dual of M is equal to the L2-torsion of M. As a particular case, the entropy of the principal algebraic action associated with the module Z\\Gamma/Z\\Gamma f is equal to the logarithm of the Fuglede-Kadison determinant of f whenever f is a non-zero-divisor in Z\\Gamma. This confirms a conjecture of Deninger. As a key step in the proof we provide a general Szeg\\H{o}-type approximation theorem for the Fuglede-Kadison determinant on the group von Neumann algebra of an amenable group. As a consequence of the equality between L2-torsion and entropy, we show that the L2-torsion of a non-trivial amenable group with finite classifying space vanishes. This was conjectured by L\\"uck. Finally, we establish a Milnor-Turaev formula for the L2-torsion of a finite \\Delta-acyclic chain complex.

  20. Repair Negotiation by English L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yujeong

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that L2 learners often face communication problems due to lack of competency in the target language and familiarity with its culture of origin. One way to resolve miscommunication problems is to seek clarification of the utterance; this process is called "repair negotiation" (Nakahama et al. 2001). Repair…

  1. Language learner autonomy and the European Language Portfolio: two L2 English examples

    OpenAIRE

    LITTLE, DAVID GEORGE

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that the Council of Europe's European Language Portfolio is capable of supporting the implementation of language learner autonomy on a large scale. It begins by explaining what the author understands by ‘language learner autonomy’, then introduces the European Language Portfolio and explains how it can stimulate reflective learning in which goal setting and self-assessment play a central role. It concludes by giving two practical examples that involve the learning of L2 En...

  2. A Blended Collaborative Writing Approach for Chinese L2 Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chen, Wenli; Chai, Ching-Sing; Chin, Chee-Kuen; Gao, Ping

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines an adaptable collaborative writing approach employing a wiki to address the typical weaknesses of young Singaporean Chinese students learning Chinese as second language (L2) in Chinese writing. These students' problems in writing include limited and incorrect use of vocabulary, English-style grammar, badly structured passages,…

  3. Character Reading Fluency, Word Segmentation Accuracy, and Reading Comprehension in L2 Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Helen H.; Jiang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between lower-level processing and general reading comprehension among adult L2 (second-language) beginning learners of Chinese, in both target and non-target language learning environments. Lower-level processing in Chinese reading includes the factors of character-naming accuracy, character-naming speed,…

  4. An Application of the L2 Motivational Self System to Motivate Elementary School English Learners in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Magid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I will describe a program that I developed to motivate grade five elementary school learners of English in Singapore to put more time and effort into learning English by enhancing their vision of their Ideal second language (L2 self and making their goals for learning English more clear and specific. The Ideal L2 self is the representation of the L2 attributes that one wishes to possess if one is able to master one’s L2. The participants, who were separated into a control group and an experimental group, lacked both confidence in their English and the motivation to study it. They also had negative attitudes toward studying English. During the training program, which consisted of a series of workshops, I asked the participants in the experimental group to imagine scripted imagery situations to enhance their vision of their Ideal L2 self. I also helped these participants to develop clear and specific goals and action plans for learning English. The mixed methods longitudinal study, which lasted four months, employed a series of questionnaires and interviews in order to assess the participants’ motivational development. The main findings were that 90% of the participants in the experimental group became more motivated to learn English, more confident in their English, and exhibited more positive attitudes toward learning English as a result of the program.  Only 50% of the participants became motivated, 75% became more confident, and 90% improved their attitudes toward learning English in the control group.

  5. Impact of English Orthography on L2 Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Sipra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available English language has become unavoidable being a global language in the present era. Whether it is a field of business, technology or education, its significance can’t be denied. Thus, majority of the world is learning and speaking English owing to its dire need. Unfortunately, despite staining through different reforms, the orthography of English language failed to become learners’ friendly as it seems to be a queer language for the beginners. The present study describes the ways how English orthography becomes impediment for EFL learners. It elucidates how learners in general and Urdu learners of English language in particular, are influenced by its deep orthography. The article reviews the interesting history of English orthography. Moreover, it reveals the phonological relationship between Urdu and English Consonants that causes inferences based on grapheme to phoneme conversion. The study highlights problems posed by English vowels resulting in wrong assumptions by L2 learners from English orthography. It sums up showing the significance of phonological awareness of English spellings to avoid wrong L2 phonology.

  6. Exploring Learners’ Developing L2 Collocational Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supakorn Phoocharoensil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research study was aimed at an investigation of Thai EFL learners’ collocational competence, with focus on the problems in their collocation use. The data, elicited from essays written by two groups of participants with different L2 proficiency levels, are indicative of actual problems with which the learners are really confronted. With respect to the sources of these collocational errors, native language transfer seems to be the most important contributing factor. Where the collocations in L1 Thai and L2 English are incongruent, deviations often arise. The interlingual errors found pertain to preposition addition, preposition omission, incorrect word choice, and collocate redundancy. It is worth noticing that the high-proficiency learners heavily depend on collocational patterns from their mother tongue, to which low-proficiency students are expected to resort. In addition to L1 transfer, the participants also seem to rely on synonymy and overgeneralization, both of which result in erroneous collocations in English.

  7. Adaptive confidence sets in L^{2}

    CERN Document Server

    Bull, Adam D

    2011-01-01

    The problem of constructing nonparametric confidence sets that are adaptive in L^{2}-loss over a continuous scale of Sobolev classes is considered. Adaptation holds, where possible, with respect to both the radius of the Sobolev ball and its smoothness degree, and over maximal parameter spaces for which adaptation is possible. Two key regimes of parameter constellations are identified: one where full adaptation is possible, and one where adaptation requires critical regions be removed. The phase transition between these regimes is analysed separately. Key ideas needed to derive these results include a general nonparametric minimax test for infinite-dimensional null- and alternative hypotheses, and new lower bound techniques for L^{2}-adaptive confidence sets.

  8. L(2,1)-labelling of graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Havet, Frederic; Reed, Bruce; Sereni, Jean-sebastien

    2008-01-01

    Un $L(2,1)$-étiquettage d'un graphe est une fonction $f$ de l'ensemble des sommets vers les entiers positifs telle que $|f(x)-f(y)|\\geq 2$ si $dist(x,y)=1$ et $|f(x)-f(y)|\\geq 1$ si $dist(x,y)=2$, où $dist(u,v)$ est la distance entre les sommets~$u$ et~$v$ dans le graphe $G$. Le \\emph{span} d'un $L(2,1)$-étiquettage $f$ est la différence entre la plus grande et la plus petite étiquette utilisée par $f$ plus $1$. En 1992, Griggs et Yeh ont conjecturé que tout graphe de degré maximum $\\...

  9. HFI L2 destripping and mapmaking tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdereau, Olivier

    The data processing of the data from the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) of the Planck mission will use several modules. Destriping is expected to play a central role in the mapmaking stage. This paper outlines two existing HFI l2 DPC destriping modules together with estimations of their performances. MOKAPIX is a temperature data destriping tool based on scanning redundancies on the sky. We have developped another modules, BOGOPIX , based on the same philosophy, to perform simultaneously destriping and relative intercalibration.

  10. Deadbeat Response is l_2 Optimal.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ku?era, Vladimír

    New York : IEEE, 2008, s. 154-157 ISBN 978-1-4244-1687-5; ISBN 978-1-4244-1688-2. [The 3rd International Symposium on Communications, Control and Signal Processing. St. Julians (ML), 12.03.2008-14.03.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear systems * finite impulse response * L_2 norm minimization Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  11. L2 Learners' Assessments of Accentedness, Fluency, and Comprehensibility of Native and Nonnative German Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Mary Grantham

    2014-01-01

    In early stages of classroom language learning, many adult second language (L2) learners communicate primarily with one another, yet we know little about which speech stream characteristics learners tune into or the extent to which they understand this lingua franca communication. In the current study, 25 native English speakers learning German as…

  12. The Inseparability of Cognition and Emotion in Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Merrill

    2013-01-01

    The scholarly literature about the process of second language (L2) learning has focused to a considerable extent on cognitive processes. Left aside are questions about how emotions fit into an understanding of L2 learning. One goal of this plenary is to demonstrate that we have limited our understanding of L2 learning by failing to take into…

  13. IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2 CON LE CANZONI. UN CONTRIBUTO DIDATTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Mauroni

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Il presente contributo si inserisce nel filone degli studi che hanno messo in evidenza la potenziale ricchezza della canzone come strumento di facilitazione dell’apprendimento della L2, e come mezzo per l’approccio al testo letterario per studenti di italiano L1, additandone il carattere di attività particolarmente efficace e ‘consonante’ con una prospettiva umanistico-affettiva, comunicativa, nonché socio-costruttivista. In queste pagine sono presentate alcune attività didattiche (pensate ora per gli apprendenti di italiano L2, ora per gli studenti di italiano L1 formulate a partire da alcuni testi del cantautore Claudio Baglioni (Io sono qui, Le vie dei Colori, Bolero, Fammi andar via tratti dall’album Io sono qui, 1995, edizioni CBS. I testi qui didattizzati sono utilizzabili in diverse prospettive: grammaticale, lessicale, retorica, socio-culturale, ecc.; e per diversi livelli di competenza linguistica (L2: A1-C1; L1.     Learning italian l2 through song.  A didactic contribution   This article is part of a series of studies which focus on the potential richness of songs as tools for facilitating L2 learning, as well as being a way to approach literary texts for L1 Italian students, being a particularly effective activity from a humanistic-affective, communicative and socio-constructivist point of view.  A few didactic activities are presented (designed for L2 Italian learners, or for L1 Italian learners based on songs by Claudio Baglioni (Io sono qui, Le vie dei Colori, Bolero, Fammi andar via from the album Io sono qui, 1995, edizioni CBS.  The texts were adapted for diverse didactic uses: grammatical, lexical, rhetorical, socio-cultural, etc and for different levels of linguistic competence (L2: A1-C1, L1

  14. The Task-Based Syllabus: Promoting L2 Acquisition and Learner Empowerment in an EFL Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Sophia Torres

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the Task-Based Syllabus (TBS can be used topromote L2 acquisition and learner empowerment in an English as a Foreign Language (EFLcontext. The paper begins by reviewing definitions of the Task-Based Syllabus as well as theterm “task” in relation to the syllabus. It then examines influential theories, which havehelped shape the Task-Based Syllabus before identifying its strengths and weaknesses in theclassroom. The author then identifies ideal teaching situations for implementing aTask-Based Syllabus in order to encourage L2 acquisition and facilitate learner motivationand empowerment by promoting language learning strategy awareness.

  15. FENÓMENOS DE REDUCCIÓN VOCÁLICA POR HABLANTES COLOMBIANOS DE INGLÉS COMO L2: UN ESTUDIO ACÚSTICO / VOWEL REDUCTION PHENOMENA BY COLOMBIAN SPANISH SPEAKERS OF L2 ENGLISH: AN ACOUSTIC STUDY / FENÔMENOS DE REDUÇÃO VOCÁLICA POR FALANTES COLOMBIANOS DE INGLÊS COMO L2: UM ESTUDO ACÚSTICO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kelly Johanna, Vera Diettes.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou as capacidades de um grupo de falantes de inglês como segunda língua (L2), quando percebiam e produzia a vogal inglesa Schwa. Avaliaram-se as hipóteses propostas pelo Modelo de Aprendizagem da Fala (Speech Learning Model [SML, por sua sigla em inglês]), as quais sugerem que os fa [...] lantes de L2 poderiam criar categorias fonéticas para novos sons. Tomou-se a ortografia como uma possível variável que afeta as habilidades dos falantes de L2. O estudo foi realizado em três etapas: a primeira avaliou as capacidades iniciais dos falantes de L2; a segunda consistiu num treinamento fonético em processos de redução vocálica e Schwa; finalmente, a terceira avaliou as mesmas instâncias depois do treinamento. Os resultados sugerem que os falantes tenham sido influenciados pela ortografia e tenham percebido e produzido Schwas que se assemelhavam a suas vogais nativas. Abstract in spanish Este estudio evaluó las capacidades de un grupo de hablantes de inglés como segunda lengua (L2), cuando percibían y producía la vocal inglesa Schwa. Se evaluaron las hipótesis propuestas por el Modelo de Aprendizaje del Habla (Speech Learning Model [SML, por sus siglas en inglés]), las cuales sugier [...] en que los hablantes de L2 podrían crear categorías fonéticas para sonidos nuevos. Se tomó la ortografía como una posible variable que afecta las habilidades de los hablantes de L2. El estudio se realizó en tres etapas: la primera evaluó las capacidades iniciales de los hablantes de L2; la segunda consistió en un entrenamiento fonético en procesos de reducción vocálica y Schwa, y, finalmente, la tercera evaluó las mismas instancias después del entrenamiento. Los resultados sugieren que los hablantes fueron influenciados por la ortografía y percibieron y produjeron Schwas que asemejaban sus vocales nativas. Abstract in english This study assessed the performances of a group of speakers of L2 English when perceiving and producing the English vowel Schwa. It evaluated the hypotheses proposed by the Speech Learning Model (SML), developed by Flege and colleagues (1988, 1992, 1999, and 2002), which suggest that L2 speakers are [...] capable of creating phonetic categories for new L2 sounds. The effect of orthography was chosen as a variable that could affect L2 speakers’ abilities. The study was carried out in three stages: the first one evaluated initial L2 speakers’ perceptual and productive abilities; stage two consisted of pronunciation training in vowel reduction processes; and stage three evaluated performances after training. Results suggest that Second Language (L2) speakers were influenced by the orthography; therefore, they perceived and produced Schwas as instances of their native vowels.

  16. The Contribution of L1 Phonemic Awareness into L2 Reading: The Case of Arab EFL Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Alshaboul

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross-language transfer is the extent, if any, to which phonological awareness in L1 facilitates learning to read in L2. This has been an area of investigation wherein researchers looked into the orthographic and phonological component processing skills L2 learners develop and utilize to facilitate word recognition. Given the difference between the orthographic systems of Arabic (L1 and English (L2, how difficult is it for beginning Arab EFL learners to develop these skills? Arab EFL learners seem to have difficulty with prelexical word recognition processes leading to slower and perhaps even less accurate L2 word recognition skills. This study examines the possibility of transferring Arabic phonological awareness to learning English. Results are reported, most important of which is the confirmation of cross-language transfer.

  17. Sitio Web interactivo para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología del sistema muscular Interactive Website to learn the morphology of the muscular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orliany Alboniga Álvarez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Debido al desarrollo científico técnico alcanzado, se han insertado las tecnologías de la informática y las comunicaciones al proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de la disciplina Morfofisiología Humana. Se realizó una investigación de innovación tecnológica, en el área de pregrado de la Educación Médica, en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río; con el objetivo de elaborar un sistema de medios de enseñanza para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular. Se utilizaron los métodos empíricos, las encuestas a estudiantes, entrevistas a profesores de la asignatura y a los profesores asesores, criterio de expertos para validar el producto. Los métodos teóricos: histórico, lógico y sistémico, fueron utilizados en la revisión bibliográfica y el análisis documental que sustenta el estudio. Las guías de estudio se elaboraron por el modelo "WebQuest" y los ejercicios interactivos con el programa "exelearning". El sistema de medios de enseñanza se ubicó en el sitio Web "MioloWeb", elaborado con "Joomla 1.7". El contenido está estructurado en subtemas y en cada uno de ellos, se facilita al estudiante una variedad de materiales educativos computarizados, que permitirán el aprendizaje activo, consciente y desarrollador de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular, propiciando la interacción del estudiante de forma activa con los contenidos, la vinculación con las estrategias curriculares, la autoevaluación en la guía de estudio y en los ejercicios interactivos.Communicative and information technologies have been introduced in the teaching-learning process of Human Morphology Subject. A research paper of technological innovation was carried out in the pre-graduate area of Medical Education belonging to the University of Medical Sciences in Pinar del Rio, with the purpose of creating a system of teaching aids to learn the human morphology of the muscular system. Empirical methods used were: surveys to students and interviews to professors and consultants of the subject, in addition to the criteria of the experts to validate the product; using also the theoretical methods: historical-logic and systemic to conduct the literature review and documentary analysis to support the study. Study guides were created following “WebQuest” model and interactive exercises using “exelearning” program. The system of teaching aids was built-in to “MioloWeb” Website, created with “Joomla 1.7”. The content is structured into subtopics and in every one of them, a variety of educational computerized materials is facilitated to the students, allowing this way an active, conscious and expanded learning of the human morphology of the muscular system, favoring at the same time a dynamic interaction of the student with the contents, the connection with the curricular strategies, and self-evaluation which was included in the guide of study plus interactive exercises.

  18. Sitio Web interactivo para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología del sistema muscular / Interactive Website to learn the morphology of the muscular system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Orliany, Alboniga Álvarez; Iraida, Hidalgo Gato Castillo; Niurka, Cabrera Vázquez; Rafael, Capote Martínez; Dariel, Díaz Díaz.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Debido al desarrollo científico técnico alcanzado, se han insertado las tecnologías de la informática y las comunicaciones al proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de la disciplina Morfofisiología Humana. Se realizó una investigación de innovación tecnológica, en el área de pregrado de la Educación Médica, [...] en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río; con el objetivo de elaborar un sistema de medios de enseñanza para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular. Se utilizaron los métodos empíricos, las encuestas a estudiantes, entrevistas a profesores de la asignatura y a los profesores asesores, criterio de expertos para validar el producto. Los métodos teóricos: histórico, lógico y sistémico, fueron utilizados en la revisión bibliográfica y el análisis documental que sustenta el estudio. Las guías de estudio se elaboraron por el modelo "WebQuest" y los ejercicios interactivos con el programa "exelearning". El sistema de medios de enseñanza se ubicó en el sitio Web "MioloWeb", elaborado con "Joomla 1.7". El contenido está estructurado en subtemas y en cada uno de ellos, se facilita al estudiante una variedad de materiales educativos computarizados, que permitirán el aprendizaje activo, consciente y desarrollador de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular, propiciando la interacción del estudiante de forma activa con los contenidos, la vinculación con las estrategias curriculares, la autoevaluación en la guía de estudio y en los ejercicios interactivos. Abstract in english Communicative and information technologies have been introduced in the teaching-learning process of Human Morphology Subject. A research paper of technological innovation was carried out in the pre-graduate area of Medical Education belonging to the University of Medical Sciences in Pinar del Rio, w [...] ith the purpose of creating a system of teaching aids to learn the human morphology of the muscular system. Empirical methods used were: surveys to students and interviews to professors and consultants of the subject, in addition to the criteria of the experts to validate the product; using also the theoretical methods: historical-logic and systemic to conduct the literature review and documentary analysis to support the study. Study guides were created following “WebQuest” model and interactive exercises using “exelearning” program. The system of teaching aids was built-in to “MioloWeb” Website, created with “Joomla 1.7”. The content is structured into subtopics and in every one of them, a variety of educational computerized materials is facilitated to the students, allowing this way an active, conscious and expanded learning of the human morphology of the muscular system, favoring at the same time a dynamic interaction of the student with the contents, the connection with the curricular strategies, and self-evaluation which was included in the guide of study plus interactive exercises.

  19. 3D Structure Elucidation of Thermostable L2 Lipase from Thermophilic Bacillus sp. L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd. Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja; Shariff, Fairolniza Mohd; Basri, Mahiran; Salleh, Abu Bakar

    2012-01-01

    The crystallization of proteins makes it possible to determine their structure by X-ray crystallography, and is therefore important for the analysis of protein structure-function relationships. L2 lipase was crystallized by using the J-tube counter diffusion method. A crystallization consisting of 20% PEG 6000, 50 mM MES pH 6.5 and 50 mM NaCl was found to be the best condition to produce crystals with good shape and size (0.5 × 0.1 × 0.2 mm). The protein concentration used for the crystallization was 3 mg/mL. L2 lipase crystal has two crystal forms, Shape 1 and Shape 2. Shape 2 L2 lipase crystal was diffracted at 1.5 Å and the crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 72.0, b = 81.8, c = 83.4 Å, ? = ? = ? = 90°. There is one molecule per asymmetric unit and the solvent content of the crystals is 56.9%, with a Matthew’s coefficient of 2.85 Å Da?1. The 3D structure of L2 lipase revealed topological organization of ?/?-hydrolase fold consisting of 11 ?-strands and 13 ?-helices. Ser-113, His-358 and Asp-317 were assigned as catalytic triad residues. One Ca2+ and one Zn2+ were found in the L2 lipase molecule. PMID:22942761

  20. Nuclear fuel rod response during LOFT tests L2-2 and L2-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparisons of the measured fuel rod peak cladding temperatures for the first two nuclear loss-of-coolant experiments (LOCE), LOCEs L2-2 and L2-3, are presented. These LOCEs were performed in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The LOCEs provided a basis for evaluating the effect of initial power on the maximum cladding temperatures during a large break (200%, guillotine) LOCE and identified important core thermal-hydraulic responses that influence the peak cladding temperatures

  1. L2 Teachers' Experience of CALL Technology Education and the Use of Computer Technology in the Classroom: The Case of Franklin County, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kwang Hee

    2009-01-01

    Primary issues concerned with CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) teacher education are twofold: Integration of CALL technology into foreign and second language (L2) teacher education programs and L2 teachers' integration of CALL technology into their classroom. While increased attention has been paid to the former, only a small body of…

  2. L^2-Invariants from the Algebraic Point of View

    OpenAIRE

    Lueck, Wolfgang

    2003-01-01

    We give a survey on L^2-invariants such as L^2-Betti numbers and L^2-torsion taking an algebraic point of view. We discuss their basic definitions, properties and applications to problems arising in topology, geometry, group theory and K-theory.

  3. Inference with formal analogical proportions: application to the automatic learning of morphology Du quatrième de proportion comme principe inductif : une proposition et son application à l'apprentissage de la morphologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Stroppa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an analogical learning model which exploits the notion of formal analogical proportions; this approach requires the ability to define these proportions and to implement them efficiently. We propose an algebraic definition of this notion, which applies to a large range of structured objects: words, attribute-value structures, labeled trees. We test this inference model by applying it to the task of learning morphological analyses of unknown forms. We can assess the validity of the approach thanks to experimental results that are given for several lexicons.

  4. New Physics in ?L = 2 neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a general framework to constrain ?L = 2 processes by measuring observables associated with neutrino-antineutrino oscillations in ?± decays. First, we use this formalism as a new strategy for detecting the CP-violating phases and the effective mass of muon Majorana neutrinos. Within the generic framework of quantum field theory, we compute the non-factorizable probability for producing a pair of same-charged muons in ?± decays as a distinctive signature of ??-?*?. Using the neutrino-antineutrino oscillation probability reported by MINOS collaboration, a new stringent bound on the effective muon-neutrino mass is derived. Secondly, we interpret the production of the pair of same-charged muons as a result of lepton number violating (LNV) interactions at the neutrino source, which allow us to constrain New Physics.

  5. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and L2 Reading Skill among Iranian EFL University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Khooei Oskooei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between multiple intelligences (MI and foreign language (L2 reading skill among Iranian EFL sophomores. Multiple intelligences and L2 reading measurements of participants – 29 males and 69 females who were selected from four intact classes – were obtained through McKenzie’s (1999 Multiple Intelligences Inventory and reading part of a Preliminary English Test PET, respectively, and then Pearson’s correlation analysis was run to determine the degree of the relationship between each component of multiple intelligences and L2 reading skill. Afterwards, through a multiple regression analysis those components of multiple intelligences which acted as the predictors of L2 reading skill were identified and the power of each predictor was calculated. The results of the correlation analyses revealed that linguistic-verbal, logical-mathematical, spatial, and interpersonal intelligences were significantly correlated with reading skill. In addition, the results showed that linguistic-verbal, interpersonal, and logical-mathematical intelligences were the best predictors of L2 reading skill scores of the participants. The results of the study can help coursebook designers, educational planners, foreign language institutes, teachers, learners and their parents to provide and use different methods of teaching and learning.Keywords: multiple intelligences, general intelligence, reading comprehension, university students, EFL

  6. The Motivation of L2 Learners: Does it decrease with age?

    OpenAIRE

    Pauline Ghenghesh

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the motivation of a heterogeneous group of students studying English as a foreign language at the International School in Tripoli area. The aim of the study was to find out the extent to which various factors affect students’ motivation and achievement in second/foreign language learning particularly as they enter the senior high school. The research also looked into the temporal dimension of L2 motivation to see if the students’ motivation changes as they enter th...

  7. Peer Review Comments Provided by High- and Low-Proficiency L2 Learners: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Chuan Liao; Ya-Fen Lo

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the variations in peer review comments provided by L2 writers of high and low proficiencies. Two sampling procedures were used. First, convenience sampling was used to locate a college essay composition course as the setting of the study. Second, purposeful sampling was used to identify high- and low-performing writers as the subjects, from whom the peer review comments were collected and analyzed. An instruction-learning cycle on argumentative essay writing was conducted ...

  8. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students’ Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2

    OpenAIRE

    Karbalaei Alireza

    2010-01-01

    The notion of “learner beliefs” has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners’ beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers’ beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading in Engl...

  9. L2L European Project: a Serious Game for Leadership Training

    OpenAIRE

    Pe?rez Ara, Mari?a A?ngeles; Quero Castellano, Soledad; Botella Arbona, Cristina; Breto?n-lo?pez, Juana; Ban?os Rivera, Rosa Mari?a

    2011-01-01

    Effective leaders manage the underlying group dynamics in ways that help the team meet its objectives. Leaders need people management skills, resource management and organization. Despite the offer of leadership skills training programs, effective and valid training in these areas is scarce and it is usually available only in master programs of high quality or large corporations. The Learn 2 Lead (L2L) Project consortium has designed and developed a leadership skills t...

  10. VIDEOGIOCHI E ITALIANO L2/LS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Zanoli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L'articolo prende in considerazione alcune ipotesi sull'uso del videogioco nell'insegnamento/apprendimento della lingua straniera supportate dall'analisi di alcuni videogames per uso didattico. Pur non nascondendo le difficoltà che l'insegnante può incontrare nell'integrare il videogioco nel percorso di insegnamento/apprendimento di una lingua straniera in classe, diversi sono i motivi per i quali il videogioco può essere considerato un efficace strumento di apprendimento linguistico. Innanzitutto perché gli input linguistici possono essere numerosi e vari, in secondo luogo perché è vettore di lingua che coinvolge i diversi sensi e diverse operazioni cognitive e, in terzo luogo perché trasforma il processo dell'apprendimento da simbolico a esperienziale. Infine perché si tratta di un mezzo divertente capace di creare interesse ad apprendere offrendo opportunità straordinarie in quanto attiva negli apprendenti, soprattutto più giovani, due fattori chiave per un apprendimento solido e duraturo: l'esperienza e la motivazione, elementi che spesso le metodologie tradizionali trascurano. A conclusione dell'articolo viene proposta di attività didattica di italiano LS con una serie di suggerimenti per l'insegnante.   This article discusses the use of videogames in teaching/learning a foreign language and analyzes a few didactic videogames. While not underestimating the difficulties that teachers may have in integrating videogames in the teaching/learning process in a classroom, there are different reasons why videogames can be considered effective tools for language learning. First of all, the linguistic input is varied and rich, and secondly it is a way of engaging different senses and cognitive processes, and in the third place it transforms learning from something symbolic to something experiential. Finally, it is an amusing way to generate interest in learning by offering an extraordinary opportunity, since it activates two key aspects for solid and long-lasting learning, especially in younger students: experience and motivation.  These aspects are often overlooked in more traditional methods. The article concludes with examples of didactic activities for Italian FL teaching and a series of suggestions for the teacher.

  11. L2TTMON Monitoring Program for L2 Topological Trigger in H1 Experiment - User's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring software for the L2 Topological Trigger in H1 experiment consists of two parts working on two different computers. The hardware read-out and data processing is done on a fast FIC 8234 computer working with the OS9 real time operating system. The Macintosh Quadra is used as a Graphic User Interface for accessing the OS9 trigger monitoring software. The communication between both computers is based on the parallel connection between the Macintosh and the VME crate, where the FIC computer is placed. The special designed protocol (client-server) is used to communicate between both nodes. The general scheme of monitoring for the L2 Topological Trigger and detailed description of using of the monitoring software in both nodes are given in this guide. (author)

  12. Design of dialogic eLearning-to-learn: metalearning as pedagogical methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective emphasising Meta learning (ML) as the most significant and pertinent feature for promoting a democratic, collaborative eLearning-to-Learn (eL2L) phenomenon in a global context. Through attempting to understand and clarify the powers of pedagogical design of global networked e Learning based on Learning-to-Learn (L2L), it makes a plea for L2L in a dialogic global learning context, offering a vision of global democratic citizens able to engage in critical dialogue with fellow learners. http://www.inderscience.com/search/index.php?action=record&rec_id=17675&prevQuery=&ps=10&m=or

  13. Digital Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Rowe

    The Digital Morphology library is a dynamic archive of information on digital morphology and high-resolution X-ray computed tomography of biological specimens. Plants and animals, both recent and fossil, are included. Skulls and skeletons of vertebrates, exoskeletons of invertebrates and hard parts of plants are all represented. Browse through the site and see spectacular imagery, animations and details on the morphology of over 200 representatives of the Earth's biota.

  14. Blogging Identity: How L2 Learners Express Themselves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyomi FUJII

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses language learning and identity, particularly pertaining to intermediate-advanced-level Japanese-language learners, focusing on their target language and identity expression through their interactions with peers and Japanese college students. When learners of Japanese express their identities while interacting with others in their target language, they feel a gap between the self-image they want to present, and the image they are capable of presenting in Japanese (Siegal, 1994, 1995, 1996. Along with adjusting their L1 and L2 usage depending on their interlocutor (Kurata 2007, learners also use different sentence-ending styles depending on the role they want to assume (Cook 2008. By conducting a case study, the present inquiry attempts to address how learners of Japanese express their identities through blog conversations, focusing on their language choice and expressions. Results suggest that participants use the formal endings for self-presentation and projection of their student and classmate identity. However, when expressing emotion some students preferred informal endings, or sentence-final particles.

  15. Initiating round robins in the L2 classroom - preliminary observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    Complementing recent interactional research on the contingent operation of online task accomplishment, this paper deals with a specific way of organizing and managing tasks in plenary L2 classrooms – namely the round robin. This may seem like a “traditional” and rigid form of classroom organization that reduces students’ contributions to responses to the teacher’s elicitations. This paper shows that although the round robin puts certain interactional features out of play, it is nonetheless done in and through participants’ mutual orientation to the ongoing activity. The paper describes the sequential position in which round robins are initiated and how this is talked and embodied into being by the participants as well as the design of the turn that initiates the round robin activity. Relevant to the initiation and further development of the round robin are the physical arrangement of the classroom and artefacts and graphic structures that are used not only as mediating tools in the (supposed) learning relevant activity, but also as structurally relevant features to organize the ongoing interaction, in which these activities emerge.

  16. L’italiano L2 : auto-apprendimento e narratività. Materiali multimediali di italiano L2 per bambini e ragazzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Favaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Normal 0 14 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Insegnare l'italiano come seconda lingua ai bambini e ragazzi di recente immigrazione è un percorso  delicato e complesso che  fa ormai parte  dei compiti professionali ";ordinari"; dei docenti che operano nelle classi sempre più multiculturali e plurilingui. La modalità di insegnamento/apprendimento della L2 più diffusa ed efficace è quella integrata: l'alunno non italofono è inserito nella classe comune e, parallelamente, in determinati momenti, frequenta il laboratorio  di italiano L2. Per  sostenere  questo modello integrato e accompagnare il  viaggio dentro l'italiano dei bambini e dei ragazzi neoarrivati, servono materiali didattici flessibili e ricchi di proposte, utilizzabili in maniera autonoma e in piccolo gruppo; proponibili in maniera tradizionale o anche attraverso la LIM; adatti a sviluppare competenze diverse, proprie della lingua per comunicare, dell'italiano scritto e propedeutiche all'apprendimento del curricolo comune. I due corsi di italiano L2  che vengono presentati nell'ultima parte dell'articolo rispondono a queste esigenze, in quanto a sono rivolti l'uno ai bambini e l'altro ai ragazzi stranieri neo arrivati; b si propongono  il passaggio dal livello prebasico ai livelli A1, A2 e B1 del QCERL; c si basano su un forte impianto narrativo che sviluppa coinvolgimento e identificazione; d sono attenti allo sviluppo della lingua orale e dello scritto, dell'italiano per comunicare e per lo studio; e hanno una chiara caratterizzazione interculturale.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Teaching Italian as a second language to newly immigrated children and young people is a delicate and complex undertaking which has become part of the job for teachers working in increasingly multicultural and multilingual classes.  The most widespread and effective way of teaching/learning the L2 is the integrated approach: the non-Italian-speaking child is placed in an ordinary class and, parallel to this, there are times when (she attends a workshop of Italian as a second language.  To support this integrated approach and accompany the new arrivals in their journey into the Italian language, flexible teaching/learning materials are needed, with a wealth of suggestions that can be used independently and with a small group; they should be suitable for use either traditionally or through LIM and appropriate for developing different competences in the language of communication, written Italian and preparation for learning in the core curriculum.  The two courses of Italian as L2 presented in the final part of the article satisfy these demands since a the former is intended for newly-arrived children from abroad and the latter for newly-arrived young people; b they are intended for the shift from pre-elementary to levels A1, A2 and B1 of the QCERL; c they are founded on a solid narrative basis which develops involvement and identification; d they take into careful account the development of the oral and written language, and that of Italian

  17. Learning to Learn in Years 1 and 2 of Hungarian Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habók, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Learning to learn (L2L) is an important component of lifelong learning. First, the article discusses various possible definitions of L2L and identifies the most comprehensible definition, which provides the basis for the analysis. Subsequently, it presents the results of a pilot study carried out in the early stage of primary education. This study…

  18. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students' Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2 (Creencias de estudiantes universitarios iraníes EFL e hindúes ESL acerca de las estrategias de lectura en L2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    The notion of "learner beliefs" has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners' beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers' beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study…

  19. Sur la L2-cohomologie des varietes a courbure negative

    OpenAIRE

    Yeganefar, Nader

    2002-01-01

    We give a topological interpretation of the space of L2-harmonic forms on finite-volume manifolds with sufficiently pinched negative curvature. We give examples showing that this interpretation fails if the curvature is not sufficiently pinched and that our result is sharp with respect to the pinching constants. The method consists first in comparing L2-cohomology with weighted L2-cohomology thanks to previuos works done by T. Ohsawa, and then in identifying these weighted s...

  20. Calibration of comprehension and performance in L2 reading

    OpenAIRE

    Seda SARAC; Betul TARHAN

    2009-01-01

    Comprehension monitoring is crucial for successful reading. Although the researchers appreciate the importance of comprehension monitoring in L2 reading, there are only a few studies done on the comprehension monitoring ability of L2 readers. The main aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension monitoring abilities of university students while reading expository texts in L2. The results showed that the students’ were not able to calibrate their comprehension at above chance level...

  1. Reactive arthritis associated with L2b lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis

    OpenAIRE

    El Karoui, Khalil; Mechai, Frederic; Ribadeau Dumas, Florence; Viard, Jean-Paul; Lecuit, Marc; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Lortholary, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Abstract An ongoing outbreak of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) L2b proctitis, predominantly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) has been reported in industrialized countries. We describe a case of reactive arthritis after L2b proctitis. This case expands the spectrum of severe complications related to LGV L2b proctitis. Since this infection may be asymptomatic, this organism should be screened for in HIV positive MSM with symptoms consiste...

  2. An Investigation of Personality and L2 Oral Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengdong Gan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates one dimension of personality, extroversion-introversion, and examines its potential impact on learner L2 oral performance. The study is innovative in that it analyzes not only the correlation between degree of extroversion and assessment scores based on analytic scoring but also the correlation between degree of extroversion and the discourse measures of accuracy, fluency and complexity commonly used as indices of L2 task performance in the L2 research. The data for th...

  3. L^2-Betti numbers of one-relator groups

    OpenAIRE

    Dicks, Warren; Linnell, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    We determine the L^2-Betti numbers of all one-relator groups and all surface-plus-one-relation groups (surface-plus-one-relation groups were introduced by Hempel who called them one-relator surface groups). In particular we show that for all such groups G, the L^2-Betti numbers b_n^{(2)}(G) are 0 for all n>1. We also obtain some information about the L^2-cohomology of left-orderable groups, and deduce the non-L^2 result that, in any left-orderable group of homological dimens...

  4. Fostering Metacognitive Genre Awareness in L2 Academic Reading and Writing: A Case Study of Pre-Service English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negretti, Raffaella; Kuteeva, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Although the concept of metacognition has received considerable attention for its impact on learning across disciplinary areas, it has not been sufficiently discussed in the context of L2 academic reading and writing. In this paper, we bring together two theoretical frameworks, genre analysis and metacognition theory, and discuss the concept of…

  5. The Effects of Word Exposure Frequency and Elaboration of Word Processing on Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerth, Johannes; Tavakoli, Parveneh

    2012-01-01

    Research on incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition through reading has claimed that repeated encounters with unfamiliar words and the relative elaboration of processing these words facilitate word learning. However, so far both variables have been investigated in isolation. To help close this research gap, the current study…

  6. Study Quality in SLA: An Assessment of Designs, Analyses, and Reporting Practices in Quantitative L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonsky, Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses research and reporting practices in quantitative second language (L2) research. A sample of 606 primary studies, published from 1990 to 2010 in "Language Learning and Studies in Second Language Acquisition," was collected and coded for designs, statistical analyses, reporting practices, and outcomes (i.e., effect…

  7. Interactions between Text Chat and Audio Modalities for L2 Communication and Feedback in the Synthetic World "Second Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the interactions between text chat and audio modalities in L2 communication in a synthetic (virtual) world and observes whether the text chat modality was used for corrective feedback and the characteristics of the latter. This is examined within the context of a hybrid content and language integrated learning

  8. Purification of recombinant EGFP by fusion with L2 (252-273) from ribosomal protein L2 using magnetic particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhua; Dong, Yiting; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Yanjun

    2013-02-15

    A basic polypeptide L2 (252-273) derived from Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L2 was used as a purification tag. In order to develop faster, less expensive methods for expression and purification of proteins, the L2 (252-273)-small ubiquitin like modifier (SUMO) fusion expression system was constructed. We comparatively analyzed the adsorption properties of the deleted protein of L2 (L2 (252-273)) on diatomite and superparamagnetic carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles. The time required to reach adsorption equilibrium of L2 (252-273) fusion protein on diatomite was shorter than that of L2 (252-273) fusion protein on magnetic particles. The maximum adsorption capacity of L2 (252-273) fusion protein on magnetic particles was about 5 times larger than that of L2 (252-273) fusion protein on diatomite. SUMO was introduced as a specific protease cleavage site between the target protein and the purification tags. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as a model protein was fused with the L2 (252-273)-SUMO fusion protein and purified by a simple method which involves the electrostatic adsorption of L2 (252-273) fusion proteins on superparamagnetic carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles and the L2 (252-273)-SUMO fusion partner was removed based on the robust cleavage by the poly lysine tagged SUMO protease. The high purity of tag-free EGFP (>93%) was obtained. Our results preliminary proved that the system was an effective fusion expression system for the production of recombinant proteins in E. coli. PMID:23353812

  9. An overview of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase gene (L2HGDH) variants: a genotype-phenotype study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenweg, Marjan E; Jakobs, Cornelis

    2010-01-01

    L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is a rare, neurometabolic disorder with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Affected individuals only have neurological manifestations, including psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and more variably macrocephaly, or epilepsy. The diagnosis of L2HGA can be made based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical analysis, and mutational analysis of L2HGDH. About 200 patients with elevated concentrations of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) in the urine were referred for chiral determination of 2HG and L2HGDH mutational analysis. All patients with increased L2HG (n=106; 83 families) were included. Clinical information on 61 patients was obtained via questionnaires. In 82 families the mutations were detected by direct sequence analysis and/or multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA), including one case where MLPA was essential to detect the second allele. In another case RT-PCR followed by deep intronic sequencing was needed to detect the mutation. Thirty-five novel mutations as well as 35 reported mutations and 14 nondisease-related variants are reviewed and included in a novel Leiden Open source Variation Database (LOVD) for L2HGDH variants (http://www.LOVD.nl/L2HGDH). Every user can access the database and submit variants/patients. Furthermore, we report on the phenotype, including neurological manifestations and urinary levels of L2HG, and we evaluate the phenotype-genotype relationship.

  10. Examining the Role of Implicit and Explicit L2 Knowledge in General L2 Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runhan Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Implicit and explicit linguistic knowledge have long been at the centre of second language acquisition research, whereas language proficiency is often examined in language testing. Viewing language proficiency in terms of implicit and explicit linguistic knowledge would provide helpful insight to bridging the two fields. However, very few empirical studies have focused on the relationship between these two types of knowledge and general language proficiency except Elder and Ellis (2009. The results of Elder and Ellis (2009 indicated that language proficiency can be conceptualized as involving both types of knowledge with explicit knowledge of a second language (L2 being a stronger predictor of general L2 proficiency. Likewise, all four measures used in the current study to elicit English learners’ implicit and explicit  knowledge of English were found to correlate significantly with the English proficiency measure in a Chinese (as opposed to English as a second language context. Nevertheless, only the two measures of implicit knowledge were found to predict the participants’ general English proficiency score. Reasons for the difference may be attributed to several factors, including the use of different proficiency tests and the adoption of slightly different statistical analysis methods.

  11. Pausing Patterns: Differences between L2 Learners and Native Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Parvaneh

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study of pauses made by L2 learners and native speakers of English while narrating picture stories. The comparison is based on the number of pauses and total amount of silence in the middle and at the end of clauses in the performance of 40 native speakers and 40 L2 learners of English. The results of the…

  12. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  13. Processability Approach to Arabic L2 Teaching and Syllabus Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shatter, Ghassan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify the relationship between the developmental hierarchy in the acquisition of Arabic as a second language (Arabic L2) and formal classroom instruction. It provides a general presentation of the current debate on the influence of formal instruction in the acquisition of L2. Special attention is given to the subset of…

  14. $L^{2}$ Cohomology on coverings of a compact Kähler manifold

    CERN Document Server

    Campana, F; Campana, Fr\\'ed\\'eric; Demailly, Jean-Pierre

    2000-01-01

    Andreotti-Vesentini, Ohsawa, Gromov, Koll\\'ar, among others, have observedthat Hodge theory could be extended to (non compact) K\\"ahler completemanifolds, within the L^2 framework. Also, many vanishing theorems onprojective or K\\"ahler manifolds rely on the Kodaira-Bochner-Nakano identity,and thus possess natural L^2 versions. Our goal is to define canonical L^2cohomology groups on any unramified covering of an analytic variety X, withvalues in a coherent analytic sheaf on X. This cohomology shares all usualproperties of standard coherent sheaf cohomology (especially, exact sequences,spectral sequences, vanishing theorems,...). These properties are obtained byincorporating the information provided by L^2 estimates in the standard proofs,with suitable adaptations. L^2 cohomology should provide a comfortable andefficient framework for the study the geometry of coverings, by providing arelevant fonctorial formalism. When the base variety is compact and thecovering is a Galois covering of group $\\Gamma$, there is...

  15. Analysis of Complimenting in L1 vs. L2 Written Discourse: A Case Study of Iranian Students Writing Review Letters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Reza Zarei

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to compare and contrast complimenting as used in L1 (Farsi and L2 (English writings of Iranian students in a foreign language learning context. For the purpose, sixty five university senior students majoring in English and taking the specialized course called "essay writing" were selected for the study. First, they were instructed how to write review letters on their classmates' essays in both L1 and L2 and then their letters were analyzed on the basis of the framework provided by Johnson and Roen (1992, and Chafe and Danielwicz (1987. The results indicated that Iranian students (female and male did not make significantly different uses of L1 and L2 complimenting in terms of form and strategies. Also, the gender of the addressees was not accommodated to by the addressors differently as regards the use of form and strategies of complimenting in L1 and L2. The results suggest that L1 and L2, if used under some formal class based conditions, tend to become maximally similar, showing no transfer of L1 potentiality into L2.

  16. Una estrategia para favorecer la comprensión y el aprendizaje en las Ciencias Morfológicas: Presentaciones en PowerPoint. [ A strategy to improve the comprehension and learning in morphological science: powerpoint presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranza, Miriam L. y Celaya, Gabriela

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hypertext to the Morphological Sciences in biological area was developed and evaluated. The application with format of digital atlas approaches Anatomical, Histological and Functional concepts about the man and animals in integrated form. PowerPoint presentation was developed to operators which experience in the handling of software are limited. This digital resource was qualified as a good complement of other didactic materials. In this knowledge area offers opportunity to develop significant knowledge to improve the understanding and learning through an interactive methodology

  17. Toward Independent L2 Readers: Effects of Text Adjuncts, Subject Knowledge, L1 Reading, and L2 Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Hammadou Sullivan, JoAnn; Strube, Michael

    2014-01-01

    With 97 learners in an advanced Spanish course, the study examines the effects of textual enhancement adjuncts, prior subject knowledge, first language (L1) reading ability, and second language (L2) Spanish proficiency on L2 comprehension of scientific passages. Readings included two texts with two types of embedded questions: a pause or written…

  18. The Effect of Concept Mapping on Iranian Pre-intermediate L2 Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Tabatabaei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Teachers are always looking for innovative ways to help students improve their reading comprehension. One popular method is the use of graphic organizers such as concept maps. This study examined the use of concept maps (a meta cognitive technique to aid reading comprehension of Iranian pre- intermediate L2 learners in one of the language institutes in Shiraz. The researcher wanted to find appropriate answers to the following research questions 1 does the application of concept mapping technique have any significant effect on Iranian pre-intermediate L2 reading comprehension 2 do Iranian pre-intermediate L2learners have positive attitude toward the application of concept maps in their reading classes? For this, 30 pre-intermediate L2 learners were selected and assigned as experimental group. This experimental group received instruction on how to use concept mapping technique as a pre-reading activity. This group took part in language classes twice a week for one hour and half and reading activities covered thirty minutes of the whole class and also they completed two thirty-minutes reading comprehension tests, one as the pre-test and the other as the post-test. The results of Wilcoxon Sign Rank test showed that the participants in concept mapping group performed better in post-test than in pre-test administration. Moreover, the results of Chi-square revealed that, on the whole, L2 learners had positive attitudes toward using concept mapping technique in reading classes. This study had theoretical as well as pedagogical implication in the field of second/ foreign teaching and learning.

  19. L2-Betti numbers of locally compact groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henrik Densing

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a notion of L2-Betti numbers for locally compact, second countable, unimodular groups. We study the relation to the standard notion of L2-Betti numbers of countable discrete groups for lattices. In this way, several new computations are obtained for countable groups, including lattices in algebraic groups over local elds, and Kac-Moody lattices. We also extend the vanishing of reduced L2-cohomology for countable amenable groups, a well known theorem due to Cheeger and Gromov, to cover all amenable, second countable, unimodular locally compact groups.

  20. The Motivation of L2 Learners: Does it decrease with age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Ghenghesh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the motivation of a heterogeneous group of students studying English as a foreign language at the International School in Tripoli area. The aim of the study was to find out the extent to which various factors affect students’ motivation and achievement in second/foreign language learning particularly as they enter the senior high school. The research also looked into the temporal dimension of L2 motivation to see if the students’ motivation changes as they enter the senior high school. One hundred and forty four students from thirty five nationalities learning English and five teachers participated in the completion of the questionnaire surveys. Twenty students and three teachers took part in the semi-structured interviews. Data were drawn from students’ examination results and a combined quantitative-qualitative approach in which student and teacher questionnaire surveys were followed by a round of student and teacher interviews. The results of the ‘Student’s Motivation Questionnaire’ show that L2 motivation in the sample decreases with age: The results of one-way analyses of variance across the five age groups investigated show that the older learners tend to score significantly lower on the motivational scales and the interviews data gives further support to this finding. There are a number of influential factors that affect learners’ motivation: in particular the role of the teacher was seen fundamental in determining the attitude to the language and in supplying motivation. Other external factors include aspects related to the learning context.

  1. Functional Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samantha Hopkins

    The first seven labs in this course are simply a survey of skeletal morphology in vertebrate animals; this is the first lab of the course that actually applies this understanding to solving a scientific problem. Students measure isolated skeletal elements of vertebrates in order to quantify the differences among members of different locomotor groups. They're asked to formulate hypotheses based on an understanding of physics for the differences among the locomotor categories they're examining, and then they compare their data to those expectations. The activity allows students to understand how paleontologists interpret skeletal morphology to make inferences about the ecology of extinct organisms. This will enable the students to apply their knowledge of skeletal morphology to answering a scientific question. The experience also gives them an opportunity to practice the process of paleontological science, including hypothesis testing and data interpretation.

  2. L’apprendimento della lingua della medicina in L2: due manuali a confronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Insegnare la lingua speciale della medicina ad una classe di apprendenti L2 implica considerare diverse problematiche relative alle peculiarità del codice settoriale (variazioni diafasiche, particolarità del lessico, tecnicismi collaterali, ma anche relative al pubblico di apprendenti non italofono (tipologia, interessi, livello di apprendimento. Il panorama editoriale italiano offre pochi strumenti dedicati: tra questi Donatella Troncarelli, Dica 33. Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, 1994 e Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma edizioni, 2004. Questo studio intende mettere a confronto i due testi sottolineandone le caratteristiche e l’impostazione glottodidattica ed evidenziando come il contenuto linguistico sia proposto, quali siano le abilità favorite, quali gli obiettivi di apprendimento e quali gli strumenti forniti. Particolare attenzione viene prestata al lessico registrato nei glossari dei volumi.  Learning the language of medicine in l2: a comparison of two textbooks Teaching the special language of medicine to a class of L2 learners implies considering various issues related to the peculiarities of the sector-specific jargon (diphasic variations, peculiarities of vocabulary, collateral technicalities, also related to non-Italian-speaking learners (type, interests, level of learning. Italian publishers offer few dedicated tools: these include Donatella Troncarelli, Dica 33.Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, 1994 and Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma editions, 2004. This study aims to compare the two texts, highlighting their features and language teaching setting, showing how linguistic content is proposed, which skills are promoted, what the learning objectives are and what tools are provided. Particular attention is paid to the vocabulary in the glossaries.

  3. L2-Boosting algorithm applied to high-dimensional problems in genomic selection.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonza?lez-recio, Oscar; Weigel, Kent A.; Gianola, Daniel; Naya, Hugo; Rosa, Guilherme J. M.

    2010-01-01

    The L(2)-Boosting algorithm is one of the most promising machine-learning techniques that has appeared in recent decades. It may be applied to high-dimensional problems such as whole-genome studies, and it is relatively simple from a computational point of view. In this study, we used this algorithm in a genomic selection context to make predictions of yet to be observed outcomes. Two data sets were used: (1) productive lifetime predicted transmitting abilities from 4702 Holstein sires genoty...

  4. A Bellman function proof of the $L^2$ bump conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Nazarov, Fedor; Reznikov, Alexander; Treil, Sergei; Volberg, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We approach the problem of finding the sharp sufficient condition of the boundedness of all two weight Calderon--Zygmund operators. We solve this problem in $L^2$ by writing a formula for a Bellman function of the problem.

  5. On the Role of Phonological Processing in L2 Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Khatib; Jalil Fat?hi

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of ideas and research regarding the role of phonological processing as a bottom-up, component processing mechanism in second language reading comprehension. Firstly, it sketches a brief history of approaches and theoretical models towards L2 reading comprehension in the SLA literature. Secondly, it acknowledges the fact that with the undue dominance of top-down psycholinguistic models, the role of bottom-up processes in L2 reading has been systematically neglected...

  6. Experimental results from L2 Natural Circulation loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusions: • The L2 Natural circulation loop experimental facility has been described. • The results of the experimental data coming from the test matrix proposed during the RCM2 have been shortly analyzed. The results show that in the range of the HS temperature analyzed the L2 natural circulation facility has a transition region from a fully unstable to a stable behavior. • Few preliminary results of the calculation performed with relap5/mod3.3 have been shown

  7. Identifying Correlation between Reading Strategies Instruction and L2 Text Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Qanwal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at exploring correlation between reading strategies instruction and proficiency in text comprehension. The task is carried out by investigating the current practices of teaching and learning of L2 reading comprehension skills of the higher level L2 learners of English in Pakistan. In this regard, initially, the extent to which teachers incorporate reading strategies instruction into their teaching of ESL reading skills is analyzed; and students’ proficiency in L2 text comprehension is evaluated. Subsequently, correlation between the two variables is identified by applying Pearson Product-moment correlational test on the statistical scores attained for each variable. The research has employed both quantitative and qualitative measures for data collection and analysis. The research instruments include a questionnaire for students pertaining to the availability of reading strategy instruction, and a reading comprehension test. The results acquired through the collected data and their statistical analyses have highlighted a strong positive correlation between reading strategies instruction and learners’ proficiency in text comprehension.

  8. Perceptual processing of Mandarin nasals by L1 and L2 Mandarin speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-Hsiu

    2012-08-01

    Nasals are cross-linguistically susceptible to change, especially in the syllable final position. Acoustic reports on Mandarin nasal production have recently shown that the syllable-final distinction is frequently dropped. Few studies, however, have addressed the issue of perceptual processing in Mandarin nasals for L1 and L2 speakers of Mandarin Chinese. The current paper addressed to what extent and in what directions L1 and L2 speakers of Mandarin differed in perceiving Mandarin nasals. Possible variables, including the linguistic backgrounds (i.e. L1 vs. L2 speakers of Mandarin Chinese), the vocalic contexts (i.e. [i, ?, a, y, ua, u?, ia]) and the phonetic settings (i.e. syllable-initial vs. syllable-final), were discussed. Asymmetrical findings in the current investigation indicated limitations of speech learning theories developed from European languages in the context of Mandarin nasals. A tri-dimensional model was thus suggested for interpreting the cognitive mechanism in Mandarin nasal perception. PMID:22089521

  9. Consideraciones metodológicas sobre la evaluación de la competencia oral en L2 / Methodological Considerations Concerning the Assessment of Oral Competency in a Second Language (L2)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, González-Such; Jesús Miguel, Jornet Meliá; Margarita, Bakieva.

    Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza una revisión acerca de las consideraciones metodológicas para la evaluación de la competencia oral en el aprendizaje de una segunda lengua (L2). Se analizan las características del constructo y su definición. En este caso, se refieren al ámbito competencial, que incluye l [...] a competencia en comprensión oral y la de expresión oral. Asimismo, se revisan conceptos referidos al modo en que diseñar instrumentos y/o técnicas evaluativas para la evaluación de las competencias que la integran y cuestiones respecto a fiabilidad, validez y establecimiento de puntos de corte. Abstract in english In this paper, methodological considerations are reviewed regarding the assessment of oral competence in the learning of a second language (L2). The characteristics of the construct and its definition are analyzed, including competence in listening comprehension and oral expression. Furthermore, con [...] cepts such as the design of instruments and/or evaluative techniques for the assessment of the competencies are examined as well as issues related to reliability, validity and cut off points.

  10. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students' Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2 Creencias de estudiantes universitarios iraníes EFL e hindúes ESL acerca de las estrategias de lectura en L2

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Karbalaei

    2010-01-01

    The notion of "learner beliefs" has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners' beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers' beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading in E...

  11. Teaching Writing Skills Based on a Genre Approach to L2 Primary School Students: An Action Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hyejeong Ahn

    2012-01-01

    This article, based on research findings, examines the effect of implementing a genre approach to develop writing competency of Year 5 and 6 L2 primary school students. Using action research, the genre approach was implemented over a 10-week term with two lessons per week in a culturally and linguistically diverse ESL class in a South Australian public metropolitan primary school. Two specific genres, Report and Essay writing, were taught using a three-staged teaching and learning cycle (TLC)...

  12. A gravity model for crustal dynamics (GEM-L2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, F. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Patel, G. B.; Wagner, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The Laser Geodynamics Satellite (Lageos) was the first NASA satellite which was placed into orbit exclusively for laser ranging applications. Lageos was designed to permit extremely accurate measurements of the earth's rotation and the movement of the tectonic plates. The Goddard earth model, GEM-L2, was derived mainly on the basis of the precise laser ranging data taken on many satellites. Douglas et al. (1984) have demonstrated the utility of GEM-L2 in detecting the broadest ocean circulations. As Lageos data constitute the most extensive set of satellite laser observations ever collected, the incorporation of 2-1/2 years of these data into the Goddard earth models (GEM) has substantially advanced the geodynamical objectives. The present paper discusses the products of the GEM-L2 solution.

  13. A study of L2 approximation in atomic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approximation of Coulomb continuum functions by an L2 basis is studied using a Laguerre-function basis which can be extended to completeness. Also studied is the convergence rate of L2 approximations to Born matrix elements for electron impact ionisation as a function of basis-set size. This important class of matrix elements occurs in pseudo-state close-coupling calculations, accounting for scattering to the three-body continuum. Convergence rates in both cases are derived analytically and confirmed numerically. It was found that the rate of pointwise convergence of L2 expansions to the continuum function is slow, and of conditional type; however, it is proven that the corresponding ionisation matrix elements converge geometrically. The results agrees with the behaviour observed in pseudo-state calculations. 15 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  14. Results of the QUENCH-L2, DISCO-L2, and COMET-L2 Experiments Performed Within the LACOMERA Project at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LACOMERA project at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany, is a 4 year action within the 5. Framework Programme of the EU which started in September 2002. Overall objective of the project is to offer research institutions from the EU member countries and associated states access to four large-scale experimental facilities QUENCH, LIVE, DISCO, and COMET. These facilities are being used to investigate core melt scenarios from the beginning of core degradation to melt formation and relocation in the vessel, possible melt dispersion to the reactor cavity, and finally corium concrete interaction and corium coolability in the reactor cavity. The paper summarizes the main results obtained in the following three experiments: QUENCH-L2: Boil-off of a flooded bundle. The test is of a generic interest for all reactor types, provided a link between the severe accident and design basis areas, and would deliver oxidation and thermal hydraulic data at high temperatures. DISCO-L2: Fluid-dynamic, thermal, and chemical processes during melt ejection out of a breach in the lower head of a pressure vessel of the VVER-1000/320 type of reactor. COMET-L2: Investigation of long-term melt-concrete interaction of metallic corium in a cylindrical siliceous concrete cavity under dry conditions with decay heat simulation of intermediate power during the first test phase, and subsequently at reduced power during the second test phase. (authors)

  15. Results of the QUENCH-L2, DISCO-L2, and COMET-L2 experiments performed within the LACOMERA project at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LACOMERA project at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany (FZK) is a 4-year action within the 5th Framework Programme of the EU which started in September 2002. Overall objective of the project is to offer research institutions from the EU Member Countries and Associated States access to four large-scale experimental facilities QUENCH, LIVE, DISCO, and COMET. These facilities are being used to investigate core melt scenarios from the beginning of core degradation to melt formation and relocation in the vessel, possible melt dispersion to the reactor cavity, and finally corium concrete interaction and corium coolability in the reactor cavity. The paper summarizes the main results obtained in the following three experiments: QUENCH-L2: boil-off of a flooded bundle. The test is of a generic interest for all reactor types, provided a link between the severe accident and design basis areas, and would deliver oxidation and thermal hydraulic data at high temperatures. DISCO-L2: fluid-dynamic, thermal, and chemical processes during melt ejection out of a breach in the lower head of a pressure vessel of the VVER-1000/320 type of reactor. COMET-L2: investigation of long-term melt-concrete interaction of metallic corium in a cylindrical siliceous concrete cavity under dry conditions with decay heat simulation of intermediate power during the first test phase, and subsequently at reduced power during the second test phase

  16. Word Detectives: Morphological Instruction That Supports Academic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Perkins, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This study describes an intervention that uses morphology to support word learning within comprehension instruction of content-specific texts. The intervention is detailed such that the morphological understandings used to support word choice and word learning activities are clear and can be replicated by researchers and educators. Six main…

  17. Memória de trabalho e desempenho em tarefas de L2

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ingrid, Fontanini; Janaina, Weissheimer; Joara Martin, Bergsleithner; Magareth, Perucci; Raquel, D' Ely.

    Full Text Available O presente artigo examina se a natureza da relação entre memória de trabalho e desempenho em tarefas de língua estrangeira (L2) é geral ou específica. Uma bateria de quatro testes de memória de trabalho em inglês e quatro tarefas de desempenho foi aplicada em doze estudantes universitários de nível [...] elementar em inglês como L2. A análise mostrou uma correlação significativa entre a medida geral de memória de trabalho e as tarefas de leitura, sintaxe e produção oral. Quanto às tarefas de memória de trabalho específicas, a medida de amplitude de leitura correlacionou significativamente com a tarefa de sintaxe, e a medida de amplitude oral correlacionou tanto com as tarefas de produção oral, quanto com as de sintaxe. Os resultados do presente estudo sinalizam para uma natureza híbrida da relação entre memória de trabalho e desempenho em tarefas em L2. Abstract in english This paper examines whether the nature of the relationship between working memory and the performance in L2 tasks is domain-free or task-specific. A set of four working memory tests in English and four L2 performance tasks was applied to twelve undergraduate beginner students of English as a second [...] language. Correlational analyses showed significant correlation between the operation-word span test and the reading, syntactic and speaking tasks. As for the specific span tests, the reading span test correlated significantly with the syntactic task, and the speaking span test correlated both with the speech production task and the syntactic task. The results of the present study point to a hybrid nature of the relationship between working memory capacity and L2 task performance.

  18. A L2HGDH initiator methionine codon mutation in a Yorkshire terrier with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farias Fabiana HG

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a metabolic repair deficiency characterized by elevated levels of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological signs associated with the disease in humans and dogs include seizures, ataxia and dementia. Case presentation Here we describe an 8?month old Yorkshire terrier that presented with episodes of hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. Between episodes, the dog’s behavior and neurologic examinations were normal. A T2 weighted MRI of the brain showed diffuse grey matter hyperintensity and a urine metabolite screen showed elevated 2-hydroxyglutaric acid. We sequenced all 10 exons and intron-exon borders of L2HGDH from the affected dog and identified a homozygous A to G transition in the initiator methionine codon. The first inframe methionine is at p.M183 which is past the mitochondrial targeting domain of the protein. Initiation of translation at p.M183 would encode an N-terminal truncated protein unlikely to be functional. Conclusions We have identified a mutation in the initiation codon of L2HGDH that is likely to result in a non-functional gene. The Yorkshire terrier could serve as an animal model to understand the pathogenesis of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria and to evaluate potential therapies.

  19. The Effect of Using Print Media on Children’s L2 Literacy Development: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoor Tavakoli; Saeedeh Esmae’li

    2013-01-01

    This paper tries to examine the effect of using print media in the classroom on the children’s L2 literacy development in an EFL context. Since reading is regarded as a chief goal, in many second/foreign language teaching situations, it receives a special focus. Media as a tool for language learning/teaching, can help both instructed and non-instructed learners to overcome the difficult task of language learning. In order to determine the effects of print media usage on the development ...

  20. River morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs

  1. Learning Vocabulary in EFL Contexts through Vocabulary Learning Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazal, Lotfi

    2007-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is one of the major challenges foreign language learners face during the processof learning a language. One way to alley the burden is to assist students in becoming independent learners duringthe process of L2 vocabulary learning. This could be achieved through instructing learners to apply vocabularylearning strategies as efficiently as possible. The main pursuit of the present article is to suggest a framework fortraining EFL learners in vocabulary learning strategies. ...

  2. O papel da consciência morfológica para a alfabetização em leitura / The role of morphological awareness in reading learning / El papel de las habilidades morfológicas y la alfabetización en la lectura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da, Mota.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as habilidades metalingüísticas três parecem ajudar o leitor aprendiz a aprender a ler e escrever: a consciência fonológica, a consciência sintática e a consciência morfológica. Das três habilidades, a menos estudada é a consciência morfológica. No entanto, este estado de coisas está mudando [...] e está se formando um novo corpo de conhecimento sobre o papel das habilidades morfológicas e a alfabetização. À medida que esse campo de pesquisa avança novas questões teóricas e metodológicas vão sendo levantadas. Com base na literatura publicada recentemente na área, este artigo discute algumas destas questões. Abstract in spanish Entre las habilidades metalingüísticas, tres parecen ayudar el lector aprendiz a aprender a leer y escribir: la conciencia fonológica, la consciencia sintática, y la conciencia morfológica. De las tres habilidades, la que es menos estudiada es la conciencia morfológica. Sin embargo, este estado de c [...] osas están cambiando y un nuevo cuerpo de conocimiento se está formando sobre el papel de las habilidades morfológicas y la alfabetización. En la medida que ese campo de pesquisa avanza, nuevas cuestiones teóricas y metodológicas se van levantando. Con base en la literatura publicada recientemente en el área, este artículo debate algunas de estas cuestiones. Abstract in english Among the metalinguistic abilities three seem to help children to learn to read and to write: phonological awareness, syntactic awareness and morphological awareness. Of the three abilities, the least studied one is morphological awareness. However, this state of things is changing and a new body of [...] knowledge has been formed about the role of morphological abilities in literacy. As this field of research advances, new theoretical and methodological questions are raised. Based on recent published literature in this field, this article discusses some of these questions.

  3. O papel da consciência morfológica para a alfabetização em leitura El papel de las habilidades morfológicas y la alfabetización en la lectura The role of morphological awareness in reading learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da Mota

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as habilidades metalingüísticas três parecem ajudar o leitor aprendiz a aprender a ler e escrever: a consciência fonológica, a consciência sintática e a consciência morfológica. Das três habilidades, a menos estudada é a consciência morfológica. No entanto, este estado de coisas está mudando e está se formando um novo corpo de conhecimento sobre o papel das habilidades morfológicas e a alfabetização. À medida que esse campo de pesquisa avança novas questões teóricas e metodológicas vão sendo levantadas. Com base na literatura publicada recentemente na área, este artigo discute algumas destas questões.Entre las habilidades metalingüísticas, tres parecen ayudar el lector aprendiz a aprender a leer y escribir: la conciencia fonológica, la consciencia sintática, y la conciencia morfológica. De las tres habilidades, la que es menos estudiada es la conciencia morfológica. Sin embargo, este estado de cosas están cambiando y un nuevo cuerpo de conocimiento se está formando sobre el papel de las habilidades morfológicas y la alfabetización. En la medida que ese campo de pesquisa avanza, nuevas cuestiones teóricas y metodológicas se van levantando. Con base en la literatura publicada recientemente en el área, este artículo debate algunas de estas cuestiones.Among the metalinguistic abilities three seem to help children to learn to read and to write: phonological awareness, syntactic awareness and morphological awareness. Of the three abilities, the least studied one is morphological awareness. However, this state of things is changing and a new body of knowledge has been formed about the role of morphological abilities in literacy. As this field of research advances, new theoretical and methodological questions are raised. Based on recent published literature in this field, this article discusses some of these questions.

  4. Borylene complexes (BH)L2 and nitrogen cation complexes (N+)L2: isoelectronic homologues of carbones CL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Mehmet Ali; Sure, Rebecca; Klein, Susanne; Kinjo, Rei; Bertrand, Guy; Frenking, Gernot

    2012-04-27

    Quantum chemical calculations using DFT (BP86, M05-2X) and ab initio methods (CCSD(T), SCS-MP2) have been carried out on the borylene complexes (BH)L(2) and nitrogen cation complexes (N(+))L(2) with the ligands L=CO, N(2), PPh(3), NHC(Me), CAAC, and CAAC(model). The results are compared with those obtained for the isoelectronic carbones CL(2). The geometries and bond dissociation energies of the ligands, the proton affinities, and adducts with the Lewis acids BH(3) and AuCl were calculated. The nature of the bonding has been analyzed with charge and energy partitioning methods. The calculated borylene complexes (BH)L(2) have trigonal planar coordinated boron atoms which possess rather short B-L bonds. The calculated bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of the ligands for complexes where L is a carbene (NHC or CAAC) are very large (D(e) =141.6-177.3 kcal mol(-1)) which suggest that such species might become isolated in a condensed phase. The borylene complexes (BH)(PPh(3))(2) and (BH)(CO)(2) have intermediate bond strengths (D(e) =90.1 and 92.6 kcal mol(-1)). Substituted homologues with bulky groups at boron which protect the boron atom from electrophilic attack might also be stable enough to become isolated. The BDE of (BH)(N(2))(2) is much smaller (D(e) =31.9 kcal mol(-1)), but could become observable in a low-temperature matrix. The proton affinities of the borylene complexes are very large, particularly for the bulky adducts with L=PPh(3), NHC(Me), CAAC(model) and CAAC and thus, they are superbases. All (BH)L(2) molecules bind strongly AuCl either ?(1) (L=N(2), PPh(3), NHC(Me), CAAC) or ?(2) (L=CO, CAAC(model)). The BDEs of H(3)B-(BH)L(2) adducts which possess a hitherto unknown boron?boron donor-acceptor bond are smaller than for the AuCl complexes. The strongest bonded BH(3) adduct that might be isolable is (BH)(PPh(3))(2)-BH(3) (D(e) =36.2 kcal mol(-1)). The analysis of the bonding situation reveals that (BH)-L(2) bonding comes mainly from the orbital interactions which has three major contributions, that is, the donation from the symmetric (?) and antisymmetric (?(||)) combination of the ligand lone-pair orbitals into the vacant MOs of BH L?(BH)?L and the L?(BH)?L ? backdonation from the boron lone-pair orbital. The nitrogen cation complexes (N(+))L(2) have strongly bent L-N-L geometries, in which the calculated bending angle varies between 113.9° (L=N(2)) and 146.9° (L=CAAC). The BDEs for (N(+))L(2) are much larger than those of the borylene complexes. The carbene ligands NHC and CAAC but also the phosphane ligands PPh(3) bind very strongly between D(e) =358.4 kcal mol(-1) (L=PPh(3)) and D(e) =412.5 kcal mol(-1) (L=CAAC(model)). The proton affinities (PA) of (N(+))L(2) are much smaller and they bind AuCl and BH(3) less strongly compared with (BH)L(2). However, the PAs (N(+))L(2) for complexes with bulky ligands L are still between 139.9 kcal mol(-1) (L=CAAC(model)) and 168.5 kcal mol(-1) (L=CAAC). The analysis of the (N(+))-L(2) bonding situation reveals that the binding interactions come mainly from the L?(N(+))?L donation while L?(N(+) )?L ? backdonation is rather weak. PMID:22434609

  5. L1-L2 Sentence Translation in Classroom Grammar Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    L1-L2 translation of separate sentences is one kind of task format used by mainstream EFL teachers to assess their learners' grammatical accuracy. Aimed at improving teacher-written translation items, this study analyses linguistic features potentially causing such decontextualized cues (and their target responses) to sound odd or untypical of…

  6. Sur la L2-cohomologie des varietes a courbure negative

    CERN Document Server

    Yeganefar, N

    2002-01-01

    We give a topological interpretation of the space of L2-harmonic forms on finite-volume manifolds with sufficiently pinched negative curvature. We give examples showing that this interpretation fails if the curvature is not sufficiently pinched. The mehtod used applies to other situations, e.g. asymptotically complex hyperbolic manifolds, or harmonic forms with weights.

  7. Variables Affecting L2 Gains during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Smemoe, Wendy; Dewey, Dan P.; Bown, Jennifer; Martinsen, Rob A.

    2014-01-01

    Second language (L2) gains during study abroad have been related to several variables including length of stay (Llanes, 2011), language use (Martinsen, Baker, Dewey, Bown, & Johnson, 2010), and social network development (Isabelli-García, 2006), among others. However, most studies have investigated only a few predictors in single study abroad…

  8. Rigidity and $L^2$ cohomology of hyperbolic manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Carron, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    When $X=\\Gamma\\backslash \\H^n$ is a real hyperbolic manifold, it is already known that if the critical exponent is small enough then some cohomology spaces and some spaces of $L^2$ harmonic forms vanish. In this paper, we show rigidity results in the borderline case of these vanishing results.

  9. Generators with interior degeneracy on spaces of L^2 type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genni Fragnelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider operators in divergence and in nondivergence form with degeneracy at the interior of the space domain. Characterizing the domain of the operators, we prove that they generate positive analytic semigroups on spaces of L^2 type. Finally, some applications to linear and semilinear parabolic evolution problems and to linear hyperbolic ones are presented.

  10. Preparation of optically pure L-2-hydroxyaldehydes with yeast transketolase

    OpenAIRE

    Effenberger, Franz; Null, Volker; Ziegler, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    L-2-Hydroxyaldehydes L-3 with a great variety of substituents in 3-position are obtained in good chemical and excellent optical yields by kinetic resolution in the transketolase-catalyzed reaction of racemic 2-hydroxyaldehydes with lithium hydroxypyruvate 4 where only the enantiomer (R)-3 reacts to 5-deoxy-D-xyluloses 5.

  11. L2 Blogging: Who Thrives and Who Does Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rainbow Tsai-Hung

    2015-01-01

    While research has reported generally enthusiastic results regarding L2 blogging, some studies have found contrasting blogging experiences among individual learners. Consequently, this study investigated the factors underlying such discrepancies by exploring 33 EFL learners' experiences of participating in a blog project at a Taiwanese university.…

  12. L2 Interactional Competence and Development. Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joan Kelly; Hellermann, John; Doehler, Simona Pekarek

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on data from a range of contexts, including classrooms, pharmacy consultations, tutoring sessions, and video-game playing, and a range of languages including English, German, French, Danish and Icelandic, the studies in this volume address challenges suggested by these questions: What kinds of interactional resources do L2 users draw on to…

  13. La video clase y la multimedia como medio de enseñanza-aprendizaje de los contenidos morfológicos / The videoconference and multimedia as teaching-learning means for morphologic contents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nieves E, Garriga Alfonso; Iliana, Robainas Fiallo; Dayren, Fernández Santamaría; Dunieska, Quiñones Cabrera; Rolando Ernesto, Medina Robainas.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En la última década, la videoconferencia y la multimedia están siendo percibidas como los medios con más posibilidades didácticas en contextos de enseñanza superior. En sus inicios, la videoconferencia suplió las limitaciones espacio-temporales de la educación a distancia. Progresivamente, este medi [...] o fue encontrando un reconocimiento en instituciones convencionales de enseñanza propiciado por el desarrollo de experiencias de calidad basadas en la incorporación de recursos externos al aula. Desde una perspectiva instrumentalista, los medios son soportes materiales de información que deben reflejar la realidad de la forma más perfecta posible. Responden a un modelo estándar de alumno y a una cultura escolar homogénea, y se consideran por sí mismos instrumentos generadores de aprendizajes. Las características del diseño didáctico y computacional de un entorno hipermedia para aprender se intenta conectar a la concepción de promover el aprendizaje utilizando la computadora. El entorno consiste en un conjunto de actividades basadas en andamiajes tendientes a inducir la construcción de significados mediante la activa participación del estudiante. Abstract in english During the last decade, the videoconference and multimedia are being perceived as the means with more didactic possibilities in the context of the high education. At the beginning, the videoconference helped avoiding limitations of the distance learning. Progressively, this means began to be recogni [...] zed in conventional teaching institutions because of the development of qualitative experiences based on the usage of out-class resources. From an instrumentalist perspective, the means are material supports of the information that should express the reality in the most possible perfect way. They answer to a standard model of students and to a homogeneous school culture, and are considered, by themselves, as instruments generating learning. The characteristics of a computational and didactic design of a hypermedia setting to learn are intended to be linked to a conception of promoting learning using computers. The setting is a group of activities based on structures tending to induce the construction of meanings through the active participation of the student.

  14. LA DIDATTICA DELL’ITALIANO L2 A DETENUTI STRANIERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bonfanti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available L’insegnamento dell’italiano L2 all’interno degli istituti penitenziari è diventata un’esigenza fondamentale, data la crescente presenza di detenuti stranieri nelle strutture detentive del nostro Paese.Il presente lavoro analizza le peculiarità dell’insegnamento dell’italiano L2 a detenuti stranieri: ruolo e caratteristiche del docente, bisogni e motivazioni dell’apprendente, problematiche legate al contesto specifico di apprendimento. In particolare si intende mettere in evidenza il ruolo primario della scrittura come mezzo fondamentale per svolgere attività quotidiane (padroneggiare regolamenti, richieste, “domandine” e come strumento per la rieducazione.Per meglio comprendere le specificità dell’insegnamento in questo contesto, viene presentato un sillabo per apprendenti detenuti redatto da Antonella Benucci ed in appendice due interviste rivolte a docenti della Casa Circondariale di Monza.TEACHING ITALIAN L2 TO FOREIGN INMATESTeaching Italian L2 in prisons has become a basic need, given the growing number of foreign detainees in Italian prisons.This paper analyzes the peculiarity of teaching Italian L2 to foreign inmates: the teacher’s role and characteristics, the student’s needs and motivations, problems linked to the specific setting. We highlight the primary role of writing as a fundamental means for carrying out daily activities (mastering rules, requests, “small questions” and as a re-education tool.To better understand the specificity of teaching in this context, a syllabus for detainees compiled by Antonella Benucci is presented and there are two interviews with teachers working in a prison in Monza.

  15. Hábitos de aprendizaje y rendimiento académico en la asignatura morfofisiología-II de la carrera de estomatología Learning habits and academic performance in the II- Morphology and Physiology subject in Dentistry major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Félix Albert Díaz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La asignatura Morfofisiología II que se imparte en primer año de la carrera de Estomatología resultó la de más bajo rendimiento académico. Objetivo: Caracterizar los hábitos de aprendizaje del estudiante de primer año de Estomatología, teniendo en cuenta su relación con sus diferencias individuales y rendimiento académico en la asignatura. Método: Se realizó una investigación descriptiva y de corte transversal en la asignatura Morfofisiología II, de la carrera de Estomatología de la provincia de Pinar del Río al finalizar el primer semestre del curso 2008-2009. La muestra estuvo constituida por 52 estudiantes de primer año, que cursan la carrera en la sede central. Se les aplicó una encuesta, cuyo cuestionario permitió evaluar sus hábitos de aprendizaje, y el nivel de motivación hacia la carrera y la asignatura. Los datos fueron procesados utilizando la estadística descriptiva y la prueba Ji cuadrado, con un nivel de confianza del 95 %. Resultados: Se encontraron malos hábitos de aprendizaje, en la mayoría de ellos no existió relación significativa entre hábitos de aprendizaje con respecto a la vía de ingreso y nota final de los estudiantes, resaltó la elevada motivación encontrada tanto por la carrera como por la asignatura, la variable motivación no guardó relación significativa con la nota final alcanzada. Se concluye que a pesar de los resultados alcanzados estos no influyeron significativamente en los resultados de la asignatura, gracias a las estrategias de enseñaza trazadas por el colectivo de profesores, pero sí indican la necesidad de establecer acciones con vistas al desarrollo de su aprendizaje autónomoABSTRACT II-Morphology and Physiology subject taught to the first grade students of Dentistry had the lowest academic performance. Objective: Characterizing the learning habits in the student of first grade of dentistry subject having in mind the relationship with the individual differences and the subject academic performance. Method: A descriptive and cross sectional research on the Morphology and Physiology subject in the dentistry students in Pinar del Rio city at ending the first semester of 2008-2009 course. The sample comprised of 52 students in the first grade of the dentistry major. A survey allowed us to know their learning habits and the level of motivation on the subject. Data were processed using descriptive statistics and the chi square test with a 95% of level of confidence. Results: It was found bad learning habits; in most of them there was no significative relationship between the learning habits and the way of admittance and the final mark of the students; a remarkably high motivation was observed on the major and the subject; the variable "motivation" had no significative relationship with the final mark achieved. It is concluded that the results obtained had no significative influence on the results of the subject thanks to the learning strategies proposed by the faculty but they do indicate the necessity of establishing prospective actions for the development of the autonomic learning

  16. Learning Vocabulary via Mobile Phone: Persian EFL Learners in Focus

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Taki; Saeed Khazaei

    2011-01-01

    With encompassing power of cell phones and potentials of mobile learning for language teaching/learning, employing cell phones in language learning seems indispensable. Through exploiting the inherent capabilities of such devices this study investigated the efficacy of multimodal representation of L2 vocabularies for 158 pre-intermediate level L2 learners aged 18-23. Since short-term memory plays an important role in vocabulary learning, they were placed into four different short-term memory ...

  17. Architectural design and language learning in Second Life

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Christine; Wigham, Ciara R.; Foucher, Anne-laure; Chanier, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether, by using a virtual world, it is possible to integrate architectural design and language (L2) learning in a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) approach and increase student motivation vis-à-vis L2 learning. We discuss the advantages and limitations of virtual worlds with reference to the two disciplines and describe the learning design for a higher education course which used Second Life (SL) for face-to-face and distance sessions. We present the ...

  18. Cognição e aprendizagem de L2: o que nos diz a pesquisa nos paradigmas simbólico e conexionista

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mailce, Mota; Márcia Cristina, Zimmer.

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os principais aspectos teóricos de dois paradigmas de investigação da cognição humana _ o simbólico e o conexionista _ e discute como a pesquisa em cada paradigma tem fomentado os estudos sobre aprendizagem de L2. O paradigma simbólico postula a existência de representações men [...] tais através de regras lógicas e símbolos para explicar a aquisição e a utilização do conhecimento. O paradigma conexionista parte da premissa de que o processamento cognitivo está relacionado à maneira pela qual os neurônios se interconectam no cérebro. A partir dessas duas abordagens, o artigo examina como construtos tais como tipos de conhecimento, tipos de memória, processamento do insumo e atenção são apresentados nas duas teorias e como vêm sendo utilizados na pesquisa em L2. Abstract in english This paper presents the main tenets of two paradigms of investigation of human cognition _ the symbolic and the connectionist _ and discusses how research in each paradigm has fed studies in L2 learning. The symbolic paradigm explains the acquisition and use of knowledge through the existence of men [...] tal representations, logical rules, and symbols. The connectionist paradigm claims that human cognitive processing is related to how neurons are interconnected in the brain. The paper also examines how constructs such as types of knowledge, types of memory, input processing, and attention are presented in the two theories and how these constructs relate to current L2 research.

  19. L2 Motivation and Personality as Predictors of the Second Language Proficiency: Role of the Big Five Traits and L2 Motivational Self System

    OpenAIRE

    Zargham Ghapanchi; Gholam Hassan Khajavy; Seyyedeh Fatemeh Asadpour

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the predictability of the L2 proficiency by personality and L2 motivational self system variables among 141 Iranian EFL university students. Participants completed Transparent Bipolar Inventory (Goldberg, 1992) as a personality measure, L2 motivational self system (Papi, 2010), and a self-rated measure of second language proficiency. Regression analyses showed that extroversion and openness to experience accounted for 13% of the variance in L2 proficiency; and ide...

  20. 3D Structure Elucidation of Thermostable L2 Lipase from Thermophilic Bacillus sp. L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahiran Basri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The crystallization of proteins makes it possible to determine their structure by X-ray crystallography, and is therefore important for the analysis of protein structure-function relationships. L2 lipase was crystallized by using the J-tube counter diffusion method. A crystallization consisting of 20% PEG 6000, 50 mM MES pH 6.5 and 50 mM NaCl was found to be the best condition to produce crystals with good shape and size (0.5 × 0.1 × 0.2 mm. The protein concentration used for the crystallization was 3 mg/mL. L2 lipase crystal has two crystal forms, Shape 1 and Shape 2. Shape 2 L2 lipase crystal was diffracted at 1.5 Å and the crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 72.0, b = 81.8, c = 83.4 Å, ? = ? = ? = 90°. There is one molecule per asymmetric unit and the solvent content of the crystals is 56.9%, with a Matthew’s coefficient of 2.85 Å Da?1. The 3D structure of L2 lipase revealed topological organization of ?/?-hydrolase fold consisting of 11 ?-strands and 13 ?-helices. Ser-113, His-358 and Asp-317 were assigned as catalytic triad residues. One Ca2+ and one Zn2+ were found in the L2 lipase molecule.

  1. The Time Course of Morphological Processing in a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clahsen, Harald; Balkhair, Loay; Schutter, John-Sebastian; Cunnings, Ian

    2013-01-01

    We report findings from psycholinguistic experiments investigating the detailed timing of processing morphologically complex words by proficient adult second (L2) language learners of English in comparison to adult native (L1) speakers of English. The first study employed the masked priming technique to investigate "-ed" forms with a group of…

  2. L’AUTOBIOGRAFIA LINGUISTICA NELL’INSEGNAMENTO-APPRENDIMENTO DELL’ITALIANO L2/LS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Groppaldi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L'autobiografia linguistica è una attività particolarmente utile nell'insegnamento-apprendimento di una lingua straniera. L'apprendente immigrato è invitato a narrare in prima persona le esperienze linguistico-comunicative nella propria L1, nella L2 /LS che sta apprendendo e/o nella lingua seconda che ha acquisito come lingua di comunicazione e di studio nel suo paese di origine, le relazioni umane ed emotive che accompagnano  o hanno accompagnato queste esperienze, le situazioni che ne hanno favorito o ostacolato l'apprendimento. Con l'autobiografia linguistica l'apprendente straniero costruisce, attraverso la scrittura e quindi attraverso un processo di esplicitazione e di riflessione consapevole,  un ponte tra "là" e "qui", tra paese d'origine e il paese di arrivo, tra la vita "prima" e la vita "dopo" lo strappo della migrazione. Ricompone e dà senso alla propria storia, nelle due lingue, esprime affetti ed emozioni, rinomina il mondo e se ne riappropria ricostruendo insieme la propria identità, esplora se stesso e si fa conoscere ai suoi pari e all'insegnante in un rapporto di condivisione e di comprensione reciproca: si crea un contesto non di integrazione, ma di inclusione. A sua volta il docente può meglio comprendere le strategie di apprendimento dell'apprendente, la sua personalità, le sue difficoltà e progettare strategie didattiche più efficaci, perché più individuali e orientate al successo nella comunicazione e nell'apprendimento.   Linguistic autobiography is especially useful in the teaching and learning of a foreign language. The foreign learner is asked to narrate, in the first person, his/her linguistic-communicative experiences in their L1 and in the L2/FL which they are learning and/or in the second language they have acquired for communication or study in their home country, focusing on the emotional and human relationships which accompanied this experience and the situations which encouraged or blocked the learning. Through writing, speaking and thoughtful reflection, linguistic autobiography helps the foreign learner to construct a bridge between "there" and "here", between the home and the host country, between life "before" and "after" the shock of migration. This practice reorganizes and gives meaning to one's own history in both languages, through the expression of feelings and emotions, by defining and reclaiming the world as well as reconstructing identity, exploring oneself and showning oneself to peers and teachers in an environment of mutual sharing and understanding.  It creates a context for inclusion, not just integration. The teacher, in turn, can better understand the student's learning strategies, his/her personality and difficulties and thus plan more effective didactic interventions, since they are individualized and aimed at success in communication and learning.

  3. Threshold to Transfer Writing Skills from L1 to L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Fumihiko

    2009-01-01

    Background: It has been hypothesized that L2 (second language) readers are not able to draw on their L1 (first language) reading skills for the successful development of L2 reading skills until they develop a certain proficiency in L2 because a lack of proficiency blocks transfer of L1 reading skills to the reading of L2 texts. This minimum degree…

  4. Age Effects on the Process of L2 Acquisition? Evidence from the Acquisition of Negation and Finiteness in L2 German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimroth, Christine

    2008-01-01

    It is widely assumed that ultimate attainment in adult second language (L2) learners often differs quite radically from ultimate attainment in child L2 learners. This article addresses the question of whether learners at different ages also show qualitative differences in the process of L2 acquisition. Longitudinal production data from two…

  5. James Webb Space Telescope - L2 Communications for Science Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Jones, Ronald; Fatig, Curtis; Wasiak, Francis

    2008-01-01

    JWST is the first NASA mission at the second Lagrange point (L2) to identify the need for data rates higher than 10 megabits per second (Mbps). JWST will produce approximately 235 Gigabits of science data every day that will be downlinked to the Deep Space Network (DSN). To get the data rates desired required moving away from X-band frequencies to Ka-band frequencies. To accomplish this transition, the DSN is upgrading its infrastructure. This new range of frequencies are becoming the new standard for high data rate science missions at L2. With the new frequency range, the issues of alternatives antenna deployment, off nominal scenarios, NASA implementation of the Ka-band 26 GHz, and navigation requirements will be discussed in this paper. JWST is also using Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standard process for reliable file transfer using CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). For JWST the use of the CFDP protocol provides level zero processing at the DSN site. This paper will address NASA implementations of Ground Stations in support of Ka-band 26 GHz and lesson learned from implementing a file base (CFDP) protocol operational system.

  6. The Effect of Strategic Planning Time and Task Complexity on L2 Written Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Salimi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, there has been a plethora of research attempting to find out the role of “task” in second and foreign language teaching and learning. A growing body of research in the past two decades has been devoted to the investigation of various aspects of task-based language teaching. A review of the studies conducted on various aspects of tasks reveled that there is a gap in the literature on the joint effects of task complexity and different types of planning time on L2 learners’ oral and written performance. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the effects of strategic pre-task planning and task complexity on L2 learners’ written performance in terms of accuracy. To this end, 50 English language learners, both male and female, were chosen from an English language institute in Iran. A reliable valid task with simple and complex versions was used to collect written data from the participants. T-test was employed as the statistical means of analysis to compare the means of accuracy. The findings of the study revealed that pre-task strategic planning time in both simple and complex task led to more accuracy. The results of the study might carry significant implications for syllabus and task designers, language teachers in EFL/ESL contexts, and second language acquisition researchers.

  7. Imaging polarimetry of Comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR)

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, P Deb; Medhi, Biman J

    2014-01-01

    We present the polarimetric results and analysis of comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR) observed at 31$^\\circ$.1 phase angle before perihelion passage. The observations of the comet were carried out using ARIES Imaging Polarimeter (AIMPOL) mounted on the 1.04-m Sampurnanand telescope of ARIES, Nainital, India on 11 and 12 March, 2013 using R photometric band ($\\lambda$ = 630 nm, $\\Delta$$\\lambda$ =120nm). The extended coma of the comet ($\\sim65000$ km) shows a significant variation in the intensity as well as polarization profile in all considered directions which suggest that the dust particles originate from the active areas of the nucleus. The elongation of the coma is prominent along the Sun-comet position angle. The polarization of Comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR) does not show steep radial dependence on the aperture size during both the nights of observation. A jet extended in the antisolar direction is well observed in both intensity and polarization map.

  8. The L(2,1)-Labeling of Some Middle Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Devsi D. Bantva; Samir K. VAIDYA

    2010-01-01

    An (2,1) L -labeling of a graph G is a function f from the vertex set V (G) to the set of all nonnegative integers such that |f(x)-f(y)| >= 2 if d(x,y) = 1 and |f(x)-f(y)| >= 1 if if d(x,y) = 2. The L(2,1) -labeling number ?(G) of G is the smallest number k such that G has an L(2,1)-labeling with max{f(v): v? V(G). In this paper we completely determine ?-number for middle graph of path Pn, cycle Cn , star K1,n , friendship graph Fn and wheel Wn.

  9. Imaging polarimetry of Comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb Roy, P.; Das, H. S.; Medhi, Biman J.

    2015-01-01

    We present the polarimetric results and analysis of Comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR) observed at 31°.1 phase angle before perihelion passage. The observations of the comet were carried out using ARIES Imaging Polarimeter (AIMPOL) mounted on the 1.04-m Sampurnanand telescope of ARIES, Nainital, India on 11 and 12 March, 2013 using R photometric band (? = 630 nm, ?? = 120 nm) . The extended coma of the comet (?65000 km) shows a significant variation in the intensity as well as polarization profile in all considered directions which suggest that the dust particles originate from the active areas of the nucleus. The elongation of the coma is prominent along the Sun-comet position angle. The polarization of Comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR) do not show steep radial dependence on the aperture size during both the nights of observation. A jet extended in the antisolar direction is well observed in both intensity and polarization map.

  10. Auroral morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aurora is a radiant manifestation of solar particle emissions and their control by intervening electromagnetic fields. The analogy with a television system was first made, we believe, by Elvey, (1958). The latest concepts of solar-terrestrial control are included in description by Akasofu (1979) showing the phosphor screen as the upper atmosphere with an auroral image produced by particles from a source on the sun, modulated by electric and magnetic fields with the magnetohydrodynamic (MDH) generator formed by electrons and protons from the solar wind across the geomagnetic tail as the power supply. Thus, the size and shape of the aurora must reflect all the forces acting in the auroral particles on their way from the sun to the earth. Auroral morphology, therefore, is the study of the occurence of aurora in space and time for the purpose of describing the origin of solar particels and the forces acting upon them between the time of their production on the sun and their loss in the atmosphere. The advantage of using the aurora as a television monitor of this process over any conceivable system of in situ measurements is obvious when one considers the large number of space vehicles which would be necessary to record the information concentrated in the auroral oval which differs in scale with the magnetosphere by perhaps 106. (orig.)

  11. COMPUTING THE VOCABULARY DEMANDS OF L2 READING

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Cobb

    2007-01-01

    Linguistic computing can make two important contributions to second language (L2) reading instruction. One is to resolve longstanding research issues that are based on an insufficiency of data for the researcher, and the other is to resolve related pedagogical problems based on insufficiency of input for the learner. The research section of the paper addresses the question of whether reading alone can give learners enough vocabulary to read. When the computer’s ability to process large amount...

  12. Perception of L2 Fluency in Study Abroad Context

    OpenAIRE

    Ullakonoja, Riikka; Dufva, Hannele

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the results of and on-going study investigating twelve Finnish university students' fluency in three Russian L2 reading aloud tasks administrered before, during and after their period of study abroad. Here, we discuss the students' self-evaluated fluency and their responses to questions concerning the development of their pronunciation skills, comparing these with the fluency ratings given to them by Finnish teachers of Russian.

  13. HFI L2 DPC destripping and mapmaking modules

    OpenAIRE

    Couchot, F.; Le Meur, G.; Perdereau, O.; Plaszczynski, S.; Rosset, C.; Touze, F.; Tristram, M.

    2006-01-01

    The data processing of the data from the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) of the Planck mission will use several modules. Destriping is expected to play a central role in the mapmaking stage. This paper outlines two existing HFI l2 DPC destriping modules together with estimations of their performances. MOKAPIX is a temperature data destriping tool based on scanning redundancies on the sky. We have developped another modules, BOGOPIX , based on the same philosophy, to perform simultaneously des...

  14. Heat wave modulation experiments in the L-2M stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heat wave modulation was used in ECRH experiments in the L-2M stellarator to determine the absorption region and the thermal diffusion coefficient. The temperature response of the plasma was followed by ECE and SXR diagnostics. It is shown that the absorption region has a nonlocal character, and its size is dependent on the magnetic field. The estimated value of the electron thermal diffusivity coefficient turns out to be higher than expected

  15. Pairs of pants, Pochhammer curves and $L^2$-invariants

    OpenAIRE

    Bökstedt, Marcel; Romão, Nuno M.

    2014-01-01

    We propose an intuitive interpretation for nontrivial $L^2$-Betti numbers of compact Riemann surfaces in terms of certain loops in embedded pairs of pants. This description uses twisted homology associated to the Hurewicz map of the surface, and it satisfies a sewing property with respect to a large class of pair-of-pants decompositions. Applications to supersymmetric quantum mechanics incorporating Aharonov-Bohm phases are briefly discussed, for both point particles and top...

  16. L2 Reading in Multilingual Eritrea: The Influences of L1 Reading and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Beckman, Danielle; Kurvers, Jeanne; Kroon, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    A major question in L2 reading research is whether L2 reading is a language or a reading problem. Existing research, mainly carried out in Western contexts, demonstrates that L2 reading is influenced by L1 reading and L2 proficiency. This study applied the L2 reading theory in a non-Western context (Eritrea, East Africa) with L1 reading acquired…

  17. COMPUTING THE VOCABULARY DEMANDS OF L2 READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Cobb

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic computing can make two important contributions to second language (L2 reading instruction. One is to resolve longstanding research issues that are based on an insufficiency of data for the researcher, and the other is to resolve related pedagogical problems based on insufficiency of input for the learner. The research section of the paper addresses the question of whether reading alone can give learners enough vocabulary to read. When the computer’s ability to process large amounts of both learner and linguistic data is applied to this question, it becomes clear that, for the vast majority of L2 learners, free or wide reading alone is not a sufficient source of vocabulary knowledge for reading. But computer processing also points to solutions to this problem. Through its ability to reorganize and link documents, the networked computer can increase the supply of vocabulary input that is available to the learner. The development section of the paper elaborates a principled role for computing in L2 reading pedagogy, with examples, in two broad areas, computer-based text design and computational enrichment of undesigned texts.

  18. An Investigation of Personality and L2 Oral Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengdong Gan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates one dimension of personality, extroversion-introversion, and examines its potential impact on learner L2 oral performance. The study is innovative in that it analyzes not only the correlation between degree of extroversion and assessment scores based on analytic scoring but also the correlation between degree of extroversion and the discourse measures of accuracy, fluency and complexity commonly used as indices of L2 task performance in the L2 research. The data for this study were drawn from oral performances by 39 Cantonese-mother-tongue Form 4 (that is, Grade 9 secondary school ESL students engaging in school-based oral English assessment that has recently been implemented across secondary schools in Hong Kong. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was used to measure the students’ degree of extroversion. The findings indicate no significant correlations between degree of extroversion and students’ assessment scores, and between degree of extroversion and those discourse-based measures. In addition, further in-depth analysis of the discourse and interactional behavior of two students classified as an extrovert and an introvert based on their scores on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, suggests that in the context of group oral discussion described in this study, extroversion/introversion might impact in some way on learner discourse and interactional behavior only in the extreme cases, yet this influence seemed not reflected in the assessment scores assigned.

  19. Beliefs about Second Language Learning: The Influence of Learning Context and Learning Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Osaimi, Saleh; Wedell, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Much second language acquisition research in recent decades has assumed that a learner's main purpose for learning a second language (L2) is to develop communicative competence. Consequently, many studies have focused on investigating ways in which teachers and/or the learning environment may support the development of such competence. In…

  20. Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

  1. Learning to read

    OpenAIRE

    Holdaway,Joanna

    2007-01-01

    More and more, schools all over the world are meeting the culturally and linguistically diverse classroom. Whilst this growing phenomenon offers an abundance of new experiences and learning opportunities to students and teachers alike, it can also present some challenges. For example, children learning English as a second language (L2 Learners) and who are entering into an English-speaking school can sometimes experience difficulties in becoming familiar with the phonological system of the...

  2. L2-Boosting algorithm applied to high-dimensional problems in genomic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Recio, Oscar; Weigel, Kent A; Gianola, Daniel; Naya, Hugo; Rosa, Guilherme J M

    2010-06-01

    The L(2)-Boosting algorithm is one of the most promising machine-learning techniques that has appeared in recent decades. It may be applied to high-dimensional problems such as whole-genome studies, and it is relatively simple from a computational point of view. In this study, we used this algorithm in a genomic selection context to make predictions of yet to be observed outcomes. Two data sets were used: (1) productive lifetime predicted transmitting abilities from 4702 Holstein sires genotyped for 32 611 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip, and (2) progeny averages of food conversion rate, pre-corrected by environmental and mate effects, in 394 broilers genotyped for 3481 SNPs. Each of these data sets was split into training and testing sets, the latter comprising dairy or broiler sires whose ancestors were in the training set. Two weak learners, ordinary least squares (OLS) and non-parametric (NP) regression were used for the L2-Boosting algorithm, to provide a stringent evaluation of the procedure. This algorithm was compared with BL [Bayesian LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator)] and BayesA regression. Learning tasks were carried out in the training set, whereas validation of the models was performed in the testing set. Pearson correlations between predicted and observed responses in the dairy cattle (broiler) data set were 0.65 (0.33), 0.53 (0.37), 0.66 (0.26) and 0.63 (0.27) for OLS-Boosting, NP-Boosting, BL and BayesA, respectively. The smallest bias and mean-squared errors (MSEs) were obtained with OLS-Boosting in both the dairy cattle (0.08 and 1.08, respectively) and broiler (-0.011 and 0.006) data sets, respectively. In the dairy cattle data set, the BL was more accurate (bias=0.10 and MSE=1.10) than BayesA (bias=1.26 and MSE=2.81), whereas no differences between these two methods were found in the broiler data set. L2-Boosting with a suitable learner was found to be a competitive alternative for genomic selection applications, providing high accuracy and low bias in genomic-assisted evaluations with a relatively short computational time. PMID:20667166

  3. A Contrastive Study of L1 and L2 Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Moinzadeh; Salman Dezhara; Omid Rezaei

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to give a comprehensive and all out analysis of the processes and aspects involved in first and second language acquisition and learning since this may cause a better selection of the teaching materials, methodologies, techniques and also a more efficient deployment and implementation of them in second or foreign language learning classes.

  4. English L2 reading getting to the bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Birch, Barbara M

    2014-01-01

    English L2 Reading, Third Edition offers teachers research-based insights into bottom-up skills in reading English as a second language and a solid foundation on which to build reading instruction. Core linguistic and psycholinguistic concepts are presented within the context of their application to teaching. The goal is to balance or supplement (not replace) top-down approaches and methodologies with effective low-level options for teaching English reading. The text's pedagogical features- Questions, Study Guide Questions. Discussion Questions, Spotlight on Teaching sections- engage readers o

  5. Strong limit theorems in noncommutative L2-spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Jajte, Ryszard

    1991-01-01

    The noncommutative versions of fundamental classical results on the almost sure convergence in L2-spaces are discussed: individual ergodic theorems, strong laws of large numbers, theorems on convergence of orthogonal series, of martingales of powers of contractions etc. The proofs introduce new techniques in von Neumann algebras. The reader is assumed to master the fundamentals of functional analysis and probability. The book is written mainly for mathematicians and physicists familiar with probability theory and interested in applications of operator algebras to quantum statistical mechanics.

  6. Pun recognition in L1 and L2 readers : Seven days without a pun makes one weak

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Language play has an important position in the use of language. Cook (in Lucas, 2005) makes the argument that language play is even one of the primary uses of language. Partly due to the focus on research in second language learning, advanced L2 users’ language processing gets little attention in research on language use (Shaw & McMillion, 2008). Therefore, there is limited knowledge regarding the reading processes of this group.  While Shaw and McMillion (2008) show that there is no diff...

  7. SYNCHRONOUS CMC, WORKING MEMORY, AND L2 ORAL PROFICIENCY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Payne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently a number of quasi-experimental studies have investigated the potential of a cross-modality transfer of second language competency between real-time, conversational exchange via text and speech (Abrams, 2003; Beauvious, 1998; Kost, 2004; Payne & Whitney, 2002. Payne and Whitney employed Levelt's (1989 model of language production and concepts from working memory as a rationale for a hypothesized connection between synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC and second language (L2 speech and as a basis for predicting the differential contributions of SCMC to the L2 oral proficiency development.This study extends the psycholinguistic framework reported in Payne and Whitney (2002 with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explore how individual differences in working memory capacity may affect the frequency of repetition and other patterns of language use in chatroom discourse. Working memory capacity was measured by a reading span and nonword repetition test. Oral proficiency was measured with a speaking task that solicited a 5-minute speech sample and was scored based on a holistic scale. The data collected from 20 chat sessions were analyzed for occurrences of repetition and relexicalization, as well as language output measures. Findings suggest a connection between working memory and language output as measured in this study.

  8. A refined gravity model from Lageos /GEM-L2/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, F. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Patel, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    Lageos satellite laser ranging (SLR) data taken over a 2.5 yr period were employed to develop the Goddard Earth Model GEM-L2, a refined gravity field model. Additional data was gathered with 30 other satellites, resulting in spherical harmonics through degree and order 20, based on over 600,000 measurements. The Lageos data was accurate down to 10 cm, after which the GEM 9 data were used to make adjustments past order 7. The resolution of long wavelength activity, through degree and order 4, was made possible by the Lageos data. The GEM-L2 model features a 20 x 20 geopotential, tracking station coordinates (20), 5-day polar motion and A1-UT1 values, and a GM value of 398,600.607 cu km/sq sec. The accuracy of station positioning has been raised to within 6 cm total position globally and within 1.8 cm in baselines. It is concluded that SLR is useful for measuring tectonic plate motions and inter-plate deformations.

  9. The Effects of L2C Signal Tracking on High-Precision Carrier Phase GPS Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, H.; Blume, F.; Estey, L. H.; Borsa, A. A.

    2010-12-01

    In 2005, the L2C signal was introduced to improve the accuracy, tracking and redundancy of the GPS system for civilian users. The L2C signal also provides improved SNR data when compared with the L2P(Y) legacy signal, comparable to that of the L1 C/A-code, which allows for better tracking at lower elevations. With the recent launch of the first block II-F satellite (SVN62/PRN25), there are 8 healthy satellites broadcasting L2C signals, or 25% of the constellation. However, GNSS network operators such as the UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) have been hesitant to use the new signal as it is not well determined how tracking and logging L2C could affect the positions derived from L2 carrier phase measurements for a given receiver. The L2C carrier phase is in quadrature (90° out of phase) with the L2P(Y) phase that has been used by high-precision positioning software since the beginning of GPS. To complicate matters further, some receiver manufacturers (e.g. Trimble) correct for this when logging L2C phase while others (e.g. Topcon) do not. The L2C capability of receivers currently in widespread use in permanent networks can depend on firmware as well as hardware; in some cases receivers can simultaneously track L2C and L2P(Y) phases and some can track only one or the other, and the resulting observation files can depend on how individual operators configure the devices. In cases where both L2C and L2P(Y) are logged simultaneously, translation software (such as UNAVCO’s teqc) must be used carefully in order to select which L2 observation is written to RINEX (2.11) and used in positioning. Modifications were recently made to teqc to eliminate potential confusion in that part of the process; if L2C code observations appear in a RINEX (2.11) file produced by teqc, the L2 phase and S2 SNR observations were from the L2C carrier for those satellites. To date L2C analyses have been restricted to special applications such as snow depth and soil moisture using SNR data (Larson et al, 2010). We use several different methods to determine the effect that tracking and logging L2C has on carrier phase measurements and positioning for various receiver models and configurations. Our analyses use GAMIT and TRACK to calculate positions and baseline lengths including zero-length baselines, position time series from a subset of 10 PBO stations that have been L2C enabled, phase residual comparisons and direct comparisons of the L2 phase observable. Twenty-four hour zero-length baseline solutions using L2 show sub-millimeter differences in the mean positions for both the horizontal and vertical components. Direct comparisons of the L2 phase observable from RINEX (2.11) files with and without the L2C observable show sub-millicycle differences over a 24 hour mean with variations up to ~±0.06 cycles for satellites that broadcast L2C. Our results show that the magnitude of the variations increased at low elevations. Separate correlation of the L2 and L2C signals may explain this difference. The number of L2 observations increased when the L2C observable was recorded, while the number of cycle slips above 10 degrees in elevation decreased when L2C was recorded. The behavior of the L2P(Y) phase observations or positions from a given receiver was not affected by the enabling of L2C tracking.

  10. 3D Structure Elucidation of Thermostable L2 Lipase from Thermophilic Bacillus sp. L2

    OpenAIRE

    Mahiran Basri; Abu Bakar Salleh; Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd Rahman; Fairolniza Mohd Shariff

    2012-01-01

    The crystallization of proteins makes it possible to determine their structure by X-ray crystallography, and is therefore important for the analysis of protein structure-function relationships. L2 lipase was crystallized by using the J-tube counter diffusion method. A crystallization consisting of 20% PEG 6000, 50 mM MES pH 6.5 and 50 mM NaCl was found to be the best condition to produce crystals with good shape and size (0.5 × 0.1 × 0.2 mm). The protein concentration used for the crystalli...

  11. The Use of Newspapers for L2 Reading: Practical Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Luque-Agulló; Lucas Gonz??lez-Fernández

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays the acquisition of literacy skills in the foreign language is a highly demanding task cognitively speaking. To improve this learning process, this paper presents a three-fold approach using print and virtual newspapers: first, a brief theoretical revision of the issues involved in learning how to read in a foreign language or transfer L1 reading skills to the foreign language, second, a wide selection of activities to be used when working with newspapers, and third, two sessions that...

  12. Going Blended: New Challenges for Second Generation L2 Tutors

    OpenAIRE

    Nissen, Elke; Tea, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second generation tutors within blended learning courses link the face-to-face and online course modalities - in their representations as well as through their pedagogical activities - and which aspects help them to feel involved in the course. The methodology used is a qualitative analysis of interviews with seven tutors of three different blended learning courses. The results show that most tutors indeed had difficulties gaining a deeper insight into the course desig...

  13. The Relationship between Reading Comprehension and Figurative Competence in L2 Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Doroodi; Mahmood Hashemian

    2011-01-01

    Though many L2 studies have explored the development of figurative language competence (e.g., Cain, Oakhill, & Lemmon, 2005; Li, 2010), few studies have examined the relationship between idiom comprehension and L2 learners’ reading comprehension in consonance with their proficiency levels. This study aimed at assessing the relationship between comprehending opaque and transparent idioms and L2 learners’ ability to comprehend a text. It was hypothesized that an L2 learner&rsquo...

  14. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Iranian EFL Learners’ Level of L2 Lexical Knowledge: The Case of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Biria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human cognitive competence represents individuals’ subconscious knowledge of abilities, talents, and mental skills collectively called “multiple intelligences (MIs”, which play a pivotal role in facilitating human learning. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to determine the magnitude of the relationship existing between multiple intelligences and Iranian EFL learners’ level of second language (L2 lexical knowledge on one hand and the partializing impact of gender on the other. For this purpose, from the population of the senior undergraduate students majoring in translation at Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan (Isfahan Branch, Isfahan, Iran, a sample of 88 students, 24 males and 64 females, were randomly selected. First, Mckenzie’s (1999 MIs Inventory was administered to specify the size of individual types of intelligences in each learner’s MIs composite. Then, the learners were provided with Nation’s (2001 receptive level test a week later to gauge their level of L2 lexical knowledge. The findings revealed that the scores on MIs inventory correlated positively with those of L2 lexical knowledge. Alternatively, different types of intelligences served as useful predictors for estimating the quality of learners’ vocabulary knowledge. Finally, it was found out that gender did indeed have a different effect regarding the learners’ vocabulary knowledge.

  15. Alternativa metodológica para fortalecer el proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de Morfofisiología I en la carrera Enfermería / Methodological alternative to strengthen the teaching-learning process of Morphology and Phisiology I in the Nursing major

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Coralia, Quintero Martí; Magaly, Gort Hernández; Teresa, Verona Ferro; Marelis, Linares Miranda; José Luis, Cordero Pérez.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la insuficiente apropiación de los contenidos de la asignatura Morfofisiología I por los estudiantes, es uno de los problemas esenciales en la carrera de Enfermería. Objetivo: diseñar una alternativa metodológica que fortalezca el proceso enseñanza aprendizaje (PEA) de la asignatura Mo [...] rfofisiología I en la carrera de Enfermería. Método: investigación-acción en la Filial Universitaria Municipal de Ciencias Médicas Los Palacios; universo y muestra: total de estudiantes de 2do año de enfermería durante los cursos 2008-2009 y 2009-2010 (46) y durante los cursos 2010-2011 y 2011-2012 (23); se utilizaron métodos observacionales, entrevistas, enfoque de sistema y modelación. Resultados: Las clases observadas de Bien ascendieron de 16,6% a 83,3 % y las observadas de Mal descendieron de 61,1% a 5,6%. La promoción mejoró en calidad y se elevó de 28,2% a 95,6%, se logro la mayor motivación y participación activa y protagónica de los estudiantes, así como seguridad y dominio en el tratamiento de los contenidos. Conclusiones: La alternativa metodológica permitió a los docentes potenciar las dimensiones cognitivas y motivaciones en los estudiantes por la asignatura Morfofisiología I y demostró un salto cualitativo y cuantitativo en los resultados obtenidos. Abstract in english Introduction: the students´ insufficient aprehension of the course contents in Morphology and Phisiology I is one of the main problems in the Nursing major. Objective: to design a methodological alternative to strengthen the teaching-learning process in the course subject in the Nursing major. Mater [...] ial and method: research-action in Los Palacios Municipal University Affiliate of Medical Sciences; target group and sample: the sheer number of Nursing second year students during the academic years 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 (46) and 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 (23); observational methods were used, as long as interviews, system approach and modelling. Results: the lessons evaluated with Good increased from 16.6% to 83.3% and those evaluated with Wrong decreased from 61.1% to 5.6%. Promotion improved in quality and increased from 28.2% to 95.6%, greater motivation and active and student-centered involvement was achieved, as well as self-confidence and aprehension of the subject contents. Conclusions: the methodological alternative permitted the teaching faculty to potentiate the students cognitive dimensions and motivations for the subject Morphology and Phisiology I and proved a qualitative and quantitative leap in the results obtained.

  16. Phonological Memory and the Acquisition of Grammar in Child L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul; Messer, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show that second language (L2) learners with large phonological memory spans outperform learners with smaller memory spans on tests of L2 grammar. The current study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and L2 grammar in more detail than has been done earlier. Specifically, we asked how phonological memory…

  17. A Prerequisite to L1 Homophone Effects in L2 Spoken-Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…

  18. SLA Research and L2 Pedagogy: Misapplications and Questions of Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Nina

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about the relevance and applicability of SLA theory and research for L2 pedagogy. There are those who maintain that SLA must be applicable to L2 pedagogy: a view based on the argument that because SLA is a subfield of applied linguistics, it should have direct relevance to L2 teaching. Others take the view that…

  19. Factors influencing subcellular localization of the human papillomavirus L2 minor structural protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two structural proteins form the capsids of papillomaviruses. The major structural protein L1 is the structural determinant of the capsids and is present in 360 copies arranged in 72 pentamers. The minor structural protein L2 is estimated to be present in twelve copies per capsid. Possible roles for L2 in interaction with cell surface receptors and in virion uptake have been suggested. As previously reported, L2 localizes in subnuclear domains identified as nuclear domain 10 (ND10). As it was demonstrated that L2 is able to recruit viral and cellular proteins to ND10, a possible role for L2 as a mediator in viral assembly has been proposed. In this study, we determined factors influencing the localization of L2 at ND10. Under conditions of moderate L2 expression level and in the absence of heterologous viral components, we observed that, in contrast to previous reports, L2 is mainly distributed homogeneously throughout the nucleus. L2, however, is recruited to ND10 at a higher expression level or in the presence of viral components derived from vaccinia virus or from Semliki Forest virus. We observed that translocation of L2 to ND10 is not a concentration-dependent accumulation but rather seems to be triggered by yet unidentified cellular factors. In contrast to HPV 11 and 16 L2, the HPV 18 L2 protein seems to require L1 for efficient nuclear accumulation

  20. 75 FR 28469 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS332L2 Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ...Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS332L2 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation...Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS332L2 helicopters. This AD results from a mandatory...Applicability (c) This AD applies to Model AS332L2 helicopters, with a main rotor mast...

  1. 75 FR 69858 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS332L2 Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ...Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS332L2 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation...directive (AD) for the Eurocopter Model AS332L2 helicopters. This AD results from a mandatory...unsafe condition for the Eurocopter Model AS332L2 helicopters. The MCAI AD prohibits...

  2. Perceptual Filtering in L2 Lexical Memory: A Neural Network Approach to Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory has…

  3. Individual Variation in L2 Study-Abroad Outcomes: A Case Study from Indonesian Pragmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassall, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    This is a study of two Australian learners of Indonesian during a short stay abroad. It examines their contrasting success in acquiring L2 address terms, in tandem with their contrasting experiences of the L2 culture setting. It thereby helps explain the persistent finding of great individual variation in L2 gains--and in particular pragmatic…

  4. NON SOLO LINGUA. I CORSI DI ITALIANO L2 PER DONNE MIGRANTI TRA BISOGNI LINGUISTICI E DESIDERIO DI INTEGRAZIONE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Solcia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Come si organizza un corso di italiano L2 per donne migranti? Perché questi corsi si differenziano dalle altre proposte formative rivolte ad adulti immigrati? Basandosi sulle indicazioni del vademecum Tutte le mamme a scuola, il presente contributo cerca di rispondere a queste domande analizzando i bisogni linguistici delle donne migranti, interrogandosi su quale italiano insegnare, su quale metodo didattico adottare con particolare attenzione all’approccio autobiografico e all’“imparare facendo” e presentando i libri di testo rivolti a questa tipologia di apprendenti. Le tre interviste in appendice, raccolte in tre diversi centri che si occupano di corsi di italiano L2 per donne immigrate, raccontano come tutte queste indicazioni possano essere messe in pratica per cercare di soddisfare quel desiderio di integrazione e promozione sociale di cui le allieve si fanno portatrici,  che rende la classe di lingua non solo il luogo in cui si impara a parlare italiano, ma anche un laboratorio sociale in cui sperimentare modi diversi di approcciarsi e di considerare la diversità.     Not only language. Italian L2 for migrant women between linguistic needs and the desire for integration.   How is an Italian L2 course organized for migrant women? Why are these courses different from other classes designed for adult immigrants? Based on the indications in the handbook Tutte le mamme a scuola, this article tries to answer these questions analyzing the linguistic needs of migrant women, considering what Italian should be taught, what teaching method should be used with special attention placed on the autobiographical approach and “learning by doing”. The three interviews in the appendix, from three different centers which offer Italian L2 courses to immigrant women, tell about how these indications can be put into practice to satisfy the desire for the integration and social inclusion of these students, making the language class more than a place where Italian is learned, but it becomes a social laboratory where different approaches can be tried out and diversities can be made evident.

  5. A Contrastive Study of English-Arabic Noun Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Azmi Salim

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at comparing and contrasting English and Arabic noun morphology to determine the points where they differ. These differences are the main cause of difficulty in the learning of the second language. Teaching will be directed at those points where there are structural differences. This in turn determines what the teacher has to teach and what the learner has to learn. The whole focus of the present analysis will be confined to noun morphology in both languages.

  6. An Experiment on Supporting Children's English Vocabulary Learning in Multimedia Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanqing; Dong, Qi

    2004-01-01

    Learning in context is an important component of second language (L2) vocabulary teaching and learning. However, young children may encounter some difficulties in dealing with the context. Hence learning support should be included to facilitate learning. The present study examined the effects of two types of learning support on Chinese children's…

  7. New Physics in {Delta}L = 2 neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delepine, David; Gonzalez Macias, Vannia [Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias de la Universidad de Guanajuato, C.P. 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Khalil, Shaaban [Centre for Theoretical Physics, British University in Egypt, El Sherouk City, Postal No, 11837, PO Box 43 (Egypt); Lopez Castro, Gabriel [Departamento de Fisica, Cinvestav, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-04-01

    We propose a general framework to constrain {Delta}L = 2 processes by measuring observables associated with neutrino-antineutrino oscillations in {pi}{sup {+-}} decays. First, we use this formalism as a new strategy for detecting the CP-violating phases and the effective mass of muon Majorana neutrinos. Within the generic framework of quantum field theory, we compute the non-factorizable probability for producing a pair of same-charged muons in {pi}{sup {+-}} decays as a distinctive signature of {nu}{sub {mu}}-{nu}*{sub {mu}}. Using the neutrino-antineutrino oscillation probability reported by MINOS collaboration, a new stringent bound on the effective muon-neutrino mass is derived. Secondly, we interpret the production of the pair of same-charged muons as a result of lepton number violating (LNV) interactions at the neutrino source, which allow us to constrain New Physics.

  8. MHD waves in the L-2 stellarator with ohmic heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental results on the fluctuations of the poloidal magnetic field during ohmic heating of the plasma in the L-2 stellerator are discussed. Kink modes were studied by correlation analysis of signals from magnetic probes. The presence of a region with l> or =1 at the periphery of the plasma column does not drive an m = 1, n = 1 instability. The experiments show that waves with high mode indices (m/n = 4/3, 5/4, and 6/5) grow at the periphery. The dependence of these modes on the ratio I/sub p//B/sub T/ and the size of the plasma column is studied. The experimental data agree well with theoretical predictions

  9. IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2/LS CON TESTI TEATRALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminia Ardissino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio tratta dell'impiego di testi teatrali come fonti di esercizi per l'apprendimento dell'italiano L2/LS. Dopo alcune riflessioni teoriche, si presentano sei proposte di lavoro, con relative soluzioni, adatte a studenti del livello B2-C2 del quadro di riferimento. Si tratta di esercizi ricavati da drammi in un unico atto di Pirandello (La morsa e Lumìe di Sicilia, da Verga (un confronto fra Cavalleria rusticana nella forma drammatica e novellistica, e da Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre. Ogni proposta sfrutta una peculiarità del testo teatrale che si costituisce nell'incontro di dialoghi con didascalie. Anzitutto si tratta di comprendere come si costruiscono i personaggi, quindi di vedere la funzione delle didascalie in relazione al testo, infine di riflettere sulle diverse modalità in cui avvengono i dialoghi, includendo le forme di silenzio. Il testo teatrale appare così molto adatto ad esercizi di lingua, perché mette in gioco le capacità interpretative e immaginative degli studenti, li fa discutere e parlare sulla base delle loro intuizioni.   This paper investigates the use of play scripts as inspiration for Italian L2/FL exercises. After a brief discussion on theory, six project proposals and their solutions, suitable for B2-C2 level students, are presented.  These exercises are based on one-act plays by Pirandello (La Morsa and Lumìe di Sicilia, Verga (a comparison between Cavalleria Rusticana in drama and narrative forms and Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre.  Each project focuses on a specific aspect of the script  and is made up of dialogues with captions. After the way the characters are constructed is investigated, then the function of the captions in relation to the texts is considered, and finally students reflect on the different ways the dialogues are presented, including the pauses. Play scripts lend themselves to language exercises, because they encourage students to use their interpretation skills and imaginations to talk about their intuitions and ideas.

  10. Interpretation of English reflexives by child and adult L2 learners

    CERN Document Server

    Kafri, Amer Al

    2013-01-01

    This book casts new light on the debate of adult L2 learners' access to Universal Grammar (UG) by comparing the performance of adult L2 learners with that of child L2 learners. The study in this book compares Arabic- and Chinese-speaking child and adult L2 learners' acquisition of English reflexives, particularly concentrating on the differences between child and adult L2 learners in terms of their a) acquisition of the local binding of English reflexives, b) obedience of UG constraints on re...

  11. The Role of Narrative Structure in the Acquisition of English Tense-Aspect Morphology by Thai Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiravate, Boonjeera

    2011-01-01

    As regards the acquisition of L2 verbal morphology, one of the universal tendencies as elucidated by the Interlanguage Discourse Hypothesis (Bardovi-Harlig, 1994, p.43) is that language learners use emerging verbal morphology to distinguish foreground and background in narratives. This present study examines whether Thai EFL learners' use of…

  12. Summary of LOCE L2-2/L2-3 analysis and LOFT/zion prototypic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, two 200% double-ended cold leg break experiments have been completed in the LOFT Power Ascension Test Series. LOCE L2-3 was conducted with maximum linear heat generation rate, core fluid temperature rise (?T), and system pressure characteristic of the normal operating conditions of a commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR). The thermal behavior of the core in both experiments was dominated by a self-induced cooling mechanism which occurred soon after experiment initiation. The dominance of this phenomena versus current licensing calculation restrictions raises the question of the prototypicality of the LOFT results. The ensuing discussion summarizes both an analysis of the most significant experimental results and a prototypic study of the LOFT results relative to ZION, a commercial PWR. ZION is similar to TROJAN, the commercial PWR to which LOFT was scaled

  13. Second-language learning and changes in the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Osterhout, Lee; Poliakov, Andrew; Inoue, Kayo; Mclaughlin, Judith; Valentine, Geoffrey; Pitkanen, Ilona; Frenck-mestre, Cheryl; Hirschensohn, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Presumably, second-language (L2) learning is mediated by changes in the brain. Little is known about what changes in the brain, how the brain changes, or when these changes occur during learning. Here, we illustrate by way of example how modern brain-based methods can be used to discern some of the changes that occur during L2 learning. Preliminary results from three studies indicate that classroom based L2 instruction can result in changes in the brain's electrical activity, in the location ...

  14. Semantic and Structural Elaboration in L2 Lexical Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcroft, Joe

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of semantic and structural elaboration on second language lexical acquisition. English-speaking low-intermediate Spanish learners attempted to learn 24 new Spanish words in three conditions. Results provide evidence that increased semantic processing can inhibit the ability to encode the formal properties of new words.…

  15. Going Blended: New Challenges for Second Generation L2 Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Elke; Tea, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second generation tutors within blended learning courses link the face-to-face and online course modalities--in their representations as well as through their pedagogical activities--and which aspects help them to feel involved in the course. The methodology used is a qualitative analysis of interviews with seven tutors of…

  16. Task Design for L2 Oral Practice in Audioblogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Christine; Borges, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The development of oral skills poses a challenge in language teaching whether this takes place face-to-face, through distance education or in blended learning contexts. Two main problems arise: first of all students don't have enough opportunity to use their target language orally, and secondly, students oral performance is mostly unrecorded and…

  17. Working memory capacity across L2 speech proficiency levels / Capacidade de memória de trabalho através de níveis de proficiência oral em L2

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gicele Vergine Vieira, Prebianca; Kyria Rebeca, Finardi; Janaina, Weissheimer.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investiga se a capacidade de memória de trabalho (CMT) varia entre idiomas e níveis de proficiência na fala em L2. Seguindo sugestões em Finardi e Weissheimer (2009) e Prebianca (2010) que demonstraram que a CMT varia em função do nível de proficiência da fala em L2, o presente trabalho [...] analisou três níveis de proficiência (elementar, intermediário e avançado) e dois idiomas (L1-português e L2-inglês). Dois testes de MT foram usados, um em L1 e outro em L2, ambos na modalidade oral. Sessenta estudantes adultos de inglês como língua estrangeira participaram no estudo: 19 elementares, 19 intermediários e 22 avançados. Resultados dos testes Kruskal-Wallis e Mann-Whitney corroboraram Finardi e Weissheimer (2009) e Prebianca (2010) sugerindo que a CMT medida com um teste de amplitude da fala em L2 parece confundir a relação entre níveis de proficiência oral e CMT. Abstract in english This study investigates whether working memory capacity (WMC) varies across languages and in the course of L2 speech proficiency levels. Following suggestions in Finardi and Weissheimer (2009) and Prebianca (2010), who found that WMC varied as a function of L2 speech proficiency, the present study a [...] ssessed three proficiency levels (elementary, intermediate and advanced) and two languages (L1-Portuguese and L2-English). Two WM tests were used, one in the L1 and another in the L2, both in the speaking mode. Sixty adult learners of English as a foreign language participated in the study: 19 elementary, 19 intermediate and 22 advanced learners. Results of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests corroborate Finardi and Weissheimer (2009) and Prebianca (2010) suggesting that WMC measured with a speaking span test in L2 seems to conflate the relationship between speech proficiency levels and WMC.

  18. A Czech Morphological Lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Skoumalova, Hana

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a treatment of Czech phonological rules in two-level morphology approach is described. First the possible phonological alternations in Czech are listed and then their treatment in a practical application of a Czech morphological lexicon.

  19. Long term morphological modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf; Taaning, Martin; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Drønen, Nils; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a ne...

  20. Second Language Developmental Dynamics: How Dynamic Systems Theory Accounts for Issues in Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmawati

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic systems theory (DST) is presented in this article as a suitable approach to research the acquisition of second language (L2) because of its close alignment with the process of second language learning. Through a process of identifying and comparing the characteristics of a dynamic system with the process of L2 learning, this article…

  1. Web 2.0 and Second Language Learning: What Does the Research Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenggao; Vasquez, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews current research on the use of Web 2.0 technologies in second language (L2) learning. Its purpose is to investigate the theoretical perspectives framing it, to identify some of the benefits of using Web 2.0 technologies in L2 learning, and to discuss some of the limitations. The review reveals that blogs and wikis have been…

  2. Learning a Second Language Naturally the Voice Movement Icon Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Macedonia

    2013-01-01

    Second language (L2) instruction greatly differs from natural input during native language (L1) acquisition.Whereas a child collects sensorimotor experience while learning novel words, L2 employs primarily reading,writing and listening and comprehension. We describe an alternative proposal that integrates the body into thelearning process: the Voice Movement Icon (VMI) approach. A VMI consists of a word that is read and spokenin L2 and synchronously paired with an action or a gesture. A VMI i...

  3. Mandatory Second Language Learning in Post-Secondary Education: The Role of the Ideal Self and Imagery in Motivation and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sherry J.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of language learning in post-secondary higher education is compulsory. Many students in compulsory L2 courses demonstrate lower than average levels of achievement and persistence. Because L2 learning is an important component of a post-secondary education in modern society, improving the motivation to learn languages can improve both…

  4. Lexical vs. Syntactic Competence in L2 English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Pietilä

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between lexical and syntactic competences of fairly advanced learners of English. The data consisted of written tasks where the subjects were asked to translate a text written in their L1 Finnish into their L2 English. The subjects were participants in an entrance examination, seeking admittance to study English Philology at the university. The results confirmed the findings of an earlier study (Pietilä, 2009, where the best candidates were found to manifest almost faultless syntax but produced a considerable number of lexical errors. In the present study, the performance of the 50 most successful candidates in the translation task was further compared with the performance of those 50 candidates who got the lowest grades in this task. The least proficient applicants also produced more lexical than syntactic errors, but the difference was smaller than in the case of the top candidates. In other words, the least proficient candidates had considerable problems with some syntactic features as well. The results seem to imply that lexical and syntactic competence do not develop in parallel. What is more, advanced learners tend to lack precision in their vocabulary.

  5. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2 was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of other infective agents. For these reasons, glycosidases are likely to provide important information regarding the general behaviour of this bacterium. Ten different glycosides bound to p-nitrophenol (pNP substrate were tested. Assays were performed on lysed and unlysed chlamydial extracts.Our results provided strong evidence for the existence of glycosidase activity in C.trachomatis, strain SA2F peaking at pH 5.0 and pH 7.5-8.0 There was a high enzymatic activity against p-NPa mannopyranoside and p-NP b-N acetylglucosamine with a recovery of 88% suggesting that the enzymes were present on the bacterial surface. Activity against these sugars, which form part of either the extracellular filler or in endoplasmic reticulum may suggest of a possible mechanism of cellular invasion.

  6. Recent results of ECRH experiments on L-2M stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reported from experimental study of ECH heated plasma in the L-2M stellarator with special emphasis on studying the turbulent processes. It is shown that the total plasma energy at fixed total heating power is strongly dependent on the plasma position. Visible degradation of plasma confinement is observed for the inward shifted magnetic configurations where the stability conditions of ideal interchange MHD modes are violated. However, even in this case the situation can be improved by decreasing the average radius of the plasma boundary with the help of graphite limiter resulting in the increase of the Shafranov shift of magnetic surfaces and deepening of the magnetic well due to the effect of self-stabilization. This in turn causes stabilization of ideal MHD interchange modes and visible increase in plasma energy and volume average value of beta. Statistical properties of turbulence was studied both for the central part of the plasma column and for the plasma edge. It is shown that one of the critical factors determining the coherent structures and turbulent fluxes in the edge plasma is the radial electric field. (author)

  7. The Use of Newspapers for L2 Reading: Practical Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Luque-Agulló

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the acquisition of literacy skills in the foreign language is a highly demanding task cognitively speaking. To improve this learning process, this paper presents a three-fold approach using print and virtual newspapers: first, a brief theoretical revision of the issues involved in learning how to read in a foreign language or transfer L1 reading skills to the foreign language, second, a wide selection of activities to be used when working with newspapers, and third, two sessions that exploit newspapers in the classroom which can constitute part of a wider lesson plan for Students preparing the English test for the University Entrance Exam (2nd of Bachillerato in the Spanish Educative System.

  8. Gene dosage alteration of L2 ribosomal protein genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effects on ribosome synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucioli, A; Presutti, C; Ciafrè, S; Caffarelli, E; Fragapane, P; Bozzoni, I

    1988-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the genes coding for the ribosomal protein L2 are present in two copies per haploid genome. The two copies, which encode proteins differing in only a few amino acids, contribute unequally to the L2 mRNA pool: the L2A copy makes 72% of the mRNA, while the L2B copy makes only 28%. Disruption of the L2B gene (delta B strain) did not lead to any phenotypic alteration, whereas the inactivation of the L2A copy (delta A strain) produced a slow-growth phenotype associated with decreased accumulation of 60S subunits and ribosomes. No intergenic compensation occurred at the transcriptional level in the disrupted strains; in fact, delta A strains contained reduced levels of L2 mRNA, whereas delta B strains had almost normal levels. The wild-type phenotype was restored in the delta A strains by transformation with extra copies of the intact L2A or L2B gene. As already shown for other duplicated genes (Kim and Warner, J. Mol. Biol. 165:79-89, 1983; Leeret al., Curr. Genet. 9:273-277, 1985), the difference in expression of the two gene copies could be accounted for via differential transcription activity. Sequence comparison of the rpL2 promoter regions has shown the presence of canonical HOMOL1 boxes which are slightly different in the two genes. Images PMID:3062369

  9. Working Memory Capacity, Inhibitory Control and the Role of L2 Proficiency in Aging L1 Dutch Speakers of Near-Native L2 English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merel Keijzer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the intricate relationship between working memory (WM capacity and inhibitory control as a function of both L2 proficiency and age. In both its design and research questions, this study closely follows Gass & Lee’s work, where both L1 and L2 Reading Span Tasks (as measures of WM capacity and L1 and L2 Stroop interference tasks (to measure inhibitory control were administered. In this study, the test battery is augmented by both an L1 and L2 C-test of overall language proficiency. Participants were 63 L1 Dutch speakers of L2 English, who had been immersed in an L2 environment for a considerable amount of time. Their data were set off against those of 54 monolingual Dutch speakers and 56 monolingual English speakers. At the time of testing, all the bilingual participants had a near-native command of English and their L1 and L2 WM scores were not found to be significantly different. However, discrepancies did occur in Stroop test scores of inhibition, where the bilinguals performed better in their L2 English than L1 Dutch. These main effects often contradicted the results found in Gass & Lee’s study, who examined less proficient L2 learners. An aging effect was furthermore found: older subjects consistently performed more poorly on WM and inhibition tasks than their younger peers. These results can shed light on how individual factors like WM capacity and inhibitory control interact in successful late bilinguals and how these dynamics shift with advanced age.

  10. Ajustes Conversacionales para el Aprendizaje de Contenidos en L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta de Dios

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende describir las interacciones conversacionales entre el alumnado en las aulas AICLE. Nos preguntamos si hay un vínculo entre las características de las interacciones y el aprendizaje de contenidos no lingüísticos y, si es así, qué tipo de ajustes fomentan dicho aprendizaje. Las aulas AICLE son los entornos ideales para estudiar el vínculo entre ajustes conversacionales y aprendizaje de contenidos porque, al no ser en la lengua materna del alumnado, se dan más ajustes conversacionales que en las clases en lengua materna.---------------------------------------------This article pursues to describe conversational adjustments among students in CLIL classes. We wonder if there is a link between the characteristics of the interactions and the learning of non-linguistic contents and, if there is, what kind of adjustments promote such learning. CLIL classes are the ideal environments to study the link between conversational adjustments and the learning of contents because, since they are not in the students’ mother tongue, conversational adjustments occur more frequently than in classes in mother tongue.

  11. Error Analysis: Sources of L2 Learners’ Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooneh Heydari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Many scholars in the field of EA have stressed the significance of second language learners' errors. Corder (1967, for instance, in his influential article, remarks that "they are significant in three different ways. First, to the teacher, in that they show how far towards the goal the learner has progressed. Second, they provide to the researcher evidence of how a language is acquired, what strategies the learner is employing in his learning of a language. Thirdly, they are indisputable to the learner himself because we can regard the making of errors as a device the learner uses in order to learn" (p. 161. The present paper mostly illustrates fundamental background studies done in the field of Error Analysis. There is the hope that the paper helps EFL teachers and educators to become familiar with the most frequent errors committed by EFL learners leading them to make more objective decisions about how to go about adopting appropriate teaching strategies to help EFL students learn better.

  12. Making Sense of Phrasal Verbs: A Cognitive Linguistic Account of L2 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Rafael Alejo

    2010-01-01

    Phrasal verbs (PVs) have recently been the object of interest by linguists given their status as phraseological units whose meaning is non-compositional and opaque. They constitute a perfect case for theories of language processing and language acquisition to be tested. Cognitive linguists have participated in this debate and shown a certain…

  13. L2 Students’ Comments on Language Exchange Communities in Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Cem Balç?kanl?

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: EFL learners are rarely given opportunities to interact with native speakers and “…to do something with a language”. In Turkish settings, language learners mostly complain that they do not have enough opportunities to interact with native speakers, and class hours are too limited to acquire a language and more importantly they are not taught expressions that help them express themselves in daily contexts.Purpose of Study: This study aimed at investigating EFL (English...

  14. Computer-Mediated Corrective Feedback and the Development of L2 Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Sauro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study that investigated the impact of two types of computer-mediated corrective feedback on the development of adult learners’ L2 knowledge: (1 corrective feedback that reformulates the error in the form of recasts, and (2 corrective feedback that supplies the learner with metalinguistic information about the nature of the error. High intermediate and advanced adult learners of English (n=23 from an intact class at a Swedish university were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (two feedback conditions and one control and were randomly paired with English native speakers. During task-based interaction via text-chat, the learners received focused corrective feedback on omission of the zero article with abstract noncount nouns (e.g., employment, global warming, culture. Computer-delivered pretests, posttests and delayed posttests of knowledge (acceptability judgments measured learning outcomes. Results showed no significant advantage for either feedback type on immediate or sustained gains in target form knowledge, although the metalinguistic group showed significant immediate gains relative to the control condition.

  15. Peer Review Comments Provided by High- and Low-Proficiency L2 Learners: A Comparative Study

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    Hui-Chuan Liao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the variations in peer review comments provided by L2 writers of high and low proficiencies. Two sampling procedures were used. First, convenience sampling was used to locate a college essay composition course as the setting of the study. Second, purposeful sampling was used to identify high- and low-performing writers as the subjects, from whom the peer review comments were collected and analyzed. An instruction-learning cycle on argumentative essay writing was conducted for 4 weeks. Each student was subsequently provided with the same sample argumentative essay and a peer review form to conduct the review. The rubrics on the review form included introduction, support for position, sequence, refutation, conclusion, voice, and grammar and spelling. Content analysis was conducted to compare the manner in which the comments varied among students of different writing proficiency levels. The results indicate that, although identifying problems was the dominant comment type of both high- and low-performing writers, high-performing writers tended to provide more details when explaining the identified problems and offering suggestions for revisions. The findings are discussed regarding the implications to peer review training.

  16. Understanding the role of culture during teaching and learning through English second language at a university of technology / Dorothea Susanna Vosloo

    OpenAIRE

    Vosloo, Dorothea Susanna

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding the role of culture during teaching and learning through English L2 at the University of Technology; determine the fundamental nature of culture; gain a better understanding of the role of cultural factors that influence L2 teaching and learning of the 1st year students; and propose possible solutions to deal with problems caused by the influence of culture on teaching and learning through English L2. South Africa is a multicultural and multilingual country...

  17. A study on iterative learning control for impulsive differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengda; Wang, JinRong; Wei, Wei

    2015-07-01

    In order to tracking the desired discontinuous output trajectory, we explore P-type iterative learning control law with initial state learning for impulsive differential equations. The sufficient conditions of open-loop and closed-loop iterative learning schemes in the sense of L2 -norm are established. Finally, an example is given to illustrate our theoretical results.

  18. Unveiling the Mystery: Investigating L2 Reading Motivation in an EFL Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Sirin, Petek; Ga?¶kta?¼rk Saglam, Asli Lidice

    2012-01-01

    Research in L2 reading motivation has gained impetus and provided many insights into understanding the components of motivation and factors that affect L2 learners in terms of reading motivation. Although many studies can be found on L1 reading motivation, studies on L2 reading motivation seem to be relatively meager. Since action research encompasses a sequence of events and an approach to problem solving, the present study addressed to examine whether; (1) this sample of Turkish University ...

  19. The Influence of Schema and Cultural Difference on L1 and L2 Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Shi-sheng Yang

    2010-01-01

    Reading in L1 shares numerous basic elements with reading in L2, and the processes also differ greatly. Intriguing questions involve whether there are two parallel cognitive processes at work, or whether there are processing strategies that accommodate both L1 and L2. This paper examines how reading in L1 is different from and similar to reading in L2. More specifically, factors of cultural difference and schema will also be examined.

  20. Pure Hodge structure on the $L_2$-cohomology of varieties with isolated singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Pardon, William; Stern, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Let $V$ be a complex projective variety with isolated singularities. Let the smooth part be given the metric induced by a projective imbedding. Then we develop the $L_2$ harmonic theory and construct a pure Hodge structure on the $L_2$-cohomology of $V$. If the dimension of $V$ is two, we put a cohomological Hodge structure on its complex of sheaves of $L_2$ forms.

  1. L 2 Stability Estimates for Shock Solutions of Scalar Conservation Laws Using the Relative Entropy Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Nicholas

    2011-03-01

    We consider scalar nonviscous conservation laws with strictly convex flux in one spatial dimension, and we investigate the behavior of bounded L 2 perturbations of shock wave solutions to the Riemann problem using the relative entropy method. We show that up to a time-dependent translation of the shock, the L 2 norm of a perturbed solution relative to the shock wave is bounded above by the L 2 norm of the initial perturbation.

  2. L^2 stability estimates for shock solutions of scalar conservation laws using the relative entropy method

    OpenAIRE

    Leger, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We consider scalar nonviscous conservation laws with strictly convex flux in one spatial dimension, and we investigate the behavior of bounded L^2 perturbations of shock wave solutions to the Riemann problem using the relative entropy method. We show that up to a time-dependent translation of the shock, the L^2 norm of a perturbed solution relative to the shock wave is bounded above by the L^2 norm of the initial perturbation.

  3. The Effect of Lengthened Writing Approach on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Liu

    2009-01-01

    Based on empirical research and qualitative analysis, this paper aims to explore the effects of Lengthened Writing Approach on L2 vocabulary acquisition. The results show that, during L2 vocabulary teaching process, the proper application of Lengthened Writing Approach can effectively facilitate the memorization of new words, and this teaching approach is welcomed by most subjects. This study highlights the role of Lengthened Writing Approach in L2 vocabulary acquisition, and sheds light on t...

  4. Papillomavirus pseudovirions packaged with the L2 gene induce cross-neutralizing antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte-Forero Diego F

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current vaccines against HPVs are constituted of L1 protein self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs and they have been shown to protect against natural HPV16 and HPV18 infections and associated lesions. In addition, limited cross-protection has been observed against closely related types. Immunization with L2 protein in animal models has been shown to provide cross-protection against distant papillomavirus types, suggesting that the L2 protein contains cross-neutralizing epitopes. However, vaccination with L2 protein or L2 peptides does not induce high titers of anti-L2 antibodies. In order to develop a vaccine with the potential to protect against other high-risk HPV types, we have produced HPV58 pseudovirions encoding the HPV31 L2 protein and compared their capacity to induce cross-neutralizing antibodies with that of HPV L1 and HPV L1/L2 VLPs. Methods The titers of neutralizing antibodies against HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and HPV58 induced in Balb/c mice were compared after immunization with L2-containing vaccines. Results Low titers of cross-neutralizing antibodies were detected in mice when immunized with L1/L2 VLPs, and the highest levels of cross-neutralizing antibodies were observed in mice immunized with HPV 58 L1/L2 pseudovirions encoding the HPV 31 L2 protein. Conclusions The results obtained indicate that high levels of cross-neutralizing antibodies are only observed after immunization with pseudovirions encoding the L2 protein. HPV pseudovirions thus represent a possible new strategy for the generation of a broad-spectrum vaccine to protect against high-risk HPVs and associated neoplasia.

  5. Deep Learning by Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Mallat, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    We introduce general scattering transforms as mathematical models of deep neural networks with l2 pooling. Scattering networks iteratively apply complex valued unitary operators, and the pooling is performed by a complex modulus. An expected scattering defines a contractive representation of a high-dimensional probability distribution, which preserves its mean-square norm. We show that unsupervised learning can be casted as an optimization of the space contraction to preserv...

  6. A Study of Relationships between L1 Pragmatic Transfer and L2 Proficiency

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    Jiemin Bu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies in interlanguage pragmatics have shown that L2 learners’ proficiency has an influence on the occurrences of L1 pragmatic transfer. However, questions remain whether the relationship between L1 pragmatic transfer and L2 proficiency is positive or negative. This paper is designed to study L1 pragmatic transfer in requests made by Chinese learners of English at low L2 proficiency level and at high L2 proficiency level and how L1 pragmatic transfer is related to their L2 proficiency. Ten low proficiency learners of English, ten high proficiency learners of English?ten native speakers of English and ten native speakers of Chinese participate in this study. Requests are collected by means of a discourse completion test questionnaire and are analysed in terms of requestive semantic formulas based on the taxonomy of request strategies, internal modifiers and external modifiers. The research results reveal that L1 pragmatic transfer decreases with the increase of L2 proficiency such as learners’ use of direct strategies, lexical and phrasal downgraders, imperatives and grounder and no clear relationship is found between L1 pragmatic transfer and L2 proficiency in terms of the other request strategies, internal modifiers and external modifiers. These results provide partial support to negative correlation hypothesis —high proficiency L2 learners are less likely to transfer their native language pragmatic norms since they have enough control over L2.

  7. Input of Chunks and Its Effects on L2 Learners’ Listening Competency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Tang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study tires to explore the effectiveness of acquisition of chunks to improve L2 learners’ listening competency. An empirical study is designed and conducted on the basis of theory of chunks and information processing mode. Analysis of the experimental data shows that acquisition of chunks can effectively help L2 learners to improve their listening competency. Result of the experiment reveals that the number of chunks closely correlates with L2 learners’ listening scores, because chunks can boost L2 learners’ efficiency of processing language information and predicate information while listening.

  8. L^2 Castelnuovo-de Franchis, the cup product lemma, and filtered ends of Kaehler manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, Terrence Napier Mohan

    2007-01-01

    Simple approaches to the proofs of the L^2 Castelnuovo-de Franchis theorem and the cup product lemma which give new versions are developed. For example, suppose u and v are two linearly independent closed holomorphic 1-forms on a bounded geometry connected complete Kaehler manifold X with v in L^2. According to a version of the L^2 Castelnuovo-de Franchis theorem obtained in this paper, if u and v are pointwise linearly dependent, then there exists a surjective proper holomorphic mapping of X onto a Riemann surface for which u and v are pull-backs. Previous versions required both forms to be in L^2.

  9. Didattica multicanale integrata: il fumetto parlante. Un’esperienza di scrittura creativa collaborativa in un corso di italiano L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Santalucia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo, nella premessa, parte da riferimenti a S. Papert e al costruzionismo, per focalizzarsi poi su alcuni aspetti dell’ultimo lavoro di A.Pian che, con l’ elaborazione del concetto di didattica multicanale integrata, indica una prospettiva ulteriore per l’integrazione di strumenti tecnologici nei processi di insegnamento/apprendimento.Nella fase seguente questo lavoro illustra un esperimento di scrittura creativa collaborativa in un corso di Italiano L2 blended, effettuato attraverso un sistema wiki e la successiva elaborazione integrata di testo, immagini e narrazione orale in un “fumetto parlante”. Uno degli obiettivi fondamentali del progetto è stato quello di valutare se, e in quale modo, il percorso effettuato in un ambiente online potesse favorire lo sviluppo della competenza comunicativa da parte dei corsisti, insieme a quello di analizzare i codici linguistici attivati nell’interazione. Non ultimo, l’obiettivo di verificare la possibilità che i corsisti potessero sperimentare un percorso per la creazione di un oggetto didattico che possa dare anche “piacere estetico” nella fruizione.  Integrated multi-channel teaching: the cartoon speaker.An experience in collaborative creative writing in an Italian L2 course The article begins with references to S. Papert and constructionism, then focuses on certain aspects of the work of A. Pian, who elaborated the concept of integrated multi-channel learning, indicating a further perspective for the integration of technological tools in the teaching/learning process. An experiment in a blended Italian L2 collaborative creative writing course was carried out using a wiki system and the subsequent processing of the integrated text, images and storytelling into a “speech bubble”. A key objective of the project was to assess whether, and in what way, an online environment could favor the development of communicative competence on the part of the students, along with the analysis of the linguistic codes activated in the interaction. Last but not least, there was the objective to verify the possibility that the participants could create a learning object that would also give “aesthetic pleasure” when used.

  10. AUTOBIOGRAFIE LINGUISTICHE CON UNA CLASSE DI ITALIANO L2 DI SINOFONI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Corti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Convinta dell’utilità didattica del racconto autobiografico nel processo di apprendimento/insegnamento dell’italiano da parte di studenti stranieri, presento un’unità didattica di approccio alle autobiografie linguistiche, progettata per giovani apprendenti sinofoni, con una competenza dell’italiano oscillante tra i livelli A2 e B1, giunti in Italia per compiere gli studi universitari.Il percorso didattico ha come punto d’arrivo la stesura da parte di degli studenti della propria autobiografia linguistica; è organizzato in fasi e prevede attività che coinvolgono la ricezione orale e scritta, la produzione orale e scritta e l’interazione.L’unità didattica si propone di far conoscere il genere dell’autobiografia e in particolare di quella in cui chi scrive racconta la propria esperienza con le lingue; di stimolare gli studenti a riflettere su se stessi, sulle loro abitudini linguistiche, sulle esperienze pregresse di studio delle lingue e di contatto con le culture di cui le lingue sono veicolo; di incoraggiare gli allievi a parlare di sé.Si prevede, inoltre, nel corso delle attività proposte, l’introduzione di alcune nozioni di linguistica, come, ad esempio, le nozioni di lingua madre, competenza e varietà linguistica.LINGUISTIC AUTOBIOGRAPHIES: AN EXPERIENCE WITH CHINESE-SPEAKING ITALIAN L2 LEARNERSI am convinced of the utility of autobiography in the Italian L2 teaching/learning process with foreign students, and I present a teaching unit centered on linguistic autobiography, designed for young Chinese-speaking learners with A2-B1 competence in Italian, who are studying at Italian universities.The process culminates in the students’ written linguistic autobiography, organized in phases and involving oral and written activities including reception, production and interaction.The unit aims at making the students familiar with the genre of autobiography, focusing on personal experience with languages, in order to stimulate the students to reflect on themselves, their linguistic habits, their former experiences studying languages and contact with cultures where language is the vehicle, as well as encouraging the students to talk about themselves.A few linguistic notions are also introduced, including the idea of mother tongue, competence and linguistic variety.

  11. On Nonlocal Mathematical Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco-Forero, Santiago; Angulo, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, nonlocal mathematical morphology operators are introduced as a natural extension of nonlocal-means in the max-plus algebra. Firstly, we show that nonlocal morphology is a particular case of adaptive morphology. Secondly, we present the necessary properties to have algebraic properties on the associated pair of transformations. Finally, we recommend a sparse version to introduce an efficient algorithm that computes these operators in reasonable computational time.

  12. Morphology of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wadadekar, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    The study of the morphology of galaxies is important in order to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies and their sub-components as a function of luminosity, environment, and star-formation and galaxy assembly over cosmic time. Disentangling the many variables that affect galaxy evolution and morphology, requires large galaxy samples and automated ways to measure morphology. The advent of large digital sky surveys, with unprecedented depth and resolution, coupled with sophisticated quantitative methods for morphology measurement are providing new insights in this fast evolving field of astronomical research.

  13. Non-academic L2 Users: A Neglected Research Pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebinezhad, Mohammad Reza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available English Language Teaching (ELT articles are published and their results are relied on without delving into their methodological credibility. A research study cannot be considered valid unless its population is precisely determined and defined. This article shows the considerable size of non-academic English learners in Iran and argues that the population in ELT research should not be limited only to university and school students who are easily accessible but it should also include the sizeable non-academic sector. To do this, 170 PhD dissertations and MA theses in TEFL were randomly selected. The result showed that only less than 9% of the participants belonged to non-academic sector. The article also argues that there is wrong overgeneralization of even the existing ELT academic researches to non-academic situation. Finally it compares academic and non-academic English learners to show how the latter are highly motivated to learn.

  14. The Impact of an Online Learning Community Project on University Chinese as a Foreign Language Students' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengrong; Zhu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of an online learning community project on university students' motivation in learning Chinese as a foreign language. A newly proposed second language (L2) motivation theory--the L2 motivational self system (Dornyei, 2005, 2009)--guided this study. A concurrent transformative mixed-methods design was employed to…

  15. The Roles of First Language and Proficiency in L2 Processing of Spanish Clitics: Global Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert Hanson, Aroline E.; Carlson, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the roles of first language (L1) and second language (L2) proficiency in the processing of preverbal clitics in L2 Spanish by considering the predictions of four processing theories--the Input Processing Theory, the Unified Competition Model, the Amalgamation Model, and the Associative-Cognitive CREED. We compared the performance of L1…

  16. Ray traces and profile of energy absorption during ECR heating in the L-2 stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of calculation of Electron-cyclotron absorption of electromagnetic waves in the plasma of the L-2 stellarator are presented. Numerical simulation permits to explain qualitative features of experiments carried out in the L-2 stellarator within the framework of single-trace absorption of the quasioptical beam of nonusual polarization waves

  17. Factors Affecting the Processing of Japanese Relative Clauses by L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Kazue

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a crosslinguistic comparative study of the processing of Japanese relative clauses (RCs) by Chinese-, Sinhalese-, Vietnamese-, Thai-, and Indonesian-speaking second language (L2) learners. A robust finding in studies on the acquisition of RCs in L2 English and other European languages is that subject-gap RCs are easier than…

  18. The Impact of Relational Markers on Expository Text Comprehension in L1 and L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degand, Liesbeth; Sanders, Ted

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the impact of causal discourse markers (connectives and signaling phrases) on the comprehension of expository texts in a first language (L1) and a second language (L2). Indicates that readers benefit from the presence of causal relational markers both in L1 and in L2. Discusses implications for (theories of) text processing as well as…

  19. L1 Use during L2 Writing: An Empirical Study of a Complex Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weijen, Daphne; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

    2009-01-01

    This study examined writers' use of their first language (L1) while writing in their second language (L2). Twenty students each wrote four short argumentative essays in their L1 (Dutch) and four in their L2 (English) under think-aloud conditions. We analysed whether L1 use varied between writers and tasks, and whether it was related to general…

  20. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

  1. Thinking with Your Hands: Speech-Gesture Activity during an L2 Awareness-Raising Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Compernolle, Remi A.; Williams, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study of second language (L2) French learners' self-generated use of gesture to think through and resolve a metalinguistic awareness-raising task during small-group work with an expert mediator. Although the use of gesture in L2 communication and pedagogy has recently received increasing attention, little research has…

  2. L2 dimensions of spaces of braid-invariant harmonic forms

    OpenAIRE

    Daletskii, Alexei; Kalyuzhnyi, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Let X be a Riemannian manifold endowed with a co-compact isometric action of an infinite discrete group. We consider L2 spaces of harmonic vector-valued forms on the product manifold X^N, which are invariant with respect to an action of the braid group B_N, and compute their von Neumann dimensions (the braided L2- Betti numbers)

  3. Handling Discourse: Gestures, Reference Tracking, and Communication Strategies in Early L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    The production of cohesive discourse, especially maintained reference, poses problems for early second language L2 speakers. This paper considers a communicative account of overexplicit L2 discourse by focusing on the interdependence between spoken and gestural cohesion, the latter being expressed by anchoring of referents in gesture space.…

  4. The Potential Influence of L1 (Chinese) on L2 (English) Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Shih

    2010-01-01

    A major issue in the field of L2 acquisition is the role that language learners' L1 plays in the acquisition of an L2. This article shows some of the salient linguistic features of Chinese that may present communication challenges for Chinese-speaking learners of English as an additional language. Instructors' awareness of such features will…

  5. German Pitches in English: Production and Perception of Cross-Varietal Differences in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of cross-varietal prosodic characteristics of two German varieties, Northern Standard German (NG) and Swiss German (SG), on the production and perception of foreign accent in L2 Belfast English. The analysis of production data revealed differences in the realisation of nuclear pitch accents in L1 German and L2

  6. The Status of the Auxiliary "Do" in L1 and L2 English Negative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Susana

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of whether negative sentences containing auxiliary "do" in L1 and L2 English share the same underlying syntactic representation. To this end, I compare the negative sentences produced by 77 bilingual (Spanish/Basque) L2 learners of English with the corresponding data available for L1 acquirers reported on in Schutze…

  7. Supplement to quick look report (QLR) L2-3, Kau-162-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pretest calculations of LOFT nuclear Loss-of-Coolant Experiment (LOCE) L2-3 are summarized. LOCE L2-3 was designated United States Standard Problem 10 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and pretest calculations were performed by several official participants and other groups. The organizations making calculations, the computer codes used, and a brief summary of results are included

  8. Native Speakers' Perceptions of Fluency and Accent in L2 Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinget, Anne-France; Bosker, Hans Rutger; Quené, Hugo; de Jong, Nivja H.

    2014-01-01

    Oral fluency and foreign accent distinguish L2 from L1 speech production. In language testing practices, both fluency and accent are usually assessed by raters. This study investigates what exactly native raters of fluency and accent take into account when judging L2. Our aim is to explore the relationship between objectively measured temporal,…

  9. Processing Strategies and the Comprehension of Sentence-Level Input by L2 Learners of German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carrie N.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how L2 learners of German (English L1) process structural and semantic information when reading German sentences. In a timed comprehension task, intermediate and advanced L2 learners of German read sentences that varied according to word order (subject-first versus object-first) and subject animacy (inanimate subject versus…

  10. Toward a Tripartite Model of L2 Reading Strategy Use, Motivations, and Learner Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Hiromori, Tomohito; Nakayama, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The present study proposes a tripartite model of L2 reading strategy use, reading motivations, and general learner beliefs by examining the relationships among them in an L2 context. Reading strategy instruction was performed for 360 first-year university students enrolled in a reading-based course, in expectation of affecting their motivations…

  11. Simulation-Based L2 Writing Instruction: Enhancement through Genre Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, An

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have highlighted various benefits of the simulation-based approach to second language (L2) writing instruction. In this article, the author argues, with specific pedagogical scenarios, that an explicit focus on genre and genre analysis in simulation-based L2 writing instruction can further enhance learners' reading of content…

  12. Becoming 'American-Italian": An Immigrant's Narrative of Acquiring English as an L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amicucci, Ann N.

    2012-01-01

    This article tells the story of a child immigrant's L2 acquisition process. The narrative demonstrates the effects of social and academic factors on motivation to acquire an L2 and the result of immigration at a young age on cultural identity formation. The article begins by discussing the need for research into sociocultural factors in the second…

  13. False Cognates: The Effect of Mismatch in Morphological Complexity on a Backward Lexical Translation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Vikki; Kolokonte, Marina

    2015-01-01

    In this article we focus on "false cognates", lexical items that have overlapping orthographic/phonological properties but little or no semantic overlap. False-cognate pairs were created from French (second language or L2) and English (first language or L1) items by manipulating the levels of morphological correspondence between them.…

  14. Morphological Awareness, Phonological Awareness, and Reading in English-Arabic Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiegh-Haddad, E.; Geva, Esther

    2008-01-01

    The paper reported an exploratory study that tested (a) the relationship between phonological and morphological awareness in English (L1)-Arabic (L2) bilingual children in Canada (N = 43), and (b) the relevance of these skills to word and pseudoword reading accuracy, and to complex word reading fluency. The results showed a significant correlation…

  15. Teaching Writing Skills Based on a Genre Approach to L2 Primary School Students: An Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyejeong Ahn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on research findings, examines the effect of implementing a genre approach to develop writing competency of Year 5 and 6 L2 primary school students. Using action research, the genre approach was implemented over a 10-week term with two lessons per week in a culturally and linguistically diverse ESL class in a South Australian public metropolitan primary school. Two specific genres, Report and Essay writing, were taught using a three-staged teaching and learning cycle (TLC, based on Vygotsky’s notion of scaffolding. Assessment was conducted by comparing students’ writing samples, before and after the teaching intervention. The results indicated that the teacher’s active scaffolding processes at the early stage of the cycle benefited students by making them aware of the different ways texts are organised for different communicative purposes. In addition, students’ confidence level increased and the approach encouraged a positive attitude towards writing.

  16. A comparative assessment of the L1 and L2 reading performance of Grade 7 learners in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintswalo V Manyike

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of English and the indigenous languages in South African schooling is highly contested. Research endorses the mother tongue (L1 as the most appropriate language of learning and teaching (LoLT and the basis for the addition of a second language (L2. However, in South Africa English is the preferred LoLT and English proficiency is integral to academic achievement. This article reports on an investigation of Grade 7 Xitsonga-speaking learners’ reading performance in English and in Xitsonga. Based on a study of the literature on the link between language proficiency and academic success, an empirical inquiry assessed the reading performance of grade 7 Xitsonga-speaking learners using a standardised test in English and in Xitsonga. Learners’ reading performance in both Xitsonga, their L1, and English, their LoLT since grade 4, was poor.

  17. General perversities and L^2 de Rham and Hodge theorems for stratified pseudomanifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Bei, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Given a compact stratified pseudomanifold with a Thom-Mather stratification and a class of riemannian metrics over its regular part, we study the relationships between the $L^{2}$ de Rham and Hodge cohomology and the intersection cohomology of $X$ associated to some perversities. More precisely, to a kind of metric which we call \\emph{quasi edge with weights}, we associate two general perversities in the sense of G. Friedman, $p_{g}$ and its dual $q_{g}$. We then show that the absolute $L^{2}$ Hodge cohomology is isomorphic to the maximal $L^{2}$ de Rham cohomology and this is in turn isomorphic to the intersection cohomology associated to the perversity $q_{g}$. Moreover we prove that the relative $L^{2}$ Hodge cohomology is isomorphic to the minimal $L^{2}$ de Rham cohomology and this is in turn isomorphic to the intersection cohomology associated to the perversity $p_{g}$.

  18. L2 and L3 integrated learning – lingua franca use in learning an additional language in the classroom.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer; Wagner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This study offers an empirical account of the use of English in Danish-as-a-foreign-language classroom settings. We will refer to English as the lingua franca - which in itself is a second language for the majority of the participants in the data - and to Danish as the target language. We consider implications of lingua franca interaction in target language classroom interactions, and show how in sequences where participants orient to linguistic issues in the target language, for example grammatical forms or lexical items, they often do this with reference to the lingua franca.

  19. Beneficiated coals' char morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira, La Jagua (Cesar, Guachinte (Valle del Cauca and Nechí (Antioquia. Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thickness. It was found that char morphology depended on coal rank and maceral composition. Morphological characteristics like high porosity, thinner walls and network-like morphology which are beneficial in improving combustion were present in vitrinite- and liptinite-rich lowest-ranking coals. Beneficiated coals showed that their chars had better performance regarding their morphological characteristics than their original coal chars.

  20. Second language learners’ achievement in literature through problem-based learning method

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Athar Hussain; Muhammad Nafees; Nabi Bux Jumani

    2009-01-01

    Teaching literature to L2 learners demands methodological training and innovative strategies to bring effectiveness in learning. Problem based instructional strategy is being widely used to determine its impact on learner’s achievement, retention, attitude etc. This paper explores the impact of Problem based learning method (PBLM) and Traditional lecture method on achievement of L2 learners in the learning of literature at grade XII in Pakistan. An experiment was conducted on 67 students, 3...

  1. A Survey Study of Autonomous Learning by Chinese Non-English Major Post-graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Jianping Xu

    2009-01-01

    This thesis reports a survey study of the autonomous L2 learning by 100 first-year non-English-major Chinese post-graduates via the instruments of a questionnaire and semi-structured interview after the questionnaire. It attends to address the following research question: To what extent do Chinese postgraduate students conduct autonomous L2 learning? It was found that the overall degree of the postgraduates’ autonomous English learning is not so satisfactory as expected. Much needs to be done...

  2. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students’ Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karbalaei Alireza

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The notion of “learner beliefs” has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners’ beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers’ beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading in English. 190 undergraduate college students completed the Survey of Reading Strategies questionnaire. The results indicated that the subjects in both groups reported almost similar patterns of strategy awareness while reading; however, Indians reported more awareness of global, support and total metacognitive reading strategies than Iranians while no significant difference was reported when using problem-solving strategies. These results can contribute to the necessity of reading strategies training in both contexts. La noción de “creencias del estudiante” ha ganado mucha atención en el ámbito de la adquisición de la segunda lengua. Aunque se han realizado diferentes estudios sobre las creencias de los estudiantes respecto al aprendizaje de la lengua, poco se ha investigado acerca de las creencias de los lectores de segunda lengua y su relación con estrategias de lectura. Este estudio investigó si había diferencias significativas entre los lectores de inglés como lengua extranjera y los lectores de inglés como segunda lengua en cuanto a la conciencia lectora y el uso de estrategias metacognitivas cuando leen en inglés. Ciento noventa estudiantes de pregrado completaron el cuestionario sobre estrategias lectoras. Los resultados mostraron que los sujetos de los dos grupos reportaron un patrón casi similar al uso de conciencia de estrategia mientras leían. Sin embargo, los estudiantes indios reportaron ser más conscientes respecto a estrategias metacognitivas lectoras totales, globales y de apoyo que los estudiantes iraníes, mientras que no se hallaron diferencias significativas al usar estrategias para la resolución de problemas. Estos resultados pueden contribuir a la necesidad de capacitación en estrategias lectoras en ambos contextos.

  3. Vibrational spectroscopic and theoretical study of 3,5-dimethyl-1-thiocarboxamide pyrazole (L) and the complexes Co2L2Cl4, Cu2L2Cl4 and Cu2L2Br2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper we report a joint experimental and theoretical study of 3,5-dimethyl-1-thiocarboxamide pyrazole (L) and its complexes Co2L2Cl4, Cu2L2Cl4 and Cu2L2Br2. DFT computations were used to model the structural and bonding properties of the title compounds as well as to derive a reliable force field for the normal coordinate analysis of L. The computations indicated the importance of hydrogen bonding interactions in stabilising the global minimum structures on the potential energy surfaces. In contrast to the S-bridged binuclear Cu2L2Br2 complex found in the crystal, our computations predicted the formation of (CuLBr)2 dimers in the isolated state stabilized by very strong (53 kJ/mol) N-H...Br hydrogen bonding interactions. On the basis of FT-IR and FT-Raman experiments and the DFT-derived scaled quantum mechanical force field we carried out a complete normal coordinate analysis of L. The FT-IR spectra of the three complexes were interpreted using the present assignment of L, literature data and computed results

  4. IL FENOMENO DELL’ALTERNANZA L1/L2 NELL’INSEGNAMENTO DELL’ITALIANO COME LINGUA STRANIERA. ANALISI DI UN CORPUS DI INTERAZIONI DIDATTICHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Arrigoni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La modalità plurilingue della comunicazione in classi di lingua straniera può rientrare tra le strategie pedagogiche a disposizione dell’insegnante per il raggiungimento di precisi scopi didattici e formativi. Partendo da una breve analisi sul significato di parlante plurilingue e plurilinguismo stesso, in questo articolo si è voluto esaminare come si attua una educazione al plurilinguismo in contesti formativi e, in particolare, se e come l’utilizzo della L1 può costituire uno strumento di supporto all’insegnamento e all’apprendimento di una lingua straniera. A questo scopo sono stati analizzati i dati raccolti presso l’Università di Coventry durante corsi di italiano L2 per studenti anglofoni. I fenomeni di contatto linguistico L1/L2 più frequenti e significativi sono stati suddivisi in base al parlante e alle loro funzioni.   The phenomena of l1/l2 alternation in the teaching of italian as a foreign language. analysis of a corpus of didactic interactions Multilingual communication in foreign language classrooms can be considered as one of the teacher’s pedagogical  strategies to achieve specific educational aims. Through a brief analysis of the meaning of multilingual speakers and multilingualism, this article examines how an education to multilingualism in teaching contexts is carried out and, in particular, if and how the use of the L1 can be a helpful tool for the foreign language teaching and learning. For this purpose the data collected at Coventry University during Italian (L2 classrooms for English students were examined. The more common and meaningful phenomena of linguistic contact between L1 and L2 were grouped according to the speaker and to their functions.

  5. Learning to Learn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Everyone learns in a different way--for some, learning comes naturally, but for others it can be a real struggle. Many negative experiences of education are a result of individuals not knowing how they learn most effectively, or believing that they do not have the capacity to learn well. Addressing the issues of how individuals learn can help…

  6. A Revisiting of the L^2 -Stability Theory of the Boltzmann Equation Near Global Maxwellians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seung-Yeal; Xiao, Qinghua

    2015-04-01

    We study the L^2 -stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near a global Maxwellian. When an initial datum is a perturbation of a global Maxwellian, we show that the L^2 -distance between two classical solutions can be controlled by the initial data in a Lipschitz manner, which illustrates the Lipschitz continuity of the solution operator for the Boltzmann equation in L^2 -topology. Our local-in-time L^2 -stability results cover cutoff very soft potentials as well as non-cutoff hard and soft potentials. These cases were not treated in the previous work (Ha et al. in Arch Ration Mech Anal 197:657-688, 2010). Thus, our results together with the results in Ha et al. (2010) complete the L^2 -stability theory for the Boltzmann equation near a global Maxwellian. For this L^2 -stability estimate, we use the coercivity estimate of the linearized collision operator, the smallness of perturbation in a mixed Lebesgue norm, and Strichartz-type estimates of perturbation. We also show that for all classical solutions available in the literature, the Lipschitz constant can be chosen as independent of time to obtain the uniform L^2 -stability of the Boltzmann equation.

  7. Demotivating Factors for English Language Learning Among University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Reyhaneh Ghadirzadeh; Fariba P. Hashtroudi; Omid Shokri

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Demotivation is a relatively new issue in the field of second/foreign Language (L2) learning motivation. Recognizing and removing barriers can have a marked effect on motivation and attention to learning in general and ESL/EFL learning in particular. Demotivating factors are essential factors which negatively influence the learner?s attitudes and behaviors and hence lead to undesired learning outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effective factors o...

  8. Teaching of the Integrated Morphology Enseñanza de la Morfología Integrada

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Claudio Suazo Galdames; Mario Cantín López; Ivonne Patricia Bustos Alvarez; Guillermo Enrique Salgado Alarcón

    2008-01-01

    The changes in the university curriculum have made necessary the vertical and horizontal integration of contents that are taught in morphology sciences. In this study, students of the Morphology and Human Development Module of the cohorts 2006 and 2007 participated. In 2006 the students (n=83) developed the thematic unit of locomotive apparatus in a chronologicaly and sequentially integrated way. In 2007 (n=102) this same unit was developed in a totally integrated way, in form of learning obj...

  9. Abductive Reasoning and Second Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana S. Jovanovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although much work has been conducted on deductive and inductive approaches to second language learning, insufficient attention has been dedicated to abductive reasoning. This paper presents the results from an exploratory study on the processes that motivate initial hypothesis-making and their possible repercussions for L2 instruction. More specifically, the beginner foreign language learners’ ability to infer word meaning based on their overall linguistic knowledge (e.g., knowledge of the first language, knowledge of other foreign languages was tested in order to draw conclusions about abductive reasoning in L2 learning.

  10. Results on L2 Trigger Reconstruction in Single and Di-Muon Topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, Darin; Cox, T; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fierro, Massimiliano; Gasparini, Ugo; Grandi, Claudio; Konecki, Marcin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Neumeister, Norbert; Rick, Hartmut; Ronchese, Paolo; Smith, Richard P; Tannenbaum, Benn; Vitelli, Annalina; Wilkinson, Richard

    2001-01-01

    A detailed study of the CMS L2 trigger performance in single and di-muontopologies is reported, using the full detector simulation developed in CMSIM and the digitization, L1 trigger simulation and L2 reconstruction code developed in ORCA. The study was performed assuming the high luminosity scenario for the LHC machine (L= 10 nb-1s-1). The resulting single muon and di-muon rates at L2 selection level are reported and compared with the L1 Global Muon Trigger output.

  11. Control and Stabilization of the Benjamin-Ono equation in $L^2(\\mathbb T)$

    OpenAIRE

    Laurent, Camille; Linares, Felipe; Rosier, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    We prove the control and stabilization of the Benjamin-Ono equation in $L^2(\\T)$, the lowest regularity where the initial value problem is well-posed. This problem was already initiated in \\cite{LinaresRosierBO} where a stronger stabilization term was used (that makes the equation of parabolic type in the control zone). Here we employ a more natural stabilization term related to the $L^2$ norm. Moreover, by proving a theorem of controllability in $L^2$, we manage to prove th...

  12. Morphological neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.X.; Sussner, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we introduce a novel class of neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. In this paper we consider some of these differences and provide some particular examples of morphological neural network.

  13. Extrinsic morphology of graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Teng

    2011-01-01

    Graphene is intrinsically non-flat and corrugates randomly. Since the corrugating physics of atomically-thin graphene is strongly tied to its electronics properties, randomly corrugating morphology of graphene poses significant challenge to its application in nanoelectronic devices for which precise (digital) control is the key. Recent studies revealed that the morphology of substrate-supported graphene is regulated by the graphene-substrate interaction, thus is distinct fro...

  14. Testing the Fundamental Difference Hypothesis: L2 Adult, L2 Child, and L1 Child Comparisons in the Acquisition of Korean "Wh"-Constructions with Negative Polarity Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyang Suk; Schwartz, Bonnie D.

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental difference hypothesis (FDH; Bley-Vroman, 1989, 1990) contends that the nature of language in natives is fundamentally different from the nature of language in adult nonnatives. This study tests the FDH in two ways: (a) via second language (L2) poverty-of-the-stimulus (POS) problems (e.g., Schwartz & Sprouse, 2000) and (b) via a…

  15. IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L2 Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L2 Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets (ILUTP2) data set contains surface range values for Antarctica and Greenland derived...

  16. Working memory capacity and L2 speech production in a picture description task with repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyria Finardi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O estudo investiga a relação entre a capacidade de memória de trabalho e os ganhos na produção oral em L2 durante uma tarefa de descrição de figura com repetição. Partindo de Fortkamp (2000 que encontrou correlações entre a capacidade de memória de trabalho e medidas de produção oral em L2 e Bygate (2001b que mostrou que na repetição de tarefas os participantes ganham em complexidade de fala em detrimento, principalmente da acurácia e da fluência, este estudo propõe que pode haver correlações entre os ganhos na complexidade da fala em L2 e a capacidade de memória de trabalho. Resultados do experimento mostram ganhos na complexidade da fala em L2, mas os mesmos não correlacionam com a capacidade de memória de trabalho. A falta de correlações é explicada em razão do pequeno número de participantes que não permitiu variação na capacidade de memória de trabalho.

  17. EX1304L2 Dive11 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S....

  18. Comparison theorems for the small ball probabilities of Gaussian processes in weighted $L_2$-norms

    OpenAIRE

    Nazarov, Alexander I.; Pusev, Ruslan S.

    2012-01-01

    We prove comparison theorems for small ball probabilities of the Green Gaussian processes in weighted $L_2$-norms. We find the sharp small ball asymptotics for many classical processes under quite general assumptions on the weight.

  19. IceBridge Geometrics 823A Cesium Magnetometer L2 Geolocated Magnetic Anomalies

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge Geometrics 823A Cesium Magnetometer L2 Geolocated Magnetic Anomalies (IMGEO2) data set contains magnetic anomaly measurements taken over...

  20. EX1202L2 Dive07 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico...

  1. EX1202L2 Dive16 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico...

  2. EX1304L2 Dive12 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S....

  3. EX1202L2 Dive09 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico...

  4. EX1304L2 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S....

  5. EX1202L2 Dive15 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico...

  6. EX1202L2 Dive14 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico...

  7. EX1202L2 Dive13 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico...

  8. EX1202L2 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico...

  9. EX1304L2 Dive07 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S....

  10. EX1304L2 Dive10 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S....

  11. EX1304L2 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S....

  12. EX1304L2 Dive08 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S....

  13. EX1304L2 Dive14 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S....

  14. EX1304L2 Dive09 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S....

  15. EX1304L2 Dive15 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S....

  16. EX1202L2 Dive12 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico...

  17. EX1304L2 Dive05 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S....

  18. EX1205L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1205L2: Northeast Canyons and...

  19. EX1304L2 Dive01 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S....

  20. EX1304L2 Dive13 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S....

  1. EX1202L2 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico...

  2. EX1202L2 Dive01 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico...

  3. EX1304L2 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S....

  4. EX1404L2 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1404L2: Our Deepwater...

  5. EX1202L2 Dive08 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico...

  6. EX1404L2 Dive01 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1404L2: Our Deepwater...

  7. EX1202L2 Dive06 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico...

  8. EX1404L2 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1404L2: Our Deepwater...

  9. EX1202L2 Dive10 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico...

  10. EX1202L2 Dive11 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico...

  11. EX1202L2 Dive02 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico...

  12. The Effect of Using Print Media on Children’s L2 Literacy Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Tavakoli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to examine the effect of using print media in the classroom on the children’s L2 literacy development in an EFL context. Since reading is regarded as a chief goal, in many second/foreign language teaching situations, it receives a special focus. Media as a tool for language learning/teaching, can help both instructed and non-instructed learners to overcome the difficult task of language learning. In order to determine the effects of print media usage on the development of children’s foreign language reading abilities, 30 children aged between 7-8 familiar to English alphabet were selected. Based on DIBELS performance, participants were homogenized and assigned as low group. According to National Reading Panel, story books, magazines and newspapers were used to teach five areas of reading proficiency, i.e. phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and text comprehension. After one year of instruction, based on DIBELS performance, participants were assigned to medium and high groups; implying the effect of direct instruction and print media usage in classrooms for developing foreign language reading abilities. 

  13. ALHAMBRA survey: morphological classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povi?, M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Aguerri, J. A. López; Husillos, C.; Molino, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Large Homogeneous Area Medium Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey is a photometric survey designed to study systematically cosmic evolution and cosmic variance (Moles et al. 2008). It employs 20 continuous medium-band filters (3500 - 9700 Å), plus JHK near-infrared (NIR) bands, which enable measurements of photometric redshifts with good accuracy. ALHAMBRA covers > 4 deg2 in eight discontinuous regions (~ 0.5 deg2 per region), of theseseven fields overlap with other extragalactic, multiwavelength surveys (DEEP2, SDSS, COSMOS, HDF-N, Groth, ELAIS-N1). We detect > 600.000 sources, reaching the depth of R(AB) ~ 25.0, and photometric accuracy of 2-4% (Husillos et al., in prep.). Photometric redshifts are measured using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code (Benítez et al. 2000), reaching one of the best accuracies up to date of ?z/z <= 1.2% (Molino et al., in prep.). To deal with the morphological classification of galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey (Povi? et al., in prep.), we used the galaxy Support Vector Machine code (galSVM; Huertas-Company 2008, 2009), one of the new non-parametric methods for morphological classification, specially useful when dealing with low resolution and high-redshift data. To test the accuracy of our morphological classification we used a sample of 3000 local, visually classified galaxies (Nair & Abraham 2010), moving them to conditions typical of our ALHAMBRA data (taking into account the background, redshift and magnitude distributions, etc.), and measuring their morphology using galSVM. Finally, we measured the morphology of ALHAMBRA galaxies, obtaining for each source seven morphological parameters (two concentration indexes, asymmetry, Gini, M20 moment of light, smoothness, and elongation), probability if the source belongs to early- or late-type, and its error. Comparing ALHAMBRA morph COSMOS/ACS morphology (obtained with the same method) we expect to have qualitative separation in two main morphological types for ~ 20.000 sources in 8 ALHAMBRA fields. For early-type galaxies we expect to recover ~ 70% and 30-40% up to magnitudes 20.0 and 21.5, respectively, having the contamination of late-types of < 7%. For late-type galaxies, we expect to recover ~ 70%, 60 - 70%, and ~ 30% of sources up to magnitudes 22.0, 22.5, and 23.0, respectively, having the contamination of early-types of <= 10%. These data will be used to study the evolution of active and non-active galaxies respect to morphology and morphological properties of galaxies in groups and clusters.

  14. $L^2$-error estimates for finite element approximations of boundary fluxes

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Mats G.; Massing, Andre

    2014-01-01

    We prove quasi-optimal a priori error estimates for finite element approximations of boundary normal fluxes in the $L^2$-norm. Our results are valid for a variety of different schemes for weakly enforcing Dirichlet boundary conditions including Nitsche's method, and Lagrange multiplier methods. The proof is based on an error representation formula that is derived by using a discrete dual problem with $L^2$-Dirichlet boundary data and combines a weighted discrete stability es...

  15. The Impact of Task Complexity on L2 Learners’ Written Narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Massoud Rahimpour; Pakhshan Hosseini

    2010-01-01

    This main purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of task complexity on L2 learners’ written narratives. It is argued that L2 learners’ written performance is influenced by the complexity of task regarding accuracy, fluency, and complexity.52 Iranian English learners were selected as the participants of the study. They were asked to write two narratives based on two different picture stories. First, they performed the here-and-now task (present tense and context-supported) and then...

  16. Conceptual fluency and the use of situation-bound utterances in L2

    OpenAIRE

    Kecskes, Istvan

    2000-01-01

    Recent research has found that L2 learners of high grammatical proficiency will not necessarily show concomitant pragmatic skills. Some scholars explained non-native-like production by the lack or low level of conceptual fluency and metaphorical competence in the target language. This paper, however, claims that this explanation is only partly acceptable because pragmatic skills in an L2 do not necessarily reflect conceptual fluency in the target language properly because individual variables...

  17. L’intonazione interrogativa in italiano L2 di parlanti egiziane

    OpenAIRE

    Abou-el-enin, Dalia Gamal I.

    2013-01-01

    Questo studio presenta un primo contributo all’analisi della codifica prosodica di alcuni tipi di domande in italiano L2. Sono stati analizzati domande check, query-yn e query-w in italiano L2 ricavate da 4 dialoghi di parlato semispontaneo elicitati con il metodo del ‘gioco delle differenze’. Le quattro informatrici egiziane sono apprendenti guidate di due livelli diversi di competenza linguistica. Sono stati rilevati i parametri acustici della durata e della frequenza fondamentale e s...

  18. The Relationship between (Meta)cognitive Strategies and Reading Comprehension in Iranian Female L2 Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Karami; Mahmood Hashemian

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the possible effects of the Iranian elementary female L2 learners’ (meta)cognitive reading strategy knowledge on their reading comprehension in 3 different stages of reading, that is, prereading, while-reading, and postreading phases. In order to control the language proficiency factor, 40 L2 learners were selected through the application of the Oxford Placement Test. The participants belonged to 2 different age groups. Twenty of them were selected from th...

  19. A processability account of the L2 article acquisition by Bulgarian young learners of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harakchiyska T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper sheds a new light on the acquisition of English articles by L2 young learners of English. It focuses on the interplay between L1 interference and the applicability of a recent cognitive theoretical framework – the Processability theory which serve as a basis for outlining the possible difficulties in the English article acquisition by Bulgarian 9-10-year old learners of English as L2.

  20. Low Parametric Sensitivity Realizations with relaxed L2-dynamic-range-scaling constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Hilaire, Thibault

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new dynamic-range scaling for the implementation of filters/controllers in state-space form. Relaxing the classical L2-scaling constraints by specific fixed-point considerations allows for a higher degree of freedom for the optimal L2-parametric sensitivity problem. However, overflows in the implementation are still prevented. The underlying constrained problem is converted into an unconstrained problem for which a solution can be provided. This leads to realizations whi...

  1. Cue Competition between Animacy and Word Order: Acquisition of Chinese Notional Passives by L2 Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Competition Model (Bates & MacWhinney, 1978; MacWhinney, 2005; MacWhinney, 2012, the present study investigates L2 cue strategies in the acquisition of Chinese notional passives by English-speaking and Japanese-speaking learners. Two experiments were conducted to examine both the comprehension and production of Chinese notional passives. The main findings included: 1 L2 learners’ acceptability of notional passive increased with improved Chinese proficiency but even advanced learners showed significant difference from Chinese native speakers; 2 L2 learners produced more notional passive sentences than bei-passive sentences and advanced learners showed no difference from Chinese native speakers; 3 Cross-linguistic influence seemed to affect L2 learners’ comprehension and production of Chinese notional passives. The results support the universality of animacy cue proposed by Gass (1987 but also suggest that word order and pragmatic factors may affect L2 learners’ cue strategies. The study also evidences the contribution of the input to the development of L2 cue strategies, which is in line with the predictions of the Competition Model.

  2. Accuracy validation of T2L2 time transfer in co-location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laas-Bourez, Myrtille; Courde, Clément; Samain, Etienne; Exertier, Pierre; Guillemot, Philippe; Torre, Jean-Marie; Martin, Nicolas; Foussard, Claude

    2015-02-01

    The Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) experiment has been developed in close collaboration between Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales and Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur. The aim is to synchronize remote ultra-stable clocks over large-scale distances using two laser ranging stations. This ground to space time transfer has been derived from laser telemetry technology with dedicated space equipment designed to record arrival time of laser pulses on board the satellite. For 3 years, specific campaigns have been organized to prove T2L2 performance. In April 2012, we performed a 2-week campaign with our two laser ranging stations, Métrologie Optique and French Transportable Laser Ranging Station, to demonstrate the T2L2 time transfer accuracy in co-location. We have compared three independent time transfer techniques: T2L2, GPS, and direct measurement, with both an event timer and an interval counter. The most important result obtained in this campaign was a mean agreement between T2L2 and a direct comparison better than 200 ps. This is the first major step to validate the uncertainty budget of the entire T2L2 experiment. This paper focuses on this campaign setup and the obtained results. PMID:25643076

  3. Interweaving meaning generation in science with learning to learn together processes using Web 2.0 tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharoula Smyrnaiou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature of the science education does not offer much data concerning meaning generation (MG and learning to learn together (L2L2 processes. The objective of this paper is the study of how a group of students working with an on?line Platform, interact, collaborate and express themselves to generate meanings with regard to moving in 3d Newtonian spaces. The students create models of motions using 3d Juggler, a web?based half?baked microworld and communicate their ideas via the Platform’s shared workspaces. The study was implemented with a small number of Greek students (four of the 8th grade. The results of this study demonstrate that there is a relation between L2L2 processes and the creation of meanings in collectives as they use different web tools. After completing the scientific task (MG, the students of a Subgroup move to the Argumentation/Discussion tool to share with the other Subgroup the values of the parameters for which they attained their goal (L2L2 and MG processes. Distributed leadership and peer assessment are two of those L2L2 key aspects which dominate and influence students’ MG processes.

  4. Learning to Learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Helen; Weiss, Martin

    1988-01-01

    The article reviews theories of learning (e.g., stimulus-response, trial and error, operant conditioning, cognitive), considers the role of motivation, and summarizes nine research-supported rules of effective learning. Suggestions are applied to teaching learning strategies to learning-disabled students. (DB)

  5. Service Learning, Phonemic Perception, and Learner Motivation: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Almitra; Gordon, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    A nine-week empirical study of 25 adults in a second language (L2) Spanish phonetics course explored whether students' participation in service-learning language exchange sessions with native Spanish speakers outside of class influenced learners' (1) motivation for foreign language learning and (2) phonemic perception in Spanish. Divided…

  6. Effectiveness of L2 spinal nerve infiltration for selective discogenic low back pain patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that rat L5/6 lumbar discs are innervated mainly by L2 dorsal root ganglion neurons. We previously reported that L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective for discogenic low back pain (DLBP) patients, although the diagnosis was based only on the results of physical examination, plain films, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate L2 spinal nerve block for DLBP patients retrospectively based on MRI findings and surgical results. A total of 62 patients with only LBP and no accompanying radicular pain were investigated. Patients had only one level of disc degeneration on MRI. When pain was provoked during discography, we performed surgery at the next stage (40 patients). In all, 22 patients were excluded owing to negative discography results. Of the 40 patients, we evaluated 25 strictly selected patients suffering from DLBP. DLBP was diagnosed when the patient experienced pain relief at least 2 years after anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Fifteen patients who did not show pain relief after surgery were used for the non-DLBP group. L2 spinal nerve infiltration using 1.5 ml of lidocaine was performed in all 40 patients before surgery. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score after L2 spinal nerve infiltration was recorded, and an association of L2 spinal nerve infiltration and DLBP was explored. Low back pain scores assessed using the VAS score, the Japanese Orthopedic Association score, and the Oswestry Didic Association score, and the Oswestry Disability Index score in the two groups were not significantly different. L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective for 27 patients but not effective for 13 patients; the VAS score after 15 min and 2 h improved in the DLBP group compared with that of the non-DLBP group (P<0.05). L2 spinal nerve infiltration was more effective in DLBP patients (21 patients, 84%) than in the non-DLBP group (6 patients, 40%) (P<0.05). In the current study, L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective in 84% of selected DLBP patients and is thought to be a useful tool for diagnosing DLBP. However, we should take into consideration that the L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective in 40% of non-DLBP patients as well. (author)

  7. Japanese Language Students' Perceptions on "Kanji" Learning and Their Relationship to Novel "Kanji" Word Learning Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiko; Sato, Kumi; Shimizu, Hideko

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between how learners of Japanese as a second language perceive the learning of "kanji" (i.e., the logographic characters shared with Chinese) and their ability to learn novel "kanji" words using morphological and contextual information. Eighty college students learning Japanese as a foreign language completed a…

  8. Introducing Assessment for Learning for EFL Writing in an Assessment of Learning Examination-Driven System in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Icy; Coniam, David

    2013-01-01

    While there has been a proliferation of research on assessment for learning (AFL) over the past two decades, L2 writing assessment has tended to focus much more on assessment of learning (AOL) than AFL. This study seeks to investigate the implementation of AFL for EFL writing within an examination-driven AOL system in Hong Kong, its possible…

  9. Learning Modern Greek: A Comparison of Development and Identification Patterns among Heritage and Foreign Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafillidou, Lida; Hedgcock, John S.

    2007-01-01

    Although second language (L2) research has explored connections between sociopsychological variables and L2 socialization processes, relatively few investigations have compared heritage language (HL) learners to traditional foreign language (FL) learners in the North American context. This descriptive study compares the learning and acculturation…

  10. Language Play in Y2K: Morphology Brought to You by Pokemon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Alleen Pace; Nilsen, Don L. F.

    2000-01-01

    Suggests that teachers can take advantage of children's interest in the Pokemon game to teach worthwhile lessons about how words are developed. Shows how, by analyzing Pokemon names, kids can learn the linguistic concept of morphology. (SR)

  11. Investigating the Role of L2 Language Proficiency in Word Association Behavior of L2 Learners: A Case of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Khazaeenezhad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades word association research has provided precise insight into the development and organization of the mental lexicon; however, there is still sufficient ground for more exploration to gain a better understanding of how L2 learners’ mental lexicon might be organized and how word association behavior may vary according to L2 proficiency level. This paper was intended to investigate the development of mental lexicon through a psycholinguistic experiment and more specifically, to explore the possible role L2 language proficiency may have in word association behaviors of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, a standardized English placement test (OPT and a word association test were administered to 120 undergraduate EFL learners. The elicited responses were classified based on Peppard's (2007 model and then analyzed in terms of the frequency of each type of word association. The results indicated that upper intermediate students' responses were significantly more frequent than beginners' responses in the categories of "Synonymy" and "Hypernymy and Hyponymy" which are paradigmatic relations and the beginners' responses were significantly more frequent in the category of "Grammatical collocation" which is a syntagmatic relation. These findings, which support McCarthy (1990 and Meara (1982, are not in line with Wolter’(2001 belief about the re-evaluation of the syntagmatic-paradigmatic shift in the case of nonnative speakers. The study implies important implications for vocabulary teaching through assisting learners in building stronger semantic links between words.

  12. Tcf7l2 Is Required for Left-Right Asymmetric Differentiation of Habenular Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüsken, Ulrike; Stickney, Heather L.; Gestri, Gaia; Bianco, Isaac H.; Faro, Ana; Young, Rodrigo M.; Roussigne, Myriam; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Beretta, Carlo A.; Brinkmann, Irena; Paolini, Alessio; Jacinto, Raquel; Albadri, Shahad; Dreosti, Elena; Tsalavouta, Matina; Schwarz, Quenten; Cavodeassi, Florencia; Barth, Anukampa K.; Wen, Lu; Zhang, Bo; Blader, Patrick; Yaksi, Emre; Poggi, Lucia; Zigman, Mihaela; Lin, Shuo; Wilson, Stephen W.; Carl, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Although left-right asymmetries are common features of nervous systems, their developmental bases are largely unknown. In the zebrafish epithalamus, dorsal habenular neurons adopt medial (dHbm) and lateral (dHbl) subnuclear character at very different frequencies on the left and right sides. The left-sided parapineal promotes the elaboration of dHbl character in the left habenula, albeit by an unknown mechanism. Likewise, the genetic pathways acting within habenular neurons to control their asymmetric differentiated character are unknown. Results In a forward genetic screen for mutations that result in loss of habenular asymmetry, we identified two mutant alleles of tcf7l2, a gene that encodes a transcriptional regulator of Wnt signaling. In tcf7l2 mutants, most neurons on both sides differentiate with dHbl identity. Consequently, the habenulae develop symmetrically, with both sides adopting a pronounced leftward character. Tcf7l2 acts cell automously in nascent equipotential neurons, and on the right side, it promotes dHbm and suppresses dHbl differentiation. On the left, the parapineal prevents this Tcf7l2-dependent process, thereby promoting dHbl differentiation. Conclusions Tcf7l2 is essential for lateralized fate selection by habenular neurons that can differentiate along two alternative pathways, thereby leading to major neural circuit asymmetries. PMID:25201686

  13. TCF7L2 polymorphisms and inflammatory markers before and after treatment with fenofibrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabagambe Edmond K

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation is implicated in causing diabetes. We tested whether transcription factor 7 like-2 (TCF7L2 gene polymorphisms (rs12255372 and rs7903146, consistently associated with type 2 diabetes, are associated with plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers before and after three weeks of daily treatment with fenofibrate. Methods Men and women in the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study (n = 1025, age 49 ± 16 y were included. All participants suspended use of lipid-lowering drugs for three weeks and were then given 160 mg/day of fenofibrate for three weeks. Inflammatory markers and lipids were measured before and after fenofibrate. ANOVA was used to test for differences across TCF7L2 genotypes. Results Under the additive or dominant model, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05 in the concentrations of inflammatory markers (hsCRP, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-? and MCP-1 across TCF7L2 genotypes in the period before or after treatment. For both rs12255372 and rs7903146, homozygote T-allele carriers had significantly higher (P Conclusion Overall these data show no association between TCF7L2 polymorphisms and the inflammatory markers suggesting that the effects of TCF7L2 on diabetes may not be via inflammation.

  14. On Singularity formation for the L^2-critical Boson star equation

    CERN Document Server

    Lenzmann, Enno

    2011-01-01

    We prove a general, non-perturbative result about finite-time blowup solutions for the $L^2$-critical boson star equation $i\\partial_t u = \\sqrt{-\\Delta+m^2} \\, u - (|x|^{-1} \\ast |u|^2) u$ in 3 space dimensions. Under the sole assumption that the solution blows up in $H^{1/2}$ at finite time, we show that $u(t)$ has a unique weak limit in $L^2$ and that $|u(t)|^2$ has a unique weak limit in the sense of measures. Moreover, we prove that the limiting measure exhibits minimal mass concentration. A central ingredient used in the proof is a "finite speed of propagation" property, which puts a strong rigidity on the blowup behavior of $u$. As the second main result, we prove that any radial finite-time blowup solution $u$ converges strongly in $L^2$ away from the origin. For radial solutions, this result establishes a large data blowup conjecture for the $L^2$-critical boson star equation, similar to a conjecture which was originally formulated by F. Merle and P. Raphael for the $L^2$-critical nonlinear Schr\\"odi...

  15. What Data for Data-Driven Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Corpora have multiple affordances, not least for use by teachers and learners of a foreign language (L2) in what has come to be known as "data-driven learning" or DDL. The corpus and concordance interface were originally conceived by and for linguists, so other users need to adopt the role of "language researcher" to make the most of them. Despite…

  16. Structural Priming and Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Ah; Christianson, Kiel

    2012-01-01

    Structural priming (or syntactic priming) is a speaker's tendency to reuse the same structural pattern as one that was previously encountered (Bock, 1986). This study investigated (a) whether the implicit learning processes involved in long-lag structural priming lead to differential second language (L2) improvement in producing two structural…

  17. Long term morphological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten EsbjØrn Technical University of Denmark,

    2010-01-01

    A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a nearshore nourishment and a bar by-passing a harbour. In the case of the shoreline evolution calculations, a concept often used in one-line modelling of cross-shore shifting of an otherwise constant shape cross-shore profile is applied for the case of a groyne and a detached breakwater. In the case of alongshore bar/nourishment migration an alternative parameterization is adopted. All examples are presented, analysed and discussed with respect to the question of realistic representation, time scale and general applicability ofthe model concept.

  18. An evolutionary morphological approach for software development cost estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ricardo de A; Oliveira, Adriano L I; Soares, Sergio; Meira, Silvio

    2012-08-01

    In this work we present an evolutionary morphological approach to solve the software development cost estimation (SDCE) problem. The proposed approach consists of a hybrid artificial neuron based on framework of mathematical morphology (MM) with algebraic foundations in the complete lattice theory (CLT), referred to as dilation-erosion perceptron (DEP). Also, we present an evolutionary learning process, called DEP(MGA), using a modified genetic algorithm (MGA) to design the DEP model, because a drawback arises from the gradient estimation of morphological operators in the classical learning process of the DEP, since they are not differentiable in the usual way. Furthermore, an experimental analysis is conducted with the proposed model using five complex SDCE problems and three well-known performance metrics, demonstrating good performance of the DEP model to solve SDCE problems. PMID:22560678

  19. L2 discretization of atomic and molecular electronic continua: moment, quadrature and J-matrix techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the process of extraction of continuum information from operators discretized in finite sets of square integrable (L2) basis functions is given, with emphasis on the close relationships between the Stieltjes method and Gaussian integration. Examples of recent applications are given in the areas of atomic and molecular photoabsorption (He, Ne*, H2, Ar2*), Stieltjes determination of e- -atom/molecule resonances (He, He-, Mg-, N2-) and e+ -H scattering at intermediate energies. Finally, photoabsorption of H- leading to H+ + 2e is discussed using the J-matrix technique, which involves an infinite L2 expansion, and combines advantages of the finite L2 methods with those of the traditional close coupling method. (Auth.)

  20. Orbiting GPS Receiver Modified to Track New L2C Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Tom K.; Robison, David; Munson, Tim N.; Young, Larry E.; Stoyanov, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The L2C signal is a great step forward for civil applications of GPS, enabling high-accuracy dual-frequency measurements. Engineers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and ITT teamed to reprogram FPGA firmware and add tracking software on an orbiting receiver to track the new GPS L2C signal from SAC-C. SAC-C is an Argentinean science satellite and was launched in November 2000 with a BlackJack GPS receiver. This is a dual-frequency digital receiver with 48 tracking channels and four antennas. On SAC-C, it provides precise orbits, atmospheric occultation data, tests of GPS surface reflections, and serves as an orbiting test bed for new GPS development such as the L2C tracking reported here.

  1. The Effects of Planned Instruction on Iranian L2 Learners' Interlanguage Pragmatic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Esmaeili

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The most compelling evidence that instruction in L2pragmatics is necessary comes from learners whoselanguage proficiency is advanced but their communicative actsfrequently contain pragmatic errors. The current studyevaluated the impact of explicit instruction on EFL learner'sawareness and production of three speech acts of request,apology, and complaint. It also probed whether learners’language proficiency plays any role in incorporatingpragmatic instruction into the L2 classroom. The instructionlasted for about 12 weeks. Achievement in L2 pragmaticswas assessed based on a pretest-posttest plan usingMultiple-Choice Discourse Comprehension Test (MDCTand Written Discourse Completion Test (WDCT. Thesignificant gains made by the experimental groups receivinginstruction support the claim recently made by instructionalpragmatics that explicit instruction does facilitate thedevelopment of pragmatically appropriate use of language.Yet, learners’ level of language proficiency had no significantrole in the incorporation of the instruction. Furthertheoretical issues are also discussed.

  2. The expression of Path in L2 Danish by German and Turkish learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Moiken

    2014-01-01

    Do language learners think in their first language (L1) when using their second language (L2)? This study explores the nature of crosslinguistic influence by investigating how German and Turkish learners of Danish express motion, paying special attention to the semantics of Path. We examined three aspects: overall Path frequency, Path complexity, and the subcomponents of Path. The presence of L1 influence in each aspect reflects how the interplay between form and meaning is carried over as a whole to the L2. In particular, we show how the selection of a specific Path meaning for expression in the L2 has its root in the structural and semantic properties of the L1. This raises important questions regarding how form and meaning are organized in the learner's mind.

  3. Sociolinguistic approaches to identity negotiation and language learning: A circumstantiality perspective on communities of practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Yu Shiang

    2013-01-01

    As a result of growing globalization, the learning experience of second/foreign (L2/FL) language learners has been inextricably linked to complex social structures and networks. Through a sociolinguistic lens, this paper provides a critical review of L2/FL learning, identity negotiation, and community of practice in the face of incremental changes in linguistic systems and norms concomitant with gradual transformations in politics, society, and economics. In different social structures, ident...

  4. Preliminary posttest analysis of LOFT loss-of-coolant experiment L2-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary posttest analysis of Loss-of-Coolant Experiment (LOCE) L2-2, which was conducted in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility, was performed to gain an understanding of the cause of the disparity between predicted and measured fuel rod cladding temperature responses in the LOFT core. LOCE L2-2 is the first experiment in the LOFT Power Ascension Series L2 (first series of LOFT nuclear experiments), which was designed to investigate the response of the LOFT nuclear core to the blowdown, refill, and reflood transients during LOCEs conducted at gradually increasing power levels. LOCE L2-2 was conducted at 50% power (25 MW, 26.38 kW/m). Results show that a core-wide rewet occurred early in the transient (during blowdown starting at about 7 s after rupture) which was not calculated in the pretest prediction analysis. This early core-wide rewet resulted in the peak fuel rod cladding temperatures being lower (by a mean value of 1660K for 24 thermocouples) than had been calculated. This preliminary posttest analysis was concerned solely with determining why the early core-wide rewet was not predicted by the RELAP4/MOD6 pretest analysis and be no means is it a complete posttest analysis of LOCE L2-2 results. However, during this analysis, several errors made in the prettest analysis were found, and their impact on the predicted results is assessed. Three factors were postulated to have caused the disparity between predicted and measured fuel rod cladding tpredicted and measured fuel rod cladding temperatures for LOCE L2-2: (a) the initial fuel rod stored energy, (b) the heat transfer surface, and (c) the hydraulics calculation. These factors were examined and are discussed in this report. It was determined that core hydraulics, as influenced by the calculation of broken loop cold leg break flow, was the major factor causing the disparity

  5. NARMA-L2 Controller for Five-Area Load Frequency Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Sharma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the load-frequency control (LFC based on neural network for improving power system dynamic performance. In this paper an Artificial Neural Network  (ANNbased controller is presented for the Load Frequency Control (LFC of a five area interconnected power system. The controller is adaptive and is based on a nonlinear auto regressive moving average (NARMA-L2 algorithm. The working of the conventional controller and ANN based NARMA L2 controllers is simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK package.. The Simulink link results of both the controllers are compared.

  6. On the asymptotic expansion of the curvature of perturbations of the $L_{2}$ connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De, Amit

    2013-01-01

    We establish that the Hitchin connection is a perturbation of the $L_{2}$-connection. We notice that such a formulation of the Hitchin connection does not necessarily require the manifold in question possessing a rigid family of Kähler structures. We then proceed to calculate the asymptotic expansion of general perturbations of the $L_{2}$-connection, and see when under certain assumptions such perturbations are flat and projectively flat. During the calculations we also found an asymptotic expansion of the projection operator $\\pi_{\\sigma}^{\\left(k\\right)}$ which projects onto the holomorphic sections of the k-th tensor of prequantum line bundle.

  7. Association between TCF7L2 Genotype and Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients Treated with Gliclazide

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Javorský; Eva Babjaková; Amp Xe Kov Amp Xe, Lucia Klim Amp X. D.; Zbynek Schroner; Idzik, Jozef Amp X. D.; Tolfov Amp Xe, M. Amp Xe Ria Amp X.; Ján Šalagovi?; Ivan Tká?

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies showed associations between variants in TCF7L2 gene and the therapeutic response to sulfonylureas. All sulfonylureas stimulate insulin secretion by the closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel. The aim of the present study was to compare TCF7L2 genotype specific effect of gliclazide binding to KATP channel A-site (Group 1) with sulfonylureas binding to AB-site (Group 2). A total of 101 patients were treated with sulfonylureas for 6 months as an add-on therapy to the ...

  8. An exact formula for the $L_{2}$ discrepancy of the shifted Hammersley point set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kritzer

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this note we prove an exact formula for the $L_2$ discrepancy of the shifted two-dimensional Hammersley point set in base $2$. Our formula shows that this quantity only depends on the number of zero digits in the dyadic expansion of the shift and the cardinality of the point set. Our result is the solution to an open problem stated by O. Strauch. Further we obtain the best shifts from our formula and we show that the $L_2$ discrepancy of the shifted two-dimensional Hammersley point set in base $2$ satisfies a central limit theorem.

  9. On Singularity formation for the L^2-critical Boson star equation

    OpenAIRE

    Lenzmann, Enno; Lewin, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    We prove a general, non-perturbative result about finite-time blowup solutions for the $L^2$-critical boson star equation $i\\partial_t u = \\sqrt{-\\Delta+m^2} \\, u - (|x|^{-1} \\ast |u|^2) u$ in 3 space dimensions. Under the sole assumption that the solution blows up in $H^{1/2}$ at finite time, we show that $u(t)$ has a unique weak limit in $L^2$ and that $|u(t)|^2$ has a unique weak limit in the sense of measures. Moreover, we prove that the limiting measure exhibits minimal...

  10. Classroom tandem – Outlining a Model for Language Learning and Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Karjalainen, Katri; Po?rn, Michaela; Rusk, Fredrik; Bjo?rkskog, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues learn each other’s native languages in reciprocal cooperation. The students function, in turns, as a second language learner and as a model in the n...

  11. Morphological Detection of Malware

    OpenAIRE

    Bonfante, Guillaume; Kaczmarek, Matthieu; Marion, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    In the field of malware detection, method based on syntactical consideration are usually efficient. However, they are strongly vulnerable to obfuscation techniques. This study proposes an efficient construction of a morphological malware detector based on a syntactic and a semantic analysis, technically on control flow graphs of programs (CFG). Our construction employs tree automata techniques to provide an efficient representation of the CFG database. Next, we deal with classic obfuscation o...

  12. Stochastic morphological evolution equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeden, Peter E.; Lorenz, Thomas

    The inadequacy of locally defined set-valued differential equations to describe the evolution of shapes and morphological forms in biology, which are usually neither convex or nondecreasing, was recognised by J.-P. Aubin, who introduced morphological evolution equations, which are essentially nonlocally defined set-valued differential equations with the inclusion vector field also depending on the entire reachable set. This concept is extended here to the stochastic setting of set-valued Itô evolution equations in Hilbert spaces. Due to the nonanticipative nature of Itô calculus, the evolving reachable sets are nonanticipative nonempty closed random sets. The existence of solutions and their dependence on initial data are established. The latter requires the introduction of a time-oriented semi-metric in time-space variables. As a consequence the stochastic morphological evolution equations generate a deterministic nonautonomous dynamical system formulated as a two-parameter semigroup with the complication that the random subsets take values in different spaces at different time instances due to the nonanticipativity requirement. It is also shown how nucleation processes can be handled in this conceptual framework.

  13. Learning Vocabulary via Mobile Phone: Persian EFL Learners in Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Taki

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available With encompassing power of cell phones and potentials of mobile learning for language teaching/learning, employing cell phones in language learning seems indispensable. Through exploiting the inherent capabilities of such devices this study investigated the efficacy of multimodal representation of L2 vocabularies for 158 pre-intermediate level L2 learners aged 18-23. Since short-term memory plays an important role in vocabulary learning, they were placed into four different short-term memory (STM ability groups using visual and verbal STM Tests. Also, cell phone-based vocabulary presentations with different annotations, i.e. pictorial vs. written, were adapted to the cell phone screen to render on learners' cell phones via Bluetooth. Finally, the participants took English vocabulary recognition and recall tests. The statistical analysis of the results showed that presenting learning materials with pictorial or written annotations rather than without annotations to learners with high-visual and high-verbal abilities resulted in better learning. Also, presenting learning materials with pictorial annotation to learners with high-visual ability as well as presenting the materials with written annotation to learners with high-verbal ability resulted in better learning. Low-visual and low-verbal ability groups showed better results under no annotation condition. The findings can provide an appropriate model for designing learning materials for L2 learners.

  14. COMPREENSÃO DE EXPRESSÕES IDIOMÁTICAS DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA COMO L2: EVIDÊNCIAS DE PROTOCOLOS VERBAIS / Understanding Portuguese idiomatic expressions as L2: evidence of verbal protocols / Comprensión de Expresiones Idiomáticas de la Lengua Portuguesa como L2: evidencias de protocolos verbales

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alessandra, Baldo.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo relata um estudo cujo objetivo foi investigar em que medida os processos cognitivos utilizados por cinco falantes de português como L2 para compreender dez expressões idiomáticas (EIs) de forma descontextualizada seriam similares aos utilizados para a compreensão das mesmas expressões em [...] contexto. A análise dos dados, coletados por meio de protocolos verbais retrospectivos e de pausa, revelou que o uso de analogia e associações a partir de conhecimentos prévios foi a estratégia preferencial para as EIs descontextualizadas, enquanto o uso de indícios microtextuais foi a mais empregada nas EIs em contexto. Além disso, os dados apontaram para uma aproximação apenas parcial dos processos cognitivos empregados pelos participantes nos dois contextos de atribuição de significado a novas EIs. Os resultados são avaliados com base em Liontas (2001, 2002), Polónia (2009) e Sadeghi, Dastjerd e Ketabi (2010). Abstract in spanish Este artículo expone un estudio cuyo objetivo fue investigar en qué medida los procesos cognitivos utilizados por cinco hablantes de portugués como L2 para comprender diez expresiones idiomáticas (EIs) de manera descontextualizada podrían ser similares a aquellos utilizados para la comprensión de la [...] s mismas expresiones en contexto. El análisis de datos, recogidos por medio de protocolos verbales retrospectivos y de pausa, reveló que el uso de analogía y asociaciones desde conocimientos previos fue la estrategia preferencial para las EIs descontextualizadas, mientras el uso de indicios micro textuales fue la más empleada en las EIs en contexto. Además, los datos apuntaran para una aproximación solamente parcial de los procesos cognitivos empleados por los participantes en los dos contextos de atribución de significado para nuevas EIs. Los resultados son evaluados con base en Liontas (2001, 2002), Polónia (2009) e Sadeghi, Dastjerd e Ketabi (2010). Abstract in english A report is presented on a study that aimed at investigating to what extent the cognitive processes used by five Portuguese L2 speakers to understand ten idiomatic phrases (EIs) in a decontextualized way would be similar to those used for the understanding of the same phrases in a context. The analy [...] sis of the data, collected by means of retrospective verbal protocols and protocols of pause, revealed that the use of analogy and associations based on previous knowledge was the preferential strategy for the decontextualized idiomatic phrases, while the use of microtextual signs was the most used one in those EIs on a context. In addition, the data pointed to an approximation only partial of the cognitive processes used by the participants in both contexts of attribution of meaning to new EIs. The results are assessed based on Liontas (2001, 2002), Polónia (2009) and Sadeghi, Dastjerd and Ketabi (2010).

  15. L(2, 1-Labelings of Some Families of Oriented Planar Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Sagnik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we determine, or give lower and upper bounds on, the 2-dipath and oriented L(2, 1-span of the family of planar graphs, planar graphs with girth 5, 11, 16, partial k-trees, outerplanar graphs and cacti.

  16. Effects of Textual Enhancement and Input Enrichment on L2 Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassaei, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Research on second language (L2) acquisition has recently sought to include formal instruction into second and foreign language classrooms in a more unobtrusive and implicit manner. Textual enhancement and input enrichment are two techniques which are aimed at drawing learners' attention to specific linguistic features in input and at the same…

  17. A Case Study of Extensive Reading with an Unmotivated L2 Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Eunseok

    2013-01-01

    Extensive reading is gaining credibility as an effective way of boosting students' affect especially in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) context where access to a second language (L2) input is minimal. This study uses a pattern-matching, single case study research design to examine an adult reader's motivation and anxiety shifts…

  18. Language-Related Computer Use: Focus on Young L2 English Learners in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Pia; Sylvén, Liss Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study investigating young English language learners (YELLs) in Sweden in 4th grade (N = 76, aged 10-11). Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire and a one-week language diary. The main purpose was to examine the learners' L2 English language-related activities outside of school in general, and…

  19. Plural-Marking in L2 Korean: A Feature-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sun Hee; Lardiere, Donna

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the second language (L2) acquisition of the Korean plural marker -"tul" by native speakers of English. Seventy-seven learners at four Korean proficiency levels along with 31 native Korean-speaking controls completed five tasks designed to probe for knowledge of particular features and restrictions associated with so-called…

  20. Production of Routines in L2 English: Effect of Proficiency and Study-Abroad Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2013-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the effect of proficiency and study abroad experience on L2 learners' ability to produce routines. Participants were 64 Japanese students in an English-medium university in Japan. They were divided into three groups: Group 1 had lower proficiency with no study abroad experience, Group 2 had higher proficiency but no…

  1. A Longitudinal Investigation into L2 Learners' Cognitive Processes during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The present study longitudinally investigates the cognitive processes of advanced L2 learners engaged in a multimedia task that elicited status-equal and status-unequal refusals in English during their study abroad. Data were collected three times by retrospective verbal report from 20 Chinese learners who were studying abroad over the course of…

  2. A characteristic description of orthonormal wavelet on subspace LE2(R) of L2(R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exceptional Lie groups are applicable to nature because nature is essentially a Cantorian and hierarchal fractal with an octionic connection. In this paper, inspired by these theory, a characterization of orthonormal wavelet on subspace LE2(R) of L2(R) is given. The result covers known conclusion on Hardy space H2(R).

  3. GRAMMAR AS A JOINT ACHIEVEMENT: CO-CONSTRUCTIONS IN L2 INTERACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neiloufar FAMILY

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present and analyze co-constructions from L2 English data collected at the European School in Luxembourg. Co-constructions are morpho-syntactic structures split across two speakers, in which a second speaker completes a grammatical structure initiated by the first speaker in conversation. The corpus features multilingual 13-14 year old language learners interacting in an English classroom as they work on a collaborative group-writing task. Five types of co-constructions emerge in our data: locative phrases, want/let, copulas, transitives, and nominal compounds. The analysis centers on the morpho-syntactic structures involved, with consideration of the sequential environment where co-constructions occur. The featured examples complement and expand what we know about co-constructions in two ways. First, the data suggest that L2 language learners engage in co-constructions just as native speakers (NS do, irrespective of their L2 learner status. Second, L2 co-constructions, similar to previously reported NS examples, appear to orient to both a the morpho-syntactic constraints of the language used, as well as to b the social-interactional context surrounding and structuring the task-in-progress such as the back and forth of talk during a collaborative writing task.

  4. L2 Listening Comprehension. Odense Working Papers in Language and Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadierno, Teresa, Ed.

    Essays on second-language (L2) listening comprehension include: "On Second Language Comprehension and Acquisition: Interactional and Psycholinguistic Perspectives" (Teresa Cadierno), a general theoretical overview of these processes; "Listening to Lectures" (Anne Jensen), a discussion of some characteristics of lectures and description of a study…

  5. Embedded "wh"-Questions in L2 English in India: Inversion as a Main Clause Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, David

    2015-01-01

    This corpus study brings a second language (L2) research perspective, insights from generative grammar, and new empirical evidence to bear on a long-accepted claim in the World Englishes literature--namely, that inversion with "wh"-movement in colloquial Indian English is obligatory in embedded clauses and impossible in main clauses. It…

  6. Cognate effects in sentence context depend on word class, L2 proficiency, and task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultena, Sybrine; Dijkstra, Ton; van Hell, Janet G

    2014-01-01

    Noun translation equivalents that share orthographic and semantic features, called "cognates", are generally recognized faster than translation equivalents without such overlap. This cognate effect, which has also been obtained when cognates and noncognates were embedded in a sentence context, emerges from the coactivation of representations in two languages. The present study examined whether cognate facilitation in sentences is subject to effects of word class, reading proficiency in a second language (L2), and task demands. We measured eye movements (Experiment 1) and self-paced reading times (Experiment 2) for Dutch-English bilinguals reading L2 sentences that contained either a noun or a verb cognate. Results showed that cognate effects were smaller for verbs than for nouns. Furthermore, cognate facilitation was reduced for readers with a higher proficiency in L2 as expressed by self-ratings or reading speed in L2. Additionally, the results of the eye-movement study and the self-paced reading study indicated that the likelihood of observing cognate facilitation effects also depends on task demands. The obtained pattern of results helps to identify some of the boundaries of the cognate effect. PMID:24295513

  7. 2-dipath and oriented L(2,1)-labelings of some families of oriented planar graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Sagnik

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we improve the existing bounds for 2-dipath and oriented $L(2,1)$ span for the class of planar graphs with girth $5, 11, 16$, cactus, wheels and leaf independent Halin graphs. Some of these bounds are tight.

  8. The Effect of Lexical Coverage and Dictionary Use on L2 Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Caleb; Matsumoto, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to further understand the role of lexical coverage on L2 reading comprehension. It examines test scores of learners at or near the 90-95% coverage level to determine if this coverage range allows for comprehension of authentic texts. The findings suggest that 92-93% may be a threshold mark at which understanding of a text…

  9. Comparing Foreign Accent in L1 Attrition and L2 Acquisition: Range and Rater Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Monika S.; Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the methodology of global foreign accent ratings in studies on L2 speech production. In three experiments, we test how variation in raters, range within speech samples, as well as instructions and procedures affects ratings of accent in predominantly monolingual speakers of German, non-native speakers of German, as well as…

  10. Reflections on Reflection: A Critical Appraisal of Reflective Practices in L2 Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ramin

    2007-01-01

    In the literature dealing with L2 teacher training and education numerous references are made to the concept of reflective teaching and teachers and teacher educators are encouraged to engage in reflective practices. The present paper, however, argues that in our attempt to empower teachers to become more efficient practitioners, we have lost…

  11. A contribuição chomskiana para a compreensão da aprendizagem de L2

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mary A., Kato.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procura mostrar as contribuições de Chomsky para a área da psicolingüística, mais diretamente para explicar a aquisição de L1, e indiretamente para levantar questões de pesquisa em L2. Pode-se dizer que Chomsky contribuiu, primeiramente, ao argumentar contra outras abordagens, mas, sob [...] retudo, por a) propor uma teoria sobre as línguas que dá conta de seus princípios universais e de seus parâmetros de variação e b) demonstrar que a teoria é diretamente relevante para as questões de aprendizagem e mais interessante do que a visão behaviorista e a construtivista piagetiana. O presente trabalho apresenta, a seguir, as teorias sobre L2 que surgiram a partir do modelo chomskiano. Abstract in english This paper tries to show Chomsky's contributions to the area of psycholinguistics, more directly to explain first language acquisition, and less directly to raise questions regarding research in L2. Chomsky can be said to have contributed first by arguing against the current views on language learni [...] ng, but also and mainly a) for his proposal of a theory of natural languages that accounts both for their invariant principles, but also for their crosslinguistic variation, and b) for showing that such theory is directly relevant to explain language acquisition problems, and more interesting than the behaviorist or constructionist views. The last part presents the theories about L2 acquisition derived from Chomsky's theories on language.

  12. Phonological Awareness in Hebrew (L1) and English (L2) in Normal and Disabled Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russak, Susie; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined cross-linguistic relationships between phonological awareness in L1 (Hebrew) and L2 (English) among normal (N = 30) and reading disabled (N = 30) Hebrew native speaking college students. Further, it tested the effect of two factors: the lexical status of the stimulus word (real word vs. pseudoword) and the linguistic…

  13. On the boundary behavior of the curvature of L2-metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshikawa, Ken-ichi

    2010-01-01

    For one-parameter degenerations of compact K\\"ahler manifolds, we determine the asymptotic behavior of the first Chern form of the direct image of a Nakano semi-positive vector bundle twisted by the relative canonical bundle, when the direct image is equipped with the L2-metric.

  14. L1 and L2 Observatories for Earth Science Vision in the Post-2010 Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiscombe, Warren; Herman, Jay; Valero, Francisco; Lau, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Post-2010 Earth Science Vision is partly built around a new paradigm called the Sensor Web, involving a collaborating set of sensors ranging from deep space, at the L1 and L2 (Lagrange) points, down to the ocean and land surfaces. L1 and L2 observatories, roughly 1.5 million km from Earth towards and away from the Sun, respectively, provide unique vantage points. from L1, the entire sunlit face of the Earth is visible, and from L2, the entire night side. In tandem, they can observe the entire Earth simultaneously, with much less stitching than now needed to patch together the five operational geostationary images. This makes new kinds of science possible, especially science requiring synoptic (simultaneous) observations over the whole globe. Triana, the pioneer of these kinds of observatories, is currently waiting for a launch opportunity. We will describe the novel features of the Triana mission, and of the L1 and L2 vantage points, with examples of the kinds of science that can be done from these points and examples of the way in which Earth observation from such great distances is pushing instrument technology.

  15. Global, Local or Glocal? Identities of L2 Learners in English as a Lingua Franca Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Chit Cheung Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory inquiry into the perceptions of a group of second language (L2) learners of English with regard to their identities in English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) communication contexts. Drawing upon data gathered from two rounds of in-depth interviews with nine participants from a Hong Kong university, the study found…

  16. Classification of minimal mass blow-up solutions for an $L^2$ critical inhomogeneous NLS

    OpenAIRE

    Combet, Vianney; Genoud, Franc?ois

    2015-01-01

    We establish the classification of minimal mass blow-up solutions of the $L^2$ critical inhomogeneous nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation \\[ i\\partial_t u + \\Delta u + |x|^{-b}|u|^{\\frac{4-2b}{N}}u = 0, \\] thereby extending the celebrated result of Merle from the classic case $b=0$ to the case $0

  17. Context Effects in the Processing of Phonolexical Ambiguity in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrabaszcz, Anna; Gor, Kira

    2014-01-01

    In order to comprehend speech, listeners have to combine low-level phonetic information about the incoming auditory signal with higher-order contextual information to make a lexical selection. This requires stable phonological categories and unambiguous representations of words in the mental lexicon. Unlike native speakers, second language (L2)…

  18. On the Impact of L2 Speech Rhythm on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M. Paula; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Heine, Angela; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2015-01-01

    In an event-related potential (ERP) study we investigated the role of age of acquisition (AoA) on the use of second language rhythmic properties during syntactic ambiguity resolution. Syntactically ambiguous sentences embedded in rhythmically regular and irregular contexts were presented to Turkish early and late second language (L2) learners of…

  19. L2 EVIDENCE FOR THE STRUCTURE OF THE L1 LEXICON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Reiss

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper 1 suggest that L2 research could provide answers to questions concerning the structure of L1 grammars that cannot, as a matter of logic, be answered by only examining L1 data and intuitions. In other words, L2 data from an individual P can provide 'external' evidence bearing on the structure of P's L1 grammar, Ll,. This type of evidence will be particularly welcome where competing theories of Ll, are extensionally equivalent where they generate the sarne output representations. 1 am proposing, therefore, that L2 research need not restrict itself to maintaining consistency with work in theoretical linguistic modeling. Instead L2 research can itself make unique contributions to the general theory of grammar. In addition to potentially leading to fruitful results, the issues that provide the background to the discussion warrant examination on other grounds, since they help clarifj the goals of linguistic research and the compatibility of various frameworks of linguistic theory with their own stated goals.

  20. Pragmatic Awareness in a Second Language Setting: The Case of L2 Learners of Greek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Spyridoula

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the pragmatic awareness of instructed L2 learners of Greek (economic migrants) by examining the extent to which these learners display differences in their recognition and rating of pragmatic and grammatical violations. Methodologically, the study is largely based on the Bardovi-Harlig & Dornyei (1998) study on pragmatic…

  1. Gender Differences in Compulsory School Pupils' L2 Self-Concepts: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Alastair

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on personality psychology research, Dornyei and his colleagues have recently developed an approach to understanding L2 motivation that positions the learner's self-recognition as a potential communicator in another language at its core, thus marking a break from the established social psychology paradigm. In this article it is argued that,…

  2. Ksub(L) ? 2? decay in the Weinberg-Salam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ksub(L) ? 2? decay amplitude is calculated in the Weinberg-Salam model with the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Maiani mechanism. An upper bound for the mass of the charmed quark is found to be msub(p') < 9 GeV

  3. How L2 Legal Writers Use Strategies for Scholarly Writing: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain Butler, Donna

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation research fills existing gaps regarding the practices and processes of teaching second language (L2) writers at higher ranges of proficiency in law school context. It is a mixed methods, longitudinal, descriptive, writer-centered study. The research purpose was to explore strategic competence as a catalyst for professional…

  4. Questioning English Standards: Learner Attitudes and L2 Choices in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Ulrikke

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates attitudes towards varieties of English among Norwegian adolescent learners and assesses the role of social evaluation for second language (L2) pronunciation choices by combining a verbal guise test with speaker commentary and reports of language choices. The results suggest that while American English is the most accessible…

  5. On singularity formation for the L2-critical Boson star equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prove a general, non-perturbative result about finite-time blowup solutions for the L2-critical Boson star equation in d = 3 space dimensions. Under the sole assumption that u = u(t, x) blows up in the energy space H1/2 at finite time 0 2 and that |u(t, ·)|2 has a unique weak limit in the sense of measures as t ? T?. Moreover, we prove that the limiting measure exhibits minimal mass concentration. A central ingredient used in the proof is a 'finite speed of propagation' property, which puts a strong rigidity on the blowup behaviour of u = u(t, x). As the second main result, we prove that any radial finite-time blowup solution u = u(t, |x|) converges strongly in L2({|x| ? R}) as t ? T? for any R > 0. For radial solutions, this result establishes a large data blowup conjecture for the L2-critical Boson star equation. We also discuss some extensions of our results to other L2-critical theories of gravitational collapse, in particular to critical Hartree-type equations

  6. Using the Web as a Research Source: Implications for L2 Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    As scholars increasingly view the World Wide Web (the Web) as a legitimate research resource in academic writing, questions remain regarding how Web sources, as new media, influence the writing of second and foreign language (L2) learners. Via a 17-item questionnaire and an analysis of the references to 243 Web sources in the essays of 43 Japanese…

  7. Modified Sparseness Controlled IPNLMS Algorithm Based on l_1, l_2 and l_? Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Samalla

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Acoustic Echo Cancellation (AEC, sparseness level of acoustic impulse response (AIR varies greatly in mobile environments. The modified sparseness-controlled Improved PNLMS (MSC-IPNLMS algorithm proposed in this paper, exploits the sparseness measure of AIR using l1, l2 and l? norms. The MSC-IPNLMS is the modified version of SC-IPNLMS which uses sparseness measure based on l1 and l2 norms. Sparseness measure using l1, l2 and l? norms is the good representation of both sparse and dense impulse response, where as the measure which uses l1 and l2 norms is the good representation of sparse impulse response only. The MSC-IPNLMS is based on IPNLMS which allocates adaptation step size gain in proportion to the magnitude of estimated filter weights. By estimating the sparseness of the AIR, the proposed MSC-IPNLMS algorithm assigns the gains for each step size such that the proportionate term of the IPNLMS will be given higher weighting for sparse impulse responses. For a less sparse impulse response, a higher weighting will be given to the NLMS term. Simulation results, with input as white Gaussian noise (WGN, show the improved performance over the SC-IPNLMS algorithm in both sparse and dense AIR.

  8. The L1 vs. L2 Acquisition of English Interrogation. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wode, Henning

    Several recent reports on the untutored second language acquisition of English have suggested that the same developmental sequence holds for the acquisition of the interrogative structures irrespective of whether English is acquired as a first language (L1) or a second language (L2). These studies have been conducted within the Klima & Bellugi…

  9. The Exploitation of Subphonemic Acoustic Detail in L2 Speech Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Ellenor

    2014-01-01

    The current study addresses an aspect of second language (L2) phonological acquisition that has received little attention to date--namely, the acquisition of allophonic variation as a word boundary cue. The role of subphonemic variation in the segmentation of speech by native speakers has been indisputably demonstrated; however, the acquisition of…

  10. When Gender and Looking Go Hand in Hand: Grammatical Gender Processing in L2 Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussias, Paola E.; Valdes Kroff, Jorge R.; Guzzardo Tamargo, Rosa E.; Gerfen, Chip

    2013-01-01

    In a recent study, Lew-Williams and Fernald (2007) showed that native Spanish speakers use grammatical gender information encoded in Spanish articles to facilitate the processing of upcoming nouns. In this article, we report the results of a study investigating whether grammatical gender facilitates noun recognition during second language (L2)…

  11. Mechanism of Dis3l2 substrate recognition in the Lin28-let-7 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faehnle, Christopher R; Walleshauser, Jack; Joshua-Tor, Leemor

    2014-10-01

    The pluripotency factor Lin28 inhibits the biogenesis of the let-7 family of mammalian microRNAs. Lin28 is highly expressed in embryonic stem cells and has a fundamental role in regulation of development, glucose metabolism and tissue regeneration. Overexpression of Lin28 is correlated with the onset of numerous cancers, whereas let-7, a tumour suppressor, silences several human oncogenes. Lin28 binds to precursor let-7 (pre-let-7) hairpins, triggering the 3' oligo-uridylation activity of TUT4 and TUT7 (refs 10-12). The oligoU tail added to pre-let-7 serves as a decay signal, as it is rapidly degraded by Dis3l2 (refs 13, 14), a homologue of the catalytic subunit of the RNA exosome. The molecular basis of Lin28-mediated recruitment of TUT4 and TUT7 to pre-let-7 and its subsequent degradation by Dis3l2 is largely unknown. To examine the mechanism of Dis3l2 substrate recognition we determined the structure of mouse Dis3l2 in complex with an oligoU RNA to mimic the uridylated tail of pre-let-7. Three RNA-binding domains form an open funnel on one face of the catalytic domain that allows RNA to navigate a path to the active site different from that of its exosome counterpart. The resulting path reveals an extensive network of uracil-specific interactions spanning the first 12 nucleotides of an oligoU-tailed RNA. We identify three U-specificity zones that explain how Dis3l2 recognizes, binds and processes uridylated pre-let-7 in the final step of the Lin28-let-7 pathway. PMID:25119025

  12. The Potential Role of Music in Second Language Learning: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Zeromskaite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of musical activities on non-musical domains have recently sparked much research. Whereas the benefits of music for native language abilities are well established, the effect on second language (L2 is not yet fully explored. This review discusses articles suggesting the transfer effect of music on L2 phonological and reading skills. Through the analysis of research literature, it examines; (1 the extent of transfer to specific L2 skills, the nature of necessary music training, the effect of native language on musicality and L2, and the role of working memory in the transfer effect. While the discussed papers provide promising insights into the music-L2 relationship, due to the little research done in this area it is difficult to generalize the results to overall L2 learning.

  13. Reading in L2 (English) and L1 (Persian): An Investigation into Reveres Transfer of Reading Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Hassan Talebi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of reading strategies instruction in L2 (English) on raising reading strategies awareness and use and reading ability of Iranian EFL learners in L2 (English) and L1 (Persian) as a result of transfer of reading strategies from L2 to L1. To this purpose, 120 students of intermediate and advanced English proficiency levels constituted the control and experimental groups. Then, a test of reading comprehension and a reading strategy questionnaire in L2 and L1 as ...

  14. On the stability of the boundary trace of the polynomial L^2-projection on triangles and tetrahedra (extended version)

    OpenAIRE

    Melenk, Jens Markus; Wurzer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    For the reference triangle or tetrahedron $T$, we study the stability properties of the $L^2(T)$-projection $\\Pi_N$ onto the space of polynomials of degree $N$. We show $\\|\\Pi_N u\\|_{L^2(\\partial T)}^2 \\leq C \\|u\\|_{L^2(T)} \\|u\\|_{H^1(T)}$. This implies optimal convergence rates for the approximation error $\\|u - \\Pi_N u\\|_{L^2(\\partial T)}$ for all $u \\in H^k(T)$, $k > 1/2$.

  15. Experimental impact crater morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Hoerth, T.; Schaefer, F.; Thoma, K.; Deutsch, A.; Kenkmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    The research group MEMIN (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Impact Modelling Research Network) is conducting impact experiments into porous sandstones, examining, among other parameters, the influence of target pore-space saturation with water, and projectile velocity, density and mass, on the cratering process. The high-velocity (2.5-7.8 km/s) impact experiments were carried out at the two-stage light-gas gun facilities of the Fraunhofer Institute EMI (Germany) using steel, iron meteorite (Campo del Cielo IAB), and aluminium projectiles with Seeberg Sandstone as targets. The primary objectives of this study within MEMIN are to provide detailed morphometric data of the experimental craters, and to identify trends and characteristics specific to a given impact parameter. Generally, all craters, regardless of impact conditions, have an inner depression within a highly fragile, white-coloured centre, an outer spallation (i.e. tensile failure) zone, and areas of arrested spallation (i.e. spall fragments that were not completely dislodged from the target) at the crater rim. Within this general morphological framework, distinct trends and differences in crater dimensions and morphological characteristics are identified. With increasing impact velocity, the volume of craters in dry targets increases by a factor of ~4 when doubling velocity. At identical impact conditions (steel projectiles, ~5km/s), craters in dry and wet sandstone targets differ significantly in that "wet" craters are up to 76% larger in volume, have depth-diameter ratios generally below 0.19 (whereas dry craters are almost consistently above this value) at significantly larger diameters, and their spallation zone morphologies show very different characteristics. In dry craters, the spall zone surfaces dip evenly at 10-20° towards the crater centre. In wet craters, on the other hand, they consist of slightly convex slopes of 10-35° adjacent to the inner depression, and of sub-horizontal tensile failure planes ("terraces") in the outer, near-surface region of the crater. We suggest that these differences are due to a reduction in tensile strength in pore-space saturated sandstone. Linking morphological characteristics to impact conditions might provide a tool to help reconstruct impact conditions in small, more strength- than gravity-dominated impact craters in nature. Findings in small-scale experiments can aid the identification of particular structures in the field, such as spallation induced uplift of strata outside of the crater margins.

  16. Morphological analysis of ionomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the progress made during the period of April 1st, 1989 and March 31st, 1990. Topics covered are: SANS of Telechelic Ionomers, SANS of Sulfonated Polyurethanes, Effect of Matrix Polarity and Ambient Aging on the Morphology of Sulfonated Polyurethane Ionomers, Adhesive Sphere Model for Analysis of SAXS Data from Ionomers, Comparison of Structure-Property Relationships in Carboxylated and Sulfonated Polyurethane Ionomers, Development of a Liquid-like Hard Sphere Model for Deformed Ionomer Samples, and Polymer Synthesis for Proposed Research

  17. INSEGNARE L’ITALIANO L2 NELLA SCUOLA SUPERIORE DI PRIMO GRADO. IL LABORATORIO HOGWARTS: GIOCARE PER IMPARARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Sala

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo propone un progetto didattico per l’insegnamento dell’italiano L2 nella scuola superiore di primo grado che prevede l’inserimento di studenti stranieri, provenienti da paesi diversi, in un gioco di ruolo didattico ispirato alla saga di Harry Potter.Particolare attenzione è data al laboratorio Hogwarts, un laboratorio specifico il cui obiettivo è quello di promuovere l’interazione, la socializzazione, ma soprattutto l’apprendimento dell’italiano come lingua di comunicazione. La didattica del laboratorio fonde insieme elementi del metodo comunicativo ed elementi del metodo audiolinguale richiamando la didattica ludica in quanto il gioco è assunto come modalità strategica di apprendimento. L’idea che sta alla base del laboratorio Hogwarts è quella di coinvolgere gli apprendenti, stimolarne l’interesse e la curiosità attraverso l’utilizzo di materiale video (visual stimuli e attraverso l’attività ludica che mantiene viva la loro attenzione e la loro motivazione favorendone l’apprendimento linguistico attraverso il divertimento.TEACHING ITALIAN L2 IN MIDDLE SCHOOL. THE HOGWARTS LAB: LEARNNG BY PLAYINGThe article illustrates a project aimed at teaching Italian as a second language. The target audience is middle school students from different countries and with different L1 backgrounds. Students take part in didactic role-plays inspired by the Harry Potter series. Special emphasis is given to the Hogwarts Language Lab, which aims to promote interaction, socialization and second language acquisition. The Lab teaching strategy combines elements of the communicative approach and the audio-lingual method with role-playing. The principle behind the Hogwarts Lab is that the students have to be active participants rather than passive observers. Their involvement can be increased and their interest can be raised through the use of the video input (visual stimuli and role-playing as a teaching strategy. Students are encouraged to carry out tasks and activities using cooperation and collaboration, using Italian to communicate. They take an active part and there is increased involvement as the students “learn while they are playing”.

  18. JNK1 Controls Dendritic Field Size in L2/3 and L5 of the Motor Cortex, Constrains Soma Size and Influences Fine Motor Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor T Coffey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic anomalies on the JNK pathway confer susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia and intellectual disability. The mechanism whereby a gain or loss of function in JNK signaling predisposes to these prevalent dendrite disorders, with associated motor dysfunction, remains unclear. Here we find that JNK1 regulates the dendritic field of L2/3 and L5 pyramidal neurons of the mouse motor cortex (M1, the main excitatory pathway controlling voluntary movement. In Jnk1-/- mice, basal dendrite branching of L5 pyramidal neurons is increased in M1, as is cell soma size, whereas in L2/3, dendritic arborization is decreased. We show that JNK1 phosphorylates rat HMW-MAP2 on T1619, T1622 and T1625 (Uniprot P15146 corresponding to mouse T1617, T1620, T1623, to create a binding motif, that is critical for MAP2 interaction with and stabilization of microtubules, and dendrite growth control. Targeted expression in M1 of GFP-HMW-MAP2 that is pseudo-phosphorylated on T1619, T1622 and T1625 increases dendrite complexity in L2/3 indicating that JNK1 phosphorylation of HMW-MAP2 regulates the dendritic field. Consistent with the morphological changes observed in L2/3 and L5, Jnk1-/- mice exhibit deficits in limb placement and motor coordination, while stride length is reduced in older animals. In summary, JNK1 phosphorylates HMW-MAP2 to increase its stabilization of microtubules while at the same time controlling dendritic fields in the main excitatory pathway of M1. Moreover, JNK1 contributes to normal functioning of fine motor coordination. We report for the first time, a quantitative sholl analysis of dendrite architecture, and of motor behavior in Jnk1-/- mice. Our results illustrate the molecular and behavioral consequences of interrupted JNK1 signaling and provide new ground for mechanistic understanding of those prevalent neuropyschiatric disorders where genetic disruption of the JNK pathway is central.

  19. Language Learning Strategies --- The Theoretical Framework and Some Suggestions for Learner Training Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ting Liang

    2009-01-01

    Research in the field of second language learning indicates that proper use of language learning strategies leads to the improvement of overall Second Language (L2) or Foreign Language (FL) proficiency as well as specific language skills. This essay firstly attempts to build a theoretical framework of learning strategies theories by clarifying the definitions and categories of learning strategies, discussing the relevant factors influencing strategy choice, while making references to the stat...

  20. Microcavity morphology optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Fahmida; Demchenko, Alena A.; Vyatchanin, Sergey P.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Maleki, Lute

    2014-09-01

    High spectral mode density of conventional optical cavities is detrimental to the generation of broad optical frequency combs and to other linear and nonlinear applications. In this work we optimize the morphology of high-Q whispering gallery (WG) and Fabry-Perot (FP) cavities and find a set of parameters that allows treating them, essentially, as single-mode structures, thus removing limitations associated with a high density of cavity mode spectra. We show that both single-mode WGs and single-mode FP cavities have similar physical properties, in spite of their different loss mechanisms. The morphology optimization does not lead to a reduction of quality factors of modes belonging to the basic family. We study the parameter space numerically and find the region where the highest possible Q factor of the cavity modes can be realized while just having a single bound state in the cavity. The value of the Q factor is comparable with that achieved in conventional cavities. The proposed cavity structures will be beneficial for generation of octave spanning coherent frequency combs and will prevent undesirable effects of parametric instability in laser gravitational wave detectors.