WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Planning, Recasts, and Learning of L2 Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated two issues: (1) whether availability of planning time affects learners' ability to notice and learn from recasts in the input; and (2) whether pre-task or online planning is more effective. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups that formed the treatment conditions: a no planning group (N = 13), a pre-task…

Romanova, Natalia

2010-01-01

2

Peer Interaction and L2 Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports on empirical research on second-language (L2) Zairean multilingual students of English as a Second Language. Findings confirm the hypothesis of the differential effect of task type and the level of target language attainment on the amount of interaction; suggest a significant effect on L2 learning of oral peer interaction; and show a…

Kasanga, Luanga A.

1996-01-01

3

L2 motivation in foreign language learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study, which involved 130 US fourth to ninth graders enrolled in Chinese as a foreign language classrooms,intended to test Dörnyei’s L2 Motivation Self System and the seven motivational constructs identified in hisprevious study, and investigate whether the constructs found in this study differ based on the following differences:(a gender, (b grade level, and (c starting age of learning a foreign language. This study found four motivationalconstructs: instrumentality-dominant, attitudes toward the L2 speaker/community-dominant, learners’ perceptionof their parents’ proficiency in Chinese, and milieu. In addition, this study found a significant interactive effectbetween grade level and starting age of learning a foreign language. The younger learners in the foreign languagelate starter group perceived their parents as having higher proficiency in Chinese than how the older learners inthe late starter group perceived their parents.

Ko-Yin Sung

2013-10-01

4

L2 motivation in foreign language learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study, which involved 130 US fourth to ninth graders enrolled in Chinese as a foreign language classrooms,intended to test Dörnyei’s L2 Motivation Self System and the seven motivational constructs identified in hisprevious study, and investigate whether the constructs found in this study differ based on the following differences:(a) gender, (b) grade level, and (c) starting age of learning a foreign language. This study found four motivationalconstructs: instrumentality-dominant, atti...

Ko-Yin Sung

2013-01-01

5

Gaming as Extramural English L2 Learning and L2 Proficiency among Young Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

Today, playing digital games is an important part of many young people's everyday lives. Claims have been made that certain games, in particular massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) provide L2 English learners with a linguistically rich and cognitively challenging virtual environment that may be conducive to L2 learning, as…

Sylven, Liss Kerstin; Sundqvist, Pia

2012-01-01

6

Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee

2013-01-01

7

Appraisal Systems in L2 vs. L3 Learning Experiences  

Science.gov (United States)

This article offers a comment on the ways multilingual language users perceive their L2 and L3 learning experiences at the level of appraisals, that is, variables that "assign value to current stimuli based on past experience". In the theoretical part of the article the concept of appraisals is introduced and briefly outlined from the different…

Gabrys-Barker, Danuta

2011-01-01

8

Grammar Teaching and Learning in L2: Necessary, but Boring?  

Science.gov (United States)

This descriptive inquiry-based study targeted second language (L2) high school students' (n = 2321) and teachers' (n = 45) beliefs and perceptions about grammar instruction, specifically about grammatical accuracy, corrective feedback, and diverse forms of grammar teaching and learning. Results showed only slight discrepancies between students'…

Jean, Gladys; Simard, Daphnee

2011-01-01

9

Styles and learning strategies in teaching Croatian as L2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Due to the complexity of learning in general, as well as second language learning, it is very important for language teachers to create a classroom environment where their students can achieve their maximum during the given period. The first part of this paper gives an overview of the literature dealing with the differences between cognitive and learning style, as well as learning strategies. It was found that learners achieve the best results in learning when learning circumstances are appropriate to their cognitive and learning styles. Language learners are found to be influenced by different methods of learning not only by their cognitive styles, but depending on their age. Research in sla associated with the styles and learning strategies did not confirm that all relevant differentiations for learning in general play an important role in language learning (e.g. field-dependence research in sla is not conclusive. However, findings are useful for language teachers, hence they should, among other things, be instructed to identify the cognitive style and learning style typical of their students, to offer them a variety of appropriate activities. Therefore the second and the third part of the paper offer some basic characteristics of analytic and global cognitive styles, as well as audio, visual and kinesthetic learning styles, along with some useful activities for Croatian L2 learners with each of them.

Zrinka Kolakovi?

2010-10-01

10

Age effects in L2 acquisition: ultimate attainment at the syntax-morphology interface  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a selective overview of studies that have examined age effects in second language (L2) acquisition. The focus was on adult second language learners and the L2 ultimate attainment at syntax-interface morphology, with particular attention given to the problematic case of inflectional morphology. We present different kinds of evidence including behavioural, descriptive and brain-based data. Although the main focus was on the syntax-morphology interface, other domains such as ...

Komar, Paulina

2010-01-01

11

A reappraisal of motivation: the cornerstone of L2 learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article is aimed at increasing teacher awareness of the most relevant issues involved in motivation. It examines the importance of motivation in L2 learning, its types and sources, as well as detailing the various factors which influence it. Its focus is twofold, in that it concentrates not only on the student but also on the teacher, using authoritative sources to back up its line of argument. It aims at both clarifying the role of teachers in student motivation and the importance of...

Castro Calvi?n, Jose?

1991-01-01

12

Comparison of L2 Listening and Reading Comprehension by University Students Learning English in Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared L2 listening comprehension with L2 reading comprehension in terms of the roles of linguistic knowledge, background knowledge, and question types among 168 university students learning English in Korea. The analyses of the data found that L2 listeners processed inferential information more easily than factual information, while…

Park, Gi-Pyo

2004-01-01

13

The Key Is in the Keyword: L2 Vocabulary Learning Methods with Beginning Learners of Spanish  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the effectiveness of three methods of learning vocabulary among 778 beginning second language (L2) learners. Rote memorization consists of memorizing the first language (L1) translation of a new L2 word by rehearsal. Semantic mapping displays L1 words conceptually related to the L2 word in a diagram. The keyword method…

Sagarra, Nuria; Alba, Matthew

2006-01-01

14

Styles and learning strategies in teaching Croatian as L2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Due to the complexity of learning in general, as well as second language learning, it is very important for language teachers to create a classroom environment where their students can achieve their maximum during the given period. The first part of this paper gives an overview of the literature dealing with the differences between cognitive and learning style, as well as learning strategies. It was found that learners achieve the best results in learning when learning circumstances are appro...

Zrinka Kolakovi?; Ana Grgi?

2010-01-01

15

Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

2014-01-01

16

L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children: Effects of Learning Method and Cognate Status  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or word-mediated learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German. We examined children from fourth and eighth grades in a school setting. After a learning phase during which L2 words were…

Tonzar, Claudio; Lotto, Lorella; Job, Remo

2009-01-01

17

Effects of Perceptual Learning Style Preferences on L2 Lexical Inferencing  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of perceptual learning style preferences on L2 lexical inferencing and whether learners with certain perceptual learning styles benefited more from an explicitly instructional program. Joy Reid's (1995) Perceptual Learning Style Preferences (PLSP) Inventory and a lexical inferencing test…

Shen, Ming-yueh

2010-01-01

18

Morphological and Phonological Factors in the Production of Verbal Inflection in Adult L2 Learners and Patients with Agrammatic Aphasia  

Science.gov (United States)

Failure to supply inflection is common in adult L2 learners of English and agrammatic aphasics (AAs), who are known to resort to bare verb forms. Among attempts to explain the absence of inflection are competing morphological and phonological explanations. In the L2 acquisition literature, omission of inflection is explained in terms of: mapping…

Szupica-Pyrzanowski, Malgorzata

2009-01-01

19

Extracting phonological patterns for l2 word learning: the effect of poor phonological awareness.  

Science.gov (United States)

An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of Chinese-speaking six-grade students took a multi-trial L2 (English) word learning task after being exposed to a set of familiar words that rhymed with the target words. Children's PA was measured at grade 3. Children with relatively poorer L1 PA and those with better L1 PA did not differ in identifying the forms of the new words. However, children with poorer L1 PA demonstrated reduced performance in naming pictures with labels that rhymed with the pre-exposure words than with labels that did not rhyme with the pre-exposure words. Children with better L1 PA were not affected by the recurring rime shared by the pre-exposure words and the target words. These findings suggest that poor L1 PA may impede L2 word learning via difficulty in abstracting phonological patterns away from L2 input to scaffold word learning. PMID:24043509

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2014-10-01

20

Partial Word Form Learning in the Written Mode in L2 German and Spanish  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research on second language (L2) vocabulary learning has examined the relationship between word properties and learnability (e.g. Ellis and Beaton 1993). Few studies, however, have examined patterns in partial word form learning as a method of assessing learnability and improving our understanding of allocation of processing resources…

Barcroft, Joe; Rott, Susanne

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

L1 AND L2 GLOSSES: THEIR EFFECTS ON INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of L1 and L2 glosses on incidental vocabulary learning in a multimedia environment. The investigation included the effects of additional pictorial cues in L1 and L2 glosses, and how these additions affect vocabulary learning. The analyses of a mixed design repeated measures 2 (L1, L2 X 2 (picture, no picture X 2 (immediate test, delayed test analysis of variance (ANOVA indicated no significant differences between L1 and L2 glosses for definition-supply and recognition tasks and showed significant differences between picture (text-plus-picture and no-picture (text-only glosses for definition-supply test only. The results also revealed significant interaction effects between languages and tests indicating that L1 and L2 groups showed different patterns of vocabulary retention over time. Findings suggest that both L1 and L2 glosses are effective for incidental vocabulary learning, but long-term retention may differ between the two types; and that the effect of additional visual cues on vocabulary learning may rely on the nature of the tasks given.

Makoto Yoshii

2006-09-01

22

Cultural conceptualisations in learning English as an L2: Examples from Persian-speaking learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Traditionally, many studies of second language acquisition (SLA were based on the assumption that learning a new language mainly involves learning a set of grammatical rules, lexical items, and certain new sounds and sound combinations. However, for many second language learners, learning a second language may involve contact and interactions with new systems of conceptualising experience. Many learners bring the conceptual system that they have developed while learning their L1 into the learning of an L2, assuming that every single unit of conceptualisation in their repertoire has an equivalent in the conceptual system associated with the L2. This is never the case. In this paper, I will explicate some cultural conceptualisations that speakers of Persian may bring into the task of learning English as an L2 and discuss some possible implications of this process for intercultural sense making. The chapter begins with a background on the notion of cultural conceptualisation and then moves into the discussion of Persian cultural conceptualisations in L2 learning.

Farzad Sharifian

2013-01-01

23

Assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phonemes governs L2 learning in adulthood – A behavioral and ERP study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available According to the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM, acoustic similarity/dissimilarity between sounds of the second language (L2 and the native language (L1 governs L2 learnability in adulthood and predicts L2 sound perception by naïve listeners. We performed behavioral and neurophysiological experiments on two groups of university students at the first and fifth years of the English language curriculum and on a group of naïve listeners. Categorization and discrimination tests, as well as the mismatch negativity (MMN brain response to L2 sound changes, showed that the discriminatory capabilities of the students did not significantly differ from those of the naïve subjects. In line with the PAM model, we extend the findings of previous behavioral studies showing that, at the neural level, classroom instruction in adulthood relies on assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phoneme categories and does not trigger improvement in L2 phonetic discrimination.

MirkoGrimaldi

2014-05-01

24

L2-norm multiple kernel learning and its application to biomedical data fusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper introduces the notion of optimizing different norms in the dual problem of support vector machines with multiple kernels. The selection of norms yields different extensions of multiple kernel learning (MKL such as L?, L1, and L2 MKL. In particular, L2 MKL is a novel method that leads to non-sparse optimal kernel coefficients, which is different from the sparse kernel coefficients optimized by the existing L? MKL method. In real biomedical applications, L2 MKL may have more advantages over sparse integration method for thoroughly combining complementary information in heterogeneous data sources. Results We provide a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the L2 optimization of kernels in the dual problem with the L2 coefficient regularization in the primal problem. Understanding the dual L2 problem grants a unified view on MKL and enables us to extend the L2 method to a wide range of machine learning problems. We implement L2 MKL for ranking and classification problems and compare its performance with the sparse L? and the averaging L1 MKL methods. The experiments are carried out on six real biomedical data sets and two large scale UCI data sets. L2 MKL yields better performance on most of the benchmark data sets. In particular, we propose a novel L2 MKL least squares support vector machine (LSSVM algorithm, which is shown to be an efficient and promising classifier for large scale data sets processing. Conclusions This paper extends the statistical framework of genomic data fusion based on MKL. Allowing non-sparse weights on the data sources is an attractive option in settings where we believe most data sources to be relevant to the problem at hand and want to avoid a "winner-takes-all" effect seen in L? MKL, which can be detrimental to the performance in prospective studies. The notion of optimizing L2 kernels can be straightforwardly extended to ranking, classification, regression, and clustering algorithms. To tackle the computational burden of MKL, this paper proposes several novel LSSVM based MKL algorithms. Systematic comparison on real data sets shows that LSSVM MKL has comparable performance as the conventional SVM MKL algorithms. Moreover, large scale numerical experiments indicate that when cast as semi-infinite programming, LSSVM MKL can be solved more efficiently than SVM MKL. Availability The MATLAB code of algorithms implemented in this paper is downloadable from http://homes.esat.kuleuven.be/~sistawww/bioi/syu/l2lssvm.html.

De Moor Bart

2010-06-01

25

L2 speakers decompose morphologically complex verbs: fMRI evidence from priming of transparent derived verbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this fMRI long-lag priming study, we investigated the processing of Dutch semantically transparent, derived prefix verbs. In such words, the meaning of the word as a whole can be deduced from the meanings of its parts, e.g. wegleggen ‘put aside’. Many behavioral and some fMRI studies suggest that native (L1 speakers decompose transparent derived words. The brain region usually implicated in morphological decomposition is the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG. In non-native (L2 speakers, the processing of transparent derived words has hardly been investigated, especially in fMRI studies, and results are contradictory: Some studies find more reliance on holistic (i.e. non-decompositional processing by L2 speakers; some find no difference between L1 and L2 speakers. In this study, we wanted to find out whether Dutch transparent derived prefix verbs are decomposed or processed holistically by German L2 speakers of Dutch. Half of the derived verbs (e.g. omvallen ‘fall down’ were preceded by their stem (e.g. vallen ‘fall’ with a lag of 4 to 6 words (‘primed’; the other half (e.g. inslapen ‘fall asleep’ were not (‘unprimed’. L1 and L2 speakers of Dutch made lexical decisions on these visually presented verbs. Both ROI analyses and whole-brain analyses showed that there was a significant repetition suppression effect for primed compared to unprimed derived verbs in the LIFG. This was true both for the analyses over L2 speakers only and for the analyses over the two language groups together. The latter did not reveal any interaction with language group (L1 vs. L2 in the LIFG. Thus, L2 speakers show a clear priming effect in the LIFG, an area that has been associated with morphological decomposition. Our findings are consistent with the idea that L2 speakers engage in decomposition of transparent derived verbs rather than processing them holistically.

Sophie De Grauwe

2014-10-01

26

The Impact of Blended e-Learning on Undergraduate Academic Essay Writing in English (L2)  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a quasi-experimental study into the impact of a blended e-learning environment on academic writing assignments in English (L2) at a Thai international college. An experimental group of 15 students used an on-line bulletin board, as well as face-to-face (F2F) communication in class, to share information for essay topics they…

Ferriman, Nicholas

2013-01-01

27

Preschoolers Learning Hmong and English: Lexical-Semantic Skills in L1 and L2  

Science.gov (United States)

Picture naming and picture identification tasks were used to investigate lexical-semantic skills in young children learning Hmong as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). A total of 19 children, ages 3; 4 (years; months)-5; 2, participated in this study. Performance on lexical tasks was analyzed as a function of development…

Kan, Pui Fong; Konert, Kathryn

2005-01-01

28

Classification of L2 Vocabulary Learning Strategies: Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses  

Science.gov (United States)

This research presents a classification theory for the L2 vocabulary learning strategies. Based on the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of strategies that adult Chinese English learners used, this theory identifies six categories, four of which are related to the cognitive process in lexical acquisition and the other two are…

Zhang, Bo; Li, Changyu

2011-01-01

29

Learning L2 Vocabulary with American TV Drama From the Learner’s Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following the trend of computer assisted language learning (CALL, in Taiwan, most language classes now have equivalent media support for language teachers and learners. Implementing videos into classroom activities is one of the choices. The current study explores the process of implementing American TV drama in L2 vocabulary learning from learners’ perspectives. Twenty-eight Taiwanese EFL adult learners participate in the study. Authentic video clips from three different American dramas- “How I met your mother”, “The King of Queens”, and “Reba” are adopted. After three sessions of class activities including clip watching, class discussion, word listing, etc., students complete a 4-likert scale questionnaire and are individually interviewed by the researcher to give their opinions. The results reveal positive comments on the facilitative role of TV drama in learning new vocabulary as previous studies suggested, but learners’ comments point out some crucial factors while learning L2 vocabulary with TV drama. First of all, the interest level and the familiarity of the content is an important factor. In addition, the images, subtitles and repetition help participants to “remember” the target words. Other factors such as the authenticity of the language, the contextual meaning of the words, and the dramatic performances all contribute to the learning of the L2 vocabulary. In the end of the study, working memory system, the context, acquisition-learning hypothesis (Krashen, 1981, and noticing hypothesis (Schmidt, 1990 are further discussed. 

Yu-Chia Wang

2012-06-01

30

L2 Learning Opportunities in Different Academic Subjects in Content-Based Instruction -- Evidence in Favour of "Conventional Wisdom"  

Science.gov (United States)

Content-based instruction (CBI) adopts a second language (L2) as the medium of instruction for some or all academic subjects to facilitate L2 learning. There seem however, no uniform policies concerning which academic subjects should be taught in L2, in case only some subjects are involved. Conventional wisdom tends to favour Humanities subjects…

Lo, Yuen Yi

2014-01-01

31

Selecting ELL Textbooks: A Content Analysis of L2 Learning Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although middle school teachers use a variety of ELL textbooks, many lack effective criteria to critically select materials that represent a wide range of L2 learning strategies. This study analyzed the illustrated and written content of 33 ELL textbooks to determine the range of L2 learning strategies represented. The researchers chose an intentional, convenience sample from each textbook to form the corpus they analyzed. They sought to answer the question: To what extent do middle school ELL texts depict frequency and variation of language learning strategies in illustrations and written texts? To measure the content, the researchers developed a coding instrument to track how frequently each of 15 language learning strategies was portrayed. They concluded that 6 of the 33 textbooks had a good to excellent range of L2 learning strategies in both illustrated and written representation. The study provides recommendations for teachers regarding selection of ELL textbooks appropriate for their students along with a sample coding instrument for their use.

Jeffrey T LaBelle

2010-07-01

32

Effects of l1 processing experience on l2 morphological awareness Effects of l1 processing experience on l2 morphological awareness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To be an efficient and effective reader of a second language, one must develop cumulative insight into the internal structure of words, as well as acquire the necessary skills for using such insight in facilitating lexical processing and enhancing reading comprehension. In recent time, the growing recognition of the significance of these capabilities has led to a rapidly expanding body of research on intraword awareness, particularly among psychologists and reading specialists. Inasmuch as the resulting data base has clearly demonstrated that intraword awareness develops primarily through print processing experience (e.g., Yopp, 1988; Bowey, & Francis, 1991; Vellutino & Scanlon, 1987; Bertelson, Morais, Alegria, & Content, 1985; Morais, Cary, Alegria, & Bertelson, 1979; Perfetti, Beck, Bell & Hughes, 1987, we can expect that the nature of such awareness differs considerably from language to language, at least to the extent that their lexical structures vary. We also know that linguistic knowledge and processing skills transfer across languages among second language learners (e.g., Kilborn & Ito, 1989; Sasaki, 1992; Koda, 1993. Accordingly, we can both anticipate and infer that L2 lexical processing will be heavily constrained by L1 intraword structural knowledge. To be an efficient and effective reader of a second language, one must develop cumulative insight into the internal structure of words, as well as acquire the necessary skills for using such insight in facilitating lexical processing and enhancing reading comprehension. In recent time, the growing recognition of the significance of these capabilities has led to a rapidly expanding body of research on intraword awareness, particularly among psychologists and reading specialists. Inasmuch as the resulting data base has clearly demonstrated that intraword awareness develops primarily through print processing experience (e.g., Yopp, 1988; Bowey, & Francis, 1991; Vellutino & Scanlon, 1987; Bertelson, Morais, Alegria, & Content, 1985; Morais, Cary, Alegria, & Bertelson, 1979; Perfetti, Beck, Bell & Hughes, 1987, we can expect that the nature of such awareness differs considerably from language to language, at least to the extent that their lexical structures vary. We also know that linguistic knowledge and processing skills transfer across languages among second language learners (e.g., Kilborn & Ito, 1989; Sasaki, 1992; Koda, 1993. Accordingly, we can both anticipate and infer that L2 lexical processing will be heavily constrained by L1 intraword structural knowledge.

Keiko Koda

2008-04-01

33

A Frequency-Based Approach to L2 Phonological Learning: Teacher Input and Student Output in an Intensive ESL Context  

Science.gov (United States)

Most second language (L2) researchers and teachers would agree that input, often defined as the language a learner hears or reads, plays an important role in L2 learning. There is a great deal of research investigating which types of input are most beneficial for learning, how learners process and internalize input (e.g., Schmidt, 2001), and how…

Trofimovich, Pavel; Collins, Laura; Cardoso, Walcir; White, Joanna; Horst, Marlise

2012-01-01

34

Multimedia Glosses and Their Effect on L2 Text Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study investigates the effects that different types of multimedia glosses, namely textual, pictorial, and textual + pictorial, have on text comprehension and vocabulary learning when the goal is exclusively comprehension of a computerized text. This study is based on the theoretical framework of attention, which maintains that attention is critical in the acquisition process of an L2 (Robinson, 1995; Schmidt, 1995, 2001; Tomlin and Villa, 1994). Ninety-four participants read a tex...

Iñigo Yanguas

2009-01-01

35

Learning through L2--Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and English as Medium of Instruction (EMI)  

Science.gov (United States)

Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has been promoted by the European Union as a means to achieve multilingualism. While in Germany and other European countries the trend to use the L2 as a medium of instruction is increasing, in Hong Kong, however, we see a converse development. Many schools switched from English as a medium of…

Wannagat, Ulrich

2007-01-01

36

The Effect of Conceptual Metaphors on Learning Idioms by L2 Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the effect of conceptual metaphors on learning idioms by L2 learners. Seventy juniors participated in this study. They were grouped into two: Group 1 as the experimental group and Group 2 as the control group. Group 1 (n = 40 learned the idioms by conceptual metaphors and Group 2 (n = 30 by traditional methods. The participants were given a pretest in order to check the comprehension and production of idioms, metaphors, and conceptual metaphors. After the pretest, the idioms were instructed to both groups. The first group received conceptual metaphor instruction and the second group the traditional methods. The idiom instruction lasted for one semester. Then, the posttest was given to the participants. Result showed that conceptual metaphors had a significant effect on learning idioms by the L2 participants (Group 1. Results also pointed to the fact that the effect of conceptual metaphors on learning idioms was more than that of traditional methods. Group 2 could learn idioms, but failed to draw the meaning of idioms because their metaphorical awareness had not developed.

Elham Rahmani Samani

2012-01-01

37

The Effect of Learning English (L2 on Learning of Arabic Literacy (L1 in the Primary School  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of learning English (L2 on learning to read and spell connected texts accurately in Arabic (L1. The author selected a sample of 83 (38 males and 45 females; 45 bilinguals and 38 monolinguals native Arabic-speaking fourth-graders in Egypt. Students completed the author-developed Oral Reading Accuracy Measure and Spelling Accuracy Measure. Interestingly, results revealed that the bilingual (Arabic-English students performed better than their monolingual (Arabic counterparts on the two literacy variables: oral reading accuracy (ORA and spelling accuracy (SA. The discussion concludes that learning English (L2 has a positive effect on students’ oral reading accuracy and spelling accuracy in Arabic (L1.

Abdelaziz M. Hussien

2014-02-01

38

Matching Vocabulary Learning Process with Learning Outcome in L2 Academic Writing: An Exploratory Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This exploratory case study of two undergraduates links vocabulary learning approaches with lexical quality measured in academic writing. Employing an array of qualitative data, it is shown that in a "semi-language-rich" learning context, Chinese learners may dispense with rote learning and engage in a more natural learning approach in which…

Ma, Qing

2013-01-01

39

Phonological and orthographic cues enhance the processing of inflectional morphology. ERP evidence from L1 and L2 French  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the results of two event-related potential (ERP) experiments in which Spanish learners of French and native French controls show graded sensitivity to verbal inflectional errors as a function of the presence of orthographic and/or phonological cues when reading silently in French. In both experiments, verbal agreement was manipulated in sentential context such that subject verb agreement was either correct, ill-formed and orally realized, involving both orthographic and phonological cues, or ill-formed and silent which involved only orthographic cues. The results of both experiments revealed more robust ERP responses to orally realized than to silent inflectional errors. This was true for L2 learners as well as native controls, although the effect in the learner group was reduced in comparison to the native group. In addition, the combined influence of phonological and orthographic cues led to the largest differences between syntactic/phonological conditions. Overall, the results suggest that the presence of phonological cues may enhance L2 readers’ sensitivity to morphology but that such may appear in L2 processing only when sufficient proficiency is attained. Moreover, both orthographic and phonological cues are used when available. PMID:25165460

Carrasco-Ortiz, Haydee; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

2014-01-01

40

A Study of Chinese and Japanese College Students’ L2 Learning Styles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 0 2 false false false EN-US ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 0 2 false false false EN-US ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:????; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:????; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-font-kerning:1.0pt;} Learning styles, much related to motivation and cognitive strategies, has been one of the most frequently discussed topics in the field of foreign/second language (L2 education. There is a considerable body of research on learning styles stemming from the domain of psychology to the conceptual field. As individuals learn in different ways from time to time, from culture to culture, and from context to context, findings of such research can only explain a comparatively small group of people’s temporary perceptions of their learning preferences to a selected subject surveyed. Sternberg (2001, p. 250 notes that “the literature has failed to provide any common conceptual framework and language,” while, according to Reid (1998, the concept is still not well understood. An enduring question for language researchers is the effect of individual differences on the efficacy of language learning (Nel, 2008. Much more research has to be done to address the issue of theoretical coherence as well as aiming for well-rounded empirical findings, tested through replication. Therefore, with an intention to contribute more data to cross-country research, this study investigated the differences and similarities of Chinese and Japanese college students’ perceptions of their current English learning styles through a classroom-based survey. Implications for the teaching and learning are discussed in the final section.

Man-ping Chu

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

Machine Learning for Galaxy Morphology Classification  

CERN Document Server

In this work, decision tree learning algorithms and fuzzy inferencing systems are applied for galaxy morphology classification. In particular, the CART, the C4.5, the Random Forest and fuzzy logic algorithms are studied and reliable classifiers are developed to distinguish between spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies or star/unknown galactic objects. Morphology information for the training and testing datasets is obtained from the Galaxy Zoo project while the corresponding photometric and spectra parameters are downloaded from the SDSS DR7 catalogue.

Gauci, Adam; Abela, John; Magro, Alessio

2010-01-01

42

Narrative and identity construction: an analysis of the L2 Learning process  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A Aquisição de uma Segunda Língua (ASL) tem sido enfocada por vários pesquisadores que estudaram o processo sob diversas perspectivas (ex.: Ellis, 1997; Lantolf, 2000; Gardner, 1968), para poderem interpretar como os aprendizes adquirem a L2. Entretanto, esses estudos têm se limitado aos processos c [...] ognitivos e a outros fatores (cultural e sócio-cognitivo, por exemplo), em vez de focalizar as experiências dos aprendizes. Em virtude disso, este estudo investiga as experiências de aprendizes por meio de um grupo de auto-narrativas registradas pelo Projeto AMFALE (Aprendendo com memórias de falantes e de aprendizes de línguas estrangeiras), tendo como suporte básico o trabalho desenvolvido por Leppänen e Kalaja (2002), no qual as autoras, com base na teoria de Vladimir Propp sobre a morfologia do conto de fadas (2000), investigam o processo de aprendizagem de L2 a partir de auto-narrativas que refletem o processo heróico, ainda que árduo, dos contos de fadas, detalhado por Propp. Para tanto, o artigo se divide em duas partes. A primeira faz uma breve revisão do processo de construção de identidade, da importância da narrativa autobiográfica como expressão de identidade, chegando, por fim, aos critérios de análise de autobiografias no processo de aprendizagem de L2, identificados por Leppänen e Kalaja (2002). A segunda parte do estudo analisa alguns exemplos de autobiografias do projeto AMFALE sob a luz das referidas teorias. Abstract in english Second Language Acquisition (SLA) has been the focus of many linguists who have studied the process through varied perspectives, (e.g. Ellis, 1997; Lantolf, 2000; Gardner, 1968, to quote but a few) so that they may be able to interpret the way learners gather information regarding a second language [...] process. However, such foci have been limited to cognitive processes and other factors (e.g. cultural, socio-cognitive) rather than placed on the learners' experiences themselves. In view of this, this paper investigates learners' experiences through the analysis of a group of self narratives recorded by the AMFALE (Aprendendo com memórias de falantes e de aprendizes de língua estrangeira)² project, while, at the same time, analyzes such autobiographies in the light of Leppänen and Kalaja's (2002) work on autobiographies as learners' identities constructions, based on Vladimir Propp's book Morphology of the Folktale (2000). The study is divided in two parts: the first one briefly reviews the process of identity construction and the importance of autobiographies as a means of expression of the self. Besides, it also focuses on the criteria set forth by Leppänen and Kalaja (2002) for the analysis of autobiographies, based on Vladimir Propp's book Morphology of the folktale (2000). The second part focuses on the analyses of AMFALE autobiographies as stated above.

Luiz Antônio Caldeira, Andrade.

43

Gender Differences in L2 Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning in the Video-based CALL Program  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined whether there were significant differences between males and females in comprehension, vocabulary acquisition and vocabulary retention in the video-based computer assisted language learning (CALL program. In total, 74 male and 43 female university students taking Freshman English course in Taiwan joined this study. A quantitative analysis of video comprehension tests, vocabulary immediate tests, and vocabulary retention tests was conducted. Two types of videotexts ranked as easy and difficult materials were used. The statistic results showed that first, regardless of videotext difficulty, females achieved higher percentage scores than males in comprehension, vocabulary immediate, and vocabulary retention tests. Second, with an easy videotext, females achieved significantly higher scores of comprehension and vocabulary retention tests than males. Third, a within-group comparison showed that females achieved significantly higher scores of both vocabulary immediate and retention tests of the easy segment than their scores of the difficult segment. Fourth, males themselves acquired vocabulary significantly better while viewing the easy segment; however, males’ comprehension of the difficult videotext was significantly better than their score of the easy one. Finally, instructional recommendations were presented to enhance L2 instruction through the video-based CALL program.

Lu-Fang Lin

2011-03-01

44

L1 Use in L2 Vocabulary Learning: Facilitator or Barrier  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available teaching. The results show that, during L2 vocabulary teaching process, the proper application of L1 can effectively facilitate the memorization of new words, and the bilingual method (both English explanation and Chinese translation is welcomed by most subjects. Therefore, the use L1 as a means of semantization or as a tool for checking and validating L2 learners’ understanding of word meaning should not be completely rejected, especially for adult Chinese EFL learners.

Jing Liu

2008-05-01

45

Effect of CALL-based and Non-CALL Based Methods of Teaching on L2 Vocabulary Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL in the field of education has increased remarkably in recent years due to the swift and modern changes in language software. However, CALL is not widely employed in the field of second/foreign (L2 language learning in Iran. Interested in the application of CALL, this study examines two methods of vocabulary teaching/learning (CALL-based versus non-CALL based in the short and long-term learning in the area of L2 vocabulary. It seeks to see which method is more effective for teaching English vocabulary to young elementary Iranian EFL learners. To this end, 61 female Iranian EFL learners participated in the study through a purposive sampling. They were randomly assigned into CALL-users (n = 32 and non-CALL users (n = 29 and posttest control group design was employed. To collect data, a proficiency test was used to homogenize the participants and a multiple-choice vocabulary test was used as immediate and delayed posttests to find out the effectiveness of the methods in a shorter and longer period of time. The results of t-tests indicated that there was not a significant difference between the vocabulary scores of the CALL-users and non-CALL users in both short-term and long-term learning despite the fact that both methods appeared to be effective. Furthermore, both methods were found to be more effective in the short-term learning. Finally, the pedagogical implications of this study for L2 teachers and learners are presented.

Effat Bagheri

2012-07-01

46

The Effect of Multimedia Glosses on Online Computerized L2 Text Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning of Iranian EFL Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different types of multimedia glosses, namely text, picture, and text plus picture on online computerized L2 text comprehension and vocabulary learning of junior high school students. About 60 female Iranian junior high school students were selected from a population pool of 102 volunteers based on their performance on a standard English proficiency test (Nelson. Afterwards, they were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 15, three gloss groups, subsequently exposed to the research treatment and one control group. Taking advantage of the results of the pilot study, some words of the computerized written texts were glossed and hyperlinked by a computer software program. When the students clicked on hyperlinked words, a new page appeared and showed the word with a definition in English (textual gloss group, a picture (pictorial gloss group, or a combination of both definition and picture (textual plus pictorial gloss group. Participants in each experimental group read the texts under one of the three mentioned conditions. Statistical analyses of the results reveal that 1 all multimedia gloss groups comprehended computerized L2 texts significantly better than the control group, 2 A significant difference between the multimedia gloss groups and the control group in the production of the target vocabulary items was found. 3 The mix gloss group insignificantly outperformed the textual and pictorial gloss groups in computerized L2 text comprehension, and 4 regarding vocabulary learning, the mix gloss group significantly outperformed the other two gloss groups. Hence, the findings of this study indicate that utilizing computers and multimedia glosses can be influential in language teaching in general and online L2 text comprehension as well as incidental vocabulary learning in particular.

Omid Tabatabaei

2011-05-01

47

Multi-Task Feature Learning Via Efficient l2,1-Norm Minimization  

CERN Document Server

The problem of joint feature selection across a group of related tasks has applications in many areas including biomedical informatics and computer vision. We consider the l2,1-norm regularized regression model for joint feature selection from multiple tasks, which can be derived in the probabilistic framework by assuming a suitable prior from the exponential family. One appealing feature of the l2,1-norm regularization is that it encourages multiple predictors to share similar sparsity patterns. However, the resulting optimization problem is challenging to solve due to the non-smoothness of the l2,1-norm regularization. In this paper, we propose to accelerate the computation by reformulating it as two equivalent smooth convex optimization problems which are then solved via the Nesterov's method-an optimal first-order black-box method for smooth convex optimization. A key building block in solving the reformulations is the Euclidean projection. We show that the Euclidean projection for the first reformulation...

Liu, Jun; Ye, Jieping

2012-01-01

48

The Effects of L1 and L2 e-Glosses on Incidental Vocabulary Learning of Junior High-School English Students  

Science.gov (United States)

While researchers have examined the effectiveness of various online gloss types on incidental L2 vocabulary learning, little research on online gloss languages has been conducted. Previous attempts which compared the effects of L1 and L2 glosses have reported mixed results. To fill the gaps, this study examined the effectiveness of Chinese and…

Hu, Si-Min; Vongpumivitch, Viphavee; Chang, Jason S.; Liou, Hsien-Chin

2014-01-01

49

The Status of Metalinguistic Knowledge in Instructed Adult L2 Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated second language metalinguistic knowledge, or explicit knowledge about the second language, in English-speaking university-level learners of German and Spanish. The status of metalinguistic knowledge in relation to the individual difference variables of language-learning aptitude, working memory for language, and…

Roehr, Karen; Ganem-Gutierrez, Gabriela Adela

2009-01-01

50

CMC-Based Projects and L2 Learning: Confirming the Importance of Nativisation  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the spread of reliable desktop audio and videoconferencing facilities, some CMC-based projects still rely on asynchronous written environments, if only because of the temporal constraints of synchronicity (Guichon, 2009; Develotte, Guichon & Vincent, 2010). Yet speaking is usually the skill students most need to improve when learning a…

Grosbois, Muriel

2011-01-01

51

Estilos de pensamiento Cognitive styles: an approach to autonomous learning in L2 adult students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El siguiente artículo resume los resultados de una investigación descriptivo-cualitativa sobre estilos cognitivos o de pensamiento, llevado a cabo con miembros del programa de extensión académica en la UPB, con el objetivo de describir los estilos de pensamiento de los estudiantes que les permitan reconocer y utilizar estrategias meta cognitivas para desarrollar un nivel consciente de responsabilidad y autonomía en el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera. El marco teórico de este estudio se basa en conceptos tales como estilos cognitivos, estrategias meta cognitivas, aptitud, así como la autonomía y la responsabilidad en el aprendizaje. Los instrumentos diseñados para la recopilación de datos fueron un test sobre estilos cognitivos, en segundo lugar, un cuestionario semiestructurado con los siguientes ítems: proceso de toma de decisiones, la auto descripción como aprendices, las percepciones del estudiante sobre el papel del profesor, incluido el uso de estrategias meta cognitivas, tercero , una entrevista abierta con el objetivo de medir el impacto que tiene el concebir un proceso de aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera desde la perspectiva de los estilos de pensamiento. Los resultados mostraron la expectativa de los estudiantes para reconocer las capacidades humanas, la necesidad de adquirir la competencia estratégica, la necesidad real de participar abiertamente en la planificación de metas y objetivos, y en la auto-evaluación formativa del proceso de aprendizaje, así como el deseo de pasar de un proceso centrado en tareas, a un proceso centrado en la autonomía. The following article sums up the findings of a descriptive-qualitative research on cognitive styles carried out with members of the Academic Extension program at the UPB, aiming at describing the cognitive styles of students that enable them to recognize and use metacognitive strategies in order to develop a conscious level of autonomy and responsibility in learning a foreign language. This study was theoretically supported by concepts such as cognitive styles, metacognitive strategies, aptitude in learning, as well as autonomy and responsibility. The instruments used in the data collection procedures were first a test on cognitive styles, second, a semi structured questionnaire on decision making process, self description as learners, student´s perceptions on the teacher´s role, including the use of metacognitive strategies, third, an open interview aiming at measuring the impact of being aware of learning a foreign language from the perspective of cognitive styles. Results showed students’ inner expectations to recognize human abilities, the need to acquire strategic competence, the real need to openly participate in planning of goals and objectives, self assessment on formative learning process, as well as turning to be autonomous centered learners, rather that task oriented students.

Atehortúa Atehortúa José Nicolás

2010-01-01

52

Promoting Pre-service Second Language (L2 Teacher Learning via Narrative: A Sociocultural Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study constitutes a qualitative investigation of a series of interactions between an experienced teacher educator and a pre-service teacher in the context of a teaching English as a second language (ESL practicum blog. The study demonstrates how the activity of writing a dialogic blog can facilitate teacher professional development. Responding to the recent call to investigate the ways in which teacher engagement in writing (Johnson & Golombek, 2011 can assist teacher learning and given the urge to promote conceptual ways of understanding teaching on the part of the novice teachers (Johnson, 2009, this paper presents a case study that shows both the novice’s growth as expressed through writing and reflection in the blog as well the teacher educator’s moves designed to foster the novice’s learning. A sociocultural perspective on human cognitive development (Vygotsky, 1978 was used as a theoretical framework for tracing the novice’s development and capturing the transformative power of the novice’s narration as well as the characteristics of the teacher educator’s mediation. Our findings indicate that when the teacher educator’s mediation is strategically designed, engagement in narrative through a dialogic blog can be a powerful tool for stimulating a novice’s more expert understanding of ESL teaching and encouraging the application of that understanding in practice.

Ekaterina Arshavskaya

2014-07-01

53

The Effect of L1 on Learning New L2 Vocabulary among Intermediate Proficiency Level Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last decades, the role of mother tongue in language teaching has been the subject of a host of research studies ;however, quite rarely have researchers addressed such issues as comparing the use of mother tongue and other teaching techniques like paraphrasing and translation effects on students' reading comprehension ability and their ability in learning new English vocabulary. This study aimed to explore whether paraphrases vs. translations of new words in general English passages make any significant difference in intermediate proficiency level learners of English new vocabulary learning. It also aims to examine whether paraphrases or translations of texts at intermediate proficiency level affect significantly students' level of reading comprehension. The data for this study were collected through one proficiency test, 3 comprehension tests and one vocabulary test from 60 English students who study at SADR Private Language School in Isfahan. The data were analyzed descriptively and also inferentially. The overall findings of the study indicated that there was no significant difference between the comprehension of those who received Persian translation of new vocabulary and those who dealt with the paraphrase of the same new words and those who did not receive any L1 translation or paraphrase. The results for vocabulary test showed those who received the mother tongue definitions in front of each new word in the passage did perform significantly better on the vocabulary test than the other two groups. However study would help teachers and teacher trainers to construct and implement L1 and paraphrase in English classes more effectively.

Maryam Pakzadian

2012-06-01

54

L2 Students’ Comments on Language Exchange Communities in Language Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem Statement: EFL learners are rarely given opportunities to interact with native speakers and “…to do something with a language”. In Turkish settings, language learners mostly complain that they do not have enough opportunities to interact with native speakers, and class hours are too limited to acquire a language and more importantly they are not taught expressions that help them express themselves in daily contexts.Purpose of Study: This study aimed at investigating EFL (English as a Foreign Language learners’ experiences in a Language Exchange Community, namely xLingo.Method: 16 students from a state university spent time on language exchange communities. The researcher met these students once a week to make sure that everything was going fine. The students used xLingo for almost six months. The researcher interviewed them through the five questions that were earlier developed and piloted by the researcher himself.Findings and Results: The findings mostly focused on four aspects namely language development, autonomy, culture and self-confidence. Conclusions and Recommendations: Given the challenges Turkish EFL learners have to face in the process of language learning, language exchange communities are believed to open up more possibilities for language learners to get more comprehensible input and to interact with more native speakers and more importantly to do something with a language. In order to make best use of these communities, it is a mandatory step that language teachers be introduced to the concept along with practical applications and that these communities should be integrated into language testing system.

Cem Balç?kanl?

2012-04-01

55

Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) and L2 motivation associated with L2 pronunciation development in pre-service teachers of English / Estrategias de Aprendizaje de una Lengua y motivación L2 asociadas al desarrollo de la pronunciación de una L2 en estudiantes de Pedagogía en Inglés  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La presente investigación busca develar los mecanismos sicosociales que utilizan los profesores de inglés de pre-servicio destacados en su desarrollo fonológico en inglés como L2, canalizados a través de estrategias de aprendizaje de una lengua. La investigación hace uso de la metodología de estudio [...] de caso y recaba información de los dos participantes a través de la entrevista semi-estructurada, cuyos resultados son analizados a la luz de la taxonomía propuesta por Oxford (1990). Los resultados corroboran en cierta medida estudios anteriores en los siguientes sentidos: (i) los participantes hacen amplio uso de estrategias indirectas, entre las cuales destacan las estrategias metacognitivas, planificación del aprendizaje y monitoreo; (ii) las estrategias metacognitivas se ven potenciadas cuando entran en contacto con el uso de estrategias directas, tales como la creación de imágenes mentales, aplicación de imagen y sonido, práctica, razonamiento cognitivo y foco atencional; y (iii) la motivación se presenta como variable movilizadora del repertorio de estrategias de aprendizaje. Abstract in english This study seeks to uncover the psychosocial mechanisms used by pre-service teachers of English with the purpose of developing an L2 phonological system, within a framework of language learning strategies (LLSs) The study makes use of a case study methodology and collects information through a semi- [...] structured interview, whose results are interpreted in light of Oxford's (1990) taxonomy. The results corroborate to some extent findings made in previous studies, amongst which are: (i) ample use of indirect strategies, amongst which metacognitive, planning and monitoring stand out; (ii) greater potential of metacognitive strategies when accompanied by use of direct strategies such as mental images, applying images and sounds, practising, analysing/reasoning, and paying attention; and (iii) the mobilisation power of motivation in connection with a strategy repertoire.

Mauricio, Véliz C.

56

Language Learning Strategies (LLSs and L2 motivation associated with L2 pronunciation development in pre-service teachers of English Estrategias de Aprendizaje de una Lengua y motivación L2 asociadas al desarrollo de la pronunciación de una L2 en estudiantes de Pedagogía en Inglés  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study seeks to uncover the psychosocial mechanisms used by pre-service teachers of English with the purpose of developing an L2 phonological system, within a framework of language learning strategies (LLSs The study makes use of a case study methodology and collects information through a semi-structured interview, whose results are interpreted in light of Oxford's (1990 taxonomy. The results corroborate to some extent findings made in previous studies, amongst which are: (i ample use of indirect strategies, amongst which metacognitive, planning and monitoring stand out; (ii greater potential of metacognitive strategies when accompanied by use of direct strategies such as mental images, applying images and sounds, practising, analysing/reasoning, and paying attention; and (iii the mobilisation power of motivation in connection with a strategy repertoire.La presente investigación busca develar los mecanismos sicosociales que utilizan los profesores de inglés de pre-servicio destacados en su desarrollo fonológico en inglés como L2, canalizados a través de estrategias de aprendizaje de una lengua. La investigación hace uso de la metodología de estudio de caso y recaba información de los dos participantes a través de la entrevista semi-estructurada, cuyos resultados son analizados a la luz de la taxonomía propuesta por Oxford (1990. Los resultados corroboran en cierta medida estudios anteriores en los siguientes sentidos: (i los participantes hacen amplio uso de estrategias indirectas, entre las cuales destacan las estrategias metacognitivas, planificación del aprendizaje y monitoreo; (ii las estrategias metacognitivas se ven potenciadas cuando entran en contacto con el uso de estrategias directas, tales como la creación de imágenes mentales, aplicación de imagen y sonido, práctica, razonamiento cognitivo y foco atencional; y (iii la motivación se presenta como variable movilizadora del repertorio de estrategias de aprendizaje.

Mauricio Véliz C

2012-01-01

57

Evolutionary Learning Algorithm for Multi-layer Morphological Neural Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphological Neural Network (MNN is a novel and important neural network and it has many applications such as image processing and pattern recognition. It makes sense to research the learning algorithm of MNN and its application. A method based on genetic algorithm is presented to train and implement multi-layer morphological neural network in this study. The algorithm calculates the weights and biases of morphological neural network and the genetic algorithm automatically acquire the learning rate. After that, the trained morphological neural network is applied to image restoration. The image restoration simulation and a comparison with the median filter are shown in the end. It shows that the morphological neural network is a quite good method applied to image restoration.

He Chunmei

2013-01-01

58

Direct and Indirect Access to Corpora: An Exploratory Case Study Comparing Students' Error Correction and Learning Strategy Use in L2 Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on students' use of corpora in L2 writing have demonstrated the benefits of corpora not only as a linguistic resource to improve their writing abilities but also as a cognitive tool to develop their learning skills and strategies. Most of the corpus studies, however, adopted either direct use or indirect use of corpora by students,…

Yoon, Hyunsook; Jo, Jung Won

2014-01-01

59

Cantonese English as a Second Language Learners' Perceived Relations between "Similar" L1 and L2 Speech Sounds: A Test of the Speech Learning Model  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on the results of a research study that investigated Cantonese English as a second language (ESL) learners' perception of English speech sounds, their perceived relations between "similar" English and Cantonese sounds, as well as the applicability of the claims of the Speech Learning Model (SLM) to second language (L2)…

Chan, Alice Y. W.

2012-01-01

60

Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: evidence from two learning methods in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyse the effect of two learning methods (picture- vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and non-cognates) in early stages of children's L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age = 10.87 years; SD= 0.85), participated in the study. None of them had prior knowledge of Basque (the L2 in this study). After a learning phase in which L2 words were learned either by a picture- or a word-based method, children were tested in a backward-word translation recognition task at two times (immediately vs. one week later). Results showed that the participants made more errors when rejecting semantically related than semantically unrelated words as correct translations (semantic interference effect). The magnitude of this effect was higher in the delayed test condition regardless of the learning method. Moreover, the overall performance of participants from the word-based method was better than the performance of participants from the picture-word method. Results were discussed concerning the most significant bilingual lexical processing models. PMID:22804703

Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
61

Automatic programming of binary morphological machines by PAC learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Binary image analysis problems can be solved by set operators implemented as programs for a binary morphological machine (BMM). This is a very general and powerful approach to solve this type of problem. However, the design of these programs is not a task manageable by nonexperts on mathematical morphology. In order to overcome this difficulty we have worked on tools that help users describe their goals at higher levels of abstraction and to translate them into BMM programs. Some of these tools are based on the representation of the goals of the user as a collection of input-output pairs of images and the estimation of the target operator from these data. PAC learning is a well suited methodology for this task, since in this theory 'concepts' are represented as Boolean functions that are equivalent to set operators. In order to apply this technique in practice we must have efficient learning algorithms. In this paper we introduce two PAC learning algorithms, both are based on the minimal representation of Boolean functions, which has a straightforward translation to the canonical decomposition of set operators. The first algorithm is based on the classical Quine-McCluskey algorithm for the simplification of Boolean functions, and the second one is based on a new idea for the construction of Boolean functions: the incremental splitting of intervals. We also present a comparative complexity analysis of the two algorithms. Finally, we give some application examples.

Barrera, Junior; Tomita, Nina S.; Correa da Silva, Flavio S.; Terada, Routo

1995-08-01

62

The Influence of Incidental and Intentional Vocabulary Acquisition and Vocabulary Strategy Use on Learning L2 Vocabularies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the role of incidental and intentional vocabulary acquisition in addition to the influence of language learning strategy: namely, the use of vocabulary strategy by Iranian EFL learners in learning new vocabularies. Accordingly, this study is two-faceted. First, Part A examines the difference between different modes of presentation, incidental and intentional learning of new vocabularies (i.e., incidental, etymology-based intentional, and meaning-based intentional, and acquisition of new vocabularies. Part B investigates the impact of the use of language learning strategies—in this case vocabulary and reading strategy use using The Language Strategy Use Inventory—on the learning of new vocabularies. Part A, studying the influence of incidental as opposed to intentional presentation and acquisition of vocabularies, involved 30 students (i.e., 26 males and 4 females. Part B of the study, investigating the role of vocabulary learning strategy use, involved 59 students (i.e., 49 males and 10 females. The results of Part A shown by t-test indicate that, as far as performance of the students on a test of vocabulary acquisition is concerned, there is no significant difference between the two modes—incidental and intentional learning. However, for the same part, linear regression proved that among the vocabularies presented through different modes of presentation, it is vocabularies learned through meaning-based intentional mode that is the most predictive of the performance of the students on a test of vocabulary acquisition. Moreover, as for part B, the study found that there is a positive, but weak, correlation between the students’ vocabulary strategy use – measured by students filling out a self-report questionnaire entitled The Language Strategy Use Inventory developed by Cohen, A, Oxford, L. R, and Chi. J. – and their learning of new vocabularies. Finally, the findings of part B of the study indicate that, as the degree to which the students’ use of vocabulary strategy use increases, so does their use of reading strategy use.

Minoo Alemi

2011-01-01

63

The Effects of Task Involvement Load on L2 Incidental Vocabulary Learning: A Meta-Analytic Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This meta-analytic study provides a systematic statistical synthesis of the effects of output tasks on second or foreign incidental vocabulary learning. A total of 12 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Five mediator variables were examined: design quality, types of output task, time on task, genres of text, and text-target word ratios.…

Huang, Shufen; Willson, Victor; Eslami, Zohreh

2012-01-01

64

On the Relationship between Self-regulated Learning Components and L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the past two decades, self-regulation has been the center of heated debate in educational psychology. The present study attempted to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' self-regulated learning components and vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension .To fulfill this objective, a 60-item vocabulary and reading comprehension TOEFL test was administered to a sample of 250 male and female college students majoring in English Teaching, English Language Translation, and English Literature. The Persian version of “Self- regulation Trait Questionnaire” was administered to the same participants. Pearson correlation procedure was used to analyze data. Results indicated that the correlation between self-regulated learning components: planning, self -checking, effort and self-efficacy gave mixed results. That is to say, two of the correlation coefficients, self –checking and effort were significant while the other two, planning and self-efficacy, were non-significant.

Abbas Ali Zarei

2012-09-01

65

On the Relationship between Self-regulated Learning Components and L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the past two decades, self-regulation has been the center of heated debate in educational psychology. The present study attempted to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' self-regulated learning components and vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension .To fulfill this objective, a 60-item vocabulary and reading comprehension TOEFL test was administered to a sample of 250 male and female college students majoring in English Teaching, English Language Translation, a...

Abbas Ali Zarei; Gamar Hatami

2012-01-01

66

The Effect of Exposure to the Visual Medium on Learning Pronunciation and Word Stress of L2 Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the effect of exposure to the visual medium on learning pronunciation and word stress. Thirty junior high school students participated in this study. They were divided into an experimental and a control group each included 15 students. The participants were given a pretest in order to make sure that they were homogeneous with regard to their pronunciation and word stress. Both groups received instruction on key to phonetic symbols available in the back of their textbooks and on the stress of English words. The participants in the experimental group read the computerized written passages while they had access to the pronunciation of the target words through phonetic symbols of the words. The control group listened to the teacher reading the same passages and repeated after her without having any access to the computer and experimental materials. Finally, the attitudinal questionnaire was given to the participants in experimental group to elicit their attitude towards their practicing technique. The findings revealed that visual medium had significant effect on learning word stress but not pronunciation of target words. Furthermore, using computer as a visual medium increased students’ motivation for both pronunciation and word stress learning.

Zahra Fotovatnia

2013-05-01

67

Classroom L2 Vocabulary Acquisition: Investigating the Role of Pedagogical Tasks and Form-Focused Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

Framed under a cognitive approach to task-based L2 learning, this study used a pedagogical approach to investigate the effects of three vocabulary lessons (one traditional and two task-based) on acquisition of basic meanings, forms and morphological aspects of Spanish words. Quantitative analysis performed on the data suggests that the type of…

de la Fuente, Maria J.

2006-01-01

68

Combining Hand-crafted Rules and Unsupervised Learning in Constraint-based Morphological Disambiguation  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents a constraint-based morphological disambiguation approach that is applicable languages with complex morphology--specifically agglutinative languages with productive inflectional and derivational morphological phenomena. In certain respects, our approach has been motivated by Brill's recent work, but with the observation that his transformational approach is not directly applicable to languages like Turkish. Our system combines corpus independent hand-crafted constraint rules, constraint rules that are learned via unsupervised learning from a training corpus, and additional statistical information from the corpus to be morphologically disambiguated. The hand-crafted rules are linguistically motivated and tuned to improve precision without sacrificing recall. The unsupervised learning process produces two sets of rules: (i) choose rules which choose morphological parses of a lexical item satisfying constraint effectively discarding other parses, and (ii) delete rules, which delete parses sati...

Oflazer, K; Oflazer, Kemal; Tur, Gokhan

1996-01-01

69

?????????? ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? L_2. I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? [0,+? ? ??????? L 2 ? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????????????? ????. ???????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????. ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? - ?????? ? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????????.Some problems of aproximations of functions on half-interval [0,+? in the L 2-metric with certain weight by entire functions of exponential growth are studied. Modules of continuity which used in problems are constructed with help of generalized translations of Bessel. Direct theorems of Jacson type are proved. Nikolskii - Besov type function spaces are defined and their description are obtained in terms of the best approximations.

???????? ?. ?.

2000-01-01

70

Perceptual assimilation and L2 learning: evidence from the perception of Southern British English vowels by native speakers of Greek and Japanese.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the extent to which previous experience with duration in first language (L1) vowel distinctions affects the use of duration when perceiving vowels in a second language (L2). Native speakers of Greek (where duration is not used to differentiate vowels) and Japanese (where vowels are distinguished by duration) first identified and rated the eleven English monophthongs, embedded in /bVb/ and /bVp/ contexts, in terms of their L1 categories and then carried out discrimination tests on those English vowels. The results demonstrated that both L2 groups were sensitive to durational cues when perceiving the English vowels. However, listeners were found to temporally assimilate L2 vowels to L1 category/categories. Temporal information was available in discrimination only when the listeners' L1 duration category/categories did not interfere with the target duration categories and hence the use of duration in such cases cannot be attributed to its perceptual salience as has been proposed. PMID:19776666

Lengeris, Angelos

2009-01-01

71

Unsupervised Discovery of Phonological Categories through Supervised Learning of Morphological Rules  

CERN Document Server

We describe a case study in the application of {\\em symbolic machine learning} techniques for the discovery of linguistic rules and categories. A supervised rule induction algorithm is used to learn to predict the correct diminutive suffix given the phonological representation of Dutch nouns. The system produces rules which are comparable to rules proposed by linguists. Furthermore, in the process of learning this morphological task, the phonemes used are grouped into phonologically relevant categories. We discuss the relevance of our method for linguistics and language technology.

Daelemans, W; Gillis, S; Daelemans, Walter; Berck, Peter; Gillis, Steven

1996-01-01

72

Representational Teaching in the L2 Classroom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The author using research by McRae (1991 advocates the implementation of ‘representational’ materials when teaching reading skills to L2 learners. The paper puts forward the relevant research in this area and how it can be applied to L2 learning environments. It should be noted that this style of teaching is sometimes referred to as ‘creative reading’. Next, the paper provides guidance on text selection and the benefits of using representational materials in an L2 pedagogical setting. Finally, the author will detail how he implemented representational task-based activities with a class of nine-year-old L2 learners at an international academy in Seoul, South Korea using two literary texts. The author also notes his observations of student behaviour during the lessons. 

Mark Graham Sample

2014-07-01

73

Fault-tolerant gait learning and morphology optimization of a polymorphic walking robot  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents experiments with a morphology-independent, life-long strategy for online learning of locomotion gaits. The experimental platform is a quadruped robot assembled from the LocoKit modular robotic construction kit. The learning strategy applies a stochastic optimization algorithm to optimize eight open parameters of a central pattern generator based gait implementation. We observe that the strategy converges in roughly ten minutes to gaits of similar or higher velocity than a manually designed gait and that the strategy readapts in the event of failed actuators. We also optimize offline the reachable space of a foot based on a reference design but finds that the reality gap hardens the successfully transference to the physical robot. To address this limitation, in future work we plan to study co-learning of morphological and control parameters directly on physical robots.

Christensen, David Johan

2013-01-01

74

Negotiated Interaction in the L2 Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper reports on an approximate replication of Foster's (1998) study on the negotiation of meaning. Foster investigated the interactional adjustments produced by L2 English learners working on different types of language learning tasks in a classroom setting. The replication study duplicates the methods of data collection and data…

Eckerth, Johannes

2009-01-01

75

HABILIDADES COMUNICATIVAS EN L2 MEDIATIZADAS POR LA TECNOLOGIA EN EL CONTEXTO DE LOS ENFOQUES POR TAREAS Y COOPERATIVO Habilidades comunicativas em L2 mediatizadas pela tecnologia no contexto dos enfoques por tarefas e cooperativo Communicative abilities in L2 mediated by technology in the context of task based teaching and cooperative learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este artículo es determinar cómo los principios metodológicos del enfoque basado en tareas, el aprendizaje cooperativo y la metodología CALL pueden ser utilizados de manera combinada en el diseño de actividades para el desarrollo de las habilidades lingüísticas. Con este objetivo, se explora evidencia empírica acerca de la efectividad de esta metodología en el aprendizaje de inglés como lengua extranjera en un estudio cuasiexperimental pre- y post- test grupo control. Los resultados obtenidos revelan un mayor incremento en el aprendizaje del grupo experimental que utilizó la metodología integrada en comparación con el grupo control que trabajó con una metodología tradicional. Esto sugiere que el uso combinado del enfoque basado en tareas, el aprendizaje cooperativo y la metodología CALL sería beneficioso para el desarrollo de las habilidades lingüísticas.O objetivo principal deste artigo é determinar como os princípios teóricos do enfoque baseado em tarefas, a aprendizagem cooperativa e a metodologia CALL podem ser utilizados de maneira combinada no desenho de atividades para a melhora das habilidades lingüísticas. Com este objetivo, explora-se a evidência empírica a respeito da efetividade desta metodologia na aprendizagem do inglês como língua estrangeira num estudo cuasi-experimental com um pré- e pós-teste e um grupo controle. Os resultados obtidos revelam um maior incremento na aprendizagem do grupo experimental que utilizou a metodologia integrada em comparação com o grupo controle que trabalhou com uma metodologia tradicional. Isto sugere que o uso combinado do enfoque baseado em tarefas, a aprendizagem cooperativa e a metodologia CALL seria benéfico para o desenvolvimento das habilidades lingüísticas.The main objective of this article is to portray how the theoretical principles of task-based teaching, cooperative learning and CALL can be used together in the design of activities for the improvement of linguistic abilities. To achieve this, empirical evidence was examined in order to determine the efficiency of this integrated methodology vs. The traditional one commonly used for teaching English as a foreign language. Both methods were contrasted and tested in an experimental pre/post test control group research design. the results show that the experimental group, which used the integrated methodology, had a considerable language improvement compared to the control group that used a traditional one. This suggests that an integrated methodology using the approach of the task-based teaching, the cooperative learning and CALL would be beneficial for the improvement of linguistic abilities.

Angie Quintanilla Espinoza

2010-01-01

76

HABILIDADES COMUNICATIVAS EN L2 MEDIATIZADAS POR LA TECNOLOGIA EN EL CONTEXTO DE LOS ENFOQUES POR TAREAS Y COOPERATIVO / Communicative abilities in L2 mediated by technology in the context of task based teaching and cooperative learning / Habilidades comunicativas em L2 mediatizadas pela tecnologia no contexto dos enfoques por tarefas e cooperativo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O objetivo principal deste artigo é determinar como os princípios teóricos do enfoque baseado em tarefas, a aprendizagem cooperativa e a metodologia CALL podem ser utilizados de maneira combinada no desenho de atividades para a melhora das habilidades lingüísticas. Com este objetivo, explora-se a ev [...] idência empírica a respeito da efetividade desta metodologia na aprendizagem do inglês como língua estrangeira num estudo cuasi-experimental com um pré- e pós-teste e um grupo controle. Os resultados obtidos revelam um maior incremento na aprendizagem do grupo experimental que utilizou a metodologia integrada em comparação com o grupo controle que trabalhou com uma metodologia tradicional. Isto sugere que o uso combinado do enfoque baseado em tarefas, a aprendizagem cooperativa e a metodologia CALL seria benéfico para o desenvolvimento das habilidades lingüísticas. Abstract in spanish El objetivo principal de este artículo es determinar cómo los principios metodológicos del enfoque basado en tareas, el aprendizaje cooperativo y la metodología CALL pueden ser utilizados de manera combinada en el diseño de actividades para el desarrollo de las habilidades lingüísticas. Con este obj [...] etivo, se explora evidencia empírica acerca de la efectividad de esta metodología en el aprendizaje de inglés como lengua extranjera en un estudio cuasiexperimental pre- y post- test grupo control. Los resultados obtenidos revelan un mayor incremento en el aprendizaje del grupo experimental que utilizó la metodología integrada en comparación con el grupo control que trabajó con una metodología tradicional. Esto sugiere que el uso combinado del enfoque basado en tareas, el aprendizaje cooperativo y la metodología CALL sería beneficioso para el desarrollo de las habilidades lingüísticas. Abstract in english The main objective of this article is to portray how the theoretical principles of task-based teaching, cooperative learning and CALL can be used together in the design of activities for the improvement of linguistic abilities. To achieve this, empirical evidence was examined in order to determine t [...] he efficiency of this integrated methodology vs. The traditional one commonly used for teaching English as a foreign language. Both methods were contrasted and tested in an experimental pre/post test control group research design. the results show that the experimental group, which used the integrated methodology, had a considerable language improvement compared to the control group that used a traditional one. This suggests that an integrated methodology using the approach of the task-based teaching, the cooperative learning and CALL would be beneficial for the improvement of linguistic abilities.

Angie, Quintanilla Espinoza; Anita, Ferreira Cabrera.

77

Effects of Variability in Fundamental Frequency on L2 Vocabulary Learning: A Comparison between Learners Who Do and Do Not Speak a Tone Language  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies (Barcroft & Sommers, 2005; Sommers & Barcroft, 2007) have demonstrated that variability in talker, speaking style, and speaking rate positively affect second language vocabulary learning, whereas variability in overall amplitude and fundamental frequency (F0) do not, at least for native English speakers. Sommers and…

Barcroft, Joe; Sommers, Mitchell S.

2014-01-01

78

Digital and traditional slides for teaching cellular morphology: a comparative analysis of learning outcomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent advances in technology have brought forth an intriguing new tool for teaching hematopoietic cellular identification skills: the digital slide. Although digitized slides offer a number of appealing options for educators, little research has been done to examine how their utilization would impact learning outcomes. To fill that void, this study was designed to examine student performance, skill retention and transferability, and self-efficacy beliefs amongst undergraduate MLS students learning cellular morphology with digital versus traditional slides. Results showed that students learning with digital slides performed better on assessments containing only traditional slide specimens than students learning with traditional slides, both immediately following the learning activity and after a considerable duration of time. Students learning with digital slides also reported slightly higher levels of self-efficacy related to cellular identification. The findings of this study suggest that students learning cellular identification skills with digital slides are able to transfer that skill directly to traditional slides, and that their ability to identify cells is not negatively affected in present or future settings. PMID:23397880

Solberg, Brooke L

2012-01-01

79

Machine Learning of Phonologically Conditioned Noun Declensions For Tamil Morphological Generators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents machine learning solutions to a practical problem of Natural Language Generation (NLG), particularly the word formation in agglutinative languages like Tamil, in a supervised manner. The morphological generator is an important component of Natural Language Processing in Artificial Intelligence. It generates word forms given a root and affixes. The morphophonemic changes like addition, deletion, alternation etc., occur when two or more morphemes or words j...

Rajan, K.; Ramalingam, Dr V.; Ganesan, Dr M.

2014-01-01

80

Analysis of LOFT Tests L2-2, L2-3 and L3-0  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes LOFT Tests L2-2, L2-3, and L3-0 and presents conclusions reached from analysis of these tests. The LOFT L2 series of tests, called the power ascension series, originally consisted of six tests. The first four tests, L2-1 through L2-4, were identical except for step-wise increases in core power for each test. Comparison of these tests, and the nonnuclear Test L1-5, was planned to evaluate the effect of core power on system and ECC behavior during large cold leg break LOCA's. Tests L2-5 and L2-6 were to provide parametric investigations of the effect of loss of offsite power and prepressurized fuel. Prior to the start of the L2 series, it was decided Test L2-1 was not necessary due to the information learned from the LOFT nonnuclear tests and PBF lead rod tests. Tests L2-2 and L2-3 are described. The posttest analysis of Tests L2-2 and L2-3 is discussed, and conclusions reached from the comparisons of the experimental data to computer calculations presented. In addition, the results and implications of computer calculations on a commercial size PWR with the same model used for LOFT are presented. Finally, Test L3-0 is described and conclusions reached from it introduced

 
 
 
 
81

Combining human and machine learning for morphological analysis of galaxy images  

CERN Document Server

The increasing importance of digital sky surveys collecting many millions of galaxy images has reinforced the need for robust methods that can perform morphological analysis of large galaxy image databases. Citizen science initiatives such as Galaxy Zoo showed that large datasets of galaxy images can be analyzed effectively by non-scientist volunteers, but since databases generated by robotic telescopes grow much faster than the processing power of any group of citizen scientists, it is clear that computer analysis is required. Here we propose to use citizen science data for training machine learning systems, and show experimental results demonstrating that machine learning systems can be trained with citizen science data. Our findings show that the performance of machine learning depends on the quality of the data, which can be improved by using samples that have a high degree of agreement between the citizen scientists. The source code of the method is publicly available.

Kuminski, Evan; Wallin, John; Shamir, Lior

2014-01-01

82

Experiência em sala de aula: evidência empírica da complexidade no ensino e aprendizagem de LE / Classroom experience: empirical evidence of complexity in l2 teaching and learning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo argumenta pela compreensão do construto experiência, como um Sistema Adaptativo Complexo, tendo em vista que, para compreendê-la, toda experiência encapsula um processo, no qual outros eventos que a perpassam são trazidos à tona. Para tal, partimos da pesquisa sobre experiências, apresen [...] tando trechos de relatos de estudantes e professores sobre eventos vivenciados em salas de aula de língua estrangeira (LE), como evidência empírica de conceitos da complexidade, aplicados aos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE. Explicitamos, assim, a relação entre experiência, como construto, e caos / complexidade, como teoria, para compreender a natureza dos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE em salas de aula. Abstract in english This article argues for understanding the construct of experience as a complex adaptive system since experience, as a process, encapsulates other events that permeate it, bringing them to the fore. To this end, we briefly review research on experience and present excerpts from students’ and teachers [...] ’ report data of events experienced in the foreign language classrooms as empirical evidence of applying complexity theory concepts to understand the processes of foreign language teaching and learning. Thus, the explicit relationship between experience, as a construct, and chaos / complexity, as a theory, play a role for understanding the nature of classroom foreign language teaching and learning.

Laura Stella, Miccoli; Carolina Vianini A., Lima.

83

L2 Motivation and Personality as Predictors of the Second Language Proficiency: Role of the Big Five Traits and L2 Motivational Self System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This study examined the predictability of the L2 proficiency by personality and L2 motivational self system variables among 141 Iranian EFL university students. Participants completed Transparent Bipolar Inventory (Goldberg, 1992 as a personality measure, L2 motivational self system (Papi, 2010, and a self-rated measure of second language proficiency. Regression analyses showed that extroversion and openness to experience accounted for 13% of the variance in L2 proficiency; and ideal L2 self and L2 learning experience accounted for 35% of the variance in L2 proficiency. Further, extroversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and openness explained 25% of the variance of in ideal L2 self; neuroticism and conscientiousness explained 24% of the variance in ought-to L2 self; and conscientiousness and extroversion explained 26% of the variance in L2 learning experience. Hierarchical regressions also showed that L2 motivation is a more powerful predictor of L2 proficiency.

Key words: Second language proficiency; Big Five traits; Ideal L2 self; Ought to L2 self; L2 learning experience; Motivation

Zargham Ghapanchi

2011-12-01

84

Variations autour de la tâche dans l'enseignement / apprentissage des langues aujourd'hui What kind of tasks are used for L2 teaching and learning today?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article se donne pour objectif d'identifier les types de tâches, et leurs dénominateurs communs, qui sont présentés aujourd'hui – où "l'approche par les tâches" est soutenue par le Conseil de l'Europe – aux apprenants. Il analyse pour cela les articles issus de deux numéros de revues et un ouvrage collectif récents. Il apparaît que la grande majorité des scénarios pédagogiques s'y inscrit dans la perspective actionnelle... du moins d'après la déclaration des auteurs, car leur définition de ce qu'est une tâche ne correspond pas toujours à celle du CECR. Pour le public visé, étudiants ou professionnels, on propose le plus souvent des mono-tâches, mais également des projets, ou encore des simulations avec un enchaînement de plusieurs tâches. Elles s'inscrivent généralement dans la (future réalité sociale des apprenants, mais certaines laissent également la place à des thèmes artistiques ou (interculturels. Contrairement à ce que l'on aurait pu attendre dans une démarche qui responsabilise l'apprenant, le recours à Internet n'est pas toujours systématique.At a time when action- and task-based learning is sustained by the European Council, this paper explores which types of tasks are given to second language learners today and what aspects these tasks have in common. The paper analyses two recent issues of scientific journals and one collective book. The analysis shows that the majority of pedagogical scenarios described in these texts claim to adopt an action- and task-based approach. However, in reality the way they define a task does not always correspond to the definition given by the European Framework of Reference for Languages. The described tasks are exclusively dedicated to higher and professional education; they are mostly single tasks, but they can also be projects and simulations including several successive tasks. They generally correspond to the learners' (future reality, with themes that are nevertheless sometimes a little bit less “pragmatic”, like artistic or (intercultural ones. Contrary to what one might have expected within an approach that gives responsibility to the learner and where public access to the learners' productions is valued, the pedagogical scenarios do not systematically integrate the use of the Internet.

Elke Nissen

2011-10-01

85

Scoring diverse cellular morphologies in image-based screens with iterative feedback and machine learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many biological pathways were first uncovered by identifying mutants with visible phenotypes and by scoring every sample in a screen via tedious and subjective visual inspection. Now, automated image analysis can effectively score many phenotypes. In practical application, customizing an image-analysis algorithm or finding a sufficient number of example cells to train a machine learning algorithm can be infeasible, particularly when positive control samples are not available and the phenotype of interest is rare. Here we present a supervised machine learning approach that uses iterative feedback to readily score multiple subtle and complex morphological phenotypes in high-throughput, image-based screens. First, automated cytological profiling extracts hundreds of numerical descriptors for every cell in every image. Next, the researcher generates a rule (i.e., classifier) to recognize cells with a phenotype of interest during a short, interactive training session using iterative feedback. Finally, all of the cells in the experiment are automatically classified and each sample is scored based on the presence of cells displaying the phenotype. By using this approach, we successfully scored images in RNA interference screens in 2 organisms for the prevalence of 15 diverse cellular morphologies, some of which were previously intractable. PMID:19188593

Jones, Thouis R; Carpenter, Anne E; Lamprecht, Michael R; Moffat, Jason; Silver, Serena J; Grenier, Jennifer K; Castoreno, Adam B; Eggert, Ulrike S; Root, David E; Golland, Polina; Sabatini, David M

2009-02-10

86

A morphological perceptron with gradient-based learning for Brazilian stock market forecasting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several linear and non-linear techniques have been proposed to solve the stock market forecasting problem. However, a limitation arises from all these techniques and is known as the random walk dilemma (RWD). In this scenario, forecasts generated by arbitrary models have a characteristic one step ahead delay with respect to the time series values, so that, there is a time phase distortion in stock market phenomena reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a suitable model inspired by concepts in mathematical morphology (MM) and lattice theory (LT). This model is generically called the increasing morphological perceptron (IMP). Also, we present a gradient steepest descent method to design the proposed IMP based on ideas from the back-propagation (BP) algorithm and using a systematic approach to overcome the problem of non-differentiability of morphological operations. Into the learning process we have included a procedure to overcome the RWD, which is an automatic correction step that is geared toward eliminating time phase distortions that occur in stock market phenomena. Furthermore, an experimental analysis is conducted with the IMP using four complex non-linear problems of time series forecasting from the Brazilian stock market. Additionally, two natural phenomena time series are used to assess forecasting performance of the proposed IMP with other non financial time series. At the end, the obtained results are discussed and compared to results found using models recently proposed in the literature. PMID:22391234

Araújo, Ricardo de A

2012-04-01

87

CALL--Enhanced L2 Listening Skills--Aiming for Automatization in a Multimedia Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening…

Mayor, Maria Jesus Blasco

2009-01-01

88

Feedback in L2 Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Most research in feedback has not found significant differences in error correcting approaches for L2 writing. This paper reviews research on error correction approaches used by second language instructors and reports on a survey of 50 French and American instructors of English as a Second Language (ESL). Although research over the last 35 years…

Ihde, Thomas W.

89

Translation and Short-Term L2 Vocabulary Retention: Hindrance or Help?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study addresses the role that active translation may have in second language (L2) vocabulary learning. Some research suggests that translation might be an effective cognitive strategy for L2 vocabulary learning. Participants were 191 native French-speaking students enrolled in a TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) program.The study…

Hummel, Kirsten M.

2010-01-01

90

Enrichment and photoperiod interact to affect spatial learning and hippocampal dendritic morphology in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus).  

Science.gov (United States)

In seasonally changing environments, individuals must coordinate endogenous processes with ambient conditions. Winter is a challenging time to survive and reproduce. In order to anticipate decreased food availability and low temperatures in winter, many rodents use decreasing day lengths as a precise temporal cue. Short day lengths alter several adaptations, including reproduction, immune function, aggressive behavior and spatial learning in non-tropical rodents. Specifically, short days impair spatial learning in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and alter dendritic complexity in the hippocampus. The goal of the current study was to determine whether short days constrain neural plasticity. If short days limit the capacity for plasticity, then environmental enrichment, a manipulation that induces morphological changes, should alter dendritic morphology in long, but not short, days. Male white-footed mice were assigned to long (16 : 8 LD) or short (8 : 16 LD) photoperiod in either enriched or standard cages. Enrichment consisted of a large cage, cage mates, Habitrail tubes, a nest box and a running wheel. Mice were tested in the Morris water maze. Reproductive tissues were collected and weighed; brains were processed for dendritic morphology. Short days impaired spatial learning. Short days also reduced spine density on apical dendrites within the CA3 region of the hippocampus. However, enrichment prevented short-day-induced deficits in learning and also increased hippocampal spine density in the CA1 and CA3 regions in short-day mice. These results suggest that day length and other non-photic environmental factors interact to regulate dendritic morphology, and that short photoperiods do not constrain the capacity for functional neural plasticity. PMID:19120443

Workman, Joanna L; Bowers, Stephanie L; Nelson, Randy J

2009-01-01

91

Deconstructing Gender Stereotyping through Literature in L2  

Science.gov (United States)

While it is generally accepted that literature fosters (inter)cultural learning, few qualitative studies have sought to understand in what ways interculturality is developed. This article investigates the development of Spanish L2 students' intercultural awareness through the reading of a short story entitled "Norma y Ester" by Argentine writer,…

Yulita, Leticia

2010-01-01

92

Teaching L2 Spanish Stress  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the effects of training on the perception of Spanish stress, an important feature in the Spanish verbal morphology system. Participants were two intact classes of native English speakers enrolled in a six-week session of second-semester Spanish, as well as native English and native Spanish control groups. During the…

Saalfeld, Anita K.

2012-01-01

93

Automated three-dimensional reconstruction and morphological analysis of dendritic spines based on semi-supervised learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

A dendritic spine is a small membranous protrusion from a neuron's dendrite that typically receives input from a single synapse of an axon. Recent research shows that the morphological changes of dendritic spines have a close relationship with some specific diseases. The distribution of different dendritic spine phenotypes is a key indicator of such changes. Therefore, it is necessary to classify detected spines with different phenotypes online. Since the dendritic spines have complex three dimensional (3D) structures, current neuron morphological analysis approaches cannot classify the dendritic spines accurately with limited features. In this paper, we propose a novel semi-supervised learning approach in order to perform the online morphological classification of dendritic spines. Spines are detected by a new approach based on wavelet transform in the 3D space. A small training data set is chosen from the detected spines, which has the spines labeled by the neurobiologists. The remaining spines are then classified online by the semi-supervised learning (SSL) approach. Experimental results show that our method can quickly and accurately analyze neuron images with modest human intervention. PMID:24877014

Shi, Peng; Huang, Yue; Hong, Jinsheng

2014-05-01

94

EM BUSCA DA LEITURA COLABORATIVA NA AULA DE L2 IN SEARCH OF COLLABORATIVE READING IN THE L2 CLASSROOM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o resultado de um estudo piloto realizado com dois alunosdurante uma aula de leitura. Trabalhando em par numa atividade de leituracolaborativa, os alunos tiveram a chance de compartilhar um com o outroinformações preciosas para a compreensão do texto, bem como de desenvolverestratégias mediadoras que, acreditamos, podem colaborar para a aprendizagemde L2.The aim of this article is to present the result of a reading experience with a pairof students during an English class. By working together, students coulddevelop mediating strategies, which, we believe, will help them be better learnersand better users of the L2 they are learning.

FRANCISCO JOSÉ QUARESMA DE FIGUEIREDO e BARBRA DO ROSÁRIO SABOTA

2002-01-01

95

The Roles of Context and Word Morphology in Learning New Kanji Words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores quantitative and Qualitative differences between context and word morphology as determinants of students' guesses of the meanings of novel kanji compounds. Japanese language learners interpreted unknown compounds consisting of familiar characters under three conditions. (Author/VWL)

Mori, Yoshiko

2003-01-01

96

L2 English Intonation: Relations between Form-Meaning Associations, Access to Meaning, and L1 Transfer  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there is consistent evidence that higher levels of processing, such as learning the form-meaning associations specific to the second language (L2), are a source of difficulty in acquiring L2 speech, no study has addressed how these levels interact in shaping L2 perception and production of intonation. We examine the hypothesis of whether…

Ortega-Llebaria, Marta; Colantoni, Laura

2014-01-01

97

Enhancing Lexical Knowledge through L2 Medium Tasks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the L2 use rate in EFL classrooms through introducing three task conditions in learning lexical items. Date were collected from a group of freshman university students (male and female studying in Islamic Azad university of Sabzevar, Iran. (N=73. Based on their performance on a Michigan TOEFL reading test battery, they were first randomly divided into three groups, each completing one of the three vocabulary learning tasks that varied in the amount of L1/L2 use they induced during a two month period. The tasks were 'Reading plus further L2 reading', 'Reading plus L1 translation only' and 'dictionary work'. The statistical analysis of the students' performance on vocabulary post-tests was performed through One-Way ANOVA followed with the post hoc Regression Scheffe test to analyze which task has created a meaningful mean variability at 0/05 for both between and within groups. The results showed the outperformance of the group receiving 'reading plus further L2 reading' tasks and not the tasks involving more L1 use. (p:<0.05 Possible implications of the study are presented in the light of Task Load Involvement Hypothesis by (Laufer & Hulstijn, 2001.

Marjan Vosoughi

2012-08-01

98

Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots : Proceedings of the International Symposium on Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hand-coding locomotion controllers for modular robots is dif?cult due to their polymorphic nature. Instead, we propose to use a simple and distributed reinforcement learning strategy. ATRON modules with identical controllers can be assembled in any con?guration. To optimize the robot?s locomotion speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy?s performance on different robot con?gurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast as possible. We conclude that the learning strategy is effective and may be a practical approach to design gaits.

Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko

99

Measurements of Development in L2 Written Production: The Case of L2 Chinese  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates measures for second language (L2) writing development. A T-unit, which has been found the most satisfactory unit of analysis for measuring L2 development in English, is extended to measure L2 Chinese writing development through a cross-sectional design in this study. Data were collected from three L2 Chinese learner groups…

Jiang, Wenying

2013-01-01

100

Individual Differences in L2 Acquisition of Japanese Particles "WA" and "GA"  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the L2 acquisition studies of Japanese particles "WA" and "GA" were investigated by many researchers (Sakamoto, 2000), they completely ignored learners' individual differences. Indeed, learners' individualities are important factors for the L2 learning (Lightbrown & Spada, 1999). Thus, this research explored whether learners' individual…

Mori, Sachiho

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Older Learners in SLA Research: A First Look at Working Memory, Feedback, and L2 Development  

Science.gov (United States)

A great deal of research into second-language (L2) development focuses on the role of cognitive factors and other individual differences. Studies of children and prime-of-life adult L2 learners suggest that differences exist in the learning processes of these groups. However, to date, little empirical work has been conducted with older adult…

Mackey, Alison; Sachs, Rebecca

2012-01-01

102

L2 and L3 Ultimate Attainment: An Investigation of Two Parameters  

Science.gov (United States)

This study considers the upper limit of ultimate attainment in the L2 French and L3 English of trilingual learners. The learners are native speakers of Moroccan Arabic who started learning L2 French at eight and L3 English at 16. They are advanced in both languages. Four constructions representing the verb movement and null subject parameter were…

Hermas, Abdelkader

2014-01-01

103

A spatio-temporal latent atlas for semi-supervised learning of fetal brain segmentations and morphological age estimation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal neuroimaging requires reference models that reflect the normal spectrum of fetal brain development, and summarize observations from a representative sample of individuals. Collecting a sufficiently large data set of manually annotated data to construct a comprehensive in vivo atlas of rapidly developing structures is challenging but necessary for large population studies and clinical application. We propose a method for the semi-supervised learning of a spatio-temporal latent atlas of fetal brain development, and corresponding segmentations of emerging cerebral structures, such as the ventricles or cortex. The atlas is based on the annotation of a few examples, and a large number of imaging data without annotation. It models the morphological and developmental variability across the population. Furthermore, it serves as basis for the estimation of a structures' morphological age, and its deviation from the nominal gestational age during the assessment of pathologies. Experimental results covering the gestational period of 20-30 gestational weeks demonstrate segmentation accuracy achievable with minimal annotation, and precision of morphological age estimation. Age estimation results on fetuses suffering from lissencephaly demonstrate that they detect significant differences in the age offset compared to a control group. PMID:24080527

Dittrich, Eva; Riklin Raviv, Tammy; Kasprian, Gregor; Donner, René; Brugger, Peter C; Prayer, Daniela; Langs, Georg

2014-01-01

104

Non-optionality at Zulu L2 first syntax  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Valueless Features Hypothesis of Eubank (1993/94; 1994; 1996 proposes that certain types of apparently optional syntactic processes that appear in initial and not in mature state grammars are due to a lack of specification of inflectional feature values at the initial state of grammatical knowledge. Thus the apparent optionality in the placement of medial adverbs vis-a-vis thematic or finite main verbs evident in the early stages of second language (L2 acquisition is attributed to non-transfer of the strength values of morphological features instantiated in the learners' first language (LJ. This paper provides experimental evidence from Zulu L2 acquisition of verb raising by English native speakers, which suggests non-optionality in the early developmental stages of L2 syntax. The paper suggests that the initial obligaloriness of a non-verb raising syntactic analysis evident in the early stages of Zulu L2 acquisition is LJ -based; indicating transfer of [- strong] Vfeatures in T instantiated in English. Die 'Valueless Features Hypothesis' van Eubank' (1993/94; 1994; 1996 stel voor dat sekere tipes skynbare opsionele sintaktiese prosesse wat by aanvanklike grammatikas voorkom, maar nie by grammatikas in 'n gevorderde stadium nie, die gevolg is van 'n gebrek aan spesifikasie van infleksionele kenmerkwaardes tydens die aanvanklike stadium van grammatikale kennis. Derhalwe word die skynbare opsionaliteit in die plasing van tussenbywoorde teenoor tematiese of hoofwerkwoorde in 'npersoonsvorm wat by die vroee stadiums van die aankweek van 'n tweede taal (L2 duidelik blyk, toegeskryf aan die nie-oordrag van die kragwaardes van morfologiese kenmerke wat in die leerder se eerste taal (LJ geinstansieer is. Hierdie skripsie lewer eksperimentele bewyse van werkwoordverheffing by die aanleer van Zulu (L2 deur aangebore Engelssprekendes, wat nie-opsionaliteit in die vroee ontwikkelingstadia van L2- sinsleer suggereer. Die skripsie stel voor dat die aanvanklike verpligting van 'n niewerkwoordverhejJende sintaktiese ontleding, wat in die vroee stadium by die aanleer van Zulu L2 voorkom, L1-gebaseer is; wat dui op 'n oordrag van [- sterk} V-kenmerke in T wat in Engels geinstansieer is.

Sibusisiwe Dube

2008-08-01

105

Digital Game-Based Learning (DGBL) in the L2 Classroom: The Impact of the UN's Off-the-Shelf Videogame, Food Force, on Learner Affect and Vocabulary Retention  

Science.gov (United States)

This mixed-method study explored the impact of "Food Force (FF)", a UN-sponsored off-the-shelf videogame, on learner affect and vocabulary learning and retention in a Japanese as a second/foreign language classroom. The videogame was integrated into an existing curriculum and two studies were performed. In Study 1 (n = 9), new vocabulary…

Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Schmidt, Matthew; Hayashi, Kentaro

2014-01-01

106

The Effects of Learning to Spell on Children's Awareness of Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Because the spelling of many words in the English language (and in many other languages as well) depends on their morphemic structure, children have to have some knowledge about morphemes in order to learn to read and write. This raises the possibility that children gain much of their explicit knowledge about morphemes as a direct result of…

Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, P.; Bindman, Miriam

2006-01-01

107

Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses two well-known texts that respectively describe learning and teaching, drawn from the work of Freud and Plato. These texts are considered in psychoanalytic terms using a methodology drawn from the philosophy of Luce Irigaray. In particular the article addresses Irigaray's approach to the analysis of speech and utterance as a…

Peers, Chris

2012-01-01

108

Reading Attitudes in L1 and L2, and Their Influence on L2 Extensive Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the relationship between both first language (L1) and second language (L2) reading attitudes, and learners' performance in L2 extensive reading. Four reading attitude variables were identified (Comfort, Anxiety, Value, Self-perception), both in L1 and L2, according to learners' responses to a questionnaire. Results of analyses…

Yamashita, Junko

2004-01-01

109

Musical morphology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Morphologic measures have long been used to determine the patho-anatomical signature of different neurologic disorders. However, these measures can also be used to determine effects of specific learning tasks and quantifiable human abilities on cerebral structure. Musicians provide interesting opportunities for this type of analysis as their various skills, such as rhythmic ability and pitch and harmony discrimination (acquired through years of practicing and playing) can be quantified and compared using distinct morphologic analyses. Here, we review magnetic resonance imaging-based morphologic analyses in the music and neuroscience literature and provide some results from our own analysis of rhythmic ability in a cohort of musicians.

Chakravarty, M Mallar; Vuust, Peter

2009-01-01

110

Teacher Written Feedback on L2 Student Writings  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the past few decades, a great number of researches have been conducted on the teacher written feedback and its influence on L2 student writings. The researches are mainly concerned with the major types, and the characteristics of the feedback as well as student reactions to the feedback, or the impact of teacher written feedback and that of peer feedback, indicating that feedback is still a fundamental element of a process approach to writing. This paper has taken a further consideration on the appropriate, effective and efficient teacher written feedback on L2 student writings by engaging students’ mind with minimal marking and by ensuring students’ positive feelings with demonstrated improvement, which enables students to expand their language and ideas, the ultimate goal of their learning in writing. Thus, the paper presents the four principles of producing effective teacher written feedback.

Yayun Wen

2013-03-01

111

Classifier system for learning spatial representations based on a Pebble_Pond morphological wave-propagation algorithm  

Science.gov (United States)

Pebble_Pond performs morphologically based wave propagation on an input set of points on the plane, with the points corresponding to the locations of detected image features. The waves are allowed to pass through each other, resulting in an complex evolving state space from which can be obtained a diverse class of non-planar spatial measures and structures, e.g., all k nearest neighbors, k-th order Voronoi tessellations, and k-th order Gabriel graphs. One perspective on Pebble_Pond is that it takes spatial structure and transforms it into temporal structure. That is, at each iteration in the wave propagation, measures on the state space reflect spatial structure at the scale corresponding to the current iteration. Thus, at each iteration all measures obtained (in parallel) from the state space report on all spatial relations falling within the distance that the waves have propagated. This paper investigates how particular measures of the underlying state space can be used to provide basic input to a spatial learning system. The learning system to be described is based on induction via classifier systems that are modified by bucket-brigade and genetic algorithms. Classifier systems are especially useful in environments where pattern recognition actions at given time steps need to be linked with related pattern recognition actions occurring at latter time steps. This paper will describe how a classifier system can be built which exploits the parallelism and temporal ordering of the measures that arise out of the basic Pebble_Pond algorithm.

Skolnick, Michael M.

1992-11-01

112

Investigating L2 Refusals: A Case Study of Chinese Native Speakers’ L2 Pragmatic Competence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The speech act the researcher studies in this paper is refusal which, according to Ellis (2008, involves high level of pragmatic competence of the speaker, especially when it is compared with other speech acts like apology and request. Refusal seems to be particularly high-demanding for L2 learners, for L2 linguistic proficiency might be the hindrance. The researcher studies on one Chinese L2 learner’s pragmatic competence by focusing on the pragmatic strategies adopted in his L2 refusals. The result of this study suggests that L2 pragmatic competence is restrained by learners’ linguistic proficiency from utilizing more effective pragmatic strategies. Both linguistic and pragmatic transfer limits Chinese L2 learners’ pragmatic behaviors. Therefore, pedagogical intervention involving pragmatic knowledge for enhancing Chinese L2 learners’ pragmatic competence is advised and it might be even more helpful to the learners if culture is covered in the intervention.

Xiufeng Tian

2014-01-01

113

Self-directed study and carving tooth models for learning tooth morphology: perceptions of students at the University of Aberdeen, Scotland.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tooth morphology has been taught at the University of Aberdeen Dental School, United Kingdom, through self-directed workshops, using online handouts and tooth models. Tooth carving sessions were recently added to introduce manual skills training through learning tooth morphology at an early stage of the dental course. The aim of this study was to assess students' perception of both teaching modalities to evaluate their usefulness and to allow further course development. The subjects of this study were first-year dental students. Students' opinions were sought upon completion of the tooth morphology sessions using a structured questionnaire that investigated their views about the effectiveness of both learning methods. The results suggest that self-directed workshops represent an effective way of learning tooth morphology; however, the students recommended further development of the course to make it more focused. Although students questioned the value of the carving sessions, they agreed that it helped to develop their manual dexterity, which was one of the main objectives of the exercise. Further review and development of the course is required in addition to follow-up of the students' performance in clinical skills to further elucidate any advantages of tooth carving to advocate it as a mode of learning. PMID:24002852

Abu Eid, Rasha; Ewan, Keith; Foley, Jennifer; Oweis, Yara; Jayasinghe, Jaya

2013-09-01

114

GLI ERRORI DI ITALIANO L1 ED L2: INTERFERENZA E APPRENDIMENTO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Si può oggi affrontare il tema degli errori di italiano da una prospettiva che possa giovare contemporaneamente a docenti di italiano L1 ed L2? Noi pensiamo di sì: la ricerca glottodidattica sembra aver ormai apprestato un terreno comune alle due situazioni di apprendimento, sgombrando il campo da vecchi pregiudizi e distinzioni che appaiono ormai superate. Attraverso la contrapposizione di concetti quali “lingua parlata/lingua scritta”,  “errori di lingua / errori di linguaggio”, “apprendimento spontaneo/apprendimento guidato”, “italiano L1/italiano L2”, “errori di apprendimento/errori di interferenza, si indicano diversi criteri per la interpretazione degli errori e la loro valutazione in relazione alle cause, alle situazioni comunicative, ai contesti o allo stadio di evoluzione dell’apprendimento della lingua.     Errors in italian L1 and L2: interference and learning   Can errors in Italian be approached in a way that benefits both L1 and L2 Italian teachers? We believe so: glottodidactic research seems to have prepared a common terrain for these two learning situations, clearing the field of old prejudices and obsolete distinctions.  Through the juxtaposition of concepts like “spoken language/written language”, “language errors/speech errors”, “spontaneous learning/guided learning”, “L1 Italian/L2 Italian”, “learning errors/interference errors”, different criteria for interpreting errors and evaluating them in relation to their causes, to communicative situations, to contexts and the developmental state in learning a language are singled out.

Rosaria Solarino

2011-02-01

115

Active learning of neuron morphology for accurate automated tracing of neurites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Automating the process of neurite tracing from light microscopy stacks of images is essential for large-scale or high-throughput quantitative studies of neural circuits. While the general layout of labeled neurites can be captured by many automated tracing algorithms, it is often not possible to differentiate reliably between the processes belonging to different cells. The reason is that some neurites in the stack may appear broken due to imperfect labeling, while others may appear fused due to the limited resolution of optical microscopy. Trained neuroanatomists routinely resolve such topological ambiguities during manual tracing tasks by combining information about distances between branches, branch orientations, intensities, calibers, tortuosities, colors, as well as the presence of spines or boutons. Likewise, to evaluate different topological scenarios automatically, we developed a machine learning approach that combines many of the above mentioned features. A specifically designed confidence measure was used to actively train the algorithm during user-assisted tracing procedure. Active learning significantly reduces the training time and makes it possible to obtain less than 1% generalization error rates by providing few training examples. To evaluate the overall performance of the algorithm a number of image stacks were reconstructed automatically, as well as manually by several trained users, making it possible to compare the automated traces to the baseline inter-user variability. Several geometrical and topological features of the traces were selected for the comparisons. These features include the total trace length, the total numbers of branch and terminal points, the affinity of corresponding traces, and the distances between corresponding branch and terminal points. Our results show that when the density of labeled neurites is sufficiently low, automated traces are not significantly different from manual reconstructions obtained by trained users.

ArmenStepanyants

2014-05-01

116

LA ICLASSE – SMARTPHONE E ITALIANO L2/LS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mai come oggi le classi (di Italiano L2, ma non solo sono così fortemente colonizzate dal digitale. L’invasione si è palesata sotto forma di telefonini cellulari (smartphone e tablet dotati di connessione internet e infinite potenzialità sotto forma di applicazioni che possono sia aiutare il discente sia, se male impiegati, ostacolarlo dall’intraprendere un proficuo percorso di apprendimento. Compito dell’insegnante di lingua è circoscrivere l’influenza e l’uso di tali strumenti – che non sono mero techné, ma un modo di funzionare di una generazione – non  per vietarli ma per proporre un approccio e un loro utilizzo costruttivo quali mezzi dalle grandi potenzialità nell’apprendimento di una lingua straniera.     The 1st class – Smartphones and Italian L2/FL   Classrooms (for Italian L2, but not only have never before been so strongly digitally oriented. This invasion is made tangible by smartphones and tablets equipped with internet connections and infinite potential thanks to applications which can help students in their studies, or hinder them if used incorrectly. The language teacher’s task is to circumscribe the influence and use of these tools– which are not mere techné, but the way an entire generation functions – not to prohibit using them but to propose using them constructively, thanks to their great potential for foreign language learning.

Filippo Zanoli

2012-02-01

117

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disease with a slowly progressive course and characterized by increased levels of hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. In this condition clinical features mainly consist of mental deterioration, ataxia and motor deficits. Case Outline. The patient is a 16-year-old girl, the first and only child of healthy, non-consanguineous parents of Serbian origin. At the age of 4 years her walk became unsteady and ataxic. Other signs of cerebellar involvement were soon observed. Head circumference was above two standard deviations (55 cm. Mild mental retardation was revealed by formal intelligence testing (IQ 60. MR examination of the brain showed confluent subcortical white matter lesions spread centripetally, and atrophy of the cerebellar vermis with involvement of dentate nuclei, without deep white matter abnormalities. Laboratory investigation revealed increased amounts and a very large peak of HGA in urine and plasma. Enantiomeric analysis confirmed the L-configuration (>90% establishing the diagnosis of L-2-HGA. The first epileptic seizure, partial with secondary generalization, occurred at age of 8 years. Favorable seizure control was achieved. A slow progression of neurological impairment was noted. Therapeutic trials with oral coenzyme Q10 and with oral riboflavin showed no biochemical and clinical effects. Recently, the diagnosis was proven by the presence of a mutation in the L-2-HGA gene. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of L-2-HGA in Serbia. L-2-HGA must be considered in the differential diagnosis based on specific findings in cranial MRI.

Jovi? Nebojša J.

2014-01-01

118

The Effect of Lengthened Writing Approach on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on empirical research and qualitative analysis, this paper aims to explore the effects of Lengthened Writing Approach on L2 vocabulary acquisition. The results show that, during L2 vocabulary teaching process, the proper application of Lengthened Writing Approach can effectively facilitate the memorization of new words, and this teaching approach is welcomed by most subjects. This study highlights the role of Lengthened Writing Approach in L2 vocabulary acquisition, and sheds light on the college English learning and teaching.

Jing Liu

2009-02-01

119

Création et utilisation de ressources pédagogiques sur support numérique pour l'apprentissage d'une L2 : quelles compétences pour l'enseignant ? Designing and using digital learning resources for second language acquisition: what skills do teachers need?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available À l'Université de Technologie de Belfort-Montbéliard, des ressources pédagogiques sur support numérique ont été créées afin d'être intégrées au dispositif d'enseignement d'une UV d'anglais destinée à des élèves-ingénieurs. Dans le cadre d'une recherche-action, la nature et la fonction de ces ressources ont été établies à la lumière de connaissances théoriques, et les effets de leur intégration ont fait l'objet de mesures. Cet article se concentre sur les compétences qui ont été requises pour mettre en place ces ressources : compétences dans les domaines de la didactique des langues et de la création de pages HTML. Une ébauche de référentiel métier est proposée. Même si les résultats de cette expérience semblent positifs, la question demeure de savoir s'il est possible d'être en même temps enseignant et concepteur de ressources sur support numérique. Des éléments de réponse se trouvent peut-être davantage du côté de la gestion du temps, de la motivation et des savoir-faire relationnels que du seul côté des compétences informatiques. Cette expérience n'a nullement pour vocation de fixer les règles d'un exemple à suivre. Néanmoins, elle illustre le fait que la recherche-action peut être un moyen efficace de canaliser la diversité des motivations des enseignants impliqués dans des démarches innovantes et de promouvoir la responsabilité déontologique et épistémologique, ce qui contribuera à l'amélioration des pratiques d'enseignement.At the University of Technology of Belfort-Montbéliard, digital learning resources have been designed for and integrated with the pedagogical structure of an English credit course for engineering students. Within an action research procedure, the nature and functions of these resources have been established in the light of theoretical knowledge, and the effects of this integration have been assessed. This article focuses on the skills - in the fields of language pedagogy and of HTML page design - that have been required to set up these resources. It puts forth a tentative inventory of them. Even if this experiment appears to be successful, the question remains as to whether it is feasible to be both a teacher and a digital resource designer at the same time. Part of the answer might have more to do with time-management, motivation and interpersonal skills than with computer literacy. This experiment is in no way meant to set the rules of an example to follow. However, it illustrates that action research may be an efficient means to channel the various motivations of innovative teachers and to promote deontological as well as epistemological responsibility, which will contribute to improving teaching practice.

Paul Arthaud

2006-11-01

120

Fehler, Fehleranalyse und Fehlerbenotung im Lichte des natuerlichen L2-Erwerbs. (Analysis and Grading of Errors in the Light of the L2 Acquisition Project).  

Science.gov (United States)

Compares the error-grading system of Zydatiss (in 'Linguistik und Didaktik', No. 24, 1975) with examples from the "Natural L2 (Second Language) Acquisition" project, and raises the question of how far it is possible for a teacher to utilize the approach of a self-guided language-learning process. (IFS/WGA)

Wode, Henning

1978-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Genericity and Aspect in L2 Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

In this experimental study, we focus on the following semantic universal: if a habitual clause reading, then generic pronominal subject; if an episodic clause reading, then specific pronominal subject. We argue that although this set of two conditionals is a universal property of all natural languages, English-speaking second-language (L2)…

Slabakova, Roumyana; Montrul, Silvina

2003-01-01

122

Second Language Learning and Cultural Representations: Beyond Competence and Identity  

Science.gov (United States)

The socio-contextual model of second language (L2) learning proposes that L2 learning is influenced by aspects of contact with the L2 community, L2 confidence, and identification to both the first language and L2 community ( Clement, 1980; Noels & Clement, 1996). The present study examines how these aspects are linked to individuals' cultural…

Rubenfeld, Sara; Clement, Richard; Lussier, Denise; Lebrun, Monique; Auger, Rejean

2006-01-01

123

Earth Atmosphere Observatory Formation at L2  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a product of research supported by NASA under RASC (the Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts) program. It presents an overall system architecture, and covers issues of deployment, navigation, and control related to a formation of two spacecraft in the neighborhood of the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point (on the Sun-Earth line), that serves as an observatory of Earth's atmosphere. The observatory concept definition study was a multi-center NASA effort conducted in 2003, and covered a much wider scope than is presented in this focused paper.The Earth observatory at L2 is a unique design concept that can improve the knowledge and understanding of dynamic, chemical and radiative mechanisms that cause changes in the atmosphere, and can lead to the development of models and techniques to predict short and long-term climate changes.

Mettler, Edward; Acikmese, A. Behcet; Breckenridge, William G.; Mecenka, Steven A.; Tubbs, Eldred F.

2004-01-01

124

A Comparative Study on Strategies of the Children for L1 and L2 Reading Comprehension in K12  

Science.gov (United States)

In today's world it has long become a necessity to learn and communicate in another language other than one's mother tongue (L1). When the world is walking on the path of globalization people try to learn a second/foreign language (L2). In this study it's critically aimed to explore strategy use in L1 and L2 reading at K12 level. Subjects involved…

Belet, S. Dilek; Gursoy, Esim

2008-01-01

125

On $L^2$ -functions with bounded spectrum  

CERN Document Server

We consider the class $PW(\\mathbb R^n)$ of functions in $L^2(\\mathbb R^n)$, whose Fourier transform has bounded support. We obtain a description of continuous maps $\\varphi : \\mathbb R^m\\rightarrow\\mathbb R^n$ such that $f\\circ\\varphi\\in PW(\\mathbb R^m)$ for every function $f\\in PW(\\mathbb R^n)$. Only injective affine maps $\\varphi$ have this property.

Lebedev, Vladimir

2012-01-01

126

Learning to Characterize Submarine Lava Flow Morphology at Seamounts and Spreading Centers using High Definition Video and Photomosaics  

Science.gov (United States)

In August, 2010 the UW ENLIGHTEN ’10 expedition provided ~140 hours of seafloor HD video footage at Axial Seamount, the most magmatically robust submarine volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. During this expedition, direct imagery from an Insite Pacific HD camera mounted on the ROV Jason 2 was used to classify broad expanses of seafloor where high power (8 kw) and high bandwidth (10 Gb/s) fiber optic cable will be laid as part of the Regional Scale Nodes (RSN) component of the NSF funded Ocean Observatories Initiative. The cable will provide power and two-way, real-time communication to an array of >20 sensors deployed at the summit of the volcano and at active sites of hydrothermal venting to investigate how active processes within the volcano and at seafloor hot springs within the caldera are connected. In addition to HD imagery, over 10,000 overlapping photographs from a down-looking still camera were merged and co-registered to create high resolution photomosaics of two areas within Axial’s caldera. Thousands of additional images were taken to characterize the seafloor along proposed cable routes, allowing optimal routes to be planned well in advance of deployment. Lowest risk areas included those free of large collapse basins, steep flow fronts and fissures. Characterizing the modes of lava distribution across the seafloor is crucial to understanding the construction history of the upper oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges. In part, reconstruction of crustal development and eruptive histories can be inferred from surface flow morphologies, which provide insights into lava emplacement dynamics and effusion rates of past eruptions. An online resource is under development that will educate students about lava flow morphologies through the use of HD video and still photographs. The objective of the LavaFlow exercise is to map out a proposed cable route across the Axial Seamount caldera. Students are first trained in appropriate terminology and background content to learn to recognize and identify various lava flow morphologies and volcanic features. They then conduct a virtual ROV Jason 2 dive using video and still photographs, and characterize the terrain. Their observations are supplemented by the integration of high resolution (1 m scale resolution) bathymetry collected with a RESON SeaBat 7125 sonar mounted on Jason 2 during ENLIGHTEN’10. Students visualize the bathymetry in 2D and 3D using CARIS HIPS 7.0 software. COVE (Collaborative Ocean Visualization Environment) geospatial software is then used to plan and map out an optimal cable route. The LavaFlow exercise allows students to employ the same technologies used by the RSN team for designing the Axial Seamount cabled observatory infrastructure. When completed in 2014, real-time HD imagery, geophysical, chemical and biological sensors will provide data in real-time from this site to educators throughout the US and globe via the Internet.

Fundis, A. T.; Sautter, L. R.; Kelley, D. S.; Delaney, J. R.; Kerr-Riess, M.; Denny, A. R.; Elend, M.

2010-12-01

127

Production of L2 lipase by Bacillus sp. strain L2: nutritional and physical factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

A thermophilic bacterium, Bacillus sp. strain L2 was isolated from a hot spring in Perak, Malaysia. An extracellular lipase activity was detected through plate and broth assays at 70 degrees C after 28 h of incubation. The L2 lipase production was growth dependent as revealed by a number of factors affecting the secretion of extracelullar lipase. As for nutritional factors, casamino acids, trehalose, Ca(2+) and Tween 60 were found to be more effective for lipase production. The optimum physical condition for L2 lipase production was obtained at 70 degrees C after 28 h of cultivation time, at pH 7.0, 150 rpm of agitation rate and 1% of starting inoculum size. The activity staining of crude L2 lipase revealed a clearing zone at 39 kDa. PMID:17910105

Shariff, Fairolniza Mohd; Leow, Thean Chor; Mukred, A D; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Basri, Mahiran; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd

2007-10-01

128

Review of Recent Research (2002-2009) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 German (Part 2)  

Science.gov (United States)

This review of research on the learning, teaching, and assessment of L2 German may be particularly timely due to developments from within the profession as well as recent political changes which continue to have a strong bearing on the way L2 German is promoted, learned, taught and assessed. Far from representing an isolated field of research…

Eckerth, Johannes; Tschirner, Erwin

2010-01-01

129

Characteristics of Motivated L2 Class Groups: From Language Teachers’ and Students’ Perspectives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In most learning situations, learners are learning with their peers, and the teacher is teaching to a class, not to an individual learner. As it is indisputable that learners conceptualize their learning as occurring in a group, it is logical to assume that the class group has some effect on learners’ learning. Thus, it could be constructive to investigate the characteristics of a motivating classroom environment and how teachers can help cultivate a more comforting learning environment fostered by a motivating environment. This research focuses on exploring the characteristics of a motivating L2 classroom environment from both language teachers’ and learners’ perspectives. A questionnaire with both closed- and open-ended questions was distributed to approximately 100 college L2 learners studying at a private language college (from three English learning class groups. These class groups’ English teachers were also interviewed to share their ideas of what comprised a motivating environment. Both the questionnaire and interview data suggest the importance of good interaction in a motivating L2 environment. The data also reveal the importance of teacher enthusiasm toward teaching, positive learning attitude in students, a strong cohesiveness group, and positive group norms.

Lilian Ya-hui Chang

2014-06-01

130

Impact of English Orthography on L2 Acquisition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available English language has become unavoidable being a global language in the present era. Whether it is a field of business, technology or education, its significance can’t be denied. Thus, majority of the world is learning and speaking English owing to its dire need. Unfortunately, despite staining through different reforms, the orthography of English language failed to become learners’ friendly as it seems to be a queer language for the beginners. The present study describes the ways how English orthography becomes impediment for EFL learners. It elucidates how learners in general and Urdu learners of English language in particular, are influenced by its deep orthography. The article reviews the interesting history of English orthography. Moreover, it reveals the phonological relationship between Urdu and English Consonants that causes inferences based on grapheme to phoneme conversion. The study highlights problems posed by English vowels resulting in wrong assumptions by L2 learners from English orthography. It sums up showing the significance of phonological awareness of English spellings to avoid wrong L2 phonology.

Muhammad Aslam Sipra

2013-01-01

131

A Child's Development of Interactional Competence in a Swedish L2 Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores a child's emergent second language (L2) interactional competence during her first year in a Swedish immersion classroom. Within the theoretical framework of situated learning, it focuses on how she acquires expertise in a specific classroom practice: multiparty classroom talk. The data cover three periods (the early, middle,…

Cekaite, Asta

2007-01-01

132

Reading Rate in L1 Mandarin Chinese and L2 English across Five Reading Tasks  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared first and second language (L1/L2) reading rate and task performance on five tasks (scanning, skimming, normal reading, learning, memorizing) in two groups of Mandarin speakers (Canada group, China group). A repeated measures ANOVA design was used with one between-subject factor (Group), two within-subject factors (Language,…

Fraser, Carol A.

2007-01-01

133

Exploring the Relationship between Reading Strategy Use and Multiple Intelligences among Successful L2 Readers  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the years, the multiple intelligences theory (MIT) proposed by Howard Gardner has renewed interest in learners' use of effective learning strategies and produced interesting results. This MIT-oriented study investigated the role of successful L2 readers' multiple intelligences in their effective use of reading strategies. To this…

Mirzaei, Azizullah; Rahimi Domakani, Masoud; Heidari, Najmeh

2014-01-01

134

Examining the Impact of L2 English on L3 Selves: A Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

In this Swedish case study of four upper secondary students engaged in simultaneous second language (L2; English) and third language (L3; Spanish, French and Russian) learning, a possible selves perspective was used to investigate the impact of English on L3 motivation. Using a maximum variation sampling strategy, participants were selected from a…

Henry, Alastair

2011-01-01

135

Identification of the 2l2'l'n''l'' 2P0 hollow lithium systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In a recent letter [L. Journel et al.,) Phys. Rev. Lett. 76,30 (1996)], first experimental determination of the partial photoionization cross sections of lithium near the hollow atomic states was reported. Very extensive R-matrix calculation has also been carried out for the 2l2'l'n''l'' 2P0 hollow states and assignments for the excited states have been made. However, these assignments are substantially different from those of other theoretical methods. This points out the need for more information and discussion which are necessary for a meaningful comparison

136

IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2 CON LE CANZONI. UN CONTRIBUTO DIDATTICO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Il presente contributo si inserisce nel filone degli studi che hanno messo in evidenza la potenziale ricchezza della canzone come strumento di facilitazione dell’apprendimento della L2, e come mezzo per l’approccio al testo letterario per studenti di italiano L1, additandone il carattere di attività particolarmente efficace e ‘consonante’ con una prospettiva umanistico-affettiva, comunicativa, nonché socio-costruttivista. In queste pagine sono presentate alcune attività didattiche (pensate ora per gli apprendenti di italiano L2, ora per gli studenti di italiano L1 formulate a partire da alcuni testi del cantautore Claudio Baglioni (Io sono qui, Le vie dei Colori, Bolero, Fammi andar via tratti dall’album Io sono qui, 1995, edizioni CBS. I testi qui didattizzati sono utilizzabili in diverse prospettive: grammaticale, lessicale, retorica, socio-culturale, ecc.; e per diversi livelli di competenza linguistica (L2: A1-C1; L1.     Learning italian l2 through song.  A didactic contribution   This article is part of a series of studies which focus on the potential richness of songs as tools for facilitating L2 learning, as well as being a way to approach literary texts for L1 Italian students, being a particularly effective activity from a humanistic-affective, communicative and socio-constructivist point of view.  A few didactic activities are presented (designed for L2 Italian learners, or for L1 Italian learners based on songs by Claudio Baglioni (Io sono qui, Le vie dei Colori, Bolero, Fammi andar via from the album Io sono qui, 1995, edizioni CBS.  The texts were adapted for diverse didactic uses: grammatical, lexical, rhetorical, socio-cultural, etc and for different levels of linguistic competence (L2: A1-C1, L1

Elisabetta Mauroni

2011-07-01

137

The Task-Based Syllabus: Promoting L2 Acquisition and Learner Empowerment in an EFL Classroom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the Task-Based Syllabus (TBS can be used topromote L2 acquisition and learner empowerment in an English as a Foreign Language (EFLcontext. The paper begins by reviewing definitions of the Task-Based Syllabus as well as theterm “task” in relation to the syllabus. It then examines influential theories, which havehelped shape the Task-Based Syllabus before identifying its strengths and weaknesses in theclassroom. The author then identifies ideal teaching situations for implementing aTask-Based Syllabus in order to encourage L2 acquisition and facilitate learner motivationand empowerment by promoting language learning strategy awareness.

Gabriella Sophia Torres

2014-04-01

138

Cue Reliance in L2 Written Production  

Science.gov (United States)

Second language learners reach expert levels in relative cue weighting only gradually. On the basis of ensemble machine learning models fit to naturalistic written productions of German advanced learners of English and expert writers, we set out to reverse engineer differences in the weighting of multiple cues in a clause linearization problem. We…

Wiechmann, Daniel; Kerz, Elma

2014-01-01

139

Multicompetence in L2 Language Play: A Longitudinal Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Humor and language play have been recognized as important aspects of second language (L2) development. Qualitative studies that have documented the forms and functions of language play for adult and child L2 users have taken place largely in classroom settings. In order to gain a fuller understanding of such creative manipulations by L2 users, it…

Bell, Nancy; Skalicky, Stephen; Salsbury, Tom

2014-01-01

140

Assessing L2 Lexical versus Inflectional Accuracy across Skill Levels  

Science.gov (United States)

This study measures whether number and type of morphemes in an elicited imitation string results in a greater number of modifications with L2 experience. Rationale is drawn from L2 working memory processing limitations at distinct levels of proficiency. 38 subjects (L2 Spanish university students) comprise three proficiency groups: beginning,…

West, Donna E.

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

VIDEOGIOCHI E ITALIANO L2/LS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L'articolo prende in considerazione alcune ipotesi sull'uso del videogioco nell'insegnamento/apprendimento della lingua straniera supportate dall'analisi di alcuni videogames per uso didattico. Pur non nascondendo le difficoltà che l'insegnante può incontrare nell'integrare il videogioco nel percorso di insegnamento/apprendimento di una lingua straniera in classe, diversi sono i motivi per i quali il videogioco può essere considerato un efficace strumento di apprendimento linguistico. Innanzitutto perché gli input linguistici possono essere numerosi e vari, in secondo luogo perché è vettore di lingua che coinvolge i diversi sensi e diverse operazioni cognitive e, in terzo luogo perché trasforma il processo dell'apprendimento da simbolico a esperienziale. Infine perché si tratta di un mezzo divertente capace di creare interesse ad apprendere offrendo opportunità straordinarie in quanto attiva negli apprendenti, soprattutto più giovani, due fattori chiave per un apprendimento solido e duraturo: l'esperienza e la motivazione, elementi che spesso le metodologie tradizionali trascurano. A conclusione dell'articolo viene proposta di attività didattica di italiano LS con una serie di suggerimenti per l'insegnante.   This article discusses the use of videogames in teaching/learning a foreign language and analyzes a few didactic videogames. While not underestimating the difficulties that teachers may have in integrating videogames in the teaching/learning process in a classroom, there are different reasons why videogames can be considered effective tools for language learning. First of all, the linguistic input is varied and rich, and secondly it is a way of engaging different senses and cognitive processes, and in the third place it transforms learning from something symbolic to something experiential. Finally, it is an amusing way to generate interest in learning by offering an extraordinary opportunity, since it activates two key aspects for solid and long-lasting learning, especially in younger students: experience and motivation.  These aspects are often overlooked in more traditional methods. The article concludes with examples of didactic activities for Italian FL teaching and a series of suggestions for the teacher.

Filippo Zanoli

2010-09-01

142

The Interrelationship of Autonomy, Motivation, and Academic Performance of Persian L2 Learners in Distance Education Contexts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among various variables affecting the learning of a language, motivation and autonomy play salient roles. The present study aimed at investigating the possible relationship among autonomy, motivation, and academic performance of Persian L2 learners. To do so, 60 Persian L2 learners from Shahrekord Payam-e-Noor University were randomly selected to see whether or not autonomy, motivation, and academic performance are interrelated. Two questionnaires, one for autonomy and one for motivation, were employed to gather the required data. Analyzing the data through correlation and regression, the results revealed that there is a significant relationship between autonomy and academic performance, and also between motivation and academic performance. On the contrary, no significant relationship was observed between motivation and autonomy. The results of studies like the current one will help L2 teachers and curriculum developers make L2 learners more self-directed, motivated, and successful in conducting their own learning in distance contexts.

Mahmood Hashemian

2011-04-01

143

L2TTMON Monitoring Program for L2 Topological Trigger in H1 Experiment - User's Guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring software for the L2 Topological Trigger in H1 experiment consists of two parts working on two different computers. The hardware read-out and data processing is done on a fast FIC 8234 computer working with the OS9 real time operating system. The Macintosh Quadra is used as a Graphic User Interface for accessing the OS9 trigger monitoring software. The communication between both computers is based on the parallel connection between the Macintosh and the VME crate, where the FIC computer is placed. The special designed protocol (client-server) is used to communicate between both nodes. The general scheme of monitoring for the L2 Topological Trigger and detailed description of using of the monitoring software in both nodes are given in this guide. (author)

144

Interactions between text chat and audio modalities for L2 communication and feedback in the synthetic world Second Life.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports on a study of the interactions between text chat and audio modalities in L2 interaction in a synthetic (virtual) world and observes whether the text chat modality was used for corrective feedback and the characteristics of the latter. This is examined within the context of a hybrid Content and Language Integrated Learning design workshop. This course involved 17 students of architecture whose L2 was either French or English and for which the synthetic world environment Seco...

Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

2013-01-01

145

La nozione di Grammatica e l’insegnamento di L2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Il tema del mio contributo riguarda la nozione di Grammatica ed il suo insegnamento in contesti di apprendimento non spontaneo di lingue2. Prima di affrontarlo prendo brevemente in considerazione il concetto di lingua ? sovraordinato a quello di Grammatica ? per indagare come esso sia stato più frequentemente inteso nelle scienze del linguaggio e nell’insegnamento di L2. Analizzo poi due modi di guardare alla Grammatica, rappresentativi di posizioni apparentemente distanti ma in realtà complementari: Grammatica nella comunicazione e Grammatica della comunicazione: vale a dire Grammatica intesa come sistema formale e strutturale e Grammatica vista invece come un importante strumento dell’agire sociale. Mi soffermo infine sulla rilevanza descrittiva ed applicativa che le due prospettive assumono nell’insegnamento/apprendimento di L2 in quanto atte a far acquisire consapevolezza metalinguistica attraverso la riflessione, da un lato, su tutte le regolarità presenti nel linguaggio e non soltanto su quelle di tipo formale e frasale, d’altro lato, attraverso la riflessione sull’intersezione ed i raccordi esistenti tra Grammatica ed interazione.  The notion of grammar and L2 teaching This paper studies the concept of teaching grammar in non-spontaneous L2 learning contexts. First we briefly consider the concept of language – that of the higher-level Grammar – to investigate how it has most frequently been understood in language sciences and L2 teaching. Then we analyze two ways of looking at grammar, which appear to be distant but are actually complementary: grammar in communication and the grammar of communication, namely grammar as a formal, structuralsystem and grammar as an important instrument for social action. We reflect on the descriptive and applicablerelevance that these two perspectives take on in L2 teaching/learning. Thisreflection, on the one hand, is aimed at the acquisition ofmetalinguistic awareness aboutall the regularities of language, not only the formal and phrasal ones, while on the other hand, we reflect onabout the intertwining and connection between grammar and interaction.

Anna Ciliberti

2013-07-01

146

QUALCHE RIFLESSIONE SULLA DIDATTICA DI L2 ISPIRATA ALLA RECENTE RICERCA ACQUISIZIONALE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sulla base di recenti studi di linguistica acquisizionale e di ricerche sull’apprendimento di L2 in classe, attente al ruolo dell’input e di fattori cognitivi (fra cui Doughty, 2003; Gass, 2003, 2005; Housen, Pierrard, 2005; Dörnyei, 2009; Sanz, Leow, 2011; Gass, Mackey, 2012, il contributo presenta alcune riflessioni in chiave applicativa, di didattica acquisizionale (Rastelli 2009, relative ai possibili risvolti didattici che tali studi possono suggerire nei contesti di istruzione di L2.  Fra i temi toccati vi sono il trattamento dell’input, il ruolo del noticing e dell’accessibilità al processing in L2, la focalizzazione sulla forma nella didattica, il feedback del docente e il suo approccio all’“errore” dell’apprendente, considerati alla luce di ricerche relative all’efficacia acquisizionale di tali elementi (Norris, Ortega, 2000; Russell, Spada, 2006; Ellis et al., 2009.   A few reflections on L2 language teaching inspired by recent research on language acquisition   Based on recent studies on language acquisition and on L2 learning in the classroom, with attention paid to the role of input and cognitive factors (see Doughty, 2003; Gass, 2003, 2005; Housen, Pierrard, 2005; Dörnyei, 2009; Sanz, Leow, 2011; Gass, Mackey, 2012, this paper presents a few reflections in terms of application of acquisitional teaching (Rastelli 2009, regarding the possible impact that these studies suggest in L2 teaching contexts.  The themes addressed regard input, the role of noticing and the accessibility of processing in L2, focusing on form in teaching, the feedback from the teacher and the approach used for  learners’ “errors” considered in light of studies regarding the acquisitional effectiveness of these elements (Norris, Ortega, 2000; Russell, Spada, 2006; Ellis et al., 2009.

Marina Chini

2012-02-01

147

Characterization of the native CREB3L2 transcription factor and the FUS/CREB3L2 chimera.  

Science.gov (United States)

CREB3L2 was first identified as the 3'-partner of FUS in a fusion gene that seems to be specific for low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. In silico analyses suggest that the predicted CREB3L2 protein is a member of the CREB3 family of transcription factors, with its bZIP domain being highly similar to that in CREB3L1, CREB3L3, CREB3L4, CREB3, and Drosophila Bbf-2. In the present study, the authors assessed various cellular outcomes after transfection of NIH3T3 and HEK-293 cells with constructs containing full-length and truncated versions of CREB3L2 and FUS/CREB3L2. Northern blot of CREB3L2 mRNA revealed a 7.4 kbp band that contains 0.4 kbp and 5.5 kbp untranslated 5' and 3' regions, respectively. CREB3L2 constructs containing the first 120 amino acids (aa) showed the highest transcriptional activation. Much stronger transcriptional activation was consistently seen for the FUS/CREB3L2 constructs than for the corresponding CREB3L2 constructs. Transcriptional activity was achieved through the box-B element, ATF6 and CRE binding sites, as well as the GRP78 promoter. Proteins encoded by full-length CREB3L2 and FUS/CREB3L2 were localized to reticular structures of the cytoplasm, whereas the corresponding, truncated proteins lacking the transmembrane domain and the carboxy-terminal part of CREB3L2 resided within the nucleus. The results of the present study show that CREB3L2 is not only structurally, but also functionally very similar to CREB3L1. Thus, studies regarding the pathways influenced by wild-type CREB3L2 should provide valuable clues to the pathogenetic significance of the FUS/CREB3L2 chimera in low grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. PMID:17117415

Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Möller, Emely; Dahlén, Anna; Isaksson, Margareth; Mandahl, Nils; Vlamis-Gardikas, Alexios; Mertens, Fredrik

2007-02-01

148

The TPF Mission at L2  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA's TPF Mission (Terrestrial Planet Finder) will find and study Earth-like planets around nearby stars to see if they can support life. TPF's variable baseline interferometer (~100 m to 1 km) will also study distant astrophysical phenomena with a resolution more than a hundred times that of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). As MAP, NGST and other space observatory missions are discovering, orbits about the Sun-Earth Lagrange points provide ideal locations for these missions. The nearly constant geometry and environment greatly simplifies spacecraft and instrument design as well as mission operations. But in order to achieve the observation baselines required by TPF, a distributed system with 5 spacecraft flying in formation is required. The sensitivity of the nonlinear dynamics in the Lagrange regime as well as the tight formation required by TPF render this a difficult problem indeed. As increasing numbers of observatory missions are located in orbits about the Lagrange points, the question of servicing these expensive observatories naturally arises. The success of the HST owes a great deal to the numerous servicing missions provided by the Shuttle astronauts. However, servicing a mission in LEO (Low Earth Orbit) is completely different form servicing a mission at the Sun-Earth L2. A major difficulty is the 90 days transfer time to a few days (in the event of emergencies for human missions) would require prohibitive amounts of delta-V. In early 2000 we form a team to study these issues. This paper addresses two key results of this study. First, we demonstrated that dynamically, formation flight near the Lagrange point is feasible for the TPF mission. Second, we proposed a novel approach for servicing of Lagrange point missions by placing a Lunar service station in an Earth-Moon L1 orbit. It requires at most 7 days to transfer between the Earth and an orbit about the Earth-Moon L1. The TPF spacecraft can be transferred to the Earth-Moon L1 with relative ease and requires very little delta-V. This low energy transfer results from the system of low energy pathways connecting the entire Solar System generated by the Lagrange points. The halo orbits are the gateways of this Interplanetary Superhighway System (ISSys). A Lunar Station sitting at the L1 gateway, in addition to servicing missions from the Sun-Earth Lagrange points, may play an even more important role in the future development of space.

Lo, M.; Beichman, C.

149

INITIATING ROUND ROBINS IN THE L2 CLASSROOM – PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Complementing recent interactional research on the contingent operation of online task accomplishment, this paper deals with a specific way of organizing and managing tasks in plenary L2 classrooms – namely the round robin. This may seem like a “traditional” and rigid form of classroom organization that reduces students’ contributions to responses to the teacher’s elicitations. This paper shows that although the round robin puts certain interactional features out of play, it is nonetheless done in and through participants’ mutual orientation to the ongoing activity. The paper describes the sequential position in which round robins are initiated and how this is talked and embodied into being by the participants as well as the design of the turn that initiates the round robin activity. Relevant to the initiation and further development of the round robin are the physical arrangement of the classroom and artefacts and graphic structures that are used not only as mediating tools in the (supposed learning relevant activity, but also as structurally relevant features to organize the ongoing interaction, in which these activities emerge.

Kristian MORTENSEN

2011-04-01

150

Initiating round robins in the L2 classroom - preliminary observations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Complementing recent interactional research on the contingent operation of online task accomplishment, this paper deals with a specific way of organizing and managing tasks in plenary L2 classrooms – namely the round robin. This may seem like a “traditional” and rigid form of classroom organization that reduces students’ contributions to responses to the teacher’s elicitations. This paper shows that although the round robin puts certain interactional features out of play, it is nonetheless done in and through participants’ mutual orientation to the ongoing activity. The paper describes the sequential position in which round robins are initiated and how this is talked and embodied into being by the participants as well as the design of the turn that initiates the round robin activity. Relevant to the initiation and further development of the round robin are the physical arrangement of the classroom and artefacts and graphic structures that are used not only as mediating tools in the (supposed) learning relevant activity, but also as structurally relevant features to organize the ongoing interaction, in which these activities emerge.

Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer

2011-01-01

151

L’italiano L2 : auto-apprendimento e narratività. Materiali multimediali di italiano L2 per bambini e ragazzi.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 14 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Normal 0 14 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Insegnare l'italiano come seconda lingua ai bambini e ragazzi di recente immigrazione è un percorso  delicato e complesso che  fa ormai parte  dei compiti professionali ";ordinari"; dei docenti che operano nelle classi sempre più multiculturali e plurilingui. La modalità di insegnamento/apprendimento della L2 più diffusa ed efficace è quella integrata: l'alunno non italofono è inserito nella classe comune e, parallelamente, in determinati momenti, frequenta il laboratorio  di italiano L2. Per  sostenere  questo modello integrato e accompagnare il  viaggio dentro l'italiano dei bambini e dei ragazzi neoarrivati, servono materiali didattici flessibili e ricchi di proposte, utilizzabili in maniera autonoma e in piccolo gruppo; proponibili in maniera tradizionale o anche attraverso la LIM; adatti a sviluppare competenze diverse, proprie della lingua per comunicare, dell'italiano scritto e propedeutiche all'apprendimento del curricolo comune. I due corsi di italiano L2  che vengono presentati nell'ultima parte dell'articolo rispondono a queste esigenze, in quanto a sono rivolti l'uno ai bambini e l'altro ai ragazzi stranieri neo arrivati; b si propongono  il passaggio dal livello prebasico ai livelli A1, A2 e B1 del QCERL; c si basano su un forte impianto narrativo che sviluppa coinvolgimento e identificazione; d sono attenti allo sviluppo della lingua orale e dello scritto, dell'italiano per comunicare e per lo studio; e hanno una chiara caratterizzazione interculturale.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Teaching Italian as a second language to newly immigrated children and young people is a delicate and complex undertaking which has become part of the job for teachers working in increasingly multicultural and multilingual classes.  The most widespread and effective way of teaching/learning the L2 is the integrated approach: the non-Italian-speaking child is placed in an ordinary class and, parallel to this, there are times when (she attends a workshop of Italian as a second language.  To support this integrated approach and accompany the new arrivals in their journey into the Italian language, flexible teaching/learning materials are needed, with a wealth of suggestions that can be used independently and with a small group; they should be suitable for use either traditionally or through LIM and appropriate for developing different competences in the language of communication, written Italian and preparation for learning in the core curriculum.  The two courses of Italian as L2 presented in the final part of the article satisfy these demands since a the former is intended for newly-arrived children from abroad and the latter for newly-arrived young people; b they are intended for the shift from pre-elementary to levels A1, A2 and B1 of the QCERL; c they are founded on a solid narrative basis which develops involvement and identification; d they take into careful account the development of the oral and written language, and that of Italian

Graziella Favaro

2009-12-01

152

Lexical Inventions: French Interlanguage as L2 versus L3.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study investigated "lexical inventions" in the advanced oral French of 39 native Dutch-speakers, 32 of whom had French as a second language (L2) and English as a third language (L3), with the others having L2 English and L3 French. A higher proportion of lexical inventions produced by French L2 speakers derived from non-standard use of…

Dewaele, Jean-Marc

1998-01-01

153

Postnatal disruption of the disintegrin/metalloproteinase ADAM10 in brain causes epileptic seizures, learning deficits, altered spine morphology, and defective synaptic functions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metalloproteinase ADAM10 is of importance for Notch-dependent cortical brain development. The protease is tightly linked with ?-secretase activity toward the amyloid precursor protein (APP) substrate. Increasing ADAM10 activity is suggested as a therapy to prevent the production of the neurotoxic amyloid ? (A?) peptide in Alzheimer's disease. To investigate the function of ADAM10 in postnatal brain, we generated Adam10 conditional knock-out (A10cKO) mice using a CaMKII?-Cre deleter strain. The lack of ADAM10 protein expression was evident in the brain cortex leading to a reduced generation of sAPP? and increased levels of sAPP? and endogenous A? peptides. The A10cKO mice are characterized by weight loss and increased mortality after weaning associated with seizures. Behavioral comparison of adult mice revealed that the loss of ADAM10 in the A10cKO mice resulted in decreased neuromotor abilities and reduced learning performance, which were associated with altered in vivo network activities in the hippocampal CA1 region and impaired synaptic function. Histological and ultrastructural analysis of ADAM10-depleted brain revealed astrogliosis, microglia activation, and impaired number and altered morphology of postsynaptic spine structures. A defect in spine morphology was further supported by a reduction of the expression of NMDA receptors subunit 2A and 2B. The reduced shedding of essential postsynaptic cell adhesion proteins such as N-Cadherin, Nectin-1, and APP may explain the postsynaptic defects and the impaired learning, altered network activity, and synaptic plasticity of the A10cKO mice. Our study reveals that ADAM10 is instrumental for synaptic and neuronal network function in the adult murine brain. PMID:23926248

Prox, Johannes; Bernreuther, Christian; Altmeppen, Hermann; Grendel, Jasper; Glatzel, Markus; D'Hooge, Rudi; Stroobants, Stijn; Ahmed, Tariq; Balschun, Detlef; Willem, Michael; Lammich, Sven; Isbrandt, Dirk; Schweizer, Michaela; Horré, Katrien; De Strooper, Bart; Saftig, Paul

2013-08-01

154

Digital Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Have you ever wanted to look into the shape and structure of a suckermouth armored catfish? Well, the Digital Morphology website makes that possible. Created as part of the National Science Foundation Digital Library at The University of Texas at Austin, this library includes hundreds of 2D and 3D visualizations of the internal and external structure of living and extinct vertebrates, and a number of invertebrates as well. These images are generated by a X-ray CT scanner, which has greater resolution and penetrating power than a conventional medical diagnostic CAT scanner. Visitors can browse the library by scientific name, common name, or the popular What's New? area. The homepage includes eight different overview pages, which provide narrative essays and images of dinosaurs, tapirs, bats, and primates. The site also has a Learn More section which provides additional material on X-ray CT's and the science behind 3D printing.

2012-03-23

155

An overview of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase gene (L2HGDH) variants: a genotype-phenotype study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is a rare, neurometabolic disorder with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Affected individuals only have neurological manifestations, including psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and more variably macrocephaly, or epilepsy. The diagnosis of L2HGA can be made based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical analysis, and mutational analysis of L2HGDH. About 200 patients with elevated concentrations of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) in the urine were referred for chiral determination of 2HG and L2HGDH mutational analysis. All patients with increased L2HG (n=106; 83 families) were included. Clinical information on 61 patients was obtained via questionnaires. In 82 families the mutations were detected by direct sequence analysis and/or multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA), including one case where MLPA was essential to detect the second allele. In another case RT-PCR followed by deep intronic sequencing was needed to detect the mutation. Thirty-five novel mutations as well as 35 reported mutations and 14 nondisease-related variants are reviewed and included in a novel Leiden Open source Variation Database (LOVD) for L2HGDH variants (http://www.LOVD.nl/L2HGDH). Every user can access the database and submit variants/patients. Furthermore, we report on the phenotype, including neurological manifestations and urinary levels of L2HG, and we evaluate the phenotype-genotype relationship.

Steenweg, Marjan E; Jakobs, Cornelis

2010-01-01

156

Proficiency and Sequential Organization of L2 Requests  

Science.gov (United States)

L2 requests in developmental pragmatics research are commonly investigated using non-interactive data collection techniques or sidelining the larger discourse sequence in which the request proper is embedded. This study takes a different approach to the study of L2 requests. In a cross-sectional design, we collected role play data from learners at…

Al-Gahtani, Saad; Roever, Carsten

2012-01-01

157

Nativelikeness and Non-Nativelikeness in L2A Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This commentary addresses the use of nativelikeness and non-nativelikeness in research relating to the age factor in L2A. I suggest that, in the context of the Critical Period Hypothesis as it applies to L2A, the criteria of nativelikeness and non-nativelikeness may be subject to abuse. I also argue that the use of the monolingual native standard…

Birdsong, David

2005-01-01

158

Peer Response to L2 Student Writing: Patterns and Expectations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports the corrective feedback patterns in L2 writing and the student writers’ preferences for peer feedback. The study examines the actual focus of peer review and the types of corrective feedback provided in L2 composing process. Sixteen L2 matriculation students at a Malaysian university took part in five peer review sessions, responded to a debriefing questionnaire, and participated in an interview session after completing the peer review activities. Results show that peer responses to writing focused more on clarity of feedback unlike writer expectations which focused more on grammar correction. The study confirms the relevance of peer review as an alternative feedback delivery system in L2 writing and suggests that peer corrective feedback provides teachers with important perspectives about the L2 students’ language and writing knowledge.

Abdel Rahman Abdalla Salih

2013-01-01

159

On the Relation of Locus of Control and L2 Reading and Writing Achievement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Locus of control, a psychological construct, has been the focus of attention in recent decades. Psychologists have discussed the effect of locus of control on achieving life goals in social/psychological interactions. While learning a foreign language involves both social interactions and psychological processes, the role and relation of locus of control in foreign language achievement is seemingly overlooked. This study is, therefore, concerned with examining the relationship between EFL learners' locus of control (LOC and their L2 reading and writing achievement. Using Internal Control Index as the main instrument of the study and measuring L2 reading and writing achievements of 136 undergraduate students studying English as their major in two universities followed by an interview, the researchers examined the relation of their locus of control and their writing and reading comprehension achievements. The results of the study indicated that locus of control had a positive correlation with their L2 reading and writing achievement. Also the results of the interviews supported the information obtained from the questionnaires. The researchers have pinpointed to the importance of inculcating a sense of responsibility in EFL learners to improve their LOC orientation which might result in higher achievements in L2 reading and writing.

Behzad Ghonsooly

2011-11-01

160

L1 and L2 Picture Naming in Mandarin-English Bilinguals: A Test of Bilingual Dual Coding Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the nature of bilinguals' conceptual representations and the links from these representations to words in L1 and L2. Specifically, we tested an assumption of the Bilingual Dual Coding Theory that conceptual representations include image representations, and that learning two languages in separate contexts can result in…

Jared, Debra; Poh, Rebecca Pei Yun; Paivio, Allan

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

The Effects of Word Exposure Frequency and Elaboration of Word Processing on Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition through reading has claimed that repeated encounters with unfamiliar words and the relative elaboration of processing these words facilitate word learning. However, so far both variables have been investigated in isolation. To help close this research gap, the current study…

Eckerth, Johannes; Tavakoli, Parveneh

2012-01-01

162

Sitio Web interactivo para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología del sistema muscular / Interactive Website to learn the morphology of the muscular system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Debido al desarrollo científico técnico alcanzado, se han insertado las tecnologías de la informática y las comunicaciones al proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de la disciplina Morfofisiología Humana. Se realizó una investigación de innovación tecnológica, en el área de pregrado de la Educación Médica, [...] en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río; con el objetivo de elaborar un sistema de medios de enseñanza para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular. Se utilizaron los métodos empíricos, las encuestas a estudiantes, entrevistas a profesores de la asignatura y a los profesores asesores, criterio de expertos para validar el producto. Los métodos teóricos: histórico, lógico y sistémico, fueron utilizados en la revisión bibliográfica y el análisis documental que sustenta el estudio. Las guías de estudio se elaboraron por el modelo "WebQuest" y los ejercicios interactivos con el programa "exelearning". El sistema de medios de enseñanza se ubicó en el sitio Web "MioloWeb", elaborado con "Joomla 1.7". El contenido está estructurado en subtemas y en cada uno de ellos, se facilita al estudiante una variedad de materiales educativos computarizados, que permitirán el aprendizaje activo, consciente y desarrollador de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular, propiciando la interacción del estudiante de forma activa con los contenidos, la vinculación con las estrategias curriculares, la autoevaluación en la guía de estudio y en los ejercicios interactivos. Abstract in english Communicative and information technologies have been introduced in the teaching-learning process of Human Morphology Subject. A research paper of technological innovation was carried out in the pre-graduate area of Medical Education belonging to the University of Medical Sciences in Pinar del Rio, w [...] ith the purpose of creating a system of teaching aids to learn the human morphology of the muscular system. Empirical methods used were: surveys to students and interviews to professors and consultants of the subject, in addition to the criteria of the experts to validate the product; using also the theoretical methods: historical-logic and systemic to conduct the literature review and documentary analysis to support the study. Study guides were created following “WebQuest” model and interactive exercises using “exelearning” program. The system of teaching aids was built-in to “MioloWeb” Website, created with “Joomla 1.7”. The content is structured into subtopics and in every one of them, a variety of educational computerized materials is facilitated to the students, allowing this way an active, conscious and expanded learning of the human morphology of the muscular system, favoring at the same time a dynamic interaction of the student with the contents, the connection with the curricular strategies, and self-evaluation which was included in the guide of study plus interactive exercises.

Orliany, Alboniga Álvarez; Iraida, Hidalgo Gato Castillo; Niurka, Cabrera Vázquez; Rafael, Capote Martínez; Dariel, Díaz Díaz.

163

Sitio Web interactivo para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología del sistema muscular / Interactive Website to learn the morphology of the muscular system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Debido al desarrollo científico técnico alcanzado, se han insertado las tecnologías de la informática y las comunicaciones al proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de la disciplina Morfofisiología Humana. Se realizó una investigación de innovación tecnológica, en el área de pregrado de la Educación Médica, [...] en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río; con el objetivo de elaborar un sistema de medios de enseñanza para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular. Se utilizaron los métodos empíricos, las encuestas a estudiantes, entrevistas a profesores de la asignatura y a los profesores asesores, criterio de expertos para validar el producto. Los métodos teóricos: histórico, lógico y sistémico, fueron utilizados en la revisión bibliográfica y el análisis documental que sustenta el estudio. Las guías de estudio se elaboraron por el modelo "WebQuest" y los ejercicios interactivos con el programa "exelearning". El sistema de medios de enseñanza se ubicó en el sitio Web "MioloWeb", elaborado con "Joomla 1.7". El contenido está estructurado en subtemas y en cada uno de ellos, se facilita al estudiante una variedad de materiales educativos computarizados, que permitirán el aprendizaje activo, consciente y desarrollador de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular, propiciando la interacción del estudiante de forma activa con los contenidos, la vinculación con las estrategias curriculares, la autoevaluación en la guía de estudio y en los ejercicios interactivos. Abstract in english Communicative and information technologies have been introduced in the teaching-learning process of Human Morphology Subject. A research paper of technological innovation was carried out in the pre-graduate area of Medical Education belonging to the University of Medical Sciences in Pinar del Rio, w [...] ith the purpose of creating a system of teaching aids to learn the human morphology of the muscular system. Empirical methods used were: surveys to students and interviews to professors and consultants of the subject, in addition to the criteria of the experts to validate the product; using also the theoretical methods: historical-logic and systemic to conduct the literature review and documentary analysis to support the study. Study guides were created following “WebQuest” model and interactive exercises using “exelearning” program. The system of teaching aids was built-in to “MioloWeb” Website, created with “Joomla 1.7”. The content is structured into subtopics and in every one of them, a variety of educational computerized materials is facilitated to the students, allowing this way an active, conscious and expanded learning of the human morphology of the muscular system, favoring at the same time a dynamic interaction of the student with the contents, the connection with the curricular strategies, and self-evaluation which was included in the guide of study plus interactive exercises.

Orliany, Alboniga Álvarez; Iraida, Hidalgo Gato Castillo; Niurka, Cabrera Vázquez; Rafael, Capote Martínez; Dariel, Díaz Díaz.

2012-06-01

164

Sitio Web interactivo para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología del sistema muscular Interactive Website to learn the morphology of the muscular system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Debido al desarrollo científico técnico alcanzado, se han insertado las tecnologías de la informática y las comunicaciones al proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de la disciplina Morfofisiología Humana. Se realizó una investigación de innovación tecnológica, en el área de pregrado de la Educación Médica, en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río; con el objetivo de elaborar un sistema de medios de enseñanza para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular. Se utilizaron los métodos empíricos, las encuestas a estudiantes, entrevistas a profesores de la asignatura y a los profesores asesores, criterio de expertos para validar el producto. Los métodos teóricos: histórico, lógico y sistémico, fueron utilizados en la revisión bibliográfica y el análisis documental que sustenta el estudio. Las guías de estudio se elaboraron por el modelo "WebQuest" y los ejercicios interactivos con el programa "exelearning". El sistema de medios de enseñanza se ubicó en el sitio Web "MioloWeb", elaborado con "Joomla 1.7". El contenido está estructurado en subtemas y en cada uno de ellos, se facilita al estudiante una variedad de materiales educativos computarizados, que permitirán el aprendizaje activo, consciente y desarrollador de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular, propiciando la interacción del estudiante de forma activa con los contenidos, la vinculación con las estrategias curriculares, la autoevaluación en la guía de estudio y en los ejercicios interactivos.Communicative and information technologies have been introduced in the teaching-learning process of Human Morphology Subject. A research paper of technological innovation was carried out in the pre-graduate area of Medical Education belonging to the University of Medical Sciences in Pinar del Rio, with the purpose of creating a system of teaching aids to learn the human morphology of the muscular system. Empirical methods used were: surveys to students and interviews to professors and consultants of the subject, in addition to the criteria of the experts to validate the product; using also the theoretical methods: historical-logic and systemic to conduct the literature review and documentary analysis to support the study. Study guides were created following “WebQuest” model and interactive exercises using “exelearning” program. The system of teaching aids was built-in to “MioloWeb” Website, created with “Joomla 1.7”. The content is structured into subtopics and in every one of them, a variety of educational computerized materials is facilitated to the students, allowing this way an active, conscious and expanded learning of the human morphology of the muscular system, favoring at the same time a dynamic interaction of the student with the contents, the connection with the curricular strategies, and self-evaluation which was included in the guide of study plus interactive exercises.

Orliany Alboniga Álvarez

2012-06-01

165

Cross-linguistic Transfer (from L1 to L2, L2 to L1, and L2 to L3 of Reading Strategies in a Multicompetent Mind  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taking a process and product view of reading, this paper attempts to explore the relationship between languages in one mind from Cook’s multi-competence perspective. According to multi-competence view, L1 and L2 (or L2s which are in one mind form a linguistic super-system (Cook, 2004 and not systems which are completely separate. In studies of language transfer, the general idea is that languages have effects on each other. To the purpose of this paper, three studies conducted by the author on the effects of L1 on L2, L2 on L1, and L2 on L3 will be provided. The common finding in all these studies is improvements in the process of reading in any given language will result in improvements in the process of reading in other languages. However, the same transferability power that can be conceived for the process of reading cannot be conceived for the product of reading as factors such as directionality of transfer and language proficiency interfere with this. It is recommended that since the process aspect of reading in different languages in one mind is transferable, native or foreign language teachers take this aspect of the relationship between languages as seriously as possible so that its effects can be witnessed both in the language of instruction and other languages that exist in the mind of the reader, be it L1, L2 or any further language.  An advantage of this is that an increase in the process or reading will also result in an increase in the product of reading both in the language of instruction and any other language in mind if other conditions are met.

Seyed Hassan Talebi

2013-03-01

166

Morphology of Nearby Galaxies  

Science.gov (United States)

Improved knowledge of the morphology of nearby galaxies has resulted from large imaging surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS; optical wavelengths), the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX; near- and far-ultraviolet wavelengths), and the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G; mid-infrared wavelengths). In this review, I summarize the basic aspects of nearby galaxy morphology and highlight the strength of the morphological survey as a means of learning more about how galaxies are structured and how they might evolve.

Buta, R. J.

2014-03-01

167

Testing L2 Vocabulary Recognition and Recall Using Pictorial and Written Test Items  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes two studies that examined the effects of pictorial and written annotations on second language (L2 vocabulary learning from a multimedia environment. In both studies, students were randomly assigned to one of four aural multimedia groups: a control group that received no annotations, and three treatment groups that provided written, pictorial, or both written and pictorial annotations while listening. In the first study, students in the three treatment groups recognized English translations or pictorial representations of French keywords better than the control group that received no annotations during listening. In the second study, students produced English translations of French keywords best when the mode of testing matched the treatment mode. These results add to the growing body of literature on the beneficial effects of annotations on L2 vocabulary recognition and recall.

Linda Jones

2004-09-01

168

The broader evolutionary lessons to be learned from a comparative and phylogenetic analysis of primate muscle morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present publication reviews the broader evolutionary implications of our long-term study of primate musculature. It summarizes the implications of the study for our understanding of the use of myological characters for phylogenetic reconstruction, for assessing the importance of homoplasy and reversions in evolution, and for our understanding of Dollo's law, the notion of 'direction' in evolution, the common myth of human complexity, the tempo and mode of primate and human evolutionary history, adaptive radiations, the notion that 'common' equals 'primitive' and the influence of morphogenesis on the variability of head, neck, pectoral and upper limb muscles. Among other results our study shows that myological characters are useful for phylogenetic reconstruction. The results also stress the importance of homoplasy and of evolutionary reversions in morphological evolution, and they provide examples of reversions that violate Dollo's law due to the retention of ancestral developmental pathways. They also show that contrary to the idea of a 'general molecular slow-down of hominoids' the rates of muscle evolution at the nodes leading to and within the hominoid clade are higher than those in most other primate clades. However, there is no evidence of a general trend or 'directionality' towards an increasing complexity during the evolutionary history of hominoids and of modern humans in particular, at least regarding the number of muscles or of muscle bundles. The rates of muscle evolution at the major euarchontan and primate nodes are different, but within each major primate clade (Strepsirrhini, Platyrrhini, Cercopithecidae and Hominoidea) the rates at the various nodes, and particularly at the nodes leading to the higher groups (i.e. those including more than one genus) are strikingly similar. Our results also support, in general terms, the assumption that 'common is primitive' and they lend some support for the 'vertebrate-specific model' in the sense that during the divergent events that resulted in these four major primate clades there was more emphasis on postcranial changes than on cranial changes. Our study of primates does not, however, support suggestions that the distal structures of the upper limb are more prone to variation than the proximal ones, or that the topological origins of the upper limb muscles are more prone to evolutionary change than their insertions. PMID:23530476

Diogo, Rui; Wood, Bernard

2013-11-01

169

L^2-Betti numbers, isomorphism conjectures and noncommutative localization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we discuss how the question about the rationality of L^2-Betti numbers is related to the Isomorphism Conjecture in algebraic K-theory and why in this context noncommutative localization appears as an important tool.

Reich, Holger

2003-01-01

170

The L(2,1-choosability of cycle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For a given graph $G=(V,E$, let $mathscr L(G={L(v : vin V}$ be a prescribed list assignment. $G$ is $mathscr L$-$L(2,1$-colorable if there exists a vertex labeling $f$ of $G$ such that $f(vin L(v$ for all $v in V$; $|f(u-f(v|geq 2$ if $d_G(u,v = 1$; and $|f(u-f(v|geq 1$ if $d_G(u,v=2$. If $G$ is $mathscr L$-$L(2,1$-colorable for every list assignment $mathscr L$ with $|L(v|geq k$ for all $vin V$, then $G$ is said to be $k$-$L(2,1$-choosable. In this paper, we prove all cycles are $5$-$L(2,1$-choosable.

Haiying Zhou

2012-09-01

171

Geometric Zeta Functions, $L^2$-Theory, and Compact Shimura Manifolds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We define geometric zeta functions for locally symmetric spaces as generalizations of the zeta functions of Ruelle and Selberg. As a special value at zero we obtain the Reidemeister torsion of the manifold. For hermitian spaces these zeta functions have as special value the quotient of the holomorphic torsion of Ray and Singer and the holomorphic $L^2$-torsion, where the latter is defined via the $L^2$-theory of Atiyah. For higher fundamental rank twisted torsion numbers app...

Deitmar, Anton

1995-01-01

172

Anisotropic Lifshitz point at O(?L2)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the critical exponents ?L2, ?L2 and ?L for an m-axial Lifshitz point at second order in an ?L expansion. We introduce a constraint involving the loop momenta along the m-dimensional subspace in order to perform two- and three-loop integrals. The results are valid in the range 0?m< d. The case m=0 corresponds to the usual Ising-like critical behaviour. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

173

HIV-1 does not significantly influence Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 replication in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Individuals with lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2, are commonly co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), for reasons that remain unknown. One hypothesis is that a biological synergy exists between the two pathogens. We tested this by characterising for the first time in vitro C. trachomatis L2 replication in the presence of HIV-1. The human epithelial cell-line, MAGI P4R5 was infected with C. trachomatis L2 and HIV-1 (MN strain). Co-infected cultures contained fewer and larger chlamydial inclusions, but the inclusions did not contain morphologically aberrant organisms. C. trachomatis remained infectious in the presence of HIV-1 and showed neither an alteration in genome accumulation, nor in the acumulation of ompA, euo or unprocessed 16S rRNA transcripts. However, omcB was slightly elevated. Taken together, these data indicate that HIV-1 co-infection did not significantly alter C. trachomatis replication and the association between HIV-1 and LGV is likely due to other factors that require further investigation. The fewer, larger inclusions observed in co-infected cultures probably result from the fusion of multiple inclusions in HIV-1 induced syncytia and indicate that C. trachomatis-host-cell interactions continue to function, despite considerable host-cell re-modelling. PMID:21315827

Broadbent, Andrew; Horner, Patrick; Wills, Gillian; Ling, Alexandra; Carzaniga, Raffaella; McClure, Myra

2011-06-01

174

The Motivation of L2 Learners: Does it decrease with age?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the motivation of a heterogeneous group of students studying English as a foreign language at the International School in Tripoli area. The aim of the study was to find out the extent to which various factors affect students’ motivation and achievement in second/foreign language learning particularly as they enter the senior high school. The research also looked into the temporal dimension of L2 motivation to see if the students’ motivation changes as they enter the senior high school. One hundred and forty four students from thirty five nationalities learning English and five teachers participated in the completion of the questionnaire surveys. Twenty students and three teachers took part in the semi-structured interviews. Data were drawn from students’ examination results and a combined quantitative-qualitative approach in which student and teacher questionnaire surveys were followed by a round of student and teacher interviews. The results of the ‘Student’s Motivation Questionnaire’ show that L2 motivation in the sample decreases with age: The results of one-way analyses of variance across the five age groups investigated show that the older learners tend to score significantly lower on the motivational scales and the interviews data gives further support to this finding. There are a number of influential factors that affect learners’ motivation: in particular the role of the teacher was seen fundamental in determining the attitude to the language and in supplying motivation. Other external factors include aspects related to the learning context.

Pauline Ghenghesh

2010-02-01

175

Analysis of Complimenting in L1 vs. L2 Written Discourse: A Case Study of Iranian Students Writing Review Letters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was carried out to compare and contrast complimenting as used in L1 (Farsi) and L2 (English) writings of Iranian students in a foreign language learning context. For the purpose, sixty five university senior students majoring in English and taking the specialized course called "essay writing" were selected for the study. First, they were instructed how to write review letters on their classmates' essays in both L1 and L2 and then their letters were analyzed on the basis of t...

Gholam Reza Zarei

2011-01-01

176

MORE THAN A LINGUISTIC REFERENCE: THE INFLUENCE OF CORPUS TECHNOLOGY ON L2 ACADEMIC WRITING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on a qualitative study that investigated the changes in students’ writing process associated with corpus use over an extended period of time. The primary purpose of this study was to examine how corpus technology affects students’ development of competence as second language (L2 writers. The research was mainly based on case studies with six L2 writers in an English for Academic Purposes writing course. The findings revealed that corpus use not only had an immediate effect by helping the students solve immediate writing/language problems, but also promoted their perceptions of lexico-grammar and language awareness. Once the corpus approach was introduced to the writing process, the students assumed more responsibility for their writing and became more independent writers, and their confidence in writing increased. This studyidentified a wide variety of individual experiences and learning contexts that were involved in deciding the levels of the students’ willingness and success in using corpora. This paper also discusses the distinctive contributions of general corpora to English for Academic Purposes and the importance of lexical and grammatical aspects in L2 writing pedagogy.

Hyunsook Yoon

2008-06-01

177

The chimeric FUS/CREB3l2 gene is specific for low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a variant of fibrosarcoma that was recognized as a distinct tumor entity only quite recently. We previously described a translocation, t(7;16)(q33;p11), that resulted in a fusion of the FUS and CREB3L2 (also known as BBF2H7) genes in two soft tissue tumors that fulfilled morphologic criteria for LGFMS. To delineate the spectrum of tumors that may harbor the FUS/CREB3L2 gene, we selected 45 low-grade spindle cell sarcomas for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses; none of these tumors had originally been diagnosed as LGFMS. Furthermore, also included were two benign soft tissue tumors and nine high-grade sarcomas with supernumerary ring chromosomes or 7q3 rearrangement and three tumors diagnosed as LGFMS prior to the genetic analysis. Of the 59 tumors analyzed, 12 were FUS/CREB3L2-positive, all of which were diagnosed at histopathologic re-examination as being LGFMS, of both the classical subtype and the subtype with giant collagen rosettes. The breakpoints in the fusion transcripts were always in exons 6 or 7 of FUS and exon 5 of CREB3L2. The results indicated that FUS/CREB3L2 is specifically associated with LGFMS and that RT-PCR or FISH analysis may be useful for the differential diagnosis. PMID:15139001

Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Storlazzi, Clelia Tiziana; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Fletcher, Jonathan A; Nascimento, Antonio; Domanski, Henryk A; Wejde, Johan; Brosjö, Otte; Rydholm, Anders; Isaksson, Margareth; Mandahl, Nils; Mertens, Fredrik

2004-07-01

178

La conscience morphologique est-elle une variable importante dans l'apprentissage de la lecture? / Morphological awareness: an important variable in learning to read? / Consciência morfológica é uma variável importante na aprendizagem da leitura?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: French Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo é uma revisão sistemática de trabalhos que tratam da relação entre consciência morfológica e aprendizagem da leitura. Esta síntese permite confirmar que a consciência morfológica contribui realmente para a aprendizagem da leitura (tanto no nível da instalação das habilidades de dec [...] odificação quanto no nível do desenvolvimento da compreensão). No entanto, parece que não são todos os mesmos aspectos da consciência morfológica que são ligados às capacidades de decodificação e às capacidades de compreensão. Logo, novas pesquisas deverão ser desenvolvidas para melhor apreender os papéis respectivos de cada um dos componentes da consciência morfológica. Abstract in english The present article is a concise review of researches addressing the links between morphological awareness and learning reading. This review points out that morphological awareness actually contributes to learning reading (both at the level of decoding skills installation and at the level of compreh [...] ension development). However, it seems that there are different aspects of morphological awareness which are bound to decoding and comprehension capacities. Further researches must be, thus, carried out to better highlight the respective roles of each of the components of morphological awareness.

Nathalie, Marec-Breton; Anne-Sophie, Besse; Carine, Royer.

179

FFT based Acquisition Techniques of GPS L2C Signals  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The modernization of the GPS lead to the launch of additional GPS signal, L2C second civilian GPS signal to become available in full constellation. L2C signals have longer ranging codes which leads to larger search space and increase in computational complexity. L2C signals makes use of two PRN sequences CM (Civil Moderate and CL (Civil Long of 20ms and 1.5sec long. In this paper a code generator is designed for generating the CM and CL sequences, and two local replica codes NRZ (Non Return Zero and RZ (Return Zero Codes are designed. The code phase and carrier Doppler are estimated based on the various FFT (Fast Fourier Transform based acquisition techniques.

B.R. Iswariya

2013-12-01

180

On the Role of Phonological Processing in L2 Reading  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper provides a review of ideas and research regarding the role of phonological processing as a bottom-up, component processing mechanism in second language reading comprehension. Firstly, it sketches a brief history of approaches and theoretical models towards L2 reading comprehension in the SLA literature. Secondly, it acknowledges the fact that with the undue dominance of top-down psycholinguistic models, the role of bottom-up processes in L2 reading has been systematically neglected. And finally an accumulated body of literature is presented which comprehensively delineates the studies carried out to examine the contributory role of phonological processing as a type of bottom-up proceesing in L2 reading.

Mohammad Khatib

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., lexical bundles in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2, were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively. Published academic writing was found to exhibit the widest range of lexical bundles whereas L2 student writing showed the smallest range. Furthermore, some high-frequency expressions in published texts, such as in the context of, were underused in both student corpora, while the L2 student writers overused certain expressions (e.g., all over the world which native academics rarely used. The findings drawn from structural and functional analyses of lexical bundles also have some pedagogical implications.

Yu-Hua Chen

2010-02-01

182

Determining L(2,1)-Span in Polynomial Space  

CERN Document Server

A $k$-L(2,1)-labeling of a graph is a function from its vertex set into the set $\\{0,...,k\\}$, such that the labels assigned to adjacent vertices differ by at least 2, and labels assigned to vertices of distance 2 are different. It is known that finding the smallest $k$ admitting the existence of a $k$-L(2,1)-labeling of any given graph is NP-Complete. In this paper we present an algorithm for this problem, which works in time $O(\\complexity ^n)$ and polynomial memory, where $\\eps$ is an arbitrarily small positive constant. This is the first exact algorithm for L(2,1)-labeling problem with time complexity $O(c^n)$ for some constant $c$ and polynomial space complexity.

Junosza-Szaniawski, Konstanty

2011-01-01

183

Consideraciones metodológicas sobre la evaluación de la competencia oral en L2 / Methodological Considerations Concerning the Assessment of Oral Competency in a Second Language (L2)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se realiza una revisión acerca de las consideraciones metodológicas para la evaluación de la competencia oral en el aprendizaje de una segunda lengua (L2). Se analizan las características del constructo y su definición. En este caso, se refieren al ámbito competencial, que incluye l [...] a competencia en comprensión oral y la de expresión oral. Asimismo, se revisan conceptos referidos al modo en que diseñar instrumentos y/o técnicas evaluativas para la evaluación de las competencias que la integran y cuestiones respecto a fiabilidad, validez y establecimiento de puntos de corte. Abstract in english In this paper, methodological considerations are reviewed regarding the assessment of oral competence in the learning of a second language (L2). The characteristics of the construct and its definition are analyzed, including competence in listening comprehension and oral expression. Furthermore, con [...] cepts such as the design of instruments and/or evaluative techniques for the assessment of the competencies are examined as well as issues related to reliability, validity and cut off points.

José, González-Such; Jesús Miguel, Jornet Meliá; Margarita, Bakieva.

184

A L2HGDH initiator methionine codon mutation in a Yorkshire terrier with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a metabolic repair deficiency characterized by elevated levels of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological signs associated with the disease in humans and dogs include seizures, ataxia and dementia. Case presentation Here we describe an 8?month old Yorkshire terrier that presented with episodes of hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. Between episodes, the dog’s behavior and neurologic examinations were normal. A T2 weighted MRI of the brain showed diffuse grey matter hyperintensity and a urine metabolite screen showed elevated 2-hydroxyglutaric acid. We sequenced all 10 exons and intron-exon borders of L2HGDH from the affected dog and identified a homozygous A to G transition in the initiator methionine codon. The first inframe methionine is at p.M183 which is past the mitochondrial targeting domain of the protein. Initiation of translation at p.M183 would encode an N-terminal truncated protein unlikely to be functional. Conclusions We have identified a mutation in the initiation codon of L2HGDH that is likely to result in a non-functional gene. The Yorkshire terrier could serve as an animal model to understand the pathogenesis of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria and to evaluate potential therapies.

Farias Fabiana HG

2012-07-01

185

O papel da tradução da L1 para a L2 no currículo de escrita em L2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Certos educadores tem restrições à tradução da L1 para a L2, no currículo do ensino da escrita em L2; alguns, inclusive, posicionam-se contra a introdução da tradução no currículo da escrita em L2. No presente artigo, o autor tenta elucidar a relação entre escrita e tradução, esclarece o inter-relacionamento entre escrita "livre", escrita "baseada em conteúdo" bem como escrita "limitada em conteúdo" em L2, expõe em particular as principais semelhanças entre escrita "limitada em conteúdo", conforme rótulo do autor. Para refutar afirmações como "a tradução jamais poderá ajudar aprendizes de um alíngua a aprender uma outra" , o autor mostra exemplos incluindo amostras de escrita "limitada em conteúdo" de alunos (chinês-inglês, números contrastantes e comentários de alunos de uma Escola Superior no Canadá para provar que a tradução da L1 não apenas desempenha um papel positivo no currículo de escrita em ISL avançada se conduzida adequadamente, mas também semelhantemente à escrita "baseada em conteúdo", um constituinte natural do currículo da escrita em L2.

Huang, Harry J.

1991-01-01

186

Nuclear fuel rod response during LOFT tests L2-2 and L2-3. [PWR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Comparisons of the measured fuel rod peak cladding temperatures for the first two nuclear loss-of-coolant experiments (LOCE), LOCEs L2-2 and L2-3, are presented. These LOCEs were performed in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The LOCEs provided a basis for evaluating the effect of initial power on the maximum cladding temperatures during a large break (200%, guillotine) LOCE and identified important core thermal-hydraulic responses that influence the peak cladding temperatures.

Niebruegge, D.A.; Tolman, E.L.

1979-01-01

187

L1-L2 Sentence Translation in Classroom Grammar Tests  

Science.gov (United States)

L1-L2 translation of separate sentences is one kind of task format used by mainstream EFL teachers to assess their learners' grammatical accuracy. Aimed at improving teacher-written translation items, this study analyses linguistic features potentially causing such decontextualized cues (and their target responses) to sound odd or untypical of…

Salem, Ilana

2012-01-01

188

Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

2010-01-01

189

Variables Affecting L2 Gains during Study Abroad  

Science.gov (United States)

Second language (L2) gains during study abroad have been related to several variables including length of stay (Llanes, 2011), language use (Martinsen, Baker, Dewey, Bown, & Johnson, 2010), and social network development (Isabelli-García, 2006), among others. However, most studies have investigated only a few predictors in single study abroad…

Baker-Smemoe, Wendy; Dewey, Dan P.; Bown, Jennifer; Martinsen, Rob A.

2014-01-01

190

Discretization of the continuum spectra using L2 basis sets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief discussion on the basis set problem associated to bound states calculations is presented. The possibility of a discrete-basis-set representation of the continuum states of atoms and molecules is discussed and a criterium to select an adequate L2 basis to represent the continuum is presented. (A.C.A.S.)

191

L2 Interactional Competence and Development. Second Language Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on data from a range of contexts, including classrooms, pharmacy consultations, tutoring sessions, and video-game playing, and a range of languages including English, German, French, Danish and Icelandic, the studies in this volume address challenges suggested by these questions: What kinds of interactional resources do L2 users draw on to…

Hall, Joan Kelly; Hellermann, John; Doehler, Simona Pekarek

2011-01-01

192

Attention, Awareness, and Accents in L2 French  

Science.gov (United States)

The present research applies the concepts of attention, awareness, and noticing to a previously unresolved strand of inquiry: accent marks in L2 (second language) French. Previous research found that learners who typed accented words had better recall of the accent marks than those who wrote the same words by hand. Sturm suggested that it may have…

Sturm, Jessica L.

2013-01-01

193

Generators with interior degeneracy on spaces of L^2 type  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We consider operators in divergence and in nondivergence form with degeneracy at the interior of the space domain. Characterizing the domain of the operators, we prove that they generate positive analytic semigroups on spaces of L^2 type. Finally, some applications to linear and semilinear parabolic evolution problems and to linear hyperbolic ones are presented.

Genni Fragnelli

2012-10-01

194

L2-Accented Speech in L3 Production  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper is aimed at investigating the sources of cross-linguistic influence in the third language (L3) phonology, and, particularly, the impact of the second language (L2) on the phonological acquisition of another foreign language. The study consisted in foreign accent judgements performed by a group of expert judges who were presented with…

Wrembel, Magdalena

2010-01-01

195

LA DIDATTICA DELL’ITALIANO L2 A DETENUTI STRANIERI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L’insegnamento dell’italiano L2 all’interno degli istituti penitenziari è diventata un’esigenza fondamentale, data la crescente presenza di detenuti stranieri nelle strutture detentive del nostro Paese.Il presente lavoro analizza le peculiarità dell’insegnamento dell’italiano L2 a detenuti stranieri: ruolo e caratteristiche del docente, bisogni e motivazioni dell’apprendente, problematiche legate al contesto specifico di apprendimento. In particolare si intende mettere in evidenza il ruolo primario della scrittura come mezzo fondamentale per svolgere attività quotidiane (padroneggiare regolamenti, richieste, “domandine” e come strumento per la rieducazione.Per meglio comprendere le specificità dell’insegnamento in questo contesto, viene presentato un sillabo per apprendenti detenuti redatto da Antonella Benucci ed in appendice due interviste rivolte a docenti della Casa Circondariale di Monza.TEACHING ITALIAN L2 TO FOREIGN INMATESTeaching Italian L2 in prisons has become a basic need, given the growing number of foreign detainees in Italian prisons.This paper analyzes the peculiarity of teaching Italian L2 to foreign inmates: the teacher’s role and characteristics, the student’s needs and motivations, problems linked to the specific setting. We highlight the primary role of writing as a fundamental means for carrying out daily activities (mastering rules, requests, “small questions” and as a re-education tool.To better understand the specificity of teaching in this context, a syllabus for detainees compiled by Antonella Benucci is presented and there are two interviews with teachers working in a prison in Monza.

Valentina Bonfanti

2012-07-01

196

Morphological knowledge and literacy acquisition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities is to bring to the attention of researchers and educators studies on morphology and literacy that either involve students with learning difficulties or have educational implications for teaching such students. In our introduction, we first provide background information about morphological knowledge and consider the role of morphology in literacy, focusing on findings that are relevant for instruction of students who struggle with reading and writing. Next we present an overview of the studies included in this issue, organized by current issues concerning the role of morphological knowledge in literacy. Collectively, the articles in this issue suggest that students with weaker literacy skills tend to lag behind their peers in morphological knowledge but that all students are likely to benefit from morphological instruction. Morphological interventions hold promise, especially for students who face challenges in language learning and literacy, but additional research is needed to provide a basis for informed decisions about the design of effective morphological interventions. PMID:24219917

Nagy, William E; Carlisle, Joanne F; Goodwin, Amanda P

2014-01-01

197

Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in L2 Learners: Some Effects of Bilinguality on L1 and L2 Processing Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates whether proficient second language (L2) speakers of Spanish and English use the same parsing strategies as monolinguals when reading temporarily ambiguous sentences containing a complex noun phrase followed by a relative clause, such as "Peter fell in love with the daughter of the psychologist who studied in California."…

Dussias, Paola E.

2003-01-01

198

Motivation, aptitude and structural development : A study of linguistic performance in Swedish learners of Spanish L2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present study is to examine how the development of syntactic complexity and accuracy in spoken Spanish L2 is related to two parameters, motivation and aptitude, in which individual differences are often claimed to correlate with successful second language learning (Dörnyei and Skehan 2003). The study shows how an understanding of the relationship between progression in second language proficiency and motivation is gained through the study of longitudinal data and the assessmen...

O?sterberg, Rakel

2008-01-01

199

The Effect of Using Print Media on Children’s L2 Literacy Development: A Longitudinal Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper tries to examine the effect of using print media in the classroom on the children’s L2 literacy development in an EFL context. Since reading is regarded as a chief goal, in many second/foreign language teaching situations, it receives a special focus. Media as a tool for language learning/teaching, can help both instructed and non-instructed learners to overcome the difficult task of language learning. In order to determine the effects of print media usage on the developme...

Mansoor Tavakoli; Saeedeh Esmae’li

2013-01-01

200

Morphological Priming Survives a Language Switch  

Science.gov (United States)

In a long-lag morphological priming experiment, Dutch (L1)-English (L2) bilinguals were asked to name pictures and read aloud words. A design using non-switch blocks, consisting solely of Dutch stimuli, and switch-blocks, consisting of Dutch primes and targets with intervening English trials, was administered. Target picture naming was facilitated…

Verdonschot, Rinus G.; Middelburg, Renee; Lensink, Saskia E.; Schiller, Niels O.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Imaging polarimetry of Comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR)  

CERN Document Server

We present the polarimetric results and analysis of comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR) observed at 31$^\\circ$.1 phase angle before perihelion passage. The observations of the comet were carried out using ARIES Imaging Polarimeter (AIMPOL) mounted on the 1.04-m Sampurnanand telescope of ARIES, Nainital, India on 11 and 12 March, 2013 using R photometric band ($\\lambda$ = 630 nm, $\\Delta$$\\lambda$ =120nm). The extended coma of the comet ($\\sim65000$ km) shows a significant variation in the intensity as well as polarization profile in all considered directions which suggest that the dust particles originate from the active areas of the nucleus. The elongation of the coma is prominent along the Sun-comet position angle. The polarization of Comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR) does not show steep radial dependence on the aperture size during both the nights of observation. A jet extended in the antisolar direction is well observed in both intensity and polarization map.

Roy, P Deb; Medhi, Biman J

2014-01-01

202

Robust Guidance Law with L2 Gain Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

The guidance law design problem is formulated as a disturbance attenuation L2 gain control problem where target accelerations are regarded as unpredictable disturbances that are completely unknown, but bounded and guidance parameter errors are viewed as bounded control system parameter uncertainties. By using a Lyapunov-like approach to find the feedback control, a guidance law satisfying the L2 gain performance is derived from a linear time-varying mathematical model that describes the missile-target engagement. During the derivation of the guidance law, its robust stability is proved. Simulation results show that the presented guidance law provides strong robustness properties against heading error, guidance parameter errors, and target maneuvers; thus they obtain excellent miss-distance performance over the conventional realistic true proportional navigation guidance law.

Zhou, Di; Mu, Chundi; Shen, Tielong

203

ALLOPHONIC SPLITS IN L2 PHONOLOGY: THE QUESTION OF LEARNABILITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research reported in this paper is intended as a contribution to the understanding of several wellknown problems relating to the leaming of phonemic contrasts in second language (L2 phonology. The paper describes a series of ongoing studies examining what Lado (1957 hypothesized to represent maximum diffículty in second language pronunciation, narnely, a phonemic split. This is the process involved when an L2 learner must split native language (NL allophones into separate target language (TL phonemes. Two core principles of phonological theory are described and evaluated for their relevante in explaining the series of well-defined, implicationally-related stages involved in a phonemic split. Finally, the paper reports the results of an empirical study designed to test the explanatory adequacy of these principles, and concludes with a discussion of the implications of these studies for second language phonology in general.

Gregory K . Iverson

2001-06-01

204

Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays  

Science.gov (United States)

The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV) and auditory-only (A-only) Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two…

Motohashi-Saigo, Miki; Hardison, Debra M.

2009-01-01

205

Some Sharp L^2 Inequalities for Dirac Type Operators  

CERN Document Server

We use the spectra of Dirac type operators on the sphere $S^{n}$ to produce sharp $L^{2}$ inequalities on the sphere. These operators include the Dirac operator on $S^{n}$, the conformal Laplacian and Paenitz operator. We use the Cayley transform, or stereographic projection, to obtain similar inequalities for powers of the Dirac operator and their inverses in $\\mathbb{R}^{n}$.

Balinsky, Alexander

2007-01-01

206

Paths in quantum Cayley trees and L^2-cohomology  

CERN Document Server

We study existence, unicity and triviality of path cocycles in the quantum Cayley graph of universal discrete quantum groups. In the case of A_o we find that the unique path cocycle is trivial, in contrast with the case of free groups where it is proper. From this geometrical result we deduce the vanishing of the first L^2-Betti number of A_o(I_n).

Vergnioux, Roland

2009-01-01

207

INITIATING ROUND ROBINS IN THE L2 CLASSROOM – PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Complementing recent interactional research on the contingent operation of online task accomplishment, this paper deals with a specific way of organizing and managing tasks in plenary L2 classrooms – namely the round robin. This may seem like a “traditional” and rigid form of classroom organization that reduces students’ contributions to responses to the teacher’s elicitations. This paper shows that although the round robin puts certain interactional features out of play, it is none...

Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer

2011-01-01

208

Relative Ends, $L^2$ Invariants and Property (T)  

CERN Document Server

We prove splitting theorems for groups with positive first $L^2$-betti number (denoted $\\beta^2_1$) and verify Kropholler's conjecture for pairs of groups $H \\leq G$ satisfying $\\beta^2_1(G) > \\beta^2_1(H)$. We also prove that every n-dimensional Poincare duality group containing an (n-1)-dimensional Poincare duality group H with property (T) splits over a subgroup commensurable with H.

Kar, Aditi

2010-01-01

209

$L^{2}$-spectral gaps for time discrete reversible Markov chains  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we study the spectral properties of Markov-operator on $L^{2}$-spaces. Lawler and Sokal (Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 1988, 309, pp. 557-580) used isoperimetric constants for discrete and continuous time Markov chains to obtain a spectral gap at 1. For time discrete Markov chains this does not exclude periodic behavior. We define a new constant measuring the distance from periodicity and give necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a global spectra...

Wuebker, Achim

2009-01-01

210

Negation in early L2: a “window” on language genesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Early second language has been defined as a restricted linguistic system that can offer a “window” on language genesis. In this paper, I model the acquisition of negation by L2 (adult) learners as a sequence of constraint rankings in the framework of Optimality Theory. The rankings shift from pragmatics via conventionalization of negation as a focus operator to syntax. Early language is argued to follow the same path. The transition from protolanguage to language is located...

Swart, Henrie?tte

2006-01-01

211

Characterization of the human CREB3L2 gene promoter.  

Science.gov (United States)

CREB3L2 encodes a member of the CREB3 family of transcription factors. We characterized its promoter region, showing that it is asymmetrically bidirectional, also driving the expression of a variant of AKR1D1. It has a CRE binding site which is conserved among mammalians; removal or alteration of it resulted in reduced promoter activity. When transiently transfecting the HEK293 cell line with constructs with partially deleted promoter regions, 5' deletions beyond 1058-bp upstream of the transcription starting site resulted in successive reduction of the activity. The inclusion of the untranslated part of CREB3L2 exon 1 strongly inhibited the promoter activity. Forskolin resulted in a decreased reporter activity, whereas phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate increased the promoter activity irrespective of the status of the CRE binding site. The presence of the CRE site indicates autoregulation of CREB3L2 and/or regulation via other members of the CREB3 family or a variety of bZIP transcription factors. PMID:19212619

Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Mertens, Fredrik

2009-03-01

212

The Role of L1 in L2 Idiom Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of first language (L1 transfer in Iranian EFL learners' second language (L2 idiom comprehension. It was also sought to understand whether there is any significant difference between learners of different proficiency levels and their use of L1 in decoding L2 idioms. To do this, the participants of different levels of language proficiency were asked to participate in this study. The L2 idioms were categorized based on their similarity to L1 into three groups of identical, similar and different. A think-aloud protocol analysis was performed and participants were asked to verbalize their thoughts as they read the target idioms in order to detect the strategies they used. The results showed that the most favoured strategy used by learners of different levels was translation. Translation to L1 (Persian was also the most-frequent strategy in decoding similar, identical and different types of idioms. It was also revealed that generally the participants of different levels were significantly different from each other in using strategies.

Saeed Taki

2013-07-01

213

Una estrategia para favorecer la comprensión y el aprendizaje en las Ciencias Morfológicas: Presentaciones en PowerPoint. [ A strategy to improve the comprehension and learning in morphological science: powerpoint presentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a hypertext to the Morphological Sciences in biological area was developed and evaluated. The application with format of digital atlas approaches Anatomical, Histological and Functional concepts about the man and animals in integrated form. PowerPoint presentation was developed to operators which experience in the handling of software are limited. This digital resource was qualified as a good complement of other didactic materials. In this knowledge area offers opportunity to develop significant knowledge to improve the understanding and learning through an interactive methodology

Carranza, Miriam L. y Celaya, Gabriela

2003-07-01

214

Currentless plasma production and heating by ECR in the L-2 stellarator. L-2 Team and ECRH Team  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By using a gyrotron with 200 kW microwave power, ? = 1 cm a gaussian-like microwave beam is transmitted to the L-2 vessel. The waves of extraordinary polarisation are launched from the strong field side with microwave power PHF=100 kW and puls duration up to 10 ms. Slow density growth rate is necessary for successful plasma heating. The heating has a resonance behaviour upon Bo and rather high efficiency Pabsorbed/PHF 30-50%

215

L’apport des TICE et de l’écriture collaborative au développement des compétences écrites dans l’acquisition/apprentissage d’une L2 Can new technologies and collaborative writing contribute to better written performance in second language acquisition/learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une recherche-action en école d’ingénieurs, nous avons cherché à développer un savoir et un savoir-faire propre à la technique du compte-rendu. Cet objectif était facilité par des activités langagières et des procédures formalisées sous forme de grilles d’auto-évaluation. L’apprentissage se déroulait dans un environnement collaboratif et s’appuyait sur des outils informatisés. En conséquence, nous avons comparé deux situations d’apprentissage autour de ces questions : dans quelle mesure une tâche médiatisée par l’ordinateur permet une meilleure appropriation de la technique d’écriture et, une fois acquis, ce savoir faire peut-il être transféré quel que soit le support ?This field research is aimed at teaching the report writing technique to engineering students through various language activities and self-assessment grids. They worked in a collaborative environment using new technologies. We compared two learning situations to show how computer-mediated tasks help improve the written performance and how this know-how is transferred to other learning situations.

Isabelle Bonnassies

2012-03-01

216

The Effect of L2 Writing Ability on L1 Writing Ability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was an attempt to examine the effect of L2 writing ability on L1 writing ability from a multilingual perspective. To this end, 120 students of Isfahan University, half English majors and half non-English majors, were assigned to 4 groups, consisting of 30 English major senior students, 30 English major freshman students, 30 non-English major senior students and 30 non-English major freshman students (Accounting and Management majors. All the participants were asked to write a paragraph of about 150 words on the topic “What are your plans for the future?” in Farsi. For analyzing the possible syntactic development in each participant’s writing ability, 2 measuring criteria were used: 1 Loban Index, and 2 T-unit. To summarize and analyze the data, both descriptive and inferential statistics were utilized. A one-way ANOVA was run to compare the means of the 4 groups on the Loban Index criterion to see whether their differences were statistically significant. In order to observe the real differences of the means of the 4 groups based on the T-unit criterion and also to specify the interaction between the levels of the independent variables, a one-way ANOVA was run. The results of the 4 groups who studied the L2 (i.e., English with different intensity indicated that the English major senior students outperformed the other 3 groups in the obtained F-value on the Loban Index criterion. The findings support the idea that intensive and successful L2 learning can have a beneficial influence on the development of L1 writing ability.

Mahmood Hashemian

2011-11-01

217

Mathematical morphology  

CERN Document Server

Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoret

Najman, Laurent

2013-01-01

218

L’AUTOBIOGRAFIA LINGUISTICA NELL’INSEGNAMENTO-APPRENDIMENTO DELL’ITALIANO L2/LS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L'autobiografia linguistica è una attività particolarmente utile nell'insegnamento-apprendimento di una lingua straniera. L'apprendente immigrato è invitato a narrare in prima persona le esperienze linguistico-comunicative nella propria L1, nella L2 /LS che sta apprendendo e/o nella lingua seconda che ha acquisito come lingua di comunicazione e di studio nel suo paese di origine, le relazioni umane ed emotive che accompagnano  o hanno accompagnato queste esperienze, le situazioni che ne hanno favorito o ostacolato l'apprendimento. Con l'autobiografia linguistica l'apprendente straniero costruisce, attraverso la scrittura e quindi attraverso un processo di esplicitazione e di riflessione consapevole,  un ponte tra "là" e "qui", tra paese d'origine e il paese di arrivo, tra la vita "prima" e la vita "dopo" lo strappo della migrazione. Ricompone e dà senso alla propria storia, nelle due lingue, esprime affetti ed emozioni, rinomina il mondo e se ne riappropria ricostruendo insieme la propria identità, esplora se stesso e si fa conoscere ai suoi pari e all'insegnante in un rapporto di condivisione e di comprensione reciproca: si crea un contesto non di integrazione, ma di inclusione. A sua volta il docente può meglio comprendere le strategie di apprendimento dell'apprendente, la sua personalità, le sue difficoltà e progettare strategie didattiche più efficaci, perché più individuali e orientate al successo nella comunicazione e nell'apprendimento.   Linguistic autobiography is especially useful in the teaching and learning of a foreign language. The foreign learner is asked to narrate, in the first person, his/her linguistic-communicative experiences in their L1 and in the L2/FL which they are learning and/or in the second language they have acquired for communication or study in their home country, focusing on the emotional and human relationships which accompanied this experience and the situations which encouraged or blocked the learning. Through writing, speaking and thoughtful reflection, linguistic autobiography helps the foreign learner to construct a bridge between "there" and "here", between the home and the host country, between life "before" and "after" the shock of migration. This practice reorganizes and gives meaning to one's own history in both languages, through the expression of feelings and emotions, by defining and reclaiming the world as well as reconstructing identity, exploring oneself and showning oneself to peers and teachers in an environment of mutual sharing and understanding.  It creates a context for inclusion, not just integration. The teacher, in turn, can better understand the student's learning strategies, his/her personality and difficulties and thus plan more effective didactic interventions, since they are individualized and aimed at success in communication and learning.

Andrea Groppaldi

2010-09-01

219

Fostering Computer-Mediated L2 Interaction beyond the Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

In language learning contexts a primary concern is how to maximise target language interaction both inside and outside of the classroom. With the development of digital technologies, the proliferation of language learning applications, and an increased awareness of how technology can assist in language education, educators are being presented with…

Barrs, Keith

2012-01-01

220

The Effect of Strategic Planning Time and Task Complexity on L2 Written Accuracy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Over the past two decades, there has been a plethora of research attempting to find out the role of “task” in second and foreign language teaching and learning. A growing body of research in the past two decades has been devoted to the investigation of various aspects of task-based language teaching. A review of the studies conducted on various aspects of tasks reveled that there is a gap in the literature on the joint effects of task complexity and different types of planning time on L2 learners’ oral and written performance. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the effects of strategic pre-task planning and task complexity on L2 learners’ written performance in terms of accuracy. To this end, 50 English language learners, both male and female, were chosen from an English language institute in Iran. A reliable valid task with simple and complex versions was used to collect written data from the participants. T-test was employed as the statistical means of analysis to compare the means of accuracy. The findings of the study revealed that pre-task strategic planning time in both simple and complex task led to more accuracy. The results of the study might carry significant implications for syllabus and task designers, language teachers in EFL/ESL contexts, and second language acquisition researchers.

Asghar Salimi

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
221

James Webb Space Telescope - L2 Communications for Science Data Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

JWST is the first NASA mission at the second Lagrange point (L2) to identify the need for data rates higher than 10 megabits per second (Mbps). JWST will produce approximately 235 Gigabits of science data every day that will be downlinked to the Deep Space Network (DSN). To get the data rates desired required moving away from X-band frequencies to Ka-band frequencies. To accomplish this transition, the DSN is upgrading its infrastructure. This new range of frequencies are becoming the new standard for high data rate science missions at L2. With the new frequency range, the issues of alternatives antenna deployment, off nominal scenarios, NASA implementation of the Ka-band 26 GHz, and navigation requirements will be discussed in this paper. JWST is also using Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standard process for reliable file transfer using CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). For JWST the use of the CFDP protocol provides level zero processing at the DSN site. This paper will address NASA implementations of Ground Stations in support of Ka-band 26 GHz and lesson learned from implementing a file base (CFDP) protocol operational system.

Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Jones, Ronald; Fatig, Curtis; Wasiak, Francis

2008-01-01

222

James Webb Space Telescope: L2 communications for science data processing  

Science.gov (United States)

The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the first NASA mission at the second Lagrange point (L2) to identify the need for data rates higher than 10 megabits per second (Mbps). The JWST will produce approximately 235 gigabits (Gb) of science data every day. In order to get this data downlinked to the Deep Space Network (DSN) at a sufficiently adequate date rate, a Ka-band 26 gigahertz (GHz) frequency (as opposed to an X-band frequency) will be utilized. To support the JSWT's utilizations of Ka-band, the DSN is upgrading its infrastructure. The range of frequencies in the Kaband is becoming the new standard for high data rate science missions at L2. Given the Ka-band frequency range, the issues of alternative antenna deployment, off-nominal scenarios, NASA implementation of the Ka-band at 26 GHz, and navigation requirements will be discussed in this paper. The JWST is also using the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standard process for reliable file transfer using CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). For the JWST mission, the use of the CFDP protocol enables level zero processing at the DSN site. This paper will address NASA implementation of ground stations in support of Ka-band 26 GHz and lessons learned from implementing a file based protocol (CFDP).

Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Jones, Ronald; Fatig, Curtis; Wasiak, Francis

2008-07-01

223

The synaptic morphological perceptron  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, several researchers have constructed novel neural network models based on lattice algebra. Because of computational similarities to operations in the system of image morphology, these models are often called morphological neural networks. One neural model that has been successfully applied to many pattern recognition problems is the single-layer morphological perceptron with dendritic structure (SLMP). In this model, the fundamental computations are performed at dendrites connected to the body of a single neuron. Current training algorithms for the SLMP work by enclosing the target patterns in a set of hyperboxes orthogonal to the axes of the data space. This work introduces an alternate model of the SLMP, dubbed the synaptic morphological perceptron (SMP). In this model, each dendrite has one or more synapses that receive connections from inputs. The SMP can learn any region of space determined by an arbitrary configuration of hyperplanes, and is not restricted to forming hyperboxes during training. Thus, it represents a more general form of the morphological perceptron than previous architectures.

Myers, Daniel S.

2006-08-01

224

L2 Reading in Multilingual Eritrea: The Influences of L1 Reading and English Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

A major question in L2 reading research is whether L2 reading is a language or a reading problem. Existing research, mainly carried out in Western contexts, demonstrates that L2 reading is influenced by L1 reading and L2 proficiency. This study applied the L2 reading theory in a non-Western context (Eritrea, East Africa) with L1 reading acquired…

Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Beckman, Danielle; Kurvers, Jeanne; Kroon, Sjaak

2009-01-01

225

L(2)-INDEX Theorems for Perturbed Dirac Operators.  

Science.gov (United States)

The L^2-index theorems are becoming increasingly relevant to topology, global geometry and mathematical physics. In our dissertation we propose a direct generalization of the following L ^2-index theorem, due to Callias:. Let Sigma be the spinor space over IR^{rm n} , n odd, and D the Dirac operator on C^ infty(IR^{rm n}, Sigmaotimesdoubc^{ rm m}). Let L be the perturbation of D by sqrt{-1}Id otimes Phi, where Phi in C^ infty(IR^{rm n}, End(doubc^{rm m})) is Hermitean, asymptotically homogeneous of degree 0, and Phi^2 is positive outside some compact set. Then L is a Fredholm elliptic differential operator, and if U is the unitarization of Phi at infinity, i.e., U = |Phi |^{-1}Phi outside a compact set, one hasrm L^2 {-}index(L) = {1over 2({n -1over2})!}{[ {sqrt{-1}over 8pi} ]^{n-1over2} }{limlimits_{Rto infty} _{S_{R}} }intlimits_{n-1}tr U(dU)^{n-1}. The above formula suggests that the L ^2-index depends only on the geometry of the space at infinity and on the spectral properties of the potential Phi there. Our main result is the following L^2 -index theorem:. Let M be a odd dimensional Riemannian spin manifold with a warped end W = (varepsilon{, }infty) times _{rm f}N, f in{rm C}^infty((varepsilon {,}infty)), f>0 and f(r) to infty if r to infty. Let S be a spinor-type bundle over M and let A in C^infty(M, End(S)) be a skew-Hermitean endomorphism such that A commutes with the Clifford action on S, A|_{ rm W} is independent of the radial direction r, and -A^2 is positive at infinity. Then the perturbed Dirac operator D + A, where D is the Dirac operator on S, is a Fredholm operator and L^2-index (D + A) = index ( delta_{rm R})_sp {+}{+}. Here (delta _{rm R})_sp{+}{+ }:rm C^infty(N, (S _{rm R})_sp{+}{+ }) to C^ infty(N, (S_{rm R})_sp{+}{-}) is the Dirac operator on the bundle {rm (S_{R})_sp{+}{+ }={{it s}in S| _{{R}times Nequiv N}| (-A^2)^{-{1over2 }}A{it s}} =sqrt{ -1s}, {rm cliff} ( {partialoverpartial r})s= sqrt{-1s}} over the compact even dimensional spin manifold {R } times N equiv N. The methods of proof involve index-preserving deformation theory, separation of variables for perturbed Dirac operators on manifolds with warped ends, and the use of the relative index theorem of Gromov and Lawson.

Anghel, Nicolae

226

L2-L0 regularization path tracking algorithms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sparse signal approximation can be formulated as the mixed L2-L0 minimization problem min_x J(x;lambda)=||y-Ax||_2^2+lambda||x||_0. We propose two heuristic search algorithms to minimize J for a continuum of lambda-values, yielding a sequence of coarse to fine approximations. Continuation Single Best Replacement is a bidirectional greedy algorithm adapted from the Single Best Replacement algorithm previously proposed for minimizing J for fixed lambda. L0 regularization path track is a more co...

Soussen, Charles; Idier, Je?rome; Duan, Junbo; Brie, David

2014-01-01

227

English L2 reading getting to the bottom  

CERN Document Server

English L2 Reading, Third Edition offers teachers research-based insights into bottom-up skills in reading English as a second language and a solid foundation on which to build reading instruction. Core linguistic and psycholinguistic concepts are presented within the context of their application to teaching. The goal is to balance or supplement (not replace) top-down approaches and methodologies with effective low-level options for teaching English reading. The text's pedagogical features- Questions, Study Guide Questions. Discussion Questions, Spotlight on Teaching sections- engage readers o

Birch, Barbara M

2014-01-01

228

Las secuencias formulaicas en la adquisición de español L2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of this study is to observe the L2 acquisition effect of studying abroad during approximately four months in Swedish non-native speakers (NNSs) of Spanish with respect to their use of multi-word structures (MWSs) as compared to native speakers (NSs). In addition, this evolutionary study has a secondary aim which is to see the effect of the activity type on the amount and distribution of the MWSs encountered.    This study shows positive effects of a study abroad period in L...

Moreno Teva, Inmaculada

2012-01-01

229

l-2-Nitrimino-1,3-diazepane-4-carboxylic acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The cyclic form of l-nitroarginine, C6H10N4O4, crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. According to the geometrical parameters, similar in both molecules, the structure corresponds to that of l-2-nitrimino-1,3-diazepane-4-carboxylic acid; there are, however, conformational differences between the independent molecules, one of them being close to a twisted chair while the other might be described as a rather flattened boat. All six active H atoms in the two molecules are involved in hydrogen bonds, two of which are intramolecular and four intermolecular, forming an infinite chain of molecules along the b axis.

Harutyun A. Karapetyan

2008-05-01

230

Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle  

Science.gov (United States)

Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

Meurant, Robert C.

231

Projective multiresolution analyses for $L^2(R^2)$  

CERN Document Server

We define the notion of "projective" multiresolution analyses, for which, by definition, the initial space corresponds to a finitely generated projective module over the algebra $C(\\btn)$ of continuous complex-valued functions on an $n$-torus. The case of ordinary multi-wavelets is that in which the projective module is actually free. We discuss the properties of projective multiresolution analyses, including the frames which they provide for $L^2(\\brn)$. Then we show how to construct examples for the case of any diagonal $2 \\times 2$ dilation matrix with integer entries, with initial module specified to be any fixed finitely generated projective $C(\\mathbb T^2)$-module. We compute the isomorphism classes of the corresponding wavelet modules.

Packer, J A; Packer, Judith A.; Rieffel, Marc A.

2003-01-01

232

Semiparametric density estimation by local L_2-fitting  

CERN Document Server

This article examines density estimation by combining a parametric approach with a nonparametric factor. The plug-in parametric estimator is seen as a crude estimator of the true density and is adjusted by a nonparametric factor. The nonparametric factor is derived by a criterion called local L_2-fitting. A class of estimators that have multiplicative adjustment is provided, including estimators proposed by several authors as special cases, and the asymptotic theories are developed. Theoretical comparison reveals that the estimators in this class are better than, or at least competitive with, the traditional kernel estimator in a broad class of densities. The asymptotically best estimator in this class can be obtained from the elegant feature of the bias function.

Naito, K

2004-01-01

233

Analysis method for LOFT L2-5 LBLOCA experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methodology for Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) licensing analysis with conservative Appendix K models plus statistical plant parameters analysis is presented in this paper. With the Appendix K version of RELAP5, which has been modified in compliance with the requirements of 10CFR50 Appendix K evaluation model, the quantification of the effect of plant status uncertainty on the safety parameter is carried out, based on a non-parametric statistical method. To demonstrate the new LOCA methodology, the LOFT L2-5 double-ended cold leg guillotine large break loss of coolant accident integral test is analyzed. It is revealed that this deterministic-realistic hybrid methodology can provide more PCT margin than the traditional Appendix K LOCA analysis by 88.7 K. (authors)

234

MODE, MEANING, AND SYNAESTHESIA IN MULTIMEDIA L2 WRITING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study of digital storytelling attempts to apply Kress's (2003 notions of synaesthesia, transformation, and transduction to the analysis of four undergraduate L2 writers' multimedia text creation processes. The students, entering freshmen, participated in an experimental course entitled "Multimedia Writing," whose purpose was to experience and explore the processes of multimodal textual communication. With the support of empirical data drawn from interviews, student journals, and the digital story-related artifacts themselves, the author shows how synaesthetically derived meaning may be a natural part of the process of creating multimodal texts. Considering the special case of non-native English speakers, the paper also demonstrates that synaesthesia may have both amplifying and limiting effects on the projection of authorial intention and voice. Before reading the following, it is suggested that the reader view examples of the multimedia essays discussed herein.

Mark Evan Nelson

2006-05-01

235

Asymptotically periodic L^2 minimizers in strongly segregating diblock copolymers  

CERN Document Server

Using the delta correction to the standard free energy \\cite{bc} in the elastic setting with a quadratic foundation term and some parameters, we introduce a one dimension only model for strong segregation in diblock copolymers, whose sharp interface periodic microstructure is consistent with experiment in low temperatures. The Green's function pattern forming nonlocality is the same as in the Ohta-Kawasaki model. Thus we complete the statement in [31,p.349]: ``The detailed analysis of this model will be given elsewhere. Our preliminary results indicate that the new model exhibits periodic minimizers with sharp interfaces.'' We stress that the result is unexpected, as the functional is not well posed, moreover the instabilities in $L^2$ typically occur only along continuous nondifferentiable ``hairs''. We also improve the derivation done by van der Waals and use it and the above to show the existence of a phase transition with Maxwell's equal area rule. However, this model does not predict the universal critic...

Chmaj, Adam

2009-01-01

236

The Relations among L1 (Spanish) Literacy Skills, L2 (English) Language, L2 Text Reading Fluency, and L2 Reading Comprehension for Spanish-Speaking ELL First Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the relations of L2 (i.e., English) oral reading fluency, silent reading fluency, word reading automaticity, oral language skills, and L1 literacy skills (i.e., Spanish) to L2 reading comprehension for Spanish-speaking English language learners in the first grade (N = 150). An analysis was conducted for the entire sample as well as…

Kim, Young-Suk

2012-01-01

237

Alternative Models of Self-regulation and Implications for L2 Strategy Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the proposal of Dörnyei and colleagues (Dörnyei, 2005; Tseng, Dörnyei, & Schmitt, 2006 to replace the construct of learning strategy with that of self-regulation and thus shift the research focus from specific strategic behaviors to a trait that is seen to underlie them. I argue that before doing so, we need a fuller understanding of what self-regulation entails and how it might intersect with traditional concerns of second language strategy research. To contribute to this understanding, I highlight alternative conceptualizations of self-regulation and then use data from my doctoral research to illustrate one in particular, the COPES model of self-regulated learning (Winne & Hadwin, 1998. This model’s explanatory power is contrasted with that of Dörnyei and colleagues’ conceptualization to show that, depending on the model one adopts, self-regulation is not only compatible with the study of specific strategies but useful for shedding new light on strategy research and integrating it with research in other related areas, such as L2 motivation.

Jim Ranalli

2012-12-01

238

Morphological Family Size Effects in Young First and Second Language Learners: Evidence of Cross-Language Semantic Activation in Visual Word Recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined to what extent young second language (L2) learners showed morphological family size effects in L2 word recognition and whether the effects were grade-level related. Turkish-Dutch bilingual children (L2) and Dutch (first language, L1) children from second, fourth, and sixth grade performed a Dutch lexical decision task on words…

de Zeeuw, Marlies; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

2012-01-01

239

La interferencia léxica español (L1)-inglés (L2) e inglés (L2)-español (L1) en el texto escrito de estudiantes de grado 9º del Colegio Bilingüe Pío XII / The lexical interference spanish (L1)-english (L2) and english (L2)-spanish (L1) in the 9th grade students’ written text from the Bilingual School Pío XII  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pulido Aguirre, Yeny Alexandra (2010) La interferencia léxica español (L1)-inglés (L2) e inglés (L2)-español (L1) en el texto escrito de estudiantes de grado 9º del Colegio Bilingüe Pío XII / The lexical interference spanish (L1)-english (L2) and english (L2)-spanish (L1) in the 9th grade students’ written text from the Bilingual School Pío XII. Maestría thesis, Universidad Nacional de Colombia.

Pulido Aguirre, Yeny Alexandra

2010-01-01

240

Allophonic Splits in L2 Phonology: The Questions of Learnability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contributes to the understanding of several well-known problems relating to the learning of phonemic contrasts in second language phonology. Describes a series of ongoing studies examining what Lado (1957) hypothesized to represent maximum difficulty in second language pronunciation, namely a phonemic split. (Author/VWL)

Eckman, Fred R.; Elreyes, Abdullah; Iverson, Gregory K.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Factors influencing subcellular localization of the human papillomavirus L2 minor structural protein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two structural proteins form the capsids of papillomaviruses. The major structural protein L1 is the structural determinant of the capsids and is present in 360 copies arranged in 72 pentamers. The minor structural protein L2 is estimated to be present in twelve copies per capsid. Possible roles for L2 in interaction with cell surface receptors and in virion uptake have been suggested. As previously reported, L2 localizes in subnuclear domains identified as nuclear domain 10 (ND10). As it was demonstrated that L2 is able to recruit viral and cellular proteins to ND10, a possible role for L2 as a mediator in viral assembly has been proposed. In this study, we determined factors influencing the localization of L2 at ND10. Under conditions of moderate L2 expression level and in the absence of heterologous viral components, we observed that, in contrast to previous reports, L2 is mainly distributed homogeneously throughout the nucleus. L2, however, is recruited to ND10 at a higher expression level or in the presence of viral components derived from vaccinia virus or from Semliki Forest virus. We observed that translocation of L2 to ND10 is not a concentration-dependent accumulation but rather seems to be triggered by yet unidentified cellular factors. In contrast to HPV 11 and 16 L2, the HPV 18 L2 protein seems to require L1 for efficient nuclear accumulation

242

Perceptual Filtering in L2 Lexical Memory: A Neural Network Approach to Second Language Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory has…

Nelson, Robert

2012-01-01

243

L2 Reading Research and Pedagogical Considerations in the Teaching of French and Francophone Theater  

Science.gov (United States)

Little research on improving second language (L2) reading comprehension of French and francophone theater has been conducted. This study provides insight into enhancing L2 comprehension of drama by combining L2 research with examples from L'accent grave by Jacques Prevert, Ton beau capitaine by Simone Schwarz-Bart (1987), Un Touareg s'est marie a…

Edwards, Carole; Taylor, Alan M.

2012-01-01

244

Online Pronoun Resolution in L2 Discourse: L1 Influence and General Learner Effects  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates whether advanced second language (L2) learners of a nonnull subject language (Dutch) are influenced by their null subject first language (L1) (Turkish) in their offline and online resolution of subject pronouns in L2 discourse. To tease apart potential L1 effects from possible general L2 processing effects, we also tested a…

Roberts, Leah; Gullberg, Marianne; Indefrey, Peter

2008-01-01

245

Galaxy Morphology  

CERN Document Server

Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or between a perturbation and the basic state of a stellar disk, can also drive secular transformations. In this series of lectures, I review many aspects of galaxy morphology with a view to delineating some of the possible evolutionary pathways between different galaxy types.

Buta, Ronald J

2013-01-01

246

Galaxy Morphology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass...

Buta, Ronald J.

2013-01-01

247

RGMb is a novel binding partner for PD-L2 and its engagement with PD-L2 promotes respiratory tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report that programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2), a known ligand of PD-1, also binds to repulsive guidance molecule b (RGMb), which was originally identified in the nervous system as a co-receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). PD-L2 and BMP-2/4 bind to distinct sites on RGMb. Normal resting lung interstitial macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells express high levels of RGMb mRNA, whereas lung dendritic cells express PD-L2. Blockade of the RGMb-PD-L2 interaction markedly impaired the development of respiratory tolerance by interfering with the initial T cell expansion required for respiratory tolerance. Experiments with PD-L2-deficient mice showed that PD-L2 expression on non-T cells was critical for respiratory tolerance, but expression on T cells was not required. Because PD-L2 binds to both PD-1, which inhibits antitumor immunity, and to RGMb, which regulates respiratory immunity, targeting the PD-L2 pathway has therapeutic potential for asthma, cancer, and other immune-mediated disorders. Understanding this pathway may provide insights into how to optimally modulate the PD-1 pathway in cancer immunotherapy while minimizing adverse events. PMID:24752301

Xiao, Yanping; Yu, Sanhong; Zhu, Baogong; Bedoret, Denis; Bu, Xia; Francisco, Loise M; Hua, Ping; Duke-Cohan, Jonathan S; Umetsu, Dale T; Sharpe, Arlene H; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H; Freeman, Gordon J

2014-05-01

248

La video clase y la multimedia como medio de enseñanza-aprendizaje de los contenidos morfológicos The videoconference and multimedia as teaching-learning means for morphologic contents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En la última década, la videoconferencia y la multimedia están siendo percibidas como los medios con más posibilidades didácticas en contextos de enseñanza superior. En sus inicios, la videoconferencia suplió las limitaciones espacio-temporales de la educación a distancia. Progresivamente, este medio fue encontrando un reconocimiento en instituciones convencionales de enseñanza propiciado por el desarrollo de experiencias de calidad basadas en la incorporación de recursos externos al aula. Desde una perspectiva instrumentalista, los medios son soportes materiales de información que deben reflejar la realidad de la forma más perfecta posible. Responden a un modelo estándar de alumno y a una cultura escolar homogénea, y se consideran por sí mismos instrumentos generadores de aprendizajes. Las características del diseño didáctico y computacional de un entorno hipermedia para aprender se intenta conectar a la concepción de promover el aprendizaje utilizando la computadora. El entorno consiste en un conjunto de actividades basadas en andamiajes tendientes a inducir la construcción de significados mediante la activa participación del estudiante.During the last decade, the videoconference and multimedia are being perceived as the means with more didactic possibilities in the context of the high education. At the beginning, the videoconference helped avoiding limitations of the distance learning. Progressively, this means began to be recognized in conventional teaching institutions because of the development of qualitative experiences based on the usage of out-class resources. From an instrumentalist perspective, the means are material supports of the information that should express the reality in the most possible perfect way. They answer to a standard model of students and to a homogeneous school culture, and are considered, by themselves, as instruments generating learning. The characteristics of a computational and didactic design of a hypermedia setting to learn are intended to be linked to a conception of promoting learning using computers. The setting is a group of activities based on structures tending to induce the construction of meanings through the active participation of the student.

Nieves E Garriga Alfonso

2009-08-01

249

Teaching Requests to L2 Learners of Spanish  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In many language classrooms, the teaching of pragmatic forms is often ignored at all learner levels. This paper – part of a larger study that encompassed four speech acts – examines the benefits of explicit instruction of requests for beginning, intermediate, and advanced L2 learners of Spanish. The participants took a pre-test and post-test to measure the pragmatic gains over the course of an academic quarter, while the experimental groups from each level received specific lessons in pragmatic use of Spanish and the control group received no extra treatment during their courses. While the treatment consisted of provided online lessons on the common uses of four speech acts in Spanish, this paper focuses on the formulation of requests. The results show that the students that received the treatment had higher scores on the Dialogue Completion Test than the control group. Furthermore, the intermediate level showed the most improvement, suggesting that this is the optimal level for pragmatic development because learners at this level are the most receptive to the acquisition of requests. This investigation shows that the explicit teaching of requests is effective and should be addressed in the Spanish language classroom at all levels, especially at the intermediate level.

Bradley D. Langer

2013-11-01

250

Recent results of ECRH experiments on L-2M stellarator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are reported from experimental study of ECH heated plasma in the L-2M stellarator with special emphasis on studying the turbulent processes. It is shown that the total plasma energy at fixed total heating power is strongly dependent on the plasma position. Visible degradation of plasma confinement is observed for the inward shifted magnetic configurations where the stability conditions of ideal interchange MHD modes are violated. However, even in this case the situation can be improved by decreasing the average radius of the plasma boundary with the help of graphite limiter resulting in the increase of the Shafranov shift of magnetic surfaces and deepening of the magnetic well due to the effect of self-stabilization. This in turn causes stabilization of ideal MHD interchange modes and visible increase in plasma energy and volume average value of beta. Statistical properties of turbulence was studied both for the central part of the plasma column and for the plasma edge. It is shown that one of the critical factors determining the coherent structures and turbulent fluxes in the edge plasma is the radial electric field. (author)

251

Synthesis of nuclear lipids in L2C leukemic lymphocytes.  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously reported that propiconazole strongly inhibits cholesterol synthesis, but not cell division in a stimulated cell, the human lymphocyte cultured with phytohemagglutinin, showing that newly synthesized cholesterol is not necessary for cell division. In this study we labeled the L2C leukemic guinea pig lymphocyte, a naturally stimulated cell, with [2-14C]acetate, and compared the composition of newly synthesized lipids isolated from nuclei and whole cells (or microsomes). We observed that the proportion of cholesterol in labeled non-saponifiable lipids extracted from nuclei was lower than in non-saponifiable lipids isolated from whole cells, whereas the proportion of squalene and polar lipids was higher. By analyzing total lipid extracts, the polar lipids were identified as alkylglycerols, and the above mentioned distribution of constituents was confirmed. The identification of alkylglycerols was also supported by the comparison of radioactive lipid composition after labeling cells with three different lipid precursors: [2-14C]mevalonate, [2-14C]acetate and [2-14C]stearate. When cells were labeled in the presence of dodecylimidazole, the percentage of squalene and alkylglycerols decreased in nuclear lipids, but was not altered when cells were cultured in the presence of propiconazole, a cholesterol synthesis inhibitor which does not affect cell division of human stimulated lymphocytes. We have shown that dodecylimidazole inhibited alkylglycerol biosynthesis and squalene uptake by the nucleus, suggesting that these compounds could play a role in the regulation of cell division. PMID:1911870

Aliau, S; Tabacik, C; Aliau, S P; Descomps, B

1991-10-01

252

Bioluminescence tomography by an iterative reweighted (l)2 norm optimization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioluminescence tomography is a promising tool in preclinical research, enabling noninvasive real-time in vivo imaging as well as quantitative analysis in small animal studies. Due to the difficulty of reconstruction, continuous efforts are still made to find more practical and efficient approaches. In this paper, we present an iterative reweighted l2-norm optimization incorporating anatomical structures in order to enhance the performance of bioluminescence tomography. The structure priors have been utilized to generate a heterogeneous mouse model by extracting the internal organs and tissues, which can assist in establishing a more precise photon diffusion model, as well as reflecting a more specific position of the reconstruction results inside the mouse. To evaluate the performance of the iterative reweighted approach, several numerical simulation studies including comparative analyses and multisource cases have been conducted to reconstruct the same datasets. The results suggest that the proposed method is able to ensure the accuracy, robustness, and efficiency of bioluminescence tomography. Finally, an in vivo experiment was performed to further validate its feasibility in a practical application. PMID:23974521

Ping Wu; Yifang Hu; Kun Wang; Jie Tian

2014-01-01

253

Some designs and codes from L_2(q  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For $q \\in \\{7,8,9,11,13,16\\}$, we consider the primitive actions of $L_2(q$ and use Key-Moori Method 1 as described in [Codes, designs and graphs from the Janko groups {$J_1$} and {$J_2$}, {\\em J. Combin. Math. Combin. Comput.}, {\\bf 40} (2002 143--159., Correction to: ``Codes, designs and graphs from the Janko groups {$J_1$} and {$J_2$}'' [J. Combin. Math. Combin. Comput. {\\bf 40} (2002 143--159], {\\em J. Combin. Math. Combin. Comput.}, {\\bf 64} (2008 153.] to construct designs from the orbits of the point stabilisers and from any union of these orbits. We also use Key-Moori Method 2 (see {\\em Information security, coding theory and related combinatorics}, NATO Sci. Peace Secur. Ser. D Inf. Commun. Secur., IOS Amsterdam, {\\bf 29} (2011 202--230. to determine the designs from the maximal subgroups and the conjugacy classes of elements of these groups. The incidence matrices of these designs are then used to generate associated binary codes. The full automorphisms of these designs and codes are also determined.

Jamshid Moori

2014-03-01

254

Assessment of RELAP5/MOD3 against integral effect test of LOFT L2-3, L2-5 and semiscale S-06-3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Capability of RELAP5/MOD3.1 to predict overall LOCA thermal hydraulic phenomena was assessed using integral effect tests of LOFT L2-3, L2-5 and Semiscale S-06-3. Experiment LOFT L2-3 is characterized by the continuous operation of primary coolant pumps, which are coasted down in the L2-5 experiment. Semiscale S-06-3 is a small scale counterpart experiment to LOFT L2-3. Simulation of LOFT experiments showed good calculation of the system hydraulics and reasonable prediction of the cladding temperatures except at the upper part of the core, where the top-down quenching of the fuel rod was poor calculated. Simulation of Semiscale S-06-3 showed good prediction of the system thermal hydraulic parameters except the fact that fuel rod quenching was consistently earlier to the poor prediction of the ECC bypass

255

The human complement fragment receptor, C5L2, is a recycling decoy receptor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

C5L2 is a 7 transmembrane domain receptor for complement fragment C5a that, unlike the classical C5a receptor, C5aR, does not couple to G proteins. However, in mice where C5L2 has been deleted, the response to C5a is altered, suggesting that C5L2 may have a signaling function. In order to investigate whether human C5L2 also has some capacity to transduce signals, we have attempted to produce a signaling competent form of human C5L2 by inserting C5aR sequences at three key G protein activation...

Scola, Anne-marie; Johswich, Kay-ole; Morgan, B. Paul; Klos, Andreas; Monk, Peter N.

2009-01-01

256

O papel da consciência morfológica para a alfabetização em leitura / The role of morphological awareness in reading learning / El papel de las habilidades morfológicas y la alfabetización en la lectura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Dentre as habilidades metalingüísticas três parecem ajudar o leitor aprendiz a aprender a ler e escrever: a consciência fonológica, a consciência sintática e a consciência morfológica. Das três habilidades, a menos estudada é a consciência morfológica. No entanto, este estado de coisas está mudando [...] e está se formando um novo corpo de conhecimento sobre o papel das habilidades morfológicas e a alfabetização. À medida que esse campo de pesquisa avança novas questões teóricas e metodológicas vão sendo levantadas. Com base na literatura publicada recentemente na área, este artigo discute algumas destas questões. Abstract in spanish Entre las habilidades metalingüísticas, tres parecen ayudar el lector aprendiz a aprender a leer y escribir: la conciencia fonológica, la consciencia sintática, y la conciencia morfológica. De las tres habilidades, la que es menos estudiada es la conciencia morfológica. Sin embargo, este estado de c [...] osas están cambiando y un nuevo cuerpo de conocimiento se está formando sobre el papel de las habilidades morfológicas y la alfabetización. En la medida que ese campo de pesquisa avanza, nuevas cuestiones teóricas y metodológicas se van levantando. Con base en la literatura publicada recientemente en el área, este artículo debate algunas de estas cuestiones. Abstract in english Among the metalinguistic abilities three seem to help children to learn to read and to write: phonological awareness, syntactic awareness and morphological awareness. Of the three abilities, the least studied one is morphological awareness. However, this state of things is changing and a new body of [...] knowledge has been formed about the role of morphological abilities in literacy. As this field of research advances, new theoretical and methodological questions are raised. Based on recent published literature in this field, this article discusses some of these questions.

Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da, Mota.

257

Working memory capacity across L2 speech proficiency levels / Capacidade de memória de trabalho através de níveis de proficiência oral em L2  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo investiga se a capacidade de memória de trabalho (CMT) varia entre idiomas e níveis de proficiência na fala em L2. Seguindo sugestões em Finardi e Weissheimer (2009) e Prebianca (2010) que demonstraram que a CMT varia em função do nível de proficiência da fala em L2, o presente trabalho [...] analisou três níveis de proficiência (elementar, intermediário e avançado) e dois idiomas (L1-português e L2-inglês). Dois testes de MT foram usados, um em L1 e outro em L2, ambos na modalidade oral. Sessenta estudantes adultos de inglês como língua estrangeira participaram no estudo: 19 elementares, 19 intermediários e 22 avançados. Resultados dos testes Kruskal-Wallis e Mann-Whitney corroboraram Finardi e Weissheimer (2009) e Prebianca (2010) sugerindo que a CMT medida com um teste de amplitude da fala em L2 parece confundir a relação entre níveis de proficiência oral e CMT. Abstract in english This study investigates whether working memory capacity (WMC) varies across languages and in the course of L2 speech proficiency levels. Following suggestions in Finardi and Weissheimer (2009) and Prebianca (2010), who found that WMC varied as a function of L2 speech proficiency, the present study a [...] ssessed three proficiency levels (elementary, intermediate and advanced) and two languages (L1-Portuguese and L2-English). Two WM tests were used, one in the L1 and another in the L2, both in the speaking mode. Sixty adult learners of English as a foreign language participated in the study: 19 elementary, 19 intermediate and 22 advanced learners. Results of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests corroborate Finardi and Weissheimer (2009) and Prebianca (2010) suggesting that WMC measured with a speaking span test in L2 seems to conflate the relationship between speech proficiency levels and WMC.

Gicele Vergine Vieira, Prebianca; Kyria Rebeca, Finardi; Janaina, Weissheimer.

258

Working memory capacity across L2 speech proficiency levels / Capacidade de memória de trabalho através de níveis de proficiência oral em L2  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo investiga se a capacidade de memória de trabalho (CMT) varia entre idiomas e níveis de proficiência na fala em L2. Seguindo sugestões em Finardi e Weissheimer (2009) e Prebianca (2010) que demonstraram que a CMT varia em função do nível de proficiência da fala em L2, o presente trabalho [...] analisou três níveis de proficiência (elementar, intermediário e avançado) e dois idiomas (L1-português e L2-inglês). Dois testes de MT foram usados, um em L1 e outro em L2, ambos na modalidade oral. Sessenta estudantes adultos de inglês como língua estrangeira participaram no estudo: 19 elementares, 19 intermediários e 22 avançados. Resultados dos testes Kruskal-Wallis e Mann-Whitney corroboraram Finardi e Weissheimer (2009) e Prebianca (2010) sugerindo que a CMT medida com um teste de amplitude da fala em L2 parece confundir a relação entre níveis de proficiência oral e CMT. Abstract in english This study investigates whether working memory capacity (WMC) varies across languages and in the course of L2 speech proficiency levels. Following suggestions in Finardi and Weissheimer (2009) and Prebianca (2010), who found that WMC varied as a function of L2 speech proficiency, the present study a [...] ssessed three proficiency levels (elementary, intermediate and advanced) and two languages (L1-Portuguese and L2-English). Two WM tests were used, one in the L1 and another in the L2, both in the speaking mode. Sixty adult learners of English as a foreign language participated in the study: 19 elementary, 19 intermediate and 22 advanced learners. Results of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests corroborate Finardi and Weissheimer (2009) and Prebianca (2010) suggesting that WMC measured with a speaking span test in L2 seems to conflate the relationship between speech proficiency levels and WMC.

Gicele Vergine Vieira, Prebianca; Kyria Rebeca, Finardi; Janaina, Weissheimer.

2014-06-01

259

NON SOLO LINGUA. I CORSI DI ITALIANO L2 PER DONNE MIGRANTI TRA BISOGNI LINGUISTICI E DESIDERIO DI INTEGRAZIONE.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Come si organizza un corso di italiano L2 per donne migranti? Perché questi corsi si differenziano dalle altre proposte formative rivolte ad adulti immigrati? Basandosi sulle indicazioni del vademecum Tutte le mamme a scuola, il presente contributo cerca di rispondere a queste domande analizzando i bisogni linguistici delle donne migranti, interrogandosi su quale italiano insegnare, su quale metodo didattico adottare con particolare attenzione all’approccio autobiografico e all’“imparare facendo” e presentando i libri di testo rivolti a questa tipologia di apprendenti. Le tre interviste in appendice, raccolte in tre diversi centri che si occupano di corsi di italiano L2 per donne immigrate, raccontano come tutte queste indicazioni possano essere messe in pratica per cercare di soddisfare quel desiderio di integrazione e promozione sociale di cui le allieve si fanno portatrici,  che rende la classe di lingua non solo il luogo in cui si impara a parlare italiano, ma anche un laboratorio sociale in cui sperimentare modi diversi di approcciarsi e di considerare la diversità.     Not only language. Italian L2 for migrant women between linguistic needs and the desire for integration.   How is an Italian L2 course organized for migrant women? Why are these courses different from other classes designed for adult immigrants? Based on the indications in the handbook Tutte le mamme a scuola, this article tries to answer these questions analyzing the linguistic needs of migrant women, considering what Italian should be taught, what teaching method should be used with special attention placed on the autobiographical approach and “learning by doing”. The three interviews in the appendix, from three different centers which offer Italian L2 courses to immigrant women, tell about how these indications can be put into practice to satisfy the desire for the integration and social inclusion of these students, making the language class more than a place where Italian is learned, but it becomes a social laboratory where different approaches can be tried out and diversities can be made evident.

Viviana Solcia

2012-02-01

260

Crosslinguistic Influence of L1 (Arabic in Acquiring Linguistic Items of L2 (English: An Empirical Study in the Context of Arab Learners of English as Undergraduate Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates one of the most common issues namely the crosslinguistic influence of the L1 in learning L2 grammar, specifically the acquisition of the simple past tense. The researcher believes that the simple past tense forms produced by learners sometimes appear to have originated in L2 and sometimes in L1. An empirical study was conducted on 74 Arab Learners of English (ALEs which lasted four months. A detailed analysis was made of the acquisition of the simple past tense forms in 222 written texts produced by ALEs. Written texts were collected chronologically from each subject at three stages in the experiment. Quantitative analysis shows the crosslinguistic influence of L1 (Arabic in acquiring the linguistic items of L2 (English in general and in acquiring the simple past in particular.

Anwar Mourssi

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Error Analysis: Sources of L2 Learners’ Errors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Many scholars in the field of EA have stressed the significance of second language learners' errors. Corder (1967, for instance, in his influential article, remarks that "they are significant in three different ways. First, to the teacher, in that they show how far towards the goal the learner has progressed. Second, they provide to the researcher evidence of how a language is acquired, what strategies the learner is employing in his learning of a language. Thirdly, they are indisputable to the learner himself because we can regard the making of errors as a device the learner uses in order to learn" (p. 161. The present paper mostly illustrates fundamental background studies done in the field of Error Analysis. There is the hope that the paper helps EFL teachers and educators to become familiar with the most frequent errors committed by EFL learners leading them to make more objective decisions about how to go about adopting appropriate teaching strategies to help EFL students learn better.

Pooneh Heydari

2012-08-01

262

Do the four clades of the mtDNA haplogroup L2 evolve at different rates?  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty-seven mtDNAs collected in the Dominican Republic and belonging to the African-specific haplogroup L2 were studied by high-resolution RFLP and control-region sequence analyses. Four sets of diagnostic markers that subdivide L2 into four clades (L2a-L2d) were identified, and a survey of published African data sets appears to indicate that these clades encompass all L2 mtDNAs and harbor very different geographic/ethnic distributions. One mtDNA from each of the four clades was completely sequenced by means of a new sequencing protocol that minimizes time and expense. The phylogeny of the L2 complete sequences showed that the two mtDNAs from L2b and L2d seem disproportionately derived, compared with those from L2a and L2c. This result is not consistent with a simple model of neutral evolution with a uniform molecular clock. The pattern of nonsynonymous versus synonymous substitutions hints at a role for selection in the evolution of human mtDNA. Regardless of whether selection is shaping the evolution of modern human mtDNAs, the population screening of L2 mtDNAs for the mutations identified by our complete sequence study should allow the identification of marker motifs of younger age with more restricted geographic distributions, thus providing new clues about African prehistory and the origin and relationships of African ethnic groups. PMID:11595973

Torroni, A; Rengo, C; Guida, V; Cruciani, F; Sellitto, D; Coppa, A; Calderon, F L; Simionati, B; Valle, G; Richards, M; Macaulay, V; Scozzari, R

2001-12-01

263

VARIAZIONE DIATOPICA DEL FRANCESE E DIDATTICA DELL’ITALIANO L2: I TRANSFER NEGATIVI DEGLI APPRENDENTI CAMERUNENSI NELL’ITALIANO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Il meccanismo del transfer, soprattutto nelle fasi iniziali dell’apprendimento, è una caratteristica comune agli apprendenti di lingue straniere, indipendentemente dalla loro provenienza geografica e dalla loro lingua materna. Per quanto riguarda i francofoni che si avvicinano all’italiano, queste interferenze si rivelano notevoli soprattutto ai livelli morfosintattico e lessicale.Tenendo conto dell’estrema variabilità geografica della lingua francese, il presente contributo vuole portare in luce la differenziazione dei transfer (soprattutto negativi degli apprendenti francofoni nell’italiano. Con l’esempio dei camerunesi francofoni l’articolo cerca di mostrare che, per quanto riguarda l’interferenza tra L1 e L2, il generico profilo “apprendente francofono” conosce in realtà numerose ramificazioni. D’altra parte, il contributo procede ad una rivalutazione dei presupposti dell’approccio contrastivo, evidenziando l’importanza didattica della prevedibilità degli errori e della direzione dei transfer.DIATOPIC VARIATION OF FRENCH AND ITALIAN L2: TEACHING NEGATIVE TRANSFER OF ITALIAN LEARNERS FROM CAMERONThe transfer mechanism, especially in the early stages of learning, is a feature common to learners of foreign languages regardless of of their geographical origin and their mother tongue. Regarding Francophones studying Italian, these interferences have proven to be striking, especially in terms of morphosyntax and lexis.Bearing in mind the extreme geographical variability of the French language, this paper aims to bring to light the differentiation in transfer (mostly negative in French-speaking Italian L2 learners. The French-speaking Cameroonian students featured in the article show that, regarding L1/L2 interference, the generic profile “French-speaking learner” actually has numerous ramifications. This paper re-evaluates assumptions of the contrastive approach, highlighting the didactic importance of the predictability of errors and the direction of transfer.

Gilles Kuitche Talé

2014-02-01

264

River morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs

265

Hábitos de aprendizaje y rendimiento académico en la asignatura morfofisiología-II de la carrera de estomatología / Learning habits and academic performance in the II- Morphology and Physiology subject in Dentistry major  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish RESUMEN La asignatura Morfofisiología II que se imparte en primer año de la carrera de Estomatología resultó la de más bajo rendimiento académico. Objetivo: Caracterizar los hábitos de aprendizaje del estudiante de primer año de Estomatología, teniendo en cuenta su relación con sus diferencias indiv [...] iduales y rendimiento académico en la asignatura. Método: Se realizó una investigación descriptiva y de corte transversal en la asignatura Morfofisiología II, de la carrera de Estomatología de la provincia de Pinar del Río al finalizar el primer semestre del curso 2008-2009. La muestra estuvo constituida por 52 estudiantes de primer año, que cursan la carrera en la sede central. Se les aplicó una encuesta, cuyo cuestionario permitió evaluar sus hábitos de aprendizaje, y el nivel de motivación hacia la carrera y la asignatura. Los datos fueron procesados utilizando la estadística descriptiva y la prueba Ji cuadrado, con un nivel de confianza del 95 %. Resultados: Se encontraron malos hábitos de aprendizaje, en la mayoría de ellos no existió relación significativa entre hábitos de aprendizaje con respecto a la vía de ingreso y nota final de los estudiantes, resaltó la elevada motivación encontrada tanto por la carrera como por la asignatura, la variable motivación no guardó relación significativa con la nota final alcanzada. Se concluye que a pesar de los resultados alcanzados estos no influyeron significativamente en los resultados de la asignatura, gracias a las estrategias de enseñaza trazadas por el colectivo de profesores, pero sí indican la necesidad de establecer acciones con vistas al desarrollo de su aprendizaje autónomo Abstract in english ABSTRACT II-Morphology and Physiology subject taught to the first grade students of Dentistry had the lowest academic performance. Objective: Characterizing the learning habits in the student of first grade of dentistry subject having in mind the relationship with the individual differences and the [...] subject academic performance. Method: A descriptive and cross sectional research on the Morphology and Physiology subject in the dentistry students in Pinar del Rio city at ending the first semester of 2008-2009 course. The sample comprised of 52 students in the first grade of the dentistry major. A survey allowed us to know their learning habits and the level of motivation on the subject. Data were processed using descriptive statistics and the chi square test with a 95% of level of confidence. Results: It was found bad learning habits; in most of them there was no significative relationship between the learning habits and the way of admittance and the final mark of the students; a remarkably high motivation was observed on the major and the subject; the variable "motivation" had no significative relationship with the final mark achieved. It is concluded that the results obtained had no significative influence on the results of the subject thanks to the learning strategies proposed by the faculty but they do indicate the necessity of establishing prospective actions for the development of the autonomic learning

Juan Félix, Albert Díaz; Ada Esther, González Cordero; Norma, Laborí Puentes; Mayra, Llano Lazo.

266

Hábitos de aprendizaje y rendimiento académico en la asignatura morfofisiología-II de la carrera de estomatología Learning habits and academic performance in the II- Morphology and Physiology subject in Dentistry major  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available RESUMEN La asignatura Morfofisiología II que se imparte en primer año de la carrera de Estomatología resultó la de más bajo rendimiento académico. Objetivo: Caracterizar los hábitos de aprendizaje del estudiante de primer año de Estomatología, teniendo en cuenta su relación con sus diferencias individuales y rendimiento académico en la asignatura. Método: Se realizó una investigación descriptiva y de corte transversal en la asignatura Morfofisiología II, de la carrera de Estomatología de la provincia de Pinar del Río al finalizar el primer semestre del curso 2008-2009. La muestra estuvo constituida por 52 estudiantes de primer año, que cursan la carrera en la sede central. Se les aplicó una encuesta, cuyo cuestionario permitió evaluar sus hábitos de aprendizaje, y el nivel de motivación hacia la carrera y la asignatura. Los datos fueron procesados utilizando la estadística descriptiva y la prueba Ji cuadrado, con un nivel de confianza del 95 %. Resultados: Se encontraron malos hábitos de aprendizaje, en la mayoría de ellos no existió relación significativa entre hábitos de aprendizaje con respecto a la vía de ingreso y nota final de los estudiantes, resaltó la elevada motivación encontrada tanto por la carrera como por la asignatura, la variable motivación no guardó relación significativa con la nota final alcanzada. Se concluye que a pesar de los resultados alcanzados estos no influyeron significativamente en los resultados de la asignatura, gracias a las estrategias de enseñaza trazadas por el colectivo de profesores, pero sí indican la necesidad de establecer acciones con vistas al desarrollo de su aprendizaje autónomoABSTRACT II-Morphology and Physiology subject taught to the first grade students of Dentistry had the lowest academic performance. Objective: Characterizing the learning habits in the student of first grade of dentistry subject having in mind the relationship with the individual differences and the subject academic performance. Method: A descriptive and cross sectional research on the Morphology and Physiology subject in the dentistry students in Pinar del Rio city at ending the first semester of 2008-2009 course. The sample comprised of 52 students in the first grade of the dentistry major. A survey allowed us to know their learning habits and the level of motivation on the subject. Data were processed using descriptive statistics and the chi square test with a 95% of level of confidence. Results: It was found bad learning habits; in most of them there was no significative relationship between the learning habits and the way of admittance and the final mark of the students; a remarkably high motivation was observed on the major and the subject; the variable "motivation" had no significative relationship with the final mark achieved. It is concluded that the results obtained had no significative influence on the results of the subject thanks to the learning strategies proposed by the faculty but they do indicate the necessity of establishing prospective actions for the development of the autonomic learning

Juan Félix Albert Díaz

2009-09-01

267

Hábitos de aprendizaje y rendimiento académico en la asignatura morfofisiología-II de la carrera de estomatología / Learning habits and academic performance in the II- Morphology and Physiology subject in Dentistry major  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish RESUMEN La asignatura Morfofisiología II que se imparte en primer año de la carrera de Estomatología resultó la de más bajo rendimiento académico. Objetivo: Caracterizar los hábitos de aprendizaje del estudiante de primer año de Estomatología, teniendo en cuenta su relación con sus diferencias indiv [...] iduales y rendimiento académico en la asignatura. Método: Se realizó una investigación descriptiva y de corte transversal en la asignatura Morfofisiología II, de la carrera de Estomatología de la provincia de Pinar del Río al finalizar el primer semestre del curso 2008-2009. La muestra estuvo constituida por 52 estudiantes de primer año, que cursan la carrera en la sede central. Se les aplicó una encuesta, cuyo cuestionario permitió evaluar sus hábitos de aprendizaje, y el nivel de motivación hacia la carrera y la asignatura. Los datos fueron procesados utilizando la estadística descriptiva y la prueba Ji cuadrado, con un nivel de confianza del 95 %. Resultados: Se encontraron malos hábitos de aprendizaje, en la mayoría de ellos no existió relación significativa entre hábitos de aprendizaje con respecto a la vía de ingreso y nota final de los estudiantes, resaltó la elevada motivación encontrada tanto por la carrera como por la asignatura, la variable motivación no guardó relación significativa con la nota final alcanzada. Se concluye que a pesar de los resultados alcanzados estos no influyeron significativamente en los resultados de la asignatura, gracias a las estrategias de enseñaza trazadas por el colectivo de profesores, pero sí indican la necesidad de establecer acciones con vistas al desarrollo de su aprendizaje autónomo Abstract in english ABSTRACT II-Morphology and Physiology subject taught to the first grade students of Dentistry had the lowest academic performance. Objective: Characterizing the learning habits in the student of first grade of dentistry subject having in mind the relationship with the individual differences and the [...] subject academic performance. Method: A descriptive and cross sectional research on the Morphology and Physiology subject in the dentistry students in Pinar del Rio city at ending the first semester of 2008-2009 course. The sample comprised of 52 students in the first grade of the dentistry major. A survey allowed us to know their learning habits and the level of motivation on the subject. Data were processed using descriptive statistics and the chi square test with a 95% of level of confidence. Results: It was found bad learning habits; in most of them there was no significative relationship between the learning habits and the way of admittance and the final mark of the students; a remarkably high motivation was observed on the major and the subject; the variable "motivation" had no significative relationship with the final mark achieved. It is concluded that the results obtained had no significative influence on the results of the subject thanks to the learning strategies proposed by the faculty but they do indicate the necessity of establishing prospective actions for the development of the autonomic learning

Juan Félix, Albert Díaz; Ada Esther, González Cordero; Norma, Laborí Puentes; Mayra, Llano Lazo.

2009-09-01

268

La video clase y la multimedia como medio de enseñanza-aprendizaje de los contenidos morfológicos / The videoconference and multimedia as teaching-learning means for morphologic contents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la última década, la videoconferencia y la multimedia están siendo percibidas como los medios con más posibilidades didácticas en contextos de enseñanza superior. En sus inicios, la videoconferencia suplió las limitaciones espacio-temporales de la educación a distancia. Progresivamente, este medi [...] o fue encontrando un reconocimiento en instituciones convencionales de enseñanza propiciado por el desarrollo de experiencias de calidad basadas en la incorporación de recursos externos al aula. Desde una perspectiva instrumentalista, los medios son soportes materiales de información que deben reflejar la realidad de la forma más perfecta posible. Responden a un modelo estándar de alumno y a una cultura escolar homogénea, y se consideran por sí mismos instrumentos generadores de aprendizajes. Las características del diseño didáctico y computacional de un entorno hipermedia para aprender se intenta conectar a la concepción de promover el aprendizaje utilizando la computadora. El entorno consiste en un conjunto de actividades basadas en andamiajes tendientes a inducir la construcción de significados mediante la activa participación del estudiante. Abstract in english During the last decade, the videoconference and multimedia are being perceived as the means with more didactic possibilities in the context of the high education. At the beginning, the videoconference helped avoiding limitations of the distance learning. Progressively, this means began to be recogni [...] zed in conventional teaching institutions because of the development of qualitative experiences based on the usage of out-class resources. From an instrumentalist perspective, the means are material supports of the information that should express the reality in the most possible perfect way. They answer to a standard model of students and to a homogeneous school culture, and are considered, by themselves, as instruments generating learning. The characteristics of a computational and didactic design of a hypermedia setting to learn are intended to be linked to a conception of promoting learning using computers. The setting is a group of activities based on structures tending to induce the construction of meanings through the active participation of the student.

Nieves E, Garriga Alfonso; Iliana, Robainas Fiallo; Dayren, Fernández Santamaría; Dunieska, Quiñones Cabrera; Rolando Ernesto, Medina Robainas.

269

Partial Lexical Knowledge in Tests of Incidental Vocabulary Learning from L2 Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

This analysis evaluates the receptive tests of targeted lexical knowledge in the written medium, which are typically used in empirical research into lexical acquisition from reading foreign/second language texts. Apart from the types of second language cues or prompts, and the language of the responses, the main issues revolve around: (a) the…

Bruton, Anthony

2007-01-01

270

Estilos de pensamiento Cognitive styles: an approach to autonomous learning in L2 adult students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

El siguiente artículo resume los resultados de una investigación descriptivo-cualitativa sobre estilos cognitivos o de pensamiento, llevado a cabo con miembros del programa de extensión académica en la UPB, con el objetivo de describir los estilos de pensamiento de los estudiantes que les permitan reconocer y utilizar estrategias meta cognitivas para desarrollar un nivel consciente de responsabilidad y autonomía en el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera. El marco teórico de este estudi...

Atehortúa Atehortúa José Nicolás

2010-01-01

271

Beliefs about Second Language Learning: The Influence of Learning Context and Learning Purpose  

Science.gov (United States)

Much second language acquisition research in recent decades has assumed that a learner's main purpose for learning a second language (L2) is to develop communicative competence. Consequently, many studies have focused on investigating ways in which teachers and/or the learning environment may support the development of such competence. In…

Al-Osaimi, Saleh; Wedell, Martin

2014-01-01

272

Linguistic interference between L1 and L2 in internationally adopted children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bilingual children learning two languages either simultaneously or successively experience patterns of cross-language interference or facilitation due to similarities and differences between the languages. Internationally adopted toddlers are only truly bilingual for a short period of time because the first language disappears quickly after adoption. Yet residual effects of the disappearing first language might impact patterns of learning the new language. To determine if cross-language patterns affected language learning in very young children, language samples were collected from 23 children adopted from Eastern Europe between 11 and 23 months of age. Samples were collected at 6-month intervals during the first year after adoption, then annually up through age 4. Age and order of acquisition of several grammatical morphemes including V + ing, articles, contracted and uncontracted copulas, and contracted and uncontracted auxiliary were explored. These morphological structures developed in the same sequence observed in monolingual children speaking English and were not notably impacted by cross-linguistic factors from language 1. Guidelines for professionals and parents are discussed. PMID:15731971

Glennen, Sharon; Rosinsky-Grunhut, Ariella; Tracy, Rachel

2005-02-01

273

Gene dosage alteration of L2 ribosomal protein genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: effects on ribosome synthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the genes coding for the ribosomal protein L2 are present in two copies per haploid genome. The two copies, which encode proteins differing in only a few amino acids, contribute unequally to the L2 mRNA pool: the L2A copy makes 72% of the mRNA, while the L2B copy makes only 28%. Disruption of the L2B gene (delta B strain) did not lead to any phenotypic alteration, whereas the inactivation of the L2A copy (delta A strain) produced a slow-growth phenotype associated with decreased accumulation of 60S subunits and ribosomes. No intergenic compensation occurred at the transcriptional level in the disrupted strains; in fact, delta A strains contained reduced levels of L2 mRNA, whereas delta B strains had almost normal levels. The wild-type phenotype was restored in the delta A strains by transformation with extra copies of the intact L2A or L2B gene. As already shown for other duplicated genes (Kim and Warner, J. Mol. Biol. 165:79-89, 1983; Leeret al., Curr. Genet. 9:273-277, 1985), the difference in expression of the two gene copies could be accounted for via differential transcription activity. Sequence comparison of the rpL2 promoter regions has shown the presence of canonical HOMOL1 boxes which are slightly different in the two genes. PMID:3062369

Lucioli, A; Presutti, C; Ciafrè, S; Caffarelli, E; Fragapane, P; Bozzoni, I

1988-11-01

274

CREB3L2-PPARgamma fusion mutation identifies a thyroid signaling pathway regulated by intramembrane proteolysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of gene fusion mutations, particularly in leukemia, has consistently identified new cancer pathways and led to molecular diagnostic assays and molecular-targeted chemotherapies for cancer patients. Here, we report our discovery of a novel CREB3L2-PPARgamma fusion mutation in thyroid carcinoma with t(3;7)(p25;q34), showing that a family of somatic PPARgamma fusion mutations exist in thyroid cancer. The CREB3L2-PPARgamma fusion encodes a CREB3L2-PPARgamma fusion protein that is composed of the transactivation domain of CREB3L2 and all functional domains of PPARgamma1. CREB3L2-PPARgamma was detected in CREB3L2-PPARgamma induced proliferation by 40% to 45% in primary human thyroid cells, consistent with a dominant oncogenic mechanism. Wild-type CREB3L2 was expressed in the thyroid as a bZIP transcription factor with a transmembrane domain that has flanking S1P and S2P proteolytic cleavage sites. Native CREB3L2 was cleaved to nuclear CREB3L2 by regulated intramembrane proteolysis in normal thyroid cells that expressed the S1P and S2P proteases. Nuclear CREB3L2 stimulated transcription 8-fold from the EVX1 cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element in the absence of cAMP, whereas CREB3L2-PPARgamma inhibited transcription 6-fold from EVX1 in the same experiments. CREB3L2-PPARgamma also inhibited 4-fold the expression of thyroglobulin, a native cAMP-responsive gene, in primary thyroid cells treated with thyroid-stimulating hormone. Our findings identify a novel CREB3L2-PPARgamma gene fusion mutation in thyroid carcinoma and reveal a thyroid signaling pathway that is regulated by intramembrane proteolysis and disrupted in cancer. PMID:18757431

Lui, Weng-Onn; Zeng, Lingchun; Rehrmann, Victoria; Deshpande, Seema; Tretiakova, Maria; Kaplan, Edwin L; Leibiger, Ingo; Leibiger, Barbara; Enberg, Ulla; Höög, Anders; Larsson, Catharina; Kroll, Todd G

2008-09-01

275

Computer-Mediated Corrective Feedback and the Development of L2 Grammar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on a study that investigated the impact of two types of computer-mediated corrective feedback on the development of adult learners’ L2 knowledge: (1 corrective feedback that reformulates the error in the form of recasts, and (2 corrective feedback that supplies the learner with metalinguistic information about the nature of the error. High intermediate and advanced adult learners of English (n=23 from an intact class at a Swedish university were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (two feedback conditions and one control and were randomly paired with English native speakers. During task-based interaction via text-chat, the learners received focused corrective feedback on omission of the zero article with abstract noncount nouns (e.g., employment, global warming, culture. Computer-delivered pretests, posttests and delayed posttests of knowledge (acceptability judgments measured learning outcomes. Results showed no significant advantage for either feedback type on immediate or sustained gains in target form knowledge, although the metalinguistic group showed significant immediate gains relative to the control condition.

Shannon Sauro

2009-02-01

276

Peer Review Comments Provided by High- and Low-Proficiency L2 Learners: A Comparative Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explored the variations in peer review comments provided by L2 writers of high and low proficiencies. Two sampling procedures were used. First, convenience sampling was used to locate a college essay composition course as the setting of the study. Second, purposeful sampling was used to identify high- and low-performing writers as the subjects, from whom the peer review comments were collected and analyzed. An instruction-learning cycle on argumentative essay writing was conducted for 4 weeks. Each student was subsequently provided with the same sample argumentative essay and a peer review form to conduct the review. The rubrics on the review form included introduction, support for position, sequence, refutation, conclusion, voice, and grammar and spelling. Content analysis was conducted to compare the manner in which the comments varied among students of different writing proficiency levels. The results indicate that, although identifying problems was the dominant comment type of both high- and low-performing writers, high-performing writers tended to provide more details when explaining the identified problems and offering suggestions for revisions. The findings are discussed regarding the implications to peer review training.

Hui-Chuan Liao

2012-08-01

277

Non-academic L2 Users: A Neglected Research Pool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available English Language Teaching (ELT articles are published and their results are relied on without delving into their methodological credibility. A research study cannot be considered valid unless its population is precisely determined and defined. This article shows the considerable size of non-academic English learners in Iran and argues that the population in ELT research should not be limited only to university and school students who are easily accessible but it should also include the sizeable non-academic sector. To do this, 170 PhD dissertations and MA theses in TEFL were randomly selected. The result showed that only less than 9% of the participants belonged to non-academic sector. The article also argues that there is wrong overgeneralization of even the existing ELT academic researches to non-academic situation. Finally it compares academic and non-academic English learners to show how the latter are highly motivated to learn.

Talebinezhad, Mohammad Reza

2005-01-01

278

A L2HGDH initiator methionine codon mutation in a Yorkshire terrier with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a metabolic repair deficiency characterized by elevated levels of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological signs associated with the disease in humans and dogs include seizures, ataxia and dementia. Case presentation Here we describe an 8?month old Yorkshire terrier that presented with episodes of hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. Between episodes, the dog’s behavi...

Hg, Farias Fabiana; Zeng Rong; Johnson Gary S; Shelton G D; Paquette Dominique; O’Brien Dennis P

2012-01-01

279

The Development of Conceptual Fluency & Metaphorical Competence in L2 Learners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conceptual Fluency (CF) and Metaphorical Competence (MC) have piqued the interest of a number of L2 researchers. Leading the front are Danesi (1992; 1995; 2003) and Johnson and Rosano (1993) who contend that metaphorical language cannot afford to be ignored by L2 curricula anymore. Their push is to instill in L2 learners a more functional communicative competence over a traditional formal competence. This article reports on a study carried out to scrutinize the development of CF and MC in Per...

Hashemian, Mahmood; Mohammad Reza Talebi Nezhad

2007-01-01

280

L 2 Stability Estimates for Shock Solutions of Scalar Conservation Laws Using the Relative Entropy Method  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider scalar nonviscous conservation laws with strictly convex flux in one spatial dimension, and we investigate the behavior of bounded L 2 perturbations of shock wave solutions to the Riemann problem using the relative entropy method. We show that up to a time-dependent translation of the shock, the L 2 norm of a perturbed solution relative to the shock wave is bounded above by the L 2 norm of the initial perturbation.

Leger, Nicholas

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
281

Unveiling the Mystery: Investigating L2 Reading Motivation in an EFL Classroom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research in L2 reading motivation has gained impetus and provided many insights into understanding the components of motivation and factors that affect L2 learners in terms of reading motivation. Although many studies can be found on L1 reading motivation, studies on L2 reading motivation seem to be relatively meager. Since action research encompasses a sequence of events and an approach to problem solving, the present study addressed to examine whether; (1) this sample of Turkish University ...

Sirin, Petek; Ga?¶kta?¼rk Saglam, Asli Lidice

2012-01-01

282

Contribution to Vocabulary Learning via Mobiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As mobile connectedness continues to sweep across the landscape, the value of deploying mobile technology at the service of learning and teaching seems to be both self-evident and unavoidable. To this end, this study employed multimedia to develop three types of vocabulary learning materials. Due to the importance of short-term memory in the realm of vocabulary learning, careful consideration was given to the L2 learners’ different visual and verbal short-term memories. 158 L2 learners aged 18-23 participated in the major phases of vocabulary learning experiment through mobile. Based on their scores on the English Vocabulary and Recall tests and statistical analysis of the results it was revealed that L2 learners with high-visual and high-verbal abilities find it easier to learn the content presented with both pictorial and written annotations. However, L2 learners with low-visual and low-verbal abilities benefit from learning materials presented without annotations. Furthermore, delivery of learning materials with pictorial annotation to learners with high-visual ability and the delivery of learning materials with written annotation to learners with high-verbal ability result in better vocabulary learning. The findings of this study could perform as a roadmap in creating learning materials for mobile learning English language.

Saeed Khazaie

2011-02-01

283

Input of Chunks and Its Effects on L2 Learners’ Listening Competency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study tires to explore the effectiveness of acquisition of chunks to improve L2 learners’ listening competency. An empirical study is designed and conducted on the basis of theory of chunks and information processing mode. Analysis of the experimental data shows that acquisition of chunks can effectively help L2 learners to improve their listening competency. Result of the experiment reveals that the number of chunks closely correlates with L2 learners’ listening scores, because chunks can boost L2 learners’ efficiency of processing language information and predicate information while listening.

Jingwei Tang

2013-07-01

284

A Study of Relationships between L1 Pragmatic Transfer and L2 Proficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies in interlanguage pragmatics have shown that L2 learners’ proficiency has an influence on the occurrences of L1 pragmatic transfer. However, questions remain whether the relationship between L1 pragmatic transfer and L2 proficiency is positive or negative. This paper is designed to study L1 pragmatic transfer in requests made by Chinese learners of English at low L2 proficiency level and at high L2 proficiency level and how L1 pragmatic transfer is related to their L2 proficiency. Ten low proficiency learners of English, ten high proficiency learners of English?ten native speakers of English and ten native speakers of Chinese participate in this study. Requests are collected by means of a discourse completion test questionnaire and are analysed in terms of requestive semantic formulas based on the taxonomy of request strategies, internal modifiers and external modifiers. The research results reveal that L1 pragmatic transfer decreases with the increase of L2 proficiency such as learners’ use of direct strategies, lexical and phrasal downgraders, imperatives and grounder and no clear relationship is found between L1 pragmatic transfer and L2 proficiency in terms of the other request strategies, internal modifiers and external modifiers. These results provide partial support to negative correlation hypothesis —high proficiency L2 learners are less likely to transfer their native language pragmatic norms since they have enough control over L2.

Jiemin Bu

2012-01-01

285

Human papillomavirus L2 facilitates viral escape from late endosomes via sorting nexin 17.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human papillomavirus (HPV) L2 capsid protein plays an essential role during the early stages of viral infection, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its mode of action remain obscure. Using a proteomic approach, we have identified the adaptor protein, sorting nexin 17 (SNX17) as a strong interacting partner of HPV L2. This interaction occurs through a highly conserved SNX17 consensus binding motif, which is present in the majority of HPV L2 proteins analysed. Using mutants of L2 defective for SNX17 interaction, or siRNA ablation of SNX17 expression, we demonstrate that the interaction between L2 and SNX17 is essential for viral infection. Furthermore, loss of the L2-SNX17 interaction results in enhanced turnover of the L2 protein and decreased stability of the viral capsids, and concomitantly, there is a dramatic decrease in the efficiency with which viral genomes transit to the nucleus. Indeed, using a range of endosomal and lysosomal markers, we show that capsids defective in their capacity to bind SNX17 transit much more rapidly to the lysosomal compartment. These results demonstrate that the L2-SNX17 interaction is essential for viral infection and facilitates the escape of the L2-DNA complex from the late endosomal/lysosomal compartments. PMID:22151726

Bergant Maruši?, Martina; Ozbun, Michelle A; Campos, Samuel K; Myers, Michael P; Banks, Lawrence

2012-03-01

286

Stably diffeomorphic manifolds and l_{2q+1}(Z[\\pi])  

CERN Document Server

The monoids l_{2q+1}(Z[\\pi]) detect s-cobordisms amongst certain bordisms between stably diffeomorphic 2q-dimensional manifolds and generalise the Wall simple surgery obstruction groups, L_{2q+1}^s(Z[\\pi]) \\subset l_{2q+1}(Z[\\pi]). In this paper we give exact sequences which completely describe l_{2q+1}(Z[\\pi]) as a set and which we use to compute its Grothendieck group. As a consequence we deduce cancellation results for stably diffeomorphic manifolds with polycyclic-by-finite fundamental group.

Crowley, Diarmuid

2008-01-01

287

Review of the Influence of L1 in L2 Acquisition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L1 has a significant influence on second language study. However, how L1 influence L2 is very complicated and abstract. But to study the mechanism of how L1 influence L2 is significant because L2 acquisition is making contribution on many fields like education and psychology. L1 is one of the central elements influencing SLA. In this course paper, we are going to overview what linguists have done about L1 and L2 and what approaches and theories they have made.

Zhanming WANG

2014-10-01

288

COMPETENZA PRAGMATICA IN ITALIANO L2: L’USO DEI SEGNALI DISCORSIVI DA PARTE DEGLI APPRENDENTI CROATI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Questo contributo esplora la produzione dialogica in italiano da parte degli apprendenti di lingua materna croata con l’obiettivo di determinare la loro competenza interazionale e pragmatica in italiano L2. Particolare attenzione si è rivolta ad un aspetto caratteristico della produzione dialogica, ai segnali discorsivi ? espedienti dialogici per eccellenza. I parlanti nativi usano segnali discorsivi con una vasta gamma di funzioni dialogiche, mentre l’acquisizione dei segnali discorsivi italiani è un territorio relativamente inesplorato e i segnali discorsivi vengono raramente insegnati. in maniera esplicita. La capacità di riconoscere e utilizzare i segnali discorsivi italiani adeguatamente, vale a dire secondo le loro funzioni pragmatiche, rivela il livello della competenza pragmatica dell’apprendente di una lingua straniera. Ai fini dello studio presente, gli apprendenti di italiano sono stati classificati in diversi gruppi in base alla durata dell’ istruzione (principianti, intermedi, avanzati e/o al tipo di ambiente di apprendimento (studenti universitari, corsi di lingua straniera, “full immersion”. L’analisi si è concentrata maggiormente sulla frequenza d’uso e su alcune funzioni dei segnali discorsivi italiani adoperati. Lo scopo di questo studio era quello di esaminare la differenza tra l’uso dei segnali discorsivi relativo ai diversi livelli e ambienti educativi della lingua italiana da parte degli apprendenti croati di italiano L2 e di osservare le caratteristiche di una possibile influenza derivata dal L1.     Pragmatic competence in Italian L2: the use of discourse signals in Croatian-speaking learners This contribution explores the dialogue production of Croatian-speaking learners of Italian as a second language (L2 with the objective to determine their competence in L2 interactions. Special attention is paid to one particular aspect of dialogue production, discourse markers -dialogical expedients par excellence. Native speakers use discourse markers for a wide variety of dialogue functions, while the acquisition of (Italian discourse markers is a relatively unexplored area and discourse markers are hardly ever explicitly taught. The ability to recognize and use Italian discourse markers correctly, in terms of their pragmatic functions, reveals the learners’ pragmatic competence. For this particular study, the learners of Italian were classified in different groups according to length of instruction (basic, elementary, advanced and/or type of learning environment (university students, foreign language courses, “full immersion”. The analysis focused on the frequency of use and some functions of Italian discourse markers. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference between the Italian learners’ use of discourse markers and to observe the instances of a possible L1 influence.

Magdalena Nigoevi?

2012-02-01

289

Learning Vocabulary in EFL Contexts through Vocabulary Learning Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vocabulary learning is one of the major challenges foreign language learners face during the processof learning a language. One way to alley the burden is to assist students in becoming independent learners duringthe process of L2 vocabulary learning. This could be achieved through instructing learners to apply vocabularylearning strategies as efficiently as possible. The main pursuit of the present article is to suggest a framework fortraining EFL learners in vocabulary learning strategies. In so doing, an account of different taxonomies ofvocabulary learning strategies and a rationale for strategy training are presented.

Lotfi GHAZAL

2007-10-01

290

Hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes arising in the lung: report of a case with FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes (HSCT) is a very uncommon mesenchymal tumor that has similar morphological and biological features to the low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS). Lung involvement of HSCT is extremely rare, and only one case has been reported in the English-language literature. Reported herein is a case of primary pulmonary HSCT that had FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts, a product of characteristic chromosomal abnormality t(7;16)(q33;p11) of HSCT and LGFMS. The patient was a 50-year-old woman who had a large solitary mass in the lung. Histologically, it was composed of bland spindle cells with variable cellularity deposited in a densely hyalinized stroma alternating with myxoid areas. Characteristic collagen rosettes were scattered in the cellular areas. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue detected FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts. Despite its bland morphology, it is known as low-grade sarcoma and its recognition in the lung would be helpful for accurate diagnosis and proper management of this rare tumor. RT-PCR for detection of FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts is a useful method for differential diagnosis of primary pulmonary HSCT. PMID:17295648

Kim, Lucia; Yoon, Yong Han; Choi, Suk-Jin; Han, Jee Young; Park, In Suh; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Kim, Ye Ji

2007-03-01

291

Automatic quantitative morphological analysis of interacting galaxies  

CERN Document Server

The large number of galaxies imaged by digital sky surveys reinforces the need for computational methods for analyzing galaxy morphology. While the morphology of most galaxies can be associated with a stage on the Hubble sequence, morphology of galaxy mergers is far more complex due to the combination of two or more galaxies with different morphologies and the interaction between them. Here we propose a computational method based on unsupervised machine learning that can quantitatively analyze morphologies of galaxy mergers and associate galaxies by their morphology. The method works by first generating multiple synthetic galaxy models for each galaxy merger, and then extracting a large set of numerical image content descriptors for each galaxy model. These numbers are weighted using Fisher discriminant scores, and then the similarities between the galaxy mergers are deduced using a variation of Weighted Nearest Neighbor analysis such that the Fisher scores are used as weights. The similarities between the ga...

Shamir, Lior; Wallin, John

2013-01-01

292

Didattica multicanale integrata: il fumetto parlante. Un’esperienza di scrittura creativa collaborativa in un corso di italiano L2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L’articolo, nella premessa, parte da riferimenti a S. Papert e al costruzionismo, per focalizzarsi poi su alcuni aspetti dell’ultimo lavoro di A.Pian che, con l’ elaborazione del concetto di didattica multicanale integrata, indica una prospettiva ulteriore per l’integrazione di strumenti tecnologici nei processi di insegnamento/apprendimento.Nella fase seguente questo lavoro illustra un esperimento di scrittura creativa collaborativa in un corso di Italiano L2 blended, effettuato attraverso un sistema wiki e la successiva elaborazione integrata di testo, immagini e narrazione orale in un “fumetto parlante”. Uno degli obiettivi fondamentali del progetto è stato quello di valutare se, e in quale modo, il percorso effettuato in un ambiente online potesse favorire lo sviluppo della competenza comunicativa da parte dei corsisti, insieme a quello di analizzare i codici linguistici attivati nell’interazione. Non ultimo, l’obiettivo di verificare la possibilità che i corsisti potessero sperimentare un percorso per la creazione di un oggetto didattico che possa dare anche “piacere estetico” nella fruizione.  Integrated multi-channel teaching: the cartoon speaker.An experience in collaborative creative writing in an Italian L2 course The article begins with references to S. Papert and constructionism, then focuses on certain aspects of the work of A. Pian, who elaborated the concept of integrated multi-channel learning, indicating a further perspective for the integration of technological tools in the teaching/learning process. An experiment in a blended Italian L2 collaborative creative writing course was carried out using a wiki system and the subsequent processing of the integrated text, images and storytelling into a “speech bubble”. A key objective of the project was to assess whether, and in what way, an online environment could favor the development of communicative competence on the part of the students, along with the analysis of the linguistic codes activated in the interaction. Last but not least, there was the objective to verify the possibility that the participants could create a learning object that would also give “aesthetic pleasure” when used.

Diego Santalucia

2013-07-01

293

L2 Reading Comprehension and Its Correlates: A Meta-Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The present meta-analysis examined the overall average correlation (weighted for sample size and corrected for measurement error) between passage-level second language (L2) reading comprehension and 10 key reading component variables investigated in the research domain. Four high-evidence correlates (with 18 or more accumulated effect sizes: L2

Jeon, Eun Hee; Yamashita, Junko

2014-01-01

294

Concatenative and Nonconcatenative Plural Formation in L1, L2, and Heritage Speakers of Arabic  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares Arabic L1, L2, and heritage speakers' (HS) knowledge of plural formation, which involves concatenative and nonconcatenative modes of derivation. Ninety participants (divided equally among L1, L2, and heritage speakers) completed two oral tasks: a picture naming task (to measure proficiency) and a plural formation task. The…

Albirini, Abdulkafi; Benmamoun, Elabbas

2014-01-01

295

Processing Strategies and the Comprehension of Sentence-Level Input by L2 Learners of German  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates how L2 learners of German (English L1) process structural and semantic information when reading German sentences. In a timed comprehension task, intermediate and advanced L2 learners of German read sentences that varied according to word order (subject-first versus object-first) and subject animacy (inanimate subject versus…

Jackson, Carrie N.

2008-01-01

296

Gender in Italian-German Bilinguals: A Comparison with German L2 Learners of Italian  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares mastery of gender assignment and agreement in Italian by adult Italian-German bilinguals who have acquired two languages simultaneously (2L1), and by adult German highly proficient second language learners (L2ers) of Italian. Our data show that incompleteness in bilingual acquisition and in second language (L2) acquisition…

Bianchi, Giulia

2013-01-01

297

Improved FOCUSS method with two-step reweighted l2 minimization  

Science.gov (United States)

FOCal Underdetermined System Solver (FOCUSS) is a useful method through reweighted l2 minimization for sparse recovery. In this paper, we introduce an improved FOCUSS by enhancing sparsity with two reweighted l2 minimization. The reweighted FOCUSS method has higher mission success rate and better accuracy than FOCUSS. The simulation results illustrate the advantage of reweighted FOCUSS.

Han, X.; Jiang, Z.

2014-03-01

298

75 FR 28469 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS332L2 Helicopters  

Science.gov (United States)

...Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS332L2 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal...airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS332L2 helicopters...approved by the aviation authority of France and is approved for operation in the...

2010-05-21

299

The Interplay of Processing Task, Text Type, and Proficiency in L2 Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was an investigation of how particular processing tasks influence L2 reading in relation to text type effects and L2 reading proficiency. Two groups of Japanese university EFL students (N = 103), varying in English reading proficiency, read a narrative passage and an expository passage in one of three task conditions: outlining,…

Yoshida, Mami

2012-01-01

300

Child L2 English Acquisition of Subject Properties in an Immersion Bilingual Context  

Science.gov (United States)

Although thoroughly analysed in adult second language acquisition (L2A), the acquisition of subject properties in child L2A has not received so much attention and the majority of studies deal with longitudinal data or only with a single subject property. This study contributes new cross-sectional data from 5-year-old Spanish children acquiring…

Ballester, Elizabet Pladevall

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Cleaning Up Spontaneous Speech for Use in L2 Attrition Research: A Proposal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues, with a theoretical focus, that evidence of cross-linguistic influences on language use can and ought to be enlisted in second language (L2) attrition research to clean up "spontaneous speech data." Notes that since L2 attrition researchers have little control over the content of the spontaneous speech data they use, they need the…

Nakuma, Constancio

1997-01-01

302

Becoming 'American-Italian": An Immigrant's Narrative of Acquiring English as an L2  

Science.gov (United States)

This article tells the story of a child immigrant's L2 acquisition process. The narrative demonstrates the effects of social and academic factors on motivation to acquire an L2 and the result of immigration at a young age on cultural identity formation. The article begins by discussing the need for research into sociocultural factors in the second…

Amicucci, Ann N.

2012-01-01

303

The Roles of First Language and Proficiency in L2 Processing of Spanish Clitics: Global Effects  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the roles of first language (L1) and second language (L2) proficiency in the processing of preverbal clitics in L2 Spanish by considering the predictions of four processing theories--the Input Processing Theory, the Unified Competition Model, the Amalgamation Model, and the Associative-Cognitive CREED. We compared the performance of L1…

Seibert Hanson, Aroline E.; Carlson, Matthew T.

2014-01-01

304

The Relationship of Reading Attitudes between L1 and L2: An Investigation of Adult EFL Learners in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the transfer of reading attitudes from L1 to L2, drawing on the linguistic threshold hypothesis. Participants were Japanese university-level EFL students. Their L1 and L2 reading attitudes were estimated using a Likert scale, and their L2 proficiency was measured using a test. The study found that the students' L1 and L2

Yamashita, Junko

2007-01-01

305

General perversities and L^2 de Rham and Hodge theorems for stratified pseudomanifolds  

CERN Document Server

Given a compact stratified pseudomanifold with a Thom-Mather stratification and a class of riemannian metrics over its regular part, we study the relationships between the $L^{2}$ de Rham and Hodge cohomology and the intersection cohomology of $X$ associated to some perversities. More precisely, to a kind of metric which we call \\emph{quasi edge with weights}, we associate two general perversities in the sense of G. Friedman, $p_{g}$ and its dual $q_{g}$. We then show that the absolute $L^{2}$ Hodge cohomology is isomorphic to the maximal $L^{2}$ de Rham cohomology and this is in turn isomorphic to the intersection cohomology associated to the perversity $q_{g}$. Moreover we prove that the relative $L^{2}$ Hodge cohomology is isomorphic to the minimal $L^{2}$ de Rham cohomology and this is in turn isomorphic to the intersection cohomology associated to the perversity $p_{g}$.

Bei, Francesco

2011-01-01

306

Morphology Risk Assessment Summary  

...Report March 2005 1 Freshwater Morphology Risk Assessment Summary 1. Summary...and by UKTAG3. Pressures on morphology of surface waters can arise...describing and assessing surface water morphology are not well developed except...

307

A comparative assessment of the L1 and L2 reading performance of Grade 7 learners in English  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of English and the indigenous languages in South African schooling is highly contested. Research endorses the mother tongue (L1 as the most appropriate language of learning and teaching (LoLT and the basis for the addition of a second language (L2. However, in South Africa English is the preferred LoLT and English proficiency is integral to academic achievement. This article reports on an investigation of Grade 7 Xitsonga-speaking learners’ reading performance in English and in Xitsonga. Based on a study of the literature on the link between language proficiency and academic success, an empirical inquiry assessed the reading performance of grade 7 Xitsonga-speaking learners using a standardised test in English and in Xitsonga. Learners’ reading performance in both Xitsonga, their L1, and English, their LoLT since grade 4, was poor.

Tintswalo V Manyike

2011-08-01

308

Executive control modulates cross-language lexical activation during L2 reading: evidence from eye movements.  

Science.gov (United States)

Models of bilingual reading such as Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002) do not predict a central role for domain-general executive control during bilingual reading, in contrast with bilingual models from other domains, such as production (e.g., the Inhibitory Control Model; Green, 1998). We thus investigated whether individual differences among bilinguals in domain-general executive control modulate cross-language activation during L2 sentence reading, over and above other factors such as L2 proficiency. Fifty French-English bilinguals read L2-English sentences while their eye movements were recorded, and they subsequently completed a battery of executive control and L2 proficiency tasks. High- and low-constraint sentences contained interlingual homographs (chat = "casual conversation" in English, "a cat" in French), cognates (piano in English and French), or L2-specific control words. The results showed that greater executive control among bilinguals but not L2 proficiency reduced cross-language activation in terms of interlingual homograph interference. In contrast, increased L2 proficiency but not executive control reduced cross-language activation in terms of cognate facilitation. These results suggest that models of bilingual reading must incorporate mechanisms by which domain-general executive control can alter the earliest stages of bilingual lexical activation. PMID:24446754

Pivneva, Irina; Mercier, Julie; Titone, Debra

2014-05-01

309

Ribosomal protein L2 associates with E. coli HtpG and activates its ATPase activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although eukaryotic Hsp90 has been studied extensively, the function of its bacterial homologue HtpG remains elusive. Here we report that 50S ribosomal protein L2 was found as an associated protein with His-tagged HtpG from Escherichia coli cultured in minimum medium at 45 °C. L2 specifically activated ATPase activity of HtpG, but other denatured proteins did not. The analysis using domain derivatives of HtpG and L2 showed that C-terminal domain of L2 and the middle to C-terminal domain of HtpG are important for interaction. At physiological salt concentration, L2 was denatured state and was recognized by HtpG as well as other chaperones, DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE and GroEL/GroES. The ATPase of HtpG at increasing concentration of L2 indicated that an L2 molecule bound to a dimer HtpG with apparent K(D) of 0.3 ?M at 100mM KCl and 3.3 ?M at 200 mM KCl. PMID:20727857

Motojima-Miyazaki, Yuko; Yoshida, Masasuke; Motojima, Fumihiro

2010-09-17

310

Nuclear import strategies of high-risk HPV18 L2 minor capsid protein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the nuclear import strategies of high-risk HPV18 L2 minor capsid protein. HPV18 L2 interacts with Kap ?2 adapter, and Kap ?2 and Kap ?3 nuclear import receptors. Moreover, binding of RanGTP to either Kap ?2 or Kap ?3 inhibits their interaction with L2, suggesting that these Kap ?/L2 complexes are import competent. Mapping studies show that HPV18 L2 contains two NLSs: in the N-terminus (nNLS) and in the C-terminus (cNLS), both of which can independently mediate nuclear import. Both nNLS and cNLS form a complex with Kap ?2?1 heterodimer and mediate nuclear import via a classical pathway. The nNLS is also essential for the interaction of HPV18 L2 with Kap ?2 and Kap ?3. Interestingly, both nNLS and cNLS interact with the viral DNA and this DNA binding occurs without nucleotide sequence specificity. Together, the data suggest that HPV18 L2 can interact via its NLSs with several Kaps and the viral DNA and may enter the nucleus via multiple import pathways mediated by Kap ?2?1 heterodimers, Kap ?2 and Kap ?3

311

L2-stability of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near global Maxwellians  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a L2-stability theory of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system for the two-species collisional plasma. We show that in a perturbative regime of a global Maxwellian, the L2-distance between two strong solutions can be controlled by that between initial data in a Lipschitz manner. Our stability result extends earlier results [Ha, S.-Y. and Xiao, Q.-H., "A revisiting to the L2-stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near global Maxwellians," (submitted) and Ha, S.-Y., Yang, X.-F., and Yun, S.-B., "L2 stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near a global Maxwellian," Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 197, 657-688 (2010)] on the L2-stability of the Boltzmann equation to the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent external forces. As a direct application of our stability result, we show that classical solutions in Duan et al. ["Optimal large-time behavior of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system in the whole space," Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 24, 1497-1546 (2011)] and Guo ["The Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near Maxwellians," Invent. Math. 153(3), 593-630 (2003)] satisfy a uniform L2-stability estimate. This is the first result on the L2-stability of the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent field equations in three dimensions.

Ha, Seung-Yeal; Xiao, Qinghua; Xiong, Linjie; Zhao, Huijiang

2013-12-01

312

Examinando a relação L1-L2 na pedagogia de ensino de ESL  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste artigo procuro refletir sobre como a relação L1-L2 tem sido tratada nas teorias de aquisição de línguas, na política e na pedagogia de ensino de L2, em especial no ensino de inglês como segunda língua (ESL). Ao longo do estudo, argumento que o ensino de L2 pode se beneficiar do uso da L1 na sa [...] la de aula, principalmente quando se trata de crianças em processo de escolarização por meio da L2, ao invés de se concentrar no modelo ideal monolíngüe. O cenário que deu origem a essas reflexões é uma sala de aula de ESL de uma escola de imersão em inglês situada na região centro-oeste do Brasil. Abstract in english This article seeks to reflect on how L1-L2 relationship has been treated in second language theories, policy and pedagogy, mainly in the teaching of English as a second language (ESL). It is argued that language teaching pedagogy would benefit by paying attention to the use of L1 in the L2 classroom [...] , especially in the case of whole schooling through L2, rather than concentrating primarily on the ideal monolingual model. The scenery that motivated these reflections is an ESL classroom of an English immersion school located in the central part of Brazil

Heloísa Augusta Brito de, Mello.

313

Examinando a relação L1-L2 na pedagogia de ensino de ESL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neste artigo procuro refletir sobre como a relação L1-L2 tem sido tratada nas teorias de aquisição de línguas, na política e na pedagogia de ensino de L2, em especial no ensino de inglês como segunda língua (ESL. Ao longo do estudo, argumento que o ensino de L2 pode se beneficiar do uso da L1 na sala de aula, principalmente quando se trata de crianças em processo de escolarização por meio da L2, ao invés de se concentrar no modelo ideal monolíngüe. O cenário que deu origem a essas reflexões é uma sala de aula de ESL de uma escola de imersão em inglês situada na região centro-oeste do Brasil.This article seeks to reflect on how L1-L2 relationship has been treated in second language theories, policy and pedagogy, mainly in the teaching of English as a second language (ESL. It is argued that language teaching pedagogy would benefit by paying attention to the use of L1 in the L2 classroom, especially in the case of whole schooling through L2, rather than concentrating primarily on the ideal monolingual model. The scenery that motivated these reflections is an ESL classroom of an English immersion school located in the central part of Brazil

Heloísa Augusta Brito de Mello

2005-01-01

314

Alternativa metodológica para fortalecer el proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de Morfofisiología I en la carrera Enfermería / Methodological alternative to strengthen the teaching-learning process of Morphology and Phisiology I in the Nursing major  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: la insuficiente apropiación de los contenidos de la asignatura Morfofisiología I por los estudiantes, es uno de los problemas esenciales en la carrera de Enfermería. Objetivo: diseñar una alternativa metodológica que fortalezca el proceso enseñanza aprendizaje (PEA) de la asignatura Mo [...] rfofisiología I en la carrera de Enfermería. Método: investigación-acción en la Filial Universitaria Municipal de Ciencias Médicas Los Palacios; universo y muestra: total de estudiantes de 2do año de enfermería durante los cursos 2008-2009 y 2009-2010 (46) y durante los cursos 2010-2011 y 2011-2012 (23); se utilizaron métodos observacionales, entrevistas, enfoque de sistema y modelación. Resultados: Las clases observadas de Bien ascendieron de 16,6% a 83,3 % y las observadas de Mal descendieron de 61,1% a 5,6%. La promoción mejoró en calidad y se elevó de 28,2% a 95,6%, se logro la mayor motivación y participación activa y protagónica de los estudiantes, así como seguridad y dominio en el tratamiento de los contenidos. Conclusiones: La alternativa metodológica permitió a los docentes potenciar las dimensiones cognitivas y motivaciones en los estudiantes por la asignatura Morfofisiología I y demostró un salto cualitativo y cuantitativo en los resultados obtenidos. Abstract in english Introduction: the students´ insufficient aprehension of the course contents in Morphology and Phisiology I is one of the main problems in the Nursing major. Objective: to design a methodological alternative to strengthen the teaching-learning process in the course subject in the Nursing major. Mater [...] ial and method: research-action in Los Palacios Municipal University Affiliate of Medical Sciences; target group and sample: the sheer number of Nursing second year students during the academic years 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 (46) and 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 (23); observational methods were used, as long as interviews, system approach and modelling. Results: the lessons evaluated with Good increased from 16.6% to 83.3% and those evaluated with Wrong decreased from 61.1% to 5.6%. Promotion improved in quality and increased from 28.2% to 95.6%, greater motivation and active and student-centered involvement was achieved, as well as self-confidence and aprehension of the subject contents. Conclusions: the methodological alternative permitted the teaching faculty to potentiate the students cognitive dimensions and motivations for the subject Morphology and Phisiology I and proved a qualitative and quantitative leap in the results obtained.

Coralia, Quintero Martí; Magaly, Gort Hernández; Teresa, Verona Ferro; Marelis, Linares Miranda; José Luis, Cordero Pérez.

2013-12-01

315

Results on L2 Trigger Reconstruction in Single and Di-Muon Topologies  

CERN Document Server

A detailed study of the CMS L2 trigger performance in single and di-muontopologies is reported, using the full detector simulation developed in CMSIM and the digitization, L1 trigger simulation and L2 reconstruction code developed in ORCA. The study was performed assuming the high luminosity scenario for the LHC machine (L= 10 nb-1s-1). The resulting single muon and di-muon rates at L2 selection level are reported and compared with the L1 Global Muon Trigger output.

Acosta, Darin; Cox, T; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fierro, Massimiliano; Gasparini, Ugo; Grandi, Claudio; Konecki, Marcin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Neumeister, Norbert; Rick, Hartmut; Ronchese, Paolo; Smith, Richard P; Tannenbaum, Benn; Vitelli, Annalina; Wilkinson, Richard

2001-01-01

316

RELATIONSHIP AMONG INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY, NOTICING, AND L2 SPEECH PRODUCTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Working memory is the human cognitive system in charge of the simultaneous and temporary processing and storage of information in the performance of complex cognitive tasks. A long tradition of research has shown that individual differences in working memory capacity are related to level of performance in these tasks. In the present study, we examine the relationship among individual differences in working memory capacity, noticing, and L2 speech production. It is suggested that working memory capacity is related to accuracy in L2 speech production but not to the ability to notice L2 formal aspects in the input.

Mailce Borges Mota Fortkamp

2007-09-01

317

Sobre a aquisição de uma língua semi-pro-drop como L2 =On the L2 acquisition of a semi-pro-drop language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo apresenta um experimento sobre a aquisição de L2 da Restrição do Pronome Pleno (RPP, Overt Pronoun Constraint, um princípio universal que refere ao fato que as línguas de sujeito nulo não permitem que um pronome pleno seja ligado por um antecedente quantificado (e. g. *Ninguémi acha que elei é estúpido. O objetivo era testar o conhecimento deste princípio com falantes nativos de português brasileiro (PB e falantes de inglês e espanhol, aprendizes de PB como L2 e L3, respectivamente. A questão principal desta pesquisa era se é mais provável que os falantes nativos do PB observem o princípio ou não, mas também se os aprendizes de L2 e L3 do PB se comportariam como os falantes nativos, como falantes de uma língua típica de sujeito nulo ou de acordo com a sua língua nativa. Assumindo o Bilinguismo Universal de Roeper (1999 e utilizando uma tarefa experimental baseada em Kanno (1997 e Rothman e Iverson (2007 a-c, mostrou-se que os controles nativos de PB não se comportaram como falantes de línguas típicas de sujeito nulo em relação à RPP. Além disso, os aprendizes de L2 e L3 do PB se comportaram de forma semelhante aos controles, independente das línguas adquiridas anteriormente.

Molsing, Karina Veronica

2011-01-01

318

An Attempt towards Learner Autonomy in L2 (English) an L3 (Arabic) Reading through Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategy Instruction (CMRSI) in L2  

Science.gov (United States)

This experimental study was intended to raise learner autonomy among Iranian native speakers of Persian in their L2 (English) and L3 (Arabic) reading comprehension through cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies instruction (CMRSI). The subjects of the study were divided into intermediate and advanced English language proficiency levels and…

Talebi, Seyed Hassan

2009-01-01

319

Acquiring Receptive Morphology A Connectionist Model  

CERN Document Server

This paper describes a modular connectionist model of the acquisition of receptive inflectional morphology. The model takes inputs in the form of phones one at a time and outputs the associated roots and inflections. Simulations using artificial language stimuli demonstrate the capacity of the model to learn suffixation, prefixation, infixation, circumfixation, mutation, template, and deletion rules. Separate network modules responsible for syllables enable to the network to learn simple reduplication rules as well. The model also embodies constraints against association-line crossing.

Gasser, M

1994-01-01

320

Learning a Second Language Naturally the Voice Movement Icon Approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Second language (L2) instruction greatly differs from natural input during native language (L1) acquisition.Whereas a child collects sensorimotor experience while learning novel words, L2 employs primarily reading,writing and listening and comprehension. We describe an alternative proposal that integrates the body into thelearning process: the Voice Movement Icon (VMI) approach. A VMI consists of a word that is read and spokenin L2 and synchronously paired with an a...

Manuela Macedonia

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

ERPs recorded during early second language exposure predict syntactic learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In this study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners' proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High-proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared with closed-class function words, whereas low-proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners' L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition. PMID:24666165

Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J

2014-09-01

322

Bridging the Gap: Cognitive and Social Approaches to Research in Second Language Learning and Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

For some, research in learning and teaching of a second language (L2) runs the risk of disintegrating into irreconcilable approaches to L2 learning and use. On the one side, we find researchers investigating linguistic-cognitive issues, often using quantitative research methods including inferential statistics; on the other side, we find…

Hulstijn, Jan H.; Young, Richard F.; Ortega, Lourdes; Bigelow, Martha; DeKeyser, Robert; Ellis, Nick C.; Lantolf, James P.; Mackey, Alison; Talmy, Steven

2014-01-01

323

Web 2.0 and Second Language Learning: What Does the Research Tell Us?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews current research on the use of Web 2.0 technologies in second language (L2) learning. Its purpose is to investigate the theoretical perspectives framing it, to identify some of the benefits of using Web 2.0 technologies in L2 learning, and to discuss some of the limitations. The review reveals that blogs and wikis have been…

Wang, Shenggao; Vasquez, Camilla

2012-01-01

324

IL FENOMENO DELL’ALTERNANZA L1/L2 NELL’INSEGNAMENTO DELL’ITALIANO COME LINGUA STRANIERA. ANALISI DI UN CORPUS DI INTERAZIONI DIDATTICHE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La modalità plurilingue della comunicazione in classi di lingua straniera può rientrare tra le strategie pedagogiche a disposizione dell’insegnante per il raggiungimento di precisi scopi didattici e formativi. Partendo da una breve analisi sul significato di parlante plurilingue e plurilinguismo stesso, in questo articolo si è voluto esaminare come si attua una educazione al plurilinguismo in contesti formativi e, in particolare, se e come l’utilizzo della L1 può costituire uno strumento di supporto all’insegnamento e all’apprendimento di una lingua straniera. A questo scopo sono stati analizzati i dati raccolti presso l’Università di Coventry durante corsi di italiano L2 per studenti anglofoni. I fenomeni di contatto linguistico L1/L2 più frequenti e significativi sono stati suddivisi in base al parlante e alle loro funzioni.   The phenomena of l1/l2 alternation in the teaching of italian as a foreign language. analysis of a corpus of didactic interactions Multilingual communication in foreign language classrooms can be considered as one of the teacher’s pedagogical  strategies to achieve specific educational aims. Through a brief analysis of the meaning of multilingual speakers and multilingualism, this article examines how an education to multilingualism in teaching contexts is carried out and, in particular, if and how the use of the L1 can be a helpful tool for the foreign language teaching and learning. For this purpose the data collected at Coventry University during Italian (L2 classrooms for English students were examined. The more common and meaningful phenomena of linguistic contact between L1 and L2 were grouped according to the speaker and to their functions.

Paola Arrigoni

2012-02-01

325

Explicit L2 inequalities for parabolic and pseudoparabolic equations with Neumann boundary conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Explicit L2 inequalities are derived for second and third order diffusion equations with Neumann boundary conditions. Such inequalities are useful in approximating solutions to partial differential equations by the method of a priori inequalities.

J. R. Kuttler

1978-03-01

326

A processability account of the L2 article acquisition by Bulgarian young learners of English  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper sheds a new light on the acquisition of English articles by L2 young learners of English. It focuses on the interplay between L1 interference and the applicability of a recent cognitive theoretical framework – the Processability theory which serve as a basis for outlining the possible difficulties in the English article acquisition by Bulgarian 9-10-year old learners of English as L2.

Harakchiyska T. K.

2012-12-01

327

Asimmetrie L1/L2: una sfida nella didattica di “lingua e traduzione”.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Asymmetries Between L1 and L2: a Challenge in the Teaching of "Language and Translation" Language teaching is deeply connected to the cognitive and brain sciences. The attribution of meaning of linguistic messages depends on the interaction between the communicant’s brain and the external world. The interaction is based on the cognitive and emotional experience shared by a L-community. Competence in L2 is acquired by the development of an internal data base of contextu...

Laura Salmon

2004-01-01

328

Low Parametric Sensitivity Realizations with relaxed L2-dynamic-range-scaling constraints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a new dynamic-range scaling for the implementation of filters/controllers in state-space form. Relaxing the classical L2-scaling constraints by specific fixed-point considerations allows for a higher degree of freedom for the optimal L2-parametric sensitivity problem. However, overflows in the implementation are still prevented. The underlying constrained problem is converted into an unconstrained problem for which a solution can be provided. This leads to realizations whi...

Hilaire, Thibault

2009-01-01

329

Comparative testicular transcriptome of wild type and globozoospermic Dpy19l2 knock out mice  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BackgroundGlobozoospermia is a male infertility phenotype characterized by the presence in the ejaculate of near 100% acrosomeless round-headed spermatozoa with normal chromosomal content. Following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) these spermatozoa give a poor fertilization rate and embryonic development. We showed previously that most patients have a 200 kb homozygous deletion, which includes DPY19L2 whole coding sequence. Furthermore we showed that the DPY19L2 protein is loca...

Karaouze?ne, Thomas; El Atifi, Miche?le; Issartel, Jean-paul; Grepillat, Marianne; Coutton, Charles; Martinez, Delphine; Arnoult, Christophe; Ray, Pierre

2013-01-01

330

Three new serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis: Da, Ia, and L2a.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three new Chlamydia trachomatis serovars were identified by several monoclonal antibodies in the microimmunofluorescence test and are proposed to be called Da, Ia, and L2a. Each was clearly distinguishable from the related serovars D, I, and L2. To date, 7, 41, and 4 isolates of the respective serovars have been identified. Each appears to be distributed worldwide. The findings meet previously established criteria for establishment of new serovars. PMID:1988525

Wang, S P; Grayston, J T

1991-02-01

331

Object Pronouns in German L3 Syntax: Evidence for the L2 Status Factor  

Science.gov (United States)

Several studies on L3 lexicon, and recently also some on L3 syntax, have convincingly shown a qualitative difference between the acquisition of a true L2 and the subsequent acquisition of an L3. Some studies even indicate that L2 takes on a stronger role than L1 in the initial state of L3 syntax (e.g. Bardel and Falk, 2007; Rothman and Cabrelli…

Falk, Ylva; Bardel, Camilla

2011-01-01

332

Molecular action of the l(2)gl tumor suppressor gene of Drosophila melanogaster.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tumor suppressor genes act as recessive determinants of cancer. These genes contribute to the normal phenotype and are required for regulating cell growth and differentiation during development. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes leads to an unrestricted pattern of growth in specific cell types. In Drosophila, a series of genes have been identified that cause tissue-specific tumors after mutation. Of these, the lethal(2)giant larvae (l(2)gl) gene is the best studied. Homozygous l(2)gl mut...

Merz, R.; Schmidt, M.; To?ro?k, I.; Protin, U.; Schuler, G.; Walther, H. P.; Krieg, F.; Gross, M.; Strand, D.; Mechler, B. M.

1990-01-01

333

A Computational Investigation of Cohesion and Lexical Network Density in L2 Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study used a new computational linguistics tool, the Coh-Metrix, to investigate and measure the differences in cohesion and lexical network density between native speaker and non-native speaker writing, as well as to investigate L2 proficiency level differences in cohesion and lexical network density. This study analyzed data from three corpora with the Coh-Metrix: the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE as an L2 higher proficiency group, the Louvain Corpus of Native English Essays (LOCNESS as a native speaker baseline, and a collected EFL corpus from Indonesia for the L2 lower proficiency data. Statistical investigation of the Coh-Metrix results revealed that five out of six Coh-Metrix variables used in this study did not detect proficiency level differences in L2 but the tool was consistently able to distinguish between L2 and native speaker writing. Differences included that L2 writing contains more argument overlap, more semantic overlap, more frequent content words, fewer abstract verb hyponyms and less causal content than native speaker writing.

Clarence Green

2012-06-01

334

Functional Connectivity Changes in Second Language Vocabulary Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional connectivity changes in the language network (Price, 2010), and in a control network involved in second language (L2) processing (Abutalebi & Green, 2007) were examined in a group of Persian (L1) speakers learning French (L2) words. Measures of network integration that characterize the global integrative state of a network (Marrelec,…

Saidi, Ladan Ghazi; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Pelegrini-Issac, Melani; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana-Ines

2013-01-01

335

Deep Learning by Scattering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce general scattering transforms as mathematical models of deep neural networks with l2 pooling. Scattering networks iteratively apply complex valued unitary operators, and the pooling is performed by a complex modulus. An expected scattering defines a contractive representation of a high-dimensional probability distribution, which preserves its mean-square norm. We show that unsupervised learning can be casted as an optimization of the space contraction to preserv...

Mallat, Ste?phane

2013-01-01

336

The Effect of Using Print Media on Children’s L2 Literacy Development: A Longitudinal Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper tries to examine the effect of using print media in the classroom on the children’s L2 literacy development in an EFL context. Since reading is regarded as a chief goal, in many second/foreign language teaching situations, it receives a special focus. Media as a tool for language learning/teaching, can help both instructed and non-instructed learners to overcome the difficult task of language learning. In order to determine the effects of print media usage on the development of children’s foreign language reading abilities, 30 children aged between 7-8 familiar to English alphabet were selected. Based on DIBELS performance, participants were homogenized and assigned as low group. According to National Reading Panel, story books, magazines and newspapers were used to teach five areas of reading proficiency, i.e. phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and text comprehension. After one year of instruction, based on DIBELS performance, participants were assigned to medium and high groups; implying the effect of direct instruction and print media usage in classrooms for developing foreign language reading abilities. 

Mansoor Tavakoli

2013-05-01

337

Effectiveness of L2 spinal nerve infiltration for selective discogenic low back pain patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been reported that rat L5/6 lumbar discs are innervated mainly by L2 dorsal root ganglion neurons. We previously reported that L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective for discogenic low back pain (DLBP) patients, although the diagnosis was based only on the results of physical examination, plain films, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate L2 spinal nerve block for DLBP patients retrospectively based on MRI findings and surgical results. A total of 62 patients with only LBP and no accompanying radicular pain were investigated. Patients had only one level of disc degeneration on MRI. When pain was provoked during discography, we performed surgery at the next stage (40 patients). In all, 22 patients were excluded owing to negative discography results. Of the 40 patients, we evaluated 25 strictly selected patients suffering from DLBP. DLBP was diagnosed when the patient experienced pain relief at least 2 years after anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Fifteen patients who did not show pain relief after surgery were used for the non-DLBP group. L2 spinal nerve infiltration using 1.5 ml of lidocaine was performed in all 40 patients before surgery. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score after L2 spinal nerve infiltration was recorded, and an association of L2 spinal nerve infiltration and DLBP was explored. Low back pain scores assessed using the VAS score, the Japanese Orthopedic Association score, and the Oswestry Didic Association score, and the Oswestry Disability Index score in the two groups were not significantly different. L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective for 27 patients but not effective for 13 patients; the VAS score after 15 min and 2 h improved in the DLBP group compared with that of the non-DLBP group (P<0.05). L2 spinal nerve infiltration was more effective in DLBP patients (21 patients, 84%) than in the non-DLBP group (6 patients, 40%) (P<0.05). In the current study, L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective in 84% of selected DLBP patients and is thought to be a useful tool for diagnosing DLBP. However, we should take into consideration that the L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective in 40% of non-DLBP patients as well. (author)

338

Low doses of flagellin-L2 multimer vaccines protect against challenge with diverse papillomavirus genotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetically modified bacterial flagellin (Fla), a Toll-like receptor-5 (TLR5) ligand, was evaluated as a fusion partner for human papillomavirus (HPV) L2-based immunogens in two animal challenge models; either cutaneous inoculation of rabbits with HPV 'quasivirions' containing cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) genomes that induce warts, or intra-vaginal inoculation of mice with HPV 'pseudovirions' encapsidating a luciferase reporter plasmid and measurement of bioluminescence to determine infectivity. An Escherichia coli production system was developed for flagellin-L2 (Fla-L2) fusions containing either monomeric HPV-16 L2 a.a. 11(×11-200) or oligomeric L2 comprising a fusion of the a.a. 11-88 peptides of five (Fla?5×11-88) or eight (Fla?8×11-88) genital HPV types. Immunogenicity and bioactivity of Fla-L2 constructs were assessed using an in vitro neutralization and cell-based TLR-5 binding assay, respectively. Efficacy was evaluated following active immunization of rabbits or mice administered 3 intramuscular doses of Fla-L2 recombinants without exogenous adjuvant, followed by challenge. In addition, passive immunization studies of naïve rabbits with serial dilutions of pooled immune sera were used to determine End-Point Protection Titers (EPPT) for each formulation against a broader spectrum of HPV quasivirions. Efficacy was assessed for up to 10 weeks on the basis of wart volume induced following challenge and results compared to licensed L1-VLP vaccines (Gardasil and Cervarix). Following active immunization at doses as low as 1 ?g, Fla-L2 fusions afforded complete protection against infection (mice) and disease (rabbits) following either homologous or heterologous HPV challenge. Passive immunization with anti-L2 immune sera discriminated between the different vaccine candidates under evaluation, demonstrated the protective role of antibody and suggested the superiority of this oligomeric L2-TLR5 agonist fusion approach compared to L1-based vaccines in its ability to cross-protect against non-vaccine HPV types. PMID:24780250

Kalnin, Kirill; Tibbitts, Timothy; Yan, Yanhua; Stegalkina, Svetlana; Shen, Lihua; Costa, Victor; Sabharwal, Robert; Anderson, Stephen F; Day, Patricia M; Christensen, Neil; Schiller, John T; Jagu, Subhashini; Roden, Richard B S; Almond, Jeffrey; Kleanthous, Harold

2014-06-12

339

Investigating the Role of L2 Language Proficiency in Word Association Behavior of L2 Learners: A Case of Iranian EFL Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last few decades word association research has provided precise insight into the development and organization of the mental lexicon; however, there is still sufficient ground for more exploration to gain a better understanding of how L2 learners’ mental lexicon might be organized and how word association behavior may vary according to L2 proficiency level. This paper was intended to investigate the development of mental lexicon through a psycholinguistic experiment and more specifically, to explore the possible role L2 language proficiency may have in word association behaviors of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, a standardized English placement test (OPT and a word association test were administered to 120 undergraduate EFL learners. The elicited responses were classified based on Peppard's (2007 model and then analyzed in terms of the frequency of each type of word association. The results indicated that upper intermediate students' responses were significantly more frequent than beginners' responses in the categories of "Synonymy" and "Hypernymy and Hyponymy" which are paradigmatic relations and the beginners' responses were significantly more frequent in the category of "Grammatical collocation" which is a syntagmatic relation. These findings, which support McCarthy (1990 and Meara (1982, are not in line with Wolter’(2001 belief about the re-evaluation of the syntagmatic-paradigmatic shift in the case of nonnative speakers. The study implies important implications for vocabulary teaching through assisting learners in building stronger semantic links between words.

Bahareh Khazaeenezhad

2013-01-01

340

Review of LOFT cladding temperature response for L2-2 and L2-3: recommendations for improved LOFT fuel rod measurements (Systems 14 and 87)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes the measured cladding temperature response during the LOFT L2-2 and L2-3 tests with particular emphasis on both the early cladding quench which occurred during the first 6 to 10 seconds of the transients and the final fuel rod quench resulting from reflooding of the core with ECC water. Supporting analysis work is also presented to aid in understanding the data. A discussion of the measurement errors of the LOFT cladding thermocouples is presented with emphasis on recent separate effects tests. A knowledge of the thermocouple cooling effects based on these separate effects tests is used to estimate an upper bound temperature response for the L2-3 test, which indicates that an uninstrumented LOFT fuel rod may have experienced peak cladding temperatures nearly 100/sup 0/K higher than indicated by the cladding temperature measurements. In addition, unistrumented LOFT fuel rods may have experienced quench during the final reflooding of the core by as much as 25 seconds later than indicated by the cladding thermocouples.

Tolman, E.L.; Coryell, E.W.

1980-10-17

 
 
 
 
341

JNK1 controls dendritic field size in L2/3 and L5 of the motor cortex, constrains soma size, and influences fine motor coordination  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic anomalies on the JNK pathway confer susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and intellectual disability. The mechanism whereby a gain or loss of function in JNK signaling predisposes to these prevalent dendrite disorders, with associated motor dysfunction, remains unclear. Here we find that JNK1 regulates the dendritic field of L2/3 and L5 pyramidal neurons of the mouse motor cortex (M1), the main excitatory pathway controlling voluntary movement. In Jnk1-/- mice, basal dendrite branching of L5 pyramidal neurons is increased in M1, as is cell soma size, whereas in L2/3, dendritic arborization is decreased. We show that JNK1 phosphorylates rat HMW-MAP2 on T1619, T1622, and T1625 (Uniprot P15146) corresponding to mouse T1617, T1620, T1623, to create a binding motif, that is critical for MAP2 interaction with and stabilization of microtubules, and dendrite growth control. Targeted expression in M1 of GFP-HMW-MAP2 that is pseudo-phosphorylated on T1619, T1622, and T1625 increases dendrite complexity in L2/3 indicating that JNK1 phosphorylation of HMW-MAP2 regulates the dendritic field. Consistent with the morphological changes observed in L2/3 and L5, Jnk1-/- mice exhibit deficits in limb placement and motor coordination, while stride length is reduced in older animals. In summary, JNK1 phosphorylates HMW-MAP2 to increase its stabilization of microtubules while at the same time controlling dendritic fields in the main excitatory pathway of M1. Moreover, JNK1 contributes to normal functioning of fine motor coordination. We report for the first time, a quantitative Sholl analysis of dendrite architecture, and of motor behavior in Jnk1-/- mice. Our results illustrate the molecular and behavioral consequences of interrupted JNK1 signaling and provide new ground for mechanistic understanding of those prevalent neuropyschiatric disorders where genetic disruption of the JNK pathway is central.

Komulainen, Emilia; Zdrojewska, Justyna; Freemantle, Erika; Mohammad, Hasan; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Deshpande, Prasannakumar; Marchisella, Francesca; Mysore, Raghavendra; Hollos, Patrik; Michelsen, Kimmo A.; Magard, Mats; Rauvala, Heikki; James, Peter; Coffey, Eleanor T.

2014-01-01

342

The ABF1 factor is the transcriptional activator of the L2 ribosomal protein genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The same factor, ABF1, binds to the promoters of the two gene copies (L2A and L2B) coding for the ribosomal protein L2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In vitro binding experiments and in vivo functional analysis showed that the different affinities of the L2A and L2B promoters for the ABF1 factor are responsible for the differential transcriptional activities of the two gene copies. The presence of ABF1-binding sites in front of many housekeeping genes suggests a general role for ABF1 in the regulation of gene activity. PMID:2183035

Della Seta, F; Ciafré, S A; Marck, C; Santoro, B; Presutti, C; Sentenac, A; Bozzoni, I

1990-05-01

343

Characterization of an alternative transcript of the human CREB3L2 gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

CREB3L2, a member of the CREB3 family of transcription factors, spans >120 kbp and is composed of 12 exons. We characterized a widely expressed transcript of CREB3L2 generated by an intronic polyadenylation site in intron 4 of the gene. It could be translated to a CREB3L2 variant which is localized both in the nucleus and the endoplasmatic reticulum. The protein retains the N-terminal transactivation domain but lacks the DNA-binding domain, the transmembrane domain and the C-terminal part. Experiments using a GAL4 DNA-binding domain fusion model showed that the transcript is a transactivator but it cannot exert its function through the CRE and ATF6 binding sites and has little effect on the GRP78 promoter. Whether this transcript has a cellular function or is targeted for degradation by nonsense-mediated RNA decay system of RNA surveillance is currently unknown. PMID:20878102

Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Monsef, Nastaran; Collin, Anna; Mertens, Fredrik

2010-11-01

344

Articulatory behaviors of nonnative speakers: role of l2 proficiency and accent modification.  

Science.gov (United States)

To sound native-like, nonnative speakers need to approximate the articulatory patterns of native speakers. When nonnative speakers deviate from native speakers' production patterns, it gives rise to a nonnative accent. This study examines how proficiency in a second language (L2) is related to processing skills in L2, as measured by the accuracy of consonant production. 10 monolingual speakers of American English, 10 Bengali-English bilinguals with high proficiency in English, and 10 Bengali-English bilinguals with low proficiency in English participated. The participants spoke 16 nonwords of four different syllable lengths. Productions were phonetically transcribed. Results suggested that nonnative speakers' L2 proficiency differentially interacted with overall phonemic accuracy, usage of appropriate place, manner and voicing features, position of consonants within target words, and syllable length. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of customized strategies for modification of nonnative accents. PMID:21987929

Chakraborty, Rahul; Domsch, Celeste; Gonzales, Maria D

2011-08-01

345

The Effects of Planned Instruction on Iranian L2 Learners' Interlanguage Pragmatic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most compelling evidence that instruction in L2pragmatics is necessary comes from learners whoselanguage proficiency is advanced but their communicative actsfrequently contain pragmatic errors. The current studyevaluated the impact of explicit instruction on EFL learner'sawareness and production of three speech acts of request,apology, and complaint. It also probed whether learners’language proficiency plays any role in incorporatingpragmatic instruction into the L2 classroom. The instructionlasted for about 12 weeks. Achievement in L2 pragmaticswas assessed based on a pretest-posttest plan usingMultiple-Choice Discourse Comprehension Test (MDCTand Written Discourse Completion Test (WDCT. Thesignificant gains made by the experimental groups receivinginstruction support the claim recently made by instructionalpragmatics that explicit instruction does facilitate thedevelopment of pragmatically appropriate use of language.Yet, learners’ level of language proficiency had no significantrole in the incorporation of the instruction. Furthertheoretical issues are also discussed.

Maryam Esmaeili

2013-05-01

346

Orbiting GPS Receiver Modified to Track New L2C Signal  

Science.gov (United States)

The L2C signal is a great step forward for civil applications of GPS, enabling high-accuracy dual-frequency measurements. Engineers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and ITT teamed to reprogram FPGA firmware and add tracking software on an orbiting receiver to track the new GPS L2C signal from SAC-C. SAC-C is an Argentinean science satellite and was launched in November 2000 with a BlackJack GPS receiver. This is a dual-frequency digital receiver with 48 tracking channels and four antennas. On SAC-C, it provides precise orbits, atmospheric occultation data, tests of GPS surface reflections, and serves as an orbiting test bed for new GPS development such as the L2C tracking reported here.

Meehan, Tom K.; Robison, David; Munson, Tim N.; Young, Larry E.; Stoyanov, Stephen

2006-01-01

347

Mammalian DIS3L2 exoribonuclease targets the uridylated precursors of let-7 miRNAs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mechanisms of gene expression regulation by miRNAs have been extensively studied. However, the regulation of miRNA function and decay has long remained enigmatic. Only recently, 3' uridylation via LIN28A-TUT4/7 has been recognized as an essential component controlling the biogenesis of let-7 miRNAs in stem cells. Although uridylation has been generally implicated in miRNA degradation, the nuclease responsible has remained unknown. Here, we identify the Perlman syndrome-associated protein DIS3L2 as an oligo(U)-binding and processing exoribonuclease that specifically targets uridylated pre-let-7 in vivo. This study establishes DIS3L2 as the missing component of the LIN28-TUT4/7-DIS3L2 pathway required for the repression of let-7 in pluripotent cells. PMID:24141620

Ustianenko, Dmytro; Hrossova, Dominika; Potesil, David; Chalupnikova, Katerina; Hrazdilova, Kristyna; Pachernik, Jiri; Cetkovska, Katerina; Uldrijan, Stjepan; Zdrahal, Zbynek; Vanacova, Stepanka

2013-12-01

348

Sturmian projection and an L2 discretization of three-body continuum effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper investigates the ability of an L2 discretization procedure to approximate three-body continuum effects using a finite dimensional Sturmian basis. The approximation is tested in three-body connected kernel equations of the Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas--type. The numerical accuracy of the approximate L2 discretized equations is tested by solving a model problem of three bosons interacting via S-wave nonseparable potentials. The potentials are either an attractive Yukawa function, or a sum of two Yukawa functions, one attractive and one repulsive. Numerical results are compared with those of three-body calculations for energies below the breakup threshold. It is found that three-body, connected kernel equations respond remarkably well to the L2 discretization procedure both on and off shell

349

Comprensión auditiva en inglés como L2: Efecto de la instrucción explícita de estrategias metacognitivas para su desarrollo ESL listening comprehension: Effect of explicit metacognitive strategy training for its development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio cuasiexperimental fue determinar la importancia que tiene la instrucción explícita del uso de estrategias metacognitivas de planificación, monitoreo y evaluación en la comprensión auditiva de estudiantes universitarios de inglés como L2 en tres niveles de desarrollo de la lengua. Los resultados sugieren que la instrucción explícita de este tipo de estrategias contribuye a una comprensión auditiva más efectiva y, por lo tanto, debería ser integrada a los programas regulares de instrucción en L2.The purspose of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate the effect of explicit instruction in the use of metacognitive strategies of planning, monitoring and evaluation on the listening performance of university ESL students in three competence levels. The study suggests that explicit metacognitive strategy training results in more effective L2 listening comprehension and, thus, it should be an integral part of any ESL learning program.

LILIAN GÓMEZ ÁLVAREZ

2012-01-01

350

An Experimental Study on the Effects of Different Reading Tasks on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This empirical study was undertaken to test the Involvement Load Hypothesis (Laufer and Hulstijn, 2001 by examining the impact of three tasks on vocabulary acquisition. It was designed to test and develop the involvement load hypothesis by examining the impact of different reading tasks on the L2 vocabulary acquisition. The results show that reading tasks could facilitate L2 vocabulary acquisition. The hypothesis is basically supported, but it is expected that it will be further improved and needs some modifications. Furthermore, the results also indicate that using new words in contextualized communication is an efficient means to extend and consolidate learners’ vocabulary acquisition.

Jianping Xu

2009-08-01

351

On the asymptotic expansion of the curvature of perturbations of the $L_{2}$ connection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We establish that the Hitchin connection is a perturbation of the $L_{2}$-connection. We notice that such a formulation of the Hitchin connection does not necessarily require the manifold in question possessing a rigid family of Kähler structures. We then proceed to calculate the asymptotic expansion of general perturbations of the $L_{2}$-connection, and see when under certain assumptions such perturbations are flat and projectively flat. During the calculations we also found an asymptotic expansion of the projection operator $\\pi_{\\sigma}^{\\left(k\\right)}$ which projects onto the holomorphic sections of the k-th tensor of prequantum line bundle.

De, Amit

2013-01-01

352

Based on combination of L2TP and IPSec VPN security technology research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This report is written to provide a method of building secure VPN by combination of L2TP and IPSec in order to meet the requirements of secure transmission of data and improve the VPN security technology. It remedies the secured short comes of L2TP Tunneling Protocol Tunneling Protocol and IPSec security. Simulation and analysis show that the construction method can improve the security of data transmission, and the simulation results of VPN is valuable for security professionals to refer.

Ya-qin Fan

2012-01-01

353

Association between TCF7L2 Genotype and Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients Treated with Gliclazide  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies showed associations between variants in TCF7L2 gene and the therapeutic response to sulfonylureas. All sulfonylureas stimulate insulin secretion by the closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel. The aim of the present study was to compare TCF7L2 genotype specific effect of gliclazide binding to KATP channel A-site (Group 1) with sulfonylureas binding to AB-site (Group 2). A total of 101 patients were treated with sulfonylureas for 6 months as an add-on therapy to the ...

Martin Javorský; Eva Babjaková; Amp Xe Kov Amp Xe, Lucia Klim Amp X. D.; Zbynek Schroner; Idzik, Jozef Amp X. D.; Tolfov Amp Xe, M. Amp Xe Ria Amp X.; Ján Šalagovi?; Ivan Tká?

2013-01-01

354

Vaccination of cattle with bovine papillomavirus type 4 L2 elicits the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prophylactic vaccination of cattle with the N terminus (L2a, aa 11-200) of the minor capsid protein L2 completely prevented bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) infection of the alimentary canal. To investigate the mechanisms underlying protection from viral infection, sera from vaccinated animals were analysed in neutralization assays both in the nude mouse xenograft system and in cattle. BPV-4 retained its infectivity when incubated with preimmune cattle sera, whereas, when incubated with immune sera from animals vaccinated with either whole L2 or its N terminus L2a, its infectivity was greatly reduced, indicating that the immune sera had neutralizing activity against the virus. This activity could be abrogated by absorbing the immune sera with L2 or L2a, thus indicating that virus neutralization was due to the presence in the immune sera of anti-L2 antibodies. PMID:8758002

Gaukroger, J M; Chandrachud, L M; O'Neil, B W; Grindlay, G J; Knowles, G; Campo, M S

1996-07-01

355

The Impact of an Online Learning Community Project on University Chinese as a Foreign Language Students' Motivation  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the impact of an online learning community project on university students' motivation in learning Chinese as a foreign language. A newly proposed second language (L2) motivation theory--the L2 motivational self system (Dornyei, 2005, 2009)--guided this study. A concurrent transformative mixed-methods design was employed to…

Cai, Shengrong; Zhu, Wei

2012-01-01

356

COMPREENSÃO DE EXPRESSÕES IDIOMÁTICAS DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA COMO L2: EVIDÊNCIAS DE PROTOCOLOS VERBAIS / Understanding Portuguese idiomatic expressions as L2: evidence of verbal protocols / Comprensión de Expresiones Idiomáticas de la Lengua Portuguesa como L2: evidencias de protocolos verbales  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo relata um estudo cujo objetivo foi investigar em que medida os processos cognitivos utilizados por cinco falantes de português como L2 para compreender dez expressões idiomáticas (EIs) de forma descontextualizada seriam similares aos utilizados para a compreensão das mesmas expressões em [...] contexto. A análise dos dados, coletados por meio de protocolos verbais retrospectivos e de pausa, revelou que o uso de analogia e associações a partir de conhecimentos prévios foi a estratégia preferencial para as EIs descontextualizadas, enquanto o uso de indícios microtextuais foi a mais empregada nas EIs em contexto. Além disso, os dados apontaram para uma aproximação apenas parcial dos processos cognitivos empregados pelos participantes nos dois contextos de atribuição de significado a novas EIs. Os resultados são avaliados com base em Liontas (2001, 2002), Polónia (2009) e Sadeghi, Dastjerd e Ketabi (2010). Abstract in spanish Este artículo expone un estudio cuyo objetivo fue investigar en qué medida los procesos cognitivos utilizados por cinco hablantes de portugués como L2 para comprender diez expresiones idiomáticas (EIs) de manera descontextualizada podrían ser similares a aquellos utilizados para la comprensión de la [...] s mismas expresiones en contexto. El análisis de datos, recogidos por medio de protocolos verbales retrospectivos y de pausa, reveló que el uso de analogía y asociaciones desde conocimientos previos fue la estrategia preferencial para las EIs descontextualizadas, mientras el uso de indicios micro textuales fue la más empleada en las EIs en contexto. Además, los datos apuntaran para una aproximación solamente parcial de los procesos cognitivos empleados por los participantes en los dos contextos de atribución de significado para nuevas EIs. Los resultados son evaluados con base en Liontas (2001, 2002), Polónia (2009) e Sadeghi, Dastjerd e Ketabi (2010). Abstract in english A report is presented on a study that aimed at investigating to what extent the cognitive processes used by five Portuguese L2 speakers to understand ten idiomatic phrases (EIs) in a decontextualized way would be similar to those used for the understanding of the same phrases in a context. The analy [...] sis of the data, collected by means of retrospective verbal protocols and protocols of pause, revealed that the use of analogy and associations based on previous knowledge was the preferential strategy for the decontextualized idiomatic phrases, while the use of microtextual signs was the most used one in those EIs on a context. In addition, the data pointed to an approximation only partial of the cognitive processes used by the participants in both contexts of attribution of meaning to new EIs. The results are assessed based on Liontas (2001, 2002), Polónia (2009) and Sadeghi, Dastjerd and Ketabi (2010).

Alessandra, Baldo.

2014-05-01

357

The Symmetry Group of Gaussian States in $L^2 (\\mathbb{R}^n)$  

CERN Document Server

This is a continuation of the expository article \\cite{krp} with some new remarks. Let $S_n$ denote the set of all Gaussian states in the complex Hilbert space $L^2 (\\mathbb{R}^n),$ $K_n$ the convex set of all momentum and position covariance matrices of order $2n$ in Gaussian states and let $\\mathcal{G}_n$ be the group of all unitary operators in $L^2 (\\mathbb{R}^n)$ conjugations by which leave $S_n$ invariant. Here we prove the following results. $K_n$ is a closed convex set for which a matrix $S$ is an extreme point if and only if $S=\\frac{1}{2} L^{T} L$ for some $L$ in the symplectic group $Sp (2n, \\mathbb{R}).$ Every element in $K_n$ is of the form $\\frac{1}{2} (L^{T} L + M^{T} M)$ for some $L,M$ in $Sp (2n, \\mathbb{R}).$ Every Gaussian state in $L^2 (\\mathbb{R}^n)$ can be purified to a Gaussian state in $L^2 (\\mathbb{R}^{2n}).$ Any element $U$ in the group $\\mathcal{G}_n$ is of the form $U = \\lambda W ({\\bm {\\alpha}}) \\Gamma (L)$ where $\\lambda$ is a complex scalar of modulus unity, ${\\bm {\\alpha}} \\in ...

Parthasarathy, K R

2011-01-01

358

Nuclear fuel rod behavior during LOFT experiment L2-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor is providing data to evaluate analytical models to predict the thermal-hydraulic and fuel rod response of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. The fuel rod response for the first nuclear loss-of-coolant experiment (LOCE), LOCE L2-2, is summarized

359

Partial Word Knowledge: Frontier Words in the L2 Mental Lexicon  

Science.gov (United States)

The study set out to examine the partial word knowledge of native speakers, L2 advanced, and intermediate learners of English with regard to four word features from Richards' (1976) taxonomy of aspects describing what knowing a word entails. To capture partial familiarity, the participants completed in writing a test containing low and mid…

Zareva, Alla

2012-01-01

360

Questioning English Standards: Learner Attitudes and L2 Choices in Norway  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates attitudes towards varieties of English among Norwegian adolescent learners and assesses the role of social evaluation for second language (L2) pronunciation choices by combining a verbal guise test with speaker commentary and reports of language choices. The results suggest that while American English is the most accessible…

Rindal, Ulrikke

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Gender Differences in Compulsory School Pupils' L2 Self-Concepts: A Longitudinal Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing on personality psychology research, Dornyei and his colleagues have recently developed an approach to understanding L2 motivation that positions the learner's self-recognition as a potential communicator in another language at its core, thus marking a break from the established social psychology paradigm. In this article it is argued that,…

Henry, Alastair

2009-01-01

362

A characteristic description of orthonormal wavelet on subspace LE2(R) of L2(R)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The exceptional Lie groups are applicable to nature because nature is essentially a Cantorian and hierarchal fractal with an octionic connection. In this paper, inspired by these theory, a characterization of orthonormal wavelet on subspace LE2(R) of L2(R) is given. The result covers known conclusion on Hardy space H2(R).

363

Cultural Familiarity in Inferential and Literal Comprehension in L2 Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores the role of culturally familiar background knowledge in inferential and literal comprehension in L2 reading. Ninety-eight Turkish EFL (English as a Foreign Language) university students were divided into two groups of equivalent English proficiency. They read either the original of an American short story or a "nativized"…

Alptekin, Cem

2006-01-01

364

Pesquisa linguística e ensino do português L2 : potencialidades das taxonomias de erros  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As far as I know, most of the programs and teaching materials for L2 learners do not incorporate their specific difficulties in a systematic way.One reason for this seems to be the lack of consistent descriptions of learners’ grammatical knowledge in the different stages of their linguistic development. This study illustrates the potential of linguistic research for the identification and description of “resistant” grammatical features and rules captured in written productions of Portuguese L2 advanced learners. of interlanguage grammars, mentioning briefly some taxonomies of errors of Portuguese L2 already available. Afterwards, taking a written corpus produced by Mozambican university students as the empirical basis, I present two case studies which show how a deeper analysis of the errors makes it possible not only narrowing their scope, but also providing more consistent data for planning teaching of Portuguese L2 to these advanced learners. Finally, I alert to the limits faced when analyzing some types of errors in formal education settings in multilingual communities where new varieties of Portuguese are emerging

Perpétua Gonçalves

2007-01-01

365

The Multiple Grammars Theory and the Nature of L2 Grammars  

Science.gov (United States)

This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammar (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue and touches on other second language acquisition research. Topics discussed include the concept of second language (L2) optionality, a hypothesis regarding the acquisition of the…

Liceras, Juana M.

2014-01-01

366

Using Songs to Enhance L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Preschool Children  

Science.gov (United States)

This article looks at the effects of a teaching sequence of song-based activities on the L2 vocabulary acquisition of a group of five-year-old Spanish child EFL learners. Twenty-five preschool children received three 30-minute lessons organized around the presentation and practice of a well-known children's song. Vocabulary picture tests were…

Coyle, Yvette; Gómez Gracia, Remei

2014-01-01

367

Time transfer by laser link (T2L2): characterization and calibration of the flight instrument  

Science.gov (United States)

The T2L2 project (time transfer by laser link) allows for the synchronization of remote ultra-stable clocks over intercontinental distances (Fridelance et al 1997 Exp. Astron. 7, Samain and Fridelance 1998 Metrologia 35 151-9). The principle is derived from satellite laser ranging technology with dedicated space equipment designed to record arrival times of laser pulses at the satellite. The space segment has been launched in June 2008 as a passenger experiment on the ocean altimetry satellite Jason 2. T2L2 had been specified to yield a time stability of better than 1 ps over 1000 s integration time and an accuracy of better than 100 ps. This level of performance requires a rigorous data processing which can be performed only with a comprehensive calibration model of the whole instrumentation. For this purpose, several experimental measurements have been performed before and during the integration phase of the T2L2 space instrument. This instrument model is one of the cornerstones of the data reduction process which is carried out to translate the raw information to a usable picosecond time transfer. After providing a global synopsis of the T2L2 space instrument, the paper gives a description of the experimental setup for the instrument characterization. It then details the different contributions within the calibration model and concludes with an applied example of a space to ground time transfer.

Samain, E.; Vrancken, P.; Guillemot, P.; Fridelance, P.; Exertier, P.

2014-10-01

368

The role of bosons of L > 2 in the Interacting Boson Model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since the original Interacting Boson Model (IBM) of Arima and Iachello is a low-excitation model, there are a number of nuclear excitation modes, which lie outside this basic model. The role of bosons of L > 2 in describing several of these modes is discussed, with emphasis given to L=3 (f) and L=4 (g) bosons

369

Should We Use Characteristics of Conversation to Measure Grammatical Complexity in L2 Writing Development?  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies of L2 writing development usually measure T-units and clausal subordination to assess grammatical complexity, assuming that increased subordination is typical of advanced writing. In this article we challenge this practice by showing that these measures are much more characteristic of conversation than academic writing. The article begins…

Biber, Douglas; Gray, Bethany; Poonpon, Kornwipa

2011-01-01

370

Context Effects in the Processing of Phonolexical Ambiguity in L2  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to comprehend speech, listeners have to combine low-level phonetic information about the incoming auditory signal with higher-order contextual information to make a lexical selection. This requires stable phonological categories and unambiguous representations of words in the mental lexicon. Unlike native speakers, second language (L2)…

Chrabaszcz, Anna; Gor, Kira

2014-01-01

371

The Effects of Practice Modality on Pragmatic Development in L2 Chinese  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of input-based and output-based practice on the development of accuracy and speed in recognizing and producing request-making forms in L2 Chinese. Fifty American learners of Chinese with intermediate level proficiency were randomly assigned to an input-based training group, an output-based training group, or a…

Li, Shuai; Taguchi, Naoko

2014-01-01

372

Towards Respecification of Communicative Competence: Condition of L2 Instruction or Its Objective?  

Science.gov (United States)

The concept of "communicative competence" is one of the most influential theoretical developments in language education as it helped redefine the objectives of L2 instruction and the target language proficiency. While acknowledging these contributions, this paper asks if the conceptual formulation of "communicative competence" has other…

Lee, Yo-An

2006-01-01

373

A Critical Review of ERP and fMRI Evidence on L2 Syntactic Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

The current review focuses on recent event-related brain potential (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in L2 syntactic processing data. To this end, critical factors influencing both the dynamics of neural mechanisms (ERPs) and critical functional brain correlates (fMRI) are discussed. These entail the critical period…

Kotz, Sonja A.

2009-01-01

374

Administration of L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate increases glutathione levels in rat brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sterile L-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate, given as a neutral 100 mmol solution at a dose of 8 mmol/kg subcutaneously, caused an increase in total glutathione concentration in the brain of treated rats. This finding could be important in understanding the role of glutathione in the central nervous system. PMID:2924114

Mesina, J E; Page, R H; Hetzel, F W; Chopp, M

1989-01-23

375

The Unfairness of Equal Treatment: Objectivity in L2 Testing and Dynamic Assessment  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper considers dynamic assessment (DA) as it relates to second language (L2) development. DA is grounded in Vygotsky's (1987) sociocultural theory of mind, which holds that human consciousness emerges as a result of participation in culturally organized social activities where mediation plays a key role in guiding development. In DA, the…

Lantolf, James P.; Poehner, Matthew E.

2013-01-01

376

Comparing Foreign Accent in L1 Attrition and L2 Acquisition: Range and Rater Effects  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the methodology of global foreign accent ratings in studies on L2 speech production. In three experiments, we test how variation in raters, range within speech samples, as well as instructions and procedures affects ratings of accent in predominantly monolingual speakers of German, non-native speakers of German, as well as…

Schmid, Monika S.; Hopp, Holger

2014-01-01

377

Cognate effects in sentence context depend on word class, L2 proficiency, and task.  

Science.gov (United States)

Noun translation equivalents that share orthographic and semantic features, called "cognates", are generally recognized faster than translation equivalents without such overlap. This cognate effect, which has also been obtained when cognates and noncognates were embedded in a sentence context, emerges from the coactivation of representations in two languages. The present study examined whether cognate facilitation in sentences is subject to effects of word class, reading proficiency in a second language (L2), and task demands. We measured eye movements (Experiment 1) and self-paced reading times (Experiment 2) for Dutch-English bilinguals reading L2 sentences that contained either a noun or a verb cognate. Results showed that cognate effects were smaller for verbs than for nouns. Furthermore, cognate facilitation was reduced for readers with a higher proficiency in L2 as expressed by self-ratings or reading speed in L2. Additionally, the results of the eye-movement study and the self-paced reading study indicated that the likelihood of observing cognate facilitation effects also depends on task demands. The obtained pattern of results helps to identify some of the boundaries of the cognate effect. PMID:24295513

Bultena, Sybrine; Dijkstra, Ton; van Hell, Janet G

2014-01-01

378

Nuclear fuel rod behavior during LOFT experiment L2-2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program is providing data to evaluate analytical models used to predict the thermal-hydraulic and fuel rod response of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) under loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. The fuel rod response for the first nuclear loss-of-coolant experiment (LOCE), LOCE L2-2, is summarized.

Tolman, E. L.; Niebruegge, D. A.; Prassinos, P. G.

1979-01-01

379

L2 Earth atmosphere observatory : formation guidance, metrology, and control synthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper discusses the results of research sponsored by the NASA Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) program, and includes the synthesis and analysis of the guidance, metrology and control for a two-spacecraft formation in a unique continuously powered orbit near the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point observing the illuminated atmosphere of the Earth while it is continuously occulting the Sun.

Acikmese, Behcet A.; Mettler, Edward; Breckenridge, William G.; Macenka, Steven A.; Tubbs, Eldred F.

2004-01-01

380

L1/L2/L3 Writing Development: Longitudinal Case Study of a Japanese Multicompetent Writer  

Science.gov (United States)

This longitudinal case study, supplemented by cross-sectional comparisons among five groups of writers with differing backgrounds, investigates how Natsu, a Japanese multilingual writer, developed her L1, L2 (English), and L3 (Chinese) writing competence over two and a half years. To create a comprehensive picture of this multilingual writer, the…

Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Association between TCF7L2 Genotype and Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients Treated with Gliclazide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies showed associations between variants in TCF7L2 gene and the therapeutic response to sulfonylureas. All sulfonylureas stimulate insulin secretion by the closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel. The aim of the present study was to compare TCF7L2 genotype specific effect of gliclazide binding to KATP channel A-site (Group 1) with sulfonylureas binding to AB-site (Group 2). A total of 101 patients were treated with sulfonylureas for 6 months as an add-on therapy to the previous metformin treatment. TCF7L2 rs7903146 C/T genotype was identified by real-time PCR with subsequent melting curve analysis. Analyses using the dominant genetic model showed significantly higher effect of gliclazide in the CC genotype group in comparison with combined CT + TT genotype group (1.32 ± 0.15% versus 0.73 ± 0.11%, P (adj) = 0.005). No significant difference in ?HbA1c between the patients with CC genotype and the T-allele carriers was observed in Group 2. In the multivariate analysis, only the TCF7L2 genotype (P = 0.006) and the baseline HbA1c (P gliclazide than in patients treated with glimepiride, glibenclamide, or glipizide. PMID:23509454

Javorský, Martin; Babjaková, Eva; Klim?áková, Lucia; Schroner, Zbynek; Zidzik, Jozef; Stolfová, Mária; Salagovi?, Ján; Tká?, Ivan

2013-01-01

382

The Impact of the Webcam on an Online L2 Interaction  

Science.gov (United States)

It is intuitively felt that visual cues should enhance online communication, and this experimental study aims to test this prediction by exploring the value provided by a webcam in an online L2 pedagogical teacher-to-learner interaction. A total of 40 French undergraduate students with a B2 level in English were asked to describe in English four…

Guichon, Nicolas; Cohen, Cathy

2014-01-01

383

Raman scattering of SHF radiation during ECR heating of a plasma in the L-2 Stellarator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Frequency spectra of SHF radiation during ECR plasma heating in the L-2 stellarator are investigated experimentally. The obtained spectra are broadened both towards higher and lower frequencies and they have satellites shifted towards the main EC frequency. The shape of the sectrum reveals pumping wave scattering on LF-oscillations, the frequencies of which correspond to the range of collisionless drift waves

384

Monoallelic and biallelic mutations in MAB21L2 cause a spectrum of major eye malformations.  

Science.gov (United States)

We identified four different missense mutations in the single-exon gene MAB21L2 in eight individuals with bilateral eye malformations from five unrelated families via three independent exome sequencing projects. Three mutational events altered the same amino acid (Arg51), and two were identical de novo mutations (c.151C>T [p.Arg51Cys]) in unrelated children with bilateral anophthalmia, intellectual disability, and rhizomelic skeletal dysplasia. c.152G>A (p.Arg51His) segregated with autosomal-dominant bilateral colobomatous microphthalmia in a large multiplex family. The fourth heterozygous mutation (c.145G>A [p.Glu49Lys]) affected an amino acid within two residues of Arg51 in an adult male with bilateral colobomata. In a fifth family, a homozygous mutation (c.740G>A [p.Arg247Gln]) altering a different region of the protein was identified in two male siblings with bilateral retinal colobomata. In mouse embryos, Mab21l2 showed strong expression in the developing eye, pharyngeal arches, and limb bud. As predicted by structural homology, wild-type MAB21L2 bound single-stranded RNA, whereas this activity was lost in all altered forms of the protein. MAB21L2 had no detectable nucleotidyltransferase activity in vitro, and its function remains unknown. Induced expression of wild-type MAB21L2 in human embryonic kidney 293 cells increased phospho-ERK (pERK1/2) signaling. Compared to the wild-type and p.Arg247Gln proteins, the proteins with the Glu49 and Arg51 variants had increased stability. Abnormal persistence of pERK1/2 signaling in MAB21L2-expressing cells during development is a plausible pathogenic mechanism for the heterozygous mutations. The phenotype associated with the homozygous mutation might be a consequence of complete loss of MAB21L2 RNA binding, although the cellular function of this interaction remains unknown. PMID:24906020

Rainger, Joe; Pehlivan, Davut; Johansson, Stefan; Bengani, Hemant; Sanchez-Pulido, Luis; Williamson, Kathleen A; Ture, Mehmet; Barker, Heather; Rosendahl, Karen; Spranger, Jürgen; Horn, Denise; Meynert, Alison; Floyd, James A B; Prescott, Trine; Anderson, Carl A; Rainger, Jacqueline K; Karaca, Ender; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Jhangiani, Shalini; Muzny, Donna M; Seawright, Anne; Soares, Dinesh C; Kharbanda, Mira; Murday, Victoria; Finch, Andrew; Gibbs, Richard A; van Heyningen, Veronica; Taylor, Martin S; Yakut, Tahsin; Knappskog, Per M; Hurles, Matthew E; Ponting, Chris P; Lupski, James R; Houge, Gunnar; FitzPatrick, David R

2014-06-01

385

Mechanism of Dis3l2 substrate recognition in the Lin28-let-7 pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pluripotency factor Lin28 inhibits the biogenesis of the let-7 family of mammalian microRNAs. Lin28 is highly expressed in embryonic stem cells and has a fundamental role in regulation of development, glucose metabolism and tissue regeneration. Overexpression of Lin28 is correlated with the onset of numerous cancers, whereas let-7, a tumour suppressor, silences several human oncogenes. Lin28 binds to precursor let-7 (pre-let-7) hairpins, triggering the 3' oligo-uridylation activity of TUT4 and TUT7 (refs 10-12). The oligoU tail added to pre-let-7 serves as a decay signal, as it is rapidly degraded by Dis3l2 (refs 13, 14), a homologue of the catalytic subunit of the RNA exosome. The molecular basis of Lin28-mediated recruitment of TUT4 and TUT7 to pre-let-7 and its subsequent degradation by Dis3l2 is largely unknown. To examine the mechanism of Dis3l2 substrate recognition we determined the structure of mouse Dis3l2 in complex with an oligoU RNA to mimic the uridylated tail of pre-let-7. Three RNA-binding domains form an open funnel on one face of the catalytic domain that allows RNA to navigate a path to the active site different from that of its exosome counterpart. The resulting path reveals an extensive network of uracil-specific interactions spanning the first 12 nucleotides of an oligoU-tailed RNA. We identify three U-specificity zones that explain how Dis3l2 recognizes, binds and processes uridylated pre-let-7 in the final step of the Lin28-let-7 pathway. PMID:25119025

Faehnle, Christopher R; Walleshauser, Jack; Joshua-Tor, Leemor

2014-10-01

386

The L2 Passionate Interactional Imperative (for short “The L2 Pie”): It’s Hot or It’s Not!  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At the American Association of Applied Linguistics (AAAL) 2011 conference, John Schumann described how Lee, Dina, Joaquin, Mates & Schumann’s (2010) interactional instinct unfolds between infants and caregivers such that learning an L1 is assured in normal development through emotional bonding between infants and caregivers which is substantiated by motivation, proficiency, and opportunities (all co-constructing concepts). In subsequent second language learning at an older age, these three ...

Tim Murphey

2011-01-01

387

Soft morphological image resizing  

Science.gov (United States)

One important problem in computer vision and image processing is image resizing. Current techniques are generally based on different interpolation methods. These methods are convenient but the downsampled or upsampled image will include new gray values which are not present in the original image. Soft morphological interpolation is a new technique for resampling discrete data. The soft morphological operations are an alternative to the standard morphological operation. The generic description of hierarchical soft morphological transformations was done previously. The further development of soft morphological operations by a hierarchical structural system uses the relaxation of the requirement that the result of the operation must be the r-th largest or smallest value of the corresponding multiset, where r is an order index of the internal hard center. We will assume that any reasonable integer value is acceptable. The purpose of this paper is to derive the sot morphological convolution and compare the result of this convolution with the cubic convolution and Gaussian pyramid.

Maltseff, Pavel A.

1997-04-01

388

Morphology of galaxies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study of the morphology of galaxies is important in order to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies and their sub-components as a function of luminosity, environment, and star-formation and galaxy assembly over cosmic time. Disentangling the many variables that affect galaxy evolution and morphology, requires large galaxy samples and automated ways to measure morphology. The advent of large digital sky surveys, with unprecedented depth and resolution, coupled...

Wadadekar, Yogesh

2012-01-01

389

Morphology of galaxies  

CERN Document Server

The study of the morphology of galaxies is important in order to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies and their sub-components as a function of luminosity, environment, and star-formation and galaxy assembly over cosmic time. Disentangling the many variables that affect galaxy evolution and morphology, requires large galaxy samples and automated ways to measure morphology. The advent of large digital sky surveys, with unprecedented depth and resolution, coupled with sophisticated quantitative methods for morphology measurement are providing new insights in this fast evolving field of astronomical research.

Wadadekar, Yogesh

2012-01-01

390

Requirements for an "Ideal" Bilingual L1 ?L2 Translation- Oriented Dictionary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Abstract: The major aim of this article is to outline the requirements for an "ideal" bilingualL1 ?L2 dictionary of the general vocabulary specifically designed for the purposes of professionaltranslation. The article challenges three commonly accepted beliefs: (a a bilingual dictionaryequals a translation dictionary; (b a bilingual dictionary is a source of immediately insertable lexicalequivalents of lemmata; and (c a bilingual dictionary solely furnishes semantic-pragmaticequivalents, whereas a monolingual dictionary always defines meanings of lexical items. It hasbeen claimed that bilingual lexicography should be based on a clear-cut conception of the futurereference work specified in terms of lexicographic parameters: (a the intended user group; (b thepurpose of the dictionary; etc. An "ideal" bilingual L1 ?L2 translation-oriented dictionary should bea reference work that is intended to serve the purpose of text production in L2. In the situation ofprofessional translation, L2 text production is subject to two types of constraints: (a constraintssuperimposed by the receptor language and culture; and (b constraints superimposed by thesource text. If constraints of the second type cannot be, in principle, envisaged, those of the firsttype can, and should be accounted for in a bilingual dictionary designed for the professionaltranslator. The article specifies some of the requirements for such a reference work.

Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, TRANSLATION DICTIONARY, SEMANTICPRAGMATICEQUIVALENCE, INTERLINGUAL EQUIVALENCE, INTRALINGUAL EQUIVALENCE,DEFINING TECHNIQUE, EQUIVALENCE DEFINITION, PERIPHRASTIC DEFINITION,EXPLANATORY DEFINITION, PROFESSIONAL TRANSLATION, TRANSLATION THEORY,UNIT OF TRANSLATION.

Opsomming: Vereistes vir 'n "ideale" tweetalige L1 ?L2- vertaal-georiënteerdewoordeboek. Die hoofdoel van hierdie artikel is om die vereistes te skets vir 'n L1 ?L2-woordeboek van die algemene woordeskat, spesifiek beplan vir die doeleindes van professionelevertaling. Die artikel weerlê drie algemeen aanvaarde opvattings: (a 'n tweetalige woordeboek isdieselfde as 'n vertaalwoordeboek; (b 'n tweetalige woordeboek is die bron van onmiddellik invoegbareleksikale ekwivalente van lemmata; en (c 'n tweetalige woordeboek verskaf uitsluitliksemanties-pragmatiese inligting, terwyl 'n eentalige woordeboek altyd betekenisse van leksikaleitems omskryf. Daar word beweer dat tweetalige leksikografie gebaseer behoort te wees op 'n duidelikomskrewe begrip van die toekomstige naslaanwerk, gespesifiseer in terme van leksikografieseparameters: (a die beoogde gebruikersgroep; (b die doel van die woordeboek; ens. 'n "Ideale"tweetalige L1 ?L2- vertaal-georiënteerde woordeboek behoort 'n naslaanwerk te wees wat beplan isom die doel van teksproduksie in L2 te dien. By die omstandigheid van professionele vertaling is L2-teksproduksie onderhewig aan twee soorte beperkings: (a beperkings opgelê deur die teikentaalen -kultuur; en (b beperkings opgelê deur die bronteks geskryf in L1. As beperkings van dietweede soort in beginsel nie voorsien kan word nie, kan en behoort dié van die eerste soortverantwoord te word in 'n tweetalige woordeboek wat vir die professionele vertaler beplan is. Dieartikel spesifiseer 'n aantal vereistes van so 'n naslaanwerk.

Sleutelwoorde: TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK, VERTAALWOORDEBOEK, SEMANTIESPRAGMATIESEEKWIVALENSIE, INTERLINGUALE EKWIVALENSIE, INTRALINGUALEEKWIVALENSIE, DEFINIEERTEGNIEK, EKWIVALENSIEDEFINISIE, PERIFRASTIESE DEFINISIE,VERKLARENDE DEFINISIE, PROFESSIONELE VERTALING, VERTAALTEORIE, VERTAALEENHEID

Igor Burkhanov

2011-10-01

391

The Effects of Task Characteristics on L2 Learners’ Production of Complex, Accurate, and Fluent Oral Language  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One recent fruitful development in the area of second language (L2) acquisition has been Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT). Consequently, L2 researchers have paid particular attention to the role that the employment of tasks plays in the development of interlanguage competence. Of particular interest have been the factors that increase the difficulty with which L2 learners perform and process pedagogical tasks. The present paper is an attempt to present a review of factors that have been fo...

Saeed Nourzadeh; Mansoor Fahim; Jalil Fat’hi

2011-01-01

392

Linear B-cell epitopes in the N-terminus of L2 of bovine papillomavirus type 4.  

Science.gov (United States)

The minor capsid protein L2 of bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) is a very effective prophylactic vaccine which induces the production of virus neutralising antibodies and prevents virus-induced papillomatosis. The virus neutralising activity resides in the first 200 N-terminal amino acids of L2 (L2a). To further investigate the humoral immune response to L2, and the role it plays during infection and in prophylactic vaccination, the presentation of B-cell linear epitopes of L2a has been analysed in calves infected with the virus but not vaccinated, and in calves vaccinated with virus, L2a or E7. Several B-cell epitopes have been identified in L2a by the use of overlapping peptides; the epitopes varied in the different groups of animals, indicating that the epitopes presented by denatured L2 are not presented by the virus, and that therefore, although responsible for L2 vaccine-induced immunity, they may play little role in naturally acquired immunity. PMID:9300551

Knowles, G; Grindlay, G J; Campo, M S; Chandrachud, L M; O'Neil, B W

1997-01-01

393

WRITING STRATEGIES IN L1 AND L2: ARE THERE DIFERENCES? Estratégias de escrita em L1 e L2: EXISTEM DIFERENÃ?AS? pesquisar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The following paper discusses the L1 and L2 writing strategies of a group of 'Licenciatura' Students. The in-class study focused on revision strategies. It was observed that in the L2, there was more revision at the lexical and sintactic level; whereas, in the L1, there was more revision at the level of the paragraph and idea organization. It was concluded, however, that more research needs to be done in this area in order to come to firmer conclusions. Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The following paper discusses the L1 and L2 writing strategies of a group of 'Licenciatura' Students. The in-class study focused on revision strategies. It was observed that in the L2, there was more revision at the lexical and sintactic level; whereas, in the L1, there was more revision at the level of the paragraph and idea organization. It was concluded, however, that more research needs to be done in this area in order to come to firmer conclusions. pesquisar Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The following paper discusses the L1 and L2 writing strategies of a group of 'Licenciatura' Students. The in-class study focused on revision strategies. It was observed that in the L2, there was more revision at the lexical and sintactic level; whereas, in the L1, there was more revision at the level of the paragraph and idea organization. It was concluded, however, that more research needs to be done in this area in order to come to firmer conclusions.

Dilys Karen Rees

1994-01-01

394

Acquisition of English Grammatical Morphology by Internationally Adopted Children from China  

Science.gov (United States)

Acquisition of English grammatical morphology was examined in five internationally adopted (IA) children from China (aged 0;10-1;1 at adoption) during the first three years' exposure to English to determine whether acquisition patterns were characteristic of child second language (L2) learners or monolingual first language (L1) learners.…

Pierce, Lara J.; Genesee, Fred; Paradis, Johanne

2013-01-01

395

Pre-LOCE thermal safety analysis of the LOFT reactor L2-2 experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study discusses the method of assuring adequate thermal safety margins for LOFT reactor operating conditions prior to a Loss of Coolant Experiment (LOCE). The L2-2 experiment, completed in December 1977, was the first large scale simulation of a LPWR double-ended pipe break. Test predictions and data analysis are only part of the LOFT effort. Also, adequate safety margins must be demonstrated for low flow conditions prior to a LOCE. This effort presents a unique problem because the initial LOCE test conditions require an operation with significant maximum linear heat generation rate (26.3 Kw/m for L2-2) with only 40% of normal core flow. The analysis logic is to assure adequate safety margin (ability to operate within acceptable consequence levels) by performing bounding calculations. With a few minor exceptions,no statistical combinations of uncertainties were made. Thus there is a high degree of confidence in the analyses conservatism

396

On stochastic modeling of the modernized global positioning system (GPS) L2C signal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In order to take full advantage of the modernized GPS L2C signal, it is essential that its stochastic characteristics and code bias be rigorously determined. In this paper, long sessions of GPS measurements are used to study the stochastic characteristics of the modernized GPS L2C signal. As a byproduct, the stochastic characteristics of the legacy GPS signals, namely C/A and P2 codes, are also determined, which are used to verify the developed stochastic model of the modernized signal. The differential code biases between P2 and C2, DCBP2-C2, are also estimated using the Bernese GPS software. It is shown that the developed models improved the precise point positioning (PPP) solution and convergence time

397

Ray tracing and absorption of electron cyclotron waves in the L-2 stellarator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The absorption of electron cyclotron waves in L-2 stellarator plasmas has been investigated by adapting the RAYS geometrical optics code developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to the parameters of L-2. Two heating schemes were considered: Low-field launching of the ordinary wave at the fundamental resonance and low-field launching of the extraordinary wave at the second harmonic. Significant power absorption (up to 100%) of the extraordinary mode at the second harmonic resonance was obtained. A multipass absorption model was used to estimate the contribution to plasma heating of the power that remains after the first pass which is subsequently reflected from the vessel walls. Finally, results obtained with the RAYS code and with a code developed at the Institute of Automation and Electrometry were compared and found to be in good agreement. 6 refs., 4 figs

398

Earth Shadows and the SEV Angle of MAP's Lissajous Orbit At L2  

Science.gov (United States)

The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) launched successfully on June 30, 2001 and is presently in a Lissajous orbit about the Sun-Earth libration point L2. To avoid Earth shadows at L2, the Sun-Earth-Vehicle (SEV) angle of MAP has to be greater than 0.5 deg for an extended mission of four years. An equation is derived for the SEV angle in terms of the phase angle, frequencies and amplitudes of the Lissajous. The SEV angle is shown to oscillate with a period of 90.4 days within an amplitude envelope of period 13.9 years. A range of phase angles that avoids shadows is identified. MAP'S present phase angle is within this range and will avoid shadows for approximately 5.8 years.

Edery, Ariel

2002-01-01

399

Frame properties of wave packet systes in L^2 (R^d)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Extending work by Hernandez, Labate and Weiss, we present a sufficent condition for a generalized shift-invariant system to be a Bessel sequence or even a frame forL(2)(R-d). In particular, this leads to a sufficient condition for a wave packet system to form a frame. On the other hand, we show that certain natural conditions on the parameters of such a system exclude the frame property.

Christensen, Ole; Rahimi, Asghar

2008-01-01

400

Low-frequency structural plasma turbulence in the L-2M stellarator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments in the L-2M stellarator have shown the occurrence of steady-state low-frequency strong structural (LFSS) turbulence throughout the entire plasma column. A key feature of LFSS turbulence is the presence of stochastic plasma structures. It is shown that different types of LFSS turbulence are correlated throughout the entire plasma volume. The LFSS turbulence is described by non-Gaussian probability densities. Modeling of the probability density distributions by scale mixtures of normal laws is considered. (author)

 
 
 
 
401

ISAR Image Formation Using Sequential Minimization of L0 and L2 Norms  

CERN Document Server

A sparsity-driven algorithm of inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging is proposed. Based on the parametric sparse representation of the received ISAR signal, the problem of ISAR image formation is converted into the joint estimation of the target rotation rate and the sparse power distribution in the spatial domain. This goal is achieved by sequential minimization of L0 and L2 norms, which ensure the sparsest ISAR image and the minimum recovery error, respectively.

Li, Gang; Wang, Xiqin; Xia, Xiang-Gen

2012-01-01

402

The Relationship between Reading Comprehension and Figurative Competence in L2 Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Though many L2 studies have explored the development of figurative language competence (e.g., Cain, Oakhill, & Lemmon, 2005; Li, 2010, few studies have examined the relationship between idiom comprehension and L2 learners’ reading comprehension in consonance with their proficiency levels. This study aimed at assessing the relationship between comprehending opaque and transparent idioms and L2 learners’ ability to comprehend a text. It was hypothesized that an L2 learner’s proficiency level and figurative competence were interwoven. To do so, 49 Iranian senior B.A. students of English were divided into 2 groups of skilled and less-skilled reading comprehenders in line with the results of a TOEFL test. They were presented with 30 short texts, ending with idiom fragments (e.g., Paul broke the . . . for the idiom to break the ice and asked to select the appropriate words from among the 3 options: idiomatic, literal, and figurative. Later, the same texts were given to 185 freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors to cross-examine their figurative competence. Results revealed that the skilled readers were superior to the less-skilled ones in comprehending both the opaque (F = 25.107, df = 48, ? = 0.05, p = 0.00 and the transparent idioms (F = 23.313, df = 48, ? = 0.05, p = 0.00. Also, from among the 4 university levels, the seniors’ performance differed greatly from that of the freshmen, sophomores, and juniors, who did all approximately the same on the idiom test (F = 38.909, df = 184, ? = 0.05, p = 0.00. Findings may contribute to exploring the process of idiom understanding by demonstrating a link between idiom comprehension and text comprehension. Thus, the growth of one might affect the progress of the other.

Sanaz Doroodi

2011-06-01

403

On the L2-rates of histograms and frequency polygons from sampled data  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we study some asymptotic properties for nonparametric density estimators based upon $n$ discretized observations $X_{t_{1}}$,...,$X_{t_{n}}$ of a weakly stationary continuous-time process. More precisely, we establish that histograms and frequency polygons can attain the same optimal $L_{2}$-rates as in the i.i.d. case. Moreover, if sample paths are sufficiently irregular, a ``parametric'' rate is even possible by using a suitable ``high frequency'' sampling design.

Lejeune, François-Xavier

2007-01-01

404

GPS L2C Signal Acquisition Algorithms for Resource-Limited Applications in Challenging Environments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many emerging indoor and wireless applications require the positioning capabilities of GPS. GPS signals, however, suffer from attenuations when they penetrate natural or manmade obstacles. Conventional GPS receivers are designed to detect signals when they have a clear view of the sky, but they fail to detect weak signals.