WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Phonological Bases for L2 Morphological Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2010-01-01

2

Planning, Recasts, and Learning of L2 Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated two issues: (1) whether availability of planning time affects learners' ability to notice and learn from recasts in the input; and (2) whether pre-task or online planning is more effective. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups that formed the treatment conditions: a no planning group (N = 13), a pre-task…

Romanova, Natalia

2010-01-01

3

Morphological Congruency and the Acquisition of L2 Morphemes  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the proposal that the presence of a similar morpheme in the learner's first and second languages (L2) facilitates morphological development in the L2. Advanced Russian and Japanese speakers of English as a second language performed a self-paced reading task in which they read English sentences word by word for…

Jiang, Nan; Novokshanova, Eugenia; Masuda, Kyoko; Wang, Xin

2011-01-01

4

Gaming as extramural English L2 learning and L2 proficiency among young learners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Today, playing digital games is an important part of many young people’s everyday lives. Claims have been made that certain games, in particular massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) provide L2 English learners with a linguistically rich and cognitively challenging virtual environment that may be conducive to L2 learning, as learners get ample opportunities for L2 input and scaffolded interaction in the L2. In this paper, we present empirical evidence that L2 English pro...

Sylve?n, Liss Kerstin; Sundqvist, Pia

2012-01-01

5

Input frequencies in processing of verbal morphology in L1 and L2: Evidence from Russian  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we take a usage-based perspective on the analysis of data from the acquisition of verbal morphology by Norwegian adult learners of L2 Russian, as compared to children acquiring Russian as an L1. According to the usage-based theories, language learning is input-driven and frequency of occurrence of grammatical structures and lexical items in the input plays a key role in this process. We have analysed to what extent the acquisition and processing of Russian verbal morphology by children and adult L2 learners is dependent on the input factors, in particular on type and token frequencies. Our analysis of the L2 input based on the written material used in the instruction shows a different distribution of frequencies as compared to the target language at large. The results of the tests that elicited present tense forms of verbs belonging to four different inflectional classes (-AJ-, -A-, -I-, and -OVA- have demonstrated that for both Russian children and L2 learners type frequency appears to be an important factor, influencing both correct stem recognition and generalisations. The results have also demonstrated token frequency effects. For L2 learners we observed also effects of formal instruction and greater reliance on morphological cues. In spite of the fact that L2 learners did not match completely any of the child groups, there are many similarities between L1 and L2 morphological processing, the main one being the role of frequency.

Tatiana Chernigovskaya

2011-02-01

6

The development of inflectional morphology in l2 acquisition: a cross-linguistic analysis The development of inflectional morphology in l2 acquisition: a cross-linguistic analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The development of several grammatical features among adult L2 (second language) learners (e.g., inflectional morphology) may be guided by strictly general cognitive processes (e.g., Bley-Vroman, 1989; Schmidt, 1990). For instance, Flynn and Manuel (1991) argue that general learning mechanisms — non-modular and unrelated to Universal Grammar (UG) — may determine the acquisition of “ peripheral" language phenomena: Many studies that argue for differences between the child...

Rafael Salaberry, M.

2008-01-01

7

Similarity and Difference in Learning L2 Word-Form  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explored similarity and difference in L2 written word-form learning from a cross-linguistic perspective. This study investigated whether learners' L1 orthographic background, which influences L2 visual word recognition (e.g., Wang et al., 2003), also influences L2 word-form learning, in particular, the sensitivity to phonological and…

Hamada, Megumi; Koda, Keiko

2011-01-01

8

Gaming as Extramural English L2 Learning and L2 Proficiency among Young Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

Today, playing digital games is an important part of many young people's everyday lives. Claims have been made that certain games, in particular massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) provide L2 English learners with a linguistically rich and cognitively challenging virtual environment that may be conducive to L2 learning, as…

Sylven, Liss Kerstin; Sundqvist, Pia

2012-01-01

9

The development of inflectional morphology in l2 acquisition: a cross-linguistic analysis The development of inflectional morphology in l2 acquisition: a cross-linguistic analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of several grammatical features among adult L2 (second language learners (e.g., inflectional morphology may be guided by strictly general cognitive processes (e.g., Bley-Vroman, 1989; Schmidt, 1990. For instance, Flynn and Manuel (1991 argue that general learning mechanisms — non-modular and unrelated to Universal Grammar (UG — may determine the acquisition of “ peripheral" language phenomena: Many studies that argue for differences between the child L1 learner and the adult L2 learner in ultimate attainment focus on surface aspects of L2 language knowledge connected to "periphery" of language knowledge (e.g., lexical or language-specific agreement phenomena rather than to the more abstract subsystems of principles and rules of UG. Similarly, Schwartz (1993, p. 159 claims that it is not arranted to extend the UG argument for the acquisition of syntax "to the other domains of the grammar, in particular to the lexicon and morphology (e.g., paradigms of inflection." Schwartz states further that inflectional endings are among the most difficult features of nonnative languages for adult learners: "highest amount of variability and lowest degree of success." Schwartz (1993, p. 160 speculates that "the syntax (being built on the basis of primary linguistic data continues to grow but the morphology seems to lag behind: learned linguistic knowledge, in this case inflectional verbal morphology, just cannot feed into the grammar." The development of several grammatical features among adult L2 (second language learners (e.g., inflectional morphology may be guided by strictly general cognitive processes (e.g., Bley-Vroman, 1989; Schmidt, 1990. For instance, Flynn and Manuel (1991 argue that general learning mechanisms — non-modular and unrelated to Universal Grammar (UG — may determine the acquisition of “ peripheral" language phenomena: Many studies that argue for differences between the child L1 learner and the adult L2 learner in ultimate attainment focus on surface aspects of L2 language knowledge connected to "periphery" of language knowledge (e.g., lexical or language-specific agreement phenomena rather than to the more abstract subsystems of principles and rules of UG. Similarly, Schwartz (1993, p. 159 claims that it is not arranted to extend the UG argument for the acquisition of syntax "to the other domains of the grammar, in particular to the lexicon and morphology (e.g., paradigms of inflection." Schwartz states further that inflectional endings are among the most difficult features of nonnative languages for adult learners: "highest amount of variability and lowest degree of success." Schwartz (1993, p. 160 speculates that "the syntax (being built on the basis of primary linguistic data continues to grow but the morphology seems to lag behind: learned linguistic knowledge, in this case inflectional verbal morphology, just cannot feed into the grammar."

M. Rafael Salaberry

2008-04-01

10

Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?  

Science.gov (United States)

References to the term "incidental vocabulary learning" have become very commonplace not only in second language (L2) acquisition research, but also in empirical research into second and foreign language pedagogy, very often in contrast to "intentional language learning". The former term is associated with more natural language learning, that is,…

Bruton, Anthony; Lopez, Miguel Garcia; Mesa, Raquel Esquiliche

2011-01-01

11

A Model of L2 Vocabulary Learning and Retention  

Science.gov (United States)

Vocabulary is an essential component of language. It is central to reading ability, writing ability and listening ability, and the most important aspect of second-language (L2) knowledge for academic achievement. The aim of this paper is to investigate quantitatively some of the factors that make some L2 words more difficult to learn and retain…

Willis, Martin; Ohashi, Yoshie

2012-01-01

12

Knowledge sources in L2 learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Should one bother to teach grammar to second language (L2) learners of English? The purpose of this article is to examine the hypothesis that there is an interface between explicit and implicit knowledge sources. Three groups of learners at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University were asked to articulate, first without a prompt and then with a prompt, the grammatical rules they were applying to correct common errors.  The test results suggest that there is a high correlat...

Diana Ayliff

2011-01-01

13

Knowledge sources in L2 learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Should one bother to teach grammar to second language (L2 learners of English? The purpose of this article is to examine the hypothesis that there is an interface between explicit and implicit knowledge sources. Three groups of learners at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University were asked to articulate, first without a prompt and then with a prompt, the grammatical rules they were applying to correct common errors.  The test results suggest that there is a high correlation between what they seemingly know implicitly and the hidden, possibly previously explicit knowledge source on which they are drawing.  The article concludes by discussing some of the theoretical implications of the research.

Diana Ayliff

2011-08-01

14

Relative Importance of Learning Variables on L2 Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this article, the results of a pilot study investigating the relative importance of various learner variables on L2 performance are presented. The study was conducted with the participation of forty students enrolled in a beginning Spanish class at a large midwestern university. The CANAL?S test, FLCAS and SILL surveys were administered to evaluate language learning aptitude, anxiety and learning strategy use. Demographic data and exam grades were also recorded. The data was first analyzed within the framework of a causal model with correlational and multiple regression analyses. A second step involved the evaluation of the relative importance of the learner variables. Third, the validity of the causality postulated between foreign language anxiety and L2 performance was examined. Overall, this paper confirmed the prevailing role played by language learning aptitude and anxiety, and demonstrated the applicability of a multivariate model to analyze the impact of individual differences on L2 performance.

Olivares-Cuhat, Gabriela

2010-01-01

15

Relative Importance of Learning Variables on L2 Performance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article, the results of a pilot study investigating the relative importance of various learner variables on L2 performance are presented. The study was conducted with the participation of forty students enrolled in a beginning Spanish class at a large midwestern university. The CANAL?S test, FLCAS and SILL surveys were administered to evaluate language learning aptitude, anxiety and learning strategy use. Demographic data and exam grades were also recorded. The data was first analyz...

Olivares-cuhat, Gabriela

2010-01-01

16

Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee

2013-01-01

17

Anonymity and Motivation in Asynchronous Discussions and L2 Vocabulary Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates L2 attainment in asynchronous online environments, specifically possible relationships among anonymity, L2 motivation, participation in discussions, quality of L2 production, and success in L2 vocabulary learning. It examines, in asynchronous discussions, (a) if participation and (b) motivation contribute to L2 vocabulary…

Polat, Nihat; Mancilla, Rae; Mahalingappa, Laura

2013-01-01

18

A reappraisal of motivation: the cornerstone of L2 learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article is aimed at increasing teacher awareness of the most relevant issues involved in motivation. It examines the importance of motivation in L2 learning, its types and sources, as well as detailing the various factors which influence it. Its focus is twofold, in that it concentrates not only on the student but also on the teacher, using authoritative sources to back up its line of argument. It aims at both clarifying the role of teachers in student motivation and the importance of...

Castro Calvi?n, Jose?

1991-01-01

19

Extracting Phonological Patterns for L2 Word Learning: The Effect of Poor Phonological Awareness  

Science.gov (United States)

An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2014-01-01

20

Enhancing L2 Students' Listening Transcription Ability through a Focus on Morphological Awareness  

Science.gov (United States)

Morphological awareness (MA), defined as the ability to understand the morphemic structure of the words, has been reported to affect various aspects of second language performance including reading comprehension ability, spelling performance, etc. But the concept has been far less treated with reference to l2 listening. Against this background,…

Karimi, Mohammad Nabi

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Implicit learning of L2 word stress rules  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

?In the past few decades, cognitive psychologists and linguists have shown increasing research interest in the phenomenon of implicit learning, a term generally defined as learning of regularities in the environment without intention and awareness. Some psychologists regard implicit learning as the primary mechanism for knowledge attainment and language acquisition (Reber, 1993), whereas others deny the possibility of learning even simple contingencies in an implicit manner (Lovibond and Sh...

Chan, Rkw; Leung, J.

2012-01-01

22

Implicit versus Explicit Learning: Some Implications for L2 Teaching  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent psychological evidence about "implicit" learning has strong implications for the educational arena. First, it contributes to counterbalance the predominance of "explicit" educational models, based on the transmission of formal rules, by considering informal active/manipulative behavior as the foundation of learning and knowledge-building.…

Gasparini, Silvia

2004-01-01

23

Morphological and Phonological Factors in the Production of Verbal Inflection in Adult L2 Learners and Patients with Agrammatic Aphasia  

Science.gov (United States)

Failure to supply inflection is common in adult L2 learners of English and agrammatic aphasics (AAs), who are known to resort to bare verb forms. Among attempts to explain the absence of inflection are competing morphological and phonological explanations. In the L2 acquisition literature, omission of inflection is explained in terms of: mapping…

Szupica-Pyrzanowski, Malgorzata

2009-01-01

24

Empowering L2 Tutoring: A Case Study of a Second Language Writer's Vocabulary Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Writing center tutors play a key role in advancing L2 writers' language learning because the tutorial interaction involves the introduction of new language and vocabulary at the point of need or interest. This tutor-research case study presents a detailed, complex portrait of how a second language writer in a US writing center learned and used…

Severino, Carol; Deifell, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

25

Enhancing L2 students' listening transcription ability through a focus on morphological awareness.  

Science.gov (United States)

Morphological awareness (MA), defined as the ability to understand the morphemic structure of the words, has been reported to affect various aspects of second language performance including reading comprehension ability, spelling performance, etc. But the concept has been far less treated with reference to l2 listening. Against this background, this study investigated the link between MA and listening transcription ability of Iranian pre-university students. To this aim, 40 pre-university students participated in the study and were assigned to control and experimental groups. Prior to giving any instruction regarding the morphological character of English words, the two groups were given three short listening passages to transcribe as pre-tests. The results of the independent-samples t test run for the purpose of comparing the means of the two groups in the pre-test revealed no significant difference between the two groups in their listening transcription ability. The experimental group, then, received five 1-h sessions briefing them on the morphological realization of English words. The two groups were then given three short listening passages to transcribe as their as post-tests. The results of the independent-samples t tests attested to the significant difference between the two groups; thus, supporting the relationship between MA and listening transcription ability. PMID:22935851

Karimi, Mohammad Nabi

2013-10-01

26

L2-norm multiple kernel learning and its application to biomedical data fusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper introduces the notion of optimizing different norms in the dual problem of support vector machines with multiple kernels. The selection of norms yields different extensions of multiple kernel learning (MKL such as L?, L1, and L2 MKL. In particular, L2 MKL is a novel method that leads to non-sparse optimal kernel coefficients, which is different from the sparse kernel coefficients optimized by the existing L? MKL method. In real biomedical applications, L2 MKL may have more advantages over sparse integration method for thoroughly combining complementary information in heterogeneous data sources. Results We provide a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the L2 optimization of kernels in the dual problem with the L2 coefficient regularization in the primal problem. Understanding the dual L2 problem grants a unified view on MKL and enables us to extend the L2 method to a wide range of machine learning problems. We implement L2 MKL for ranking and classification problems and compare its performance with the sparse L? and the averaging L1 MKL methods. The experiments are carried out on six real biomedical data sets and two large scale UCI data sets. L2 MKL yields better performance on most of the benchmark data sets. In particular, we propose a novel L2 MKL least squares support vector machine (LSSVM algorithm, which is shown to be an efficient and promising classifier for large scale data sets processing. Conclusions This paper extends the statistical framework of genomic data fusion based on MKL. Allowing non-sparse weights on the data sources is an attractive option in settings where we believe most data sources to be relevant to the problem at hand and want to avoid a "winner-takes-all" effect seen in L? MKL, which can be detrimental to the performance in prospective studies. The notion of optimizing L2 kernels can be straightforwardly extended to ranking, classification, regression, and clustering algorithms. To tackle the computational burden of MKL, this paper proposes several novel LSSVM based MKL algorithms. Systematic comparison on real data sets shows that LSSVM MKL has comparable performance as the conventional SVM MKL algorithms. Moreover, large scale numerical experiments indicate that when cast as semi-infinite programming, LSSVM MKL can be solved more efficiently than SVM MKL. Availability The MATLAB code of algorithms implemented in this paper is downloadable from http://homes.esat.kuleuven.be/~sistawww/bioi/syu/l2lssvm.html.

De Moor Bart

2010-06-01

27

Morphological and Syntactic Transfer in Child L2 Acquisition of the English Dative Alternation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Compares the acquisition of the English to- and for-dative alternation by native-speaking English, Japanese, and Korean children. Investigates whether second language learners (L2) like native language learners overextend the double-object variant and whether L2 learners, like L2 adults, transfer properties of the native language grammar.…

Whong-Barr, Melinda; Schwartz, Bonnie D.

2002-01-01

28

Learning L2 Vocabulary with American TV Drama From the Learner’s Perspective  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Following the trend of computer assisted language learning (CALL, in Taiwan, most language classes now have equivalent media support for language teachers and learners. Implementing videos into classroom activities is one of the choices. The current study explores the process of implementing American TV drama in L2 vocabulary learning from learners’ perspectives. Twenty-eight Taiwanese EFL adult learners participate in the study. Authentic video clips from three different American dramas- “How I met your mother”, “The King of Queens”, and “Reba” are adopted. After three sessions of class activities including clip watching, class discussion, word listing, etc., students complete a 4-likert scale questionnaire and are individually interviewed by the researcher to give their opinions. The results reveal positive comments on the facilitative role of TV drama in learning new vocabulary as previous studies suggested, but learners’ comments point out some crucial factors while learning L2 vocabulary with TV drama. First of all, the interest level and the familiarity of the content is an important factor. In addition, the images, subtitles and repetition help participants to “remember” the target words. Other factors such as the authenticity of the language, the contextual meaning of the words, and the dramatic performances all contribute to the learning of the L2 vocabulary. In the end of the study, working memory system, the context, acquisition-learning hypothesis (Krashen, 1981, and noticing hypothesis (Schmidt, 1990 are further discussed. 

Yu-Chia Wang

2012-06-01

29

The Natural Approach to Adult Learning and Teaching of L2 Grammar  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning a language in a natural way is normally understood to involve the development of implicit knowledge of that language. The acquisition of such knowledge takes place through communication and is driven by learner-internal mechanisms which cannot be directly influenced by formal instruction. In the case of foreign or second language (L2)…

Scheffler, Pawel

2008-01-01

30

Classification of L2 Vocabulary Learning Strategies: Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses  

Science.gov (United States)

This research presents a classification theory for the L2 vocabulary learning strategies. Based on the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of strategies that adult Chinese English learners used, this theory identifies six categories, four of which are related to the cognitive process in lexical acquisition and the other two are…

Zhang, Bo; Li, Changyu

2011-01-01

31

Morphological Awareness and Learning to Read Chinese  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the nature of morphological awareness and its relation to learning to read Chinese characters among 46 Chinese-speaking preschool children. The children took a morphological awareness task, which varied in semantic transparency and morpheme position. Children's vocabulary knowledge and extant character reading ability were…

Chung, Wei-Lun; Hu, Chieh-Fang

2007-01-01

32

Unsupervised Learning of Morphology without Morphemes  

CERN Document Server

The first morphological learner based upon the theory of Whole Word Morphology Ford et al. (1997) is outlined, and preliminary evaluation results are presented. The program, Whole Word Morphologizer, takes a POS-tagged lexicon as input, induces morphological relationships without attempting to discover or identify morphemes, and is then able to generate new words beyond the learning sample. The accuracy (precision) of the generated new words is as high as 80% using the pure Whole Word theory, and 92% after a post-hoc adjustment is added to the routine.

Neuvel, S; Neuvel, Sylvain; Fulop, Sean A.

2002-01-01

33

Collaborative Concept Mapping as a Pre-Writing Strategy for L2 Learning: A Korean Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed at examining the use of concept mapping technique in a course module for Korean language learning with U.S. college students, who were prompted to engage in collaborative writing planning. The study assumed that concept mapping enhances students’ communicative interaction to promote their L2 writing. One hundred and twenty-three participants were recruited from three different proficiency level classes (beginning, intermediate, and advanced classes. Data were collected during three writing sessions: pretest of writing, individual planning, and collaborative planning. The MANCOVA results on the five components of composition score showed that the effect of collaborative concept mapping on L2 writing significantly differed across the three class levels. The study suggested practical implications for the use of collaborative mapping tasks in L2 writing contexts.

Yongjin Lee

2013-04-01

34

Effects of l1 processing experience on l2 morphological awareness Effects of l1 processing experience on l2 morphological awareness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To be an efficient and effective reader of a second language, one must develop cumulative insight into the internal structure of words, as well as acquire the necessary skills for using such insight in facilitating lexical processing and enhancing reading comprehension. In recent time, the growing recognition of the significance of these capabilities has led to a rapidly expanding body of research on intraword awareness, particularly among psychologists and reading specialists. Inasmuch as the resulting data base has clearly demonstrated that intraword awareness develops primarily through print processing experience (e.g., Yopp, 1988; Bowey, & Francis, 1991; Vellutino & Scanlon, 1987; Bertelson, Morais, Alegria, & Content, 1985; Morais, Cary, Alegria, & Bertelson, 1979; Perfetti, Beck, Bell & Hughes, 1987, we can expect that the nature of such awareness differs considerably from language to language, at least to the extent that their lexical structures vary. We also know that linguistic knowledge and processing skills transfer across languages among second language learners (e.g., Kilborn & Ito, 1989; Sasaki, 1992; Koda, 1993. Accordingly, we can both anticipate and infer that L2 lexical processing will be heavily constrained by L1 intraword structural knowledge. To be an efficient and effective reader of a second language, one must develop cumulative insight into the internal structure of words, as well as acquire the necessary skills for using such insight in facilitating lexical processing and enhancing reading comprehension. In recent time, the growing recognition of the significance of these capabilities has led to a rapidly expanding body of research on intraword awareness, particularly among psychologists and reading specialists. Inasmuch as the resulting data base has clearly demonstrated that intraword awareness develops primarily through print processing experience (e.g., Yopp, 1988; Bowey, & Francis, 1991; Vellutino & Scanlon, 1987; Bertelson, Morais, Alegria, & Content, 1985; Morais, Cary, Alegria, & Bertelson, 1979; Perfetti, Beck, Bell & Hughes, 1987, we can expect that the nature of such awareness differs considerably from language to language, at least to the extent that their lexical structures vary. We also know that linguistic knowledge and processing skills transfer across languages among second language learners (e.g., Kilborn & Ito, 1989; Sasaki, 1992; Koda, 1993. Accordingly, we can both anticipate and infer that L2 lexical processing will be heavily constrained by L1 intraword structural knowledge.

Keiko Koda

2008-04-01

35

The Effect of Learning English (L2 on Learning of Arabic Literacy (L1 in the Primary School  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of learning English (L2 on learning to read and spell connected texts accurately in Arabic (L1. The author selected a sample of 83 (38 males and 45 females; 45 bilinguals and 38 monolinguals native Arabic-speaking fourth-graders in Egypt. Students completed the author-developed Oral Reading Accuracy Measure and Spelling Accuracy Measure. Interestingly, results revealed that the bilingual (Arabic-English students performed better than their monolingual (Arabic counterparts on the two literacy variables: oral reading accuracy (ORA and spelling accuracy (SA. The discussion concludes that learning English (L2 has a positive effect on students’ oral reading accuracy and spelling accuracy in Arabic (L1.

Abdelaziz M. Hussien

2014-02-01

36

Learning Second Language Suprasegmentals: Effect of L2 Experience on Prosody and Fluency Characteristics of L2 Speech  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines effects of short, medium, and extended second language (L2) experience (3 months, 3 years, and 10 years of United States residence, respectively) on the production of five suprasegmentals (stress timing, peak alignment, speech rate, pause frequency, and pause duration) in six English declarative sentences by 30 adult Korean…

Trofimovich, Pavel; Baker, Wendy

2006-01-01

37

Matching Vocabulary Learning Process with Learning Outcome in L2 Academic Writing: An Exploratory Case Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This exploratory case study of two undergraduates links vocabulary learning approaches with lexical quality measured in academic writing. Employing an array of qualitative data, it is shown that in a "semi-language-rich" learning context, Chinese learners may dispense with rote learning and engage in a more natural learning approach in which…

Ma, Qing

2013-01-01

38

How Children Learn about Morphological Spelling Rules  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2-year longitudinal study was carried out to test the hypothesis that children's word-specific learning of inflectional spellings is an essential first step in their acquiring an understanding of morphological rules for spelling inflections. Ninety children, who were 6-years-old at the start of the project, were asked to spell pseudowords and…

Chliounaki, Kalliopi; Bryant, Peter

2007-01-01

39

Comments on Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?"  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?" (2011) offers some constructive criticism regarding the conventional terminology used in second language (L2) acquisition research and language pedagogy. Although the author finds much of their evidence reasonable and is…

Reynolds, Barry Lee

2012-01-01

40

Phonological and orthographic cues enhance the processing of inflectional morphology. ERP evidence from L1 and L2 French  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report the results of two ERP experiments in which Spanish learners of French and native French controls show graded sensitivity to verbal inflectional errors as a function of the presence of orthographic and/or phonological cues when reading silently in French. In both experiments, verbal agreement was manipulated in sentential context such that subject verb agreement was either correct, ill-formed and orally-realized, involving both orthographic and phonological cues, or ill-formed and silent which involved only orthographic cues. The results of both experiments revealed more robust ERP responses to orally-realized than to silent inflectional errors. This was true for L2 learners as well as native controls, although the effect in the learner group was reduced in comparison to the native group. In addition, the combined influence of phonological and orthographic cues led to the largest differences between morphosyntactic conditions. Overall, the results suggest that the presence of phonological cues may enhance L2 readers’ sensitivity to morphology but that such may appear in L2 processing only when sufficient proficiency is attained. Moreover, both orthographic and phonological cues are used when available.

CherylFrenck-Mestre

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
41

L2 Grammatical Gender in a Complex Morphological System: The Case of German  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to determine the nature of naturalistic learners' difficulty with grammatical gender in a complex morphological system, the longitudinal production data of an early naturalistic L1-Italian and L1-Turkish learner who are acquiring German are examined in light of current theories of gender within Chomsky's (1995) Minimalist Program. After…

Spinner, Patti; Juffs, Alan

2008-01-01

42

The Role of Dynamic Contrasts in the L2 Acquisition of Spanish Past Tense Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the second language acquisition of Spanish past tense morphology by three groups of English speakers (beginners, intermediates and advanced). We adopt a novel methodological approach--combining oral corpus data with controlled experimental data--in order to provide new evidence on the validity of the Lexical Aspect Hypothesis…

Dominguez, Laura; Tracy-Ventura, Nicole; Arche, Maria J.; Mitchell, Rosamond; Myles, Florence

2013-01-01

43

Multimedia Glosses and Their Effect on L2 Text Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects that different types of multimedia glosses, namely textual, pictorial, and textual + pictorial, have on text comprehension and vocabulary learning when the goal is exclusively comprehension of a computerized text. This study is based on the theoretical framework of attention, which maintains that attention is critical in the acquisition process of an L2 (Robinson, 1995; Schmidt, 1995, 2001; Tomlin and Villa, 1994. Ninety-four participants read a text under one of four gloss conditions while asked to think aloud. This study investigated whether any of the conditions promoted noticing and whether this noticing led to better comprehension of the text and learning of the target vocabulary words. Reading comprehension, recognition, and production measures were utilized in a pre-post test design. Results of quantitative and qualitative analyses of the data gathered showed first that all multimedia gloss groups noticed and recognized significantly more of the target words than the control group. Second, no significant differences were found among any of the groups in production of the target vocabulary items. Finally, regarding comprehension, results showed that the combination gloss group significantly outperformed all other groups. These results confirm that the multimedia glosses under investigation have a different effect on comprehension and vocabulary learning respectively.

Iñigo Yanguas

2009-06-01

44

Preschoolers learning Hmong and English: lexical-semantic skills in L1 and L2.  

Science.gov (United States)

Picture naming and picture identification tasks were used to investigate lexical-semantic skills in young children learning Hmong as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). A total of 19 children, ages 3;4 (years;months)-5;2, participated in this study. Performance on lexical tasks was analyzed as a function of development (older and younger participants), language (Hmong and English), modality (receptive and expressive skills), and the nature of total or "composite" vocabulary scores (translation equivalents or singles, reflecting comparable forms in both languages as compared to concepts lexicalized into only 1 language). Older participants outperformed younger participants in English, but not Hmong, indicating a relative stabilization of L1 skills, alongside more robust growth in L2. The difference between expressive and receptive performance was also much greater in Hmong than English. Composite scores were always greater than single language scores and the proportion of translation equivalents increased with age. PMID:15989399

Kan, Pui Fong; Kohnert, Kathryn

2005-04-01

45

Unstructured Object Recognition using Morphological Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A technique of object recognition which can detect absence or presence of objects of interest without making explicit use of their underlying geometric structure is deemed suitable for many practical applications. In this work, a method of recognising unstructured objects has been presented, wherein several gray patterns are input as examples to a morphological rule-based learning algorithm. The output of the algorithm are the corresponding gray structuring elements capable of recognising patterns in query images. The learning is carried out offline before recognition of the queries. The technique has been tested to identify fuel pellet surface imperfections. Robustness wrt intensity, orientation, and shape variations of the query patterns is built into the method. Moreover, simplicity of the recognition process leading to reduced computational time makes the method attractive to solve many practical problems.

S. Kar

2012-04-01

46

Narrative and identity construction: an analysis of the L2 Learning process  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A Aquisição de uma Segunda Língua (ASL) tem sido enfocada por vários pesquisadores que estudaram o processo sob diversas perspectivas (ex.: Ellis, 1997; Lantolf, 2000; Gardner, 1968), para poderem interpretar como os aprendizes adquirem a L2. Entretanto, esses estudos têm se limitado aos processos c [...] ognitivos e a outros fatores (cultural e sócio-cognitivo, por exemplo), em vez de focalizar as experiências dos aprendizes. Em virtude disso, este estudo investiga as experiências de aprendizes por meio de um grupo de auto-narrativas registradas pelo Projeto AMFALE (Aprendendo com memórias de falantes e de aprendizes de línguas estrangeiras), tendo como suporte básico o trabalho desenvolvido por Leppänen e Kalaja (2002), no qual as autoras, com base na teoria de Vladimir Propp sobre a morfologia do conto de fadas (2000), investigam o processo de aprendizagem de L2 a partir de auto-narrativas que refletem o processo heróico, ainda que árduo, dos contos de fadas, detalhado por Propp. Para tanto, o artigo se divide em duas partes. A primeira faz uma breve revisão do processo de construção de identidade, da importância da narrativa autobiográfica como expressão de identidade, chegando, por fim, aos critérios de análise de autobiografias no processo de aprendizagem de L2, identificados por Leppänen e Kalaja (2002). A segunda parte do estudo analisa alguns exemplos de autobiografias do projeto AMFALE sob a luz das referidas teorias. Abstract in english Second Language Acquisition (SLA) has been the focus of many linguists who have studied the process through varied perspectives, (e.g. Ellis, 1997; Lantolf, 2000; Gardner, 1968, to quote but a few) so that they may be able to interpret the way learners gather information regarding a second language [...] process. However, such foci have been limited to cognitive processes and other factors (e.g. cultural, socio-cognitive) rather than placed on the learners' experiences themselves. In view of this, this paper investigates learners' experiences through the analysis of a group of self narratives recorded by the AMFALE (Aprendendo com memórias de falantes e de aprendizes de língua estrangeira)² project, while, at the same time, analyzes such autobiographies in the light of Leppänen and Kalaja's (2002) work on autobiographies as learners' identities constructions, based on Vladimir Propp's book Morphology of the Folktale (2000). The study is divided in two parts: the first one briefly reviews the process of identity construction and the importance of autobiographies as a means of expression of the self. Besides, it also focuses on the criteria set forth by Leppänen and Kalaja (2002) for the analysis of autobiographies, based on Vladimir Propp's book Morphology of the folktale (2000). The second part focuses on the analyses of AMFALE autobiographies as stated above.

Luiz Antônio Caldeira, Andrade.

47

Morphological Analysis as Classification an Inductive-Learning Approach  

CERN Document Server

Morphological analysis is an important subtask in text-to-speech conversion, hyphenation, and other language engineering tasks. The traditional approach to performing morphological analysis is to combine a morpheme lexicon, sets of (linguistic) rules, and heuristics to find a most probable analysis. In contrast we present an inductive learning approach in which morphological analysis is reformulated as a segmentation task. We report on a number of experiments in which five inductive learning algorithms are applied to three variations of the task of morphological analysis. Results show (i) that the generalisation performance of the algorithms is good, and (ii) that the lazy learning algorithm IB1-IG performs best on all three tasks. We conclude that lazy learning of morphological analysis as a classification task is indeed a viable approach; moreover, it has the strong advantages over the traditional approach of avoiding the knowledge-acquisition bottleneck, being fast and deterministic in learning and process...

Van den Bosch, A; Weijters, T; Bosch, Antal van den; Daelemans, Walter; Weijters, Ton

1996-01-01

48

Contribution of Morphological Awareness and Lexical Inferencing Ability to L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension among Advanced EFL Learners: Testing Direct and Indirect Effects  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling)…

Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko

2012-01-01

49

Learning and Retaining Specialized Vocabulary from Textbook Reading: Comparison of Learning Outcomes through L1 and L2  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the acquisition of specialized vocabulary from L1 and L2 textbook reading by 64 Slovak high school students who were intermediate or advanced users of English. The students were divided into two groups: One group read the academic texts in their L1, the other group in their L2. In a posttest and a delayed posttest, they…

Gablasova, Dana

2014-01-01

50

Evolutionary Learning Algorithm for Multi-layer Morphological Neural Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphological Neural Network (MNN is a novel and important neural network and it has many applications such as image processing and pattern recognition. It makes sense to research the learning algorithm of MNN and its application. A method based on genetic algorithm is presented to train and implement multi-layer morphological neural network in this study. The algorithm calculates the weights and biases of morphological neural network and the genetic algorithm automatically acquire the learning rate. After that, the trained morphological neural network is applied to image restoration. The image restoration simulation and a comparison with the median filter are shown in the end. It shows that the morphological neural network is a quite good method applied to image restoration.

He Chunmei

2013-01-01

51

General Learning Strategies and the Process of L2 Acquisition: A Critical Overview.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reviews the literature on general learning strategies as they pertain to the UG (universal grammar)- or non-UG debate and the second-language acquisition process and discusses this literature in the context of the literature on learning strategies from psychological research. (Author/JL)

Kaplan, Tamar I.

1998-01-01

52

Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hand-coding locomotion controllers for modular robots is dif?cult due to their polymorphic nature. Instead, we propose to use a simple and distributed reinforcement learning strategy. ATRON modules with identical controllers can be assembled in any con?guration. To optimize the robot’s locomotion speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy’s performance on different robot con?gurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast as possible. We conclude that the learning strategy is effective and may be a practical approach to design gaits.

Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko

2009-01-01

53

An Analysis of the Potential of a Computer-mediated learning Course for Vocabulary Learning in L2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper focuses on the contributions a computer-mediated blended course can make for learning vocabulary in French as a Foreign Language (FFL). This course included class and on-line sessions, using Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) tools (forum and chat), for a written macro-task by French-learning Cypriot students accompanied in distance learning by FFL tutors. In the first part we present difficulties in vocabulary learning as well as in written production. We also tackle two centra...

Rodrigues, Christine

2012-01-01

54

Galaxy Zoo: Reproducing Galaxy Morphologies Via Machine Learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present morphological classifications obtained using machine learning for objects in SDSS DR6 that have been classified by Galaxy Zoo into three classes, namely early types, spirals and point sources/artifacts. An artificial neural network is trained on a subset of objects classified by the human eye and we test whether the machine learning algorithm can reproduce the human classifications for the rest of the sample. We find that the success of the neural network in match...

Banerji, M.; Lahav, O.; Lintott, Cj; Abdalla, Fb; Schawinski, K.; Bamford, Sp; Andreescu, D.; Murray, P.; Raddick, Mj; Slosar, A.; Szalay, A.; Thomas, D.; Vandenberg, J.

2009-01-01

55

The Status of Metalinguistic Knowledge in Instructed Adult L2 Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated second language metalinguistic knowledge, or explicit knowledge about the second language, in English-speaking university-level learners of German and Spanish. The status of metalinguistic knowledge in relation to the individual difference variables of language-learning aptitude, working memory for language, and…

Roehr, Karen; Ganem-Gutierrez, Gabriela Adela

2009-01-01

56

The Effect of L1 on Learning New L2 Vocabulary among Intermediate Proficiency Level Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

During the last decades, the role of mother tongue in language teaching has been the subject of a host of research studies ;however, quite rarely have researchers addressed such issues as comparing the use of mother tongue and other teaching techniques like paraphrasing and translation effects on students' reading comprehension ability and their ability in learning new English vocabulary. This study aimed to explore whether paraphrases vs. translations of new words in general English passages...

Maryam Pakzadian

2012-01-01

57

Estilos de pensamiento Cognitive styles: an approach to autonomous learning in L2 adult students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El siguiente artículo resume los resultados de una investigación descriptivo-cualitativa sobre estilos cognitivos o de pensamiento, llevado a cabo con miembros del programa de extensión académica en la UPB, con el objetivo de describir los estilos de pensamiento de los estudiantes que les permitan reconocer y utilizar estrategias meta cognitivas para desarrollar un nivel consciente de responsabilidad y autonomía en el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera. El marco teórico de este estudio se basa en conceptos tales como estilos cognitivos, estrategias meta cognitivas, aptitud, así como la autonomía y la responsabilidad en el aprendizaje. Los instrumentos diseñados para la recopilación de datos fueron un test sobre estilos cognitivos, en segundo lugar, un cuestionario semiestructurado con los siguientes ítems: proceso de toma de decisiones, la auto descripción como aprendices, las percepciones del estudiante sobre el papel del profesor, incluido el uso de estrategias meta cognitivas, tercero , una entrevista abierta con el objetivo de medir el impacto que tiene el concebir un proceso de aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera desde la perspectiva de los estilos de pensamiento. Los resultados mostraron la expectativa de los estudiantes para reconocer las capacidades humanas, la necesidad de adquirir la competencia estratégica, la necesidad real de participar abiertamente en la planificación de metas y objetivos, y en la auto-evaluación formativa del proceso de aprendizaje, así como el deseo de pasar de un proceso centrado en tareas, a un proceso centrado en la autonomía. The following article sums up the findings of a descriptive-qualitative research on cognitive styles carried out with members of the Academic Extension program at the UPB, aiming at describing the cognitive styles of students that enable them to recognize and use metacognitive strategies in order to develop a conscious level of autonomy and responsibility in learning a foreign language. This study was theoretically supported by concepts such as cognitive styles, metacognitive strategies, aptitude in learning, as well as autonomy and responsibility. The instruments used in the data collection procedures were first a test on cognitive styles, second, a semi structured questionnaire on decision making process, self description as learners, student´s perceptions on the teacher´s role, including the use of metacognitive strategies, third, an open interview aiming at measuring the impact of being aware of learning a foreign language from the perspective of cognitive styles. Results showed students’ inner expectations to recognize human abilities, the need to acquire strategic competence, the real need to openly participate in planning of goals and objectives, self assessment on formative learning process, as well as turning to be autonomous centered learners, rather that task oriented students.

Atehortúa Atehortúa José Nicolás

2010-01-01

58

The Effect of L1 on Learning New L2 Vocabulary among Intermediate Proficiency Level Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the last decades, the role of mother tongue in language teaching has been the subject of a host of research studies ;however, quite rarely have researchers addressed such issues as comparing the use of mother tongue and other teaching techniques like paraphrasing and translation effects on students' reading comprehension ability and their ability in learning new English vocabulary. This study aimed to explore whether paraphrases vs. translations of new words in general English passages make any significant difference in intermediate proficiency level learners of English new vocabulary learning. It also aims to examine whether paraphrases or translations of texts at intermediate proficiency level affect significantly students' level of reading comprehension. The data for this study were collected through one proficiency test, 3 comprehension tests and one vocabulary test from 60 English students who study at SADR Private Language School in Isfahan. The data were analyzed descriptively and also inferentially. The overall findings of the study indicated that there was no significant difference between the comprehension of those who received Persian translation of new vocabulary and those who dealt with the paraphrase of the same new words and those who did not receive any L1 translation or paraphrase. The results for vocabulary test showed those who received the mother tongue definitions in front of each new word in the passage did perform significantly better on the vocabulary test than the other two groups. However study would help teachers and teacher trainers to construct and implement L1 and paraphrase in English classes more effectively.

Maryam Pakzadian

2012-06-01

59

L2 Students’ Comments on Language Exchange Communities in Language Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem Statement: EFL learners are rarely given opportunities to interact with native speakers and “…to do something with a language”. In Turkish settings, language learners mostly complain that they do not have enough opportunities to interact with native speakers, and class hours are too limited to acquire a language and more importantly they are not taught expressions that help them express themselves in daily contexts.Purpose of Study: This study aimed at investigating EFL (English as a Foreign Language learners’ experiences in a Language Exchange Community, namely xLingo.Method: 16 students from a state university spent time on language exchange communities. The researcher met these students once a week to make sure that everything was going fine. The students used xLingo for almost six months. The researcher interviewed them through the five questions that were earlier developed and piloted by the researcher himself.Findings and Results: The findings mostly focused on four aspects namely language development, autonomy, culture and self-confidence. Conclusions and Recommendations: Given the challenges Turkish EFL learners have to face in the process of language learning, language exchange communities are believed to open up more possibilities for language learners to get more comprehensible input and to interact with more native speakers and more importantly to do something with a language. In order to make best use of these communities, it is a mandatory step that language teachers be introduced to the concept along with practical applications and that these communities should be integrated into language testing system.

Cem Balç?kanl?

2012-04-01

60

Developing Critical L2 Digital Literacy through the Use of Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Learning Management Systems such as Moodle  

Science.gov (United States)

Second Language (L2) Digital Literacy is of emerging importance within English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Korea, and will evolve to become regarded as the most critical component of overall L2 English Literacy. Computer-based Internet-hosted Learning Management Systems (LMS), such as the popular open-source Moodle, are rapidly being adopted worldwide for distance education, and are also being applied to blended (hybrid) education. In EFL Education, they have a special potential: by setting the LMS to force English to be used exclusively throughout a course website, the meta-language can be made the target L2 language. Of necessity, students develop the ability to use English to navigate the Internet, access and contribute to online resources, and engage in computer-mediated communication. Through such pragmatic engagement with English, students significantly develop their L2 Digital Literacy.

Meurant, Robert C.

 
 
 
 
61

Direct and Indirect Access to Corpora: An Exploratory Case Study Comparing Students' Error Correction and Learning Strategy Use in L2 Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on students' use of corpora in L2 writing have demonstrated the benefits of corpora not only as a linguistic resource to improve their writing abilities but also as a cognitive tool to develop their learning skills and strategies. Most of the corpus studies, however, adopted either direct use or indirect use of corpora by students,…

Yoon, Hyunsook; Jo, Jung Won

2014-01-01

62

Galaxy Zoo: Reproducing Galaxy Morphologies Via Machine Learning  

CERN Document Server

We present morphological classifications obtained using machine learning for objects in SDSS DR7 that have been classified by Galaxy Zoo into three classes namely spirals, ellipticals and stars/unique objects. An artificial neural network is trained on a subset of objects classified by the human eye and we test whether the machine learning algorithm can reproduce the human classifications for the rest of the sample. We find that the success of the neural network in matching the human classifications depends crucially on the set of input parameters chosen for the machine-learning algorithm. The colours, concentrations and parameters associated with profile-fitting are reasonable in seperating the stars and galaxies into three classes. However, these results are considerably improved when adding adaptive shape parameters as well as texture. The adaptive moments and texture parameters alone cannot distinguish between stars and elliptical galaxies. Using a set of thirteen distance-independant parameters, the neur...

Banerji, Manda; Lintott, Chris J; Abdalla, Filipe B; Schawinski, Kevin; Andreescu, Dan; Bamford, Steven; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alex; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

2009-01-01

63

Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) and L2 motivation associated with L2 pronunciation development in pre-service teachers of English / Estrategias de Aprendizaje de una Lengua y motivación L2 asociadas al desarrollo de la pronunciación de una L2 en estudiantes de Pedagogía en Inglés  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La presente investigación busca develar los mecanismos sicosociales que utilizan los profesores de inglés de pre-servicio destacados en su desarrollo fonológico en inglés como L2, canalizados a través de estrategias de aprendizaje de una lengua. La investigación hace uso de la metodología de estudio [...] de caso y recaba información de los dos participantes a través de la entrevista semi-estructurada, cuyos resultados son analizados a la luz de la taxonomía propuesta por Oxford (1990). Los resultados corroboran en cierta medida estudios anteriores en los siguientes sentidos: (i) los participantes hacen amplio uso de estrategias indirectas, entre las cuales destacan las estrategias metacognitivas, planificación del aprendizaje y monitoreo; (ii) las estrategias metacognitivas se ven potenciadas cuando entran en contacto con el uso de estrategias directas, tales como la creación de imágenes mentales, aplicación de imagen y sonido, práctica, razonamiento cognitivo y foco atencional; y (iii) la motivación se presenta como variable movilizadora del repertorio de estrategias de aprendizaje. Abstract in english This study seeks to uncover the psychosocial mechanisms used by pre-service teachers of English with the purpose of developing an L2 phonological system, within a framework of language learning strategies (LLSs) The study makes use of a case study methodology and collects information through a semi- [...] structured interview, whose results are interpreted in light of Oxford's (1990) taxonomy. The results corroborate to some extent findings made in previous studies, amongst which are: (i) ample use of indirect strategies, amongst which metacognitive, planning and monitoring stand out; (ii) greater potential of metacognitive strategies when accompanied by use of direct strategies such as mental images, applying images and sounds, practising, analysing/reasoning, and paying attention; and (iii) the mobilisation power of motivation in connection with a strategy repertoire.

Mauricio, Véliz C.

64

Building Language Blocks in L2 Japanese: Chunk Learning and the Development of Complexity and Fluency in Spoken Production  

Science.gov (United States)

This pilot study examined the development of complexity and fluency of second language (L2) spoken production among L2 learners who received extensive practice on grammatical chunks as constituent units of discourse. Twenty-two students enrolled in an elementary Japanese course at a U.S. university received classroom instruction on 40 grammatical…

Taguchi, Naoko

2008-01-01

65

L2 Vocabulary Learning from Reading: Explicit and Tacit Lexical Knowledge and the Role of Learner and Item Variables  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates acquisition of second language (L2) vocabulary from reading a connected authentic text. Advanced and upper-intermediate L2 (English) participants read a long expository text for general understanding, with embedded critical vocabulary items (pseudowords). Explicit knowledge of the critical items was examined using a meaning…

Elgort, Irina; Warren, Paul

2014-01-01

66

Perceptual learning of phonetic information that indicates morphological structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Familiarity with a talker or accent can facilitate speech perception, but little is known about the acoustic-phonetic knowledge that is acquired during exposure to an unfamiliar talker, particularly with respect to how a talker realises grammatical and prosodic distinctions. The present experiment used relatively natural stimuli and tasks to investigate listeners' adaptation to a phonetic variant that is systematically associated with a morphological context, specifically the English /ri:/ prefix. Results showed that listeners who had previously been exposed to the atypical variant in /ri:/ prefixes in stories scored higher than control listeners in an intelligibility-in-noise task that included instances of the atypical variant. Perceptual learning was partly specific to the /ri:/ prefix, though there was weak generalisation of learning to word-initial /ri:/ syllables that were not prefixes. These results emphasise the value of developing context-sensitive, probabilistic models of speech perception which include multiple, parallel levels of representation. PMID:24514161

Barden, Katharine; Hawkins, Sarah

2013-01-01

67

Language Learning Motivation within the Context of Globalisation: An L2 Self within an Imagined Global Community  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a theoretical paper that attempts to re-conceptualize language learning motivation by taking into consideration the effects of globalisation on learners' sense of identity and how this impacts on the motivation to learn the unquestioned language of globalisation, English. I will argue that in EFL contexts it is learners' sense of…

Ryan, Stephen

2006-01-01

68

The Roles of Phonological Short-Term Memory and Working Memory in L2 Grammar and Vocabulary Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This study analyzed phonological short-term memory (PSTM) and working memory (WM) and their relationship with vocabulary and grammar learning in an artificial foreign language. Nonword repetition, nonword recognition, and listening span were used as memory measures. Participants learned the singular forms of vocabulary for an artificial foreign…

Martin, Katherine I.; Ellis, Nick C.

2012-01-01

69

Combining Hand-crafted Rules and Unsupervised Learning in Constraint-based Morphological Disambiguation  

CERN Document Server

This paper presents a constraint-based morphological disambiguation approach that is applicable languages with complex morphology--specifically agglutinative languages with productive inflectional and derivational morphological phenomena. In certain respects, our approach has been motivated by Brill's recent work, but with the observation that his transformational approach is not directly applicable to languages like Turkish. Our system combines corpus independent hand-crafted constraint rules, constraint rules that are learned via unsupervised learning from a training corpus, and additional statistical information from the corpus to be morphologically disambiguated. The hand-crafted rules are linguistically motivated and tuned to improve precision without sacrificing recall. The unsupervised learning process produces two sets of rules: (i) choose rules which choose morphological parses of a lexical item satisfying constraint effectively discarding other parses, and (ii) delete rules, which delete parses sati...

Oflazer, K; Oflazer, Kemal; Tur, Gokhan

1996-01-01

70

Effects of Interactive versus Simultaneous Display of Multimedia Glosses on L2 Reading Comprehension and Incidental Vocabulary Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the effects of interactive versus simultaneous display of visual and verbal multimedia information on incidental vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of learners of English with lower proficiency levels. In the interactive display condition, learners were allowed to select the type of multimedia information whereas the…

Türk, Emine; Erçetin, Gülcan

2014-01-01

71

Assessing Differences and Similarities between Instructed Heritage Language Learners and L2 Learners in Their Knowledge of Spanish Tense-Aspect and Mood (TAM) Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

The acquisition of the aspectual difference between the preterit and imperfect in the past tense and the acquisition of the contrast between subjunctive and indicative mood are classic problem areas in second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish by English-speaking learners (Collentine, 1995, 1998, 2003; Salaberry, 1999; Slabakova & Montrul, 2002;…

Montrul, Silvina; Perpinan, Silvia

2011-01-01

72

On the Relationship between Self-regulated Learning Components and L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the past two decades, self-regulation has been the center of heated debate in educational psychology. The present study attempted to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' self-regulated learning components and vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension .To fulfill this objective, a 60-item vocabulary and reading comprehension TOEFL test was administered to a sample of 250 male and female college students majoring in English Teaching, English Language Translation, and English Literature. The Persian version of “Self- regulation Trait Questionnaire” was administered to the same participants. Pearson correlation procedure was used to analyze data. Results indicated that the correlation between self-regulated learning components: planning, self -checking, effort and self-efficacy gave mixed results. That is to say, two of the correlation coefficients, self –checking and effort were significant while the other two, planning and self-efficacy, were non-significant.

Abbas Ali Zarei

2012-09-01

73

Learning spatial relationships in hand-drawn patterns using fuzzy mathematical morphology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce in this work a new approach for learning spatial relationships between elements of hand-drawn patterns with the help of fuzzy mathematical morphology operators. Relying on mathematical morphology allows to take into account the actual shapes of hand-drawn patterns when modeling their spatial relationships, and thus to cope with the variability of handwriting signal. Extension of mathematical morphology to the fuzzy set framework further allows to handle imprecision of handwriting...

Delaye, Adrien; Anquetil, Eric

2010-01-01

74

The Effect of Exposure to the Visual Medium on Learning Pronunciation and Word Stress of L2 Learners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the effect of exposure to the visual medium on learning pronunciation and word stress. Thirty junior high school students participated in this study. They were divided into an experimental and a control group each included 15 students. The participants were given a pretest in order to make sure that they were homogeneous with regard to their pronunciation and word stress. Both groups received instruction on key to phonetic symbols available in the back...

Zahra Fotovatnia; Mahboubeh Omidi

2013-01-01

75

On the Relationship between Self-regulated Learning Components and L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the past two decades, self-regulation has been the center of heated debate in educational psychology. The present study attempted to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' self-regulated learning components and vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension .To fulfill this objective, a 60-item vocabulary and reading comprehension TOEFL test was administered to a sample of 250 male and female college students majoring in English Teaching, English Language Translation, a...

Abbas Ali Zarei; Gamar Hatami

2012-01-01

76

The Effect of Exposure to the Visual Medium on Learning Pronunciation and Word Stress of L2 Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the effect of exposure to the visual medium on learning pronunciation and word stress. Thirty junior high school students participated in this study. They were divided into an experimental and a control group each included 15 students. The participants were given a pretest in order to make sure that they were homogeneous with regard to their pronunciation and word stress. Both groups received instruction on key to phonetic symbols available in the back of their textbooks and on the stress of English words. The participants in the experimental group read the computerized written passages while they had access to the pronunciation of the target words through phonetic symbols of the words. The control group listened to the teacher reading the same passages and repeated after her without having any access to the computer and experimental materials. Finally, the attitudinal questionnaire was given to the participants in experimental group to elicit their attitude towards their practicing technique. The findings revealed that visual medium had significant effect on learning word stress but not pronunciation of target words. Furthermore, using computer as a visual medium increased students’ motivation for both pronunciation and word stress learning.

Zahra Fotovatnia

2013-05-01

77

Learning Morphological and Phonological Spelling Rules: An Intervention Study  

Science.gov (United States)

We looked at the effects of teaching 7- and 8-year-old children morphological and phonological distinctions. Some of those given morphological training and some of those given phonological training were also taught how to represent these distinctions in writing. All 4 intervention groups did better than the control group in a standardized test of…

Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Olsson, Jenny

2003-01-01

78

MORPHOLOGICAL LEARNING IN A NOVEL LANGUAGE: A CROSS-LANGUAGE COMPARISON.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Being able to extract and interpret the internal structure of complex word forms such as the English word dance+r+s is crucial for successful language learning. We examined whether the ability to extract morphological information during word learning is affected by the morphological features of one's native tongue. Spanish and Finnish adult participants performed a word-picture associative learning task in an artificial language where the target words included a suffix marking the gender of the corresponding animate object. The short exposure phase was followed by a word recognition task and a generalization task for the suffix. The participants' native tongues vary greatly in terms of morphological structure, leading to two opposing hypotheses. On the one hand, Spanish speakers may be more effective in identifying gender in a novel language because this feature is present in Spanish but not in Finnish. On the other hand, Finnish speakers may have an advantage as the abundance of bound morphemes in their language calls for continuous morphological decomposition. The results support the latter alternative, suggesting that lifelong experience on morphological decomposition provides an advantage in novel morphological learning. PMID:25396284

Havas, Viktória; Waris, Otto; Vaquero, Lucia; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Laine, Matti

2014-11-14

79

Learning morphological phenomena of modern Greek an exploratory approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Educational technology is influenced by and closely related to the fields of generative epistemology, Artificial Intelligence, and the learning sciences. Relevant research literature refers to the term constructionism (Papert, 1993 and exploratory learning (diSessa et al, 1995. Constructionism and exploratory learning are a synthesis of the constructivist theory of Piaget and the opportunities offered by technology to education on thinking concretely, on learning while constructing intelligible entities, and on interacting with multimedia objects, rather than the direct acquisition of knowledge and facts. These views are based on the approach that learners can take substantial control of their own learning in an appropriately designed physical and cultural environment (Harel, 1991. In parallel, most of the studies of the Vygotskian framework focus on the role of language in the learning procedure, considering conceptual thought to be impossible outside an articulated verbal thinking. Moreover, the specific use of words is considered to be the most relevant cause for childhood and adolescent differentiation (Vygotsky, 1962.

Y. Kotsanis

1996-12-01

80

The Role of Morphological Awareness in Reading Comprehension among Typical and Learning Disabled Native Arabic Speakers  

Science.gov (United States)

This work examines the role of morphological awareness in contrast to phonological processing in reading comprehension amongst two groups of native Arabic children: a group with learning disabilities (LD) and a mainstream group who were matched to the LD group in age or reading level. Measures of reading comprehension fluency, phonological skills,…

Mahfoudhi, Abdessatar; Elbeheri, Gad; Al-Rashidi, Mousa; Everatt, John

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Reading Aloud Activity in L2 and Cerebral Activation  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the cerebral mechanism of reading aloud activities in L2 learners. These activities have been widely used in L2 learning and teaching, and its effect has been reported in various Asian L2 learning contexts. However, the reasons for its effectiveness have not been examined. In order to fill in this gap, two studies using a…

Takeuchi, Osamu; Ikeda, Maiko; Mizumoto, Atsushi

2012-01-01

82

Children benefit from morphological relatedness when they learn to spell new words  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of morphologically related words often helps in selecting among spellings of sounds in French. For instance, final /wa/ may be spelled oi (e.g., envoi ‘sendoff’, oit (e.g., exploit ‘exploit’, ois (e.g., siamois, ‘siamese’, or oie (e.g., joie ‘joy’. The morphologically complex word exploiter ‘to exploit’, with a pronounced t, can be used to indicate that the stem exploit is spelled with a silent t. We asked whether 8-year-old children benefited from such cues to learn new spellings. Children read silently stories which included two target nonwords, one presented in an opaque condition and the other in a morphological condition. In the opaque condition, the sentence provided semantic information (e.g., a vensois is a musical instrument but no morphological information that could justify the spelling of the target word’s final sound. Such justification was available in the morphological condition (e.g., the vensoisist plays the vensois instrument, which justifies that vensois includes a final silent s. Thirty minutes after having read the stories, children’s orthographic learning was assessed by asking them to choose the correct spelling of each nonword from among three phonologically plausible alternatives (e.g., vensois, vensoit, vensoie. Children chose correct spellings more often in the morphological condition than the opaque condition, even though the root (vensois had been presented equally often in both conditions. That is, children benefited from information about the spelling of the morphologically complex word to learn the spelling of the stem.

SebastienPacton

2013-10-01

83

An Alternative to Language Learner Dependence on L2 Caption-Reading Input for Comprehension of Sitcoms in a Multimedia Learning Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Most second/foreign language (L2) learners have difficulty understanding listening input because of its implicit and ephemeral nature, and they typically have better reading comprehension than listening comprehension skills. This study examines the effects of using an interactive advance-organizer activity on the DVD video comprehension of L2

Li, C.-H.

2014-01-01

84

Can L2 learners learn new ways to conceptualise events? Evidence from motion event construal among English-speaking learners of French  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study tests Slobin’s (1996) claim that L2 learners struggle with conceptual restructuring in L2 acquisition. We suggest that learners can find themselves in four different reconceptualisation scenarios: the TRANSFER, RESTRUCTURING, CREATIVE/HYBRID and CONVERGENCE SCENARIOS. To test this proposal in the field of event conceptualisation, a comprehensive analysis was made of the frequency distribution of path, manner, caused motion and deictic verbs in narratives elicited from intermediat...

Treffers-daller, Jeanine; Tidball, Francoise

2012-01-01

85

Combining Human and Machine Learning for Morphological Analysis of Galaxy Images  

Science.gov (United States)

The increasing importance of digital sky surveys collecting many millions of galaxy images has reinforced the need for robust methods that can perform morphological analysis of large galaxy image databases. Citizen science initiatives such as Galaxy Zoo showed that large data sets of galaxy images can be analyzed effectively by nonscientist volunteers, but since databases generated by robotic telescopes grow much faster than the processing power of any group of citizen scientists, it is clear that computer analysis is required. Here, we propose to use citizen science data for training machine learning systems, and show experimental results demonstrating that machine learning systems can be trained with citizen science data. Our findings show that the performance of machine learning depends on the quality of the data, which can be improved by using samples that have a high degree of agreement between the citizen scientists. The source code of the method is publicly available.

Kuminski, Evan; George, Joe; Wallin, John; Shamir, Lior

2014-12-01

86

Effects of age of learning on voice onset time: categorical perception of Swedish stops by near-native L2 speakers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of age of onset (AO) of L2 acquisition on the categorical perception of the voicing contrast in Swedish word-initial stops varying in voice onset time (VOT). Three voicing continua created on the basis of natural Swedish word pairs with /p-b/, /t-d/, /k-/ in initial position were presented to 41 Spanish early (AO 12) near-native speakers of L2 Swedish. Fifteen native speakers of Swedish served as controls. Categorizations were influenced by AO and listener status as L1/L2 speaker, in that the late learners deviated the most from native-speaker perception. In addition, only a small minority of the late learners perceived the voicing contrast in a way comparable to native-speaker categorization, while most early L2 learners demonstrated nativelike categorization patterns. However, when the results were combined with the L2 learners' production of Swedish voiceless stops (Stölten, 2005; Stölten, Abrahamsson & Hyltenstam, in press), nativelike production and perception was never found among the late learners, while a majority of the early learners still exhibited nativelike production and perception. It is concluded that, despite their being perceived as mother-tongue speakers of Swedish by native listeners, the late learners do not, after detailed phonetic scrutiny, exhibit a fully nativelike command of Swedish VOT. Consequently, being near-native rather than nativelike speakers of their second language, these individuals do not constitute the evidence necessary to reject the hypothesis of one or several critical (or sensitive) periods for language acquisition. PMID:25536842

Stölten, Katrin; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Hyltenstam, Kenneth

2014-12-01

87

Introducing and evaluating MorphoDent, a Web-based learning program in dental morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

MorphoDent, a computer-assisted learning program designed to teach the anatomy of the adult dentition, was introduced into the curriculum of dentistry at the University of Saarland in Homburg, Germany. Thirty-six second-year students of the School of Dentistry were introduced to morphoDent alongside the traditional lectures of dental anatomy. Questionnaires that evaluated the students' perceptions of virtual learning as well as aspects of the functionality of the program educational objectives were developed and distributed to the students. Online tests were performed and compared with a traditional examination. All questionnaires were returned. A wide variety of aspects dealing the pedagogic implications of e-learning were evaluated by the students, with the overall result being that students are aware of the needed hardware and technical skills and expect the quality of their studies to improve by implementation of e-learning. All sophomores except one felt that morphoDent had helped them in learning dental morphology and reported enjoying the virtual anatomical examination. One-third reported technical difficulties in operating the program. The average exam score was 2.53 (SD: 0.66) for the traditional and 2.23 (SD: 0.59) for the online dental anatomy test. Students expressed their positive attitude towards e-learning in general and indicated that the use of photorealistic 3D models of human teeth supported the process of individual learning of dental anatomy. The online test could be rated as a good option for students' self-performance rating. PMID:20930244

Mitov, Gergo; Dillschneider, Timo; Abed, Mohammad Rabbo; Hohenberg, Gregor; Pospiech, Peter

2010-10-01

88

A morphological perceptron with gradient-based learning for Brazilian stock market forecasting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several linear and non-linear techniques have been proposed to solve the stock market forecasting problem. However, a limitation arises from all these techniques and is known as the random walk dilemma (RWD). In this scenario, forecasts generated by arbitrary models have a characteristic one step ahead delay with respect to the time series values, so that, there is a time phase distortion in stock market phenomena reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a suitable model inspired by concepts in mathematical morphology (MM) and lattice theory (LT). This model is generically called the increasing morphological perceptron (IMP). Also, we present a gradient steepest descent method to design the proposed IMP based on ideas from the back-propagation (BP) algorithm and using a systematic approach to overcome the problem of non-differentiability of morphological operations. Into the learning process we have included a procedure to overcome the RWD, which is an automatic correction step that is geared toward eliminating time phase distortions that occur in stock market phenomena. Furthermore, an experimental analysis is conducted with the IMP using four complex non-linear problems of time series forecasting from the Brazilian stock market. Additionally, two natural phenomena time series are used to assess forecasting performance of the proposed IMP with other non financial time series. At the end, the obtained results are discussed and compared to results found using models recently proposed in the literature. PMID:22391234

Araújo, Ricardo de A

2012-04-01

89

Analysis of LOFT Tests L2-2, L2-3 and L3-0  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes LOFT Tests L2-2, L2-3, and L3-0 and presents conclusions reached from analysis of these tests. The LOFT L2 series of tests, called the power ascension series, originally consisted of six tests. The first four tests, L2-1 through L2-4, were identical except for step-wise increases in core power for each test. Comparison of these tests, and the nonnuclear Test L1-5, was planned to evaluate the effect of core power on system and ECC behavior during large cold leg break LOCA's. Tests L2-5 and L2-6 were to provide parametric investigations of the effect of loss of offsite power and prepressurized fuel. Prior to the start of the L2 series, it was decided Test L2-1 was not necessary due to the information learned from the LOFT nonnuclear tests and PBF lead rod tests. Tests L2-2 and L2-3 are described. The posttest analysis of Tests L2-2 and L2-3 is discussed, and conclusions reached from the comparisons of the experimental data to computer calculations presented. In addition, the results and implications of computer calculations on a commercial size PWR with the same model used for LOFT are presented. Finally, Test L3-0 is described and conclusions reached from it introduced

90

Empirical Comparison of Evaluation Methods for Unsupervised Learning of Morphology Comparaison empirique des méthodes d'évaluation de l'apprentissage non-supervisé de la morphologie  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unsupervised and semi-supervised learning of morphology provide practical solutions for processing morphologically rich languages with less human labor than the traditional rule-based analyzers. Direct evaluation of the learning methods using linguistic reference analyses is important for their development, as evaluation through the final applications is often time consuming. However, even linguistic evaluation is not straightforward for full morphological analysis, because the morphem...

Sami Virpioja; Turunen, Ville T.; Sebastian Spiegler; Oskar Kohonen; Mikko Kurimo

2012-01-01

91

The Effect of Technology-Supported Co-Sharing on L2 Vocabulary Strategy Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Strategies play an important role in learning a second or foreign language (L2). The aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate a co-sharing-based strategy learning system for L2 vocabulary learning known as "Mywordtools." Mywordtools is designed specifically for lexical learning, enabling learners to use the currently…

Lan, Yu-Ju

2013-01-01

92

Experiência em sala de aula: evidência empírica da complexidade no ensino e aprendizagem de LE Classroom experience: empirical evidence of complexity in l2 teaching and learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo argumenta pela compreensão do construto experiência, como um Sistema Adaptativo Complexo, tendo em vista que, para compreendê-la, toda experiência encapsula um processo, no qual outros eventos que a perpassam são trazidos à tona. Para tal, partimos da pesquisa sobre experiências, apresentando trechos de relatos de estudantes e professores sobre eventos vivenciados em salas de aula de língua estrangeira (LE, como evidência empírica de conceitos da complexidade, aplicados aos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE. Explicitamos, assim, a relação entre experiência, como construto, e caos / complexidade, como teoria, para compreender a natureza dos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE em salas de aula.This article argues for understanding the construct of experience as a complex adaptive system since experience, as a process, encapsulates other events that permeate it, bringing them to the fore. To this end, we briefly review research on experience and present excerpts from students’ and teachers’ report data of events experienced in the foreign language classrooms as empirical evidence of applying complexity theory concepts to understand the processes of foreign language teaching and learning. Thus, the explicit relationship between experience, as a construct, and chaos / complexity, as a theory, play a role for understanding the nature of classroom foreign language teaching and learning.

Laura Stella Miccoli

2012-01-01

93

Never Quite a Native Speaker: Accent and Identity in the L2-and the L1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines second language (L2) and second culture (C2) acquisition by focusing on identity and more specifically on changes in L2 accent. Explains changes in the L2 accent and later in the first language (L1) accent, applying the metaphor of self-translation as a general framework for explaining processes of L2 learning and L1 loss, and the…

Marx, Nicole

2002-01-01

94

Metalinguistic Knowledge, Metalingual Knowledge, and Proficiency in L2 Spanish  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of metalinguistic knowledge of language and knowledge of technical terms (i.e. metalingual knowledge) in second language (L2) learning and use is a matter of controversy in the field of Second Language Acquisition. This paper examines the development of these two types of knowledge in adult university-level learners of L2 Spanish, and…

Gutierrez, Xavier

2013-01-01

95

Lexical representation of novel L2 contrasts  

Science.gov (United States)

There is much interest among psychologists and linguists in the influence of the native language sound system on the acquisition of second languages (Best, 1995; Flege, 1995). Most studies of second language (L2) speech focus on how learners perceive and produce L2 sounds, but we know of only two that have considered how novel sound contrasts are encoded in learners' lexical representations of L2 words (Pallier et al., 2001; Ota et al., 2002). In this study we investigated how native speakers of English encode Japanese consonant quantity contrasts in their developing Japanese lexicons at different stages of acquisition (Japanese contrasts singleton versus geminate consonants but English does not). Monolingual English speakers, native English speakers learning Japanese for one year, and native speakers of Japanese were taught a set of Japanese nonwords containing singleton and geminate consonants. Subjects then performed memory tasks eliciting perception and production data to determine whether they encoded the Japanese consonant quantity contrast lexically. Overall accuracy in these tasks was a function of Japanese language experience, and acoustic analysis of the production data revealed non-native-like patterns of differentiation of singleton and geminate consonants among the L2 learners of Japanese. Implications for theories of L2 speech are discussed.

Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Masuda, Kyoko

2005-04-01

96

Variations autour de la tâche dans l'enseignement / apprentissage des langues aujourd'hui What kind of tasks are used for L2 teaching and learning today?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article se donne pour objectif d'identifier les types de tâches, et leurs dénominateurs communs, qui sont présentés aujourd'hui – où "l'approche par les tâches" est soutenue par le Conseil de l'Europe – aux apprenants. Il analyse pour cela les articles issus de deux numéros de revues et un ouvrage collectif récents. Il apparaît que la grande majorité des scénarios pédagogiques s'y inscrit dans la perspective actionnelle... du moins d'après la déclaration des auteurs, car leur définition de ce qu'est une tâche ne correspond pas toujours à celle du CECR. Pour le public visé, étudiants ou professionnels, on propose le plus souvent des mono-tâches, mais également des projets, ou encore des simulations avec un enchaînement de plusieurs tâches. Elles s'inscrivent généralement dans la (future réalité sociale des apprenants, mais certaines laissent également la place à des thèmes artistiques ou (interculturels. Contrairement à ce que l'on aurait pu attendre dans une démarche qui responsabilise l'apprenant, le recours à Internet n'est pas toujours systématique.At a time when action- and task-based learning is sustained by the European Council, this paper explores which types of tasks are given to second language learners today and what aspects these tasks have in common. The paper analyses two recent issues of scientific journals and one collective book. The analysis shows that the majority of pedagogical scenarios described in these texts claim to adopt an action- and task-based approach. However, in reality the way they define a task does not always correspond to the definition given by the European Framework of Reference for Languages. The described tasks are exclusively dedicated to higher and professional education; they are mostly single tasks, but they can also be projects and simulations including several successive tasks. They generally correspond to the learners' (future reality, with themes that are nevertheless sometimes a little bit less “pragmatic”, like artistic or (intercultural ones. Contrary to what one might have expected within an approach that gives responsibility to the learner and where public access to the learners' productions is valued, the pedagogical scenarios do not systematically integrate the use of the Internet.

Elke Nissen

2011-10-01

97

An Increasing Hybrid Morphological-Linear Perceptron with Evolutionary Learning and Phase Correction for Financial Time Series Forecasting  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper we present a suitable model to solve the financial time series forecasting problem, called increasing hybrid morphological-linear perceptron (IHMP). An evolutionary training algorithm is presented to design the IHMP (learning process), using a modified genetic algorithm (MGA). The learning process includes an automatic phase correction step that is geared at eliminating the time phase distortions that typically occur in financial time series forecasting. Furthermore, we compare the proposed IHMP with other neural and statistical models using two complex nonlinear problems of financial forecasting.

de A. Araújo, Ricardo; Sussner, Peter

98

From Number Agreement to the Subjunctive: Evidence for Processability Theory in L2 Spanish  

Science.gov (United States)

This article contributes to typological plausibility of Processability Theory (PT) (Pienemann, 1998, 2005) by providing empirical data that show that the stages predicted by PT are followed in the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish syntax and morphology. In the present article, the PT stages for L2 Spanish morphology and syntax are first…

Bonilla, Carrie L.

2015-01-01

99

Automated three-dimensional reconstruction and morphological analysis of dendritic spines based on semi-supervised learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

A dendritic spine is a small membranous protrusion from a neuron's dendrite that typically receives input from a single synapse of an axon. Recent research shows that the morphological changes of dendritic spines have a close relationship with some specific diseases. The distribution of different dendritic spine phenotypes is a key indicator of such changes. Therefore, it is necessary to classify detected spines with different phenotypes online. Since the dendritic spines have complex three dimensional (3D) structures, current neuron morphological analysis approaches cannot classify the dendritic spines accurately with limited features. In this paper, we propose a novel semi-supervised learning approach in order to perform the online morphological classification of dendritic spines. Spines are detected by a new approach based on wavelet transform in the 3D space. A small training data set is chosen from the detected spines, which has the spines labeled by the neurobiologists. The remaining spines are then classified online by the semi-supervised learning (SSL) approach. Experimental results show that our method can quickly and accurately analyze neuron images with modest human intervention. PMID:24877014

Shi, Peng; Huang, Yue; Hong, Jinsheng

2014-05-01

100

CALL--Enhanced L2 Listening Skills--Aiming for Automatization in a Multimedia Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening…

Mayor, Maria Jesus Blasco

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

L1 and L2 Strategy Use in Reading Comprehension of Chinese EFL Readers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study revealed the relationship between L1 (Mandarin Chinese) and L2 (English) strategy use in L2 reading comprehension by focusing on the correlation of L1 reading ability, L2 proficiency and employed reading strategies. The participants, 222 undergraduates learning English as a foreign language (EFL), were classified into skilled and…

Tsai, Yea-Ru; Ernst, Cheryl; Talley, Paul C.

2010-01-01

102

Empirical Comparison of Evaluation Methods for Unsupervised Learning of Morphology Comparaison empirique des méthodes d'évaluation de l'apprentissage non-supervisé de la morphologie  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Unsupervised and semi-supervised learning of morphology provide practical solutions for processing morphologically rich languages with less human labor than the traditional rule-based analyzers. Direct evaluation of the learning methods using linguistic reference analyses is important for their development, as evaluation through the final applications is often time consuming. However, even linguistic evaluation is not straightforward for full morphological analysis, because the morpheme labels generated by the learning method can be arbitrary. We review the previous evaluation methods for the learning tasks and propose new variations. In order to compare the methods, we perform an extensive meta-evaluation using the large collection of results from the Morpho Challenge competitions.

Sami Virpioja

2012-03-01

103

Authenticity in oral communication of instructed L2 learners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The skill of producing oral discourse in L2 is commonly considered to be difficult to foster in instructional setting. However, the main problem appears to be ensuring an authenticity of speaking both in personal, internal sense and in the social, socio-linguistic dimension. The main claim of here-discussed person centered approach is that both of these dimensions, although distinct, do not need to be treated in L2 learning as systematically separate and incompatible ones. On the contrary,...

Nowicka, Agnieszka; Wilczyn?ska, Weronika

2011-01-01

104

La création de pages Internet dans le cadre de parcours individualisé : la place de la méthodologie dans l'apprentissage des langues. Creating Internet Pages for L2 Self-learning : Where Methodology Fits In  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les projets en ligne tracent un parcours utile pour un travail de compréhension globale, et c’est donc à partir du projet que nous cherchons à développer une méthodologie précise pour les tâches que nous demandons aux apprenants. Cependant, l’input compréhensible n’est pas suffisant pour un apprentissage de toutes les compétences d’une L2. Un travail qui ne demande jamais d’analyse au niveau de la structure de la langue ou des formes ne peut pas sensibiliser suffisamment les apprenants pour qu’ils aient une interlangue qui se développe. Il nous semble que le projet doit être inscrit dans un cadre qui trace un parcours méthodologique très précis tout en permettant à l’apprenant un travail autant de précision que de compréhension globale. Nous prenons un exemple pour illustrer ce que nous sommes en train de créer sur les pages Internet.On line language projects suggest worthwhile steps to take for overall comprehension work, which is why we have chosen to use projects to develop a specific methodology for tasks that we have our learners do. However, comprehensible input is insufficient for learning all of the language skills. Work that never demands an analysis of language structure or form cannot make learners sufficiently aware of the language in order to have their interlanguage develop. It seems to us that projects should include a very specific methodology that allows learners to work on precision as well as overall comprehension. We discuss an example of the pages we are in the process of creating on Internet.

Joline Boulon

1998-12-01

105

Speaking a L2: Second versus Foreign Language Acquisition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports on a study carried out on referential communication strategies. It used the theoretical framework of Levelt’s (1989) model of L1 speech production in its application to L2 (DeBot, 1992). The study investigated the underlying processes of utterances of adult speakers who had to solve a referential communication task in L1 and L2. Two groups of participants were formed; the first group acquired the L2 in a second language environment (SLA) and the second group learned th...

Schuetze, Ulf

2004-01-01

106

The Roles of Context and Word Morphology in Learning New Kanji Words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores quantitative and Qualitative differences between context and word morphology as determinants of students' guesses of the meanings of novel kanji compounds. Japanese language learners interpreted unknown compounds consisting of familiar characters under three conditions. (Author/VWL)

Mori, Yoshiko

2003-01-01

107

Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots : Proceedings of the International Symposium on Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hand-coding locomotion controllers for modular robots is dif?cult due to their polymorphic nature. Instead, we propose to use a simple and distributed reinforcement learning strategy. ATRON modules with identical controllers can be assembled in any con?guration. To optimize the robot?s locomotion speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy?s performance on different robot con?gurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast as possible. We conclude that the learning strategy is effective and may be a practical approach to design gaits.

Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko

108

Translation and Short-Term L2 Vocabulary Retention: Hindrance or Help?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study addresses the role that active translation may have in second language (L2) vocabulary learning. Some research suggests that translation might be an effective cognitive strategy for L2 vocabulary learning. Participants were 191 native French-speaking students enrolled in a TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) program.The study…

Hummel, Kirsten M.

2010-01-01

109

A spatio-temporal latent atlas for semi-supervised learning of fetal brain segmentations and morphological age estimation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prenatal neuroimaging requires reference models that reflect the normal spectrum of fetal brain development, and summarize observations from a representative sample of individuals. Collecting a sufficiently large data set of manually annotated data to construct a comprehensive in vivo atlas of rapidly developing structures is challenging but necessary for large population studies and clinical application. We propose a method for the semi-supervised learning of a spatio-temporal latent atlas of fetal brain development, and corresponding segmentations of emerging cerebral structures, such as the ventricles or cortex. The atlas is based on the annotation of a few examples, and a large number of imaging data without annotation. It models the morphological and developmental variability across the population. Furthermore, it serves as basis for the estimation of a structures' morphological age, and its deviation from the nominal gestational age during the assessment of pathologies. Experimental results covering the gestational period of 20-30 gestational weeks demonstrate segmentation accuracy achievable with minimal annotation, and precision of morphological age estimation. Age estimation results on fetuses suffering from lissencephaly demonstrate that they detect significant differences in the age offset compared to a control group. PMID:24080527

Dittrich, Eva; Riklin Raviv, Tammy; Kasprian, Gregor; Donner, René; Brugger, Peter C; Prayer, Daniela; Langs, Georg

2014-01-01

110

Advances in deep learning for vision, with applications to industrial inspection: classification, segmentation and morphological extensions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Learning features for object detection and recognition with deep learning has received increasing attention in the past several years and recently attained widespread popularity. In this PhD thesis we investigate its applications to the automatic surface inspection system of our industrial partner ArcelorMittal, for classification and segmentation problems. Currently employed algorithms, in fact, use fixed feature extractors which are hard to tune and require extensive prior-knowledge. Ou...

Masci, Jonathan; Schmidhuber, Ju?rgen

2014-01-01

111

Learning Novel Morphology: The Role of Meaning and Orientation of Attention at Initial Exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

A large body of research has shown that suffixes--both inflectional and derivational--can be primed with adult native speakers, which informs our understanding of storage and access to morphology in mature systems. However, this line of research has not yet been conducted from an acquisition perspective: Little is known about whether or not…

Marsden, Emma; Williams, John; Liu, Xierong

2013-01-01

112

Spelling Dutch Doublets: Children's Learning of a Phonological and Morphological Spelling Rule  

Science.gov (United States)

This study addresses the question of why spellings determined by morphology are relatively hard to acquire by presenting a latent class model of children's acquisition of a doublet of consonants in the spelling of Dutch verbs. This spelling pattern can be determined either by a phonological rule (after a short vowel, a doublet is spelled) or a…

Notenboom, Annelise; Reitsma, Pieter

2007-01-01

113

Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses two well-known texts that respectively describe learning and teaching, drawn from the work of Freud and Plato. These texts are considered in psychoanalytic terms using a methodology drawn from the philosophy of Luce Irigaray. In particular the article addresses Irigaray's approach to the analysis of speech and utterance as a…

Peers, Chris

2012-01-01

114

Graphophonological, orthographic and morphological regularities: implicit learning and early impact on reading  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis studies the appearance of graphophonological, orthographic, morphological knowledge and the use of this knowledge in reading. The results show that explicit knowledge of graphophonological consistency comes later, and is preceded by a demonstration of graphophonological sensitivity. From the first grade, this consistency has an influence on the speed and on the precision of reading regular words. This effect is found in the expert reader mainly for pseudo-words. From the first gra...

Rocher, Anne-sophie

2005-01-01

115

Learner Negotiation of L2 Form in Transcription Exercises  

Science.gov (United States)

Negotiation of language form is thought to engage learning processes by helping learners to notice gaps in their developing L2 and find target-like ways of filling them. Self-transcription, where learners work together to find language errors in recordings of their own oral output, is an awareness raising exercise that encourages such negotiation.…

Mennim, Paul

2012-01-01

116

Selective Listening in L2 Learners of French  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper considers the issue raised in 2008 by Gillian Brown in her article "Selective listening" regarding whether nouns are "privileged" in memory over verbs during listening tasks, and whether attention to nouns, at least in the early stages of L2 learning, is a desirable strategy to be taught to learners, as Brown suggests it might be. The…

Graham, Suzanne; Santos, Denise

2013-01-01

117

Manifold learning for automatically predicting articular cartilage morphology in the knee with data from the osteoarthritis initiative (OAI)  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative, debilitating disease with a large socio-economic impact. This study looks to manifold learning as an automatic approach to harness the plethora of data provided by the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). We construct several Laplacian Eigenmap embeddings of articular cartilage appearance from MR images of the knee using multiple MR sequences. A region of interest (ROI) defined as the weight bearing medial femur is automatically located in all images through non-rigid registration. A pairwise intensity based similarity measure is computed between all images, resulting in a fully connected graph, where each vertex represents an image and the weight of edges is the similarity measure. Spectral analysis is then applied to these pairwise similarities, which acts to reduce the dimensionality non-linearly and embeds these images in a manifold representation. In the manifold space, images that are close to each other are considered to be more "similar" than those far away. In the experiment presented here we use manifold learning to automatically predict the morphological changes in the articular cartilage by using the co-ordinates of the images in the manifold as independent variables for multiple linear regression. In the study presented here five manifolds are generated from five sequences of 390 distinct knees. We find statistically significant correlations (up to R2 = 0.75), between our predictors and the results presented in the literature.

Donoghue, C.; Rao, A.; Bull, A. M. J.; Rueckert, D.

2011-03-01

118

On the functor l^2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the functor l^2 from the category of partial injections to the category of Hilbert spaces. The former category is finitely accessible, and in both categories homsets are algebraic domains. The functor preserves daggers, monoidal structures, enrichment, and various (co)limits, but has no adjoints. Up to unitaries, its direct image consists precisely of the partial isometries, but its essential image consists of all continuous linear maps between Hilbert spaces.

Heunen, Chris

2010-01-01

119

Musical morphology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Morphologic measures have long been used to determine the patho-anatomical signature of different neurologic disorders. However, these measures can also be used to determine effects of specific learning tasks and quantifiable human abilities on cerebral structure. Musicians provide interesting opportunities for this type of analysis as their various skills, such as rhythmic ability and pitch and harmony discrimination (acquired through years of practicing and playing) can be quantified and compared using distinct morphologic analyses. Here, we review magnetic resonance imaging-based morphologic analyses in the music and neuroscience literature and provide some results from our own analysis of rhythmic ability in a cohort of musicians.

Chakravarty, M Mallar; Vuust, Peter

2009-01-01

120

Visuospatial learning and memory in the Cebus apella and microglial morphology in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and CA1 lacunosum molecular layer.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated whether the morphology of microglia in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus (DG-Mol) or in the lacunosum molecular layer of CA1 (CA1-LMol) was correlated with spatial learning and memory in the capuchin monkey (Cebus apella). Learning and memory was tested in 4 monkeys with visuo-spatial, paired associated learning (PAL) tasks from the Cambridge battery of neuropsychological tests. After testing, monkeys were sacrificed, and hippocampi were sectioned. We specifically immunolabeled microglia with an antibody against the adapter binding, ionized calcium protein. Microglia were selected from the middle and outer thirds of the DG-Mol (n=268) and the CA1-LMol (n=185) for three-dimensional reconstructions created with Neurolucida and Neuroexplorer software. Cluster and discriminant analyses, based on microglial morphometric parameters, identified two major morphological microglia phenotypes (types I and II) found in both the CA1-LMol and DG-Mol of all individuals. Compared to type II, type I microglia were significantly smaller, thinner, more tortuous and ramified, and less complex (lower fractal dimensions). PAL performance was both linearly and non-linearly correlated with type I microglial morphological features from the rostral and caudal DG-Mol, but not with microglia from the CA1-LMol. These differences in microglial morphology and correlations with PAL performance were consistent with previous proposals of hippocampal regional contributions for spatial learning and memory. Our results suggested that at least two morphological microglial phenotypes provided distinct physiological roles to learning-associated activity in the rostral and caudal DG-Mol of the monkey brain. PMID:25462387

Santos-Filho, Carlos; de Lima, Camila M; Fôro, César A R; de Oliveira, Marcus A; Magalhães, Nara G M; Guerreiro-Diniz, Cristovam; Diniz, Daniel G; Vasconcelos, Pedro F da C; Diniz, Cristovam W P

2014-11-01

 
 
 
 
121

Children's Acquisition of L2 Spanish Morphosyntax in an Immersion Setting  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reexamines Critical Period and L1/L2 differences by looking at the development of Spanish morphosyntax by young Anglophone immersion learners, in light of two hypotheses, Full Transfer/Full Access (FTFA) and Failed Functional Features (FFFH). FTFA maintains that syntax and morphology develop separately in L2 acquisition for adults and…

Herschensohn, Julia; Stevenson, Jeff; Waltmunson, Jeremy

2005-01-01

122

Active learning of neuron morphology for accurate automated tracing of neurites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Automating the process of neurite tracing from light microscopy stacks of images is essential for large-scale or high-throughput quantitative studies of neural circuits. While the general layout of labeled neurites can be captured by many automated tracing algorithms, it is often not possible to differentiate reliably between the processes belonging to different cells. The reason is that some neurites in the stack may appear broken due to imperfect labeling, while others may appear fused due to the limited resolution of optical microscopy. Trained neuroanatomists routinely resolve such topological ambiguities during manual tracing tasks by combining information about distances between branches, branch orientations, intensities, calibers, tortuosities, colors, as well as the presence of spines or boutons. Likewise, to evaluate different topological scenarios automatically, we developed a machine learning approach that combines many of the above mentioned features. A specifically designed confidence measure was used to actively train the algorithm during user-assisted tracing procedure. Active learning significantly reduces the training time and makes it possible to obtain less than 1% generalization error rates by providing few training examples. To evaluate the overall performance of the algorithm a number of image stacks were reconstructed automatically, as well as manually by several trained users, making it possible to compare the automated traces to the baseline inter-user variability. Several geometrical and topological features of the traces were selected for the comparisons. These features include the total trace length, the total numbers of branch and terminal points, the affinity of corresponding traces, and the distances between corresponding branch and terminal points. Our results show that when the density of labeled neurites is sufficiently low, automated traces are not significantly different from manual reconstructions obtained by trained users.

Armen Stepanyants

2014-05-01

123

Active learning of neuron morphology for accurate automated tracing of neurites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Automating the process of neurite tracing from light microscopy stacks of images is essential for large-scale or high-throughput quantitative studies of neural circuits. While the general layout of labeled neurites can be captured by many automated tracing algorithms, it is often not possible to differentiate reliably between the processes belonging to different cells. The reason is that some neurites in the stack may appear broken due to imperfect labeling, while others may appear fused due to the limited resolution of optical microscopy. Trained neuroanatomists routinely resolve such topological ambiguities during manual tracing tasks by combining information about distances between branches, branch orientations, intensities, calibers, tortuosities, colors, as well as the presence of spines or boutons. Likewise, to evaluate different topological scenarios automatically, we developed a machine learning approach that combines many of the above mentioned features. A specifically designed confidence measure was used to actively train the algorithm during user-assisted tracing procedure. Active learning significantly reduces the training time and makes it possible to obtain less than 1% generalization error rates by providing few training examples. To evaluate the overall performance of the algorithm a number of image stacks were reconstructed automatically, as well as manually by several trained users, making it possible to compare the automated traces to the baseline inter-user variability. Several geometrical and topological features of the traces were selected for the comparisons. These features include the total trace length, the total numbers of branch and terminal points, the affinity of corresponding traces, and the distances between corresponding branch and terminal points. Our results show that when the density of labeled neurites is sufficiently low, automated traces are not significantly different from manual reconstructions obtained by trained users. PMID:24904306

Gala, Rohan; Chapeton, Julio; Jitesh, Jayant; Bhavsar, Chintan; Stepanyants, Armen

2014-01-01

124

L2 English Intonation: Relations between Form-Meaning Associations, Access to Meaning, and L1 Transfer  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there is consistent evidence that higher levels of processing, such as learning the form-meaning associations specific to the second language (L2), are a source of difficulty in acquiring L2 speech, no study has addressed how these levels interact in shaping L2 perception and production of intonation. We examine the hypothesis of whether…

Ortega-Llebaria, Marta; Colantoni, Laura

2014-01-01

125

Cognitive Abilities, Chunk-Strength, and Frequency Effects in Implicit Artificial Grammar and Incidental L2 Learning: Replications of Reber, Walkenfeld, and Hernstadt (1991) and Knowlton and Squire (1996) and Their Relevance for SLA  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports replications of studies of implicit artificial grammar (AG) learning and explicit series-solution learning with experienced second language learners in order to examine their population and content generalizability. As found by Reber, Walkenfeld, and Hernstadt (1991), there was significantly greater variance in explicit compared…

Robinson, Peter

2005-01-01

126

L^2-Homology for von Neumann Algebras  

CERN Document Server

We define the notion of L^2 homology and L^2 Betti numbers for a tracial von Neumann algebra, or, more generally, for any involutive algebra with a trace. The definition of these invariants is obtained from the definition of L^2 homology for groups, using the ideas from the theory of correspondences. For the group algebra of a discrete group, our Betti numbers coincide with the L^2 Betti numbers of the group. We find a link between the first L^2 Betti number and free entropy dimension, which points to the non-vanishing of L^2 homology for the von Neumann algebra of a free group.

Connes, A; Connes, Alain; Shlyakhtenko, Dimitri

2003-01-01

127

CALL-enhanced L2 listening skills – aiming for automatization in a multimedia environment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening comprehension research, as they are the foundations of our methodological proposal. It also establishes a set of criteria for the design and pedagogical ex...

Blasco Mayor, Mari?a Jesu?s

2009-01-01

128

Teaching L2 Spanish Stress  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated the effects of training on the perception of Spanish stress, an important feature in the Spanish verbal morphology system. Participants were two intact classes of native English speakers enrolled in a six-week session of second-semester Spanish, as well as native English and native Spanish control groups. During the…

Saalfeld, Anita K.

2012-01-01

129

A Review of Multimedia Glosses and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in CALL Literature  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the literature of multimedia glosses in computer assisted language learning (CALL) and their effects on L2 vocabulary acquisition during the past seventeen years. Several studies have touched on this area to examine the potential of multimedia in a CALL environment in aiding L2 vocabulary acquisition. In this review, the…

Mohsen, Mohammed Ali; Balakumar, M.

2011-01-01

130

The Impact of CLIL on L2 Vocabulary Development and Content Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper examines whether students involved in CLIL are able to learn content through the medium of L2 and simultaneously exhibit significant gains in L2 vocabulary knowledge. Two experiments were set up in two public primary schools. Two groups of 6th grade students participated in each experiment. The first group was taught three 80-minute…

Xanthou, Maria

2011-01-01

131

L1 Allophones in L2 Speech Production: The Case of English Learners of Spanish  

Science.gov (United States)

Although it is broadly accepted that adult second-language (L2) learners focus attention only on those aspects of sounds needed for phonemic contrast, the role that allophony plays in the process of L2 speech learning is less well understood. It is widely assumed that speakers do not have conscious awareness of and access to first-language (L1)…

Vokic, Gabriela

2010-01-01

132

L2-cohomology of arithmetic varieties  

Science.gov (United States)

The L2-cohomology of arithmetic quotients of bounded symmetric domains is studied. We establish the conjecture of Zucker equating the L2-cohomology of these spaces to the intersection cohomology of their Baily-Borel compactifications. PMID:16593866

Saper, Leslie; Stern, Mark

1987-01-01

133

L2-cohomology of arithmetic varieties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The L2-cohomology of arithmetic quotients of bounded symmetric domains is studied. We establish the conjecture of Zucker equating the L2-cohomology of these spaces to the intersection cohomology of their Baily-Borel compactifications.

Saper, Leslie; Stern, Mark

1987-01-01

134

L(2)-cohomology of arithmetic varieties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The L(2)-cohomology of arithmetic quotients of bounded symmetric domains is studied. We establish the conjecture of Zucker equating the L(2)-cohomology of these spaces to the intersection cohomology of their Baily-Borel compactifications. PMID:16593866

Saper, L; Stern, M

1987-08-01

135

Digital Game-Based Learning (DGBL) in the L2 Classroom: The Impact of the UN's Off-the-Shelf Videogame, Food Force, on Learner Affect and Vocabulary Retention  

Science.gov (United States)

This mixed-method study explored the impact of "Food Force (FF)", a UN-sponsored off-the-shelf videogame, on learner affect and vocabulary learning and retention in a Japanese as a second/foreign language classroom. The videogame was integrated into an existing curriculum and two studies were performed. In Study 1 (n = 9), new vocabulary…

Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Schmidt, Matthew; Hayashi, Kentaro

2014-01-01

136

Learning to Characterize Submarine Lava Flow Morphology at Seamounts and Spreading Centers using High Definition Video and Photomosaics  

Science.gov (United States)

In August, 2010 the UW ENLIGHTEN ’10 expedition provided ~140 hours of seafloor HD video footage at Axial Seamount, the most magmatically robust submarine volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. During this expedition, direct imagery from an Insite Pacific HD camera mounted on the ROV Jason 2 was used to classify broad expanses of seafloor where high power (8 kw) and high bandwidth (10 Gb/s) fiber optic cable will be laid as part of the Regional Scale Nodes (RSN) component of the NSF funded Ocean Observatories Initiative. The cable will provide power and two-way, real-time communication to an array of >20 sensors deployed at the summit of the volcano and at active sites of hydrothermal venting to investigate how active processes within the volcano and at seafloor hot springs within the caldera are connected. In addition to HD imagery, over 10,000 overlapping photographs from a down-looking still camera were merged and co-registered to create high resolution photomosaics of two areas within Axial’s caldera. Thousands of additional images were taken to characterize the seafloor along proposed cable routes, allowing optimal routes to be planned well in advance of deployment. Lowest risk areas included those free of large collapse basins, steep flow fronts and fissures. Characterizing the modes of lava distribution across the seafloor is crucial to understanding the construction history of the upper oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges. In part, reconstruction of crustal development and eruptive histories can be inferred from surface flow morphologies, which provide insights into lava emplacement dynamics and effusion rates of past eruptions. An online resource is under development that will educate students about lava flow morphologies through the use of HD video and still photographs. The objective of the LavaFlow exercise is to map out a proposed cable route across the Axial Seamount caldera. Students are first trained in appropriate terminology and background content to learn to recognize and identify various lava flow morphologies and volcanic features. They then conduct a virtual ROV Jason 2 dive using video and still photographs, and characterize the terrain. Their observations are supplemented by the integration of high resolution (1 m scale resolution) bathymetry collected with a RESON SeaBat 7125 sonar mounted on Jason 2 during ENLIGHTEN’10. Students visualize the bathymetry in 2D and 3D using CARIS HIPS 7.0 software. COVE (Collaborative Ocean Visualization Environment) geospatial software is then used to plan and map out an optimal cable route. The LavaFlow exercise allows students to employ the same technologies used by the RSN team for designing the Axial Seamount cabled observatory infrastructure. When completed in 2014, real-time HD imagery, geophysical, chemical and biological sensors will provide data in real-time from this site to educators throughout the US and globe via the Internet.

Fundis, A. T.; Sautter, L. R.; Kelley, D. S.; Delaney, J. R.; Kerr-Riess, M.; Denny, A. R.; Elend, M.

2010-12-01

137

Quantitative analysis of mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in living cells using high-content imaging, machine learning, and morphological binning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the processes of mitochondrial dynamics (fission, fusion, biogenesis, and mitophagy) has been hampered by the lack of automated, deterministic methods to measure mitochondrial morphology from microscopic images. A method to quantify mitochondrial morphology and function is presented here using a commercially available automated high-content wide-field fluorescent microscopy platform and R programming-language-based semi-automated data analysis to achieve high throughput morphological categorization (puncta, rod, network, and large & round) and quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential. In conjunction with cellular respirometry to measure mitochondrial respiratory capacity, this method detected that increasing concentrations of toxicants known to directly or indirectly affect mitochondria (t-butyl hydroperoxide [TBHP], rotenone, antimycin A, oligomycin, ouabain, and carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone [FCCP]), decreased mitochondrial networked areas in cultured 661w cells to 0.60-0.80 at concentrations that inhibited respiratory capacity to 0.20-0.70 (fold change compared to vehicle). Concomitantly, mitochondrial swelling was increased from 1.4- to 2.3-fold of vehicle as indicated by changes in large & round areas in response to TBHP, oligomycin, or ouabain. Finally, the automated identification of mitochondrial location enabled accurate quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential by measuring intramitochondrial tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) fluorescence intensity. Administration of FCCP depolarized and administration of oligomycin hyperpolarized mitochondria, as evidenced by changes in intramitochondrial TMRM fluorescence intensities to 0.33- or 5.25-fold of vehicle control values, respectively. In summary, this high-content imaging method accurately quantified mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in hundreds of thousands of cells on a per-cell basis, with sufficient throughput for pharmacological or toxicological evaluation. PMID:25447550

Leonard, Anthony P; Cameron, Robert B; Speiser, Jaime L; Wolf, Bethany J; Peterson, Yuri K; Schnellmann, Rick G; Beeson, Craig C; Rohrer, Bärbel

2015-02-01

138

MOTHER TONGUE (L1 Vis-A-Vis OTHER TONGUE (L2?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Learning a language is always a difficult thing and more so when it comes to learning a second language (L2 for it reflects the complexity of learning a language which is the other tongue rather than the mother tongue of a person. The present paper proposes to focus on the prospects and benefits of the skill-based learning of the L2. All learners, as such pick up a language by two means: a acquisition of one's own language/mother tongue, and b learning another language. Acquisition is a subconscious and intuitive process, similar to that used by a child to pick up the first language (L1; and the second is conscious learning, in which a learner is aware of his/her own learning process.

Arun Behera

2012-07-01

139

GLI ERRORI DI ITALIANO L1 ED L2: INTERFERENZA E APPRENDIMENTO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Si può oggi affrontare il tema degli errori di italiano da una prospettiva che possa giovare contemporaneamente a docenti di italiano L1 ed L2? Noi pensiamo di sì: la ricerca glottodidattica sembra aver ormai apprestato un terreno comune alle due situazioni di apprendimento, sgombrando il campo da vecchi pregiudizi e distinzioni che appaiono ormai superate. Attraverso la contrapposizione di concetti quali “lingua parlata/lingua scritta”,  “errori di lingua / errori di linguaggio”, “apprendimento spontaneo/apprendimento guidato”, “italiano L1/italiano L2”, “errori di apprendimento/errori di interferenza, si indicano diversi criteri per la interpretazione degli errori e la loro valutazione in relazione alle cause, alle situazioni comunicative, ai contesti o allo stadio di evoluzione dell’apprendimento della lingua.     Errors in italian L1 and L2: interference and learning   Can errors in Italian be approached in a way that benefits both L1 and L2 Italian teachers? We believe so: glottodidactic research seems to have prepared a common terrain for these two learning situations, clearing the field of old prejudices and obsolete distinctions.  Through the juxtaposition of concepts like “spoken language/written language”, “language errors/speech errors”, “spontaneous learning/guided learning”, “L1 Italian/L2 Italian”, “learning errors/interference errors”, different criteria for interpreting errors and evaluating them in relation to their causes, to communicative situations, to contexts and the developmental state in learning a language are singled out.

Rosaria Solarino

2011-02-01

140

Using Eye-Tracking to Investigate Topics in L2 Acquisition and L2 Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

Second language (L2) researchers are becoming more interested in both L2 learners' knowledge of the target language and how that knowledge is put to use during real-time language processing. Researchers are therefore beginning to see the importance of combining traditional L2 research methods with those that capture the moment-by-moment…

Roberts, Leah; Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

The development of L2 emergent literacy in Hong Kong Kindergarten children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis explores the development of emergent literacy in Hong Kong Kindergarten children who are learning English as a Second Language (L2). Two interrelated empirical studies have been conducted, and both aim to examine the contribution of code-related and oral language skills to predicting early L2 reading ability, controlling for home influences. The majority of research on emergent literacy has been conducted on First-Language (L1) English-speaking children, and it is possible that th...

Chan, Lydia L. S.; Sylva, Kathy

2009-01-01

142

Investigating L2 Refusals: A Case Study of Chinese Native Speakers’ L2 Pragmatic Competence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The speech act the researcher studies in this paper is refusal which, according to Ellis (2008, involves high level of pragmatic competence of the speaker, especially when it is compared with other speech acts like apology and request. Refusal seems to be particularly high-demanding for L2 learners, for L2 linguistic proficiency might be the hindrance. The researcher studies on one Chinese L2 learner’s pragmatic competence by focusing on the pragmatic strategies adopted in his L2 refusals. The result of this study suggests that L2 pragmatic competence is restrained by learners’ linguistic proficiency from utilizing more effective pragmatic strategies. Both linguistic and pragmatic transfer limits Chinese L2 learners’ pragmatic behaviors. Therefore, pedagogical intervention involving pragmatic knowledge for enhancing Chinese L2 learners’ pragmatic competence is advised and it might be even more helpful to the learners if culture is covered in the intervention.

Xiufeng Tian

2014-01-01

143

L2 Cohomology of the Bergman metric  

Science.gov (United States)

The L2 cohomology of the Bergman metric is infinite dimensional in the middle degree and vanishes for all other degrees. Asymptotic expansions are given for the Schwartz kernels of the corresponding projections onto harmonic forms. PMID:16593319

Donnelly, Harold; Fefferman, Charles

1983-01-01

144

L(2) Cohomology of the Bergman metric.  

Science.gov (United States)

The L(2) cohomology of the Bergman metric is infinite dimensional in the middle degree and vanishes for all other degrees. Asymptotic expansions are given for the Schwartz kernels of the corresponding projections onto harmonic forms. PMID:16593319

Donnelly, H; Fefferman, C

1983-05-01

145

The Effect of Lengthened Writing Approach on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on empirical research and qualitative analysis, this paper aims to explore the effects of Lengthened Writing Approach on L2 vocabulary acquisition. The results show that, during L2 vocabulary teaching process, the proper application of Lengthened Writing Approach can effectively facilitate the memorization of new words, and this teaching approach is welcomed by most subjects. This study highlights the role of Lengthened Writing Approach in L2 vocabulary acquisition, and sheds light on the college English learning and teaching.

Jing Liu

2009-02-01

146

Explicit Knowledge and Processes from a Usage-Based Perspective: The Developmental Trajectory of an Instructed L2 Learner  

Science.gov (United States)

This article considers explicit knowledge and processes in second language (L2) learning from a usage-based theoretical perspective. It reports on the long-term development of a single instructed adult learner's use of two L2 constructions, the German Perfekt of "gehen" ("go," "walk") and "fahren"…

Roehr-Brackin, Karen

2014-01-01

147

An Investigation of How the Channel of Input and Access to Test Questions Affect L2 Listening Test Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of video technology has become widespread in the teaching and testing of second-language (L2) listening, yet research into how this technology affects the learning and testing process has lagged. The current study investigated how the channel of input (audiovisual vs. audio-only) used on an L2 listening test affected test-taker…

Wagner, Elvis

2013-01-01

148

Literary Language in Development of L2 Competence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays it is believed that language in daily communication rather than literary language should be the target of learning in L2 education. This is mainly because literary language is said to be uncommon in life. This paper reports on a study in which some Hong Kong ESL learners’ English proficiency was re-examined through literary texts. These learners had reached intermediate or advanced levels of English prior to the study and were generally competent in daily English. However, many of them encountered difficulty in understanding literary language. Their proficiency in general English test could not match their performances in understanding literary works. The findings reveal that learners who are strong in general proficiency may not be good in understanding literary language. Lack of literary language in the curriculum results in a false and distorted picture about the learners’ proficiency. Literary language helps upgrade L2 learners’ real proficiency in the target language.Keywords: literature, literary language, L2 proficiency, reading competence

Dan Lu

2012-11-01

149

LA ICLASSE – SMARTPHONE E ITALIANO L2/LS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mai come oggi le classi (di Italiano L2, ma non solo sono così fortemente colonizzate dal digitale. L’invasione si è palesata sotto forma di telefonini cellulari (smartphone e tablet dotati di connessione internet e infinite potenzialità sotto forma di applicazioni che possono sia aiutare il discente sia, se male impiegati, ostacolarlo dall’intraprendere un proficuo percorso di apprendimento. Compito dell’insegnante di lingua è circoscrivere l’influenza e l’uso di tali strumenti – che non sono mero techné, ma un modo di funzionare di una generazione – non  per vietarli ma per proporre un approccio e un loro utilizzo costruttivo quali mezzi dalle grandi potenzialità nell’apprendimento di una lingua straniera.     The 1st class – Smartphones and Italian L2/FL   Classrooms (for Italian L2, but not only have never before been so strongly digitally oriented. This invasion is made tangible by smartphones and tablets equipped with internet connections and infinite potential thanks to applications which can help students in their studies, or hinder them if used incorrectly. The language teacher’s task is to circumscribe the influence and use of these tools– which are not mere techné, but the way an entire generation functions – not to prohibit using them but to propose using them constructively, thanks to their great potential for foreign language learning.

Filippo Zanoli

2012-02-01

150

Effects of Input Properties, Vocabulary Size, and L1 on the Development of Third Person Singular -"s" in Child L2 English  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to investigate the development of third-person singular (3SG) -"s" in children who learn English as a second language (L2). Adopting the usage-based perspective on the learning of inflection, we analyzed spontaneous speech samples collected from 15 English L2 children who were followed over a 2-year period. Assessing the…

Blom, Elma; Paradis, Johanne; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson

2012-01-01

151

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disease with a slowly progressive course and characterized by increased levels of hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. In this condition clinical features mainly consist of mental deterioration, ataxia and motor deficits. Case Outline. The patient is a 16-year-old girl, the first and only child of healthy, non-consanguineous parents of Serbian origin. At the age of 4 years her walk became unsteady and ataxic. Other signs of cerebellar involvement were soon observed. Head circumference was above two standard deviations (55 cm. Mild mental retardation was revealed by formal intelligence testing (IQ 60. MR examination of the brain showed confluent subcortical white matter lesions spread centripetally, and atrophy of the cerebellar vermis with involvement of dentate nuclei, without deep white matter abnormalities. Laboratory investigation revealed increased amounts and a very large peak of HGA in urine and plasma. Enantiomeric analysis confirmed the L-configuration (>90% establishing the diagnosis of L-2-HGA. The first epileptic seizure, partial with secondary generalization, occurred at age of 8 years. Favorable seizure control was achieved. A slow progression of neurological impairment was noted. Therapeutic trials with oral coenzyme Q10 and with oral riboflavin showed no biochemical and clinical effects. Recently, the diagnosis was proven by the presence of a mutation in the L-2-HGA gene. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of L-2-HGA in Serbia. L-2-HGA must be considered in the differential diagnosis based on specific findings in cranial MRI.

Jovi? Nebojša J.

2014-01-01

152

Automated three-dimensional reconstruction and morphological analysis of dendritic spines based on semi-supervised learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A dendritic spine is a small membranous protrusion from a neuron's dendrite that typically receives input from a single synapse of an axon. Recent research shows that the morphological changes of dendritic spines have a close relationship with some specific diseases. The distribution of different dendritic spine phenotypes is a key indicator of such changes. Therefore, it is necessary to classify detected spines with different phenotypes online. Since the dendritic spines have complex three d...

Shi, Peng; Huang, Yue; Hong, Jinsheng

2014-01-01

153

L2 Model Reduction and Variance Reduction  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this contribution we examine certain variance properties of model reduction. The focus is on L2 model reduction, but some general results are also presented. These general results can be used to analyze various other model reduction schemes. The models we study are finite impulse response (FIR) and output error (OE) models. We compare the variance of two estimated models. The first one is estimated directly from data and the other one is computed by reducing a high order model, by L2 mod...

Tja?rnstro?m, Fredrik; Ljung, Lennart

2007-01-01

154

Repair Negotiation by English L2 Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

It is widely accepted that L2 learners often face communication problems due to lack of competency in the target language and familiarity with its culture of origin. One way to resolve miscommunication problems is to seek clarification of the utterance; this process is called "repair negotiation" (Nakahama et al. 2001). Repair…

Choi, Yujeong

2012-01-01

155

Generalized Spherical Harmonics for l=2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We extend to the case l=2 the study of the new generalized spherical harmonics introduced recently, and worked out only for the case l=1. We present some of the properties of the new quantities and clarify how they are related to standard forms.

Mulindwa, Lister T.; Mweene, Habatwa V.

2005-01-01

156

Genericity and Aspect in L2 Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

In this experimental study, we focus on the following semantic universal: if a habitual clause reading, then generic pronominal subject; if an episodic clause reading, then specific pronominal subject. We argue that although this set of two conditionals is a universal property of all natural languages, English-speaking second-language (L2)…

Slabakova, Roumyana; Montrul, Silvina

2003-01-01

157

L_2 Differentiability of Generalized Linear Models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We derive conditions for $L_2$ differentiability of generalized linear models with error distributions not necessarily belonging to exponential families, covering both cases of stochastic and deterministic regressors. These conditions induce smoothness and integrability conditions for corresponding GLM-based time series models.

Pupashenko, Daria; Ruckdeschel, Peter; Kohl, Matthias

2014-01-01

158

Exploring the Relationship between Reading Strategy Use and Multiple Intelligences among Successful L2 Readers  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the years, the multiple intelligences theory (MIT) proposed by Howard Gardner has renewed interest in learners' use of effective learning strategies and produced interesting results. This MIT-oriented study investigated the role of successful L2 readers' multiple intelligences in their effective use of reading strategies. To this…

Mirzaei, Azizullah; Rahimi Domakani, Masoud; Heidari, Najmeh

2014-01-01

159

Character Reading Fluency, Word Segmentation Accuracy, and Reading Comprehension in L2 Chinese  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the relationships between lower-level processing and general reading comprehension among adult L2 (second-language) beginning learners of Chinese, in both target and non-target language learning environments. Lower-level processing in Chinese reading includes the factors of character-naming accuracy, character-naming speed,…

Shen, Helen H.; Jiang, Xin

2013-01-01

160

A Blended Collaborative Writing Approach for Chinese L2 Primary School Students  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines an adaptable collaborative writing approach employing a wiki to address the typical weaknesses of young Singaporean Chinese students learning Chinese as second language (L2) in Chinese writing. These students' problems in writing include limited and incorrect use of vocabulary, English-style grammar, badly structured passages,…

Wong, Lung-Hsiang; Chen, Wenli; Chai, Ching-Sing; Chin, Chee-Kuen; Gao, Ping

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Orthographic Influence on the Phonological Development of L2 Learners of Korean  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation examines the influence of L2 orthographic representation on the phonological development of American English speakers learning Korean, addressing specifically the syllabification and resyllabification of Korean intervocalic obstruents and the intervocalic liquid phoneme. Although Korean and English both employ alphabetic writing…

Lee, Sooyeon

2012-01-01

162

Instability study for LOFT for L2-1, L2-2, and L2-3 pretest steady-state operating conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results are presented of a thermal-hydrodynamic flow instability study of the LOFT reactor for the L2-1, L2-2, and L2-3 pretest steady-state operating conditions. Comparison is made between the LOFT reactor and a typical PWR, and the effects on stability of differences in operating parameters and geometry are discussed. Results indicate that the LOFT reactor will be thermal-hydrodynamically stable for nominal and worst case operating conditions. The study supports the LOFT Experimental Safety Analyses for the L2-1, L2-2, and L2-3 tests

163

An Application of the L2 Motivational Self System to Motivate Elementary School English Learners in Singapore  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available I will describe a program that I developed to motivate grade five elementary school learners of English in Singapore to put more time and effort into learning English by enhancing their vision of their Ideal second language (L2 self and making their goals for learning English more clear and specific. The Ideal L2 self is the representation of the L2 attributes that one wishes to possess if one is able to master one’s L2. The participants, who were separated into a control group and an experimental group, lacked both confidence in their English and the motivation to study it. They also had negative attitudes toward studying English. During the training program, which consisted of a series of workshops, I asked the participants in the experimental group to imagine scripted imagery situations to enhance their vision of their Ideal L2 self. I also helped these participants to develop clear and specific goals and action plans for learning English. The mixed methods longitudinal study, which lasted four months, employed a series of questionnaires and interviews in order to assess the participants’ motivational development. The main findings were that 90% of the participants in the experimental group became more motivated to learn English, more confident in their English, and exhibited more positive attitudes toward learning English as a result of the program.  Only 50% of the participants became motivated, 75% became more confident, and 90% improved their attitudes toward learning English in the control group.

Michael Magid

2014-01-01

164

Impact of English Orthography on L2 Acquisition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available English language has become unavoidable being a global language in the present era. Whether it is a field of business, technology or education, its significance can’t be denied. Thus, majority of the world is learning and speaking English owing to its dire need. Unfortunately, despite staining through different reforms, the orthography of English language failed to become learners’ friendly as it seems to be a queer language for the beginners. The present study describes the ways how English orthography becomes impediment for EFL learners. It elucidates how learners in general and Urdu learners of English language in particular, are influenced by its deep orthography. The article reviews the interesting history of English orthography. Moreover, it reveals the phonological relationship between Urdu and English Consonants that causes inferences based on grapheme to phoneme conversion. The study highlights problems posed by English vowels resulting in wrong assumptions by L2 learners from English orthography. It sums up showing the significance of phonological awareness of English spellings to avoid wrong L2 phonology.

Muhammad Aslam Sipra

2013-01-01

165

Introduction. Beyond the Obvious: Do Second Language Learners Process Inflectional Morphology?  

Science.gov (United States)

Given that this special issue is devoted to the acquisition and processing of inflectional morphology by second language (L2) learners, the question in the title may appear redundant. However, recent research on first language (L1) and L2 morphological processing has challenged basic assumptions about the status of inflectional morphology in…

Gor, Kira

2010-01-01

166

Immunogenicity of an HPV-16 L2 DNA vaccine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ability to elicit cross-neutralizing antibodies makes human papillomavirus (HPV) L2 capsid protein a possible HPV vaccine. We examined and compared the humoral response of mice immunised with a HPV-16 L2 DNA vaccine or with HPV-16 L2 protein. The L2 DNA vaccine elicited a non-neutralising antibody response unlike the L2 protein. L2 DNA vaccination suppressed the growth of L2-expressing C3 tumor cells, which is a T cell mediated effect, demonstrating that the lack of non-neutralizing antib...

Hitzeroth, Inga I.; Passmore, Jo-ann S.; Shephard, Enid; Stewart, Debbie; Mu?ller, Martin; Williamson, Anna-lise; Rybicki, Edward P.; Kast, W. Martin

2009-01-01

167

Sitio Web interactivo para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología del sistema muscular / Interactive Website to learn the morphology of the muscular system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Debido al desarrollo científico técnico alcanzado, se han insertado las tecnologías de la informática y las comunicaciones al proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de la disciplina Morfofisiología Humana. Se realizó una investigación de innovación tecnológica, en el área de pregrado de la Educación Médica, [...] en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río; con el objetivo de elaborar un sistema de medios de enseñanza para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular. Se utilizaron los métodos empíricos, las encuestas a estudiantes, entrevistas a profesores de la asignatura y a los profesores asesores, criterio de expertos para validar el producto. Los métodos teóricos: histórico, lógico y sistémico, fueron utilizados en la revisión bibliográfica y el análisis documental que sustenta el estudio. Las guías de estudio se elaboraron por el modelo "WebQuest" y los ejercicios interactivos con el programa "exelearning". El sistema de medios de enseñanza se ubicó en el sitio Web "MioloWeb", elaborado con "Joomla 1.7". El contenido está estructurado en subtemas y en cada uno de ellos, se facilita al estudiante una variedad de materiales educativos computarizados, que permitirán el aprendizaje activo, consciente y desarrollador de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular, propiciando la interacción del estudiante de forma activa con los contenidos, la vinculación con las estrategias curriculares, la autoevaluación en la guía de estudio y en los ejercicios interactivos. Abstract in english Communicative and information technologies have been introduced in the teaching-learning process of Human Morphology Subject. A research paper of technological innovation was carried out in the pre-graduate area of Medical Education belonging to the University of Medical Sciences in Pinar del Rio, w [...] ith the purpose of creating a system of teaching aids to learn the human morphology of the muscular system. Empirical methods used were: surveys to students and interviews to professors and consultants of the subject, in addition to the criteria of the experts to validate the product; using also the theoretical methods: historical-logic and systemic to conduct the literature review and documentary analysis to support the study. Study guides were created following “WebQuest” model and interactive exercises using “exelearning” program. The system of teaching aids was built-in to “MioloWeb” Website, created with “Joomla 1.7”. The content is structured into subtopics and in every one of them, a variety of educational computerized materials is facilitated to the students, allowing this way an active, conscious and expanded learning of the human morphology of the muscular system, favoring at the same time a dynamic interaction of the student with the contents, the connection with the curricular strategies, and self-evaluation which was included in the guide of study plus interactive exercises.

Orliany, Alboniga Álvarez; Iraida, Hidalgo Gato Castillo; Niurka, Cabrera Vázquez; Rafael, Capote Martínez; Dariel, Díaz Díaz.

2012-06-01

168

IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2 CON LE CANZONI. UN CONTRIBUTO DIDATTICO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Il presente contributo si inserisce nel filone degli studi che hanno messo in evidenza la potenziale ricchezza della canzone come strumento di facilitazione dell’apprendimento della L2, e come mezzo per l’approccio al testo letterario per studenti di italiano L1, additandone il carattere di attività particolarmente efficace e ‘consonante’ con una prospettiva umanistico-affettiva, comunicativa, nonché socio-costruttivista. In queste pagine sono presentate alcune attività didattiche (pensate ora per gli apprendenti di italiano L2, ora per gli studenti di italiano L1 formulate a partire da alcuni testi del cantautore Claudio Baglioni (Io sono qui, Le vie dei Colori, Bolero, Fammi andar via tratti dall’album Io sono qui, 1995, edizioni CBS. I testi qui didattizzati sono utilizzabili in diverse prospettive: grammaticale, lessicale, retorica, socio-culturale, ecc.; e per diversi livelli di competenza linguistica (L2: A1-C1; L1.     Learning italian l2 through song.  A didactic contribution   This article is part of a series of studies which focus on the potential richness of songs as tools for facilitating L2 learning, as well as being a way to approach literary texts for L1 Italian students, being a particularly effective activity from a humanistic-affective, communicative and socio-constructivist point of view.  A few didactic activities are presented (designed for L2 Italian learners, or for L1 Italian learners based on songs by Claudio Baglioni (Io sono qui, Le vie dei Colori, Bolero, Fammi andar via from the album Io sono qui, 1995, edizioni CBS.  The texts were adapted for diverse didactic uses: grammatical, lexical, rhetorical, socio-cultural, etc and for different levels of linguistic competence (L2: A1-C1, L1

Elisabetta Mauroni

2011-07-01

169

The L2 Passionate Interactional Imperative (for short “The L2 Pie”: It’s Hot or It’s Not!  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available At the American Association of Applied Linguistics (AAAL 2011 conference, John Schumann described how Lee, Dina, Joaquin, Mates & Schumann’s (2010 interactional instinct unfolds between infants and caregivers such that learning an L1 is assured in normal development through emotional bonding between infants and caregivers which is substantiated by motivation, proficiency, and opportunities (all co-constructing concepts. In subsequent second language learning at an older age, these three characteristics are not environmentally and contextually assured, and this seems to account for a great part of the shortcomings of much of the late-L2 instruction in the world (Lee, Dina, Joaquin, Mates & Schumann, 2010.

Tim Murphey

2011-06-01

170

La Alternancia lingüística entre L1 Y L2 en tres contextos AICLE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper’s aim is to analyze teachers` code-switching from L1 (Italian) to L2 (English) in various CLIL contexts in Italy. For years the shift from L1 to L2 was banned in language classes since it was thought that in this way the learning of the foreign language could be impaired. On the contrary, in recent years there has instead been a recognition of the validity of code-switching which has been considered as a strategy adopted by all bilingual speakers (Baker 1996, Butzkamm 1998, Cook ...

Costa, Francesca

2009-01-01

171

The Contribution of L1 Phonemic Awareness into L2 Reading: The Case of Arab EFL Readers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cross-language transfer is the extent, if any, to which phonological awareness in L1 facilitates learning to read in L2. This has been an area of investigation wherein researchers looked into the orthographic and phonological component processing skills L2 learners develop and utilize to facilitate word recognition. Given the difference between the orthographic systems of Arabic (L1 and English (L2, how difficult is it for beginning Arab EFL learners to develop these skills? Arab EFL learners seem to have difficulty with prelexical word recognition processes leading to slower and perhaps even less accurate L2 word recognition skills. This study examines the possibility of transferring Arabic phonological awareness to learning English. Results are reported, most important of which is the confirmation of cross-language transfer.

Yousef Alshaboul

2014-02-01

172

FENÓMENOS DE REDUCCIÓN VOCÁLICA POR HABLANTES COLOMBIANOS DE INGLÉS COMO L2: UN ESTUDIO ACÚSTICO / VOWEL REDUCTION PHENOMENA BY COLOMBIAN SPANISH SPEAKERS OF L2 ENGLISH: AN ACOUSTIC STUDY / FENÔMENOS DE REDUÇÃO VOCÁLICA POR FALANTES COLOMBIANOS DE INGLÊS COMO L2: UM ESTUDO ACÚSTICO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este estudo avaliou as capacidades de um grupo de falantes de inglês como segunda língua (L2), quando percebiam e produzia a vogal inglesa Schwa. Avaliaram-se as hipóteses propostas pelo Modelo de Aprendizagem da Fala (Speech Learning Model [SML, por sua sigla em inglês]), as quais sugerem que os fa [...] lantes de L2 poderiam criar categorias fonéticas para novos sons. Tomou-se a ortografia como uma possível variável que afeta as habilidades dos falantes de L2. O estudo foi realizado em três etapas: a primeira avaliou as capacidades iniciais dos falantes de L2; a segunda consistiu num treinamento fonético em processos de redução vocálica e Schwa; finalmente, a terceira avaliou as mesmas instâncias depois do treinamento. Os resultados sugerem que os falantes tenham sido influenciados pela ortografia e tenham percebido e produzido Schwas que se assemelhavam a suas vogais nativas. Abstract in spanish Este estudio evaluó las capacidades de un grupo de hablantes de inglés como segunda lengua (L2), cuando percibían y producía la vocal inglesa Schwa. Se evaluaron las hipótesis propuestas por el Modelo de Aprendizaje del Habla (Speech Learning Model [SML, por sus siglas en inglés]), las cuales sugier [...] en que los hablantes de L2 podrían crear categorías fonéticas para sonidos nuevos. Se tomó la ortografía como una posible variable que afecta las habilidades de los hablantes de L2. El estudio se realizó en tres etapas: la primera evaluó las capacidades iniciales de los hablantes de L2; la segunda consistió en un entrenamiento fonético en procesos de reducción vocálica y Schwa, y, finalmente, la tercera evaluó las mismas instancias después del entrenamiento. Los resultados sugieren que los hablantes fueron influenciados por la ortografía y percibieron y produjeron Schwas que asemejaban sus vocales nativas. Abstract in english This study assessed the performances of a group of speakers of L2 English when perceiving and producing the English vowel Schwa. It evaluated the hypotheses proposed by the Speech Learning Model (SML), developed by Flege and colleagues (1988, 1992, 1999, and 2002), which suggest that L2 speakers are [...] capable of creating phonetic categories for new L2 sounds. The effect of orthography was chosen as a variable that could affect L2 speakers’ abilities. The study was carried out in three stages: the first one evaluated initial L2 speakers’ perceptual and productive abilities; stage two consisted of pronunciation training in vowel reduction processes; and stage three evaluated performances after training. Results suggest that Second Language (L2) speakers were influenced by the orthography; therefore, they perceived and produced Schwas as instances of their native vowels.

Kelly Johanna, Vera Diettes.

2014-06-01

173

L2 Teachers' Experience of CALL Technology Education and the Use of Computer Technology in the Classroom: The Case of Franklin County, Ohio  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary issues concerned with CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) teacher education are twofold: Integration of CALL technology into foreign and second language (L2) teacher education programs and L2 teachers' integration of CALL technology into their classroom. While increased attention has been paid to the former, only a small body of…

Hong, Kwang Hee

2009-01-01

174

Design of dialogic eLearning-to-learn: metalearning as pedagogical methodology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a perspective emphasising Meta learning (ML) as the most significant and pertinent feature for promoting a democratic, collaborative eLearning-to-Learn (eL2L) phenomenon in a global context. Through attempting to understand and clarify the powers of pedagogical design of global networked e Learning based on Learning-to-Learn (L2L), it makes a plea for L2L in a dialogic global learning context, offering a vision of global democratic citizens able to engage in critical dialogue with fellow learners. http://www.inderscience.com/search/index.php?action=record&rec_id=17675&prevQuery=&ps=10&m=or

Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

2008-01-01

175

New Physics in ?L = 2 neutrino oscillations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We propose a general framework to constrain ?L = 2 processes by measuring observables associated with neutrino-antineutrino oscillations in ?± decays. First, we use this formalism as a new strategy for detecting the CP-violating phases and the effective mass of muon Majorana neutrinos. Within the generic framework of quantum field theory, we compute the non-factorizable probability for producing a pair of same-charged muons in ?± decays as a distinctive signature of ??-?*?. Using the neutrino-antineutrino oscillation probability reported by MINOS collaboration, a new stringent bound on the effective muon-neutrino mass is derived. Secondly, we interpret the production of the pair of same-charged muons as a result of lepton number violating (LNV) interactions at the neutrino source, which allow us to constrain New Physics.

176

Assessing L2 Lexical versus Inflectional Accuracy across Skill Levels  

Science.gov (United States)

This study measures whether number and type of morphemes in an elicited imitation string results in a greater number of modifications with L2 experience. Rationale is drawn from L2 working memory processing limitations at distinct levels of proficiency. 38 subjects (L2 Spanish university students) comprise three proficiency groups: beginning,…

West, Donna E.

2014-01-01

177

QUALCHE RIFLESSIONE SULLA DIDATTICA DI L2 ISPIRATA ALLA RECENTE RICERCA ACQUISIZIONALE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sulla base di recenti studi di linguistica acquisizionale e di ricerche sull’apprendimento di L2 in classe, attente al ruolo dell’input e di fattori cognitivi (fra cui Doughty, 2003; Gass, 2003, 2005; Housen, Pierrard, 2005; Dörnyei, 2009; Sanz, Leow, 2011; Gass, Mackey, 2012, il contributo presenta alcune riflessioni in chiave applicativa, di didattica acquisizionale (Rastelli 2009, relative ai possibili risvolti didattici che tali studi possono suggerire nei contesti di istruzione di L2.  Fra i temi toccati vi sono il trattamento dell’input, il ruolo del noticing e dell’accessibilità al processing in L2, la focalizzazione sulla forma nella didattica, il feedback del docente e il suo approccio all’“errore” dell’apprendente, considerati alla luce di ricerche relative all’efficacia acquisizionale di tali elementi (Norris, Ortega, 2000; Russell, Spada, 2006; Ellis et al., 2009.   A few reflections on L2 language teaching inspired by recent research on language acquisition   Based on recent studies on language acquisition and on L2 learning in the classroom, with attention paid to the role of input and cognitive factors (see Doughty, 2003; Gass, 2003, 2005; Housen, Pierrard, 2005; Dörnyei, 2009; Sanz, Leow, 2011; Gass, Mackey, 2012, this paper presents a few reflections in terms of application of acquisitional teaching (Rastelli 2009, regarding the possible impact that these studies suggest in L2 teaching contexts.  The themes addressed regard input, the role of noticing and the accessibility of processing in L2, focusing on form in teaching, the feedback from the teacher and the approach used for  learners’ “errors” considered in light of studies regarding the acquisitional effectiveness of these elements (Norris, Ortega, 2000; Russell, Spada, 2006; Ellis et al., 2009.

Marina Chini

2012-02-01

178

The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and L2 Reading Skill among Iranian EFL University Students  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between multiple intelligences (MI and foreign language (L2 reading skill among Iranian EFL sophomores. Multiple intelligences and L2 reading measurements of participants – 29 males and 69 females who were selected from four intact classes – were obtained through McKenzie’s (1999 Multiple Intelligences Inventory and reading part of a Preliminary English Test PET, respectively, and then Pearson’s correlation analysis was run to determine the degree of the relationship between each component of multiple intelligences and L2 reading skill. Afterwards, through a multiple regression analysis those components of multiple intelligences which acted as the predictors of L2 reading skill were identified and the power of each predictor was calculated. The results of the correlation analyses revealed that linguistic-verbal, logical-mathematical, spatial, and interpersonal intelligences were significantly correlated with reading skill. In addition, the results showed that linguistic-verbal, interpersonal, and logical-mathematical intelligences were the best predictors of L2 reading skill scores of the participants. The results of the study can help coursebook designers, educational planners, foreign language institutes, teachers, learners and their parents to provide and use different methods of teaching and learning.Keywords: multiple intelligences, general intelligence, reading comprehension, university students, EFL

Saber Khooei Oskooei

2014-09-01

179

Relationships among L1 Print Exposure and Early L1 Literacy Skills, L2 Aptitude, and L2 Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

Authors examined the relationship between individual differences in L1 print exposure and differences in early L1 skills and later L2 aptitude, L2 proficiency, and L2 classroom achievement. Participants were administered measures of L1 word decoding, spelling, phonemic awareness, reading comprehension, receptive vocabulary, and listening…

Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

2012-01-01

180

THE IMPACT OF PHONOLOGICAL LOOP ON READING ACTIVITY OF EARLY CROATIAN LEARNERS OF L2 FRENCH  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examines reading acquisition in French as a Foreign Language by Croatian early learners (9-11 y.), beginners in L2 French. Designed under the cognitive perspective of foreign language learning/teaching, the thesis is divided in three parts. The first one sets the theoretical framework of the research by presenting relevant issues in fields of linguistics, psycholinguistics and foreign language acquisition and teaching. Firstly, we are dealing with the phonological and orthographic ...

Marijanovic, Vanda

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Learner Beliefs on L2 Attitudes and Motivation: An Exploratory Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This small-scale exploratory study investigated a group of French university students' beliefs about the English language and English language learning, and the impact these beliefs had on the learners' L2 attitudes and motivation. The study employed a three-phased research paradigm. The first phase consisted of a mind-showering activity and group discussions, which aimed to elicit the initial information. The second phase comprised a questionnaire whose items were formulated by using the inf...

Gabillon, Zehra

2007-01-01

182

Representation and Embodiment of Meaning in L2 Communication: Motion Events in the Speech and Gesture of Advanced L2 Korean and L2 English Speakers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the interface between speech and gesture in second language (L2) narration within Slobin's (2003) thinking-for-speaking (TFS) framework as well as with respect to McNeill's (1992, 2005) growth point (GP) hypothesis. Specifically, our interest is in whether speakers shift from a first language (L1) to a L2 TFS pattern as…

Choi, Soojung; Lantolf, James P.

2008-01-01

183

L2TTMON Monitoring Program for L2 Topological Trigger in H1 Experiment - User's Guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring software for the L2 Topological Trigger in H1 experiment consists of two parts working on two different computers. The hardware read-out and data processing is done on a fast FIC 8234 computer working with the OS9 real time operating system. The Macintosh Quadra is used as a Graphic User Interface for accessing the OS9 trigger monitoring software. The communication between both computers is based on the parallel connection between the Macintosh and the VME crate, where the FIC computer is placed. The special designed protocol (client-server) is used to communicate between both nodes. The general scheme of monitoring for the L2 Topological Trigger and detailed description of using of the monitoring software in both nodes are given in this guide. (author)

184

Morphological Errors in Spanish Second Language Learners and Heritage Speakers  

Science.gov (United States)

Morphological variability and the source of these errors have been intensely debated in SLA. A recurrent finding is that postpuberty second language (L2) learners often omit or use the wrong affix for nominal and verbal inflections in oral production but less so in written tasks. According to the missing surface inflection hypothesis, L2 learners…

Montrul, Silvina

2011-01-01

185

Initiating round robins in the L2 classroom - preliminary observations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Complementing recent interactional research on the contingent operation of online task accomplishment, this paper deals with a specific way of organizing and managing tasks in plenary L2 classrooms – namely the round robin. This may seem like a “traditional” and rigid form of classroom organization that reduces students’ contributions to responses to the teacher’s elicitations. This paper shows that although the round robin puts certain interactional features out of play, it is nonetheless done in and through participants’ mutual orientation to the ongoing activity. The paper describes the sequential position in which round robins are initiated and how this is talked and embodied into being by the participants as well as the design of the turn that initiates the round robin activity. Relevant to the initiation and further development of the round robin are the physical arrangement of the classroom and artefacts and graphic structures that are used not only as mediating tools in the (supposed) learning relevant activity, but also as structurally relevant features to organize the ongoing interaction, in which these activities emerge.

Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer

2011-01-01

186

Topics in mathematical morphology for multivariate images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis contributes to the field of mathematical morphology and illustrates how multivariate statistics and machine learning techniques can be exploited to design vector ordering and to include results of morphological operators in the pipeline of multivariate image analysis. In particular, we make use of supervised learning, random projections, tensor representations and conditional transformations to design new kinds of multivariate ordering, and morphological filters for color and mult...

Velasco-forero, Santiago

2012-01-01

187

Effect of novobiocin on mycoplasma virus L2 replication.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L2 is a temperate mycoplasma virus containing 11.8 kilobase pairs of negatively superhelical double-stranded DNA. We observed L2 DNA with less superhelicity in novobiocin-treated cells than that in untreated cells. However, although no change in viral DNA superhelicity could be found in novobiocin-treated novobiocin-resistant cells, L2 production decreased in these novobiocin-treated cells.

Poddar, S. K.; Maniloff, J.

1984-01-01

188

L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria: MRI in seven cases  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The MRI findings in 7 patients with L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-OHG aciduria) are described and compared with previous neuroradiological reports and the only three published pathological cases. Signal abnormalities involved peripheral subcortical white matter, basal ganglia and dentate nuclei. Cerebellar atrophy was present. Although similar appearances may be seen in other metabolic disorders, the distribution of signal abnormalities in L-2-OHG aciduria is highly characteristic and may suggest the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

189

Reactive arthritis associated with L2b lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract An ongoing outbreak of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) L2b proctitis, predominantly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) has been reported in industrialized countries. We describe a case of reactive arthritis after L2b proctitis. This case expands the spectrum of severe complications related to LGV L2b proctitis. Since this infection may be asymptomatic, this organism should be screened for in HIV positive MSM with symptoms consiste...

El Karoui, Khalil; Mechai, Frederic; Ribadeau Dumas, Florence; Viard, Jean-paul; Lecuit, Marc; Barbeyrac, Bertille; Lortholary, Olivier

2009-01-01

190

Study Quality in SLA: An Assessment of Designs, Analyses, and Reporting Practices in Quantitative L2 Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assesses research and reporting practices in quantitative second language (L2) research. A sample of 606 primary studies, published from 1990 to 2010 in "Language Learning and Studies in Second Language Acquisition," was collected and coded for designs, statistical analyses, reporting practices, and outcomes (i.e., effect…

Plonsky, Luke

2013-01-01

191

The Effects of Word Exposure Frequency and Elaboration of Word Processing on Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition through reading has claimed that repeated encounters with unfamiliar words and the relative elaboration of processing these words facilitate word learning. However, so far both variables have been investigated in isolation. To help close this research gap, the current study…

Eckerth, Johannes; Tavakoli, Parveneh

2012-01-01

192

Vocabulary Teaching Strategies and Conceptual Representations of Words in L2 in Children: Evidence with Novice Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

A controversial issue in bilingual research is whether in the early stages of L2 learning, access to the conceptual system involves mediation of L1 lexical representations [Kroll, J. F., & Stewart, E. (1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations.…

Comesana, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel; Pineiro, Ana; Fraga, Isabel

2009-01-01

193

IL FILM A LEZIONE DI ITALIANO L2: GLI ESAMI AL CINEMA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Può il film rivelarsi uno strumento utile a lezione di italiano L2? Quali sono i limiti ed i vantaggi dell’utilizzo di materiale audiovisivo autentico in aula? Come strutturare un’attività basata sulla visione di un film italiano in lingua originale? Quali strategie mette in atto l’apprendente per comprendere un film nella L2? “Il film a lezione di italiano L2: gli esami al cinema” cerca di rispondere a queste domande attraverso una riflessione sull’utilità del cinema a lezione e proponendo un’attività didattica basata sulla visione di sequenze tratte da film italiani. Considerando la pellicola come documento di civiltà, veicolo di una lingua viva e “in situazione” ed esperienza di apprendimento plurisensoriale, l’articolo mette in luce come l’apprendimento dell’italiano L2 possa trarre beneficio dall’utilizzo in aula di materiali audiovisivi autentici quali i film, se opportunamente selezionati e didattizzati. Dalla riflessione alla pratica: dopo aver identificato obiettivi, destinatari ed i loro bisogni linguistico-comunicativi, viene presentata un’attività basata sulla didattizzazione di tre sequenze che hanno come tema centrale l’esame universitario orale. Ponendo i bisogni linguistico-comunicativi dei discenti al centro si scoprirà che, se opportunamente didattizzato, un film o parte di esso può trasformarsi in materiale didattico estremamente utile ai fini dell’apprendimento di una L2, nonché fonte inesauribile di spunti a partire dai quali l’insegnante può creare attività didattiche originali e stimolanti non solo linguistiche ma anche interculturali. Movies during italian l2 lessons: exams at the cinemaAre movies useful tools during Italian L2 lessons? What are the limits and advantages of using authentic audio-visual materials in the classroom? How can an activity based on viewing an Italian film in the original language be structured? What strategies do learners use to understand movies in L2? “Movies during Italian L2 Lessons: exams at the cinema” tries to answer these questions regarding the use of films in class and proposes an activity using clips from Italian films. Movies are social documents, vehicles for experiencing living, “situated” language and multi-sensory learning. The article sheds light on how L2 classes can benefit from the use of authentic audio-visual materials such as movies if properly selected and didacticized. From reflection to practice: after identifying objectives, target groups and their linguistic and communicative needs, an activity based on the using three didacticized clips centered on university oral exams is presented. Putting the linguistic-communicative needs of learners at the center shows that, if properly didacticized, a film or a clip constitutes extremely useful educational material for L2 learning, as well as an inexhaustible source of ideas from which the teacher can create original and stimulating educational activities which are not only linguistic but also intercultural.

Michela Albizzati

2014-02-01

194

A Comparative Study of Intuitive-imitative and Analytic-linguistic Approaches towards Teaching English Vowels to L2 Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In spite of the importance of pronunciation in L2 learning, its training has remained largely neglected in the field of English language teaching (ELT and does not have a secure place in most L2 curricula (Setter & Jenkins, 2005. On the importance of teaching speech features, Celce-Murcia, Brinton, and Goodwin (1996 introduce the intuitive-imitative approach, an approach that deals with listening and imitating the sounds and rhythms of an L2 without explicit teaching. It can be done by using audiotapes, videos, and computer programs. On the other hand, a majority of L2 teachers use the analytic-linguistic approach, an approach in which they use explicit and structured teaching of speech features by articulatory descriptions, charts of speech, phonetic alphabet, and vowel charts. This study was an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of intuitive-imitative and analytic-linguistic approaches on teaching pure vowels and diphthongs, and also, sought to examine whether elementary L2 learners respond differently to the abovementioned approaches. The participants were 40 Iranian L2 learners attending a language school in Isfahan in the form of 2 elementary classes. In one class, English vowels were taught through intuitive-imitative approach, and in the other one, through analytic-linguistic approach. Then, the participants ? audio-recorded data were given to an English native-speaker instructor to be rated. The results of the paired samples t test and comparing means indicated that the L2 learners taught through the intuitive-imitative approach had a better pronunciation in diphthongs, and accordingly, the L2 learners taught through the analytic-linguistic approach outperformed in pure vowels. The study could have some implications for L2 research and pedagogy that will be discussed throughout the paper.

Mahmood Hashemian

2011-09-01

195

An overview of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase gene (L2HGDH) variants: a genotype-phenotype study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is a rare, neurometabolic disorder with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Affected individuals only have neurological manifestations, including psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and more variably macrocephaly, or epilepsy. The diagnosis of L2HGA can be made based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical analysis, and mutational analysis of L2HGDH. About 200 patients with elevated concentrations of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) in the urine were referred for chiral determination of 2HG and L2HGDH mutational analysis. All patients with increased L2HG (n=106; 83 families) were included. Clinical information on 61 patients was obtained via questionnaires. In 82 families the mutations were detected by direct sequence analysis and/or multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA), including one case where MLPA was essential to detect the second allele. In another case RT-PCR followed by deep intronic sequencing was needed to detect the mutation. Thirty-five novel mutations as well as 35 reported mutations and 14 nondisease-related variants are reviewed and included in a novel Leiden Open source Variation Database (LOVD) for L2HGDH variants (http://www.LOVD.nl/L2HGDH). Every user can access the database and submit variants/patients. Furthermore, we report on the phenotype, including neurological manifestations and urinary levels of L2HG, and we evaluate the phenotype-genotype relationship.

Steenweg, Marjan E; Jakobs, Cornelis

2010-01-01

196

Processability Approach to Arabic L2 Teaching and Syllabus Design  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to identify the relationship between the developmental hierarchy in the acquisition of Arabic as a second language (Arabic L2) and formal classroom instruction. It provides a general presentation of the current debate on the influence of formal instruction in the acquisition of L2. Special attention is given to the subset of…

Al Shatter, Ghassan

2011-01-01

197

Phonological Similarity, Markedness, and Rate of L2 Acquisition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates the interrelationship of several factors--phonological similarity between L1 and L2, transfer, and markedness as they relate to the acquisition of two English vowel phonemes by native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. Phonetic and phonological similarity between L1 and L2 appear to be important factors. (LMO)

Major, Roy C.

1987-01-01

198

A Problem for UG in L2 Acquisition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the relationship between universal grammar and second language (L2) acquisition. Explores the phenomenon by testing children of contrasting first languages to see whether null-prep is a general acquisition phenomenon among L2 learners of English, and whether child learners, in contrast to adults, produce null-prep because of first…

Klein, Elaine C.

1993-01-01

199

Attention and L2 Learners' Segmentation of Complex Sentences  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of the current study is to investigate L2 Japanese learners' ability to segment complex sentences from aural input. Elementary- and early intermediate-level L2 learners in general have not developed the ability to use syntactic cues to interpret the meaning of sentences they hear. In the case of Japanese, recognition of…

Hagiwara, Akiko

2010-01-01

200

Analysis of Complimenting in L1 vs. L2 Written Discourse: A Case Study of Iranian Students Writing Review Letters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to compare and contrast complimenting as used in L1 (Farsi and L2 (English writings of Iranian students in a foreign language learning context. For the purpose, sixty five university senior students majoring in English and taking the specialized course called "essay writing" were selected for the study. First, they were instructed how to write review letters on their classmates' essays in both L1 and L2 and then their letters were analyzed on the basis of the framework provided by Johnson and Roen (1992, and Chafe and Danielwicz (1987. The results indicated that Iranian students (female and male did not make significantly different uses of L1 and L2 complimenting in terms of form and strategies. Also, the gender of the addressees was not accommodated to by the addressors differently as regards the use of form and strategies of complimenting in L1 and L2. The results suggest that L1 and L2, if used under some formal class based conditions, tend to become maximally similar, showing no transfer of L1 potentiality into L2.

Gholam Reza Zarei

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
201

Podcasting to enhance pronunciation in second language learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies on using digital devices to improve, enhance, and supplement second language (L2) learning have emerged over the last decade. A focus on speaking and specifically pronunciation is addressed in very few studies. This study is framed by research on CALL (computer assisted language learning) and MALL (mobile assisted language learning) with a specific focus on podcasting as a method of L2 pronunciation instruction and enhancement. This study used iPods to enhance L2 pronunciation in grad...

Woloshen, Sonya Katherine

2013-01-01

202

Role of L2 cysteines in papillomavirus infection and neutralization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Vaccination of mice with minor capsid protein L2 or passive transfer with the L2-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody RG-1 protects against human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 challenge. Here we explored the nature of the RG-1 epitope and its contribution to viral infectivity. RG-1 bound equivalently HPV16 L2 residues 17-36 with or without an intact C22-C28 disulphide bridge. HPV16 L2 mutations K20A, C22A, C22S, C28A, C28S, or P29A prevented RG-1 binding, whereas Y19A, K23A or Q24A had no impact. Mutation of either C22 or C28 to alanine or serine compromises HPV16 pseudoviral infectivity both in vitro and in the murine vaginal tract, but does not impact pseudovirion assembly. Despite their lack of infectivity, HPV16 pseudovirions containing C22S or C28S mutant L2 bind to cell surfaces, are taken up, and expose the 17-36 region on the virion surface as for wild type HPV16 pseudovirions suggesting normal furin cleavage of L2. Mutation of the second cysteine residue in Bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1 L2 to serine (C25S dramatically reduced the infectivity of BPV1 pseudovirions. Surprisingly, in contrast to the double mutation in HPV16 L2, the BPV1 L2 C19S, C25S double mutation reduced BPV1 pseudovirion infectivity of 293TT cells by only half.

Karanam Balasubramanyam

2009-10-01

203

L’apprendimento della lingua della medicina in L2: due manuali a confronto  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Insegnare la lingua speciale della medicina ad una classe di apprendenti L2 implica considerare diverse problematiche relative alle peculiarità del codice settoriale (variazioni diafasiche, particolarità del lessico, tecnicismi collaterali, ma anche relative al pubblico di apprendenti non italofono (tipologia, interessi, livello di apprendimento. Il panorama editoriale italiano offre pochi strumenti dedicati: tra questi Donatella Troncarelli, Dica 33. Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, 1994 e Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma edizioni, 2004. Questo studio intende mettere a confronto i due testi sottolineandone le caratteristiche e l’impostazione glottodidattica ed evidenziando come il contenuto linguistico sia proposto, quali siano le abilità favorite, quali gli obiettivi di apprendimento e quali gli strumenti forniti. Particolare attenzione viene prestata al lessico registrato nei glossari dei volumi.  Learning the language of medicine in l2: a comparison of two textbooks Teaching the special language of medicine to a class of L2 learners implies considering various issues related to the peculiarities of the sector-specific jargon (diphasic variations, peculiarities of vocabulary, collateral technicalities, also related to non-Italian-speaking learners (type, interests, level of learning. Italian publishers offer few dedicated tools: these include Donatella Troncarelli, Dica 33.Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, 1994 and Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma editions, 2004. This study aims to compare the two texts, highlighting their features and language teaching setting, showing how linguistic content is proposed, which skills are promoted, what the learning objectives are and what tools are provided. Particular attention is paid to the vocabulary in the glossaries.

Maria Polita

2013-07-01

204

L2-Betti numbers of locally compact groups  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We introduce a notion of L2-Betti numbers for locally compact, second countable, unimodular groups. We study the relation to the standard notion of L2-Betti numbers of countable discrete groups for lattices. In this way, several new computations are obtained for countable groups, including lattices in algebraic groups over local elds, and Kac-Moody lattices. We also extend the vanishing of reduced L2-cohomology for countable amenable groups, a well known theorem due to Cheeger and Gromov, to cover all amenable, second countable, unimodular locally compact groups.

Petersen, Henrik Densing

2012-01-01

205

How stressful is L2 stress? A cross-linguistic study of L2 perception and production of metrical systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation addresses the second language (L2) acquisition of word stress in production and perception, from both a phonological-theoretical and psycholinguistic angle. It investigates how cross-linguistic differences in the (types of) metrical systems of native speakers of a variety of first (native) languages (L1) affect the L2 acquisition of word stress. This includes the differences in the formal properties of L1 and L2 stress and the functional properties of L1 stress, and their im...

Kijak, A. M.

2009-01-01

206

MANIPULATING L2 LEARNERS' ONLINE DICTIONARY USE AND ITS EFFECT ON L2 WORD RETENTION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explored the effect of two enhancement techniques on L2 learners' look-up behaviour during a reading task and word retention afterwards amongst Flemish learners of German: a Vocabulary Test Announcement and Task-induced Word Relevance. Eighty-four participants were recruited for this study. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1 not forewarned of an upcoming vocabulary test (incidental condition or 2 forewarned of a vocabulary test (intentional condition. Task-induced Word Relevance was operationalized by a reading comprehension task. The relevance factor comprised two levels: plus-relevant and minus-relevant target words. Plus-relevant words needed to be looked up and used receptively in order to answer the comprehension questions. In other words, the reading comprehension task could not be accomplished without knowing the meaning of the plus-relevant words. The minus-relevant target words, on the other hand, were not linked to the reading comprehension questions. Our findings show a significant effect of Test Announcement and Word Relevance on whether a target word is looked up. In addition, Word Relevance also affects the frequency of clicks on target words. Word retention is only influenced by Task-induced Word Relevance. The effect of Word Relevance is durable.

Elke Peters

2007-02-01

207

Anisotropic Lifshitz point at O(?L2)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present the critical exponents ?L2, ?L2 and ?L for an m-axial Lifshitz point at second order in an ?L expansion. We introduce a constraint involving the loop momenta along the m-dimensional subspace in order to perform two- and three-loop integrals. The results are valid in the range 0?m< d. The case m=0 corresponds to the usual Ising-like critical behaviour. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

208

L^2-Betti Numbers of Algebras and Equivalence Relations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis, we consider the L^2-Betti numbers associated to algebras and equivalence relations. For algebras, we expand upon the motivation between Connes and Shlyakhtenko's definition of L^2-Betti numbers of tracial algebras, and give an alternative definition of these numbers through an excision-type theorem. For equivalence relations we consider the definitions given by Gaboriau and Sauer and show that they coincide, in the process proving a theorem of Gaboriau. The methods used are st...

Rustad, Simen

2008-01-01

209

$L^2$-Serre duality on singular complex spaces and applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this survey, we explain a version of topological $L^2$-Serre duality for singular complex spaces with arbitrary singularities. This duality can be used to deduce various $L^2$-vanishing theorems for the $\\overline\\partial$-equation on singular spaces. As one application, we prove Hartogs' extension theorem for $(n-1)$-complete spaces. Another application is the characterization of rational singularities. It is shown that complex spaces with rational singularities behave q...

Ruppenthal, Jean

2014-01-01

210

Memória de trabalho e desempenho em tarefas de L2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O presente artigo examina se a natureza da relação entre memória de trabalho e desempenho em tarefas de língua estrangeira (L2) é geral ou específica. Uma bateria de quatro testes de memória de trabalho em inglês e quatro tarefas de desempenho foi aplicada em doze estudantes universitários de nível elementar em inglês como L2. A análise mostrou uma correlação significativa entre a medida geral de memória de trabalho e as tarefas de leitura, sintaxe e produção oral. Quanto às...

Ingrid Fontanini; Janaina Weissheimer; Joara Martin Bergsleithner; Magareth Perucci; Ely, Raquel D.

2005-01-01

211

Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., lexical bundles) in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively. Published academic writing was found to exhibit the widest range of lexical bundles whereas L2 student writing showed the smallest range. Furthermore, som...

Yu-Hua Chen; Paul Baker

2010-01-01

212

An Investigation Into Second Language Aptitude for Advanced Chinese Language Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study I examine the construct of aptitude in learning Chinese as a second language (L2) to an advanced level. I test 2 hypotheses: first, that L2 aptitude comprises 4 components--working memory, rote memory, grammatical sensitivity, and phonemic coding ability--and second, that L2 aptitude affects learning both directly and indirectly…

Winke, Paula

2013-01-01

213

Respiratory dysfunction by AFG3L2 deficiency causes decreased mitochondrial calcium uptake via organellar network fragmentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The mitochondrial protein AFG3L2 forms homo-oligomeric and hetero-oligomeric complexes with paraplegin in the inner mitochondrial membrane, named m-AAA proteases. These complexes are in charge of quality control of misfolded proteins and participate in the regulation of OPA1 proteolytic cleavage, required for mitochondrial fusion. Mutations in AFG3L2 cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 and a complex neurodegenerative syndrome of childhood. In this study, we demonstrated that the loss of AFG3L2 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) reduces mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake capacity. This defect is neither a consequence of global alteration in cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis nor of the reduced driving force for Ca(2+) internalization within mitochondria, since cytosolic Ca(2+) transients and mitochondrial membrane potential remain unaffected. Moreover, experiments in permeabilized cells revealed unaltered mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake speed in Afg3l2(-/-) cells, indicating the presence of functional Ca(2+) uptake machinery. Our results show that the defective Ca(2+) handling in Afg3l2(-/-) cells is caused by fragmentation of the mitochondrial network, secondary to respiratory dysfunction and the consequent processing of OPA1. This leaves a number of mitochondria devoid of connections to the ER and thus without Ca(2+) elevations, hampering the proper Ca(2+) diffusion along the mitochondrial network. The recovery of mitochondrial fragmentation in Afg3l2(-/-) MEFs by overexpression of OPA1 rescues the impaired mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering, but fails to restore respiration. By linking mitochondrial morphology and Ca(2+) homeostasis, these findings shed new light in the molecular mechanisms underlining neurodegeneration caused by AFG3L2 mutations. PMID:22678058

Maltecca, Francesca; De Stefani, Diego; Cassina, Laura; Consolato, Francesco; Wasilewski, Michal; Scorrano, Luca; Rizzuto, Rosario; Casari, Giorgio

2012-09-01

214

Learning Vocabulary in EFL Contexts through Vocabulary Learning Strategies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Vocabulary learning is one of the major challenges foreign language learners face during the processof learning a language. One way to alley the burden is to assist students in becoming independent learners duringthe process of L2 vocabulary learning. This could be achieved through instructing learners to apply vocabularylearning strategies as efficiently as possible. The main pursuit of the present article is to suggest a framework fortraining EFL learners in vocabulary learning strategies. ...

Ghazal, Lotfi

2007-01-01

215

Contribution to Vocabulary Learning via Mobiles  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As mobile connectedness continues to sweep across the landscape, the value of deploying mobile technology at the service of learning and teaching seems to be both self-evident and unavoidable. To this end, this study employed multimedia to develop three types of vocabulary learning materials. Due to the importance of short-term memory in the realm of vocabulary learning, careful consideration was given to the L2 learners’ different visual and verbal short-term memories. 158 L2 learners aged...

Saeed Khazaie; Saeed Ketabi

2011-01-01

216

MORE THAN A LINGUISTIC REFERENCE: THE INFLUENCE OF CORPUS TECHNOLOGY ON L2 ACADEMIC WRITING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on a qualitative study that investigated the changes in students’ writing process associated with corpus use over an extended period of time. The primary purpose of this study was to examine how corpus technology affects students’ development of competence as second language (L2 writers. The research was mainly based on case studies with six L2 writers in an English for Academic Purposes writing course. The findings revealed that corpus use not only had an immediate effect by helping the students solve immediate writing/language problems, but also promoted their perceptions of lexico-grammar and language awareness. Once the corpus approach was introduced to the writing process, the students assumed more responsibility for their writing and became more independent writers, and their confidence in writing increased. This studyidentified a wide variety of individual experiences and learning contexts that were involved in deciding the levels of the students’ willingness and success in using corpora. This paper also discusses the distinctive contributions of general corpora to English for Academic Purposes and the importance of lexical and grammatical aspects in L2 writing pedagogy.

Hyunsook Yoon

2008-06-01

217

Functional Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

The first seven labs in this course are simply a survey of skeletal morphology in vertebrate animals; this is the first lab of the course that actually applies this understanding to solving a scientific problem. Students measure isolated skeletal elements of vertebrates in order to quantify the differences among members of different locomotor groups. They're asked to formulate hypotheses based on an understanding of physics for the differences among the locomotor categories they're examining, and then they compare their data to those expectations. The activity allows students to understand how paleontologists interpret skeletal morphology to make inferences about the ecology of extinct organisms. This will enable the students to apply their knowledge of skeletal morphology to answering a scientific question. The experience also gives them an opportunity to practice the process of paleontological science, including hypothesis testing and data interpretation.

Samantha Hopkins

218

The multipath and SNR Quality in civil code L2  

Science.gov (United States)

The new generation of GPS satellites, with the addition of the new L2C civil code, may provide to the users better positioning capabilities. The new code in the L2 may increase the signal robustness, improve resistance to interference, reduce tracking noise and consequently, improve accuracy and provide better positioning inside buildings and in wooded areas. The second civil frequency code will eliminate the need of using fragile semi- codeless tracking techniques currently used in connection with L2. The L2C has a different structure that allows civil and military share the same code. L2C owns two codes of different length: moderate code (CM) and long code (CL). The CM was chosen to have 10.230 chips repeated to every 20 millisecond. The CL was chosen to have 767250 chips with period of 1.5 second. The main reasons for these choices were due to excellent correlation properties. Furthermore, L2C enhances performance by having no data modulation on CL code, which improves, among others, the threshold tracking performance. Comparing the L2C acquisition with the C/A, the CM code is ten times longer than the C/A and the two components have half the total power. This is an important feature for many low-power applications. Although this signal has several advantages, some investigations about its performance are necessary, mainly about the provided accuracy under some effects, for example, multipath. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the L2C signal, as well as its quality using some parameters, such as Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and multipath level (MP). The experiment was realized at Sao Paulo State University UNESP in Presidente Prudente, Brazil. The data were collected by two receivers of different brands, both able to collect the L2C signal, and connected to the same antenna, thought the use of a splitter. The results showed that the MP and SNR values were better for the modernized satellites. Furthermore, the SNR values of the two receivers were similar while the MP values of one receiver showed better results than the other model. Therefore, the satellites with L2C code presented, as expected, better performance than those not modernized satellites in relation to SNR and MP.

Polezel, W. G.; Souza, E. M.; Monico, J. F.

2007-12-01

219

A Model of the Effect of Uncertainty on the C elegans L2/L2d Decision  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

At the end of the first larval stage, the C elegans larva chooses between two developmental pathways, an L2 committed to reproductive development and an L2d, which has the option of undergoing reproductive development or entering the dauer diapause. I develop a quantitative model of this choice using mathematical tools developed for pricing financial options. The model predicts that the optimal decision must take into account not only the expected potential for reproductive ...

Avery, Leon

2014-01-01

220

Plant Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web page serves as a linked table of contents for the museum's supplemental resources on plant morphology. From it, you can access the following illustrated guides with a single click: The Parts of a Soybean Seedling, The Parts of a Corn Seedling, Leaf Arrangement, Leaf Type, Types of Compound Leaves, Leaf Shape, Leaf Margin, and The Parts of a Flower.

 
 
 
 
221

Test-Takers' Interaction with an L2 Video Listening Test  

Science.gov (United States)

Video technology is commonly used in L2 classrooms, but it is rarely used in assessing L2 listening, and there is little research investigating how L2 listeners process video texts (spoken texts that include the visual channel). The purpose of this study is to examine how L2 test-takers interact with a video listening test: the rate L2 listening…

Wagner, Elvis

2010-01-01

222

Motivation, aptitude and structural development : A study of linguistic performance in Swedish learners of Spanish L2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the present study is to examine how the development of syntactic complexity and accuracy in spoken Spanish L2 is related to two parameters, motivation and aptitude, in which individual differences are often claimed to correlate with successful second language learning (Dörnyei and Skehan 2003). The study shows how an understanding of the relationship between progression in second language proficiency and motivation is gained through the study of longitudinal data and the assessmen...

O?sterberg, Rakel

2008-01-01

223

La video clase y la multimedia como medio de enseñanza-aprendizaje de los contenidos morfológicos The videoconference and multimedia as teaching-learning means for morphologic contents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En la última década, la videoconferencia y la multimedia están siendo percibidas como los medios con más posibilidades didácticas en contextos de enseñanza superior. En sus inicios, la videoconferencia suplió las limitaciones espacio-temporales de la educación a distancia. Progresivamente, este medio fue encontrando un reconocimiento en instituciones convencionales de enseñanza propiciado por el desarrollo de experiencias de calidad basadas en la incorporación de recursos externos al aula. Desde una perspectiva instrumentalista, los medios son soportes materiales de información que deben reflejar la realidad de la forma más perfecta posible. Responden a un modelo estándar de alumno y a una cultura escolar homogénea, y se consideran por sí mismos instrumentos generadores de aprendizajes. Las características del diseño didáctico y computacional de un entorno hipermedia para aprender se intenta conectar a la concepción de promover el aprendizaje utilizando la computadora. El entorno consiste en un conjunto de actividades basadas en andamiajes tendientes a inducir la construcción de significados mediante la activa participación del estudiante.During the last decade, the videoconference and multimedia are being perceived as the means with more didactic possibilities in the context of the high education. At the beginning, the videoconference helped avoiding limitations of the distance learning. Progressively, this means began to be recognized in conventional teaching institutions because of the development of qualitative experiences based on the usage of out-class resources. From an instrumentalist perspective, the means are material supports of the information that should express the reality in the most possible perfect way. They answer to a standard model of students and to a homogeneous school culture, and are considered, by themselves, as instruments generating learning. The characteristics of a computational and didactic design of a hypermedia setting to learn are intended to be linked to a conception of promoting learning using computers. The setting is a group of activities based on structures tending to induce the construction of meanings through the active participation of the student.

Nieves E Garriga Alfonso

2009-08-01

224

The Effect of Using Print Media on Children’s L2 Literacy Development: A Longitudinal Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper tries to examine the effect of using print media in the classroom on the children’s L2 literacy development in an EFL context. Since reading is regarded as a chief goal, in many second/foreign language teaching situations, it receives a special focus. Media as a tool for language learning/teaching, can help both instructed and non-instructed learners to overcome the difficult task of language learning. In order to determine the effects of print media usage on the developme...

Mansoor Tavakoli; Saeedeh Esmae’li

2013-01-01

225

A gravity model for crustal dynamics (GEM-L2)  

Science.gov (United States)

The Laser Geodynamics Satellite (Lageos) was the first NASA satellite which was placed into orbit exclusively for laser ranging applications. Lageos was designed to permit extremely accurate measurements of the earth's rotation and the movement of the tectonic plates. The Goddard earth model, GEM-L2, was derived mainly on the basis of the precise laser ranging data taken on many satellites. Douglas et al. (1984) have demonstrated the utility of GEM-L2 in detecting the broadest ocean circulations. As Lageos data constitute the most extensive set of satellite laser observations ever collected, the incorporation of 2-1/2 years of these data into the Goddard earth models (GEM) has substantially advanced the geodynamical objectives. The present paper discusses the products of the GEM-L2 solution.

Lerch, F. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Patel, G. B.; Wagner, C. A.

1985-01-01

226

Model selection for density estimation with L2-loss  

CERN Document Server

We consider here estimation of an unknown probability density s belonging to L2(mu) where mu is a probability measure. We have at hand n i.i.d. observations with density s and use the squared L2-norm as our loss function. The purpose of this paper is to provide an abstract but completely general method for estimating s by model selection, allowing to handle arbitrary families of finite-dimensional (possibly non-linear) models and any density s belonging to L2(mu). We shall, in particular, consider the cases of unbounded densities and bounded densities with unknown bound and investigate how the L-infinity-norm of s may influence the risk. We shall also provide applications to adaptive estimation and aggregation of preliminary estimators. Although of a purely theoretical nature, our method leads to results that cannot presently be reached by more concrete methods.

Birgé, Lucien

2008-01-01

227

L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria presenting with anxiety symptoms.  

Science.gov (United States)

l-2 Hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a rare autosomal recessively inherited metabolic disorder of organic acid metabolism. Cerebellar and pyramidal signs with progressive neurological syndromes, mental deterioration, tremors, seizures, epilepsy and rarely macrocephaly are clinical findings of the disease. The diagnosis depends on increased levels of l-2 hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. Brain MRI shows peripheral white matter abnormalities in cerebral hemispheres, bilateral symmetrically abnormal signal intensity in basal ganglia and dentate nuclei. In this case report, we present a 13-year-old patient who presented with tremors and anxiety symptoms and was diagnosed as l-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria after consultation with the child neurology department. We present a patient suffering from psychiatric symptoms with a metabolic disorder. PMID:23749824

Gökçen, Cem; Isikay, Sedat; Yilmaz, Kutluhan

2013-01-01

228

Dense analytic subspaces in fractal $L^{2}$-spaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider self-similar measures $\\mu $ with support in the interval $0\\leq x\\leq 1$ which have the analytic functions $\\left\\{e^{i2\\pi nx}:n=0,1,2,... \\right\\} $ span a dense subspace in $L^{2}(\\mu) $. Depending on the fractal dimension of $\\mu $, we identify subsets $P\\subset \\mathbb{N}_{0}=\\{0,1,2,... \\} $ such that the functions $\\{e_{n}:n\\in P\\} $ form an orthonormal basis for $L^{2}(\\mu) $. We also give a higher-dimensional affine construction leading to self-similar ...

Jorgensen, Palle E. T.; Pedersen, Steen

1997-01-01

229

Galaxy Morphology  

CERN Document Server

Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or between a perturbation and the basic state of a stellar disk, can also drive secular transformations. In this series of lectures, I review many aspects of galaxy morphology with a view to delineating some of the possible evolutionary pathways between different galaxy types.

Buta, Ronald J

2013-01-01

230

Hábitos de aprendizaje y rendimiento académico en la asignatura morfofisiología-II de la carrera de estomatología Learning habits and academic performance in the II- Morphology and Physiology subject in Dentistry major  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available RESUMEN La asignatura Morfofisiología II que se imparte en primer año de la carrera de Estomatología resultó la de más bajo rendimiento académico. Objetivo: Caracterizar los hábitos de aprendizaje del estudiante de primer año de Estomatología, teniendo en cuenta su relación con sus diferencias individuales y rendimiento académico en la asignatura. Método: Se realizó una investigación descriptiva y de corte transversal en la asignatura Morfofisiología II, de la carrera de Estomatología de la provincia de Pinar del Río al finalizar el primer semestre del curso 2008-2009. La muestra estuvo constituida por 52 estudiantes de primer año, que cursan la carrera en la sede central. Se les aplicó una encuesta, cuyo cuestionario permitió evaluar sus hábitos de aprendizaje, y el nivel de motivación hacia la carrera y la asignatura. Los datos fueron procesados utilizando la estadística descriptiva y la prueba Ji cuadrado, con un nivel de confianza del 95 %. Resultados: Se encontraron malos hábitos de aprendizaje, en la mayoría de ellos no existió relación significativa entre hábitos de aprendizaje con respecto a la vía de ingreso y nota final de los estudiantes, resaltó la elevada motivación encontrada tanto por la carrera como por la asignatura, la variable motivación no guardó relación significativa con la nota final alcanzada. Se concluye que a pesar de los resultados alcanzados estos no influyeron significativamente en los resultados de la asignatura, gracias a las estrategias de enseñaza trazadas por el colectivo de profesores, pero sí indican la necesidad de establecer acciones con vistas al desarrollo de su aprendizaje autónomoABSTRACT II-Morphology and Physiology subject taught to the first grade students of Dentistry had the lowest academic performance. Objective: Characterizing the learning habits in the student of first grade of dentistry subject having in mind the relationship with the individual differences and the subject academic performance. Method: A descriptive and cross sectional research on the Morphology and Physiology subject in the dentistry students in Pinar del Rio city at ending the first semester of 2008-2009 course. The sample comprised of 52 students in the first grade of the dentistry major. A survey allowed us to know their learning habits and the level of motivation on the subject. Data were processed using descriptive statistics and the chi square test with a 95% of level of confidence. Results: It was found bad learning habits; in most of them there was no significative relationship between the learning habits and the way of admittance and the final mark of the students; a remarkably high motivation was observed on the major and the subject; the variable "motivation" had no significative relationship with the final mark achieved. It is concluded that the results obtained had no significative influence on the results of the subject thanks to the learning strategies proposed by the faculty but they do indicate the necessity of establishing prospective actions for the development of the autonomic learning

Juan Félix Albert Díaz

2009-09-01

231

Arthropod Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web page serves as a linked table of contents for the museum's supplemental resources on arthropod morphology. From it, you can access the following illustrated guides with a single click: Types of Antennae, Front View of an Insect (Grasshopper) Head, Parts of an Insect (Grasshopper), Parts of a Spider: Dorsal View of a Male Spider, Parts of a Spider: Ventral View of a Female Spider, and Metamorphosis.

232

Developmental but not adult cannabinoid treatments persistently alter axonal and dendritic morphology within brain regions important for zebra finch vocal learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prior work shows developmental cannabinoid exposure alters zebra finch vocal development in a manner associated with altered CNS physiology, including changes in patterns of CB1 receptor immunoreactivity, endocannabinoid concentrations and dendritic spine densities. These results raise questions about the selectivity of developmental cannabinoid effects: are they a consequence of a generalized developmental disruption, or are effects produced through more selective and distinct interactions with biochemical pathways that control receptor, endogenous ligand and dendritic spine dynamics? To begin to address this question we have examined effects of developmental cannabinoid exposure on the pattern and density of expression of proteins critical to dendritic (MAP2) and axonal (Nf-200) structure to determine the extent to which dendritic vs. axonal neuronal morphology may be altered. Results demonstrate developmental, but not adult cannabinoid treatments produce generalized changes in expression of both dendritic and axonal cytoskeletal proteins within brain regions and cells known to express CB1 cannabinoid receptors. Results clearly demonstrate that cannabinoid exposure during a period of sensorimotor development, but not adulthood, produce profound effects upon both dendritic and axonal morphology that persist through at least early adulthood. These findings suggest an ability of exogenous cannabinoids to alter general processes responsible for normal brain development. Results also further implicate the importance of endocannabinoid signaling to peri-pubertal periods of adolescence, and underscore potential consequences of cannabinoid abuse during periods of late-postnatal CNS development. PMID:24594017

Gilbert, Marcoita T; Soderstrom, Ken

2014-04-16

233

La video clase y la multimedia como medio de enseñanza-aprendizaje de los contenidos morfológicos / The videoconference and multimedia as teaching-learning means for morphologic contents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En la última década, la videoconferencia y la multimedia están siendo percibidas como los medios con más posibilidades didácticas en contextos de enseñanza superior. En sus inicios, la videoconferencia suplió las limitaciones espacio-temporales de la educación a distancia. Progresivamente, este medi [...] o fue encontrando un reconocimiento en instituciones convencionales de enseñanza propiciado por el desarrollo de experiencias de calidad basadas en la incorporación de recursos externos al aula. Desde una perspectiva instrumentalista, los medios son soportes materiales de información que deben reflejar la realidad de la forma más perfecta posible. Responden a un modelo estándar de alumno y a una cultura escolar homogénea, y se consideran por sí mismos instrumentos generadores de aprendizajes. Las características del diseño didáctico y computacional de un entorno hipermedia para aprender se intenta conectar a la concepción de promover el aprendizaje utilizando la computadora. El entorno consiste en un conjunto de actividades basadas en andamiajes tendientes a inducir la construcción de significados mediante la activa participación del estudiante. Abstract in english During the last decade, the videoconference and multimedia are being perceived as the means with more didactic possibilities in the context of the high education. At the beginning, the videoconference helped avoiding limitations of the distance learning. Progressively, this means began to be recogni [...] zed in conventional teaching institutions because of the development of qualitative experiences based on the usage of out-class resources. From an instrumentalist perspective, the means are material supports of the information that should express the reality in the most possible perfect way. They answer to a standard model of students and to a homogeneous school culture, and are considered, by themselves, as instruments generating learning. The characteristics of a computational and didactic design of a hypermedia setting to learn are intended to be linked to a conception of promoting learning using computers. The setting is a group of activities based on structures tending to induce the construction of meanings through the active participation of the student.

Nieves E, Garriga Alfonso; Iliana, Robainas Fiallo; Dayren, Fernández Santamaría; Dunieska, Quiñones Cabrera; Rolando Ernesto, Medina Robainas.

2009-08-01

234

L2 norm preserving flow in matrix geometry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we study L2 norm preserving heat flow in matrix geometry. We show that this flow preserves the operator convex property and enjoys the entropy stability in any finite time. Interesting properties of this flow like conserved trace free property are also derived.

Li, Jiaojiao

2013-01-01

235

Mode, Meaning, and Synaesthesia in Multimedia L2 Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This study of digital storytelling attempts to apply Kress's (2003) notions of synaesthesia, transformation, and transduction to the analysis of four undergraduate L2 writers' multimedia text creation processes. The students, entering freshmen, participated in an experimental course entitled "Multimedia Writing," whose purpose was to experience…

Nelson, Mark Evan

2006-01-01

236

$L^2$-index formula for proper cocompact group actions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the index of the $G$-invariant elliptic pseudo-differential operator acting on a complete Riemannian manifold, where a unimodular, locally compact group $G$ acts properly and cocompactly. An $L^2$-index formula was obtained using the heat kernel method.

Wang, Hang

2011-01-01

237

Preparation of optically pure L-2-hydroxyaldehydes with yeast transketolase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L-2-Hydroxyaldehydes L-3 with a great variety of substituents in 3-position are obtained in good chemical and excellent optical yields by kinetic resolution in the transketolase-catalyzed reaction of racemic 2-hydroxyaldehydes with lithium hydroxypyruvate 4 where only the enantiomer (R)-3 reacts to 5-deoxy-D-xyluloses 5.

Effenberger, Franz; Null, Volker; Ziegler, Thomas

1992-01-01

238

Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

2010-01-01

239

Memorization versus Semantic Mapping in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of two cognitive strategies, rote memorization and semantic mapping, on L2 vocabulary acquisition. Thirty-eight intermediate female EFL learners divided into two experimental groups participated in this study. Each experimental group used one of the strategies for vocabulary acquisition. After the four-month…

Khoii, Roya; Sharififar, Samira

2013-01-01

240

[L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: report on two cases].  

Science.gov (United States)

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a rare genetic neurometabolic disease. It occurs in childhood with mental retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and epilepsy. Macrocephaly is present in half of the cases. Diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, biological and radiological findings, and molecular testing. Specific treatments can improve the spontaneous progression of the disease. We examined two independent patients who presented with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. Clinical presentation led to cerebral MRI and urinary organic acid chromatography. The genetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis. Under specific treatment, the progression of the disease was subsequently stopped. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria shares common symptoms with other genetic and metabolic diseases. However, the association of a distinct phenotype and typical MRI abnormalities (such as a high signal in the subcortical white matter, pallidum, and dentate nuclei) should draw the clinician's attention to this diagnosis. It can easily be suspected with a simple urinary analysis and can then be confirmed by genetic testing. With this case report, we show the importance of genetic identification to begin treatment with riboflavin. Early detection of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria based on MRI abnormalities can enable rapid initiation of treatment and prevent disease progression. PMID:24321868

Wagner, S; Vianey-Saban, C; Salomons, G-S; Schmitt, E; Feillet, F

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Teaching L2 Pragmatics: Opportunities for Continuing Professional Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching L2 pragmatics is often not covered in teacher education programs, and is an excellent area for continuing professional development. As part of a larger project on instructed interlanguage pragmatics, volunteer instructor participants were asked to teach a series of lessons on pragmatics to university-aged (19-23) ESL learners in ESL and…

Vellenga, Heidi

2011-01-01

242

Affective Variables and Japanese L2 Reading Ability  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates how 17 affective factors are related to Japanese second language (L2) reading comprehension and "kanji" knowledge test scores of 43 university students in advanced Japanese courses. Major findings are that: a) reading comprehension ability and "kanji" knowledge have direct associations with self-perception of Japanese…

Kondo-Brown, Kimi

2006-01-01

243

L’apport des TICE et de l’écriture collaborative au développement des compétences écrites dans l’acquisition/apprentissage d’une L2 Can new technologies and collaborative writing contribute to better written performance in second language acquisition/learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une recherche-action en école d’ingénieurs, nous avons cherché à développer un savoir et un savoir-faire propre à la technique du compte-rendu. Cet objectif était facilité par des activités langagières et des procédures formalisées sous forme de grilles d’auto-évaluation. L’apprentissage se déroulait dans un environnement collaboratif et s’appuyait sur des outils informatisés. En conséquence, nous avons comparé deux situations d’apprentissage autour de ces questions : dans quelle mesure une tâche médiatisée par l’ordinateur permet une meilleure appropriation de la technique d’écriture et, une fois acquis, ce savoir faire peut-il être transféré quel que soit le support ?This field research is aimed at teaching the report writing technique to engineering students through various language activities and self-assessment grids. They worked in a collaborative environment using new technologies. We compared two learning situations to show how computer-mediated tasks help improve the written performance and how this know-how is transferred to other learning situations.

Isabelle Bonnassies

2012-03-01

244

Age-related differences in the motivation of learning English as a foreign language: Attitudes, selves and motivated learning behavior.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Our study describes the motivation for learning English as a foreign language in three distinct learner populations: secondary school pupils, university students, and adult language learners. Questionnaire data were collected from 623 Hungarian students. The main factors affecting students' second language (L2) motivation were language learning attitudes and the Ideal L2 self, which provides empirical support for the main construct of the theory of the L2 Motivational Self-System (Dörnyei, 2...

Kormos, Judit; Csize?r, Kata

2008-01-01

245

River morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs

246

Analysis of LOFT large break experiments L2-3 and L2-5 using RELAP5/MOD1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Calculations of Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Experimental L2-3 and L2-5 were performed to evaluate input models and assess the capability of the RELAP5/MOD1 computer code to calculate large-break, loss-of-coolant experiments (LOCES) in the LOFT facility. The LOFT facility is a 50 MW (thermal) pressurized water reactor (PWR) experimental facility which was designed to simulate the thermal-hydraulic behavior of a four-loop, commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). It is extensively instrumented to provide detailed information beyond that available in a commercial PWR. Experiments L2-3 and L2-5 were the second and third large-break LOCEs performed in the LOFT facility with its nuclear core producing power. Both experiments simulated a LOCA which results from a 200%, double-ended offset shear break in a cold leg of a four-loop commercial PWR. Results are presented

247

L’AUTOBIOGRAFIA LINGUISTICA NELL’INSEGNAMENTO-APPRENDIMENTO DELL’ITALIANO L2/LS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L'autobiografia linguistica è una attività particolarmente utile nell'insegnamento-apprendimento di una lingua straniera. L'apprendente immigrato è invitato a narrare in prima persona le esperienze linguistico-comunicative nella propria L1, nella L2 /LS che sta apprendendo e/o nella lingua seconda che ha acquisito come lingua di comunicazione e di studio nel suo paese di origine, le relazioni umane ed emotive che accompagnano  o hanno accompagnato queste esperienze, le situazioni che ne hanno favorito o ostacolato l'apprendimento. Con l'autobiografia linguistica l'apprendente straniero costruisce, attraverso la scrittura e quindi attraverso un processo di esplicitazione e di riflessione consapevole,  un ponte tra "là" e "qui", tra paese d'origine e il paese di arrivo, tra la vita "prima" e la vita "dopo" lo strappo della migrazione. Ricompone e dà senso alla propria storia, nelle due lingue, esprime affetti ed emozioni, rinomina il mondo e se ne riappropria ricostruendo insieme la propria identità, esplora se stesso e si fa conoscere ai suoi pari e all'insegnante in un rapporto di condivisione e di comprensione reciproca: si crea un contesto non di integrazione, ma di inclusione. A sua volta il docente può meglio comprendere le strategie di apprendimento dell'apprendente, la sua personalità, le sue difficoltà e progettare strategie didattiche più efficaci, perché più individuali e orientate al successo nella comunicazione e nell'apprendimento.   Linguistic autobiography is especially useful in the teaching and learning of a foreign language. The foreign learner is asked to narrate, in the first person, his/her linguistic-communicative experiences in their L1 and in the L2/FL which they are learning and/or in the second language they have acquired for communication or study in their home country, focusing on the emotional and human relationships which accompanied this experience and the situations which encouraged or blocked the learning. Through writing, speaking and thoughtful reflection, linguistic autobiography helps the foreign learner to construct a bridge between "there" and "here", between the home and the host country, between life "before" and "after" the shock of migration. This practice reorganizes and gives meaning to one's own history in both languages, through the expression of feelings and emotions, by defining and reclaiming the world as well as reconstructing identity, exploring oneself and showning oneself to peers and teachers in an environment of mutual sharing and understanding.  It creates a context for inclusion, not just integration. The teacher, in turn, can better understand the student's learning strategies, his/her personality and difficulties and thus plan more effective didactic interventions, since they are individualized and aimed at success in communication and learning.

Andrea Groppaldi

2010-09-01

248

Cognição e aprendizagem de L2: o que nos diz a pesquisa nos paradigmas simbólico e conexionista  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os principais aspectos teóricos de dois paradigmas de investigação da cognição humana _ o simbólico e o conexionista _ e discute como a pesquisa em cada paradigma tem fomentado os estudos sobre aprendizagem de L2. O paradigma simbólico postula a existência de representações mentais através de regras lógicas e símbolos para explicar a aquisição e a utilização do conhecimento. O paradigma conexionista parte da premissa de que o processamento cognitivo está relacionado à maneira pela qual os neurônios se interconectam no cérebro. A partir dessas duas abordagens, o artigo examina como construtos tais como tipos de conhecimento, tipos de memória, processamento do insumo e atenção são apresentados nas duas teorias e como vêm sendo utilizados na pesquisa em L2.This paper presents the main tenets of two paradigms of investigation of human cognition _ the symbolic and the connectionist _ and discusses how research in each paradigm has fed studies in L2 learning. The symbolic paradigm explains the acquisition and use of knowledge through the existence of mental representations, logical rules, and symbols. The connectionist paradigm claims that human cognitive processing is related to how neurons are interconnected in the brain. The paper also examines how constructs such as types of knowledge, types of memory, input processing, and attention are presented in the two theories and how these constructs relate to current L2 research.

Mailce Mota

2005-01-01

249

Cognição e aprendizagem de L2: o que nos diz a pesquisa nos paradigmas simbólico e conexionista  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo apresenta os principais aspectos teóricos de dois paradigmas de investigação da cognição humana _ o simbólico e o conexionista _ e discute como a pesquisa em cada paradigma tem fomentado os estudos sobre aprendizagem de L2. O paradigma simbólico postula a existência de representações men [...] tais através de regras lógicas e símbolos para explicar a aquisição e a utilização do conhecimento. O paradigma conexionista parte da premissa de que o processamento cognitivo está relacionado à maneira pela qual os neurônios se interconectam no cérebro. A partir dessas duas abordagens, o artigo examina como construtos tais como tipos de conhecimento, tipos de memória, processamento do insumo e atenção são apresentados nas duas teorias e como vêm sendo utilizados na pesquisa em L2. Abstract in english This paper presents the main tenets of two paradigms of investigation of human cognition _ the symbolic and the connectionist _ and discusses how research in each paradigm has fed studies in L2 learning. The symbolic paradigm explains the acquisition and use of knowledge through the existence of men [...] tal representations, logical rules, and symbols. The connectionist paradigm claims that human cognitive processing is related to how neurons are interconnected in the brain. The paper also examines how constructs such as types of knowledge, types of memory, input processing, and attention are presented in the two theories and how these constructs relate to current L2 research.

Mailce, Mota; Márcia Cristina, Zimmer.

250

Imaging polarimetry of Comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR)  

CERN Document Server

We present the polarimetric results and analysis of comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR) observed at 31$^\\circ$.1 phase angle before perihelion passage. The observations of the comet were carried out using ARIES Imaging Polarimeter (AIMPOL) mounted on the 1.04-m Sampurnanand telescope of ARIES, Nainital, India on 11 and 12 March, 2013 using R photometric band ($\\lambda$ = 630 nm, $\\Delta$$\\lambda$ =120nm). The extended coma of the comet ($\\sim65000$ km) shows a significant variation in the intensity as well as polarization profile in all considered directions which suggest that the dust particles originate from the active areas of the nucleus. The elongation of the coma is prominent along the Sun-comet position angle. The polarization of Comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR) does not show steep radial dependence on the aperture size during both the nights of observation. A jet extended in the antisolar direction is well observed in both intensity and polarization map.

Roy, P Deb; Medhi, Biman J

2014-01-01

251

Imaging polarimetry of Comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR)  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the polarimetric results and analysis of Comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR) observed at 31°.1 phase angle before perihelion passage. The observations of the comet were carried out using ARIES Imaging Polarimeter (AIMPOL) mounted on the 1.04-m Sampurnanand telescope of ARIES, Nainital, India on 11 and 12 March, 2013 using R photometric band (? = 630 nm, ?? = 120 nm) . The extended coma of the comet (?65000 km) shows a significant variation in the intensity as well as polarization profile in all considered directions which suggest that the dust particles originate from the active areas of the nucleus. The elongation of the coma is prominent along the Sun-comet position angle. The polarization of Comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR) do not show steep radial dependence on the aperture size during both the nights of observation. A jet extended in the antisolar direction is well observed in both intensity and polarization map.

Deb Roy, P.; Das, H. S.; Medhi, Biman J.

2015-01-01

252

ALLOPHONIC SPLITS IN L2 PHONOLOGY: THE QUESTION OF LEARNABILITY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The research reported in this paper is intended as a contribution to the understanding of several wellknown problems relating to the leaming of phonemic contrasts in second language (L2 phonology. The paper describes a series of ongoing studies examining what Lado (1957 hypothesized to represent maximum diffículty in second language pronunciation, narnely, a phonemic split. This is the process involved when an L2 learner must split native language (NL allophones into separate target language (TL phonemes. Two core principles of phonological theory are described and evaluated for their relevante in explaining the series of well-defined, implicationally-related stages involved in a phonemic split. Finally, the paper reports the results of an empirical study designed to test the explanatory adequacy of these principles, and concludes with a discussion of the implications of these studies for second language phonology in general.

Gregory K . Iverson

2001-06-01

253

$L^2$-signatures, homology localization, and amenable groups  

CERN Document Server

Aimed at geometric applications, we prove the homology cobordism invariance of the $L^2$-betti numbers and $L^2$-signature defects associated to the class of amenable groups lying in Strebel's class $D(R)$, which includes some interesting infinite/finitenon-torsion-free groups. The proofs include the only prior known condition, that $\\Gamma$ is a poly-torsion-free abelian group (or potentially a finite $p$-group.) We define a new commutator-type series which refines Harvey's torsion-free derived series of groups, using the localizations of groups and rings of Bousfield, Vogel, and Cohn. The series, called the local derived series, has versions for homology with arbitrary coefficients, and satisfies functoriality and an injectivity theorem. We combine these two new tools to give some applications to distinct homology cobordism types within the same simple homotopy type in higher dimensions, to concordance of knots in three manifolds, and to spherical space forms in dimension three.

Cha, Jae Choon

2009-01-01

254

On the L2-metric of vortex moduli spaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We derive general expressions for the Kaehler form of the L2-metric in terms of standard 2-forms on vortex moduli spaces. In the case of abelian vortices in gauged linear sigma-models, this allows us to compute explicitly the Kaehler class of the L2-metric. As an application we compute the total volume of the moduli space of abelian semi-local vortices. In the strong coupling limit, this then leads to conjectural formulae for the volume of the space of holomorphic maps from a compact Riemann surface to projective space. Finally we show that the localization results of Samols in the abelian Higgs model extend to more general models. These include linear non-abelian vortices and vortices in gauged toric sigma-models.

255

Songs and singing in foreign language learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Educators have claimed that listening to music in a second or foreign language (L2) can provide fun and motivating educational material and that singing can enhance the L2 learning process by improving listening and speaking skills, pronunciation, intonation, and vocabulary. Experiments have shown that under certain conditions, a sung presentation of linguistic material can facilitate verbal learning in the native language. To date, however, there is very little research eviden...

Ludke, Karen M.

2010-01-01

256

Willingness to Communicate and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: L2 Communication and Acculturative Stress as Transaction  

Science.gov (United States)

Although much research has focused on the influence of second language (L2) proficiency on L2 use and on outcomes of intercultural adaptation, these two strands have remained largely separate. This study examines the impact of willingness to communicate in the L2 (L2 WTC) on the daily hassles and stress of international students, with the aim of…

Gallagher, H. Colin

2013-01-01

257

Pairs of pants, Pochhammer curves and $L^2$-invariants  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose an intuitive interpretation for nontrivial $L^2$-Betti numbers of compact Riemann surfaces in terms of certain loops in embedded pairs of pants. This description uses twisted homology associated to the Hurewicz map of the surface, and it satisfies a sewing property with respect to a large class of pair-of-pants decompositions. Applications to supersymmetric quantum mechanics incorporating Aharonov-Bohm phases are briefly discussed, for both point particles and top...

Bo?kstedt, Marcel; Roma?o, Nuno M.

2014-01-01

258

Alfabetización de sordos: cuando L2 es la lengua escrita  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nos referiremos en el presente trabajo a un problema clave en la educación del sujeto sordo: la adquisición y desarrollo del Lenguaje, para el cual el Bilingüismo plantea una propuesta superadora. A diferencia del enfoque tradicional, parte de reconocer que la Lengua de Señas (LS) es su ‘lengua natural’ o Lengua Primera (L1), y que la lengua mayoritaria en el registro escrito -en nuestro caso el Español Escrito- constituye su Segunda Lengua (L2), de modo que alfabetizar equivale a en...

Lopreto, Gladys

2012-01-01

259

Some Sharp L^2 Inequalities for Dirac Type Operators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We use the spectra of Dirac type operators on the sphere $S^n$ to produce sharp $L^2$ inequalities on the sphere. These operators include the Dirac operator on $S^n$, the conformal Laplacian and Paenitz operator. We use the Cayley transform, or stereographic projection, to obtain similar inequalities for powers of the Dirac operator and their inverses in ${mathbb R}^n$.

Alexander Balinsky

2007-11-01

260

8-Meter UV/Optical Space Telescope at L2  

Science.gov (United States)

The unprecedented mass/volume capability of an Ares V enables the launch of 8 meter class monolithic space telescopes to the Earth-Sun L2 point. NASA MSFC has determined that a 6 to 8 meter class telescope using a massive high-TRL ground observatory class monolithic primary mirror is feasible. Mature, High-TRL design enables early deployment. Science Instruments, Expendables and Limited Life Components can be replace periodically via Spacecraft Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking.

Stahl, H. Philip

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

LA ICLASSE – SMARTPHONE E ITALIANO L2/LS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mai come oggi le classi (di Italiano L2, ma non solo) sono così fortemente colonizzate dal digitale. L’invasione si è palesata sotto forma di telefonini cellulari (smartphone) e tablet dotati di connessione internet e infinite potenzialità sotto forma di applicazioni che possono sia aiutare il discente sia, se male impiegati, ostacolarlo dall’intraprendere un proficuo percorso di apprendimento. Compito dell’insegnante di lingua è circoscrivere l’influen...

Filippo Zanoli

2012-01-01

262

MODE, MEANING, AND SYNAESTHESIA IN MULTIMEDIA L2 WRITING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study of digital storytelling attempts to apply Kress's (2003) notions of synaesthesia, transformation, and transduction to the analysis of four undergraduate L2 writers' multimedia text creation processes. The students, entering freshmen, participated in an experimental course entitled "Multimedia Writing," whose purpose was to experience and explore the processes of multimodal textual communication. With the support of empirical data drawn from interviews, student journals, and the dig...

Mark Evan Nelson

2006-01-01

263

Limited TCF7L2 Expression in MS Lesions  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Multiple sclerosis is the most frequent demyelinating disease in the human CNS characterized by inflammation, demyelination, relative axonal loss and gliosis. Remyelination occurs, but is frequently absent or restricted to a small remyelinated rim at the lesion border. Impaired differentiation of oligodendroglial precursor cells is one factor contributing to limited remyelination, especially in chronic MS. TCF7L2 is an oligodendroglial transcription factor regulating myelin gene expression du...

Lu?rbke, Alexander; Hagemeier, Karin; Cui, Qiao-ling; Metz, Imke; Bru?ck, Wolfgang; Antel, Jack; Kuhlmann, Tanja

2013-01-01

264

Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays  

Science.gov (United States)

The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV) and auditory-only (A-only) Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two…

Motohashi-Saigo, Miki; Hardison, Debra M.

2009-01-01

265

Semiparametric density estimation by local L_2-fitting  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article examines density estimation by combining a parametric approach with a nonparametric factor. The plug-in parametric estimator is seen as a crude estimator of the true density and is adjusted by a nonparametric factor. The nonparametric factor is derived by a criterion called local L_2-fitting. A class of estimators that have multiplicative adjustment is provided, including estimators proposed by several authors as special cases, and the asymptotic theories are ...

Naito, Kanta

2004-01-01

266

Projective multiresolution analyses for $L^2(R^2)$  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We define the notion of "projective" multiresolution analyses, for which, by definition, the initial space corresponds to a finitely generated projective module over the algebra $C(\\btn)$ of continuous complex-valued functions on an $n$-torus. The case of ordinary multi-wavelets is that in which the projective module is actually free. We discuss the properties of projective multiresolution analyses, including the frames which they provide for $L^2(\\brn)$. Then we show how to...

Packer, Judith A.; Rieffel, Marc A.

2003-01-01

267

Feedback in L2 writing: the students' perspective  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Given the disparate views in L2 writing literature on what constitutes effective teacher feedback, this qualitative study approached this issue from the student’s perspective. In order to examine what constitutes effective teacher feedback from the student’s standpoint, fifty-four student responses to three drastically different feedback styles were analyzed. The results of this preliminary study are partially in line with Hyland (1998), since it was found that whethe...

Vokic, Gabriela

2008-01-01

268

Amenable L2-theoretic methods and knot concordance  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce new obstructions to topological knot concordance. These are obtained from amenable groups in Strebel's class, possibly with torsion, using a recently suggested $L^2$-theoretic method due to Orr and the author. Concerning $(h)$-solvable knots which are defined in terms of certain Whitney towers of height $h$ in bounding 4-manifolds, we use the obstructions to reveal new structure in the knot concordance group not detected by prior known invariants: for any $n>1$ ...

Cha, Jae Choon

2010-01-01

269

COMPUTING THE VOCABULARY DEMANDS OF L2 READING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Linguistic computing can make two important contributions to second language (L2) reading instruction. One is to resolve longstanding research issues that are based on an insufficiency of data for the researcher, and the other is to resolve related pedagogical problems based on insufficiency of input for the learner. The research section of the paper addresses the question of whether reading alone can give learners enough vocabulary to read. When the computer’s ability to process large amou...

Tom Cobb

2007-01-01

270

Regularization with Approximated $L^2$ Maximum Entropy Method  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We tackle the inverse problem of reconstructing an unknown finite measure $\\mu$ from a noisy observation of a generalized moment of $\\mu$ defined as the integral of a continuous and bounded operator $\\Phi$ with respect to $\\mu$. When only a quadratic approximation $\\Phi_m$ of the operator is known, we introduce the $L^2$ approximate maximum entropy solution as a minimizer of a convex functional subject to a sequence of convex constraints. Under several assumptions on the con...

Loubes, Jean-michel; Rochet, Paul

2009-01-01

271

Optimized L2-Orthogonal STC CPM for 3 Antennas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we introduce further our recently designed family of L2 orthogonal Space-Time codes for CPM. With their advantage of maintaining both the constant envelope properties of CPM, the diversity of Space-Time codes and moreover orthogonality, and thus reduced decoding complexity, these codes are also full rate, even for more than two transmitting antennas. The issue of power efficiency for these codes is first dealt with by proving that the inherent increase in band...

Hesse, Matthias; Lebrun, Jerome; Deneire, Luc

2008-01-01

272

An Investigation of Personality and L2 Oral Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates one dimension of personality, extroversion-introversion, and examines its potential impact on learner L2 oral performance. The study is innovative in that it analyzes not only the correlation between degree of extroversion and assessment scores based on analytic scoring but also the correlation between degree of extroversion and the discourse measures of accuracy, fluency and complexity commonly used as indices of L2 task performance in the L2 research. The data for this study were drawn from oral performances by 39 Cantonese-mother-tongue Form 4 (that is, Grade 9 secondary school ESL students engaging in school-based oral English assessment that has recently been implemented across secondary schools in Hong Kong. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was used to measure the students’ degree of extroversion. The findings indicate no significant correlations between degree of extroversion and students’ assessment scores, and between degree of extroversion and those discourse-based measures. In addition, further in-depth analysis of the discourse and interactional behavior of two students classified as an extrovert and an introvert based on their scores on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, suggests that in the context of group oral discussion described in this study, extroversion/introversion might impact in some way on learner discourse and interactional behavior only in the extreme cases, yet this influence seemed not reflected in the assessment scores assigned.

Zhengdong Gan

2011-11-01

273

COMPUTING THE VOCABULARY DEMANDS OF L2 READING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Linguistic computing can make two important contributions to second language (L2 reading instruction. One is to resolve longstanding research issues that are based on an insufficiency of data for the researcher, and the other is to resolve related pedagogical problems based on insufficiency of input for the learner. The research section of the paper addresses the question of whether reading alone can give learners enough vocabulary to read. When the computer’s ability to process large amounts of both learner and linguistic data is applied to this question, it becomes clear that, for the vast majority of L2 learners, free or wide reading alone is not a sufficient source of vocabulary knowledge for reading. But computer processing also points to solutions to this problem. Through its ability to reorganize and link documents, the networked computer can increase the supply of vocabulary input that is available to the learner. The development section of the paper elaborates a principled role for computing in L2 reading pedagogy, with examples, in two broad areas, computer-based text design and computational enrichment of undesigned texts.

Tom Cobb

2007-02-01

274

L2 OSTC-CPM: Theory and design  

CERN Document Server

The combination of space-time coding (STC) and continuous phase modulation (CPM) is an attractive field of research because both STC and CPM bring many advantages for wireless communications. Zhang and Fitz [1] were the first to apply this idea by constructing a trellis based scheme. But for these codes the decoding effort grows exponentially with the number of transmitting antennas. This was circumvented by orthogonal codes introduced by Wang and Xia [2]. Unfortunately, based on Alamouti code [3], this design is restricted to two antennas. However, by relaxing the orthogonality condition, we prove here that it is possible to design L2-orthogonal space-time codes which achieve full rate and full diversity with low decoding effort. In part one, we generalize the two-antenna code proposed by Wang and Xia [2] from pointwise to L2-orthogonality and in part two we present the first L2-orthogonal code for CPM with three antennas. In this report, we detail these results and focus on the properties of these codes. Of...

Hesse, Matthias; Deneire, Luc

2008-01-01

275

L2pB1: a new player in autoimmunity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L2pB1 cells (PD-L2 positive B1 cells) are a newly discovered subpopulation of B1 B cells. L2pB1 cells are noted for the expression of PD-L2 (CD273, B7-DC), a ligand for the inhibitory receptor PD-1, which distinguishes this subpopulation from other B1 B cells that lack PD-L2, namely, L2nB1 cells (PD-L2 negative B1 cells). PD-L2 gene expression is regulated differently in B1 B cells as compared to macrophages and dendritic cells. L2pB1 cells share many commonly known B1 cell features with L2nB...

Zhong, Xuemei; Rothstein, Thomas L.

2010-01-01

276

A Contrastive Study of L1 and L2 Acquisition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to give a comprehensive and all out analysis of the processes and aspects involved in first and second language acquisition and learning since this may cause a better selection of the teaching materials, methodologies, techniques and also a more efficient deployment and implementation of them in second or foreign language learning classes.

Ahmad Moinzadeh

2012-01-01

277

Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle  

Science.gov (United States)

Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

Meurant, Robert C.

278

L2 Reading in Multilingual Eritrea: The Influences of L1 Reading and English Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

A major question in L2 reading research is whether L2 reading is a language or a reading problem. Existing research, mainly carried out in Western contexts, demonstrates that L2 reading is influenced by L1 reading and L2 proficiency. This study applied the L2 reading theory in a non-Western context (Eritrea, East Africa) with L1 reading acquired…

Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Beckman, Danielle; Kurvers, Jeanne; Kroon, Sjaak

2009-01-01

279

Auroral morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aurora is a radiant manifestation of solar particle emissions and their control by intervening electromagnetic fields. The analogy with a television system was first made, we believe, by Elvey, (1958). The latest concepts of solar-terrestrial control are included in description by Akasofu (1979) showing the phosphor screen as the upper atmosphere with an auroral image produced by particles from a source on the sun, modulated by electric and magnetic fields with the magnetohydrodynamic (MDH) generator formed by electrons and protons from the solar wind across the geomagnetic tail as the power supply. Thus, the size and shape of the aurora must reflect all the forces acting in the auroral particles on their way from the sun to the earth. Auroral morphology, therefore, is the study of the occurence of aurora in space and time for the purpose of describing the origin of solar particels and the forces acting upon them between the time of their production on the sun and their loss in the atmosphere. The advantage of using the aurora as a television monitor of this process over any conceivable system of in situ measurements is obvious when one considers the large number of space vehicles which would be necessary to record the information concentrated in the auroral oval which differs in scale with the magnetosphere by perhaps 106. (orig.)

280

Morphological Structure in Native and Nonnative Language Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a selective overview of studies that have investigated how advanced adult second language (L2) learners process morphologically complex words. The studies reported here have used different kinds of experimental tasks (including speeded grammaticality judgments, lexical decision, and priming) to examine three domains of…

Clahsen, Harald; Felser, Claudia; Neubauer, Kathleen; Sato, Mikako; Silva, Renita

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

The Time Course of Morphological Processing in a Second Language  

Science.gov (United States)

We report findings from psycholinguistic experiments investigating the detailed timing of processing morphologically complex words by proficient adult second (L2) language learners of English in comparison to adult native (L1) speakers of English. The first study employed the masked priming technique to investigate "-ed" forms with a group of…

Clahsen, Harald; Balkhair, Loay; Schutter, John-Sebastian; Cunnings, Ian

2013-01-01

282

Contribution of Morphological Awareness to Second-Language Reading Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the contribution of second-language (L2) morphological awareness to foreign language reading comprehension. Tenth graders (n = 188) at a South Korean high school were assessed on 6 reading- and language-related variables: phonological decoding, listening comprehension, vocabulary knowledge, passage-level reading…

Jeon, Eun Hee

2011-01-01

283

Honest Bayesian confidence sets for the L2-norm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the problem of constructing Bayesian credible sets that are honest and adaptive for the L2-loss over a scale of Sobolev classes with regularity ranging between [D; 2D], for some given D in the context of the signal-in-white-noise model. We consider a scale of prior distributions indexed by a regularity hyper-parameter and choose the hyper-parameter both by marginal likelihood empirical Bayes and by hierarchical Bayes method, respectively. Next we consider a ba...

Szabo, Botond; Vaart, Aad; Zanten, Harry

2013-01-01

284

Strong limit theorems in noncommutative L2-spaces  

CERN Document Server

The noncommutative versions of fundamental classical results on the almost sure convergence in L2-spaces are discussed: individual ergodic theorems, strong laws of large numbers, theorems on convergence of orthogonal series, of martingales of powers of contractions etc. The proofs introduce new techniques in von Neumann algebras. The reader is assumed to master the fundamentals of functional analysis and probability. The book is written mainly for mathematicians and physicists familiar with probability theory and interested in applications of operator algebras to quantum statistical mechanics.

Jajte, Ryszard

1991-01-01

285

Multi-word structures in Spanish L2 acquisition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main purpose of this study is to observe the L2 acquisition effect of studying abroad during approximately four months in Swedish non-native speakers (NNSs) of Spanish with respect to their use of multi-word structures (MWSs) as compared to native speakers (NSs). In addition, this evolutionary study has a secondary aim which is to see the effect of the activity type on the amount and distribution of the MWSs encountered.    This study shows positive effects of a study abroad period in L...

Moreno Teva, Inmaculada

2012-01-01

286

Transfer in a Connectionist Model of the Acquisition of Morphology  

CERN Document Server

The morphological systems of natural languages are replete with examples of the same devices used for multiple purposes: (1) the same type of morphological process (for example, suffixation for both noun case and verb tense) and (2) identical morphemes (for example, the same suffix for English noun plural and possessive). These sorts of similarity would be expected to convey advantages on language learners in the form of transfer from one morphological category to another. Connectionist models of morphology acquisition have been faulted for their supposed inability to represent phonological similarity across morphological categories and hence to facilitate transfer. This paper describes a connectionist model of the acquisition of morphology which is shown to exhibit transfer of this type. The model treats the morphology acquisition problem as one of learning to map forms onto meanings and vice versa. As the network learns these mappings, it makes phonological generalizations which are embedded in connection w...

Gasser, M

1995-01-01

287

LA RIFLESSIONE METALINGUISTICA NEI MANUALI D’ITALIANO L2: CASE STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gli “attori” di un corso di lingua sono gli apprendenti, il docente facilitatore e… il manuale. La scelta di quest’ultimo, e quindi la metodologia didattica che lo sottende, contribuiscono in maniera decisiva a delineare il percorso d’apprendimento esplicitando finalità e priorità didattiche. In un panorama editoriale ormai ricco e variegato non è sempre agevole districarsi fra le numerose proposte di libri di testo. Oltre alla centralità del discente e al metodo comunicativo, requisiti in linea con i dettami dell’European Common Framework presenti, seppur in dosi differenti, nella quasi totalità dei manuali, altri elementi meritano la dovuta considerazione. La riflessione metalinguistica, per esempio, si è affacciata solo recentemente sulla “scena” glottodidattica assumendo un ruolo tutt’altro che secondario.METALINGUISTIC REFLECTION IN ITALIAN L2 TEXT BOOKS: A CASE STUDYThe “actors” in a language course are the learners, the teacher/facilitator and… the textbook. Choosing a textbook, and the didactic methodology underlying it, contribute in a decisive way to the learning process by directing the learning objectives and choices. With a varied choice of textbooks available, it is not always easy to evaluate them. Student-centered courses using the communicative method, indications in line with the European Common Framework, are aspects which vary in quantity from text to text but which characterize them all. There are, however, also other elements to consider. Metalinguistic reflection, for example, has only recently taken on a primary role in the glottodidactic scenario.

Claudia Matthiae

2012-07-01

288

Alternative Models of Self-regulation and Implications for L2 Strategy Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the proposal of Dörnyei and colleagues (Dörnyei, 2005; Tseng, Dörnyei, & Schmitt, 2006 to replace the construct of learning strategy with that of self-regulation and thus shift the research focus from specific strategic behaviors to a trait that is seen to underlie them. I argue that before doing so, we need a fuller understanding of what self-regulation entails and how it might intersect with traditional concerns of second language strategy research. To contribute to this understanding, I highlight alternative conceptualizations of self-regulation and then use data from my doctoral research to illustrate one in particular, the COPES model of self-regulated learning (Winne & Hadwin, 1998. This model’s explanatory power is contrasted with that of Dörnyei and colleagues’ conceptualization to show that, depending on the model one adopts, self-regulation is not only compatible with the study of specific strategies but useful for shedding new light on strategy research and integrating it with research in other related areas, such as L2 motivation.

Jim Ranalli

2012-12-01

289

SYNCHRONOUS CMC, WORKING MEMORY, AND L2 ORAL PROFICIENCY DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently a number of quasi-experimental studies have investigated the potential of a cross-modality transfer of second language competency between real-time, conversational exchange via text and speech (Abrams, 2003; Beauvious, 1998; Kost, 2004; Payne & Whitney, 2002. Payne and Whitney employed Levelt's (1989 model of language production and concepts from working memory as a rationale for a hypothesized connection between synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC and second language (L2 speech and as a basis for predicting the differential contributions of SCMC to the L2 oral proficiency development.This study extends the psycholinguistic framework reported in Payne and Whitney (2002 with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explore how individual differences in working memory capacity may affect the frequency of repetition and other patterns of language use in chatroom discourse. Working memory capacity was measured by a reading span and nonword repetition test. Oral proficiency was measured with a speaking task that solicited a 5-minute speech sample and was scored based on a holistic scale. The data collected from 20 chat sessions were analyzed for occurrences of repetition and relexicalization, as well as language output measures. Findings suggest a connection between working memory and language output as measured in this study.

J. Scott Payne

2005-09-01

290

A refined gravity model from Lageos /GEM-L2/  

Science.gov (United States)

Lageos satellite laser ranging (SLR) data taken over a 2.5 yr period were employed to develop the Goddard Earth Model GEM-L2, a refined gravity field model. Additional data was gathered with 30 other satellites, resulting in spherical harmonics through degree and order 20, based on over 600,000 measurements. The Lageos data was accurate down to 10 cm, after which the GEM 9 data were used to make adjustments past order 7. The resolution of long wavelength activity, through degree and order 4, was made possible by the Lageos data. The GEM-L2 model features a 20 x 20 geopotential, tracking station coordinates (20), 5-day polar motion and A1-UT1 values, and a GM value of 398,600.607 cu km/sq sec. The accuracy of station positioning has been raised to within 6 cm total position globally and within 1.8 cm in baselines. It is concluded that SLR is useful for measuring tectonic plate motions and inter-plate deformations.

Lerch, F. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Patel, G. B.

1982-01-01

291

The Yamabe invariant of orbifolds and $L^2$-harmonic spinors  

CERN Document Server

We study compact orbifolds with finite number of singularities by means of conformal geometry and $L^2$-index theory. For such an $n$-orbifold $M$ with singularities $\\Sigma=\\{(p_1,\\Gamma_1),...,(p_s,\\Gamma_s)\\}$ (where the groups $\\Gamma_j< O(n)$ are finite), we define and study the \\emph{orbifold Yamabe invariant} $Y^{\\orb}(M)$. We give a sufficient condition when the invariant $Y^{\\orb}(M)$ coincides with the corresponding \\emph{cylindrical Yamabe invariant} defined by the authors [AB2]. Under the same condition, we prove that the invariant $Y^{\\orb}(M)$ is bounded by $Y(S^n) /d$ from above, where $d=\\max_j |\\Gamma_j|^{\\frac{2}{n}}$. We study the 4-dimensional case and use the $L^2$-index theory to estimate the cylindrical and orbifold Yamabe invariant in topological terms. We conclude by explicit estimate of the invariant $Y^{\\orb}(M)$ for particular 4-orbifolds $M$.

Akutagawa, K; Akutagawa, Kazuo; Botvinnik, Boris

2002-01-01

292

Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV and auditory-only (A-only Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two conditions (isolated words, carrier sentences. Fillers with long vowels were included. Participants completed a forced-choice identification task involving minimal triplets: singletons, geminates, long vowels (e.g., sasu, sassu, saasu. Results revealed a significant improvement in geminate identification following training, especially for AV; b significant effect of geminate (lowest scores for /s/; c no significant effect of condition; and d no significant improvement for the control group. Most errors were misperceptions of geminates as long vowels. Test of generalization revealed 5% decline in accuracy for AV and 14% for A-only. Geminate production improved significantly (especially for AV based on rater judgments; improvement was greatest for /k/ and smallest for /s/. Most production errors involved substitution of a singleton for a geminate. Post-study interviews produced positive comments on Web-based training. Waveforms increased awareness of durational differences. Results support the effectiveness of auditory-visual input in L2 perception training with transfer to novel stimuli and improved production.

Miki Motohashi-Saigo

2009-06-01

293

L2 Orthogonal Space Time Code for Continuous Phase Modulation  

CERN Document Server

To combine the high power efficiency of Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) with either high spectral efficiency or enhanced performance in low Signal to Noise conditions, some authors have proposed to introduce CPM in a MIMO frame, by using Space Time Codes (STC). In this paper, we address the code design problem of Space Time Block Codes combined with CPM and introduce a new design criterion based on L2 orthogonality. This L2 orthogonality condition, with the help of simplifying assumption, leads, in the 2x2 case, to a new family of codes. These codes generalize the Wang and Xia code, which was based on pointwise orthogonality. Simulations indicate that the new codes achieve full diversity and a slightly better coding gain. Moreover, one of the codes can be interpreted as two antennas fed by two conventional CPMs using the same data but with different alphabet sets. Inspection of these alphabet sets lead also to a simple explanation of the (small) spectrum broadening of Space Time Coded CPM.

Hesse, Matthias; Deneire, Luc

2008-01-01

294

Alternativa metodológica para fortalecer el proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de Morfofisiología I en la carrera Enfermería / Methodological alternative to strengthen the teaching-learning process of Morphology and Phisiology I in the Nursing major  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: la insuficiente apropiación de los contenidos de la asignatura Morfofisiología I por los estudiantes, es uno de los problemas esenciales en la carrera de Enfermería. Objetivo: diseñar una alternativa metodológica que fortalezca el proceso enseñanza aprendizaje (PEA) de la asignatura Mo [...] rfofisiología I en la carrera de Enfermería. Método: investigación-acción en la Filial Universitaria Municipal de Ciencias Médicas Los Palacios; universo y muestra: total de estudiantes de 2do año de enfermería durante los cursos 2008-2009 y 2009-2010 (46) y durante los cursos 2010-2011 y 2011-2012 (23); se utilizaron métodos observacionales, entrevistas, enfoque de sistema y modelación. Resultados: Las clases observadas de Bien ascendieron de 16,6% a 83,3 % y las observadas de Mal descendieron de 61,1% a 5,6%. La promoción mejoró en calidad y se elevó de 28,2% a 95,6%, se logro la mayor motivación y participación activa y protagónica de los estudiantes, así como seguridad y dominio en el tratamiento de los contenidos. Conclusiones: La alternativa metodológica permitió a los docentes potenciar las dimensiones cognitivas y motivaciones en los estudiantes por la asignatura Morfofisiología I y demostró un salto cualitativo y cuantitativo en los resultados obtenidos. Abstract in english Introduction: the students´ insufficient aprehension of the course contents in Morphology and Phisiology I is one of the main problems in the Nursing major. Objective: to design a methodological alternative to strengthen the teaching-learning process in the course subject in the Nursing major. Mater [...] ial and method: research-action in Los Palacios Municipal University Affiliate of Medical Sciences; target group and sample: the sheer number of Nursing second year students during the academic years 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 (46) and 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 (23); observational methods were used, as long as interviews, system approach and modelling. Results: the lessons evaluated with Good increased from 16.6% to 83.3% and those evaluated with Wrong decreased from 61.1% to 5.6%. Promotion improved in quality and increased from 28.2% to 95.6%, greater motivation and active and student-centered involvement was achieved, as well as self-confidence and aprehension of the subject contents. Conclusions: the methodological alternative permitted the teaching faculty to potentiate the students cognitive dimensions and motivations for the subject Morphology and Phisiology I and proved a qualitative and quantitative leap in the results obtained.

Coralia, Quintero Martí; Magaly, Gort Hernández; Teresa, Verona Ferro; Marelis, Linares Miranda; José Luis, Cordero Pérez.

2013-12-01

295

Effects of task repetition on L2 oral performance / Efeitos da repetição de tarefas na produção oral em L2  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo parte do pressuposto de que falar um segundo idioma (L2) é uma habilidade cognitiva complexa (FORTKAMP, 2000) cuja execução parece envolver uma compensação entre os diferentes objetivos da fala, principalmente entre a fluência, a acurácia e a complexidade (BYGATE, 1996, 1999, 2001b; FOST [...] ER e SKEHAN, 1996; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998). Bygate (2001b) estudou os efeitos da familiaridade com a tarefa na produção oral em L2. Ele mostrou que na repetição de uma narrativa há ganhos, principalmente em termos de complexidade da fala, mas esse ganhos ocorrem em detrimento de outros aspectos, principalmente da perda na acurácia da fala. Este estudo investigou se os resultados reportados por Bygate (2001b) seriam similares no caso da repetição de uma tarefa de descrição. Segundo Robinson (2001), a descrição é uma tarefa menos complexa do que uma narrativa. Quatro medidas de produção oral foram calculadas seguindo Fortkamp (2000): fluência, acurácia, complexidade e densidade lexical. Os resultados deste estudo indicam ganhos em termos de complexidade de fala e esses ganhos parecem ter sido alcançados, principalmente, às custas da acurácia, portanto, corroborando resultados de Bygate (2001b) para essa condição de tarefa. Abstract in english This study departs from the assumption that speaking an L2 is a complex cognitive ability (FORTKAMP, 2000) whose execution seems to involve tradeoff effects among the different goals of speech production, mainly among fluency, accuracy and complexity (BYGATE, 1998, 1999, 2001b; FOSTER e SKEHAN, 1996 [...] ; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998). Bygate (2001b) studied the effects of task familiarity on L2 speech performance. He found that in repeating a narrative task there were gains in terms of complexity of speech and these gains were achieved at the cost of a loss especially in accuracy. The present study investigated whether the results reported in Bygate (2001b) would be similar in the case of a repetition of a picture description task. According to Robinson (2001), a description is less complex than a narrative task. Four measures of speech performance were calculated following Fortkamp (2000): fluency, accuracy, complexity and lexical density. Results indicate gains in complexity and these gains seem to have been paid, especially by gains in accuracy, thus corroborating Bygate´s (2001b) findings for this task condition.

Kyria Rebeca, Finardi.

2008-06-01

296

Effects of task repetition on L2 oral performance Efeitos da repetição de tarefas na produção oral em L2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study departs from the assumption that speaking an L2 is a complex cognitive ability (FORTKAMP, 2000 whose execution seems to involve tradeoff effects among the different goals of speech production, mainly among fluency, accuracy and complexity (BYGATE, 1998, 1999, 2001b; FOSTER e SKEHAN, 1996; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998. Bygate (2001b studied the effects of task familiarity on L2 speech performance. He found that in repeating a narrative task there were gains in terms of complexity of speech and these gains were achieved at the cost of a loss especially in accuracy. The present study investigated whether the results reported in Bygate (2001b would be similar in the case of a repetition of a picture description task. According to Robinson (2001, a description is less complex than a narrative task. Four measures of speech performance were calculated following Fortkamp (2000: fluency, accuracy, complexity and lexical density. Results indicate gains in complexity and these gains seem to have been paid, especially by gains in accuracy, thus corroborating Bygate´s (2001b findings for this task condition.Este estudo parte do pressuposto de que falar um segundo idioma (L2 é uma habilidade cognitiva complexa (FORTKAMP, 2000 cuja execução parece envolver uma compensação entre os diferentes objetivos da fala, principalmente entre a fluência, a acurácia e a complexidade (BYGATE, 1996, 1999, 2001b; FOSTER e SKEHAN, 1996; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998. Bygate (2001b estudou os efeitos da familiaridade com a tarefa na produção oral em L2. Ele mostrou que na repetição de uma narrativa há ganhos, principalmente em termos de complexidade da fala, mas esse ganhos ocorrem em detrimento de outros aspectos, principalmente da perda na acurácia da fala. Este estudo investigou se os resultados reportados por Bygate (2001b seriam similares no caso da repetição de uma tarefa de descrição. Segundo Robinson (2001, a descrição é uma tarefa menos complexa do que uma narrativa. Quatro medidas de produção oral foram calculadas seguindo Fortkamp (2000: fluência, acurácia, complexidade e densidade lexical. Os resultados deste estudo indicam ganhos em termos de complexidade de fala e esses ganhos parecem ter sido alcançados, principalmente, às custas da acurácia, portanto, corroborando resultados de Bygate (2001b para essa condição de tarefa.

Kyria Rebeca Finardi

2008-06-01

297

NON SOLO LINGUA. I CORSI DI ITALIANO L2 PER DONNE MIGRANTI TRA BISOGNI LINGUISTICI E DESIDERIO DI INTEGRAZIONE.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Come si organizza un corso di italiano L2 per donne migranti? Perché questi corsi si differenziano dalle altre proposte formative rivolte ad adulti immigrati? Basandosi sulle indicazioni del vademecum Tutte le mamme a scuola, il presente contributo cerca di rispondere a queste domande analizzando i bisogni linguistici delle donne migranti, interrogandosi su quale italiano insegnare, su quale metodo didattico adottare con particolare attenzione all’approccio autobiografico e all’“imparare facendo” e presentando i libri di testo rivolti a questa tipologia di apprendenti. Le tre interviste in appendice, raccolte in tre diversi centri che si occupano di corsi di italiano L2 per donne immigrate, raccontano come tutte queste indicazioni possano essere messe in pratica per cercare di soddisfare quel desiderio di integrazione e promozione sociale di cui le allieve si fanno portatrici,  che rende la classe di lingua non solo il luogo in cui si impara a parlare italiano, ma anche un laboratorio sociale in cui sperimentare modi diversi di approcciarsi e di considerare la diversità.     Not only language. Italian L2 for migrant women between linguistic needs and the desire for integration.   How is an Italian L2 course organized for migrant women? Why are these courses different from other classes designed for adult immigrants? Based on the indications in the handbook Tutte le mamme a scuola, this article tries to answer these questions analyzing the linguistic needs of migrant women, considering what Italian should be taught, what teaching method should be used with special attention placed on the autobiographical approach and “learning by doing”. The three interviews in the appendix, from three different centers which offer Italian L2 courses to immigrant women, tell about how these indications can be put into practice to satisfy the desire for the integration and social inclusion of these students, making the language class more than a place where Italian is learned, but it becomes a social laboratory where different approaches can be tried out and diversities can be made evident.

Viviana Solcia

2012-02-01

298

New Physics in {Delta}L = 2 neutrino oscillations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We propose a general framework to constrain {Delta}L = 2 processes by measuring observables associated with neutrino-antineutrino oscillations in {pi}{sup {+-}} decays. First, we use this formalism as a new strategy for detecting the CP-violating phases and the effective mass of muon Majorana neutrinos. Within the generic framework of quantum field theory, we compute the non-factorizable probability for producing a pair of same-charged muons in {pi}{sup {+-}} decays as a distinctive signature of {nu}{sub {mu}}-{nu}*{sub {mu}}. Using the neutrino-antineutrino oscillation probability reported by MINOS collaboration, a new stringent bound on the effective muon-neutrino mass is derived. Secondly, we interpret the production of the pair of same-charged muons as a result of lepton number violating (LNV) interactions at the neutrino source, which allow us to constrain New Physics.

Delepine, David; Gonzalez Macias, Vannia [Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias de la Universidad de Guanajuato, C.P. 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Khalil, Shaaban [Centre for Theoretical Physics, British University in Egypt, El Sherouk City, Postal No, 11837, PO Box 43 (Egypt); Lopez Castro, Gabriel [Departamento de Fisica, Cinvestav, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

2011-04-01

299

Knot concordance, Whitney towers and $L^{2}$ signatures  

CERN Document Server

We construct many examples of non-slice knots in 3-space that cannot be distinguished from slice knots by previously known invariants. Using Whitney towers in place of embedded disks, we define a geometric filtration of the 3-dimensional topological knot concordance group. As special cases of Whitney towers of height less than four, the bottom part of the filtration exhibits all classical concordance invariants, including the Casson-Gordon invariants. Considering our entire filtration could lead to a 4-dimensional homology surgery theory. As a first step, we construct an infinite sequence of new obstructions that vanish on slice knots. These take values in the L-theory of certain "rationally universal" solvable groups. Finally, we use the dimension theory of von Neumann algebras to detect the first unknown step in our obstruction theory by an L^2-signature, providing many examples of non-slice knots with vanishing Casson-Gordon invariants.

Cochran, T D; Teichner, P; Cochran, Tim D.; Orr, Kent E.; Teichner, Peter

1999-01-01

300

Projective multiresolution analyses for $L^2(R^2)$  

CERN Document Server

We define the notion of "projective" multiresolution analyses, for which, by definition, the initial space corresponds to a finitely generated projective module over the algebra $C(\\btn)$ of continuous complex-valued functions on an $n$-torus. The case of ordinary multi-wavelets is that in which the projective module is actually free. We discuss the properties of projective multiresolution analyses, including the frames which they provide for $L^2(\\brn)$. Then we show how to construct examples for the case of any diagonal $2 \\times 2$ dilation matrix with integer entries, with initial module specified to be any fixed finitely generated projective $C(\\mathbb T^2)$-module. We compute the isomorphism classes of the corresponding wavelet modules.

Packer, J A; Packer, Judith A.; Rieffel, Marc A.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Optimized L2-Orthogonal STC CPM for 3 Antennas  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we introduce further our recently designed family of L2 orthogonal Space-Time codes for CPM. With their advantage of maintaining both the constant envelope properties of CPM, the diversity of Space-Time codes and moreover orthogonality, and thus reduced decoding complexity, these codes are also full rate, even for more than two transmitting antennas. The issue of power efficiency for these codes is first dealt with by proving that the inherent increase in bandwidth in these systems is quite moderate. It is then detailed how the initial state of the code influences the coding gain and has to be optimized. For the two and three antennas case, we determine the optimal values by computer simulations and show how the coding gain and therewith the bit error performance are significantly improved by this optimization.

Hesse, Matthias; Deneire, Luc

2009-01-01

302

IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2/LS CON TESTI TEATRALI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Il saggio tratta dell'impiego di testi teatrali come fonti di esercizi per l'apprendimento dell'italiano L2/LS. Dopo alcune riflessioni teoriche, si presentano sei proposte di lavoro, con relative soluzioni, adatte a studenti del livello B2-C2 del quadro di riferimento. Si tratta di esercizi ricavati da drammi in un unico atto di Pirandello (La morsa e Lumìe di Sicilia, da Verga (un confronto fra Cavalleria rusticana nella forma drammatica e novellistica, e da Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre. Ogni proposta sfrutta una peculiarità del testo teatrale che si costituisce nell'incontro di dialoghi con didascalie. Anzitutto si tratta di comprendere come si costruiscono i personaggi, quindi di vedere la funzione delle didascalie in relazione al testo, infine di riflettere sulle diverse modalità in cui avvengono i dialoghi, includendo le forme di silenzio. Il testo teatrale appare così molto adatto ad esercizi di lingua, perché mette in gioco le capacità interpretative e immaginative degli studenti, li fa discutere e parlare sulla base delle loro intuizioni.   This paper investigates the use of play scripts as inspiration for Italian L2/FL exercises. After a brief discussion on theory, six project proposals and their solutions, suitable for B2-C2 level students, are presented.  These exercises are based on one-act plays by Pirandello (La Morsa and Lumìe di Sicilia, Verga (a comparison between Cavalleria Rusticana in drama and narrative forms and Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre.  Each project focuses on a specific aspect of the script  and is made up of dialogues with captions. After the way the characters are constructed is investigated, then the function of the captions in relation to the texts is considered, and finally students reflect on the different ways the dialogues are presented, including the pauses. Play scripts lend themselves to language exercises, because they encourage students to use their interpretation skills and imaginations to talk about their intuitions and ideas.

Erminia Ardissino

2010-09-01

303

Factors influencing subcellular localization of the human papillomavirus L2 minor structural protein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two structural proteins form the capsids of papillomaviruses. The major structural protein L1 is the structural determinant of the capsids and is present in 360 copies arranged in 72 pentamers. The minor structural protein L2 is estimated to be present in twelve copies per capsid. Possible roles for L2 in interaction with cell surface receptors and in virion uptake have been suggested. As previously reported, L2 localizes in subnuclear domains identified as nuclear domain 10 (ND10). As it was demonstrated that L2 is able to recruit viral and cellular proteins to ND10, a possible role for L2 as a mediator in viral assembly has been proposed. In this study, we determined factors influencing the localization of L2 at ND10. Under conditions of moderate L2 expression level and in the absence of heterologous viral components, we observed that, in contrast to previous reports, L2 is mainly distributed homogeneously throughout the nucleus. L2, however, is recruited to ND10 at a higher expression level or in the presence of viral components derived from vaccinia virus or from Semliki Forest virus. We observed that translocation of L2 to ND10 is not a concentration-dependent accumulation but rather seems to be triggered by yet unidentified cellular factors. In contrast to HPV 11 and 16 L2, the HPV 18 L2 protein seems to require L1 for efficient nuclear accumulation

304

Individual Variation in L2 Study-Abroad Outcomes: A Case Study from Indonesian Pragmatics  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a study of two Australian learners of Indonesian during a short stay abroad. It examines their contrasting success in acquiring L2 address terms, in tandem with their contrasting experiences of the L2 culture setting. It thereby helps explain the persistent finding of great individual variation in L2 gains--and in particular pragmatic…

Hassall, Timothy

2015-01-01

305

L(2,1-Labeling Number of the Product and the Join Graph on Two Fans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L(2,1-labeling number of the product and the join graph on two fans are discussed in this paper, we proved that L(2,1-labeling number of the product graph on two fans is ?(G ? ?+3 , L(2,1-labeling number of the join graph on two fans is ?(G ? 2?+3.

Sumei Zhang

2013-06-01

306

Perceptual Filtering in L2 Lexical Memory: A Neural Network Approach to Second Language Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory has…

Nelson, Robert

2012-01-01

307

Thinking-Aloud as Talking-in-Interaction: Reinterpreting How L2 Lexical Inferencing Gets Done  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a general consensus among second-language (L2) researchers today that lexical inferencing (LIF) is among the most common techniques that L2 learners use to generate meaning for unknown words they encounter in context. Indeed, claims about the salience and pervasiveness of LIF for L2 learners rely heavily upon data obtained via concurrent…

Deschambault, Ryan

2012-01-01

308

Are They Watching? Test-Taker Viewing Behavior during an L2 Video Listening Test  

Science.gov (United States)

The accessibility of video technology has made it possible to utilize both the auditory and visual channels to present listening texts in the second language (L2) classroom and on L2 listening tests. However, there has been little research investigating the extent to which L2 listeners actually watch the video monitor when presented with a…

Wagner, Elvis

2007-01-01

309

ERPs recorded during early second language exposure predict syntactic learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In this study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners' proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High-proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared with closed-class function words, whereas low-proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners' L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition. PMID:24666165

Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J

2014-09-01

310

Web 2.0 and Second Language Learning: What Does the Research Tell Us?  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews current research on the use of Web 2.0 technologies in second language (L2) learning. Its purpose is to investigate the theoretical perspectives framing it, to identify some of the benefits of using Web 2.0 technologies in L2 learning, and to discuss some of the limitations. The review reveals that blogs and wikis have been…

Wang, Shenggao; Vasquez, Camilla

2012-01-01

311

VARIAZIONE DIATOPICA DEL FRANCESE E DIDATTICA DELL’ITALIANO L2: I TRANSFER NEGATIVI DEGLI APPRENDENTI CAMERUNENSI NELL’ITALIANO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Il meccanismo del transfer, soprattutto nelle fasi iniziali dell’apprendimento, è una caratteristica comune agli apprendenti di lingue straniere, indipendentemente dalla loro provenienza geografica e dalla loro lingua materna. Per quanto riguarda i francofoni che si avvicinano all’italiano, queste interferenze si rivelano notevoli soprattutto ai livelli morfosintattico e lessicale.Tenendo conto dell’estrema variabilità geografica della lingua francese, il presente contributo vuole portare in luce la differenziazione dei transfer (soprattutto negativi degli apprendenti francofoni nell’italiano. Con l’esempio dei camerunesi francofoni l’articolo cerca di mostrare che, per quanto riguarda l’interferenza tra L1 e L2, il generico profilo “apprendente francofono” conosce in realtà numerose ramificazioni. D’altra parte, il contributo procede ad una rivalutazione dei presupposti dell’approccio contrastivo, evidenziando l’importanza didattica della prevedibilità degli errori e della direzione dei transfer.DIATOPIC VARIATION OF FRENCH AND ITALIAN L2: TEACHING NEGATIVE TRANSFER OF ITALIAN LEARNERS FROM CAMERONThe transfer mechanism, especially in the early stages of learning, is a feature common to learners of foreign languages regardless of of their geographical origin and their mother tongue. Regarding Francophones studying Italian, these interferences have proven to be striking, especially in terms of morphosyntax and lexis.Bearing in mind the extreme geographical variability of the French language, this paper aims to bring to light the differentiation in transfer (mostly negative in French-speaking Italian L2 learners. The French-speaking Cameroonian students featured in the article show that, regarding L1/L2 interference, the generic profile “French-speaking learner” actually has numerous ramifications. This paper re-evaluates assumptions of the contrastive approach, highlighting the didactic importance of the predictability of errors and the direction of transfer.

Gilles Kuitche Talé

2014-02-01

312

A Contrastive Study of English-Arabic Noun Morphology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study aims at comparing and contrasting English and Arabic noun morphology to determine the points where they differ. These differences are the main cause of difficulty in the learning of the second language. Teaching will be directed at those points where there are structural differences. This in turn determines what the teacher has to teach and what the learner has to learn. The whole focus of the present analysis will be confined to noun morphology in both languages.

Jamal Azmi Salim

2013-05-01

313

A Vocabulary Learning Tool for L2 Undergraduates Reading Science and Technology Textbooks  

Science.gov (United States)

Students of English as a second language who major in science and technology use English-language textbooks to ensure that they can read English materials upon graduation. Research indicates that teachers spend little time helping these students on the linguistic complexity of such textbooks. Vocabulary, grammar, and article structure are elements…

Hsu, Chihcheng; Ou Yang, Fang-Chuan

2013-01-01

314

Cybertext Redux: Using Digital Game-Based Learning to Teach L2 Vocabulary, Reading, and Culture  

Science.gov (United States)

The essay reports on a mixed-methods study using an interactive fiction (IF) game to teach German vocabulary, reading, and culture to university students. The study measured knowledge retention and transfer, and evaluated the attitudes of students toward the game. The results tentatively indicate that contextualized, immersive role play may have…

Neville, David O.; Shelton, Brett E.; McInnis, Brian

2009-01-01

315

Language Acquisition without Universal Grammar: A General Nativist Proposal for L2 Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Explores the prospects for a "general nativist" theory of first- and second-language acquisition (SLA), outlines a modular acquisition device not including Universal Grammar, and considers the role of universal grammar in the emergence of a first language (L1). (50 references) (Author/CK)

O'Grady, William

1996-01-01

316

Deep Learning by Scattering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We introduce general scattering transforms as mathematical models of deep neural networks with l2 pooling. Scattering networks iteratively apply complex valued unitary operators, and the pooling is performed by a complex modulus. An expected scattering defines a contractive representation of a high-dimensional probability distribution, which preserves its mean-square norm. We show that unsupervised learning can be casted as an optimization of the space contraction to preserv...

Mallat, Ste?phane

2013-01-01

317

Summary of LOCE L2-2/L2-3 analysis and LOFT/zion prototypic study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To date, two 200% double-ended cold leg break experiments have been completed in the LOFT Power Ascension Test Series. LOCE L2-3 was conducted with maximum linear heat generation rate, core fluid temperature rise (?T), and system pressure characteristic of the normal operating conditions of a commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR). The thermal behavior of the core in both experiments was dominated by a self-induced cooling mechanism which occurred soon after experiment initiation. The dominance of this phenomena versus current licensing calculation restrictions raises the question of the prototypicality of the LOFT results. The ensuing discussion summarizes both an analysis of the most significant experimental results and a prototypic study of the LOFT results relative to ZION, a commercial PWR. ZION is similar to TROJAN, the commercial PWR to which LOFT was scaled

318

Interpretation of English reflexives by child and adult L2 learners  

CERN Document Server

This book casts new light on the debate of adult L2 learners' access to Universal Grammar (UG) by comparing the performance of adult L2 learners with that of child L2 learners. The study in this book compares Arabic- and Chinese-speaking child and adult L2 learners' acquisition of English reflexives, particularly concentrating on the differences between child and adult L2 learners in terms of their a) acquisition of the local binding of English reflexives, b) obedience of UG constraints on re...

Kafri, Amer Al

2013-01-01

319

Working memory capacity across L2 speech proficiency levels / Capacidade de memória de trabalho através de níveis de proficiência oral em L2  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo investiga se a capacidade de memória de trabalho (CMT) varia entre idiomas e níveis de proficiência na fala em L2. Seguindo sugestões em Finardi e Weissheimer (2009) e Prebianca (2010) que demonstraram que a CMT varia em função do nível de proficiência da fala em L2, o presente trabalho [...] analisou três níveis de proficiência (elementar, intermediário e avançado) e dois idiomas (L1-português e L2-inglês). Dois testes de MT foram usados, um em L1 e outro em L2, ambos na modalidade oral. Sessenta estudantes adultos de inglês como língua estrangeira participaram no estudo: 19 elementares, 19 intermediários e 22 avançados. Resultados dos testes Kruskal-Wallis e Mann-Whitney corroboraram Finardi e Weissheimer (2009) e Prebianca (2010) sugerindo que a CMT medida com um teste de amplitude da fala em L2 parece confundir a relação entre níveis de proficiência oral e CMT. Abstract in english This study investigates whether working memory capacity (WMC) varies across languages and in the course of L2 speech proficiency levels. Following suggestions in Finardi and Weissheimer (2009) and Prebianca (2010), who found that WMC varied as a function of L2 speech proficiency, the present study a [...] ssessed three proficiency levels (elementary, intermediate and advanced) and two languages (L1-Portuguese and L2-English). Two WM tests were used, one in the L1 and another in the L2, both in the speaking mode. Sixty adult learners of English as a foreign language participated in the study: 19 elementary, 19 intermediate and 22 advanced learners. Results of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests corroborate Finardi and Weissheimer (2009) and Prebianca (2010) suggesting that WMC measured with a speaking span test in L2 seems to conflate the relationship between speech proficiency levels and WMC.

Gicele Vergine Vieira, Prebianca; Kyria Rebeca, Finardi; Janaina, Weissheimer.

320

Impact of English Orthography on L2 Acquisition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

English language has become unavoidable being a global language in the present era. Whether it is a field of business, technology or education, its significance can’t be denied. Thus, majority of the world is learning and speaking English owing to its dire need. Unfortunately, despite staining through different reforms, the orthography of English language failed to become learners’ friendly as it seems to be a queer language for the beginners. The present study describes the ways how E...

Muhammad Aslam Sipra

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

On the expected diameter of an L2-bounded martingale  

CERN Document Server

It is shown that the ratio between the expected diameter of an L2-bounded martingale and the standard deviation of its last term cannot exceed sqrt(3). Moreover, a one-parameter family of stopping times on standard Brownian Motion is exhibited, for which the sqrt(3) upper bound is attained. These stopping times, one for each cost-rate c, are optimal when the payoff for stopping at time t is the diameter D(t) obtained up to time t minus the hitherto accumulated cost c t. A quantity related to diameter, maximal drawdown (or rise), is introduced and its expectation is shown to be bounded by sqrt(2) times the standard deviation of the last term of the martingale. These results complement the Dubins and Schwarz respective bounds 1 and sqrt(2) for the ratios between the expected maximum and maximal absolute value of the martingale and the standard deviation of its last term. Dynamic programming (gambling theory) methods are used for the proof of optimality.

Dubins, Lester E; Meilijson, Isaac

2008-01-01

322

Bioluminescence tomography by an iterative reweighted (l)2 norm optimization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioluminescence tomography is a promising tool in preclinical research, enabling noninvasive real-time in vivo imaging as well as quantitative analysis in small animal studies. Due to the difficulty of reconstruction, continuous efforts are still made to find more practical and efficient approaches. In this paper, we present an iterative reweighted l2-norm optimization incorporating anatomical structures in order to enhance the performance of bioluminescence tomography. The structure priors have been utilized to generate a heterogeneous mouse model by extracting the internal organs and tissues, which can assist in establishing a more precise photon diffusion model, as well as reflecting a more specific position of the reconstruction results inside the mouse. To evaluate the performance of the iterative reweighted approach, several numerical simulation studies including comparative analyses and multisource cases have been conducted to reconstruct the same datasets. The results suggest that the proposed method is able to ensure the accuracy, robustness, and efficiency of bioluminescence tomography. Finally, an in vivo experiment was performed to further validate its feasibility in a practical application. PMID:23974521

Ping Wu; Yifang Hu; Kun Wang; Jie Tian

2014-01-01

323

Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2 was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of other infective agents. For these reasons, glycosidases are likely to provide important information regarding the general behaviour of this bacterium. Ten different glycosides bound to p-nitrophenol (pNP substrate were tested. Assays were performed on lysed and unlysed chlamydial extracts.Our results provided strong evidence for the existence of glycosidase activity in C.trachomatis, strain SA2F peaking at pH 5.0 and pH 7.5-8.0 There was a high enzymatic activity against p-NPa mannopyranoside and p-NP b-N acetylglucosamine with a recovery of 88% suggesting that the enzymes were present on the bacterial surface. Activity against these sugars, which form part of either the extracellular filler or in endoplasmic reticulum may suggest of a possible mechanism of cellular invasion.

Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh

2006-01-01

324

Recent results of ECRH experiments on L-2M stellarator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are reported from experimental study of ECH heated plasma in the L-2M stellarator with special emphasis on studying the turbulent processes. It is shown that the total plasma energy at fixed total heating power is strongly dependent on the plasma position. Visible degradation of plasma confinement is observed for the inward shifted magnetic configurations where the stability conditions of ideal interchange MHD modes are violated. However, even in this case the situation can be improved by decreasing the average radius of the plasma boundary with the help of graphite limiter resulting in the increase of the Shafranov shift of magnetic surfaces and deepening of the magnetic well due to the effect of self-stabilization. This in turn causes stabilization of ideal MHD interchange modes and visible increase in plasma energy and volume average value of beta. Statistical properties of turbulence was studied both for the central part of the plasma column and for the plasma edge. It is shown that one of the critical factors determining the coherent structures and turbulent fluxes in the edge plasma is the radial electric field. (author)

325

The perceptual magnet effect (PME) in L2 consonants  

Science.gov (United States)

The perceptual magnet effect (PME) has been investigated in conjunction with L1 vowels and consonants. However, there has been a paucity of examinations of the effect in L2 speech perception. The present study used the methodology of Iverson and Kuhl [P. Iverson and P. K. Kuhl, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 1130-1140 (1996)] to examine whether Japanese speakers who have had exposure to English-speaking environments for more than 1 year exhibit the PME for /r/ and /l/. Eighteen synthetic stimuli were generated. Ten Japanese speakers and 12 American English speakers participated in an identification and rating task. Each participant engaged in ten experimental sessions (ten sessions of each of the 18 stimuli). They chose either /ra/ or /la/ and gave a rating with a 1-7 scale. They also underwent a similarity scaling task to determine the similarity of 306 pairs of the 18 stimuli with a 1-7 scale. The results indicated that, while the English speakers demonstrated the PME, some native speakers of Japanese did exhibit the PME and prefer some exemplars of English /r/ and /l/ over others. The results also revealed that other Japanese speakers exhibited reorganized perceptual space without the PME.

Hattori, Kota

2005-09-01

326

Assessing Learners’ Comprehension of Logical Connectives in L2 Texts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To successfully comprehend a text, readers must be able to establish coherent representation of its meaning. Construction of coherent text representation presupposes an ability to identify coherence relations that bind discourse segments together. These relations can be implicit or marked by a variety of linguistic devices such as logical connectives and signaling phrases. While there has been a growing awareness among the teachers and EFL material writers about the important role that knowledge of marker words plays in comprehension of L2 discourse, there is only a limited number of suitable test designs that allow assessment of learners’ understanding of these words. The current paper summarizes the major findings of the research on the role of discourse markers in text processing and presents two test formats that could be used to measure students’ understanding of conjunctions as text structure markers: a ‘paraphrase’ judgment task and text diagrams. The advantages and potential limitations of each test format are examined from both the teacher and the student perspectives.

Zorana Vasiljevic

2013-01-01

327

Peer Review Comments Provided by High- and Low-Proficiency L2 Learners: A Comparative Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explored the variations in peer review comments provided by L2 writers of high and low proficiencies. Two sampling procedures were used. First, convenience sampling was used to locate a college essay composition course as the setting of the study. Second, purposeful sampling was used to identify high- and low-performing writers as the subjects, from whom the peer review comments were collected and analyzed. An instruction-learning cycle on argumentative essay writing was conducted for 4 weeks. Each student was subsequently provided with the same sample argumentative essay and a peer review form to conduct the review. The rubrics on the review form included introduction, support for position, sequence, refutation, conclusion, voice, and grammar and spelling. Content analysis was conducted to compare the manner in which the comments varied among students of different writing proficiency levels. The results indicate that, although identifying problems was the dominant comment type of both high- and low-performing writers, high-performing writers tended to provide more details when explaining the identified problems and offering suggestions for revisions. The findings are discussed regarding the implications to peer review training.

Hui-Chuan Liao

2012-08-01

328

LOFT/L2-3, Loss of Fluid Test, 2. NRC L2 Large Break LOCA Experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCA is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: This experiment was the second of the NRC L2 Series of nuclear large Break LOCA experiments, and was conducted on 12 May 1979. It simulated a 100% cold leg break with a maximum heat generation of 39 kW/m

329

LOFT/L2-5, Loss of Fluid Test, 3. NRC L2 Large Break LOCA Experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCA is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: This experiment was the third of the NRC L2 Series of nuclear large Break LOCA experiments, conducted on 16 June 1981. It simulated a 100% cold leg break with a maximum heat generation of 40 kW/m and rapid pump coast down

330

COMPETENZA PRAGMATICA IN ITALIANO L2: L’USO DEI SEGNALI DISCORSIVI DA PARTE DEGLI APPRENDENTI CROATI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Questo contributo esplora la produzione dialogica in italiano da parte degli apprendenti di lingua materna croata con l’obiettivo di determinare la loro competenza interazionale e pragmatica in italiano L2. Particolare attenzione si è rivolta ad un aspetto caratteristico della produzione dialogica, ai segnali discorsivi ? espedienti dialogici per eccellenza. I parlanti nativi usano segnali discorsivi con una vasta gamma di funzioni dialogiche, mentre l’acquisizione dei segnali discorsivi italiani è un territorio relativamente inesplorato e i segnali discorsivi vengono raramente insegnati. in maniera esplicita. La capacità di riconoscere e utilizzare i segnali discorsivi italiani adeguatamente, vale a dire secondo le loro funzioni pragmatiche, rivela il livello della competenza pragmatica dell’apprendente di una lingua straniera. Ai fini dello studio presente, gli apprendenti di italiano sono stati classificati in diversi gruppi in base alla durata dell’ istruzione (principianti, intermedi, avanzati e/o al tipo di ambiente di apprendimento (studenti universitari, corsi di lingua straniera, “full immersion”. L’analisi si è concentrata maggiormente sulla frequenza d’uso e su alcune funzioni dei segnali discorsivi italiani adoperati. Lo scopo di questo studio era quello di esaminare la differenza tra l’uso dei segnali discorsivi relativo ai diversi livelli e ambienti educativi della lingua italiana da parte degli apprendenti croati di italiano L2 e di osservare le caratteristiche di una possibile influenza derivata dal L1.     Pragmatic competence in Italian L2: the use of discourse signals in Croatian-speaking learners This contribution explores the dialogue production of Croatian-speaking learners of Italian as a second language (L2 with the objective to determine their competence in L2 interactions. Special attention is paid to one particular aspect of dialogue production, discourse markers -dialogical expedients par excellence. Native speakers use discourse markers for a wide variety of dialogue functions, while the acquisition of (Italian discourse markers is a relatively unexplored area and discourse markers are hardly ever explicitly taught. The ability to recognize and use Italian discourse markers correctly, in terms of their pragmatic functions, reveals the learners’ pragmatic competence. For this particular study, the learners of Italian were classified in different groups according to length of instruction (basic, elementary, advanced and/or type of learning environment (university students, foreign language courses, “full immersion”. The analysis focused on the frequency of use and some functions of Italian discourse markers. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference between the Italian learners’ use of discourse markers and to observe the instances of a possible L1 influence.

Magdalena Nigoevi?

2012-02-01

331

L2 and L3 integrated learning – lingua franca use in learning an additional language in the classroom.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study offers an empirical account of the use of English in Danish-as-a-foreign-language classroom settings. We will refer to English as the lingua franca - which in itself is a second language for the majority of the participants in the data - and to Danish as the target language. We consider implications of lingua franca interaction in target language classroom interactions, and show how in sequences where participants orient to linguistic issues in the target language, for example grammatical forms or lexical items, they often do this with reference to the lingua franca.

Hazel, Spencer; Wagner, Johannes

2015-01-01

332

L 2 Stability Estimates for Shock Solutions of Scalar Conservation Laws Using the Relative Entropy Method  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider scalar nonviscous conservation laws with strictly convex flux in one spatial dimension, and we investigate the behavior of bounded L 2 perturbations of shock wave solutions to the Riemann problem using the relative entropy method. We show that up to a time-dependent translation of the shock, the L 2 norm of a perturbed solution relative to the shock wave is bounded above by the L 2 norm of the initial perturbation.

Leger, Nicholas

2011-03-01

333

Unveiling the Mystery: Investigating L2 Reading Motivation in an EFL Classroom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Research in L2 reading motivation has gained impetus and provided many insights into understanding the components of motivation and factors that affect L2 learners in terms of reading motivation. Although many studies can be found on L1 reading motivation, studies on L2 reading motivation seem to be relatively meager. Since action research encompasses a sequence of events and an approach to problem solving, the present study addressed to examine whether; (1) this sample of Turkish University ...

Sirin, Petek; Ga?¶kta?¼rk Saglam, Asli Lidice

2012-01-01

334

The Development of Conceptual Fluency & Metaphorical Competence in L2 Learners  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Conceptual Fluency (CF) and Metaphorical Competence (MC) have piqued the interest of a number of L2 researchers. Leading the front are Danesi (1992; 1995; 2003) and Johnson and Rosano (1993) who contend that metaphorical language cannot afford to be ignored by L2 curricula anymore. Their push is to instill in L2 learners a more functional communicative competence over a traditional formal competence. This article reports on a study carried out to scrutinize the development of CF and MC in Per...

Hashemian, Mahmood; Mohammad Reza Talebi Nezhad

2007-01-01

335

Interactional Feedback and the Impact of Attitude and Motivation on Noticing L2 Form  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A number of second language (L2) studies have recently discovered the positive impacts of interactional feedback (IF) in L2 development by connecting the underlying processes such as noticing. The current study followed a two-fold purpose: first to examine the impact of IF on noticing question forms in Iranian L2 classroom context and secondly to investigate the possible effects of motivation and attitude on noting IF. IF was provided to experimental group learners in response to their pro...

Mohammad Amin Bassiri

2011-01-01

336

Didattica multicanale integrata: il fumetto parlante. Un’esperienza di scrittura creativa collaborativa in un corso di italiano L2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L’articolo, nella premessa, parte da riferimenti a S. Papert e al costruzionismo, per focalizzarsi poi su alcuni aspetti dell’ultimo lavoro di A.Pian che, con l’ elaborazione del concetto di didattica multicanale integrata, indica una prospettiva ulteriore per l’integrazione di strumenti tecnologici nei processi di insegnamento/apprendimento.Nella fase seguente questo lavoro illustra un esperimento di scrittura creativa collaborativa in un corso di Italiano L2 blended, effettuato attraverso un sistema wiki e la successiva elaborazione integrata di testo, immagini e narrazione orale in un “fumetto parlante”. Uno degli obiettivi fondamentali del progetto è stato quello di valutare se, e in quale modo, il percorso effettuato in un ambiente online potesse favorire lo sviluppo della competenza comunicativa da parte dei corsisti, insieme a quello di analizzare i codici linguistici attivati nell’interazione. Non ultimo, l’obiettivo di verificare la possibilità che i corsisti potessero sperimentare un percorso per la creazione di un oggetto didattico che possa dare anche “piacere estetico” nella fruizione.  Integrated multi-channel teaching: the cartoon speaker.An experience in collaborative creative writing in an Italian L2 course The article begins with references to S. Papert and constructionism, then focuses on certain aspects of the work of A. Pian, who elaborated the concept of integrated multi-channel learning, indicating a further perspective for the integration of technological tools in the teaching/learning process. An experiment in a blended Italian L2 collaborative creative writing course was carried out using a wiki system and the subsequent processing of the integrated text, images and storytelling into a “speech bubble”. A key objective of the project was to assess whether, and in what way, an online environment could favor the development of communicative competence on the part of the students, along with the analysis of the linguistic codes activated in the interaction. Last but not least, there was the objective to verify the possibility that the participants could create a learning object that would also give “aesthetic pleasure” when used.

Diego Santalucia

2013-07-01

337

The Impact of an Online Learning Community Project on University Chinese as a Foreign Language Students' Motivation  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the impact of an online learning community project on university students' motivation in learning Chinese as a foreign language. A newly proposed second language (L2) motivation theory--the L2 motivational self system (Dornyei, 2005, 2009)--guided this study. A concurrent transformative mixed-methods design was employed to…

Cai, Shengrong; Zhu, Wei

2012-01-01

338

AUTOBIOGRAFIE LINGUISTICHE CON UNA CLASSE DI ITALIANO L2 DI SINOFONI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Convinta dell’utilità didattica del racconto autobiografico nel processo di apprendimento/insegnamento dell’italiano da parte di studenti stranieri, presento un’unità didattica di approccio alle autobiografie linguistiche, progettata per giovani apprendenti sinofoni, con una competenza dell’italiano oscillante tra i livelli A2 e B1, giunti in Italia per compiere gli studi universitari.Il percorso didattico ha come punto d’arrivo la stesura da parte di degli studenti della propria autobiografia linguistica; è organizzato in fasi e prevede attività che coinvolgono la ricezione orale e scritta, la produzione orale e scritta e l’interazione.L’unità didattica si propone di far conoscere il genere dell’autobiografia e in particolare di quella in cui chi scrive racconta la propria esperienza con le lingue; di stimolare gli studenti a riflettere su se stessi, sulle loro abitudini linguistiche, sulle esperienze pregresse di studio delle lingue e di contatto con le culture di cui le lingue sono veicolo; di incoraggiare gli allievi a parlare di sé.Si prevede, inoltre, nel corso delle attività proposte, l’introduzione di alcune nozioni di linguistica, come, ad esempio, le nozioni di lingua madre, competenza e varietà linguistica.LINGUISTIC AUTOBIOGRAPHIES: AN EXPERIENCE WITH CHINESE-SPEAKING ITALIAN L2 LEARNERSI am convinced of the utility of autobiography in the Italian L2 teaching/learning process with foreign students, and I present a teaching unit centered on linguistic autobiography, designed for young Chinese-speaking learners with A2-B1 competence in Italian, who are studying at Italian universities.The process culminates in the students’ written linguistic autobiography, organized in phases and involving oral and written activities including reception, production and interaction.The unit aims at making the students familiar with the genre of autobiography, focusing on personal experience with languages, in order to stimulate the students to reflect on themselves, their linguistic habits, their former experiences studying languages and contact with cultures where language is the vehicle, as well as encouraging the students to talk about themselves.A few linguistic notions are also introduced, including the idea of mother tongue, competence and linguistic variety.

Lorenza Corti

2012-07-01

339

AFG3L2 deficiency impairs axonal transport of mitochondria dependent on ROS and tau levels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The m-AAA protease, present in the inner mitochondrial membrane facing the mitochondrial matrix, degrades misfolded polypeptides and processes substrates. AFG3L2 is a subunit of m-AAA protease. In humans, heterozygous missense mutations in AFG3L2 lead to Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 28 (SCA28) whereas homozygous mutations in AFG3L2 cause a severe recessive form of spastic-ataxia with early-onset and rapid progression (SPAX5). While depletion of AFG3L2 causes mitochondrial fragmentation in non-...

Kondadi, Arun Kumar

2014-01-01

340

Stably diffeomorphic manifolds and l_{2q+1}(Z[\\pi])  

CERN Document Server

The monoids l_{2q+1}(Z[\\pi]) detect s-cobordisms amongst certain bordisms between stably diffeomorphic 2q-dimensional manifolds and generalise the Wall simple surgery obstruction groups, L_{2q+1}^s(Z[\\pi]) \\subset l_{2q+1}(Z[\\pi]). In this paper we give exact sequences which completely describe l_{2q+1}(Z[\\pi]) as a set and which we use to compute its Grothendieck group. As a consequence we deduce cancellation results for stably diffeomorphic manifolds with polycyclic-by-finite fundamental group.

Crowley, Diarmuid

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Working memory capacity and speech production in L2: evidences from a picture description task  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is an experimental study which aimed at investigating theralationsship between working memory capacity and measuresof L2 speech performance in a picture description task. The mainassumption underlying the present study was that L2 speaking isa complex cognitive task which is carried out within theconstraints of a limited-capacity system, namely, working memory.In this system, there are trade-off effects between the storage andprocessing functions of working memory just as in L2 speakingthere are trade-off effects among fluency, accuracy and complexitywhen L2 learners perform under processing pressure.

Kyria Finardi

2012-11-01

342

Review of the Influence of L1 in L2 Acquisition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L1 has a significant influence on second language study. However, how L1 influence L2 is very complicated and abstract. But to study the mechanism of how L1 influence L2 is significant because L2 acquisition is making contribution on many fields like education and psychology. L1 is one of the central elements influencing SLA. In this course paper, we are going to overview what linguists have done about L1 and L2 and what approaches and theories they have made.

Zhanming WANG

2014-10-01

343

Non-academic L2 Users: A Neglected Research Pool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available English Language Teaching (ELT articles are published and their results are relied on without delving into their methodological credibility. A research study cannot be considered valid unless its population is precisely determined and defined. This article shows the considerable size of non-academic English learners in Iran and argues that the population in ELT research should not be limited only to university and school students who are easily accessible but it should also include the sizeable non-academic sector. To do this, 170 PhD dissertations and MA theses in TEFL were randomly selected. The result showed that only less than 9% of the participants belonged to non-academic sector. The article also argues that there is wrong overgeneralization of even the existing ELT academic researches to non-academic situation. Finally it compares academic and non-academic English learners to show how the latter are highly motivated to learn.

Talebinezhad, Mohammad Reza

2005-01-01

344

Learning Networks, Networked Learning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Learning Networks are on-line social networks through which users share knowledge with each other and jointly develop new knowledge. This way, Learning Networks may enrich the experience of formal, school-based learning and form a viable setting for professional development. Although networked learning enjoys an increasing interest, many questions remain on how exactly learning in such networked contexts can contribute to successful education and training. Put differently, how should networke...

Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

2011-01-01

345

Demotivating Factors for English Language Learning Among University Students  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Demotivation is a relatively new issue in the field of second/foreign Language (L2) learning motivation. Recognizing and removing barriers can have a marked effect on motivation and attention to learning in general and ESL/EFL learning in particular. Demotivating factors are essential factors which negatively influence the learner?s attitudes and behaviors and hence lead to undesired learning outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effective fa...

Reyhaneh Ghadirzadeh; Hashtroudi, Fariba P.; Omid Shokri

2012-01-01

346

The Impact of Discourse Signaling Devices on the Listening Comprehension of L2 Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was two-fold: first, it aimed at examining the impact of expository text topics on the listening comprehension of L2 learners; second, it aimed to investigate the impact of macro, micro, and macro-micro discourse markers on the listening comprehension of expository texts by L2 learners. The participants (N =105) were male…

Tajabadi, Fahimeh; Taghizadeh, Mahboubeh

2014-01-01

347

The Role of Hypercorrection in the Acquisition of L2 Phonemic Contrasts  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports empirical findings from an ongoing investigation into the acquisition of second-language (L2) phonemic contrasts. Specifically, we consider the status and role of the phenomenon of hypercorrection in the various stages through which L2 learners develop and internalize a target language (TL) contrast. We adopt the prevailing…

Eckman, Fred R.; Iverson, Gregory K.; Song, Jae Yung

2013-01-01

348

Islands and Objects in L2 Spanish: Do You Know the Learners Who Drop___?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tests native Brazilian Portuguese (BP) speakers of second language (L2) Spanish in the domain of phonologically null object pronouns. This is a worthwhile first language (L1)-L2 pairing given that these languages are historically and typologically related and both seemingly allow for object drop. Nevertheless, the underlying syntax of…

Rothman, Jason; Iverson, Michael

2013-01-01

349

German Pitches in English: Production and Perception of Cross-Varietal Differences in L2  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examines the effect of cross-varietal prosodic characteristics of two German varieties, Northern Standard German (NG) and Swiss German (SG), on the production and perception of foreign accent in L2 Belfast English. The analysis of production data revealed differences in the realisation of nuclear pitch accents in L1 German and L2

Ulbrich, Christiane

2013-01-01

350

Emergent L2 German Writing Ability in a Curricular Context: A Longitudinal Study of Grammatical Metaphor  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper reports on a study of emergent adult instructed L2 German writing ability in a college-level program that developed an explicit curriculum-based approach to supporting L2 writing. It uses systemic-functional linguistics (SFL) as its theoretical framework and traces writing development through a central construct in the theory, the…

Byrnes, Heidi

2009-01-01

351

Succeeding through Uncertainty: Three L2 Students in a First-Year Composition Class  

Science.gov (United States)

This qualitative study examines the unique challenges of multilingual students (referred to in the study as "L2 students") in a first-year writing class at a large public U.S. university. Following a case-study approach, the experiences of three L2 students, three native English-speaking students (referred to in the study as "L1…

Stuart, Christian D. D.

2012-01-01

352

Disruption of the complement anaphylatoxin receptor C5L2 exacerbates inflammation in allergic contact dermatitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The complement anaphylatoxin C5a is a critical mediator of allergic contact dermatitis, bridging essential aspects of innate and adaptive immunity. This anaphylatoxin functions by interacting with two 7-transmembrane segment receptors, the C5aR and C5L2. The C5aR is a classical G protein coupled receptor, whereas C5L2 is deficient in coupling to G proteins because of variations in the sequence. Our previous work in human neutrophils revealed a unique role for C5L2 in negatively modulating anaphylatoxin receptor mediated cellular activation through interactions with ?-arrestin. When C5L2 is deficient, C5aR-mediated ?-arrestin signaling is greatly enhanced. The work described in this study was undertaken first to determine the effect of C5L2 deficiency in a murine model of contact sensitivity, and second to determine whether the resultant exacerbation of inflammatory parameters reflects a negative modulatory function of C5L2 on the C5aR. First, we find dramatic increases in inflammation in C5L2(-/-) animals compared with wild type mice. Second, these increases are completely reversed following administration of mAb against the C5aR. Thus, in allergic contact sensitivity, as in isolated human neutrophils, C5L2 functions to suppress C5a-C5aR-mediated responses, further underscoring its role as a negative regulator of anaphylatoxin activity. PMID:24043888

Wang, Ruobing; Lu, Bao; Gerard, Craig; Gerard, Norma P

2013-10-15

353

The Development of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in the Written Production of L2 French  

Science.gov (United States)

The present longitudinal case study investigated the development of fluency, complexity and accuracy--and the possible relationships between them--in the written production of L2 French. We assessed fluency and complexity in five intermediate learners by means of conventional indicators for written L2 (cf. Wolfe-Quintero et al. 1998), while…

Gunnarsson, Cecilia

2012-01-01

354

The Effects of Hypertext Glosses on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition: A Meta-Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines (1) the effects of hypertext gloss use on L2 vocabulary acquisition in computerized reading contexts; (2) which specific combination of either text-only (single) or text + visual (multiple) hypertext glosses is more effective on L2 vocabulary acquisition; and (3) potential moderators to systematically account for between study…

Yun, Jeehwan

2011-01-01

355

The Interaction of Instruction and Learner-Internal Factors in the Acquisition of L2 Morphosyntax.  

Science.gov (United States)

Considers the role of instruction, second language (L2) input, first language (L1) transfer, and universal grammar in development of L2 morphosyntactic knowledge. Specifically investigates the acquisition of the Spanish morpheme "se" by English-speaking adult learners. (Author/VWL)

Toth, Paul D.

2000-01-01

356

Becoming 'American-Italian": An Immigrant's Narrative of Acquiring English as an L2  

Science.gov (United States)

This article tells the story of a child immigrant's L2 acquisition process. The narrative demonstrates the effects of social and academic factors on motivation to acquire an L2 and the result of immigration at a young age on cultural identity formation. The article begins by discussing the need for research into sociocultural factors in the second…

Amicucci, Ann N.

2012-01-01

357

Negative Feedback and Positive Evidence in Task-Based Interaction: Differential Effects on L2 Development  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the role of task-based conversation in second language (L2) grammatical development, focusing on the short-term effects of both negative feedback and positive evidence on the acquisition of two Japanese structures. The data are drawn from 55 L2 learners of Japanese at a beginning level of proficiency in an Australian tertiary…

Iwashita, Noriko

2003-01-01

358

Implicit Knowledge, Explicit Knowledge, and Achievement in Second Language (L2) Spanish  

Science.gov (United States)

Implicit and explicit knowledge of the second language (L2) are two central constructs in the field of second language acquisition (SLA). In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in obtaining valid and reliable measures of L2 learners' implicit and explicit knowledge (e.g., Bowles, 2011; R. Ellis, 2005). The purpose of the present study…

Gutierrez, Xavier

2012-01-01

359

Successive distinct high-grade gliomas in L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria are at risk for developing cerebral neoplasms, particularly gliomas, as one of the optical isomers of the known oncometabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate is produced in L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. To illustrate the concept of sustained oncogenic potential in permanent exposure to L-2-hydroxyglutarate in brain tissue, we present the medical history of a patient with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria who underwent surgery to remove a right temporal anaplastic astrocytoma and developed an anatomically distinct, but histopathologically similar, tumor in the left frontal region 40 months later. This is the first reported case of successive distinct gliomas in a patient with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria. While this implies a significant, cumulative lifetime risk for cerebral neoplasms in patients with this rare organic aciduria, it also allows further insight into a unique mechanism of tumorigenesis in the brain. PMID:25338511

Patay, Zoltan; Orr, Brent A; Shulkin, Barry L; Hwang, Scott N; Ying, Yuan; Broniscer, Alberto; Boop, Frederick A; Ellison, David W

2014-10-23

360

Morphology, Memory and the Mental Lexicon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent experimental evidence on morphological learning and processing has prompted a less deterministic and modular view of the interaction between stored word knowledge and on-line processing. Storing a word in the mental lexicon does not simply entail keeping a faithful memory image of that word in the most compact way. It also requires encoding and manipulating such image through topological structures that are optimally adapted to word production and comprehension. Temporal Self-Organizin...

Ferro, Marcello; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Morphology of galaxies  

CERN Document Server

The study of the morphology of galaxies is important in order to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies and their sub-components as a function of luminosity, environment, and star-formation and galaxy assembly over cosmic time. Disentangling the many variables that affect galaxy evolution and morphology, requires large galaxy samples and automated ways to measure morphology. The advent of large digital sky surveys, with unprecedented depth and resolution, coupled with sophisticated quantitative methods for morphology measurement are providing new insights in this fast evolving field of astronomical research.

Wadadekar, Yogesh

2012-01-01

362

IL FENOMENO DELL’ALTERNANZA L1/L2 NELL’INSEGNAMENTO DELL’ITALIANO COME LINGUA STRANIERA. ANALISI DI UN CORPUS DI INTERAZIONI DIDATTICHE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La modalità plurilingue della comunicazione in classi di lingua straniera può rientrare tra le strategie pedagogiche a disposizione dell’insegnante per il raggiungimento di precisi scopi didattici e formativi. Partendo da una breve analisi sul significato di parlante plurilingue e plurilinguismo stesso, in questo articolo si è voluto esaminare come si attua una educazione al plurilinguismo in contesti formativi e, in particolare, se e come l’utilizzo della L1 può costituire uno strumento di supporto all’insegnamento e all’apprendimento di una lingua straniera. A questo scopo sono stati analizzati i dati raccolti presso l’Università di Coventry durante corsi di italiano L2 per studenti anglofoni. I fenomeni di contatto linguistico L1/L2 più frequenti e significativi sono stati suddivisi in base al parlante e alle loro funzioni.   The phenomena of l1/l2 alternation in the teaching of italian as a foreign language. analysis of a corpus of didactic interactions Multilingual communication in foreign language classrooms can be considered as one of the teacher’s pedagogical  strategies to achieve specific educational aims. Through a brief analysis of the meaning of multilingual speakers and multilingualism, this article examines how an education to multilingualism in teaching contexts is carried out and, in particular, if and how the use of the L1 can be a helpful tool for the foreign language teaching and learning. For this purpose the data collected at Coventry University during Italian (L2 classrooms for English students were examined. The more common and meaningful phenomena of linguistic contact between L1 and L2 were grouped according to the speaker and to their functions.

Paola Arrigoni

2012-02-01

363

Japanese Language Students' Perceptions on "Kanji" Learning and Their Relationship to Novel "Kanji" Word Learning Ability  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the relationship between how learners of Japanese as a second language perceive the learning of "kanji" (i.e., the logographic characters shared with Chinese) and their ability to learn novel "kanji" words using morphological and contextual information. Eighty college students learning Japanese as a foreign language completed a…

Mori, Yoshiko; Sato, Kumi; Shimizu, Hideko

2007-01-01

364

L2-stability of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near global Maxwellians  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a L2-stability theory of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system for the two-species collisional plasma. We show that in a perturbative regime of a global Maxwellian, the L2-distance between two strong solutions can be controlled by that between initial data in a Lipschitz manner. Our stability result extends earlier results [Ha, S.-Y. and Xiao, Q.-H., “A revisiting to the L2-stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near global Maxwellians,” (submitted) and Ha, S.-Y., Yang, X.-F., and Yun, S.-B., “L2 stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near a global Maxwellian,” Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 197, 657–688 (2010)] on the L2-stability of the Boltzmann equation to the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent external forces. As a direct application of our stability result, we show that classical solutions in Duan et al. [“Optimal large-time behavior of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system in the whole space,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 24, 1497–1546 (2011)] and Guo [“The Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near Maxwellians,” Invent. Math. 153(3), 593–630 (2003)] satisfy a uniform L2-stability estimate. This is the first result on the L2-stability of the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent field equations in three dimensions

365

Nuclear import strategies of high-risk HPV18 L2 minor capsid protein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the nuclear import strategies of high-risk HPV18 L2 minor capsid protein. HPV18 L2 interacts with Kap ?2 adapter, and Kap ?2 and Kap ?3 nuclear import receptors. Moreover, binding of RanGTP to either Kap ?2 or Kap ?3 inhibits their interaction with L2, suggesting that these Kap ?/L2 complexes are import competent. Mapping studies show that HPV18 L2 contains two NLSs: in the N-terminus (nNLS) and in the C-terminus (cNLS), both of which can independently mediate nuclear import. Both nNLS and cNLS form a complex with Kap ?2?1 heterodimer and mediate nuclear import via a classical pathway. The nNLS is also essential for the interaction of HPV18 L2 with Kap ?2 and Kap ?3. Interestingly, both nNLS and cNLS interact with the viral DNA and this DNA binding occurs without nucleotide sequence specificity. Together, the data suggest that HPV18 L2 can interact via its NLSs with several Kaps and the viral DNA and may enter the nucleus via multiple import pathways mediated by Kap ?2?1 heterodimers, Kap ?2 and Kap ?3

366

Asimmetrie L1/L2: una sfida nella didattica di “lingua e traduzione”.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Asymmetries Between L1 and L2: a Challenge in the Teaching of "Language and Translation" Language teaching is deeply connected to the cognitive and brain sciences. The attribution of meaning of linguistic messages depends on the interaction between the communicant’s brain and the external world. The interaction is based on the cognitive and emotional experience shared by a L-community. Competence in L2 is acquired by the development of an internal data base of contextualised .units of living speech. (Lurija 1976. L2 teaching is particularly successful when the L2 units are inscribed in memory by means of the functionally equivalent L1 units. Selection of the L1/L2 correspondent units is due to the principle of markedness: each unit of L1 has a functional equivalent in one and only one unit of the L2. Because of the interlingual asymmetries (a set of Italian/Russian examples is given, functional equivalence differs from morphosyntactic and lexical equivalence. The competency in ascribing a degree of markedness to each linguistic unit needs the regular implicit acquisition of the L2 intonational and prosodic system; the processes of the metalinguistic conscious reflection are instead a .hindrance. to the procedural acting of a “living speaker”.

Laura Salmon

2004-12-01

367

Individual Factors and Successful Learning in a Hybrid Course  

Science.gov (United States)

What personality factors make for a successful hybrid L2 learning experience? While previous studies have examined online learning in comparative terms (i.e. Which format is better: in class or hybrid?), this study examines certain personality and cognitive factors that might define the ideal hybrid language learner. All informants studied…

Arispe, Kelly; Blake, Robert J.

2012-01-01

368

Euclidean limit of L2-spectral properties of the Pauli Hamiltonians on constant curvature Riemann surfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We realize the Pauli Hamiltonians P?? (with constant magnetic field ? > 0) on a simply connected Riemann surface M? of constant scalar curvature ? element of R as second-order differential operators acting on differential 1-forms of M?. We also study the asymptotic behaviour of some aspects of their L2-spectral properties when the Euclidean limit is taken. More exactly, we show that the L2-eigenprojector kernels on the plane R2=C (i.e., ? = 0) corresponding to the Landau levels 8?l; l = 0, 1, ..., can be recovered from the L2-eigenprojector kernels of P?? of the curved Riemann surfaces M?, ? ? 0, in the limit ? ? 0

369

AFG3L2 supports mitochondrial protein synthesis and Purkinje cell survival  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mutations in the AFG3L2 gene have been linked to spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 and spastic ataxia-neuropathy syndrome in humans; however, the pathogenic mechanism is still unclear. AFG3L2 encodes a subunit of the mitochondrial m-AAA protease, previously implicated in quality control of misfolded inner mitochondrial membrane proteins and in regulatory functions via processing of specific substrates. Here, we used a conditional Afg3l2 mouse model that allows restricted deletion of the gene in ...

Almajan, Eva R.; Richter, Ricarda; Paeger, Lars; Martinelli, Paola; Barth, Esther; Decker, Thorsten; Larsson, Nils-go?ran; Kloppenburg, Peter; Langer, Thomas; Rugarli, Elena I.

2012-01-01

370

The role of task sequencing in L2 development as mediated by working memory capacity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[cat] Aquesta dissertació ha estat motivada per l'interès creixent en la seqüenciació de tasques en el disseny curricular de la L2, per una banda, i la manca d'estudis empírics, d'altra banda, on la seqüenciació de tasques i els seus efectes en el desenvolupament de la L2 seria basat en la teoria i investigat empíricament. D'altra banda, no hi ha hagut investigació dut a terme per veure quina és la funció mediadora de capacitat de memòria operativa en el desenvolupament de la L2 a...

Levkina, Mayya

2014-01-01

371

Fourier restriction Theorem and characterization of weak $L^2$ eigenfunctions of the Laplace--Beltrami operator  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we prove the Fourier restriction theorem for $p=2$ on Riemannian symmetric spaces of noncompact type with real rank one which extends the earlier result proved in \\cite[Theorem 1.1]{KRS}. This result depends on the weak $L^2$ estimates of the Poisson transform of $L^2$ function. By using this estimate of the Poisson transform we also characterizes all weak $L^2$ eigenfunction of the Laplace--Beltrami operator of Riemannian symmetric spaces of noncompact type with real rank one and eigenvalue $-(\\lambda^2+\\rho^2)$ for $\\lambda\\in\\R\\setminus\\{0\\}$.

Kumar, Pratyoosh

2012-01-01

372

L2-exponential lower bounds to excited states of quantum mechanical systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Let H = - ? + V be defined on L2(Rsup(n)), n >= 3. Let V = V1 + V2, V1 is element of Lsup(p)(Rsup(n)), for some p > 2n/3, V2 is element of Lsup(infinity)(Rsup(n)) and |x|delta V/delta|x| relatively form bounded with respect to - ? with relative bound 0 >= 0 such that for all ? >= ?0, esup(?|x|)psi(x) is not element of L2(Rsup(n)), where psi denotes and L2-eigenfunction of H. Related results are also shown to hold for many body Schroedinger operators including atoms and molecules. (Author)

373

Trajectory and stability of Lagrangian point $L_2$ in the Sun-Earth system  

CERN Document Server

This paper describes design of the trajectory and analysis of the stability of collinear point $L_2$ in the Sun-Earth system. The modified restricted three body problem with additional gravitational potential from the belt is used as the model for the Sun-Earth system. The effect of radiation pressure of the Sun and oblate shape of the Earth are considered. The point $L_2$ is asymptotically stable upto a specific value of time $t$ correspond to each set of values of parameters and initial conditions. The results obtained from this study would be applicable to locate a satellite, a telescope or a space station around the point $L_2$.

Kushvah, Badam Singh

2010-01-01

374

THE MORPHOLOGICAL BASIS FOR OLFACTORY PERCEPTION OF STEROIDS DUING AGONISTIC BEHAVIOR IN LOBSTER: PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS  

Science.gov (United States)

The morphological basis for olfactory perception of steroids during agonistic behavior in lobsters: preliminary experiments. Borsay Horowitz, DJ1, Kass-Simon, G2, Coglianese, D2, Martin, L2, Boseman, M2, Cromarty, S3, Randall, K3, Fini, A.3 1US EPA, NHEERL, ORD, Atlantic Ecology...

375

Alphabetic and nonalphabetic L1 effects in English word identification: a comparison of Korean and Chinese English L2 learners.  

Science.gov (United States)

Different writing systems in the world select different units of spoken language for mapping. Do these writing system differences influence how first language (L1) literacy experiences affect cognitive processes in learning to read a second language (L2)? Two groups of college students who were learning to read English as a second language (ESL) were examined for their relative reliance on phonological and orthographic processing in English word identification: Korean students with an alphabetic L1 literacy background, and Chinese students with a nonalphabetic L1 literacy background. In a semantic category judgment task, Korean ESL learners made more false positive errors in judging stimuli that were homophones to category exemplars than they did in judging spelling controls. However, there were no significant differences in responses to stimuli in these two conditions for Chinese ESL learners. Chinese ESL learners, on the other hand, made more accurate responses to stimuli that were less similar in spelling to category exemplars than those that were more similar. Chinese ESL learners may rely less on phonological information and more on orthographic information in identifying English words than their Korean counterparts. Further evidence supporting this argument came from a phoneme deletion task in which Chinese subjects performed more poorly overall than their Korean counterparts and made more errors that were phonologically incorrect but orthographically acceptable. We suggest that cross-writing system differences in L1s and L1 reading skills transfer could be responsible for these ESL performance differences. PMID:12590041

Wang, Min; Koda, Keiko; Perfetti, Charles A

2003-03-01

376

A Growth Curve Analysis of Novel Word Learning by Sequential Bilingual Preschool Children  

Science.gov (United States)

Longitudinal word learning studies which control for experience can advance understanding of language learning and potential intra- and inter-language relationships in developing bilinguals. We examined novel word learning in both the first (L1) and the second (L2) languages of bilingual children. The rate and shape of change as well as the role…

Kan, Pui Fong; Kohnert, Kathryn

2012-01-01

377

An Attempt towards Learner Autonomy in L2 (English) an L3 (Arabic) Reading through Cognitive and Metacognitive Reading Strategy Instruction (CMRSI) in L2  

Science.gov (United States)

This experimental study was intended to raise learner autonomy among Iranian native speakers of Persian in their L2 (English) and L3 (Arabic) reading comprehension through cognitive and metacognitive reading strategies instruction (CMRSI). The subjects of the study were divided into intermediate and advanced English language proficiency levels and…

Talebi, Seyed Hassan

2009-01-01

378

Testing the Fundamental Difference Hypothesis: L2 Adult, L2 Child, and L1 Child Comparisons in the Acquisition of Korean "Wh"-Constructions with Negative Polarity Items  

Science.gov (United States)

The fundamental difference hypothesis (FDH; Bley-Vroman, 1989, 1990) contends that the nature of language in natives is fundamentally different from the nature of language in adult nonnatives. This study tests the FDH in two ways: (a) via second language (L2) poverty-of-the-stimulus (POS) problems (e.g., Schwartz & Sprouse, 2000) and (b) via a…

Song, Hyang Suk; Schwartz, Bonnie D.

2009-01-01

379

Bilingual Lexical Access during L1 Sentence Reading: The Effects of L2 Knowledge, Semantic Constraint, and L1-L2 Intermixing  

Science.gov (United States)

Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function…

Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

2011-01-01

380

Sobre a aquisição de uma língua semi-pro-drop como L2 =On the L2 acquisition of a semi-pro-drop language  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo apresenta um experimento sobre a aquisição de L2 da Restrição do Pronome Pleno (RPP, Overt Pronoun Constraint, um princípio universal que refere ao fato que as línguas de sujeito nulo não permitem que um pronome pleno seja ligado por um antecedente quantificado (e. g. *Ninguémi acha que elei é estúpido. O objetivo era testar o conhecimento deste princípio com falantes nativos de português brasileiro (PB e falantes de inglês e espanhol, aprendizes de PB como L2 e L3, respectivamente. A questão principal desta pesquisa era se é mais provável que os falantes nativos do PB observem o princípio ou não, mas também se os aprendizes de L2 e L3 do PB se comportariam como os falantes nativos, como falantes de uma língua típica de sujeito nulo ou de acordo com a sua língua nativa. Assumindo o Bilinguismo Universal de Roeper (1999 e utilizando uma tarefa experimental baseada em Kanno (1997 e Rothman e Iverson (2007 a-c, mostrou-se que os controles nativos de PB não se comportaram como falantes de línguas típicas de sujeito nulo em relação à RPP. Além disso, os aprendizes de L2 e L3 do PB se comportaram de forma semelhante aos controles, independente das línguas adquiridas anteriormente.

Molsing, Karina Veronica

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Dynamic microtubules regulate dendritic spine morphology and synaptic plasticity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dendritic spines are the major sites of excitatory synaptic input, and their morphological changes have been linked to learning and memory processes. Here, we report that growing microtubule plus ends decorated by the microtubule tip-tracking protein EB3 enter spines and can modulate spine morphology. We describe p140Cap/SNIP, a regulator of Src tyrosine kinase, as an EB3 interacting partner that is predominantly localized to spines and enriched in the postsynaptic density. Inhibition of micr...

Defilippi, Paola; Camera, Paola; Di Stefano, Paola

2009-01-01

382

Explicit L2 inequalities for parabolic and pseudoparabolic equations with Neumann boundary conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Explicit L2 inequalities are derived for second and third order diffusion equations with Neumann boundary conditions. Such inequalities are useful in approximating solutions to partial differential equations by the method of a priori inequalities.

J. R. Kuttler

1978-03-01

383

Asymptotic analysis via Mellin transforms for small deviations in $L^2$-norm of integrated Brownian sheets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We use Mellin transforms to compute a full asymptotic expansion for the tail of the Laplace transform of the squared $L^2$-norm of any multiply-integrated Brownian sheet. Through reversion we obtain corresponding strong small-deviation estimates.

Fill, James Allen; Torcaso, Fred

2003-01-01

384

Evaluation of PWR-LOCA under LOFT L2-3 condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analysis of large break LOCA (loss-of-coolant accident) of a commercial PWR (pressurized water reactor) is made with the THYDE-P2 code under the LOFT (Loss-of-Fluid Test) L2-3 condition. Subcooled reflooding is calculated to occur, whereas in LOFT L2-3 saturated reflooding seems to have been observed. Except for this fact, despite the thermal and geometrical differences, the calculated results show that the LOFT system well simulates PWR-LOCA under the LOFT L2-3 condition. The existing safety criteria are satisfied by the commercial PWR's with a big margin in case of LOCA under the LOFT L2-3 condition. (author)

385

A transferência fonético-fonológica L2 (francês – L3 (inglês: um estudo de caso  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ao observar o foco dos estudos em aquisição de língua estrangeira,não é raro encontrar trabalhos sobre as relações entre a língua materna(L1 e a língua estrangeira (L2. Contudo, investigações acerca decomo o conhecimento das línguas previamente aprendidas (tanto aL1 como a L2 podem influenciar a aquisição de uma terceira língua(L3 são escassas. Essa lacuna motivou um estudo de caso sobre atransferência fonético-fonológica em que se investigou se aassimilação vocálica na L3 (inglês ocorreria em direção àscaracterísticas vocálicas (F1, F2 e duração da L1 (português ouda L2 (francês do participante. Os dados, obtidos através de tarefasde leitura oral nas três línguas, foram analisados acusticamente como programa Praat. Discutidos a partir do conexionismo, os resultadosda análise acústica apontam para a criação, nas vogais da L3, decategorias fonéticas híbridas entre a L1 e a L2.

Cintia Avila Blank

2012-11-01

386

ARE THEY WATCHING? TEST-TAKER VIEWING BEHAVIOR DURING AN L2 VIDEO LISTENING TEST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The accessibility of video technology has made it possible to utilize both the auditory and visual channels to present listening texts in the second language (L2 classroom and on L2 listening tests. However, there has been little research investigating the extent to which L2 listeners actually watch the video monitor when presented with a listening video text. The current study investigated test-taker behavior on an L2 video listening test. Thirty-six test-takers were videotaped while taking a listening test composed of six separate video texts, and the amount of time test-takers made eye contact with the video monitor was computed. An analysis of the data indicated that the group of participants oriented to the video monitor 69% of the time while the video text was played. In addition, the study yielded valuable information concerning the consistency of the test-takers’ viewing behavior.

Elvis Wagner

2007-02-01

387

Variation of Zr-L2,3 XANES in tetravalent zirconium oxides  

Science.gov (United States)

Zr-L2,3 XANESs of tetravalent zirconium oxides with different coordination numbers and local symmetries are systematically investigated by ab initio multiplet calculations using fully relativistic molecular spinors for model clusters. Experimental Zr-L2,3 XANESs are obtained for SrZrO3, m-ZrO2 (monoclinic) and t-ZrO2 (tetragonal). The theoretical spectra are in good agreement with the experimental data. The multiplet effects are found to play essential roles in determining the peak shape. The shapes of L3- and L2-edges are systematically different. The intensity ratios of the doublet peaks at both L3- and L2-edges are found to be sensitive to the coordination number of Zr. The ratio can therefore be used to estimate the coordination number of Zr in such oxides.

Ikeno, Hidekazu; Krause, Michael; Höche, Thomas; Patzig, Christian; Hu, Yongfeng; Gawronski, Antje; Tanaka, Isao; Rüssel, Christian

2013-04-01

388

Morphological analysis of powders  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Consideration is being given to the technique using raster electron microscope (REM) applied for analyzing morphology of powders of hard alloy production, that is the form of particles and their aggregates, surface structure, morphological fraction composition, the general tendency to agglomeration. The competent character of morphological analysis is shown from the viewpoint of stereology and fruitfulness of its application as the method of investigation and production control. The mentioned technique appeared to be useful for powders of ammonium paratungstate (APT), tungstic acid, tungsten, oxides, metallic tungsten, carbides tungsten, titanium, vanadium and other metals of 4-6 groups, cobalt, iron and nickel.

Chernyavskij, K.S.

1984-01-01

389

Morphological analysis of powders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consideration is being given to the technique using raster electron microscope (REM) applied for analyzing morphology of powders of hard alloy production, that is the form of particles and their agregates, surface structure, morphological fraction composition, the general tendency to agglomeration. The competent character of morphological analysis is shown from the viewpoint of stereology and fruitfulness of its application as the method of investigation and production control. The mentioned technique appeared to be useful for powders of ammonium paratungstate (APT), tungstic acid, tungsten, oxides, metallic tungsten, carbides tungsten, titanium, vanadium and other metals of 4-6 groups, cobalt, iron and nickel

390

A leitura em língua estrangeira e os efeitos da frequência e da consistência do insumo lexical em L2 / L2 reading and the effects of frequency and consistency of the L2 lexical input  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho investiga o papel da consistência e da frequência do input lexical na leitura em L2 de forma a destacar duas importantes características do conexionismo dinamicista na leitura: a combinação não-linear de restrições probabilísticas e a divisão de trabalho. Essas características são comp [...] lementares e, juntas, explicam a alta interação observada em investigações baseadas na premissa de que o input é uma combinação rica de diferentes tipos de informação cujas tendências emergentes guiam a aquisição. Para ilustrar isso, são apresentadas evidências de dois estudos, que tratam: 1) da interação entre os efeitos da frequência e da consistência do input lexical na prevalência da assimilação vocálica durante uma tarefa de leitura de palavras com estudantes brasileiros de inglês; 2) do papel dos fonastemas na construção da compreensão textual em inglês (L2). Abstract in english This paper looks into the role of lexical input consistency and frequency in L2 reading to highlight two important features of dynamic connectionism in reading: nonlinear combination of probabilistic constraints and division of labour. Such features are complementary and together they account for th [...] e interaction observed in investigations grounded on the postulate that the input is a rich combination of different types of information whose emerging biases guide acquisition. For that purpose, evidence is presented from two studies, which deal with: 1) the interaction between the effects of English lexical frequency and consistency in the prevalence of vowel assimilation during a word naming task among Brazilian students of English; 2) the role of phonastemes in building textual comprehension in English (L2).

Márcia C, Zimmer.

2010-04-01

391

Structural Priming and Second Language Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural priming (or syntactic priming) is a speaker's tendency to reuse the same structural pattern as one that was previously encountered (Bock, 1986). This study investigated (a) whether the implicit learning processes involved in long-lag structural priming lead to differential second language (L2) improvement in producing two structural…

Shin, Jeong-Ah; Christianson, Kiel

2012-01-01

392

Unique splicing pattern of the TCF7L2 gene in human pancreatic islets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Intronic variation in the TCF7L2 gene exhibits the strongest association to type 2 diabetes observed to date, but the mechanism whereby this genetic variation translates into altered biological function is largely unknown. A possible explanation is a genotype-dependent difference in the complex splicing pattern; however, this has not previously been characterised in pancreatic or insulin target tissues. Here, the detailed TCF7L2 splicing pattern in five human tissues is described and dependence on risk genotype explored.

Osmark, P; Hansson, O

2009-01-01

393

L2 norm performance index of synchronization and optimal control synthesis of complex networks  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, the synchronizability problem of dynamical networks is addressed, where better synchronizability means that the network synchronizes faster with lower-overshoot. The L2 norm of the error vector e is taken as a performance index to measure this kind of synchronizability. For the equilibrium synchronization case, it is shown that there is a close relationship between the L2 norm of the error vector e and the H2 norm of the transfer function G of the linearized n...

Liu, Chao; Duan, Zhisheng; Chen, Guanrong; Huang, Lin

2007-01-01

394

$L^2$-error estimates for finite element approximations of boundary fluxes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We prove quasi-optimal a priori error estimates for finite element approximations of boundary normal fluxes in the $L^2$-norm. Our results are valid for a variety of different schemes for weakly enforcing Dirichlet boundary conditions including Nitsche's method, and Lagrange multiplier methods. The proof is based on an error representation formula that is derived by using a discrete dual problem with $L^2$-Dirichlet boundary data and combines a weighted discrete stability es...

Larson, Mats G.; Massing, Andre

2014-01-01

395

Low Parametric Sensitivity Realizations with relaxed L2-dynamic-range-scaling constraints  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a new dynamic-range scaling for the implementation of filters/controllers in state-space form. Relaxing the classical L2-scaling constraints by specific fixed-point considerations allows for a higher degree of freedom for the optimal L2-parametric sensitivity problem. However, overflows in the implementation are still prevented. The underlying constrained problem is converted into an unconstrained problem for which a solution can be provided. This leads to realizations whi...

Hilaire, Thibault

2009-01-01

396

L’intonazione interrogativa in italiano L2 di parlanti egiziane  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Questo studio presenta un primo contributo all’analisi della codifica prosodica di alcuni tipi di domande in italiano L2. Sono stati analizzati domande check, query-yn e query-w in italiano L2 ricavate da 4 dialoghi di parlato semispontaneo elicitati con il metodo del ‘gioco delle differenze’. Le quattro informatrici egiziane sono apprendenti guidate di due livelli diversi di competenza linguistica. Sono stati rilevati i parametri acustici della durata e dell...

Abou-el-enin, Dalia Gamal I.

2013-01-01

397

Study of FMS wave propagation and damping and ICR heating in L-2 stellarator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of ICRH by FMSW of the current D+H plasma in the L-2 stellarator L-2 was found to be the same as in tokamaks with similar plasma parameters. The damping length dependence on magnetic field is typical for mode-conversion damping. The comparison of the experimental and theoretical spectral curve K parallel = f(ne) is given. (author). 5 refs, 6 figs

398

Computation of lower bounds for the induced L2 norm of LPV systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Determining the induced L2 norm of a linear, parameter-varying (LPV) system is an integral part of many analysis and robust control design procedures. Most prior work has focused on efficiently computing upper bounds for the induced L2 norm. The conditions for upper bounds are typically based on scaled small-gain theorems with dynamic multipliers or dissipation inequalities with parameter dependent Lyapunov functions. This paper presents a complementary algorithm to compute ...

Peni, Tamas; Seiler, Peter J.

2014-01-01

399

The L2F - UPC Speaker Recognition System for NIST SRE 2010  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This document describes the joint submission of the INESC-ID’s Spoken Language Systems Laboratory (L 2 F) and the TALP Research Center from the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) to the 2010 NIST Speaker Recognition evaluation. The L2F-UPC primary system is composed by the fusion of ?ve individual sub-systems. Speaker recognition results have been submitted only for the core-core condition

Abad, Alberto; Luque, Jordi; Trancoso, Isabel; Hernando Perica?s, Francisco Javier

2011-01-01

400

Mechanism of water oxidation by [Ru(bda)(L)2]: the return of the "blue dimer".  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe here a combined solution-surface-DFT calculations study for complexes of the type [Ru(bda)(L)2] including X-ray structure of intermediates and their reactivity, as well as pH-dependent electrochemistry and spectroelectrochemistry. These studies shed light on the mechanism of water oxidation by [Ru(bda)(L)2], revealing key features unavailable from solution studies with sacrificial oxidants. PMID:25670391

Concepcion, Javier J; Zhong, Diane K; Szalda, David J; Muckerman, James T; Fujita, Etsuko

2015-02-19

 
 
 
 
401

MORE THAN A LINGUISTIC REFERENCE: THE INFLUENCE OF CORPUS TECHNOLOGY ON L2 ACADEMIC WRITING  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports on a qualitative study that investigated the changes in students’ writing process associated with corpus use over an extended period of time. The primary purpose of this study was to examine how corpus technology affects students’ development of competence as second language (L2) writers. The research was mainly based on case studies with six L2 writers in an English for Academic Purposes writing course. The findings revealed that corpus use not only had an immediate ef...

Hyunsook Yoon

2008-01-01

402

Helically assisted low-q tokamak with l=2 helical winding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An l=2, m=5 short-pitch helical field has been applied to low safety factor (q(a)--2) discharges in the TORIUT-5 tokamak. The externally applied helical field increases the safety factor effectively to avoid the current driven instabilities. An l=2 helical winding has the advantage, in comparison with an l>=3 system, of controlling the pitch near the magnetic axis and reducing the internal instability. The experimental results show a good agreement with theoretical estimates. (author)

403

Helically assisted low-q tokamak with l=2 helical winding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An l=2, m=5 short-pitch helical field has been applied to low safety factor (q(a)--2) discharges in the TORIUT-5 tokamak. The externally applied helical field increases the safety factor effectively to avoid the current driven instabilities. An l=2 helical winding has the advantage, in comparison with an l >= 3 system, of controlling the pitch near the magnetic axis and reducing the internal instability. The experimental results show a good agreement with theoretical estimates.

Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Zensho; Kamada, Yutaka; Hattori, Ken-ichi; Inoue, Nobuyuki; Uchida, Taijiro

1984-07-01

404

Euclid in a Taxicab: Sparse Blind Deconvolution with Smoothed l1/l2 Regularization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The l1/l2 ratio regularization function has shown good performance for retrieving sparse signals in a number of recent works, in the context of blind deconvolution. Indeed, it benefits from a scale invariance property much desirable in the blind context. However, the l1/l2 function raises some difficulties when solving the nonconvex and nonsmooth minimization problems resulting from the use of such a penalty term in current restoration methods. In this paper, we propose a ne...

Repetti, Audrey; Pham, Mai Quyen; Duval, Laurent; Chouzenoux, Emilie; Pesquet, Jean-christophe

2014-01-01

405

A Computational Investigation of Cohesion and Lexical Network Density in L2 Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study used a new computational linguistics tool, the Coh-Metrix, to investigate and measure the differences in cohesion and lexical network density between native speaker and non-native speaker writing, as well as to investigate L2 proficiency level differences in cohesion and lexical network density. This study analyzed data from three corpora with the Coh-Metrix: the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE as an L2 higher proficiency group, the Louvain Corpus of Native English Essays (LOCNESS as a native speaker baseline, and a collected EFL corpus from Indonesia for the L2 lower proficiency data. Statistical investigation of the Coh-Metrix results revealed that five out of six Coh-Metrix variables used in this study did not detect proficiency level differences in L2 but the tool was consistently able to distinguish between L2 and native speaker writing. Differences included that L2 writing contains more argument overlap, more semantic overlap, more frequent content words, fewer abstract verb hyponyms and less causal content than native speaker writing.

Clarence Green

2012-06-01

406

Accuracy validation of T2L2 time transfer in co-location.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) experiment has been developed in close collaboration between Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales and Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur. The aim is to synchronize remote ultra-stable clocks over large-scale distances using two laser ranging stations. This ground to space time transfer has been derived from laser telemetry technology with dedicated space equipment designed to record arrival time of laser pulses on board the satellite. For 3 years, specific campaigns have been organized to prove T2L2 performance. In April 2012, we performed a 2-week campaign with our two laser ranging stations, Métrologie Optique and French Transportable Laser Ranging Station, to demonstrate the T2L2 time transfer accuracy in co-location. We have compared three independent time transfer techniques: T2L2, GPS, and direct measurement, with both an event timer and an interval counter. The most important result obtained in this campaign was a mean agreement between T2L2 and a direct comparison better than 200 ps. This is the first major step to validate the uncertainty budget of the entire T2L2 experiment. This paper focuses on this campaign setup and the obtained results. PMID:25643076

Laas-Bourez, Myrtille; Courde, Clement; Samain, Etienne; Exertier, Pierre; Guillemot, Philippe; Torre, Jean-Marie; Martin, Nicolas; Foussard, Claude

2015-02-01

407

Stream Channel Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

This sites shows how measurements of channel morphology relate to stream discharge estimates. It also describes other factors to be considered when evaluating this subject such as: the human element, measurement techniques and possible applications of these methods.

Hooke, Janet

408

Image processing and mathematical morphology fundamentals and applications  

CERN Document Server

In the development of digital multimedia, the importance and impact of image processing and mathematical morphology are well documented in areas ranging from automated vision detection and inspection to object recognition, image analysis and pattern recognition. Those working in these ever-evolving fields require a solid grasp of basic fundamentals, theory, and related applications and few books can provide the unique tools for learning contained in this text. Image Processing and Mathematical Morphology: Fundamentals and Applications is a comprehensive, wide-ranging overview of morphological

Shih, Frank Y

2009-01-01

409

Tungsten powder morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Part of a study which has been undertaken to examine the effects of various experimental variables on the morphologies of the products at different stages in the tungsten powder production sequence is reported. In particular the precipitation process used to produce the ammonium paratungstate, the temperature of reduction and the ratio of hydrogen to water vapor in the reducing atmosphere have been investigated. It was found that the morphology of tungsten powder produced from ammonium paratungstate is related to the original morphology of the paratungstate material. Increasing the temperature of reduction of blue oxide causes a change in the morphology of the resultant metal product. At temperatures up to approximately 7000C, porous particles, of the same overall morphology as the original APT particles, are produced. At 7000C and above, new smaller particles of tungsten are produced but these are joined and retained in the framework of the original APT particle. The change in metal particle morphology is related to a change in the morphology of the oxide WO2 which occurs in the temperature range 700 to 8000C. Controlled reduction in H2/H2O mixtures produces the sub-oxide W18O49 which forms as small interlocking rod-like whiskers. These give the possibility of using chemical control of morphology to produce submicron oxide or metal particles.Freeze-dried APT appears to offer some es.Freeze-dried APT appears to offer some advantages asso-W piated with the degree of separation of both fine W18O49 and fine W particles during processing. ?-W is produced by reduction of a temperature of 5000C, while ?-W is produced by reduction at temperatures of 6000C and above

410

Extrinsic morphology of graphene  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Graphene is intrinsically non-flat and corrugates randomly. Since the corrugating physics of atomically-thin graphene is strongly tied to its electronics properties, randomly corrugating morphology of graphene poses significant challenge to its application in nanoelectronic devices for which precise (digital) control is the key. Recent studies revealed that the morphology of substrate-supported graphene is regulated by the graphene-substrate interaction, thus is distinct fro...

Li, Teng

2011-01-01

411

Attitudes, Orientations, and Motivations in Language Learning: Advances in Theory, Research, and Applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Provides an overview of recent advances in research on motivation to learn a foreign or second language (L2) and to create the theoretical context of the articles contained in this special issue of the journal. (Author/VWL)

Dornyei, Zoltan

2003-01-01

412

Low doses of flagellin-L2 multimer vaccines protect against challenge with diverse papillomavirus genotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetically modified bacterial flagellin (Fla), a Toll-like receptor-5 (TLR5) ligand, was evaluated as a fusion partner for human papillomavirus (HPV) L2-based immunogens in two animal challenge models; either cutaneous inoculation of rabbits with HPV 'quasivirions' containing cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) genomes that induce warts, or intra-vaginal inoculation of mice with HPV 'pseudovirions' encapsidating a luciferase reporter plasmid and measurement of bioluminescence to determine infectivity. An Escherichia coli production system was developed for flagellin-L2 (Fla-L2) fusions containing either monomeric HPV-16 L2 a.a. 11(×11-200) or oligomeric L2 comprising a fusion of the a.a. 11-88 peptides of five (Fla?5×11-88) or eight (Fla?8×11-88) genital HPV types. Immunogenicity and bioactivity of Fla-L2 constructs were assessed using an in vitro neutralization and cell-based TLR-5 binding assay, respectively. Efficacy was evaluated following active immunization of rabbits or mice administered 3 intramuscular doses of Fla-L2 recombinants without exogenous adjuvant, followed by challenge. In addition, passive immunization studies of naïve rabbits with serial dilutions of pooled immune sera were used to determine End-Point Protection Titers (EPPT) for each formulation against a broader spectrum of HPV quasivirions. Efficacy was assessed for up to 10 weeks on the basis of wart volume induced following challenge and results compared to licensed L1-VLP vaccines (Gardasil and Cervarix). Following active immunization at doses as low as 1 ?g, Fla-L2 fusions afforded complete protection against infection (mice) and disease (rabbits) following either homologous or heterologous HPV challenge. Passive immunization with anti-L2 immune sera discriminated between the different vaccine candidates under evaluation, demonstrated the protective role of antibody and suggested the superiority of this oligomeric L2-TLR5 agonist fusion approach compared to L1-based vaccines in its ability to cross-protect against non-vaccine HPV types. PMID:24780250

Kalnin, Kirill; Tibbitts, Timothy; Yan, Yanhua; Stegalkina, Svetlana; Shen, Lihua; Costa, Victor; Sabharwal, Robert; Anderson, Stephen F; Day, Patricia M; Christensen, Neil; Schiller, John T; Jagu, Subhashini; Roden, Richard B S; Almond, Jeffrey; Kleanthous, Harold

2014-06-12

413

Effectiveness of L2 spinal nerve infiltration for selective discogenic low back pain patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been reported that rat L5/6 lumbar discs are innervated mainly by L2 dorsal root ganglion neurons. We previously reported that L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective for discogenic low back pain (DLBP) patients, although the diagnosis was based only on the results of physical examination, plain films, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate L2 spinal nerve block for DLBP patients retrospectively based on MRI findings and surgical results. A total of 62 patients with only LBP and no accompanying radicular pain were investigated. Patients had only one level of disc degeneration on MRI. When pain was provoked during discography, we performed surgery at the next stage (40 patients). In all, 22 patients were excluded owing to negative discography results. Of the 40 patients, we evaluated 25 strictly selected patients suffering from DLBP. DLBP was diagnosed when the patient experienced pain relief at least 2 years after anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Fifteen patients who did not show pain relief after surgery were used for the non-DLBP group. L2 spinal nerve infiltration using 1.5 ml of lidocaine was performed in all 40 patients before surgery. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score after L2 spinal nerve infiltration was recorded, and an association of L2 spinal nerve infiltration and DLBP was explored. Low back pain scores assessed using the VAS score, the Japanese Orthopedic Association score, and the Oswestry Didic Association score, and the Oswestry Disability Index score in the two groups were not significantly different. L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective for 27 patients but not effective for 13 patients; the VAS score after 15 min and 2 h improved in the DLBP group compared with that of the non-DLBP group (P<0.05). L2 spinal nerve infiltration was more effective in DLBP patients (21 patients, 84%) than in the non-DLBP group (6 patients, 40%) (P<0.05). In the current study, L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective in 84% of selected DLBP patients and is thought to be a useful tool for diagnosing DLBP. However, we should take into consideration that the L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective in 40% of non-DLBP patients as well. (author)

414

On the Nature of Morphological Awareness in Japanese-English Bilingual Children: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

While morphological awareness has received much attention to date, little is understood about how morphological awareness develops within bilingual children learning typologically different languages. Therefore, we investigated children's knowledge of inflections and derivations in Japanese and English, and also asked whether morphological

Hayashi, Yuko; Murphy, Victoria A.

2013-01-01

415

Learning Vocabulary via Mobile Phone: Persian EFL Learners in Focus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available With encompassing power of cell phones and potentials of mobile learning for language teaching/learning, employing cell phones in language learning seems indispensable. Through exploiting the inherent capabilities of such devices this study investigated the efficacy of multimodal representation of L2 vocabularies for 158 pre-intermediate level L2 learners aged 18-23. Since short-term memory plays an important role in vocabulary learning, they were placed into four different short-term memory (STM ability groups using visual and verbal STM Tests. Also, cell phone-based vocabulary presentations with different annotations, i.e. pictorial vs. written, were adapted to the cell phone screen to render on learners' cell phones via Bluetooth. Finally, the participants took English vocabulary recognition and recall tests. The statistical analysis of the results showed that presenting learning materials with pictorial or written annotations rather than without annotations to learners with high-visual and high-verbal abilities resulted in better learning. Also, presenting learning materials with pictorial annotation to learners with high-visual ability as well as presenting the materials with written annotation to learners with high-verbal ability resulted in better learning. Low-visual and low-verbal ability groups showed better results under no annotation condition. The findings can provide an appropriate model for designing learning materials for L2 learners.

Saeed Taki

2011-11-01

416

Awareness of L1 and L2 word-formation mechanisms for the development of a more autonomous L2 learner  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unlike traditional approaches, new communicative trends disregard the role of word-formation mechanisms. They tend to focus on syntax and/or vocabulary without analyzing the mechanisms involved in the creation of lexical items. In this paper, based on the analysis of the use of prefixes by L2 learners in oral and written productions, as provided by the SULEC, we emphasize the advantages that wordformation awareness and knowledge may have for the learners in terms of production,...

Balteiro, Isabel

2011-01-01

417

Awareness of L1 and L2 word-formation mechanisms for the development of a more autonomous L2 learner  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unlike traditional approaches, new communicative trends disregard the role of word-formation mechanisms. They tend to focus on syntax and/or vocabulary without analyzing the mechanisms involved in the creation of lexical items. In this paper, based on the analysis of the use of prefixes by L2 learners in oral and written productions, as provided by the SULEC, we emphasize the advantages that word-formation awareness and knowledge may have for the learners in terms of production, creativity, u...

Balteiro Ferna?ndez, Isabel

2011-01-01

418

Investigating the Role of L2 Language Proficiency in Word Association Behavior of L2 Learners: A Case of Iranian EFL Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last few decades word association research has provided precise insight into the development and organization of the mental lexicon; however, there is still sufficient ground for more exploration to gain a better understanding of how L2 learners’ mental lexicon might be organized and how word association behavior may vary according to L2 proficiency level. This paper was intended to investigate the development of mental lexicon through a psycholinguistic experiment and more specifically, to explore the possible role L2 language proficiency may have in word association behaviors of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, a standardized English placement test (OPT and a word association test were administered to 120 undergraduate EFL learners. The elicited responses were classified based on Peppard's (2007 model and then analyzed in terms of the frequency of each type of word association. The results indicated that upper intermediate students' responses were significantly more frequent than beginners' responses in the categories of "Synonymy" and "Hypernymy and Hyponymy" which are paradigmatic relations and the beginners' responses were significantly more frequent in the category of "Grammatical collocation" which is a syntagmatic relation. These findings, which support McCarthy (1990 and Meara (1982, are not in line with Wolter’(2001 belief about the re-evaluation of the syntagmatic-paradigmatic shift in the case of nonnative speakers. The study implies important implications for vocabulary teaching through assisting learners in building stronger semantic links between words.

Bahareh Khazaeenezhad

2013-01-01

419

Founder effect confirmation of c.241A>G mutation in the L2HGDH gene and characterization of oxidative stress parameters in six Tunisian families with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria.  

Science.gov (United States)

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder characterized essentially by the presence of elevated levels of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid (LGA) in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and urine. L2HGA is caused by a deficiency in the L2-Hydroxyglutaric dehydrogenase (L2HGDH) enzyme involved in the oxidation of LGA to the alpha 2-ketoglutarate. LGA has been proposed as an endo- and exogenous cytotoxic organic acid that induces free radical formation and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this report, we analyzed 14 L2HGA patients belonging to six unrelated consanguineous families the south of Tunisia. The patients were diagnosed with L2HGA disease confirmed on the presence of high level of LGA in urine. We analyzed the L2HGDH gene in all probands and identified the same c.241A>G homozygous mutation, which was previously reported in Tunisia. We also used intragenic single nucleotide length polymorphisms (SNPs) and two extragenic microsatellites flanking the L2HGDH gene to confirm the founder effect of c.241A>G mutation in the 14 studied cases. In addition, we carried out the measurement of the oxidative stress parameters in the plasma of L2HGA patients which revealed a significant increase in the malondialdehyde levels (MDA), a biomarker of lipid peroxydation, and the reduced glutathione (GSH). A diminution of the antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), was also observed. PMID:24573090

Jellouli, Nadege Kammoun; Hadj Salem, Ikhlass; Ellouz, Emna; Kamoun, Zeineb; kamoun, Fatma; tlili, Abdelaziz; Kaabachi, Naziha; Triki, Chanez; Fakhfakh, Faiza

2014-04-01

420

Learning rates of $l^q$ coefficient regularization learning with Gaussian kernel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Regularization is a well recognized powerful strategy to improve the performance of a learning machine and $l^q$ regularization schemes with $0l^2$ regularization leads to smooth estimators while $l^1$ regularization leads to sparse estimators. Then, how does the generalization capabilities of $l^q$ regularization learning vary with $q$? In this paper,...

Lin, Shaobo; Zeng, Jinshan; Fang, Jian; Xu, Zongben

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
421

Tcf7l2 Is Required for Left-Right Asymmetric Differentiation of Habenular Neurons  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Background Although left-right asymmetries are common features of nervous systems, their developmental bases are largely unknown. In the zebrafish epithalamus, dorsal habenular neurons adopt medial (dHbm) and lateral (dHbl) subnuclear character at very different frequencies on the left and right sides. The left-sided parapineal promotes the elaboration of dHbl character in the left habenula, albeit by an unknown mechanism. Likewise, the genetic pathways acting within habenular neurons to control their asymmetric differentiated character are unknown. Results In a forward genetic screen for mutations that result in loss of habenular asymmetry, we identified two mutant alleles of tcf7l2, a gene that encodes a transcriptional regulator of Wnt signaling. In tcf7l2 mutants, most neurons on both sides differentiate with dHbl identity. Consequently, the habenulae develop symmetrically, with both sides adopting a pronounced leftward character. Tcf7l2 acts cell automously in nascent equipotential neurons, and on the right side, it promotes dHbm and suppresses dHbl differentiation. On the left, the parapineal prevents this Tcf7l2-dependent process, thereby promoting dHbl differentiation. Conclusions Tcf7l2 is essential for lateralized fate selection by habenular neurons that can differentiate along two alternative pathways, thereby leading to major neural circuit asymmetries. PMID:25201686

Hüsken, Ulrike; Stickney, Heather L.; Gestri, Gaia; Bianco, Isaac H.; Faro, Ana; Young, Rodrigo M.; Roussigne, Myriam; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Beretta, Carlo A.; Brinkmann, Irena; Paolini, Alessio; Jacinto, Raquel; Albadri, Shahad; Dreosti, Elena; Tsalavouta, Matina; Schwarz, Quenten; Cavodeassi, Florencia; Barth, Anukampa K.; Wen, Lu; Zhang, Bo; Blader, Patrick; Yaksi, Emre; Poggi, Lucia; Zigman, Mihaela; Lin, Shuo; Wilson, Stephen W.; Carl, Matthias

2014-01-01

422

The quantum Rabi model and Lie algebra representations of \\mathfrak{s}{{\\mathfrak{l}}_{2}}  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present paper is to understand the spectral problem of the quantum Rabi model in terms of Lie algebra representations of \\mathfrak{s}{{\\mathfrak{l}}_{2}}({R}). We define a second order element of the universal enveloping algebra U(\\mathfrak{s}{{\\mathfrak{l}}_{2}}) of \\mathfrak{s}{{\\mathfrak{l}}_{2}}({R}), which, through the image of a principal series representation of \\mathfrak{s}{{\\mathfrak{l}}_{2}}({R}), provides a picture equivalent to the quantum Rabi model drawn by confluent Heun differential equations. By this description, in particular, we give a representation theoretic interpretation of the degenerate part of the spectrum (i.e., Judd's eigenstates) of the Rabi Hamiltonian due to Ku? in 1985, which is a part of the exceptional spectrum parameterized by integers. We also discuss the non-degenerate part of the exceptional spectrum of the model, in addition to the Judd eigenstates, from a viewpoint of infinite dimensional irreducible submodules (or subquotients) of the non-unitary principal series such as holomorphic discrete series representations of \\mathfrak{s}{{\\mathfrak{l}}_{2}}({R}).

Wakayama, Masato; Yamasaki, Taishi

2014-08-01

423

TCF7L2 polymorphisms and inflammatory markers before and after treatment with fenofibrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation is implicated in causing diabetes. We tested whether transcription factor 7 like-2 (TCF7L2 gene polymorphisms (rs12255372 and rs7903146, consistently associated with type 2 diabetes, are associated with plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers before and after three weeks of daily treatment with fenofibrate. Methods Men and women in the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study (n = 1025, age 49 ± 16 y were included. All participants suspended use of lipid-lowering drugs for three weeks and were then given 160 mg/day of fenofibrate for three weeks. Inflammatory markers and lipids were measured before and after fenofibrate. ANOVA was used to test for differences across TCF7L2 genotypes. Results Under the additive or dominant model, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05 in the concentrations of inflammatory markers (hsCRP, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-? and MCP-1 across TCF7L2 genotypes in the period before or after treatment. For both rs12255372 and rs7903146, homozygote T-allele carriers had significantly higher (P Conclusion Overall these data show no association between TCF7L2 polymorphisms and the inflammatory markers suggesting that the effects of TCF7L2 on diabetes may not be via inflammation.

Kabagambe Edmond K

2009-10-01

424

The Dirichlet problem with L2-boundary data for elliptic linear equations  

CERN Document Server

The Dirichlet problem has a very long history in mathematics and its importance in partial differential equations, harmonic analysis, potential theory and the applied sciences is well-known. In the last decade the Dirichlet problem with L2-boundary data has attracted the attention of several mathematicians. The significant features of this recent research are the use of weighted Sobolev spaces, existence results for elliptic equations under very weak regularity assumptions on coefficients, energy estimates involving L2-norm of a boundary data and the construction of a space larger than the usual Sobolev space W1,2 such that every L2-function on the boundary of a given set is the trace of a suitable element of this space. The book gives a concise account of main aspects of these recent developments and is intended for researchers and graduate students. Some basic knowledge of Sobolev spaces and measure theory is required.

Chabrowski, Jan

1991-01-01

425

The Effects of Planned Instruction on Iranian L2 Learners' Interlanguage Pragmatic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most compelling evidence that instruction in L2pragmatics is necessary comes from learners whoselanguage proficiency is advanced but their communicative actsfrequently contain pragmatic errors. The current studyevaluated the impact of explicit instruction on EFL learner'sawareness and production of three speech acts of request,apology, and complaint. It also probed whether learners’language proficiency plays any role in incorporatingpragmatic instruction into the L2 classroom. The instructionlasted for about 12 weeks. Achievement in L2 pragmaticswas assessed based on a pretest-posttest plan usingMultiple-Choice Discourse Comprehension Test (MDCTand Written Discourse Completion Test (WDCT. Thesignificant gains made by the experimental groups receivinginstruction support the claim recently made by instructionalpragmatics that explicit instruction does facilitate thedevelopment of pragmatically appropriate use of language.Yet, learners’ level of language proficiency had no significantrole in the incorporation of the instruction. Furthertheoretical issues are also discussed.

Maryam Esmaeili

2013-05-01

426

Orbiting GPS Receiver Modified to Track New L2C Signal  

Science.gov (United States)

The L2C signal is a great step forward for civil applications of GPS, enabling high-accuracy dual-frequency measurements. Engineers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and ITT teamed to reprogram FPGA firmware and add tracking software on an orbiting receiver to track the new GPS L2C signal from SAC-C. SAC-C is an Argentinean science satellite and was launched in November 2000 with a BlackJack GPS receiver. This is a dual-frequency digital receiver with 48 tracking channels and four antennas. On SAC-C, it provides precise orbits, atmospheric occultation data, tests of GPS surface reflections, and serves as an orbiting test bed for new GPS development such as the L2C tracking reported here.

Meehan, Tom K.; Robison, David; Munson, Tim N.; Young, Larry E.; Stoyanov, Stephen

2006-01-01

427

Psychometric properties and factor structure of an L2 reading motivation questionnaire.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the psychometric properties and factor structure of a popular second language reading motivation questionnaire developed by Mori (2002). 550 first year high school students in Korea answered the 30-item questionnaire which consists of statements indicating different degrees of English reading motivation. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted with principal axis factoring and promax rotation, which yielded a four-factor solution. The factors included 'Intercultural and Intellectual Orientation', 'Reading Efficacy', 'Intrinsic Motivation', and 'Negative Attitudes'. The results supported the multidimensionality of the construct of L2 reading motivation, but could not replicate the nine factor structure which was originally proposed by Mori. The implications for further research on L2 reading motivation and development of a more valid L2 reading scale are discussed. PMID:24704649

Kim, Hee-jung; Choi, Sunhee

2014-01-01

428

Differences in adult L2 grammars of Lithuanian: The case of gender agreement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents results obtained from an empirical investigation into the acquisition of gender agreement in Lithuanian as a second language (L2. A total of 59 L2 learners of Lithuanian and 10 Lithuanian native speakers, as controls, took part in this study. The participants came from diverse ?rst language (L1 backgrounds (i.e., Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Latvian, and English. The data were collected using a written translation task. The results of the study showed some statistically significant differences between English speaking learners of Lithuanian and non-native English speaking learners of Lithuanian. The findings support the Full Transfer Full Access hypothesis (Schwartz, Sprouse 1994, 1996 which argues for the interaction of L1 transfer and Universal Grammar in the development of adult L2 grammars.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa4.06

Simona Ma?iukaité

2008-05-01

429

Preliminary posttest analysis of LOFT loss-of-coolant experiment L2-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A preliminary posttest analysis of Loss-of-Coolant Experiment (LOCE) L2-2, which was conducted in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility, was performed to gain an understanding of the cause of the disparity between predicted and measured fuel rod cladding temperature responses in the LOFT core. LOCE L2-2 is the first experiment in the LOFT Power Ascension Series L2 (first series of LOFT nuclear experiments), which was designed to investigate the response of the LOFT nuclear core to the blowdown, refill, and reflood transients during LOCEs conducted at gradually increasing power levels. LOCE L2-2 was conducted at 50% power (25 MW, 26.38 kW/m). Results show that a core-wide rewet occurred early in the transient (during blowdown starting at about 7 s after rupture) which was not calculated in the pretest prediction analysis. This early core-wide rewet resulted in the peak fuel rod cladding temperatures being lower (by a mean value of 1660K for 24 thermocouples) than had been calculated. This preliminary posttest analysis was concerned solely with determining why the early core-wide rewet was not predicted by the RELAP4/MOD6 pretest analysis and be no means is it a complete posttest analysis of LOCE L2-2 results. However, during this analysis, several errors made in the prettest analysis were found, and their impact on the predicted results is assessed. Three factors were postulated to have caused the disparity between predicted and measured fuel rod cladding tpredicted and measured fuel rod cladding temperatures for LOCE L2-2: (a) the initial fuel rod stored energy, (b) the heat transfer surface, and (c) the hydraulics calculation. These factors were examined and are discussed in this report. It was determined that core hydraulics, as influenced by the calculation of broken loop cold leg break flow, was the major factor causing the disparity

430

Activity levels in the left hemisphere caudate–fusiform circuit predict how well a second language will be learned  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

How second language (L2) learning is achieved in the human brain remains one of the fundamental questions of neuroscience and linguistics. Previous neuroimaging studies with bilinguals have consistently shown overlapping cortical organization of the native language (L1) and L2, leading to a prediction that a common neurobiological marker may be responsible for the development of the two languages. Here, by using functional MRI, we show that later skills to read in L2 are predicted by the acti...

Tan, Li Hai; Chen, Lin; Yip, Virginia; Chan, Alice H. D.; Yang, Jing; Gao, Jia-hong; Siok, Wai Ting

2011-01-01

431

Exact L^2-distance from the limit for QuickSort key comparisons (extended abstract)  

CERN Document Server

Using a recursive approach, we obtain a simple exact expression for the L^2-distance from the limit in R\\'egnier's (1989) classical limit theorem for the number of key comparisons required by QuickSort. A previous study by Fill and Janson (2002) using a similar approach found that the d_2-distance is of order between n^{-1} log n and n^{-1/2}, and another by Neininger and Ruschendorf (2002) found that the Zolotarev zeta_3-distance is of exact order n^{-1} log n. Our expression reveals that the L^2-distance is asymptotically equivalent to (2 n^{-1} ln n)^{1/2}.

Bindjeme, Patrick

2012-01-01

432

Exterior mass estimates and $L^2$ restriction bounds for Neumann data along hypersurfaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the problem of estimating the $L^2$ norm of Laplace eigenfunctions on a compact Riemannian manifold $M$ when restricted to a hypersurface $H$. We prove mass estimates for the restrictions of eigenfunctions $\\phi_h$, $(h^2 \\Delta - 1)\\phi_h = 0$, to $H$ in the region exterior to the coball bundle of $H$, on $h^{\\delta}$-scales ($0\\leq \\delta < 2/3$). We use this estimate to obtain an $O(1)$ $L^2$-restriction bound for the Neumann data along $H.$ The estimate also app...

Christianson, Hans; Hassell, Andrew; Toth, John A.

2013-01-01

433

The existence of positive solutions with prescribed L2-norm for nonlinear Choquard equations  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we study the existence of positive solutions with prescribed L2-norm to a class of nonlinear Choquard equation -?u - ?u = (I??F(u)) F'(u) in ?N, where ? ? ?, N ? 3, ? ? (0, N), I?:?N ? ? is the Riesz potential. Under some conditions imposed on F, by using a minimax procedure and the concentration compactness of P. L. Lions, we show that for any c > 0, the equation possesses at least a couple (uc, ?c) ? H1(?N) × ?- of weak solution such that ? u ?L 2 ( R N ) 2 = c .

Li, Gong-Bao; Ye, Hong-Yu

2014-12-01

434

Learning English, Learning Science  

Science.gov (United States)

Using science notebooks effectively in the classroom can encourage students who are learning English to keep up and keep interested. English language proficiency might head the list of content areas that schools can teach properly and effectively through

Nelson, Virginia

2010-11-01

435

Long term morphological modelling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a nearshore nourishment and a bar by-passing a harbour. In the case of the shoreline evolution calculations, a concept often used in one-line modelling of cross-shore shifting of an otherwise constant shape cross-shore profile is applied for the case of a groyne and a detached breakwater. In the case of alongshore bar/nourishment migration an alternative parameterization is adopted. All examples are presented, analysed and discussed with respect to the question of realistic representation, time scale and general applicability ofthe model concept.

Kristensen, Sten EsbjØrn Technical University of Denmark,

2010-01-01

436

Etymology and the Development of L2 Vocabulary: The Case of ESL Students at the University of Botswana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Part of the history of English is that many of its words are of Graeco-Latinate origin. Hence, the vocabulary of the language comprises words which are short and familiar and those which are foreign and long (Quirk,1978, p. 138. However, both L1 and L2 users have to get acquainted with the second group, which dominates academic discourse. Our students are disadvantaged on two grounds. Firstly, vocabulary instruction for them seems quite deficient in scope and depth, and secondly, the students tend to acquire the vocabulary of academic discourse necessary for their success in tandem with the learning of concepts which come incased in words they are unfamiliar with. Our paper uses data collected from the students’ writing over a period of twenty years to examine their specific problems relating to the etymology of English words. Two questions are addressed: What problems does the etymology of English words pose for ESL students? What measures can be adopted to alleviate these problems? We discuss confused pairs of words, pairs erroneously considered synonymous, and coinage resulting from student’s lack of appropriate vocabulary. We recommend that teaching the etymology of words used in academic discourse would assist our students to improve their fluency in English.

Alec Pongweni

2013-07-01

437

What Motivates L2 Learners in Acquisition of Kanji Using CALL: A Case Study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines the learning motivation and strategies of first-year university students of Japanese in relation to the learning of kanji via computer-assisted language learning (CALL). Findings indicate that instrumental motivation was a dominant factor; metacognitive strategies and a positive attitude toward the CALL program are also influential…

Van Aacken, Satoko

1999-01-01

438

The Potential Role of Music in Second Language Learning: A Review Article  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of musical activities on non-musical domains have recently sparked much research. Whereas the benefits of music for native language abilities are well established, the effect on second language (L2 is not yet fully explored. This review discusses articles suggesting the transfer effect of music on L2 phonological and reading skills. Through the analysis of research literature, it examines; (1 the extent of transfer to specific L2 skills, the nature of necessary music training, the effect of native language on musicality and L2, and the role of working memory in the transfer effect. While the discussed papers provide promising insights into the music-L2 relationship, due to the little research done in this area it is difficult to generalize the results to overall L2 learning.

Ieva Zeromskaite

2014-10-01

439

When Gender and Looking Go Hand in Hand: Grammatical Gender Processing in L2 Spanish  

Science.gov (United States)

In a recent study, Lew-Williams and Fernald (2007) showed that native Spanish speakers use grammatical gender information encoded in Spanish articles to facilitate the processing of upcoming nouns. In this article, we report the results of a study investigating whether grammatical gender facilitates noun recognition during second language (L2)…

Dussias, Paola E.; Valdes Kroff, Jorge R.; Guzzardo Tamargo, Rosa E.; Gerfen, Chip

2013-01-01

440

The Effect of Lexical Coverage and Dictionary Use on L2 Reading Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to further understand the role of lexical coverage on L2 reading comprehension. It examines test scores of learners at or near the 90-95% coverage level to determine if this coverage range allows for comprehension of authentic texts. The findings suggest that 92-93% may be a threshold mark at which understanding of a text…

Prichard, Caleb; Matsumoto, Yuko

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
441

L-2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria is a Diagnostic Indicator of Leukodystrophy: A Case Report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive inherited neurometabolic disorder.It is characterized by slow progressive neurological dysfunction with cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, intellectual decline, and seizures. Herein, we report a case of a 7-year-old boy from Tehran whose symptoms and signs indicated leukoencephalopathy with macrocephaly and motor delay.

Ashrafi, Mahmoud Reza; Nikkhah, Ali; Houshmand, Massoud; Aryani, Omid

2011-01-01

442

L-2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria is a Diagnostic Indicator of Leukodystrophy: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive inherited neurometabolic disorder.It is characterized by slow progressive neurological dysfunction with cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, intellectual decline, and seizures. Herein, we report a case of a 7-year-old boy from Tehran whose symptoms and signs indicated leukoencephalopathy with macrocephaly and motor delay.

Mahmoud Reza ASHRAFI

2011-09-01

443

Critical metrics of the $L^2$-norm of the scalar curvature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we investigate complete critical metrics of the $L^{2}$-norm of the scalar curvature. We prove that any complete critical metric with positive scalar curvature has constant scalar curvature and we characterize critical metrics with nonnegative scalar curvature in dimension three and four.

Catino, Giovanni

2012-01-01

444

The gradient flow of the $L^2$ curvature energy on surfaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the gradient flow of the $L^2$ norm of the Riemannian curvature on surfaces. We show long time existence with arbitrary initial data, and exponential convergence of the volume normalized flow to a constant scalar curvature metric when the initial energy is below a constant determined by the Euler characteristic of the underlying surface.

Streets, Jeffrey

2010-01-01

445

The gradient flow of the $L^2$ curvature energy near the round sphere  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigate the low-energy behavior of the gradient flow of the $L^2$ norm of the Riemannian curvature on four-manifolds. Specifically, we show long time existence and exponential convergence to a metric of constant sectional curvature when the initial metric has positive Yamabe constant and small initial energy.

Streets, Jeff

2010-01-01

446

Benefits of Visual Feedback on Segmental Production in the L2 Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

While a growing body of research has established the benefits of pronunciation training on second language (L2) production, these benefits have yet to be incorporated into the general skills language classroom in a systematic manner. Furthermore, although relatively new speech analysis software has been shown to be useful in providing visual…

Olson, Daniel J.

2014-01-01

447

A contribuição chomskiana para a compreensão da aprendizagem de L2  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho procura mostrar as contribuições de Chomsky para a área da psicolingüística, mais diretamente para explicar a aquisição de L1, e indiretamente para levantar questões de pesquisa em L2. Pode-se dizer que Chomsky contribuiu, primeiramente, ao argumentar contra outras abordagens, mas, sob [...] retudo, por a) propor uma teoria sobre as línguas que dá conta de seus princípios universais e de seus parâmetros de variação e b) demonstrar que a teoria é diretamente relevante para as questões de aprendizagem e mais interessante do que a visão behaviorista e a construtivista piagetiana. O presente trabalho apresenta, a seguir, as teorias sobre L2 que surgiram a partir do modelo chomskiano. Abstract in english This paper tries to show Chomsky's contributions to the area of psycholinguistics, more directly to explain first language acquisition, and less directly to raise questions regarding research in L2. Chomsky can be said to have contributed first by arguing against the current views on language learni [...] ng, but also and mainly a) for his proposal of a theory of natural languages that accounts both for their invariant principles, but also for their crosslinguistic variation, and b) for showing that such theory is directly relevant to explain language acquisition problems, and more interesting than the behaviorist or constructionist views. The last part presents the theories about L2 acquisition derived from Chomsky's theories on language.