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Sample records for l2 morphological learning

  1. Planning, Recasts, and Learning of L2 Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated two issues: (1) whether availability of planning time affects learners' ability to notice and learn from recasts in the input; and (2) whether pre-task or online planning is more effective. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups that formed the treatment conditions: a no planning group (N = 13), a pre-task…

  2. Input frequencies in processing of verbal morphology in L1 and L2: Evidence from Russian

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    Tatiana Chernigovskaya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we take a usage-based perspective on the analysis of data from the acquisition of verbal morphology by Norwegian adult learners of L2 Russian, as compared to children acquiring Russian as an L1. According to the usage-based theories, language learning is input-driven and frequency of occurrence of grammatical structures and lexical items in the input plays a key role in this process. We have analysed to what extent the acquisition and processing of Russian verbal morphology by children and adult L2 learners is dependent on the input factors, in particular on type and token frequencies. Our analysis of the L2 input based on the written material used in the instruction shows a different distribution of frequencies as compared to the target language at large. The results of the tests that elicited present tense forms of verbs belonging to four different inflectional classes (-AJ-, -A-, -I-, and -OVA- have demonstrated that for both Russian children and L2 learners type frequency appears to be an important factor, influencing both correct stem recognition and generalisations. The results have also demonstrated token frequency effects. For L2 learners we observed also effects of formal instruction and greater reliance on morphological cues. In spite of the fact that L2 learners did not match completely any of the child groups, there are many similarities between L1 and L2 morphological processing, the main one being the role of frequency.

  3. L2 Regularization for Learning Kernels

    CERN Document Server

    Cortes, Corinna; Rostamizadeh, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    The choice of the kernel is critical to the success of many learning algorithms but it is typically left to the user. Instead, the training data can be used to learn the kernel by selecting it out of a given family, such as that of non-negative linear combinations of p base kernels, constrained by a trace or L1 regularization. This paper studies the problem of learning kernels with the same family of kernels but with an L2 regularization instead, and for regression problems. We analyze the problem of learning kernels with ridge regression. We derive the form of the solution of the optimization problem and give an efficient iterative algorithm for computing that solution. We present a novel theoretical analysis of the problem based on stability and give learning bounds for orthogonal kernels that contain only an additive term O(pp/m) when compared to the standard kernel ridge regression stability bound. We also report the results of experiments indicating that L1 regularization can lead to modest improvements ...

  4. Influence of Syllable Structure on L2 Auditory Word Learning

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    Hamada, Megumi; Goya, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of syllable structure in L2 auditory word learning. Based on research on cross-linguistic variation of speech perception and lexical memory, it was hypothesized that Japanese L1 learners of English would learn English words with an open-syllable structure without consonant clusters better than words with a…

  5. Relative Importance of Learning Variables on L2 Performance

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    Olivares-Cuhat, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the results of a pilot study investigating the relative importance of various learner variables on L2 performance are presented. The study was conducted with the participation of forty students enrolled in a beginning Spanish class at a large midwestern university. The CANAL?S test, FLCAS and SILL surveys were administered to evaluate language learning aptitude, anxiety and learning strategy use. Demographic data and exam grades were also recorded. The data was first analyzed within the framework of a causal model with correlational and multiple regression analyses. A second step involved the evaluation of the relative importance of the learner variables. Third, the validity of the causality postulated between foreign language anxiety and L2 performance was examined. Overall, this paper confirmed the prevailing role played by language learning aptitude and anxiety, and demonstrated the applicability of a multivariate model to analyze the impact of individual differences on L2 performance.

  6. Influence of syllable structure on L2 auditory word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Megumi; Goya, Hideki

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the role of syllable structure in L2 auditory word learning. Based on research on cross-linguistic variation of speech perception and lexical memory, it was hypothesized that Japanese L1 learners of English would learn English words with an open-syllable structure without consonant clusters better than words with a closed-syllable structure and consonant clusters. Two groups of college students (Japanese group, N = 22; and native speakers of English, N = 21) learned paired English pseudowords and pictures. The pseudoword types differed in terms of the syllable structure and consonant clusters (congruent vs. incongruent) and the position of consonant clusters (coda vs. onset). Recall accuracy was higher for the pseudowords in the congruent type and the pseudowords with the coda-consonant clusters. The syllable structure effect was obtained from both participant groups, disconfirming the hypothesized cross-linguistic influence on L2 auditory word learning. PMID:24493208

  7. Relative Importance of Learning Variables on L2 Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares-Cuhat, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the results of a pilot study investigating the relative importance of various learner variables on L2 performance are presented. The study was conducted with the participation of forty students enrolled in a beginning Spanish class at a large midwestern university. The CANAL?S test, FLCAS and SILL surveys were administered to evaluate language learning aptitude, anxiety and learning strategy use. Demographic data and exam grades were also recorded. The data was first analyzed...

  8. Age effects in L2 acquisition: ultimate attainment at the syntax-morphology interface

    OpenAIRE

    Komar, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a selective overview of studies that have examined age effects in second language (L2) acquisition. The focus was on adult second language learners and the L2 ultimate attainment at syntax-interface morphology, with particular attention given to the problematic case of inflectional morphology. We present different kinds of evidence including behavioural, descriptive and brain-based data. Although the main focus was on the syntax-morphology interface, other domains such as ...

  9. Implicit Learning of L2 Word Stress Regularities

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    Chan, Ricky K. W.; Leung, Janny H. C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports an experiment on the implicit learning of second language stress regularities, and presents a methodological innovation on awareness measurement. After practising two-syllable Spanish words, native Cantonese speakers with English as a second language (L2) completed a judgement task. Critical items differed only in placement of…

  10. Anonymity and Motivation in Asynchronous Discussions and L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Nihat; Mancilla, Rae; Mahalingappa, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates L2 attainment in asynchronous online environments, specifically possible relationships among anonymity, L2 motivation, participation in discussions, quality of L2 production, and success in L2 vocabulary learning. It examines, in asynchronous discussions, (a) if participation and (b) motivation contribute to L2 vocabulary…

  11. A reappraisal of motivation: the cornerstone of L2 learning

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Calvín, José

    1991-01-01

    This article is aimed at increasing teacher awareness of the most relevant issues involved in motivation. It examines the importance of motivation in L2 learning, its types and sources, as well as detailing the various factors which influence it. Its focus is twofold, in that it concentrates not only on the student but also on the teacher, using authoritative sources to back up its line of argument. It aims at both clarifying the role of teachers in student motivation and the importance of...

  12. Assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phonemes governs L2 learning in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimaldi, Mirko; Sisinni, Bianca; Fivela, Barbara Gili; Invitto, Sara; Resta, Donatella; Alku, Paava; Brattico, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    According to the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM), articulatory similarity/dissimilarity between sounds of the second language (L2) and the native language (L1) governs L2 learnability in adulthood and predicts L2 sound perception by native listeners. We performed behavioral and neurophysiological experiments on two groups of university students at the first and fifth years of the English language curriculum and on a group of naive listeners. Categorization and discrimination tests, as well a...

  13. Investigating the Relationship between the Morphological Processing of Regular and Irregular Words and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

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    Ahmed Masrai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the relationship between the morphological processing of regular and irregular words and second language (L2 vocabulary acquisition. In considering that monolingual Arabic speakers derive a large number of new words from roots by leaning heavily on the regularity of rules in Arabic (Bar & Dershowitz, 2012; Habash, 2010, they are expected to experience difficulty when developing the lexicon of a language with less regular rules, such as English. To examine this assumption empirically, data were collected by administering an English receptive vocabulary knowledge test that included 100 regular and irregular inflected and derived words to 450 Arabic English as a foreign language (EFL learners from schools in Saudi Arabia. The test also included pesudowords (non-words to act as ‘gatekeepers’ against the possibility of guessing. The t-test results revealed a non-significant difference in learners’ uptake of L2 words, whether regular or irregular. However, the study indicates that word frequency plays a statistically significant role in learning L2 vocabulary that is irregularly inflected or derived. The frequency effect on irregular word morphology found in this study is in line with the approach of a dual-route mechanism. This approach suggests that irregular words are not rule-based, so are stored in the mental lexicon as full entries, whereas regular words are not. This article suggests that introducing rules for deriving new words from base forms to EFL learners in the early stages of learning would be very useful for L2 vocabulary development.Keywords: morphological processing, vocabulary acquisition, frequency, Arabic, mental lexicon

  14. The Development of Past Tense Morphology in L2 Spanish. Studies in Bilingualism 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaberry, M. Rafael

    The general objective of this study is the investigation of some of the cognitive processes underlying adult second language acquisition through the analysis of the development of morphological markers of temporality in the acquisition of Spanish as a second language (L2) among native English speakers. It is argued that analysis of data on the…

  15. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1) along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners' awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general. PMID:26300792

  16. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1) along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners' awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general. PMID:26300792

  17. Implicit versus Explicit Learning: Some Implications for L2 Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Silvia

    2004-01-01

    Recent psychological evidence about "implicit" learning has strong implications for the educational arena. First, it contributes to counterbalance the predominance of "explicit" educational models, based on the transmission of formal rules, by considering informal active/manipulative behavior as the foundation of learning and knowledge-building.…

  18. Self-regulation from Educational Psychology to L2 Pedagogy: an Alternative to Language Learning Strategies

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    Maryam Banisaeid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Language learning strategy was the focus of many studies during the last two decades. Because of definitional fuzziness and unreliable instrument, the concept of language learning strategy was replaced by self-regulation in educational psychology. Subsequently, this shift affected L2 research. The notion of self-regulation is used in some L2 studies today (Tseng, Dörnyei & Schmitt, 2006; Rose, 2011b, Banisaeid, 2013a, 2013b. Self-regulation is more process-oriented while language learning strategy is more product-oriented. Although it only encompasses the metacognitive strategy, the general domain of it is meaningfully wider than the strategic framework. It covers some aspects in the learning process as motivation, goals and self-efficacy.Keywords: self-regulation, language learning strategy, L2 studies, educational psychology

  19. Tense morphology and verb-second in Swedish L1 children, L2 children and children with SLI

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    Håkansson, Gisela

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the development of tense morphology and verb-second in different learner populations. Three groups of Swedish pre-school children are investigated longitudinally; ten L1 children, ten L2 children and ten children diagnosed with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Data was collected twice, with an interval of six months. The results at Time I reveal a significant difference between normally developing L1 children on the one hand and L2 children and children with SLI on t...

  20. Cultural conceptualisations in learning English as an L2: Examples from Persian-speaking learners

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    Farzad Sharifian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, many studies of second language acquisition (SLA were based on the assumption that learning a new language mainly involves learning a set of grammatical rules, lexical items, and certain new sounds and sound combinations. However, for many second language learners, learning a second language may involve contact and interactions with new systems of conceptualising experience. Many learners bring the conceptual system that they have developed while learning their L1 into the learning of an L2, assuming that every single unit of conceptualisation in their repertoire has an equivalent in the conceptual system associated with the L2. This is never the case. In this paper, I will explicate some cultural conceptualisations that speakers of Persian may bring into the task of learning English as an L2 and discuss some possible implications of this process for intercultural sense making. The chapter begins with a background on the notion of cultural conceptualisation and then moves into the discussion of Persian cultural conceptualisations in L2 learning.

  1. A Study of Chinese and Japanese College Students’ L2 Learning Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Man-ping Chu; Tomoko Nakamura

    2010-01-01

    Learning styles, much related to motivation and cognitive strategies, has been one of the most frequently discussed topics in the field of foreign/second language (L2) education. There is a considerable body of research on learning styles stemming from the domain of psychology to the conceptual field. As individuals learn in different ways from time to time, from culture to culture, and from context to context, findings of such research can only explain a comparatively small group of peopl...

  2. Assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phonemes governs L2 learning in adulthood : a behavioral and ERP study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimaldi, Mirko; Sisinni, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    According to the Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM), articulatory similarity/dissimilarity between sounds of the second language (L2) and the native language (L1) governs L2 learnability in adulthood and predicts L2 sound perception by native listeners. We performed behavioral and neurophysiological experiments on two groups of university students at the first and fifth years of the English language curriculum and on a group of naive listeners. Categorization and discrimination tests, as well as the mismatch negativity (MMN) brain response to L2 sound changes, showed that the discriminatory capabilities of the students did not significantly differ from those of the naive subjects. In line with the PAM model, we extend the findings of previous behavioral studies showing that, at the neural level, classroom instruction in adulthood relies on assimilation of L2 vowels to L1 phoneme categories and does not trigger improvement in L2 phonetic discrimination. Implications for L2 classroom teaching practices are discussed.

  3. The acquisition of interlanguage morphology : a study into the role of morphology in the L2 learner's mental lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Lowie, Wander Marius,

    1998-01-01

    Introduction 1.1 Morphology and second language learning If Dutch learners of English encounter a word like undoable, they may recognise it because they have seen it before and have remembered it. They may also fail to recognise it and guess the meaning of the word on the basis of the context. A third possibility is that they do not recognise the word and attempt to guess the meaning by decomposing the word into parts they do recognise and arrive at its meaning on the basis of these par...

  4. Morphological and Syntactic Transfer in Child L2 Acquisition of the English Dative Alternation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whong-Barr, Melinda; Schwartz, Bonnie D.

    2002-01-01

    Compares the acquisition of the English to- and for-dative alternation by native-speaking English, Japanese, and Korean children. Investigates whether second language learners (L2) like native language learners overextend the double-object variant and whether L2 learners, like L2 adults, transfer properties of the native language grammar.…

  5. L2-norm multiple kernel learning and its application to biomedical data fusion

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    De Moor Bart

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper introduces the notion of optimizing different norms in the dual problem of support vector machines with multiple kernels. The selection of norms yields different extensions of multiple kernel learning (MKL such as L?, L1, and L2 MKL. In particular, L2 MKL is a novel method that leads to non-sparse optimal kernel coefficients, which is different from the sparse kernel coefficients optimized by the existing L? MKL method. In real biomedical applications, L2 MKL may have more advantages over sparse integration method for thoroughly combining complementary information in heterogeneous data sources. Results We provide a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the L2 optimization of kernels in the dual problem with the L2 coefficient regularization in the primal problem. Understanding the dual L2 problem grants a unified view on MKL and enables us to extend the L2 method to a wide range of machine learning problems. We implement L2 MKL for ranking and classification problems and compare its performance with the sparse L? and the averaging L1 MKL methods. The experiments are carried out on six real biomedical data sets and two large scale UCI data sets. L2 MKL yields better performance on most of the benchmark data sets. In particular, we propose a novel L2 MKL least squares support vector machine (LSSVM algorithm, which is shown to be an efficient and promising classifier for large scale data sets processing. Conclusions This paper extends the statistical framework of genomic data fusion based on MKL. Allowing non-sparse weights on the data sources is an attractive option in settings where we believe most data sources to be relevant to the problem at hand and want to avoid a "winner-takes-all" effect seen in L? MKL, which can be detrimental to the performance in prospective studies. The notion of optimizing L2 kernels can be straightforwardly extended to ranking, classification, regression, and clustering algorithms. To tackle the computational burden of MKL, this paper proposes several novel LSSVM based MKL algorithms. Systematic comparison on real data sets shows that LSSVM MKL has comparable performance as the conventional SVM MKL algorithms. Moreover, large scale numerical experiments indicate that when cast as semi-infinite programming, LSSVM MKL can be solved more efficiently than SVM MKL. Availability The MATLAB code of algorithms implemented in this paper is downloadable from http://homes.esat.kuleuven.be/~sistawww/bioi/syu/l2lssvm.html.

  6. The Effect of Learning English (L2) on Learning of Arabic Literacy (L1) in the Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussien, Abdelaziz M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of learning English (L2) on learning to read and spell connected texts accurately in Arabic (L1). The author selected a sample of 83 (38 males and 45 females; 45 bilinguals and 38 monolinguals) native Arabic-speaking fourth-graders in Egypt. Students completed the author-developed Oral Reading Accuracy Measure…

  7. Task-based Language Learning in Bilingual Montessori Elementary Schools: Customizing Foreign Language Learning and Promoting L2 Speaking Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Winnefeld

    2012-01-01

    Foreign language learning has been a part of German elementary schools for several years now. Montessori schools focusing on individual learning, i.e. mostly independent from the teacher and based on auto-education, interest, and free choice, are also asked to teach an L2. The original lack of a concept of L2 learning for this environment has brought forth different approaches. Bilingual education seems to be feasible and applicable in Montessori education. The downside to this is that even i...

  8. The Effect of Conceptual Metaphors on Learning Idioms by L2 Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Rahmani Samani; Mahmood Hashemian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of conceptual metaphors on learning idioms by L2 learners. Seventy juniors participated in this study. They were grouped into two: Group 1 as the experimental group and Group 2 as the control group. Group 1 (n = 40) learned the idioms by conceptual metaphors and Group 2 (n = 30) by traditional methods. The participants were given a pretest in order to check the comprehension and production of idioms, metaphors, and conceptual metaphors. After the pretest, the id...

  9. Learning Exponents of Number on First Exposure to an L2

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    Carroll, Susanne E.; Widjaja, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Number lends itself to the study of how input interacts with transferred first language (L1) knowledge to facilitate or impede second language (L2) learning. We present data from adult English speakers exposed for the first time to Indonesian, a language that expresses number through bare noun phrases, reduplication and numeral + classifier…

  10. Language Experience in L2 Phonological Learning: Effects of Psycholinguistic and Sociolinguistic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimovich, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss language experience in second language (L2) phonological learning, with a particular focus on lexical frequency, attention to form, and ethnic identity as factors that influence the role of language experience. First, several difficulties associated with the study of language experience are discussed. Then,…

  11. L2 Learning Opportunities in Different Academic Subjects in Content-Based Instruction -- Evidence in Favour of "Conventional Wisdom"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yuen Yi

    2014-01-01

    Content-based instruction (CBI) adopts a second language (L2) as the medium of instruction for some or all academic subjects to facilitate L2 learning. There seem however, no uniform policies concerning which academic subjects should be taught in L2, in case only some subjects are involved. Conventional wisdom tends to favour Humanities subjects…

  12. Active Learning through Materials Development: A Project for the Advanced L2 Classroom

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    Katrina Daly Thompson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Building on the notion of active learning, the assumption that students learn more when given opportunities to practice using their skills and to receive feedback on their performance, this article de-scribes a project undertaken in an Advanced (third-year Swahili course in which students were given the opportunity to develop L2 materials for computer-mediated peer instruction. The article exam-ines the goals, design and results of the project in light of the litera-ture on active learning and learner autonomy, and suggests how the project might be improved in order to serve as a model for other Ad-vanced L2 courses.

  13. Collaborative Concept Mapping as a Pre-Writing Strategy for L2 Learning: A Korean Application

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    Yongjin Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at examining the use of concept mapping technique in a course module for Korean language learning with U.S. college students, who were prompted to engage in collaborative writing planning. The study assumed that concept mapping enhances students’ communicative interaction to promote their L2 writing. One hundred and twenty-three participants were recruited from three different proficiency level classes (beginning, intermediate, and advanced classes. Data were collected during three writing sessions: pretest of writing, individual planning, and collaborative planning. The MANCOVA results on the five components of composition score showed that the effect of collaborative concept mapping on L2 writing significantly differed across the three class levels. The study suggested practical implications for the use of collaborative mapping tasks in L2 writing contexts.

  14. EFFECTS OF L2 LEARNING ORIENTATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION INTENTIONS ON SELF-REGULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wen-Ta; Chang, Yu-Jen; Cheng, Hsing-Fu

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a classic L2 learning orientation framework and a multi-faceted implementation intention construct were used to predict self-regulation. Attention was particularly paid to the way in which different types of implementation intentions predicted the self-regulatory capacity. A two-phase research design was executed. A pilot was conducted to ensure the reliability and validity of the scales. In the main study, a series of regression analyses examined the links among the variables of interest. The modeling results indicated that the effects of the integrative and instrumental orientations were substantially diminished after the implementation intentions were incorporated into the orientation structure. The empirical findings strongly suggest the need for L2 learners to utilize strategic planning in response to situational and temporal cues in the process of goal pursuit. Further discussions focused on the effects of both orientations and implementation intentions on the self-regulatory capacity in language learning. PMID:26241097

  15. Language play, a collaborative resource in children’s L2 learning

    OpenAIRE

    ?ekait?, Asta; Aronsson, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Within communicative language teaching, ‘natural’language has had a privileged position, and a focus on formhas been seen as something inauthentic or as something thatis inconsequential for learning (for a critique, see Kramschand Sullivan 1996; Cook 1997). Yet in the present study of animmersion classroom, it was found that children with limitedL2 proficiency recurrently employed form-focused language playin spontaneous peer conversations. Our work involves a distinctfocus on multiparty talk...

  16. The Effect of Learning English (L2) on Learning of Arabic Literacy (L1) in the Primary School

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelaziz M. Hussien

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of learning English (L2) on learning to read and spell connected texts accurately in Arabic (L1). The author selected a sample of 83 (38 males and 45 females; 45 bilinguals and 38 monolinguals) native Arabic-speaking fourth-graders in Egypt. Students completed the author-developed Oral Reading Accuracy Measure and Spelling Accuracy Measure. Interestingly, results revealed that the bilingual (Arabic-English) students performed better than their monolingual (A...

  17. Task-based Language Learning in Bilingual Montessori Elementary Schools: Customizing Foreign Language Learning and Promoting L2 Speaking Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Winnefeld

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language learning has been a part of German elementary schools for several years now. Montessori schools focusing on individual learning, i.e. mostly independent from the teacher and based on auto-education, interest, and free choice, are also asked to teach an L2. The original lack of a concept of L2 learning for this environment has brought forth different approaches. Bilingual education seems to be feasible and applicable in Montessori education. The downside to this is that even in a bilingual classroom the Montessori way of learning may not allow for very much oral production of the foreign language. The role of L2 production (cf. Swain 1985, 1995, 2005 for language acquisition has been theoretically claimed and empirically investigated. Output can have a positive influence on L2 learning (cf. e.g. Izumi 2002, Keck et al. 2006. This also applies to interaction (cf. Long 1996, where negotiation of meaning and modified output are factors supporting L2 development (cf. e.g. de la Fuente 2002, McDonough 2005. Task-based Language Learning (TBLL presents itself as one way to promote oral language production and to provide opportunities for meaning-negotiation. Especially tasks with required information exchange and a closed outcome have been shown to be beneficial for the elicitation of negotiation of meaning and modified output. This paper argues that TBLL is a promising approach for the facilitation of L2 production and thus the development of speaking skills in a Montessori context. It also hypothesizes that TBLL can be implemented in a bilingual Montessori environment while still making the Montessori way of learning possible. Different tasks on various topics, examples of which are presented in this article, can lay the foundation for this. Offering such tasks in a bilingual Montessori elementary classroom promises to foster language production and the use of communication strategies like negotiation of meaning, both being facilitative for L2 acquisition. This hypothesis remains to be tested in future research.

  18. Design of soft morphological filters by learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Pertti T.; Kuosmanen, Pauli

    1994-05-01

    The choice and detailed design of the structuring elements play a pivotal role in soft morphological processing of images. This paper proposes a learning method for the optimization of the structuring elements of soft morphological filters under given optimization criterium. The learning method is based on simulated annealing. Experimental results depicted herein illustrate that the proposed method can be applied to finding optimal structuring systems in practical situations.

  19. Assisting Your Child's Learning in L2 Is Like Teaching Them to Ride a Bike: A Study on Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Rigoberto; Camelo Gámez, Linda Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with parental involvement as a strategy to assist young learners in their efforts to learn an L2. It discusses an 18-month experience involving ten young learners, their parents, and teachers, in the development of another language (L2). The parents had expressed that they were unable to support their children's development in…

  20. Galaxy morphology - an unsupervised machine learning approach

    CERN Document Server

    Schutter, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Structural properties posses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being ...

  1. Matching Vocabulary Learning Process with Learning Outcome in L2 Academic Writing: An Exploratory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory case study of two undergraduates links vocabulary learning approaches with lexical quality measured in academic writing. Employing an array of qualitative data, it is shown that in a "semi-language-rich" learning context, Chinese learners may dispense with rote learning and engage in a more natural learning approach in which…

  2. The Role of Dynamic Contrasts in the L2 Acquisition of Spanish Past Tense Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Laura; Tracy-Ventura, Nicole; Arche, Maria J.; Mitchell, Rosamond; Myles, Florence

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the second language acquisition of Spanish past tense morphology by three groups of English speakers (beginners, intermediates and advanced). We adopt a novel methodological approach--combining oral corpus data with controlled experimental data--in order to provide new evidence on the validity of the Lexical Aspect Hypothesis…

  3. Investigating the Efficacy of an Intensive English Program and the L2 Learners’ Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lee Su Ping

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Past research has found that many pre-university L2 learners, having completed an Intensive English Program (IEP still have difficulty in undertaking various disciplines in English-speaking tertiary institutions and continue to exhibit numerous linguistic problems (Bialystok, 2001, Celce Murcia 2001. The purpose of this paper is to present the findings on the investigation of L2 learners’ English proficiency in reading, writing, grammar, listening and speaking upon their completion of an Intensive English (IE program using their IELTS (Academic, in-house exams and English Placement Tests (EPT scores, and the efficacy of IE program.  IELTS test is chosen for this study due to its increasing popularity in Malaysia and its internationally recognised value and quality.  The study was conducted in two parts. In Part One, all 72 Level 4 IE students were given an in-house EPT (English Placement Test pre-test on their entry and another EPT post-test on their exit, and then their pre-test and post-test results were compared.  In Part Two, 22 volunteers sat the IELTS test at the end of the program. The IELTS results of the 22 volunteers were compared with those who did not.  Data were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. This paper hopes to shed some light on (i whether or not L2 learners’ English language proficiency can be significantly enhanced and influenced by an intensive English program and (ii how leaners’ perception of their own learning strategies influence their learning progress. 

  4. Assessing Input Enhancement as Positive Factor and Its Impact on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Fariborz Pishdadi Motlagh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Input enhancement's role to promote learners’ awareness in L2 contexts has caused a tremendous amount of research. Conspicuously, by regarding all aspects of input enhancement, the study aimed to find out how differently many kinds of input enhancement factors such as bolding, underlining, and capitalizing impact on L2 learners’ vocabulary acquiring. Furthermore, the study was conducted through a quasi-experimental design with a proficiency test to find how homogeneous the groups are. Four classes were selected as the experimental groups (n =80, and each class was conducted by one of the input enhancement main categories compared with the control group. Subjects attended in eight sessions to make them familiar with advantages of input enhancement in relation to vocabulary learning. Each group received different strategies but control group received no treatment and then, the researcher taught and employed those inputs in texts along with target words. Learners’ progress was measured during the eight sessions of employing those inputs in responding to vocabulary questions. One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, One-way ANOVAs series along with LSD and post hoc comparisons showed that three inputs were effective in responding to target vocabulary words and they compared and contrasted with control group but the bolding group did better than the other groups. Finally, bolding target words were more effective in fostering L2 learners’ vocabulary knowledge learning. These outcomes propose that using input enhancement to answer target words are the most useful factors, especially bolding as a significant input in this study outperformed the other ones in developing learners’ awareness to answer vocabulary tests. It can also be concluded that capitalizing is the least effective input compared to underlining and bolding in terms of their efficacy.Keywords: Focus on form and Implicit Fonf, Input enhancement as focus on form, Vocabulary

  5. Narrative and identity construction: an analysis of the L2 Learning process

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Antônio Caldeira, Andrade.

    Full Text Available A Aquisição de uma Segunda Língua (ASL) tem sido enfocada por vários pesquisadores que estudaram o processo sob diversas perspectivas (ex.: Ellis, 1997; Lantolf, 2000; Gardner, 1968), para poderem interpretar como os aprendizes adquirem a L2. Entretanto, esses estudos têm se limitado aos processos c [...] ognitivos e a outros fatores (cultural e sócio-cognitivo, por exemplo), em vez de focalizar as experiências dos aprendizes. Em virtude disso, este estudo investiga as experiências de aprendizes por meio de um grupo de auto-narrativas registradas pelo Projeto AMFALE (Aprendendo com memórias de falantes e de aprendizes de línguas estrangeiras), tendo como suporte básico o trabalho desenvolvido por Leppänen e Kalaja (2002), no qual as autoras, com base na teoria de Vladimir Propp sobre a morfologia do conto de fadas (2000), investigam o processo de aprendizagem de L2 a partir de auto-narrativas que refletem o processo heróico, ainda que árduo, dos contos de fadas, detalhado por Propp. Para tanto, o artigo se divide em duas partes. A primeira faz uma breve revisão do processo de construção de identidade, da importância da narrativa autobiográfica como expressão de identidade, chegando, por fim, aos critérios de análise de autobiografias no processo de aprendizagem de L2, identificados por Leppänen e Kalaja (2002). A segunda parte do estudo analisa alguns exemplos de autobiografias do projeto AMFALE sob a luz das referidas teorias. Abstract in english Second Language Acquisition (SLA) has been the focus of many linguists who have studied the process through varied perspectives, (e.g. Ellis, 1997; Lantolf, 2000; Gardner, 1968, to quote but a few) so that they may be able to interpret the way learners gather information regarding a second language [...] process. However, such foci have been limited to cognitive processes and other factors (e.g. cultural, socio-cognitive) rather than placed on the learners' experiences themselves. In view of this, this paper investigates learners' experiences through the analysis of a group of self narratives recorded by the AMFALE (Aprendendo com memórias de falantes e de aprendizes de língua estrangeira)² project, while, at the same time, analyzes such autobiographies in the light of Leppänen and Kalaja's (2002) work on autobiographies as learners' identities constructions, based on Vladimir Propp's book Morphology of the Folktale (2000). The study is divided in two parts: the first one briefly reviews the process of identity construction and the importance of autobiographies as a means of expression of the self. Besides, it also focuses on the criteria set forth by Leppänen and Kalaja (2002) for the analysis of autobiographies, based on Vladimir Propp's book Morphology of the folktale (2000). The second part focuses on the analyses of AMFALE autobiographies as stated above.

  6. Preschoolers learning Hmong and English: lexical-semantic skills in L1 and L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2005-04-01

    Picture naming and picture identification tasks were used to investigate lexical-semantic skills in young children learning Hmong as a first language (L1) and English as a second language (L2). A total of 19 children, ages 3;4 (years;months)-5;2, participated in this study. Performance on lexical tasks was analyzed as a function of development (older and younger participants), language (Hmong and English), modality (receptive and expressive skills), and the nature of total or "composite" vocabulary scores (translation equivalents or singles, reflecting comparable forms in both languages as compared to concepts lexicalized into only 1 language). Older participants outperformed younger participants in English, but not Hmong, indicating a relative stabilization of L1 skills, alongside more robust growth in L2. The difference between expressive and receptive performance was also much greater in Hmong than English. Composite scores were always greater than single language scores and the proportion of translation equivalents increased with age. PMID:15989399

  7. Galaxy morphology - An unsupervised machine learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutter, A.; Shamir, L.

    2015-09-01

    Structural properties poses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being analyzed. The source code of the method is publicly available, and the protocol of the experiment is included in the paper so that the experiment can be replicated, and the method can be used to analyze user-defined datasets of galaxy images.

  8. Focus on Meaning : Mapping the semantic and conceptual representation of Chinese (L2) word in Chinese vocabulary learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun; Wang Jingjing, Jenny

    Abstract This study examines the effect of mapping between the semantic and conceptual representation of target words ?????, and ?on Chinese (L2) vocabulary learning at a university class. Students (N=25) were the 2nd-year Chinese –major students at one university in Denmark. They were given tests recognizing new vocabulary (two-, three and four-character words) in a series of simple meaning recognition tests administered by the authors over three weeks. The test sets consist of vocabulary with target words that were given semantic and conceptual explanation by the authors in the previous week’s lessons. Students use a multiple choice to indicate whether a given item had a correct meaning in a given vocabulary. Data from controllers (N=3) who are native Chinese language teachers are also collected and analyzed. The findings indicate that the mapping between semantic and conceptual representation of Chinese (L2) words can have a measurable effect on students’ efficacy of (Nation 2011) vocabulary learning inthe classroom. The findings also reveal that conceptual representation of Chinese (L2) words reinforce the students’ reliance on L 1 by building a link between L 1semantic representations and L 2 semantics. Finally, the pedagogical implications for teaching Chinese (L2) are discussed as well. Key words: Chinese word, semantic representation, conceptual representation, vocabulary teaching

  9. An Investigation into the Modality Specificity of L2 Learners' STM Abilities in Learning Vocabulary via PDAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Khazaie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Parallel with the rapid growth of wireless technology and potentials of mobile learning for language teaching/learning, employing mobile devices in language learning seems indispensable. To this end, designing learning materials suitable for different types of mobile devices regarding dual coding (DCT and cognitive load (CLT theories seems inevitable. In this study, multimedia were employed for designing two types of learning materials. Since short-term memory plays an important role in language learning, learners’ visual and verbal short-term memories were taken into consideration, too. 161 L2 Learners aged 19 and 23 years old participated in the major phases of an experiment via personal digital assistant (PDA. Based on their scores on the English vocabulary recognition and recall (EVRR tests and the statistical analysis of the results, it was revealed that delivery of learning materials with pictorial and written annotations combined rather than delivery of learning materials without such annotations to learners with high-visual and high-verbal abilities, learners with high-visual but low-verbal ability, and learners with low-visual but high-verbal ability results in better vocabulary learning outcomes. However, this was not the case for learners with low-visual and low-verbal abilities. This study acknowledges the relation between STM and the relevant modalities of materials presentation.Keywords: Mobile learning, PDA, Verbal and visual ability, Vocabulary learning

  10. Learning More, Perceiving More? A Comparison of L1 Cantonese--L2 English--L3 French Speakers and L1 Cantonese--L2 English Speakers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Wai Lan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study examining the relationship between language learning and perceived language differences. Two groups of native Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong, L1 Cantonese--L2 English (CE) and L1 Cantonese--L2 English--L3 French (CEF), were asked to complete two tasks: a placement test in English (as well as in French for the CEF…

  11. Lexical and semantic representations of L2 cognate and noncognate words acquisition in children : evidence from two learning methods

    OpenAIRE

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

    2012-01-01

    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyze the effect of two learning methods (picture-based vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and noncognates) in early stages of children’s L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age= 10.87 years; SD= 0....

  12. Teaching, Learning, and Developing L2 French Sociolinguistic Competence: A Sociocultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Compernolle, Remi A.; Williams, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this article investigates the development of sociolinguistic competence among second-year (US university-level) L2 learners of French who were given systematic instruction on sociolinguistic variation as part of their normal coursework. We focus on the variable use of the negative morpheme "ne" in verbal negation. Drawing…

  13. Effects of Interactive Chat versus Independent Writing on L2 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tare, Medha; Golonka, Ewa M.; Vatz, Karen; Bonilla, Carrie L.; Crooks, Carolyn; Strong, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the importance of interaction for second language (L2) acquisition by analyzing outcomes from two types of out-of-class activities. The study compared: (a) interactive homework, completed via text chat, and (b) individual homework, completed via independent writing. In a between-subjects design, participants in two…

  14. Differential expression of Meis2, Mab21l2 and Tbx3 during limb development associated with diversification of limb morphology in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mengyao; Wang, Yao; Fang, Lu; Irwin, David M; Zhu, Tengteng; Zhang, Junpeng; Zhang, Shuyi; Wang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Bats are the only mammals capable of self-powered flight using wings. Differing from mouse or human limbs, four elongated digits within a broad wing membrane support the bat wing, and the foot of the bat has evolved a long calcar that spread the interfemoral membrane. Our recent mRNA sequencing (mRNA-Seq) study found unique expression patterns for genes at the 5' end of the Hoxd gene cluster and for Tbx3 that are associated with digit elongation and wing membrane growth in bats. In this study, we focused on two additional genes, Meis2 and Mab21l2, identified from the mRNA-Seq data. Using whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) we validated the mRNA-Seq results for differences in the expression patterns of Meis2 and Mab21l2 between bat and mouse limbs, and further characterize the timing and location of the expression of these two genes. These analyses suggest that Meis2 may function in wing membrane growth and Mab21l2 may have a role in AP and DV axial patterning. In addition, we found that Tbx3 is uniquely expressed in the unique calcar structure found in the bat hindlimb, suggesting a role for this gene in calcar growth and elongation. Moreover, analysis of the coding sequences for Meis2, Mab21l2 and Tbx3 showed that Meis2 and Mab21l2 have high sequence identity, consistent with the functions of genes being conserved, but that Tbx3 showed accelerated evolution in bats. However, evidence for positive selection in Tbx3 was not found, which would suggest that the function of this gene has not been changed. Together, our findings support the hypothesis that the modulation of the spatiotemporal expression patterns of multiple functional conserved genes control limb morphology and drive morphological change in the diversification of mammalian limbs. PMID:25166052

  15. Evolutionary Learning Algorithm for Multi-layer Morphological Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    He Chunmei

    2013-01-01

    Morphological Neural Network (MNN) is a novel and important neural network and it has many applications such as image processing and pattern recognition. It makes sense to research the learning algorithm of MNN and its application. A method based on genetic algorithm is presented to train and implement multi-layer morphological neural network in this study. The algorithm calculates the weights and biases of morphological neural network and the genetic algorithm automatically acquire the learn...

  16. Cultural conceptualisations in learning English as an L2: Examples from Persian-speaking learners

    OpenAIRE

    Farzad Sharifian

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, many studies of second language acquisition (SLA) were based on the assumption that learning a new language mainly involves learning a set of grammatical rules, lexical items, and certain new sounds and sound combinations. However, for many second language learners, learning a second language may involve contact and interactions with new systems of conceptualising experience. Many learners bring the conceptual system that they have developed while learning their ...

  17. Exploring the Interface: Explicit Focus-on-Form Instruction and Learned Attentional Biases in L2 Latin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintrón-Valentín, Myrna; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    Eye-tracking was used to investigate the attentional processes whereby different types of focus on form (FonF) instruction assist learners in overcoming learned attention and blocking effects in their online processing of second language input. English native speakers viewed Latin utterances combining lexical and morphological cues to temporality…

  18. Multi-Task Feature Learning Via Efficient l2,1-Norm Minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jun; Ye, Jieping

    2012-01-01

    The problem of joint feature selection across a group of related tasks has applications in many areas including biomedical informatics and computer vision. We consider the l2,1-norm regularized regression model for joint feature selection from multiple tasks, which can be derived in the probabilistic framework by assuming a suitable prior from the exponential family. One appealing feature of the l2,1-norm regularization is that it encourages multiple predictors to share similar sparsity patterns. However, the resulting optimization problem is challenging to solve due to the non-smoothness of the l2,1-norm regularization. In this paper, we propose to accelerate the computation by reformulating it as two equivalent smooth convex optimization problems which are then solved via the Nesterov's method-an optimal first-order black-box method for smooth convex optimization. A key building block in solving the reformulations is the Euclidean projection. We show that the Euclidean projection for the first reformulation...

  19. An Analysis of the Potential of a Computer-mediated learning Course for Vocabulary Learning in L2

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contributions a computer-mediated blended course can make for learning vocabulary in French as a Foreign Language (FFL). This course included class and on-line sessions, using Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) tools (forum and chat), for a written macro-task by French-learning Cypriot students accompanied in distance learning by FFL tutors. In the first part we present difficulties in vocabulary learning as well as in written production. We also tackle two centra...

  20. The Status of Metalinguistic Knowledge in Instructed Adult L2 Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehr, Karen; Ganem-Gutierrez, Gabriela Adela

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated second language metalinguistic knowledge, or explicit knowledge about the second language, in English-speaking university-level learners of German and Spanish. The status of metalinguistic knowledge in relation to the individual difference variables of language-learning aptitude, working memory for language, and…

  1. Reading and Learning from L2 Text: Effects of Reading Goal, Topic Familiarity, and Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiba, Yukie; Fukaya, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effect of reading goal, topic-familiarity, and language proficiency on text comprehension and learning. English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) students with high and low topic-familiarity read and recalled a text. Some were told in advance to expect a recall task in a particular language--the first language (L1) or second…

  2. Online multilingual vocabulary system and its application in L2 learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruko Miyakoda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the field of second language teaching, vocabulary has been one of the most neglected areas in the classroom. Although language teachers/ instructors are well aware of the importance of vocabulary, there is not enough time in the classroom to actually “teach” vocabulary. Therefore, we need to find ways to promote autonomous vocabulary learning so that students can make good use of their time outside theclassrooms.In this study, we present an online vocabulary learning system that we have developed. The results obtained from our evaluation experiment indicate that our system is more effective in retaining the meaning of the words compared to the traditional learning method.As an example of applying this system to language learning, we will give a demonstration of a Japanese onomatopoeia dictionary that we are compiling. Onomatopoeia are especially troublesome for learners of the Japanese language. Although they are frequently used in both written and spoken Japanese, they are very difficult to translate to other languages. We demonstrate that by employing our system, learners are better able to understand the meaning and the context of eachlexical item.

  3. Individual variability in the perceptual learning of L2 speech sounds and its cognitive correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Y. H.; Hazan, V.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored which cognitive processes are related to individual variability in the learning of novel phonemic contrasts in a second language. 25 English participants were trained to perceive a Korean stop voicing contrast which is novel for English speakers. They were also presented with a large battery of tests which investigated different aspects of their perceptual and cognitive abilities, as well as pre- and posttraining tests of their ability to discriminate this nove...

  4. Promoting Pre-service Second Language (L2) Teacher Learning via Narrative: A Sociocultural Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina Arshavskaya; Anne Elrod Whitney

    2014-01-01

    This study constitutes a qualitative investigation of a series of interactions between an experienced teacher educator and a pre-service teacher in the context of a teaching English as a second language (ESL) practicum blog. The study demonstrates how the activity of writing a dialogic blog can facilitate teacher professional development. Responding to the recent call to investigate the ways in which teacher engagement in writing (Johnson & Golombek, 2011) can assist teacher learning and ...

  5. Gender Differences in L2 Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning in the Video-based CALL Program

    OpenAIRE

    Lu-Fang Lin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether there were significant differences between males and females in comprehension, vocabulary acquisition and vocabulary retention in the video-based computer assisted language learning (CALL) program. In total, 74 male and 43 female university students taking Freshman English course in Taiwan joined this study. A quantitative analysis of video comprehension tests, vocabulary immediate tests, and vocabulary retention tests was conducted. Two types of videotexts ranked ...

  6. Promoting Pre-service Second Language (L2 Teacher Learning via Narrative: A Sociocultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Arshavskaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study constitutes a qualitative investigation of a series of interactions between an experienced teacher educator and a pre-service teacher in the context of a teaching English as a second language (ESL practicum blog. The study demonstrates how the activity of writing a dialogic blog can facilitate teacher professional development. Responding to the recent call to investigate the ways in which teacher engagement in writing (Johnson & Golombek, 2011 can assist teacher learning and given the urge to promote conceptual ways of understanding teaching on the part of the novice teachers (Johnson, 2009, this paper presents a case study that shows both the novice’s growth as expressed through writing and reflection in the blog as well the teacher educator’s moves designed to foster the novice’s learning. A sociocultural perspective on human cognitive development (Vygotsky, 1978 was used as a theoretical framework for tracing the novice’s development and capturing the transformative power of the novice’s narration as well as the characteristics of the teacher educator’s mediation. Our findings indicate that when the teacher educator’s mediation is strategically designed, engagement in narrative through a dialogic blog can be a powerful tool for stimulating a novice’s more expert understanding of ESL teaching and encouraging the application of that understanding in practice.

  7. Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Shaikh, Danish; Støy, Kasper

    2009-01-01

    Hand-coding locomotion controllers for modular robots is dif?cult due to their polymorphic nature. Instead, we propose to use a simple and distributed reinforcement learning strategy. ATRON modules with identical controllers can be assembled in any con?guration. To optimize the robot’s locomotion speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy’s performance on different robot con?gurations...

  8. Developing Critical L2 Digital Literacy through the Use of Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Learning Management Systems such as Moodle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Second Language (L2) Digital Literacy is of emerging importance within English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Korea, and will evolve to become regarded as the most critical component of overall L2 English Literacy. Computer-based Internet-hosted Learning Management Systems (LMS), such as the popular open-source Moodle, are rapidly being adopted worldwide for distance education, and are also being applied to blended (hybrid) education. In EFL Education, they have a special potential: by setting the LMS to force English to be used exclusively throughout a course website, the meta-language can be made the target L2 language. Of necessity, students develop the ability to use English to navigate the Internet, access and contribute to online resources, and engage in computer-mediated communication. Through such pragmatic engagement with English, students significantly develop their L2 Digital Literacy.

  9. Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) and L2 motivation associated with L2 pronunciation development in pre-service teachers of English / Estrategias de Aprendizaje de una Lengua y motivación L2 asociadas al desarrollo de la pronunciación de una L2 en estudiantes de Pedagogía en Inglés

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauricio, Véliz C.

    Full Text Available La presente investigación busca develar los mecanismos sicosociales que utilizan los profesores de inglés de pre-servicio destacados en su desarrollo fonológico en inglés como L2, canalizados a través de estrategias de aprendizaje de una lengua. La investigación hace uso de la metodología de estudio [...] de caso y recaba información de los dos participantes a través de la entrevista semi-estructurada, cuyos resultados son analizados a la luz de la taxonomía propuesta por Oxford (1990). Los resultados corroboran en cierta medida estudios anteriores en los siguientes sentidos: (i) los participantes hacen amplio uso de estrategias indirectas, entre las cuales destacan las estrategias metacognitivas, planificación del aprendizaje y monitoreo; (ii) las estrategias metacognitivas se ven potenciadas cuando entran en contacto con el uso de estrategias directas, tales como la creación de imágenes mentales, aplicación de imagen y sonido, práctica, razonamiento cognitivo y foco atencional; y (iii) la motivación se presenta como variable movilizadora del repertorio de estrategias de aprendizaje. Abstract in english This study seeks to uncover the psychosocial mechanisms used by pre-service teachers of English with the purpose of developing an L2 phonological system, within a framework of language learning strategies (LLSs) The study makes use of a case study methodology and collects information through a semi- [...] structured interview, whose results are interpreted in light of Oxford's (1990) taxonomy. The results corroborate to some extent findings made in previous studies, amongst which are: (i) ample use of indirect strategies, amongst which metacognitive, planning and monitoring stand out; (ii) greater potential of metacognitive strategies when accompanied by use of direct strategies such as mental images, applying images and sounds, practising, analysing/reasoning, and paying attention; and (iii) the mobilisation power of motivation in connection with a strategy repertoire.

  10. Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: evidence from two learning methods in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

    2012-08-01

    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyse the effect of two learning methods (picture- vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and non-cognates) in early stages of children's L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age = 10.87 years; SD= 0.85), participated in the study. None of them had prior knowledge of Basque (the L2 in this study). After a learning phase in which L2 words were learned either by a picture- or a word-based method, children were tested in a backward-word translation recognition task at two times (immediately vs. one week later). Results showed that the participants made more errors when rejecting semantically related than semantically unrelated words as correct translations (semantic interference effect). The magnitude of this effect was higher in the delayed test condition regardless of the learning method. Moreover, the overall performance of participants from the word-based method was better than the performance of participants from the picture-word method. Results were discussed concerning the most significant bilingual lexical processing models. PMID:22804703

  11. Language Learning Motivation within the Context of Globalisation: An L2 Self within an Imagined Global Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This is a theoretical paper that attempts to re-conceptualize language learning motivation by taking into consideration the effects of globalisation on learners' sense of identity and how this impacts on the motivation to learn the unquestioned language of globalisation, English. I will argue that in EFL contexts it is learners' sense of…

  12. Assessing Differences and Similarities between Instructed Heritage Language Learners and L2 Learners in Their Knowledge of Spanish Tense-Aspect and Mood (TAM) Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrul, Silvina; Perpinan, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of the aspectual difference between the preterit and imperfect in the past tense and the acquisition of the contrast between subjunctive and indicative mood are classic problem areas in second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish by English-speaking learners (Collentine, 1995, 1998, 2003; Salaberry, 1999; Slabakova & Montrul, 2002;…

  13. Assessing the Effect of Lexical Aspect and Grounding on the Acquisition of L2 Spanish Past Tense Morphology among L1 English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaberry, Maximo Rafael

    2011-01-01

    The present study compares the relative effect of inherent lexical aspect and discursive grounding on the use of L2 Spanish Preterit and Imperfect. The study is based on the analysis of responses to a written 40-item discourse-based forced-choice task among 286 English-speaking learners of Spanish. The analysis of data (repeated measures ANOVA)…

  14. The Influence of Incidental and Intentional Vocabulary Acquisition and Vocabulary Strategy Use on Learning L2 Vocabularies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Alemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the role of incidental and intentional vocabulary acquisition in addition to the influence of language learning strategy: namely, the use of vocabulary strategy by Iranian EFL learners in learning new vocabularies. Accordingly, this study is two-faceted. First, Part A examines the difference between different modes of presentation, incidental and intentional learning of new vocabularies (i.e., incidental, etymology-based intentional, and meaning-based intentional, and acquisition of new vocabularies. Part B investigates the impact of the use of language learning strategies—in this case vocabulary and reading strategy use using The Language Strategy Use Inventory—on the learning of new vocabularies. Part A, studying the influence of incidental as opposed to intentional presentation and acquisition of vocabularies, involved 30 students (i.e., 26 males and 4 females. Part B of the study, investigating the role of vocabulary learning strategy use, involved 59 students (i.e., 49 males and 10 females. The results of Part A shown by t-test indicate that, as far as performance of the students on a test of vocabulary acquisition is concerned, there is no significant difference between the two modes—incidental and intentional learning. However, for the same part, linear regression proved that among the vocabularies presented through different modes of presentation, it is vocabularies learned through meaning-based intentional mode that is the most predictive of the performance of the students on a test of vocabulary acquisition. Moreover, as for part B, the study found that there is a positive, but weak, correlation between the students’ vocabulary strategy use – measured by students filling out a self-report questionnaire entitled The Language Strategy Use Inventory developed by Cohen, A, Oxford, L. R, and Chi. J. – and their learning of new vocabularies. Finally, the findings of part B of the study indicate that, as the degree to which the students’ use of vocabulary strategy use increases, so does their use of reading strategy use.

  15. Tracking "Learning Behaviours" in the Incidental Acquisition of Two Dimensional Adjectives by Japanese Beginner Learners of L2 English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Natsuko; Ellis, Rod

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine both the process and product of vocabulary learning in a task-based instructional context. The article reports a study that investigated the acquisition of two dimensional adjectives ("big" and "small") by six-year-old Japanese children who were complete beginners. It tracked the…

  16. Effects of Phonological Input as a Pre-Listening Activity on Vocabulary Learning and L2 Listening Comprehension Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Kei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is twofold. The first goal is to examine the effects of phonological input on students' vocabulary learning. The second is to discuss how different pre­-listening activities affect students' second language listening comprehension. The participants were first-­year students at a Japanese university. There were two…

  17. Becoming an L2 Learner (Again): How a Brief Language Learning Experience Sparked Connections with SLA Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Ross

    2015-01-01

    A brief "language learning experience" (LLE) in Thai was integrated into a second language development course as part of postgraduate TESOL study at an Australian university. Sixty primary and secondary teachers from a range of schools evaluated the impact of the LLE by means of a questionnaire; the teachers proved highly affirming of…

  18. Enhancement of Automatization through Vocabulary Learning Using CALL: Can Prompt Language Processing Lead to Better Comprehension in L2 Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeshi; Matsunuma, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Our study aims to optimize a multimedia application for vocabulary learning for English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Our study is based on the concept that difficulty in reading a text in a second language is due to the need for more working memory for word decoding skills, although the working memory must also be used for text comprehension…

  19. The Effect of Exposure to the Visual Medium on Learning Pronunciation and Word Stress of L2 Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Fotovatnia; Mahboubeh Omidi

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of exposure to the visual medium on learning pronunciation and word stress. Thirty junior high school students participated in this study. They were divided into an experimental and a control group each included 15 students. The participants were given a pretest in order to make sure that they were homogeneous with regard to their pronunciation and word stress. Both groups received instruction on key to phonetic symbols available in the back of their textbooks a...

  20. On the Relationship between Self-regulated Learning Components and L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Ali Zarei; Gamar Hatami

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, self-regulation has been the center of heated debate in educational psychology. The present study attempted to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' self-regulated learning components and vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension .To fulfill this objective, a 60-item vocabulary and reading comprehension TOEFL test was administered to a sample of 250 male and female college students majoring in English Teaching, English Language Translation, a...

  1. Effects of acoustic and semantic contexts when learning to identify L2 phonemes in words and sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuma, Yuko; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko

    2001-05-01

    Laboratory training experiment was conducted in order to examine the effect of acoustic and semantic contexts when learning second language phoneme perception. Fifty minimal pairs of English words contrasting in /r/ and /l/ were produced by native speakers of American English in three conditions; in isolation (WD), within semantically neutral carrier sentences (NS), and within semantically contextual carrier sentences (CS). Participants were native speakers of Japanese, and were divided into three groups; each was trained to identify /r/ and /l/ in one of above three conditions. In pretest, identification accuracy varied by condition in the order, NStrained with CS stimuli improved the ability to identify CS stimuli from pretest to post-test, but not WD and NS stimuli. In contrast, the effect of training using WD or NS stimuli generalized to all the stimulus conditions. These results suggest that the perception training utilizing the auditory input, in which acoustic information is the only clue to identify phonemes, is effective in cultivation of aural comprehension. Implications for foreign language education will be discussed. [Work supported by TAO, Japan.

  2. Combining Hand-crafted Rules and Unsupervised Learning in Constraint-based Morphological Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Oflazer, K; Oflazer, Kemal; Tur, Gokhan

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a constraint-based morphological disambiguation approach that is applicable languages with complex morphology--specifically agglutinative languages with productive inflectional and derivational morphological phenomena. In certain respects, our approach has been motivated by Brill's recent work, but with the observation that his transformational approach is not directly applicable to languages like Turkish. Our system combines corpus independent hand-crafted constraint rules, constraint rules that are learned via unsupervised learning from a training corpus, and additional statistical information from the corpus to be morphologically disambiguated. The hand-crafted rules are linguistically motivated and tuned to improve precision without sacrificing recall. The unsupervised learning process produces two sets of rules: (i) choose rules which choose morphological parses of a lexical item satisfying constraint effectively discarding other parses, and (ii) delete rules, which delete parses sati...

  3. Learning morphological phenomena of modern Greek an exploratory approach

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Kotsanis; A. Kokkinos Dimitrios; A.G. Manousopoulou; G. Papakonstantinou

    1996-01-01

    Educational technology is influenced by and closely related to the fields of generative epistemology, Artificial Intelligence, and the learning sciences. Relevant research literature refers to the term constructionism (Papert, 1993) and exploratory learning (diSessa et al, 1995). Constructionism and exploratory learning are a synthesis of the constructivist theory of Piaget and the opportunities offered by technology to education on thinking concretely, on learning while constructing intellig...

  4. Unsupervised Discovery of Phonological Categories through Supervised Learning of Morphological Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Daelemans, Walter; Berck, Peter; Gillis, Steven

    1996-01-01

    We describe a case study in the application of {\\em symbolic machine learning} techniques for the discovery of linguistic rules and categories. A supervised rule induction algorithm is used to learn to predict the correct diminutive suffix given the phonological representation of Dutch nouns. The system produces rules which are comparable to rules proposed by linguists. Furthermore, in the process of learning this morphological task, the phonemes used are grouped into phonol...

  5. Learning in student projects and morphological analysis of Arctic particles

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlberg, Alexander

    2012-01-01

      Abstract This master thesis is divided into two parts, one pedagogical and one engineering. The purpose of the pedagogical part of this master thesis was to investigate how students learn during projects. At the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, three larger student projects occurred where the students themselves developed an probe that was launched into the atmosphere. The supervisors of the projects wanted to find out how the students learn during the project. The thesis include...

  6. Learning morphological phenomena of modern Greek an exploratory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kotsanis

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Educational technology is influenced by and closely related to the fields of generative epistemology, Artificial Intelligence, and the learning sciences. Relevant research literature refers to the term constructionism (Papert, 1993 and exploratory learning (diSessa et al, 1995. Constructionism and exploratory learning are a synthesis of the constructivist theory of Piaget and the opportunities offered by technology to education on thinking concretely, on learning while constructing intelligible entities, and on interacting with multimedia objects, rather than the direct acquisition of knowledge and facts. These views are based on the approach that learners can take substantial control of their own learning in an appropriately designed physical and cultural environment (Harel, 1991. In parallel, most of the studies of the Vygotskian framework focus on the role of language in the learning procedure, considering conceptual thought to be impossible outside an articulated verbal thinking. Moreover, the specific use of words is considered to be the most relevant cause for childhood and adolescent differentiation (Vygotsky, 1962.

  7. Teaching and Learning Morphology: A Reflection on Generative Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Shane

    2012-01-01

    Students' knowledge of morphology can play a critical role in vocabulary development, and by extension, reading comprehension and writing. This reflection describes the nature of this knowledge and how it may be developed through the examination of generative vocabulary knowledge and the role of the spelling system in developing this knowledge. In…

  8. Unsupervised Discovery of Phonological Categories through Supervised Learning of Morphological Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Daelemans, W; Gillis, S; Daelemans, Walter; Berck, Peter; Gillis, Steven

    1996-01-01

    We describe a case study in the application of {\\em symbolic machine learning} techniques for the discovery of linguistic rules and categories. A supervised rule induction algorithm is used to learn to predict the correct diminutive suffix given the phonological representation of Dutch nouns. The system produces rules which are comparable to rules proposed by linguists. Furthermore, in the process of learning this morphological task, the phonemes used are grouped into phonologically relevant categories. We discuss the relevance of our method for linguistics and language technology.

  9. Fault-tolerant gait learning and morphology optimization of a polymorphic walking robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Larsen, JØrgen Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experiments with a morphology-independent, life-long strategy for online learning of locomotion gaits. The experimental platform is a quadruped robot assembled from the LocoKit modular robotic construction kit. The learning strategy applies a stochastic optimization algorithm to optimize eight open parameters of a central pattern generator based gait implementation. We observe that the strategy converges in roughly ten minutes to gaits of similar or higher velocity than a manually designed gait and that the strategy readapts in the event of failed actuators. We also optimize offline the reachable space of a foot based on a reference design but finds that the reality gap hardens the successfully transference to the physical robot. To address this limitation, in future work we plan to study co-learning of morphological and control parameters directly on physical robots.

  10. Effects of age of learning on voice onset time: categorical perception of Swedish stops by near-native L2 speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stölten, Katrin; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Hyltenstam, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effects of age of onset (AO) of L2 acquisition on the categorical perception of the voicing contrast in Swedish word-initial stops varying in voice onset time (VOT). Three voicing continua created on the basis of natural Swedish word pairs with /p-b/, /t-d/, /k-/ in initial position were presented to 41 Spanish early (AO 12) near-native speakers of L2 Swedish. Fifteen native speakers of Swedish served as controls. Categorizations were influenced by AO and listener status as L1/L2 speaker, in that the late learners deviated the most from native-speaker perception. In addition, only a small minority of the late learners perceived the voicing contrast in a way comparable to native-speaker categorization, while most early L2 learners demonstrated nativelike categorization patterns. However, when the results were combined with the L2 learners' production of Swedish voiceless stops (Stölten, 2005; Stölten, Abrahamsson & Hyltenstam, in press), nativelike production and perception was never found among the late learners, while a majority of the early learners still exhibited nativelike production and perception. It is concluded that, despite their being perceived as mother-tongue speakers of Swedish by native listeners, the late learners do not, after detailed phonetic scrutiny, exhibit a fully nativelike command of Swedish VOT. Consequently, being near-native rather than nativelike speakers of their second language, these individuals do not constitute the evidence necessary to reject the hypothesis of one or several critical (or sensitive) periods for language acquisition. PMID:25536842

  11. L2 Plasma Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The second LaGrange point, 1.5 million miles from the Earth in the anti-solar direction, is becoming an important destination for scientific spacecraft. The quasi-stable gravity field requires little energy resources for station keeping and astronomical missions-infrared and microwave in particular-find the minimal impact from Earth albedo radiation and limited restrictions on viewing directions a tremendous advantage in their mission design. Spacecraft design for L2 missions will have to consider the plasma environments of the ambient solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail from energies of a few 10s of an eV through 10 s of keV in addition to enhanced energetic particle populations from 10s to l000 keV during solar energetic particle events. This presentation will provide a background on the appropriate L2 charged particle environments at L2 and describe modeling efforts at MSFC to develop environment specification tools for the L2 plasma environment.

  12. Systematic Asymmetries in Perception and Production of L2 Inflections in Mandarin L2 Learners of English: The Effects of Phonotactics, Salience, and Processing Pressure on Inflectional Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Timothy E.

    2013-01-01

    The study of language production by adults who are learning a second language (L2) has received a good deal of attention especially when it comes to omission of inflectional morphemes within L2 utterances. Several explanations have been proposed for these inflectional errors. One explanation is that the L2 learner simply does not have the L2

  13. Perceptual assimilation and L2 learning: evidence from the perception of Southern British English vowels by native speakers of Greek and Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengeris, Angelos

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which previous experience with duration in first language (L1) vowel distinctions affects the use of duration when perceiving vowels in a second language (L2). Native speakers of Greek (where duration is not used to differentiate vowels) and Japanese (where vowels are distinguished by duration) first identified and rated the eleven English monophthongs, embedded in /bVb/ and /bVp/ contexts, in terms of their L1 categories and then carried out discrimination tests on those English vowels. The results demonstrated that both L2 groups were sensitive to durational cues when perceiving the English vowels. However, listeners were found to temporally assimilate L2 vowels to L1 category/categories. Temporal information was available in discrimination only when the listeners' L1 duration category/categories did not interfere with the target duration categories and hence the use of duration in such cases cannot be attributed to its perceptual salience as has been proposed. PMID:19776666

  14. The Learner´s Mother Tongue in the L2 Learning-Teaching Symbiosis La lengua materna del estudiante en la simbiosis entre enseñanza y aprendizaje de una segunda lengua

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton Hitotuzi

    2006-01-01

    This paper has a two-fold purpose. One is to review the stances of language-oriented theorists, who are practicing foreign/second-language teachers and learners from various parts of the world, regarding the long-standing controversy over whether or not the learner´s mother tongue plays a positive role in the foreign/second-language learning-teaching context. A second purpose is to offer, from a non-native-speaker L2-teacher standpoint, some suggestions on when and how learners´ native langua...

  15. From rote learning to system building: acquiring verb morphology in children and connectionist nets.

    OpenAIRE

    PLUNKETT, K; Marchman, V

    1993-01-01

    The traditional account of the acquisition of English verb morphology supposes that a dual architecture underlies the transition from early rote-learning processes (in which past tense forms of verbs are correctly produced) to the systematic treatment of verbs (in which irregular verbs are prone to error). A connectionist account supposes that this transition can occur in a single mechanism (in the form of a neural network) driven by gradual quantitative changes in the size of the training se...

  16. Learning to map variation-standard forms in Basque using a limited parallel corpus and the standard morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Etxeberria Uztarroz, Izaskun; Alegría Loinaz, Iñaki; Hulden, Mans; Uria Garin, Larraitz

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores three different methods of learning to map variant word form (dialectal or diachronic) to standard ones from a limited parallel corpus of standard and variant texts, given that a computational description of the standard morphology is available.

  17. Combining human and machine learning for morphological analysis of galaxy images

    CERN Document Server

    Kuminski, Evan; Wallin, John; Shamir, Lior

    2014-01-01

    The increasing importance of digital sky surveys collecting many millions of galaxy images has reinforced the need for robust methods that can perform morphological analysis of large galaxy image databases. Citizen science initiatives such as Galaxy Zoo showed that large datasets of galaxy images can be analyzed effectively by non-scientist volunteers, but since databases generated by robotic telescopes grow much faster than the processing power of any group of citizen scientists, it is clear that computer analysis is required. Here we propose to use citizen science data for training machine learning systems, and show experimental results demonstrating that machine learning systems can be trained with citizen science data. Our findings show that the performance of machine learning depends on the quality of the data, which can be improved by using samples that have a high degree of agreement between the citizen scientists. The source code of the method is publicly available.

  18. The ideal L2 selves of Japanese learners of English

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This thesis attempts to reinterpret language learning motivation through a consideration of the possibilities of applying theories of the self to L2 motivation theory. There were two overriding aims guiding my research; firstly to empirically test theoretical proposals suggesting that the concept of an ideal L2 self may represent a more effective base for understanding L2 motivation, and secondly to explore the possibilities suggested by this approach within the context of the Japanese Englis...

  19. A morphological perceptron with gradient-based learning for Brazilian stock market forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ricardo de A

    2012-04-01

    Several linear and non-linear techniques have been proposed to solve the stock market forecasting problem. However, a limitation arises from all these techniques and is known as the random walk dilemma (RWD). In this scenario, forecasts generated by arbitrary models have a characteristic one step ahead delay with respect to the time series values, so that, there is a time phase distortion in stock market phenomena reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a suitable model inspired by concepts in mathematical morphology (MM) and lattice theory (LT). This model is generically called the increasing morphological perceptron (IMP). Also, we present a gradient steepest descent method to design the proposed IMP based on ideas from the back-propagation (BP) algorithm and using a systematic approach to overcome the problem of non-differentiability of morphological operations. Into the learning process we have included a procedure to overcome the RWD, which is an automatic correction step that is geared toward eliminating time phase distortions that occur in stock market phenomena. Furthermore, an experimental analysis is conducted with the IMP using four complex non-linear problems of time series forecasting from the Brazilian stock market. Additionally, two natural phenomena time series are used to assess forecasting performance of the proposed IMP with other non financial time series. At the end, the obtained results are discussed and compared to results found using models recently proposed in the literature. PMID:22391234

  20. Experiência em sala de aula: evidência empírica da complexidade no ensino e aprendizagem de LE / Classroom experience: empirical evidence of complexity in l2 teaching and learning

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura Stella, Miccoli; Carolina Vianini A., Lima.

    Full Text Available Este artigo argumenta pela compreensão do construto experiência, como um Sistema Adaptativo Complexo, tendo em vista que, para compreendê-la, toda experiência encapsula um processo, no qual outros eventos que a perpassam são trazidos à tona. Para tal, partimos da pesquisa sobre experiências, apresen [...] tando trechos de relatos de estudantes e professores sobre eventos vivenciados em salas de aula de língua estrangeira (LE), como evidência empírica de conceitos da complexidade, aplicados aos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE. Explicitamos, assim, a relação entre experiência, como construto, e caos / complexidade, como teoria, para compreender a natureza dos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE em salas de aula. Abstract in english This article argues for understanding the construct of experience as a complex adaptive system since experience, as a process, encapsulates other events that permeate it, bringing them to the fore. To this end, we briefly review research on experience and present excerpts from students’ and teachers [...] ’ report data of events experienced in the foreign language classrooms as empirical evidence of applying complexity theory concepts to understand the processes of foreign language teaching and learning. Thus, the explicit relationship between experience, as a construct, and chaos / complexity, as a theory, play a role for understanding the nature of classroom foreign language teaching and learning.

  1. From Number Agreement to the Subjunctive: Evidence for Processability Theory in L2 Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Carrie L.

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to typological plausibility of Processability Theory (PT) (Pienemann, 1998, 2005) by providing empirical data that show that the stages predicted by PT are followed in the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish syntax and morphology. In the present article, the PT stages for L2 Spanish morphology and syntax are first…

  2. Negative evidence in L2 acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dahl

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the L2 acquisition of differences between Norwegian and English passives, and presents data to show that the acquisition of these differences by Norwegian L2 acquirers of English cannot be fully explained by positive evidence, cues, conservativism or economy. Rather, it is argued, it is natural to consider whether indirect negative evidence may facilitate acquisition by inferencing. The structures in focus are impersonal passive constructions with postverbal NPs and passive constructions with intransitive verbs. These sentences are ungrammatical in English. Chomsky (1981 proposes that this is a result of passive morphology absorbing objective case in English. There is no such case to be assigned to the postverbal NP in impersonal passives. In passive constructions with intransitive verbs, the verb does not assign objective case, so that there is no case for the passive morphology to absorb. Thus, impersonal passives have to be changed into personal passives, where the NP receives nominative case, and the objective case is free to go to the passive morphology. Intransitive verbs, however, cannot be used in the passive voice at all. Both the structures discussed in this article, i.e. are grammatical in Norwegian. However, the options available in English, viz. personal passives and active sentences, are equally possible. Åfarli (1992 therefore proposes that Norwegian has optional case absorption (passive morphology optionally absorbs case. On the basis on such observations, we may propose a parameter with the settings [+case absorption] for English, and [-case absorption], signifying optional case absorption, for Norwegian. This means that none of the structures that are grammatical in English can function as positive evidence for the [+case absorption] setting, since they are also grammatical in optional case absorption languages. The question is how this parameter is set.

  3. Investigating an Innovative Computer Application to Improve L2 Word Recognition from Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Joshua; O'Toole, John Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recognise words from the aural modality is a critical aspect of successful second language (L2) listening comprehension. However, little research has been reported on computer-mediated development of L2 word recognition from speech in L2 learning contexts. This report describes the development of an innovative computer application…

  4. CALL--Enhanced L2 Listening Skills--Aiming for Automatization in a Multimedia Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Maria Jesus Blasco

    2009-01-01

    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening…

  5. Authenticity in oral communication of instructed L2 learners

    OpenAIRE

    Nowicka, Agnieszka; WILCZY?SKA, Weronika

    2011-01-01

    The skill of producing oral discourse in L2 is commonly considered to be difficult to foster in instructional setting. However, the main problem appears to be ensuring an authenticity of speaking both in personal, internal sense and in the social, socio-linguistic dimension. The main claim of here-discussed person centered approach is that both of these dimensions, although distinct, do not need to be treated in L2 learning as systematically separate and incompatible ones. On the contrary,...

  6. Translation and Short-Term L2 Vocabulary Retention: Hindrance or Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the role that active translation may have in second language (L2) vocabulary learning. Some research suggests that translation might be an effective cognitive strategy for L2 vocabulary learning. Participants were 191 native French-speaking students enrolled in a TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) program.The study…

  7. Noticing in L2 writing

    OpenAIRE

    Geist, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the ways L2 learners of English reflect on their use of English while completing a writing task and the strategies learners apply in order to resolve their language-related problems. Factors which might have some influence on the learners' noticing and problem-solving behaviour were explored using a qualitative, inductive research approach involving the detailed analyses of ten participants. Think-aloud protocols and stimulated recall interviews were used to investigate...

  8. Children's Acquisition of L2 Spanish Morphosyntax in an Immersion Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschensohn, Julia; Stevenson, Jeff; Waltmunson, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    This article reexamines Critical Period and L1/L2 differences by looking at the development of Spanish morphosyntax by young Anglophone immersion learners, in light of two hypotheses, Full Transfer/Full Access (FTFA) and Failed Functional Features (FFFH). FTFA maintains that syntax and morphology develop separately in L2 acquisition for adults and…

  9. A new approach to the learning of dental morphology, function, and esthetics: the "2D-3D-4D" concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    A concept is proposed for an approach to the learning of dental morphology and occlusion. Dental morphology, function, and esthetics should reflect a fundamental driving force, that is, the faithful emulation of the natural dentition's structural (functional, mechanical) and esthetic properties. The innovative part of the proposed approach is the emphasis on visual arts and the 2D-3D-4D aspect that starts with drawing (2D/3D) and continues with partial wax-up exercises that are followed by labial waxups and, finally, full wax-ups using innovative technical aids (electric waxers, prefabricated wax patterns, etc). Finally, the concept of layers (4D) and the histoanatomy of enamel/dentin and optical depth are taught through the realization of layering exercises (advanced acrylic mock-ups and composite resin restorations). All these techniques and materials are not only used to teach morphology and occlusion, but also constitute essential tools that will be of significant use for the student dentists and dental technologists in their future daily practice. The clinical significance of the presented methodology should allow not only students but also practicing dentists and dental technologists to help their youngest collaborators to develop a deep sense of morphology, function, and esthetics. PMID:25625126

  10. Empirical Comparison of Evaluation Methods for Unsupervised Learning of Morphology Comparaison empirique des méthodes d'évaluation de l'apprentissage non-supervisé de la morphologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Virpioja

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Unsupervised and semi-supervised learning of morphology provide practical solutions for processing morphologically rich languages with less human labor than the traditional rule-based analyzers. Direct evaluation of the learning methods using linguistic reference analyses is important for their development, as evaluation through the final applications is often time consuming. However, even linguistic evaluation is not straightforward for full morphological analysis, because the morpheme labels generated by the learning method can be arbitrary. We review the previous evaluation methods for the learning tasks and propose new variations. In order to compare the methods, we perform an extensive meta-evaluation using the large collection of results from the Morpho Challenge competitions.

  11. EM BUSCA DA LEITURA COLABORATIVA NA AULA DE L2 IN SEARCH OF COLLABORATIVE READING IN THE L2 CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO JOSÉ QUARESMA DE FIGUEIREDO e BARBRA DO ROSÁRIO SABOTA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o resultado de um estudo piloto realizado com dois alunosdurante uma aula de leitura. Trabalhando em par numa atividade de leituracolaborativa, os alunos tiveram a chance de compartilhar um com o outroinformações preciosas para a compreensão do texto, bem como de desenvolverestratégias mediadoras que, acreditamos, podem colaborar para a aprendizagemde L2.The aim of this article is to present the result of a reading experience with a pairof students during an English class. By working together, students coulddevelop mediating strategies, which, we believe, will help them be better learnersand better users of the L2 they are learning.

  12. MOTHER TONGUE (L1) Vis-A-Vis OTHER TONGUE (L2)?

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Behera

    2012-01-01

    Learning a language is always a difficult thing and more so when it comes to learning a second language (L2) for it reflects the complexity of learning a language which is the other tongue rather than the mother tongue of a person. The present paper proposes to focus on the prospects and benefits of the skill-based learning of the L2. All learners, as such pick up a language by two means: a) acquisition of one's own language/mother tongue, and b) learning another language. Acquisition is a su...

  13. L2-Proficiency-Dependent Laterality Shift in Structural Connectivity of Brain Language Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Huadong; van Leeuwen, Tessa Marije; Dediu, Dan; Roberts, Leah; Norris, David G; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests and DTI scans were obtained from German students before and after they completed an intensive 6-week course of the Dutch language. In the initial learning stage, with increasing L2 proficiency, the hemispheric dominance of the Brodmann area (BA) 6-temporal pathway (mainly along the arcuate fasciculus) shifted from the left to the right hemisphere. With further increased proficiency, however, lateralization dominance was again found in the left BA6-temporal pathway. This result is consistent with reports in the literature that imply a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere in L2 processing especially for less proficient L2 speakers. This is the first time that an L2 proficiency-dependent laterality shift in the structural connectivity of language pathways during L2 acquisition has been observed to shift from left to right and back to left hemisphere dominance with increasing L2 proficiency. The authors additionally find that changes in fractional anisotropy values after the course are related to the time elapsed between the two scans. The results suggest that structural connectivity in (at least part of) the perisylvian language network may be subject to fast dynamic changes following language learning. PMID:25594261

  14. Review of Social Interaction and L2 Classroom Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    aus der Wieschen, Maria Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Social Interaction and L2 Classroom Discourse investigates interactional practices in L2 classrooms. Using Conversation Analysis, the book unveils the processes underlying the co-construction of mutual understanding in potential interactional troubles in L2 classrooms – such as claims of insufficient knowledge (as previously described by Sert 2011) – and their resolutions. Sert defines “L2” as “an umbrella term that stands for a(n) second/foreign/additional language used in an instructed language learning setting” (p.1) – and throughout his book he uses a diverse dataset, ranging from language taster sessions over foreign language classrooms in monolingual contexts to English as an Additional Language settings in a multilingual context. This variety of settings allows him to examine a range of verbal and non-verbal features of classroom interaction, for example how code-switching is used in multilingual settings, and what the role of multimodal (such as gestures and gaze) and epistemic (for instance claims of insufficient knowledge and epistemic status checks) resources employed by students and teachers is. The book is structured in three sections: survey (Chapters 2 and 3), analysis (Chapters 4-6), and application (Chapters 7 and 8). A central focus throughout the entire book is classroom interactional competence and its influence on language learning.

  15. Striatal dysregulation of Cdk5 alters locomotor responses to cocaine, motor learning, and dendritic morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Douglas A.; RICHER, Edmond; Benkovic, Stanley A.; Hayashi, Kanehiro; Kansy, Janice W; Hale, Carly F.; Moy, Lily Y.; Kim, Yong; O'Callaghan, James P.; Tsai, Li-Huei; Greengard, Paul; Nairn, Angus C.; Cowan, Christopher W.; Diane B. Miller; Antich, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    Motor learning and neuro-adaptations to drugs of abuse rely upon neuronal signaling in the striatum. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) regulates striatal dopamine neurotransmission and behavioral responses to cocaine. Although the role for Cdk5 in neurodegeneration in the cortex and hippocampus and in hippocampal-dependent learning has been demonstrated, its dysregulation in the striatum has not been examined. Here we show that strong activation of striatal NMDA receptors produced p25, the tru...

  16. Learning Novel Morphology: The Role of Meaning and Orientation of Attention at Initial Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Emma; Williams, John; Liu, Xierong

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research has shown that suffixes--both inflectional and derivational--can be primed with adult native speakers, which informs our understanding of storage and access to morphology in mature systems. However, this line of research has not yet been conducted from an acquisition perspective: Little is known about whether or not…

  17. An Application of the L2 Motivational Self System to Motivate Elementary School English Learners in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    I will describe a program that I developed to motivate grade five elementary school learners of English in Singapore to put more time and effort into learning English by enhancing their vision of their Ideal second language (L2) self and making their goals for learning English more clear and specific. The Ideal L2 self is the representation of the…

  18. ASC Trilab L2 Codesign Milestone 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, Christian Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Simon David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dinge, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lin, Paul T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vaughan, Courtenay T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cook, Jeanine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Edwards, Harold C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rajan, Mahesh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoekstra, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    For the FY15 ASC L2 Trilab Codesign milestone Sandia National Laboratories performed two main studies. The first study investigated three topics (performance, cross-platform portability and programmer productivity) when using OpenMP directives and the RAJA and Kokkos programming models available from LLNL and SNL respectively. The focus of this first study was the LULESH mini-application developed and maintained by LLNL. In the coming sections of the report the reader will find performance comparisons (and a demonstration of portability) for a variety of mini-application implementations produced during this study with varying levels of optimization. Of note is that the implementations utilized including optimizations across a number of programming models to help ensure claims that Kokkos can provide native-class application performance are valid. The second study performed during FY15 is a performance assessment of the MiniAero mini-application developed by Sandia. This mini-application was developed by the SIERRA Thermal-Fluid team at Sandia for the purposes of learning the Kokkos programming model and so is available in only a single implementation. For this report we studied its performance and scaling on a number of machines with the intent of providing insight into potential performance issues that may be experienced when similar algorithms are deployed on the forthcoming Trinity ASC ATS platform.

  19. Language aptitude for pronunciation in advanced second language (L2) learners: behavioural predictors and neural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaochen; Ackermann, Hermann; Martin, Jason A; Erb, Michael; Winkler, Susanne; Reiterer, Susanne M

    2013-12-01

    Individual differences in second language (L2) aptitude have been assumed to depend upon a variety of cognitive and personality factors. Especially, the cognitive factor phonological working memory has been conceptualised as language learning device. However, strong associations between phonological working memory and L2 aptitude have been previously found in early-stage learners only, not in advanced learners. The current study aimed at investigating the behavioural and neurobiological predictors of advanced L2 learning. Our behavioural results showed that phonetic coding ability and empathy, but not phonological working memory, predict L2 pronunciation aptitude in advanced learners. Second, functional neuroimaging revealed this behavioural trait to be correlated with hemodynamic responses of the cerebral network of speech motor control and auditory-perceptual areas. We suggest that the acquisition of L2 pronunciation aptitude is a dynamic process, requiring a variety of neural resources at different processing stages over time. PMID:23273501

  20. A Catalog of Visual-like Morphologies in the 5 CANDELS Fields Using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas-Company, M.; Gravet, R.; Cabrera-Vives, G.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Barro, G.; Bernardi, M.; Mei, S.; Shankar, F.; Dimauro, P.; Bell, E. F.; Kocevski, D.; Koo, D. C.; Faber, S. M.; Mcintosh, D. H.

    2015-11-01

    We present a catalog of visual-like H-band morphologies of ?50.000 galaxies (Hf160w GOODS-N, GOODS-S, UDS, EGS, and COSMOS). Morphologies are estimated using Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets). The median redshift of the sample is ? 1.25. The algorithm is trained on GOODS-S, for which visual classifications are publicly available, and then applied to the other 4 fields. Following the CANDELS main morphology classification scheme, our model retrieves for each galaxy the probabilities of having a spheroid or a disk, presenting an irregularity, being compact or a point source, and being unclassifiable. ConvNets are able to predict the fractions of votes given to a galaxy image with zero bias and ?10% scatter. The fraction of mis-classifications is less than 1%. Our classification scheme represents a major improvement with respect to Concentration-Asymmetry-Smoothness-based methods, which hit a 20%–30% contamination limit at high z. The catalog is released with the present paper via the Rainbow database (http://rainbowx.fis.ucm.es/Rainbow_navigator_public/).

  1. Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two well-known texts that respectively describe learning and teaching, drawn from the work of Freud and Plato. These texts are considered in psychoanalytic terms using a methodology drawn from the philosophy of Luce Irigaray. In particular the article addresses Irigaray's approach to the analysis of speech and utterance as a…

  2. Non-optionality at Zulu L2 first syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibusisiwe Dube

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Valueless Features Hypothesis of Eubank (1993/94; 1994; 1996 proposes that certain types of apparently optional syntactic processes that appear in initial and not in mature state grammars are due to a lack of specification of inflectional feature values at the initial state of grammatical knowledge. Thus the apparent optionality in the placement of medial adverbs vis-a-vis thematic or finite main verbs evident in the early stages of second language (L2 acquisition is attributed to non-transfer of the strength values of morphological features instantiated in the learners' first language (LJ. This paper provides experimental evidence from Zulu L2 acquisition of verb raising by English native speakers, which suggests non-optionality in the early developmental stages of L2 syntax. The paper suggests that the initial obligaloriness of a non-verb raising syntactic analysis evident in the early stages of Zulu L2 acquisition is LJ -based; indicating transfer of [- strong] Vfeatures in T instantiated in English. Die 'Valueless Features Hypothesis' van Eubank' (1993/94; 1994; 1996 stel voor dat sekere tipes skynbare opsionele sintaktiese prosesse wat by aanvanklike grammatikas voorkom, maar nie by grammatikas in 'n gevorderde stadium nie, die gevolg is van 'n gebrek aan spesifikasie van infleksionele kenmerkwaardes tydens die aanvanklike stadium van grammatikale kennis. Derhalwe word die skynbare opsionaliteit in die plasing van tussenbywoorde teenoor tematiese of hoofwerkwoorde in 'npersoonsvorm wat by die vroee stadiums van die aankweek van 'n tweede taal (L2 duidelik blyk, toegeskryf aan die nie-oordrag van die kragwaardes van morfologiese kenmerke wat in die leerder se eerste taal (LJ geinstansieer is. Hierdie skripsie lewer eksperimentele bewyse van werkwoordverheffing by die aanleer van Zulu (L2 deur aangebore Engelssprekendes, wat nie-opsionaliteit in die vroee ontwikkelingstadia van L2- sinsleer suggereer. Die skripsie stel voor dat die aanvanklike verpligting van 'n niewerkwoordverhejJende sintaktiese ontleding, wat in die vroee stadium by die aanleer van Zulu L2 voorkom, L1-gebaseer is; wat dui op 'n oordrag van [- sterk} V-kenmerke in T wat in Engels geinstansieer is.

  3. Personalized versus Normal Practice of L2 Speaking on Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayda Rahmani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Personalized learning is a self-initiated, self-directed or self-prioritized pursuit which gives the learner a degree of choice about the process of learning i.e. what to learn, how to learn and when to learn. Of course personalized learning does not indicate unlimited choice; because, L2 learners will still have targets to be met. However, it provides learners with the opportunity to learn in ways that suit their individual learning styles. The L2 learner should have the opportunity to freely choose a series of activities, already predisposed by the teacher, to improve and develop L2 proficiency. This is because human beings have different ways to learn and process information; and, these different ways of learning are independent of each other. In other words, learning styles and techniques differ across individuals; thus, personalized learning provides L2 learners to freely choose the activities they enjoy the most. So it is a student-centered learning method in which the interests and the preferences of the learner is taken into account.The present study is an investigation of a personalized versus normal practice of L2 proficiency. For this purpose an OPT (Oxford Placement Test was given to a total of 80 Iranian EFL learners. Then, 40 of them who were considered as intermediate learners were selected for the purpose of the study. The participants were randomly divided into two groups i.e. an experimental group and a control group. Both groups were pretested prior to the study. Then, the experimental group received the treatment in the form of personalized learning (games-based learning, songs, music, stories, English tongue twisters and the materials that the subjects were most interested in for ten sessions while the control group received a normal practice of speaking proficiency (based on New Interchange course books. After ten sessions, both groups were post tested. Then the results of the posttests were subjects of statistical analysis (independent-samples t-test. The results indicated that the experimental group did better than the control group and there is a significant difference between the mean scores of the experimental group who were exposed to a personalized learning and the control group who received a normal practice of oral proficiency i.e. a placebo. Based on the results of this study, L2 learner interests in carrying out joyful L2 activities can help to reach promising results.Keywords: Personalized learning, Oral proficiency, EFL learners, Communication

  4. KNET: A General Framework for Learning Word Embedding using Morphological Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Qing; Gao, Bin; Bian, Jiang; Qiu, Siyu; Liu, Tie-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Neural network techniques are widely applied to obtain high-quality distributed representations of words, i.e., word embeddings, to address text mining, information retrieval, and natural language processing tasks. Recently, efficient methods have been proposed to learn word embeddings from context that captures both semantic and syntactic relationships between words. However, it is challenging to handle unseen words or rare words with insufficient context. In this paper, in...

  5. Scoring diverse cellular morphologies in image-based screens with iterative feedback and machine learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Thouis R; Carpenter, Anne E.; Lamprecht, Michael R.; Moffat, Jason; Silver, Serena J.; Grenier, Jennifer K; Castoreno, Adam B.; Eggert, Ulrike S.; ROOT, DAVID E.; Golland, Polina; Sabatini, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Many biological pathways were first uncovered by identifying mutants with visible phenotypes and by scoring every sample in a screen via tedious and subjective visual inspection. Now, automated image analysis can effectively score many phenotypes. In practical application, customizing an image-analysis algorithm or finding a sufficient number of example cells to train a machine learning algorithm can be infeasible, particularly when positive control samples are not available and the phenotype...

  6. A catalog of visual-like morphologies in the 5 CANDELS fields using deep-learning

    CERN Document Server

    Huertas-Company, M; Cabrera-Vives, G; Pérez-González, P G; Kartaltepe, J S; Barro, G; Bernardi, M; Mei, S; Shankar, F; Dimauro, P; Bell, E F; Kocevski, D; Koo, D C; Faber, S M; Mcintosh, D H

    2015-01-01

    We present a catalog of visual like H-band morphologies of $\\sim50.000$ galaxies ($H_{f160w}\\sim1.25$. The algorithm is trained on GOODS-S for which visual classifications are publicly available and then applied to the other 4 fields. Following the CANDELS main morphology classification scheme, our model retrieves the probabilities for each galaxy of having a spheroid, a disk, presenting an irregularity, being compact or point source and being unclassifiable. ConvNets are able to predict the fractions of votes given a galaxy image with zero bias and $\\sim10\\%$ scatter. The fraction of miss-classifications is less than $1\\%$. Our classification scheme represents a major improvement with respect to CAS (Concentration-Asymmetry-Smoothness)-based methods, which hit a $20-30\\%$ contamination limit at high z. The catalog is released with the present paper via the $\\href{http://rainbowx.fis.ucm.es/Rainbow_navigator_public}{Rainbow\\,database}$

  7. Phantom Word Activation in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broersma, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2008-01-01

    L2 listening can involve the phantom activation of words which are not actually in the input. All spoken-word recognition involves multiple concurrent activation of word candidates, with selection of the correct words achieved by a process of competition between them. L2 listening involves more such activation than L1 listening, and we report two…

  8. An Application of the L2 Motivational Self System to Motivate Elementary School English Learners in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Magid

    2013-01-01

    I will describe a program that I developed to motivate grade five elementary school learners of English in Singapore to put more time and effort into learning English by enhancing their vision of their Ideal second language (L2) self and making their goals for learning English more clear and specific. The Ideal L2 self is the representation of the L2 attributes that one wishes to possess if one is able to master one’s L2. The participants, who were separated into a control group and an experi...

  9. The institutional and beyond : On L2 teachers' identity display in L2 classrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Río, Jose Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses interactions between foreign language (L2) teachers and groups of L2 learners in teacher-fronted L2 classrooms (Richards, 2006). The focus is on the description of how the participants construct, interactively and collaboratively, a context where categorisation processes occur (Schegloff, 1992), namely on the complex identities that L2 teachers' display (Richards, ibid.). It is argued that the functions - pedagogical and other - of the observed materialized, local identiti...

  10. L2 Phonology Learning among Young-Adult Learners of English: Effects of Regular Classroom-based Instruction and L2 Proficiency / Enseñanza de la fonética de una segunda lengua en contextos escolares: Un análisis de las prácticas pedagógicas y sus efectos en el aprendizaje del inglés en jóvenes universitarios

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Diana, Morales Pech; Jesús, Izquierdo.

    Full Text Available A través de una metodología mixta, el presente estudio examinó el impacto de un curso de Fonología inglesa en la adquisición de sonidos vocálicos y consonánticos de estudiantes universitarios de inglés de nivel básico (n=4), pre-intermedio (n=8) e intermedio (n=6). El curso fue impartido por un prof [...] esor de inglés durante 16 semanas, cinco horas a la semana. Para determinar los efectos del curso, los estudiantes participaron en dos actividades orales durante una entrevista al inicio y fin del curso. Durante el mismo, se observaron nueve clases y el instructor reportó las actividades implementadas. Los análisis de varianza revelaron cambios positivos en la pronunciación de todos los estudiantes. En las observaciones y los reportes se constató una enseñanza fonológica sistematizada y focalizada a través de actividades variadas. Los resultados sugieren que este tipo de enseñanza permite a los estudiantes contrarrestar los efectos negativos que factores biológicos y la influencia de la lengua materna tienen durante el aprendizaje. Abstract in english Using a mixed methodology, this study examines the impact of a university-level English phonology course on the acquisition of vowel and consonant sounds in that language, by beginning (n = 4), pre-intermediate (n = 8) and intermediate-level (n = 6) students. The 5-hour-a-week, 16-week course was ta [...] ught by teacher of English. To determine the effects of the course, students participated in two oral activities during an interview at the beginning of the course, and another at the end. During these interview, nine classes were observed, and the instructor reported the activities implemented. The analysis of variance revealed positive changes in all the students pronunciation students. Observations and reports verified the presence of systematic and focused phonological teaching through a variety of activities. The results suggest that this type of teaching allows students to counteract the negative effects which biological factors and the influence of the mother tongue have on learning.

  11. Using Eye-Tracking to Investigate Topics in L2 Acquisition and L2 Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Leah; Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Second language (L2) researchers are becoming more interested in both L2 learners' knowledge of the target language and how that knowledge is put to use during real-time language processing. Researchers are therefore beginning to see the importance of combining traditional L2 research methods with those that capture the moment-by-moment…

  12. GLI ERRORI DI ITALIANO L1 ED L2: INTERFERENZA E APPRENDIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Solarino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Si può oggi affrontare il tema degli errori di italiano da una prospettiva che possa giovare contemporaneamente a docenti di italiano L1 ed L2? Noi pensiamo di sì: la ricerca glottodidattica sembra aver ormai apprestato un terreno comune alle due situazioni di apprendimento, sgombrando il campo da vecchi pregiudizi e distinzioni che appaiono ormai superate. Attraverso la contrapposizione di concetti quali “lingua parlata/lingua scritta”,  “errori di lingua / errori di linguaggio”, “apprendimento spontaneo/apprendimento guidato”, “italiano L1/italiano L2”, “errori di apprendimento/errori di interferenza, si indicano diversi criteri per la interpretazione degli errori e la loro valutazione in relazione alle cause, alle situazioni comunicative, ai contesti o allo stadio di evoluzione dell’apprendimento della lingua.     Errors in italian L1 and L2: interference and learning   Can errors in Italian be approached in a way that benefits both L1 and L2 Italian teachers? We believe so: glottodidactic research seems to have prepared a common terrain for these two learning situations, clearing the field of old prejudices and obsolete distinctions.  Through the juxtaposition of concepts like “spoken language/written language”, “language errors/speech errors”, “spontaneous learning/guided learning”, “L1 Italian/L2 Italian”, “learning errors/interference errors”, different criteria for interpreting errors and evaluating them in relation to their causes, to communicative situations, to contexts and the developmental state in learning a language are singled out.

  13. MOTHER TONGUE (L1 Vis-A-Vis OTHER TONGUE (L2?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Behera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning a language is always a difficult thing and more so when it comes to learning a second language (L2 for it reflects the complexity of learning a language which is the other tongue rather than the mother tongue of a person. The present paper proposes to focus on the prospects and benefits of the skill-based learning of the L2. All learners, as such pick up a language by two means: a acquisition of one's own language/mother tongue, and b learning another language. Acquisition is a subconscious and intuitive process, similar to that used by a child to pick up the first language (L1; and the second is conscious learning, in which a learner is aware of his/her own learning process.

  14. Using Multimedia Vocabulary Annotations in L2 Reading and Listening Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing Xu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of multimedia vocabulary annotation (MVA) in facilitating second language (L2) reading and listening activities. It examines the multimedia learning and multimedia language learning theories that underlie the MVA research, synthesizes the findings on MVA in the last decade, and identifies three underresearched areas on…

  15. Digital Game-Based Learning (DGBL) in the L2 Classroom: The Impact of the UN's Off-the-Shelf Videogame, Food Force, on Learner Affect and Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Schmidt, Matthew; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-method study explored the impact of "Food Force (FF)", a UN-sponsored off-the-shelf videogame, on learner affect and vocabulary learning and retention in a Japanese as a second/foreign language classroom. The videogame was integrated into an existing curriculum and two studies were performed. In Study 1 (n = 9), new vocabulary…

  16. Active learning of neuron morphology for accurate automated tracing of neurites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen Stepanyants

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Automating the process of neurite tracing from light microscopy stacks of images is essential for large-scale or high-throughput quantitative studies of neural circuits. While the general layout of labeled neurites can be captured by many automated tracing algorithms, it is often not possible to differentiate reliably between the processes belonging to different cells. The reason is that some neurites in the stack may appear broken due to imperfect labeling, while others may appear fused due to the limited resolution of optical microscopy. Trained neuroanatomists routinely resolve such topological ambiguities during manual tracing tasks by combining information about distances between branches, branch orientations, intensities, calibers, tortuosities, colors, as well as the presence of spines or boutons. Likewise, to evaluate different topological scenarios automatically, we developed a machine learning approach that combines many of the above mentioned features. A specifically designed confidence measure was used to actively train the algorithm during user-assisted tracing procedure. Active learning significantly reduces the training time and makes it possible to obtain less than 1% generalization error rates by providing few training examples. To evaluate the overall performance of the algorithm a number of image stacks were reconstructed automatically, as well as manually by several trained users, making it possible to compare the automated traces to the baseline inter-user variability. Several geometrical and topological features of the traces were selected for the comparisons. These features include the total trace length, the total numbers of branch and terminal points, the affinity of corresponding traces, and the distances between corresponding branch and terminal points. Our results show that when the density of labeled neurites is sufficiently low, automated traces are not significantly different from manual reconstructions obtained by trained users.

  17. EX1202L2 Dive Operations Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All information and available data about Dive Operations on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico Exploration between 20120319 and 20120407

  18. EX1404L2 Dive Operations Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All information and available data about Dive Operations on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1404L2: Our Deepwater Backyard: Exploring the Atlantic Canyons and...

  19. EX1304L2 Dive Operations Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All information and available data about Dive Operations on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S. Canyons Exploration between 20130731 and...

  20. The development of L2 emergent literacy in Hong Kong Kindergarten children

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Lydia L.S.; Sylva, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores the development of emergent literacy in Hong Kong Kindergarten children who are learning English as a Second Language (L2). Two interrelated empirical studies have been conducted, and both aim to examine the contribution of code-related and oral language skills to predicting early L2 reading ability, controlling for home influences. The majority of research on emergent literacy has been conducted on First-Language (L1) English-speaking children, and it is possible that th...

  1. Musical morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, M Mallar; Vuust, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Morphologic measures have long been used to determine the patho-anatomical signature of different neurologic disorders. However, these measures can also be used to determine effects of specific learning tasks and quantifiable human abilities on cerebral structure. Musicians provide interesting opportunities for this type of analysis as their various skills, such as rhythmic ability and pitch and harmony discrimination (acquired through years of practicing and playing) can be quantified and compa...

  2. Literary Language in Development of L2 Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is believed that language in daily communication rather than literary language should be the target of learning in L2 education. This is mainly because literary language is said to be uncommon in life. This paper reports on a study in which some Hong Kong ESL learners’ English proficiency was re-examined through literary texts. These learners had reached intermediate or advanced levels of English prior to the study and were generally competent in daily English. However, many of them encountered difficulty in understanding literary language. Their proficiency in general English test could not match their performances in understanding literary works. The findings reveal that learners who are strong in general proficiency may not be good in understanding literary language. Lack of literary language in the curriculum results in a false and distorted picture about the learners’ proficiency. Literary language helps upgrade L2 learners’ real proficiency in the target language.Keywords: literature, literary language, L2 proficiency, reading competence

  3. LA ICLASSE – SMARTPHONE E ITALIANO L2/LS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Zanoli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mai come oggi le classi (di Italiano L2, ma non solo sono così fortemente colonizzate dal digitale. L’invasione si è palesata sotto forma di telefonini cellulari (smartphone e tablet dotati di connessione internet e infinite potenzialità sotto forma di applicazioni che possono sia aiutare il discente sia, se male impiegati, ostacolarlo dall’intraprendere un proficuo percorso di apprendimento. Compito dell’insegnante di lingua è circoscrivere l’influenza e l’uso di tali strumenti – che non sono mero techné, ma un modo di funzionare di una generazione – non  per vietarli ma per proporre un approccio e un loro utilizzo costruttivo quali mezzi dalle grandi potenzialità nell’apprendimento di una lingua straniera.     The 1st class – Smartphones and Italian L2/FL   Classrooms (for Italian L2, but not only have never before been so strongly digitally oriented. This invasion is made tangible by smartphones and tablets equipped with internet connections and infinite potential thanks to applications which can help students in their studies, or hinder them if used incorrectly. The language teacher’s task is to circumscribe the influence and use of these tools– which are not mere techné, but the way an entire generation functions – not to prohibit using them but to propose using them constructively, thanks to their great potential for foreign language learning.

  4. The Role of Gender in L2 Interaction. Socialization via L2 Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Gascoigne, Carolyn

    2003-01-01

    Given the importance placed on student-student interaction in today's second language (L2) classroom, this article seeks to examine target language interaction models presented to L2 students. Specifically, this investigation reviews how male and female interaction styles are presented to L2 leamers in target language scripts such as textbook and workbook dialogues and audio segments in order to determine whether or not pedagogical materials reinforce stereotypical gender-typed interaction...

  5. Vocabulary teaching strategies and conceptual representations of words in L2 in children: evidence with novice learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel; Piñeiro, Ana; Fraga, Isabel

    2009-09-01

    A controversial issue in bilingual research is whether in the early stages of L2 learning, access to the conceptual system involves mediation of L1 lexical representations [Kroll, J. F., & Stewart, E. (1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations. Journal of Memory and Language, 33, 149-174] or a direct route from the L2 word [Altarriba, J., & Mathis, K. M. (1997). Conceptual and lexical development in second language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 36, 550-568; Finkbeiner, M., & Nicol, J. (2003). Semantic category effects in second language word learning. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 369-383]. The main goal of this paper is to study, in a child population, whether the creation of conceptual representations for L2 words is possible, even after only one session of learning of the L2 vocabulary. Furthermore, we do so by examining the efficacy of two different L2 learning methods: L2-L1 association learning vs. L2-picture association learning. A translation recognition task was employed to test whether there was a difference between a semantically related pair and an unrelated pair across conditions (i.e., a semantic interference effect). Results showed a significant semantic interference effect-a conceptual effect-in children after just one vocabulary learning session. Importantly, the L2-picture method produced a greater semantic interference effect than the L2-L1 method. The implications of these findings for models of bilingual memory are examined. PMID:19084237

  6. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovi? Nebojša J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disease with a slowly progressive course and characterized by increased levels of hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. In this condition clinical features mainly consist of mental deterioration, ataxia and motor deficits. Case Outline. The patient is a 16-year-old girl, the first and only child of healthy, non-consanguineous parents of Serbian origin. At the age of 4 years her walk became unsteady and ataxic. Other signs of cerebellar involvement were soon observed. Head circumference was above two standard deviations (55 cm. Mild mental retardation was revealed by formal intelligence testing (IQ 60. MR examination of the brain showed confluent subcortical white matter lesions spread centripetally, and atrophy of the cerebellar vermis with involvement of dentate nuclei, without deep white matter abnormalities. Laboratory investigation revealed increased amounts and a very large peak of HGA in urine and plasma. Enantiomeric analysis confirmed the L-configuration (>90% establishing the diagnosis of L-2-HGA. The first epileptic seizure, partial with secondary generalization, occurred at age of 8 years. Favorable seizure control was achieved. A slow progression of neurological impairment was noted. Therapeutic trials with oral coenzyme Q10 and with oral riboflavin showed no biochemical and clinical effects. Recently, the diagnosis was proven by the presence of a mutation in the L-2-HGA gene. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of L-2-HGA in Serbia. L-2-HGA must be considered in the differential diagnosis based on specific findings in cranial MRI.

  7. Quantitative analysis of mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in living cells using high-content imaging, machine learning, and morphological binning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Anthony P; Cameron, Robert B; Speiser, Jaime L; Wolf, Bethany J; Peterson, Yuri K; Schnellmann, Rick G; Beeson, Craig C; Rohrer, Bärbel

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the processes of mitochondrial dynamics (fission, fusion, biogenesis, and mitophagy) has been hampered by the lack of automated, deterministic methods to measure mitochondrial morphology from microscopic images. A method to quantify mitochondrial morphology and function is presented here using a commercially available automated high-content wide-field fluorescent microscopy platform and R programming-language-based semi-automated data analysis to achieve high throughput morphological categorization (puncta, rod, network, and large & round) and quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential. In conjunction with cellular respirometry to measure mitochondrial respiratory capacity, this method detected that increasing concentrations of toxicants known to directly or indirectly affect mitochondria (t-butyl hydroperoxide [TBHP], rotenone, antimycin A, oligomycin, ouabain, and carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone [FCCP]), decreased mitochondrial networked areas in cultured 661w cells to 0.60-0.80 at concentrations that inhibited respiratory capacity to 0.20-0.70 (fold change compared to vehicle). Concomitantly, mitochondrial swelling was increased from 1.4- to 2.3-fold of vehicle as indicated by changes in large & round areas in response to TBHP, oligomycin, or ouabain. Finally, the automated identification of mitochondrial location enabled accurate quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential by measuring intramitochondrial tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) fluorescence intensity. Administration of FCCP depolarized and administration of oligomycin hyperpolarized mitochondria, as evidenced by changes in intramitochondrial TMRM fluorescence intensities to 0.33- or 5.25-fold of vehicle control values, respectively. In summary, this high-content imaging method accurately quantified mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in hundreds of thousands of cells on a per-cell basis, with sufficient throughput for pharmacological or toxicological evaluation. PMID:25447550

  8. A Review of Recent Research (2000-2008) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This review presents a broad picture of recent work on L2 Spanish in educational contexts. The thematic and geographic scope of the review is wide, in order to capture the diversity of learners and learning contexts of L2 Spanish, just two decades after teaching and learning the language gained impetus worldwide. Traditional second or foreign…

  9. Review of Recent Research (2002-2009) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 German (Part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerth, Johannes; Tschirner, Erwin

    2010-01-01

    This review of research on the learning, teaching, and assessment of L2 German may be particularly timely due to developments from within the profession as well as recent political changes which continue to have a strong bearing on the way L2 German is promoted, learned, taught and assessed. Far from representing an isolated field of research…

  10. Effects of Input Properties, Vocabulary Size, and L1 on the Development of Third Person Singular -"s" in Child L2 English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Paradis, Johanne; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the development of third-person singular (3SG) -"s" in children who learn English as a second language (L2). Adopting the usage-based perspective on the learning of inflection, we analyzed spontaneous speech samples collected from 15 English L2 children who were followed over a 2-year period. Assessing the…

  11. Integrating Meaning and Structure in L1-L2 and L2-L1 Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung Hyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2013-01-01

    This article examined the integration of semantic and morphosyntactic information by Korean learners of English as a second language (L2). In Experiment 1, L2 learners listened to English active or passive sentences that were either plausible or implausible and translated them into Korean. A significant number of Korean translations maintained the…

  12. Modelling lexical phrases acquisition in L2

    OpenAIRE

    Chanier, Thierry; Colmerauer, Colette; Fouqueré, Christophe; Abeillé, Anne; Picard, Francoise; Zock, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The study focuses on the following points. It compares the views psycholinguists and computational linguists have concerning the processes of lexical access and lexical choice. Then it shows the similarities holding between the structure of the lexicon in L1 and in L2. It tries to offer a pedagogically realistic approach in vocabulary teaching based on these results.

  13. L_2 Differentiability of Generalized Linear Models

    OpenAIRE

    Pupashenko, Daria; Ruckdeschel, Peter; Kohl, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    We derive conditions for $L_2$ differentiability of generalized linear models with error distributions not necessarily belonging to exponential families, covering both cases of stochastic and deterministic regressors. These conditions induce smoothness and integrability conditions for corresponding GLM-based time series models.

  14. Using Likert Scales in L2 Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Michael; Turner, Jean

    1993-01-01

    Item-writing considerations in creating instruments using Likert-type scales, according to Michael Busch, include semantics of labeling response choices and number of response categories. Jean Turner discusses problems regarding the use of Likert-scale questionnaires for L2 research, for instance the cultural background of language learners being…

  15. Investigating L2 Performance in Text Chat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Shannon; Smith, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the linguistic complexity and lexical diversity of both overt and covert L2 output produced during synchronous written computer-mediated communication, also referred to as chat. Video enhanced chatscripts produced by university learners of German (N = 23) engaged in dyadic task-based chat interaction were coded and analyzed for…

  16. Création et utilisation de ressources pédagogiques sur support numérique pour l'apprentissage d'une L2 : quelles compétences pour l'enseignant ? Designing and using digital learning resources for second language acquisition: what skills do teachers need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Arthaud

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available À l'Université de Technologie de Belfort-Montbéliard, des ressources pédagogiques sur support numérique ont été créées afin d'être intégrées au dispositif d'enseignement d'une UV d'anglais destinée à des élèves-ingénieurs. Dans le cadre d'une recherche-action, la nature et la fonction de ces ressources ont été établies à la lumière de connaissances théoriques, et les effets de leur intégration ont fait l'objet de mesures. Cet article se concentre sur les compétences qui ont été requises pour mettre en place ces ressources : compétences dans les domaines de la didactique des langues et de la création de pages HTML. Une ébauche de référentiel métier est proposée. Même si les résultats de cette expérience semblent positifs, la question demeure de savoir s'il est possible d'être en même temps enseignant et concepteur de ressources sur support numérique. Des éléments de réponse se trouvent peut-être davantage du côté de la gestion du temps, de la motivation et des savoir-faire relationnels que du seul côté des compétences informatiques. Cette expérience n'a nullement pour vocation de fixer les règles d'un exemple à suivre. Néanmoins, elle illustre le fait que la recherche-action peut être un moyen efficace de canaliser la diversité des motivations des enseignants impliqués dans des démarches innovantes et de promouvoir la responsabilité déontologique et épistémologique, ce qui contribuera à l'amélioration des pratiques d'enseignement.At the University of Technology of Belfort-Montbéliard, digital learning resources have been designed for and integrated with the pedagogical structure of an English credit course for engineering students. Within an action research procedure, the nature and functions of these resources have been established in the light of theoretical knowledge, and the effects of this integration have been assessed. This article focuses on the skills - in the fields of language pedagogy and of HTML page design - that have been required to set up these resources. It puts forth a tentative inventory of them. Even if this experiment appears to be successful, the question remains as to whether it is feasible to be both a teacher and a digital resource designer at the same time. Part of the answer might have more to do with time-management, motivation and interpersonal skills than with computer literacy. This experiment is in no way meant to set the rules of an example to follow. However, it illustrates that action research may be an efficient means to channel the various motivations of innovative teachers and to promote deontological as well as epistemological responsibility, which will contribute to improving teaching practice.

  17. Explicit Grammar Instruction and the Acquisition of Second Language Verbal Morphology: A Framework for Generalized Learning in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugher, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation outlines a framework for understanding variation in ultimate attainment and syntactic structure in second language acquisition by positing a distinction between competence-based and generalized learning processes. Within this framework, competence-based learning is theorized to employ inductive learning processes to acquire a…

  18. Adaptive confidence sets in L^{2}

    CERN Document Server

    Bull, Adam D

    2011-01-01

    The problem of constructing nonparametric confidence sets that are adaptive in L^{2}-loss over a continuous scale of Sobolev classes is considered. Adaptation holds, where possible, with respect to both the radius of the Sobolev ball and its smoothness degree, and over maximal parameter spaces for which adaptation is possible. Two key regimes of parameter constellations are identified: one where full adaptation is possible, and one where adaptation requires critical regions be removed. The phase transition between these regimes is analysed separately. Key ideas needed to derive these results include a general nonparametric minimax test for infinite-dimensional null- and alternative hypotheses, and new lower bound techniques for L^{2}-adaptive confidence sets.

  19. Immunogenicity of an HPV-16 L2 DNA vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Hitzeroth, Inga I.; PASSMORE, Jo-Ann S.; Shephard, Enid; Stewart, Debbie; Müller, Martin; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Rybicki, Edward P.; Kast, W Martin

    2009-01-01

    The ability to elicit cross-neutralizing antibodies makes human papillomavirus (HPV) L2 capsid protein a possible HPV vaccine. We examined and compared the humoral response of mice immunised with a HPV-16 L2 DNA vaccine or with HPV-16 L2 protein. The L2 DNA vaccine elicited a non-neutralising antibody response unlike the L2 protein. L2 DNA vaccination suppressed the growth of L2-expressing C3 tumor cells, which is a T cell mediated effect, demonstrating that the lack of non-neutralizing antib...

  20. On Estimating $L_2^2$ Divergence

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy, Akshay; Kandasamy, Kirthevasan; Poczos, Barnabas; Wasserman, Larry

    2014-01-01

    We give a comprehensive theoretical characterization of a nonparametric estimator for the $L_2^2$ divergence between two continuous distributions. We first bound the rate of convergence of our estimator, showing that it is $\\sqrt{n}$-consistent provided the densities are sufficiently smooth. In this smooth regime, we then show that our estimator is asymptotically normal, construct asymptotic confidence intervals, and establish a Berry-Ess\\'{e}en style inequality characterizi...

  1. Deadbeat Response is l_2 Optimal.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ku?era, Vladimír

    New York : IEEE, 2008, s. 154-157 ISBN 978-1-4244-1687-5; ISBN 978-1-4244-1688-2. [The 3rd International Symposium on Communications, Control and Signal Processing. St. Julians (ML), 12.03.2008-14.03.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear systems * finite impulse response * L_2 norm minimization Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  2. Adaptive confidence sets in L^2

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Adam D.; NICKL, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The problem of constructing confidence sets that are adaptive in L^2-loss over a continuous scale of Sobolev classes of probability densities is considered. Adaptation holds, where possible, with respect to both the radius of the Sobolev ball and its smoothness degree, and over maximal parameter spaces for which adaptation is possible. Two key regimes of parameter constellations are identified: one where full adaptation is possible, and one where adaptation requires critical...

  3. Exploring the Relationship between Reading Strategy Use and Multiple Intelligences among Successful L2 Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Azizullah; Rahimi Domakani, Masoud; Heidari, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, the multiple intelligences theory (MIT) proposed by Howard Gardner has renewed interest in learners' use of effective learning strategies and produced interesting results. This MIT-oriented study investigated the role of successful L2 readers' multiple intelligences in their effective use of reading strategies. To this…

  4. Does the Medium Really Matter in L2 Development? The Validity of Call Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Luis; Baralt, Melissa; Suh, Bo-Ram; Leow, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, an increasing number of educational institutions are redefining second/foreign language (L2) classrooms by enhancing--or even replacing--traditional face-to-face (FTF) instruction with computer-assisted language learning (CALL). However, are these curricular decisions supported by research? Overall, a cursory review of empirical studies…

  5. Character Reading Fluency, Word Segmentation Accuracy, and Reading Comprehension in L2 Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Helen H.; Jiang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between lower-level processing and general reading comprehension among adult L2 (second-language) beginning learners of Chinese, in both target and non-target language learning environments. Lower-level processing in Chinese reading includes the factors of character-naming accuracy, character-naming speed,…

  6. The Bounded L2 Curvature Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Klainerman, Sergiu; Szeftel, Jeremie

    2012-01-01

    This is the main paper in a sequence in which we give a complete proof of the bounded $L^2$ curvature conjecture. More precisely we show that the time of existence of a classical solution to the Einstein-vacuum equations depends only on the $L^2$-norm of the curvature and a lower bound on the volume radius of the corresponding initial data set. We note that though the result is not optimal with respect to the standard scaling of the Einstein equations, it is nevertheless critical with respect to another, more subtle, scaling tied to its causal geometry; i.e. $L^2$ bounds on the curvature is the minimum requirement necessary to obtain lower bounds on the radius of injectivity of causal boundaries. We note also that, while the first nontrivial improvements for well posedness for quasilinear hyperbolic systems, in spacetime dimensions greater than 1+1 (based on Strichartz estimates) were obtained in \\cite{Ba-Ch1}, \\cite{Ba-Ch2}, \\cite{Ta1}, \\cite{Ta2}, \\cite{Kl-R1} and optimized in \\cite{Kl-R2}, \\cite{Sm-Ta}, th...

  7. Introduction. Beyond the Obvious: Do Second Language Learners Process Inflectional Morphology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, Kira

    2010-01-01

    Given that this special issue is devoted to the acquisition and processing of inflectional morphology by second language (L2) learners, the question in the title may appear redundant. However, recent research on first language (L1) and L2 morphological processing has challenged basic assumptions about the status of inflectional morphology in…

  8. FENÓMENOS DE REDUCCIÓN VOCÁLICA POR HABLANTES COLOMBIANOS DE INGLÉS COMO L2: UN ESTUDIO ACÚSTICO / VOWEL REDUCTION PHENOMENA BY COLOMBIAN SPANISH SPEAKERS OF L2 ENGLISH: AN ACOUSTIC STUDY / FENÔMENOS DE REDUÇÃO VOCÁLICA POR FALANTES COLOMBIANOS DE INGLÊS COMO L2: UM ESTUDO ACÚSTICO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kelly Johanna, Vera Diettes.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou as capacidades de um grupo de falantes de inglês como segunda língua (L2), quando percebiam e produzia a vogal inglesa Schwa. Avaliaram-se as hipóteses propostas pelo Modelo de Aprendizagem da Fala (Speech Learning Model [SML, por sua sigla em inglês]), as quais sugerem que os fa [...] lantes de L2 poderiam criar categorias fonéticas para novos sons. Tomou-se a ortografia como uma possível variável que afeta as habilidades dos falantes de L2. O estudo foi realizado em três etapas: a primeira avaliou as capacidades iniciais dos falantes de L2; a segunda consistiu num treinamento fonético em processos de redução vocálica e Schwa; finalmente, a terceira avaliou as mesmas instâncias depois do treinamento. Os resultados sugerem que os falantes tenham sido influenciados pela ortografia e tenham percebido e produzido Schwas que se assemelhavam a suas vogais nativas. Abstract in spanish Este estudio evaluó las capacidades de un grupo de hablantes de inglés como segunda lengua (L2), cuando percibían y producía la vocal inglesa Schwa. Se evaluaron las hipótesis propuestas por el Modelo de Aprendizaje del Habla (Speech Learning Model [SML, por sus siglas en inglés]), las cuales sugier [...] en que los hablantes de L2 podrían crear categorías fonéticas para sonidos nuevos. Se tomó la ortografía como una posible variable que afecta las habilidades de los hablantes de L2. El estudio se realizó en tres etapas: la primera evaluó las capacidades iniciales de los hablantes de L2; la segunda consistió en un entrenamiento fonético en procesos de reducción vocálica y Schwa, y, finalmente, la tercera evaluó las mismas instancias después del entrenamiento. Los resultados sugieren que los hablantes fueron influenciados por la ortografía y percibieron y produjeron Schwas que asemejaban sus vocales nativas. Abstract in english This study assessed the performances of a group of speakers of L2 English when perceiving and producing the English vowel Schwa. It evaluated the hypotheses proposed by the Speech Learning Model (SML), developed by Flege and colleagues (1988, 1992, 1999, and 2002), which suggest that L2 speakers are [...] capable of creating phonetic categories for new L2 sounds. The effect of orthography was chosen as a variable that could affect L2 speakers’ abilities. The study was carried out in three stages: the first one evaluated initial L2 speakers’ perceptual and productive abilities; stage two consisted of pronunciation training in vowel reduction processes; and stage three evaluated performances after training. Results suggest that Second Language (L2) speakers were influenced by the orthography; therefore, they perceived and produced Schwas as instances of their native vowels.

  9. Interactions between text chat and audio modalities for L2 communication in the synthetic world Second Life.

    OpenAIRE

    Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    The interest in synthetic worlds for both language education (Cooke-Plagwitz, 2008; Molka-Danielson & Deutschmann, 2009) and architectural design (Gu. et al., 2009; Garner et al, 2011), coupled with the need of architects to develop adequate foreign language (L2) skills facilitating mobility and employability, led to the design of "Building Fragile Spaces." This hybrid Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) course was held in Spring 2011. It included distance French and English L2 ac...

  10. Effects of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition on L1 Performance: Evidence from Form-Meaning Mapping between Chinese and Japanese

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yu-Han

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates backward transfer (the influence of L2 knowledge on L1 performance) at the lexical level through the semantic gap between Chinese and Japanese words sharing the same orthographic presentation. The Chinese (L1) competence of 79 Taiwanese students with or without experience of Japanese (L2) learning was recruited for a form-meaning mapping task with an exclusively native language context. The task asked the participants to rate the degree of semantic appropr...

  11. The Interrelationship of Autonomy, Motivation, and Academic Performance of Persian L2 Learners in Distance Education Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Hashemian; Kamal Heidari Soureshjani

    2011-01-01

    Among various variables affecting the learning of a language, motivation and autonomy play salient roles. The present study aimed at investigating the possible relationship among autonomy, motivation, and academic performance of Persian L2 learners. To do so, 60 Persian L2 learners from Shahrekord Payam-e-Noor University were randomly selected to see whether or not autonomy, motivation, and academic performance are interrelated. Two questionnaires, one for autonomy and one for motivation, wer...

  12. Review of Social Interaction and L2 Classroom Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    aus der Wieschen, Maria Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Social Interaction and L2 Classroom Discourse investigates interactional practices in L2 classrooms. Using Conversation Analysis, the book unveils the processes underlying the co-construction of mutual understanding in potential interactional troubles in L2 classrooms – such as claims of insufficient knowledge (as previously described by Sert 2011) – and their resolutions. Sert defines “L2” as “an umbrella term that stands for a(n) second/foreign/additional language used in an instructed languag...

  13. New Physics in ?L = 2 neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a general framework to constrain ?L = 2 processes by measuring observables associated with neutrino-antineutrino oscillations in ?± decays. First, we use this formalism as a new strategy for detecting the CP-violating phases and the effective mass of muon Majorana neutrinos. Within the generic framework of quantum field theory, we compute the non-factorizable probability for producing a pair of same-charged muons in ?± decays as a distinctive signature of ??-?*?. Using the neutrino-antineutrino oscillation probability reported by MINOS collaboration, a new stringent bound on the effective muon-neutrino mass is derived. Secondly, we interpret the production of the pair of same-charged muons as a result of lepton number violating (LNV) interactions at the neutrino source, which allow us to constrain New Physics.

  14. L2 Teachers' Experience of CALL Technology Education and the Use of Computer Technology in the Classroom: The Case of Franklin County, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kwang Hee

    2009-01-01

    Primary issues concerned with CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) teacher education are twofold: Integration of CALL technology into foreign and second language (L2) teacher education programs and L2 teachers' integration of CALL technology into their classroom. While increased attention has been paid to the former, only a small body of…

  15. The Inseparability of Cognition and Emotion in Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Merrill

    2013-01-01

    The scholarly literature about the process of second language (L2) learning has focused to a considerable extent on cognitive processes. Left aside are questions about how emotions fit into an understanding of L2 learning. One goal of this plenary is to demonstrate that we have limited our understanding of L2 learning by failing to take into…

  16. Mental Lexicon, Working Memory and L2 (English Vocabulary in Polish Students with and without Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta ?ockiewicz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between access to the mental lexicon, working memory and knowledge of English (L2 vocabulary. Analyses were undertaken amongst monolingual speakers of Polish (26 with dyslexia, 24 without who studied English as a second language as part of their compulsory educational programme at school. We assumed that students with dyslexia would manifest deficits in access to the mental lexicon and verbal working memory, and would have a limited L2 vocabulary. We also assumed that better access to the mental lexicon facilitates knowledge of English (L2 vocabulary, and that this relationship is present in both the criterion and the control group. All of the students participated in both parts of the assessment, the group part (i.e., questionnaire, IQ test, two vocabulary tasks and the individual part (i.e., psychological measures: verbal working memory, RAN, verbal fluency, and single word reading in L1 task. We found that students with dyslexia exhibited deficits in the speed of access to data from the mental lexicon. The predictive function of memory for vocabulary was more conspicuous in the control group; in the criterion group, the result might constitute a risk factor for L2 vocabulary acquisition in dyslexia, which may manifest with increased proficiency in word knowledge. Poor vocabulary knowledge renders the L2 learning experience difficult, as it impairs students’ reading comprehension, writing and conversational skills.

  17. Postnatal disruption of the disintegrin/metalloproteinase ADAM10 in brain causes epileptic seizures, learning deficits, altered spine morphology, and defective synaptic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prox, Johannes; Bernreuther, Christian; Altmeppen, Hermann; Grendel, Jasper; Glatzel, Markus; D'Hooge, Rudi; Stroobants, Stijn; Ahmed, Tariq; Balschun, Detlef; Willem, Michael; Lammich, Sven; Isbrandt, Dirk; Schweizer, Michaela; Horré, Katrien; De Strooper, Bart; Saftig, Paul

    2013-08-01

    The metalloproteinase ADAM10 is of importance for Notch-dependent cortical brain development. The protease is tightly linked with ?-secretase activity toward the amyloid precursor protein (APP) substrate. Increasing ADAM10 activity is suggested as a therapy to prevent the production of the neurotoxic amyloid ? (A?) peptide in Alzheimer's disease. To investigate the function of ADAM10 in postnatal brain, we generated Adam10 conditional knock-out (A10cKO) mice using a CaMKII?-Cre deleter strain. The lack of ADAM10 protein expression was evident in the brain cortex leading to a reduced generation of sAPP? and increased levels of sAPP? and endogenous A? peptides. The A10cKO mice are characterized by weight loss and increased mortality after weaning associated with seizures. Behavioral comparison of adult mice revealed that the loss of ADAM10 in the A10cKO mice resulted in decreased neuromotor abilities and reduced learning performance, which were associated with altered in vivo network activities in the hippocampal CA1 region and impaired synaptic function. Histological and ultrastructural analysis of ADAM10-depleted brain revealed astrogliosis, microglia activation, and impaired number and altered morphology of postsynaptic spine structures. A defect in spine morphology was further supported by a reduction of the expression of NMDA receptors subunit 2A and 2B. The reduced shedding of essential postsynaptic cell adhesion proteins such as N-Cadherin, Nectin-1, and APP may explain the postsynaptic defects and the impaired learning, altered network activity, and synaptic plasticity of the A10cKO mice. Our study reveals that ADAM10 is instrumental for synaptic and neuronal network function in the adult murine brain. PMID:23926248

  18. On the effects of L2 perception and of individual differences in L1 production on L2 pronunciation

    OpenAIRE

    Kartushina, Natalia; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2014-01-01

    The speech of late second language (L2) learners is generally marked by an accent. The dominant theoretical perspective attributes accents to deficient L2 perception arising from a transfer of L1 phonology, which is thought to influence L2 perception and production. In this study we evaluate the explanatory role of L2 perception in L2 production and explore alternative explanations arising from the L1 phonological system, such as for example, the role of L1 production. Specifically we examine...

  19. L2TTMON Monitoring Program for L2 Topological Trigger in H1 Experiment - User's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring software for the L2 Topological Trigger in H1 experiment consists of two parts working on two different computers. The hardware read-out and data processing is done on a fast FIC 8234 computer working with the OS9 real time operating system. The Macintosh Quadra is used as a Graphic User Interface for accessing the OS9 trigger monitoring software. The communication between both computers is based on the parallel connection between the Macintosh and the VME crate, where the FIC computer is placed. The special designed protocol (client-server) is used to communicate between both nodes. The general scheme of monitoring for the L2 Topological Trigger and detailed description of using of the monitoring software in both nodes are given in this guide. (author)

  20. VIDEOGIOCHI E ITALIANO L2/LS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Zanoli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L'articolo prende in considerazione alcune ipotesi sull'uso del videogioco nell'insegnamento/apprendimento della lingua straniera supportate dall'analisi di alcuni videogames per uso didattico. Pur non nascondendo le difficoltà che l'insegnante può incontrare nell'integrare il videogioco nel percorso di insegnamento/apprendimento di una lingua straniera in classe, diversi sono i motivi per i quali il videogioco può essere considerato un efficace strumento di apprendimento linguistico. Innanzitutto perché gli input linguistici possono essere numerosi e vari, in secondo luogo perché è vettore di lingua che coinvolge i diversi sensi e diverse operazioni cognitive e, in terzo luogo perché trasforma il processo dell'apprendimento da simbolico a esperienziale. Infine perché si tratta di un mezzo divertente capace di creare interesse ad apprendere offrendo opportunità straordinarie in quanto attiva negli apprendenti, soprattutto più giovani, due fattori chiave per un apprendimento solido e duraturo: l'esperienza e la motivazione, elementi che spesso le metodologie tradizionali trascurano. A conclusione dell'articolo viene proposta di attività didattica di italiano LS con una serie di suggerimenti per l'insegnante.   This article discusses the use of videogames in teaching/learning a foreign language and analyzes a few didactic videogames. While not underestimating the difficulties that teachers may have in integrating videogames in the teaching/learning process in a classroom, there are different reasons why videogames can be considered effective tools for language learning. First of all, the linguistic input is varied and rich, and secondly it is a way of engaging different senses and cognitive processes, and in the third place it transforms learning from something symbolic to something experiential. Finally, it is an amusing way to generate interest in learning by offering an extraordinary opportunity, since it activates two key aspects for solid and long-lasting learning, especially in younger students: experience and motivation.  These aspects are often overlooked in more traditional methods. The article concludes with examples of didactic activities for Italian FL teaching and a series of suggestions for the teacher.

  1. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students’ Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2

    OpenAIRE

    Karbalaei Alireza

    2010-01-01

    The notion of “learner beliefs” has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners’ beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers’ beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading in Engl...

  2. The Motivation of L2 Learners: Does it decrease with age?

    OpenAIRE

    Pauline Ghenghesh

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the motivation of a heterogeneous group of students studying English as a foreign language at the International School in Tripoli area. The aim of the study was to find out the extent to which various factors affect students’ motivation and achievement in second/foreign language learning particularly as they enter the senior high school. The research also looked into the temporal dimension of L2 motivation to see if the students’ motivation changes as they enter the se...

  3. Peer Review Comments Provided by High- and Low-Proficiency L2 Learners: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Chuan Liao; Ya-Fen Lo

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the variations in peer review comments provided by L2 writers of high and low proficiencies. Two sampling procedures were used. First, convenience sampling was used to locate a college essay composition course as the setting of the study. Second, purposeful sampling was used to identify high- and low-performing writers as the subjects, from whom the peer review comments were collected and analyzed. An instruction-learning cycle on argumentative essay writing was conducted ...

  4. L2L European Project: a Serious Game for Leadership Training

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Ara, María Ángeles; Quero Castellano, Soledad; Botella Arbona, Cristina; Bretón-López, Juana; Baños Rivera, Rosa María

    2011-01-01

    Effective leaders manage the underlying group dynamics in ways that help the team meet its objectives. Leaders need people management skills, resource management and organization. Despite the offer of leadership skills training programs, effective and valid training in these areas is scarce and it is usually available only in master programs of high quality or large corporations. The Learn 2 Lead (L2L) Project consortium has designed and developed a leadership skills t...

  5. Initiating round robins in the L2 classroom - preliminary observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    Complementing recent interactional research on the contingent operation of online task accomplishment, this paper deals with a specific way of organizing and managing tasks in plenary L2 classrooms – namely the round robin. This may seem like a “traditional” and rigid form of classroom organization that reduces students’ contributions to responses to the teacher’s elicitations. This paper shows that although the round robin puts certain interactional features out of play, it is nonetheless done in and through participants’ mutual orientation to the ongoing activity. The paper describes the sequential position in which round robins are initiated and how this is talked and embodied into being by the participants as well as the design of the turn that initiates the round robin activity. Relevant to the initiation and further development of the round robin are the physical arrangement of the classroom and artefacts and graphic structures that are used not only as mediating tools in the (supposed) learning relevant activity, but also as structurally relevant features to organize the ongoing interaction, in which these activities emerge.

  6. Blogging Identity: How L2 Learners Express Themselves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyomi FUJII

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses language learning and identity, particularly pertaining to intermediate-advanced-level Japanese-language learners, focusing on their target language and identity expression through their interactions with peers and Japanese college students. When learners of Japanese express their identities while interacting with others in their target language, they feel a gap between the self-image they want to present, and the image they are capable of presenting in Japanese (Siegal, 1994, 1995, 1996. Along with adjusting their L1 and L2 usage depending on their interlocutor (Kurata 2007, learners also use different sentence-ending styles depending on the role they want to assume (Cook 2008. By conducting a case study, the present inquiry attempts to address how learners of Japanese express their identities through blog conversations, focusing on their language choice and expressions. Results suggest that participants use the formal endings for self-presentation and projection of their student and classmate identity. However, when expressing emotion some students preferred informal endings, or sentence-final particles.

  7. L’italiano L2 : auto-apprendimento e narratività. Materiali multimediali di italiano L2 per bambini e ragazzi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Favaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Normal 0 14 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Insegnare l'italiano come seconda lingua ai bambini e ragazzi di recente immigrazione è un percorso  delicato e complesso che  fa ormai parte  dei compiti professionali ";ordinari"; dei docenti che operano nelle classi sempre più multiculturali e plurilingui. La modalità di insegnamento/apprendimento della L2 più diffusa ed efficace è quella integrata: l'alunno non italofono è inserito nella classe comune e, parallelamente, in determinati momenti, frequenta il laboratorio  di italiano L2. Per  sostenere  questo modello integrato e accompagnare il  viaggio dentro l'italiano dei bambini e dei ragazzi neoarrivati, servono materiali didattici flessibili e ricchi di proposte, utilizzabili in maniera autonoma e in piccolo gruppo; proponibili in maniera tradizionale o anche attraverso la LIM; adatti a sviluppare competenze diverse, proprie della lingua per comunicare, dell'italiano scritto e propedeutiche all'apprendimento del curricolo comune. I due corsi di italiano L2  che vengono presentati nell'ultima parte dell'articolo rispondono a queste esigenze, in quanto a sono rivolti l'uno ai bambini e l'altro ai ragazzi stranieri neo arrivati; b si propongono  il passaggio dal livello prebasico ai livelli A1, A2 e B1 del QCERL; c si basano su un forte impianto narrativo che sviluppa coinvolgimento e identificazione; d sono attenti allo sviluppo della lingua orale e dello scritto, dell'italiano per comunicare e per lo studio; e hanno una chiara caratterizzazione interculturale.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Teaching Italian as a second language to newly immigrated children and young people is a delicate and complex undertaking which has become part of the job for teachers working in increasingly multicultural and multilingual classes.  The most widespread and effective way of teaching/learning the L2 is the integrated approach: the non-Italian-speaking child is placed in an ordinary class and, parallel to this, there are times when (she attends a workshop of Italian as a second language.  To support this integrated approach and accompany the new arrivals in their journey into the Italian language, flexible teaching/learning materials are needed, with a wealth of suggestions that can be used independently and with a small group; they should be suitable for use either traditionally or through LIM and appropriate for developing different competences in the language of communication, written Italian and preparation for learning in the core curriculum.  The two courses of Italian as L2 presented in the final part of the article satisfy these demands since a the former is intended for newly-arrived children from abroad and the latter for newly-arrived young people; b they are intended for the shift from pre-elementary to levels A1, A2 and B1 of the QCERL; c they are founded on a solid narrative basis which develops involvement and identification; d they take into careful account the development of the oral and written language, and that of Italian

  8. Calibration of comprehension and performance in L2 reading

    OpenAIRE

    Seda SARAC; Betul TARHAN

    2009-01-01

    Comprehension monitoring is crucial for successful reading. Although the researchers appreciate the importance of comprehension monitoring in L2 reading, there are only a few studies done on the comprehension monitoring ability of L2 readers. The main aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension monitoring abilities of university students while reading expository texts in L2. The results showed that the students’ were not able to calibrate their comprehension at above chance level w...

  9. Lexical Inventions: French Interlanguage as L2 versus L3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated "lexical inventions" in the advanced oral French of 39 native Dutch-speakers, 32 of whom had French as a second language (L2) and English as a third language (L3), with the others having L2 English and L3 French. A higher proportion of lexical inventions produced by French L2 speakers derived from non-standard use of…

  10. An Investigation of Personality and L2 Oral Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengdong Gan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates one dimension of personality, extroversion-introversion, and examines its potential impact on learner L2 oral performance. The study is innovative in that it analyzes not only the correlation between degree of extroversion and assessment scores based on analytic scoring but also the correlation between degree of extroversion and the discourse measures of accuracy, fluency and complexity commonly used as indices of L2 task performance in the L2 research. The data for th...

  11. Sitio Web interactivo para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología del sistema muscular / Interactive Website to learn the morphology of the muscular system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Orliany, Alboniga Álvarez; Iraida, Hidalgo Gato Castillo; Niurka, Cabrera Vázquez; Rafael, Capote Martínez; Dariel, Díaz Díaz.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Debido al desarrollo científico técnico alcanzado, se han insertado las tecnologías de la informática y las comunicaciones al proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de la disciplina Morfofisiología Humana. Se realizó una investigación de innovación tecnológica, en el área de pregrado de la Educación Médica, [...] en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río; con el objetivo de elaborar un sistema de medios de enseñanza para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular. Se utilizaron los métodos empíricos, las encuestas a estudiantes, entrevistas a profesores de la asignatura y a los profesores asesores, criterio de expertos para validar el producto. Los métodos teóricos: histórico, lógico y sistémico, fueron utilizados en la revisión bibliográfica y el análisis documental que sustenta el estudio. Las guías de estudio se elaboraron por el modelo "WebQuest" y los ejercicios interactivos con el programa "exelearning". El sistema de medios de enseñanza se ubicó en el sitio Web "MioloWeb", elaborado con "Joomla 1.7". El contenido está estructurado en subtemas y en cada uno de ellos, se facilita al estudiante una variedad de materiales educativos computarizados, que permitirán el aprendizaje activo, consciente y desarrollador de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular, propiciando la interacción del estudiante de forma activa con los contenidos, la vinculación con las estrategias curriculares, la autoevaluación en la guía de estudio y en los ejercicios interactivos. Abstract in english Communicative and information technologies have been introduced in the teaching-learning process of Human Morphology Subject. A research paper of technological innovation was carried out in the pre-graduate area of Medical Education belonging to the University of Medical Sciences in Pinar del Rio, w [...] ith the purpose of creating a system of teaching aids to learn the human morphology of the muscular system. Empirical methods used were: surveys to students and interviews to professors and consultants of the subject, in addition to the criteria of the experts to validate the product; using also the theoretical methods: historical-logic and systemic to conduct the literature review and documentary analysis to support the study. Study guides were created following “WebQuest” model and interactive exercises using “exelearning” program. The system of teaching aids was built-in to “MioloWeb” Website, created with “Joomla 1.7”. The content is structured into subtopics and in every one of them, a variety of educational computerized materials is facilitated to the students, allowing this way an active, conscious and expanded learning of the human morphology of the muscular system, favoring at the same time a dynamic interaction of the student with the contents, the connection with the curricular strategies, and self-evaluation which was included in the guide of study plus interactive exercises.

  12. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students' Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2 (Creencias de estudiantes universitarios iraníes EFL e hindúes ESL acerca de las estrategias de lectura en L2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    The notion of "learner beliefs" has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners' beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers' beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study…

  13. An overview of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase gene (L2HGDH) variants: a genotype-phenotype study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenweg, Marjan E; Jakobs, Cornelis

    2010-01-01

    L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is a rare, neurometabolic disorder with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Affected individuals only have neurological manifestations, including psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and more variably macrocephaly, or epilepsy. The diagnosis of L2HGA can be made based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical analysis, and mutational analysis of L2HGDH. About 200 patients with elevated concentrations of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) in the urine were referred for chiral determination of 2HG and L2HGDH mutational analysis. All patients with increased L2HG (n=106; 83 families) were included. Clinical information on 61 patients was obtained via questionnaires. In 82 families the mutations were detected by direct sequence analysis and/or multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA), including one case where MLPA was essential to detect the second allele. In another case RT-PCR followed by deep intronic sequencing was needed to detect the mutation. Thirty-five novel mutations as well as 35 reported mutations and 14 nondisease-related variants are reviewed and included in a novel Leiden Open source Variation Database (LOVD) for L2HGDH variants (http://www.LOVD.nl/L2HGDH). Every user can access the database and submit variants/patients. Furthermore, we report on the phenotype, including neurological manifestations and urinary levels of L2HG, and we evaluate the phenotype-genotype relationship.

  14. IL FILM A LEZIONE DI ITALIANO L2: GLI ESAMI AL CINEMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Albizzati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Può il film rivelarsi uno strumento utile a lezione di italiano L2? Quali sono i limiti ed i vantaggi dell’utilizzo di materiale audiovisivo autentico in aula? Come strutturare un’attività basata sulla visione di un film italiano in lingua originale? Quali strategie mette in atto l’apprendente per comprendere un film nella L2? “Il film a lezione di italiano L2: gli esami al cinema” cerca di rispondere a queste domande attraverso una riflessione sull’utilità del cinema a lezione e proponendo un’attività didattica basata sulla visione di sequenze tratte da film italiani. Considerando la pellicola come documento di civiltà, veicolo di una lingua viva e “in situazione” ed esperienza di apprendimento plurisensoriale, l’articolo mette in luce come l’apprendimento dell’italiano L2 possa trarre beneficio dall’utilizzo in aula di materiali audiovisivi autentici quali i film, se opportunamente selezionati e didattizzati. Dalla riflessione alla pratica: dopo aver identificato obiettivi, destinatari ed i loro bisogni linguistico-comunicativi, viene presentata un’attività basata sulla didattizzazione di tre sequenze che hanno come tema centrale l’esame universitario orale. Ponendo i bisogni linguistico-comunicativi dei discenti al centro si scoprirà che, se opportunamente didattizzato, un film o parte di esso può trasformarsi in materiale didattico estremamente utile ai fini dell’apprendimento di una L2, nonché fonte inesauribile di spunti a partire dai quali l’insegnante può creare attività didattiche originali e stimolanti non solo linguistiche ma anche interculturali. Movies during italian l2 lessons: exams at the cinemaAre movies useful tools during Italian L2 lessons? What are the limits and advantages of using authentic audio-visual materials in the classroom? How can an activity based on viewing an Italian film in the original language be structured? What strategies do learners use to understand movies in L2? “Movies during Italian L2 Lessons: exams at the cinema” tries to answer these questions regarding the use of films in class and proposes an activity using clips from Italian films. Movies are social documents, vehicles for experiencing living, “situated” language and multi-sensory learning. The article sheds light on how L2 classes can benefit from the use of authentic audio-visual materials such as movies if properly selected and didacticized. From reflection to practice: after identifying objectives, target groups and their linguistic and communicative needs, an activity based on the using three didacticized clips centered on university oral exams is presented. Putting the linguistic-communicative needs of learners at the center shows that, if properly didacticized, a film or a clip constitutes extremely useful educational material for L2 learning, as well as an inexhaustible source of ideas from which the teacher can create original and stimulating educational activities which are not only linguistic but also intercultural.

  15. Vocabulary Teaching Strategies and Conceptual Representations of Words in L2 in Children: Evidence with Novice Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesana, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel; Pineiro, Ana; Fraga, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    A controversial issue in bilingual research is whether in the early stages of L2 learning, access to the conceptual system involves mediation of L1 lexical representations [Kroll, J. F., & Stewart, E. (1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations.…

  16. L1 and L2 Picture Naming in Mandarin-English Bilinguals: A Test of Bilingual Dual Coding Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Debra; Poh, Rebecca Pei Yun; Paivio, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the nature of bilinguals' conceptual representations and the links from these representations to words in L1 and L2. Specifically, we tested an assumption of the Bilingual Dual Coding Theory that conceptual representations include image representations, and that learning two languages in separate contexts can result in…

  17. Fostering Metacognitive Genre Awareness in L2 Academic Reading and Writing: A Case Study of Pre-Service English Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negretti, Raffaella; Kuteeva, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Although the concept of metacognition has received considerable attention for its impact on learning across disciplinary areas, it has not been sufficiently discussed in the context of L2 academic reading and writing. In this paper, we bring together two theoretical frameworks, genre analysis and metacognition theory, and discuss the concept of…

  18. Interactions between Text Chat and Audio Modalities for L2 Communication and Feedback in the Synthetic World "Second Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the interactions between text chat and audio modalities in L2 communication in a synthetic (virtual) world and observes whether the text chat modality was used for corrective feedback and the characteristics of the latter. This is examined within the context of a hybrid content and language integrated learning

  19. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  20. Design of dialogic eLearning-to-learn: metalearning as pedagogical methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective emphasising Meta learning (ML) as the most significant and pertinent feature for promoting a democratic, collaborative eLearning-to-Learn (eL2L) phenomenon in a global context. Through attempting to understand and clarify the powers of pedagogical design of global networked e Learning based on Learning-to-Learn (L2L), it makes a plea for L2L in a dialogic global learning context, offering a vision of global democratic citizens able to engage in critical dialogue...

  1. Design of dialogic eLearning-to-learn: metalearning as pedagogical methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective emphasising Meta learning (ML) as the most significant and pertinent feature for promoting a democratic, collaborative eLearning-to-Learn (eL2L) phenomenon in a global context. Through attempting to understand and clarify the powers of pedagogical design of global networked e Learning based on Learning-to-Learn (L2L), it makes a plea for L2L in a dialogic global learning context, offering a vision of global democratic citizens able to engage in critical dialogue with fellow learners. http://www.inderscience.com/search/index.php?action=record&rec_id=17675&prevQuery=&ps=10&m=or

  2. Seroepidemiology of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) L2 and Generation of L2-Specific Human Chimeric Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joshua W; Jagu, Subhashini; Wu, Wai-Hong; Viscidi, Raphael P; Macgregor-Das, Anne; Fogel, Jessica M; Kwak, Kihyuck; Daayana, Sai; Kitchener, Henry; Stern, Peter L; Gravitt, Patti E; Trimble, Cornelia L; Roden, Richard B S

    2015-07-01

    Presently, the seroprevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid antigen L2-reactive antibody is not well understood, and no serologic standard exists for L2-specific neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, we screened a total of 1,078 serum samples for HPV16 L2 reactivity, and these were obtained from four prior clinical studies: a population-based (n = 880) surveillance study with a high-risk HPV DNA prevalence of 10.8%, a cohort study of women (n = 160) with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and two phase II trials in women with high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) receiving imiquimod therapy combined with either photodynamic therapy (PDT) (n = 19) or vaccination with a fusion protein comprising HPV16 L2, E7, and E6 (TA-CIN) (n = 19). Sera were screened sequentially by HPV16 L2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then Western blot. Seven of the 1,078 serum samples tested had L2-specific antibodies, but none were detectably neutralizing for HPV16. To develop a standard, we substituted human IgG1 sequences into conserved regions of two rodent monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for neutralizing epitopes at HPV16 L2 residues 17 to 36 and 58 to 64, creating JWW-1 and JWW-2, respectively. These chimeric MAbs retained neutralizing activity and together reacted with 33/34 clinically relevant HPV types tested. In conclusion, our inability to identify an HPV16 L2-specific neutralizing antibody response even in the sera of patients with active genital HPV disease suggests the subdominance of L2 protective epitopes and the value of the chimeric MAbs JWW-1 and JWW-2 as standards for immunoassays to measure L2-specific human antibodies. PMID:25972404

  3. The Effect of Concept Mapping on Iranian Pre-intermediate L2 Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Tabatabaei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Teachers are always looking for innovative ways to help students improve their reading comprehension. One popular method is the use of graphic organizers such as concept maps. This study examined the use of concept maps (a meta cognitive technique to aid reading comprehension of Iranian pre- intermediate L2 learners in one of the language institutes in Shiraz. The researcher wanted to find appropriate answers to the following research questions 1 does the application of concept mapping technique have any significant effect on Iranian pre-intermediate L2 reading comprehension 2 do Iranian pre-intermediate L2learners have positive attitude toward the application of concept maps in their reading classes? For this, 30 pre-intermediate L2 learners were selected and assigned as experimental group. This experimental group received instruction on how to use concept mapping technique as a pre-reading activity. This group took part in language classes twice a week for one hour and half and reading activities covered thirty minutes of the whole class and also they completed two thirty-minutes reading comprehension tests, one as the pre-test and the other as the post-test. The results of Wilcoxon Sign Rank test showed that the participants in concept mapping group performed better in post-test than in pre-test administration. Moreover, the results of Chi-square revealed that, on the whole, L2 learners had positive attitudes toward using concept mapping technique in reading classes. This study had theoretical as well as pedagogical implication in the field of second/ foreign teaching and learning.

  4. Role of L2 cysteines in papillomavirus infection and neutralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanam Balasubramanyam

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Vaccination of mice with minor capsid protein L2 or passive transfer with the L2-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody RG-1 protects against human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 challenge. Here we explored the nature of the RG-1 epitope and its contribution to viral infectivity. RG-1 bound equivalently HPV16 L2 residues 17-36 with or without an intact C22-C28 disulphide bridge. HPV16 L2 mutations K20A, C22A, C22S, C28A, C28S, or P29A prevented RG-1 binding, whereas Y19A, K23A or Q24A had no impact. Mutation of either C22 or C28 to alanine or serine compromises HPV16 pseudoviral infectivity both in vitro and in the murine vaginal tract, but does not impact pseudovirion assembly. Despite their lack of infectivity, HPV16 pseudovirions containing C22S or C28S mutant L2 bind to cell surfaces, are taken up, and expose the 17-36 region on the virion surface as for wild type HPV16 pseudovirions suggesting normal furin cleavage of L2. Mutation of the second cysteine residue in Bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1 L2 to serine (C25S dramatically reduced the infectivity of BPV1 pseudovirions. Surprisingly, in contrast to the double mutation in HPV16 L2, the BPV1 L2 C19S, C25S double mutation reduced BPV1 pseudovirion infectivity of 293TT cells by only half.

  5. La conscience morphologique est-elle une variable importante dans l'apprentissage de la lecture? / Morphological awareness: an important variable in learning to read? / Consciência morfológica é uma variável importante na aprendizagem da leitura?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nathalie, Marec-Breton; Anne-Sophie, Besse; Carine, Royer.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo é uma revisão sistemática de trabalhos que tratam da relação entre consciência morfológica e aprendizagem da leitura. Esta síntese permite confirmar que a consciência morfológica contribui realmente para a aprendizagem da leitura (tanto no nível da instalação das habilidades de dec [...] odificação quanto no nível do desenvolvimento da compreensão). No entanto, parece que não são todos os mesmos aspectos da consciência morfológica que são ligados às capacidades de decodificação e às capacidades de compreensão. Logo, novas pesquisas deverão ser desenvolvidas para melhor apreender os papéis respectivos de cada um dos componentes da consciência morfológica. Abstract in english The present article is a concise review of researches addressing the links between morphological awareness and learning reading. This review points out that morphological awareness actually contributes to learning reading (both at the level of decoding skills installation and at the level of compreh [...] ension development). However, it seems that there are different aspects of morphological awareness which are bound to decoding and comprehension capacities. Further researches must be, thus, carried out to better highlight the respective roles of each of the components of morphological awareness.

  6. Morphological knowledge and literacy acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, William E; Carlisle, Joanne F; Goodwin, Amanda P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities is to bring to the attention of researchers and educators studies on morphology and literacy that either involve students with learning difficulties or have educational implications for teaching such students. In our introduction, we first provide background information about morphological knowledge and consider the role of morphology in literacy, focusing on findings that are relevant for instruction of students who struggle with reading and writing. Next we present an overview of the studies included in this issue, organized by current issues concerning the role of morphological knowledge in literacy. Collectively, the articles in this issue suggest that students with weaker literacy skills tend to lag behind their peers in morphological knowledge but that all students are likely to benefit from morphological instruction. Morphological interventions hold promise, especially for students who face challenges in language learning and literacy, but additional research is needed to provide a basis for informed decisions about the design of effective morphological interventions. PMID:24219917

  7. Exploring Motivational Profiles through Language Learning Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amy S.; Vásquez, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the language learning narratives of 3 NNS foreign language teachers. It uses as a theoretical framework the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) (Dörnyei, 2009) but adds the dimension of psychological reactance (Brehm, 1966). Our findings indicate that the L2MSS underestimates the relationship between "I" and…

  8. Using Gamification to Enhance Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Flores, Jorge Francisco

    2015-01-01

    One major competence for learners in the 21st century is acquiring a second language (L2). Based on this, L2 instruction has integrated new concepts to motivate learners in their pursue of achieving fluency. A concept that is adaptable to digital natives and digital immigrants that are learning a L2 is Gamification. As a pedagogical strategy,…

  9. Okeanos Explorer (EX1503L2): Tropical Exploration (Mapping II)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During EX-15-03L2, multibeam data will be collected 24 hours a day and XBT casts will be conducted at an interval defined by prevailing oceanographic conditions,...

  10. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Hua Chen; Paul Baker

    2010-01-01

    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., lexical bundles) in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively. Published academic writing was found to exhibit the widest range of lexical bundles whereas L2 student writing showed the smallest range. Furthermore, som...

  11. $L^2$ estimates for the $\\bar \\partial$ operator

    OpenAIRE

    McNeal, Jeffery D.; Varolin, Dror

    2015-01-01

    This is a survey article about $L^2$ estimates for the $\\bar \\partial$ operator. After a review of the basic approach that has come to be called the "Bochner-Kodaira Technique", the focus is on twisted techniques and their applications to estimates for $\\bar \\partial$, to $L^2$ extension theorems, and to other problems in complex analysis and geometry, including invariant metric estimates and the $\\bar \\partial$-Neumann Problem.

  12. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning. PMID:26094128

  13. L’apprendimento della lingua della medicina in L2: due manuali a confronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Insegnare la lingua speciale della medicina ad una classe di apprendenti L2 implica considerare diverse problematiche relative alle peculiarità del codice settoriale (variazioni diafasiche, particolarità del lessico, tecnicismi collaterali, ma anche relative al pubblico di apprendenti non italofono (tipologia, interessi, livello di apprendimento. Il panorama editoriale italiano offre pochi strumenti dedicati: tra questi Donatella Troncarelli, Dica 33. Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, 1994 e Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma edizioni, 2004. Questo studio intende mettere a confronto i due testi sottolineandone le caratteristiche e l’impostazione glottodidattica ed evidenziando come il contenuto linguistico sia proposto, quali siano le abilità favorite, quali gli obiettivi di apprendimento e quali gli strumenti forniti. Particolare attenzione viene prestata al lessico registrato nei glossari dei volumi.  Learning the language of medicine in l2: a comparison of two textbooks Teaching the special language of medicine to a class of L2 learners implies considering various issues related to the peculiarities of the sector-specific jargon (diphasic variations, peculiarities of vocabulary, collateral technicalities, also related to non-Italian-speaking learners (type, interests, level of learning. Italian publishers offer few dedicated tools: these include Donatella Troncarelli, Dica 33.Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, 1994 and Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma editions, 2004. This study aims to compare the two texts, highlighting their features and language teaching setting, showing how linguistic content is proposed, which skills are promoted, what the learning objectives are and what tools are provided. Particular attention is paid to the vocabulary in the glossaries.

  14. The multipath and SNR Quality in civil code L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polezel, W. G.; Souza, E. M.; Monico, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    The new generation of GPS satellites, with the addition of the new L2C civil code, may provide to the users better positioning capabilities. The new code in the L2 may increase the signal robustness, improve resistance to interference, reduce tracking noise and consequently, improve accuracy and provide better positioning inside buildings and in wooded areas. The second civil frequency code will eliminate the need of using fragile semi- codeless tracking techniques currently used in connection with L2. The L2C has a different structure that allows civil and military share the same code. L2C owns two codes of different length: moderate code (CM) and long code (CL). The CM was chosen to have 10.230 chips repeated to every 20 millisecond. The CL was chosen to have 767250 chips with period of 1.5 second. The main reasons for these choices were due to excellent correlation properties. Furthermore, L2C enhances performance by having no data modulation on CL code, which improves, among others, the threshold tracking performance. Comparing the L2C acquisition with the C/A, the CM code is ten times longer than the C/A and the two components have half the total power. This is an important feature for many low-power applications. Although this signal has several advantages, some investigations about its performance are necessary, mainly about the provided accuracy under some effects, for example, multipath. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the L2C signal, as well as its quality using some parameters, such as Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and multipath level (MP). The experiment was realized at Sao Paulo State University UNESP in Presidente Prudente, Brazil. The data were collected by two receivers of different brands, both able to collect the L2C signal, and connected to the same antenna, thought the use of a splitter. The results showed that the MP and SNR values were better for the modernized satellites. Furthermore, the SNR values of the two receivers were similar while the MP values of one receiver showed better results than the other model. Therefore, the satellites with L2C code presented, as expected, better performance than those not modernized satellites in relation to SNR and MP.

  15. A L2HGDH initiator methionine codon mutation in a Yorkshire terrier with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    OpenAIRE

    Farias Fabiana HG; Zeng Rong; Johnson Gary S; Shelton G D; Paquette Dominique; O’Brien Dennis P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a metabolic repair deficiency characterized by elevated levels of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological signs associated with the disease in humans and dogs include seizures, ataxia and dementia. Case presentation Here we describe an 8?month old Yorkshire terrier that presented with episodes of hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. Between episodes, the dog’s behavior and neurologic examinations were...

  16. Identifying Correlation between Reading Strategies Instruction and L2 Text Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Qanwal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at exploring correlation between reading strategies instruction and proficiency in text comprehension. The task is carried out by investigating the current practices of teaching and learning of L2 reading comprehension skills of the higher level L2 learners of English in Pakistan. In this regard, initially, the extent to which teachers incorporate reading strategies instruction into their teaching of ESL reading skills is analyzed; and students’ proficiency in L2 text comprehension is evaluated. Subsequently, correlation between the two variables is identified by applying Pearson Product-moment correlational test on the statistical scores attained for each variable. The research has employed both quantitative and qualitative measures for data collection and analysis. The research instruments include a questionnaire for students pertaining to the availability of reading strategy instruction, and a reading comprehension test. The results acquired through the collected data and their statistical analyses have highlighted a strong positive correlation between reading strategies instruction and learners’ proficiency in text comprehension.

  17. Consideraciones metodológicas sobre la evaluación de la competencia oral en L2 / Methodological Considerations Concerning the Assessment of Oral Competency in a Second Language (L2)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, González-Such; Jesús Miguel, Jornet Meliá; Margarita, Bakieva.

    Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza una revisión acerca de las consideraciones metodológicas para la evaluación de la competencia oral en el aprendizaje de una segunda lengua (L2). Se analizan las características del constructo y su definición. En este caso, se refieren al ámbito competencial, que incluye l [...] a competencia en comprensión oral y la de expresión oral. Asimismo, se revisan conceptos referidos al modo en que diseñar instrumentos y/o técnicas evaluativas para la evaluación de las competencias que la integran y cuestiones respecto a fiabilidad, validez y establecimiento de puntos de corte. Abstract in english In this paper, methodological considerations are reviewed regarding the assessment of oral competence in the learning of a second language (L2). The characteristics of the construct and its definition are analyzed, including competence in listening comprehension and oral expression. Furthermore, con [...] cepts such as the design of instruments and/or evaluative techniques for the assessment of the competencies are examined as well as issues related to reliability, validity and cut off points.

  18. The Role of Experience in the Acquisition and Production of Diminutives and Gender in Spanish: Evidence from L2 Learners and Heritage Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrul, Silvina; de la Fuente, Israel; Davidson, Justin; Foote, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether type of early language experience provides advantages to heritage speakers over second language (L2) learners with morphology, and investigated knowledge of gender agreement and its interaction with diminutive formation. Diminutives are a hallmark of Child Directed Speech in early language development and a highly…

  19. Model selection for density estimation with L2-loss

    CERN Document Server

    Birgé, Lucien

    2008-01-01

    We consider here estimation of an unknown probability density s belonging to L2(mu) where mu is a probability measure. We have at hand n i.i.d. observations with density s and use the squared L2-norm as our loss function. The purpose of this paper is to provide an abstract but completely general method for estimating s by model selection, allowing to handle arbitrary families of finite-dimensional (possibly non-linear) models and any density s belonging to L2(mu). We shall, in particular, consider the cases of unbounded densities and bounded densities with unknown bound and investigate how the L-infinity-norm of s may influence the risk. We shall also provide applications to adaptive estimation and aggregation of preliminary estimators. Although of a purely theoretical nature, our method leads to results that cannot presently be reached by more concrete methods.

  20. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students' Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2 Creencias de estudiantes universitarios iraníes EFL e hindúes ESL acerca de las estrategias de lectura en L2

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Karbalaei

    2010-01-01

    The notion of "learner beliefs" has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners' beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers' beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading in E...

  1. The synaptic morphological perceptron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Daniel S.

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, several researchers have constructed novel neural network models based on lattice algebra. Because of computational similarities to operations in the system of image morphology, these models are often called morphological neural networks. One neural model that has been successfully applied to many pattern recognition problems is the single-layer morphological perceptron with dendritic structure (SLMP). In this model, the fundamental computations are performed at dendrites connected to the body of a single neuron. Current training algorithms for the SLMP work by enclosing the target patterns in a set of hyperboxes orthogonal to the axes of the data space. This work introduces an alternate model of the SLMP, dubbed the synaptic morphological perceptron (SMP). In this model, each dendrite has one or more synapses that receive connections from inputs. The SMP can learn any region of space determined by an arbitrary configuration of hyperplanes, and is not restricted to forming hyperboxes during training. Thus, it represents a more general form of the morphological perceptron than previous architectures.

  2. Mathematical morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Najman, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoretical foun

  3. A L2HGDH initiator methionine codon mutation in a Yorkshire terrier with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farias Fabiana HG

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a metabolic repair deficiency characterized by elevated levels of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological signs associated with the disease in humans and dogs include seizures, ataxia and dementia. Case presentation Here we describe an 8?month old Yorkshire terrier that presented with episodes of hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. Between episodes, the dog’s behavior and neurologic examinations were normal. A T2 weighted MRI of the brain showed diffuse grey matter hyperintensity and a urine metabolite screen showed elevated 2-hydroxyglutaric acid. We sequenced all 10 exons and intron-exon borders of L2HGDH from the affected dog and identified a homozygous A to G transition in the initiator methionine codon. The first inframe methionine is at p.M183 which is past the mitochondrial targeting domain of the protein. Initiation of translation at p.M183 would encode an N-terminal truncated protein unlikely to be functional. Conclusions We have identified a mutation in the initiation codon of L2HGDH that is likely to result in a non-functional gene. The Yorkshire terrier could serve as an animal model to understand the pathogenesis of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria and to evaluate potential therapies.

  4. Teaching Writing Skills Based on a Genre Approach to L2 Primary School Students: An Action Research

    OpenAIRE

    Hyejeong Ahn

    2012-01-01

    This article, based on research findings, examines the effect of implementing a genre approach to develop writing competency of Year 5 and 6 L2 primary school students. Using action research, the genre approach was implemented over a 10-week term with two lessons per week in a culturally and linguistically diverse ESL class in a South Australian public metropolitan primary school. Two specific genres, Report and Essay writing, were taught using a three-staged teaching and learning cycle (TLC)...

  5. Discourse Connectives in L1 and L2 Argumentative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Discourse connectives (DCs) are multi-functional devices used to connect discourse segments and fulfill interpersonal levels of discourse. This study investigates the use of selected 80 DCs within 11 categories in the argumentative essays produced by L1 and L2 university students. The analysis is based on the International Corpus Network of Asian…

  6. L1-L2 Sentence Translation in Classroom Grammar Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    L1-L2 translation of separate sentences is one kind of task format used by mainstream EFL teachers to assess their learners' grammatical accuracy. Aimed at improving teacher-written translation items, this study analyses linguistic features potentially causing such decontextualized cues (and their target responses) to sound odd or untypical of…

  7. Correspondences, von Neumann algebras and holomorphic $L^2$ torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Carey, A L; Mathai, V; Carey, Alan L.; Farber, Michael; Mathai, Varghese

    1997-01-01

    Given a holomorphic Hilbertian bundle on a compact complex manifold, we introduce the notion of holomorphic $L^2$ torsion, which lies in the determinant line of the twisted $L^2$ Dolbeault cohomology and represents a volume element there. Here we utilise the theory of determinant lines of Hilbertian modules over finite von Neumann algebras as developed in an earlier paper by the authors. This specialises to the Ray-Singer-Quillen holomorphic torsion in the finite dimensional case. We compute a metric variation formula for the holomorphic $L^2$ torsion, which shows that it is not in general independent of the choice of Hermitian metrics on the complex manifold and on the holomorphic Hilbertian bundle, which are needed to define it. We therefore initiate the theory of correspondences of determinant lines, that enables us to define a relative holomorphic $L^2$ torsion for a pair of flat Hilbertian bundles, which we prove is independent of the choice of Hermitian metrics on the complex manifold and on the flat Hi...

  8. Variables Affecting L2 Gains during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Smemoe, Wendy; Dewey, Dan P.; Bown, Jennifer; Martinsen, Rob A.

    2014-01-01

    Second language (L2) gains during study abroad have been related to several variables including length of stay (Llanes, 2011), language use (Martinsen, Baker, Dewey, Bown, & Johnson, 2010), and social network development (Isabelli-García, 2006), among others. However, most studies have investigated only a few predictors in single study abroad…

  9. L2 Blogging: Who Thrives and Who Does Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rainbow Tsai-Hung

    2015-01-01

    While research has reported generally enthusiastic results regarding L2 blogging, some studies have found contrasting blogging experiences among individual learners. Consequently, this study investigated the factors underlying such discrepancies by exploring 33 EFL learners' experiences of participating in a blog project at a Taiwanese university.…

  10. Task-Induced Strategic Processing in L2 Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiba, Yukie

    2013-01-01

    Strategic text processing was investigated for English as a foreign language learners who processed and recalled a text when they read for expression, for image, and for critique. The results indicated that, although the amount of content recall (i.e., products of comprehension) was similar, the relative contributions of second language (L2)…

  11. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  12. Phonetics Instruction Improves Learners' Perception of L2 Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Explicit phonetics instruction can help second language (L2) learners to moderately improve their pronunciation, but less is known about how the instruction affects learners' perception, even though there is evidence that perception and pronunciation are related. This study provided phonetics instruction to students (n = 46) studying Spanish as a…

  13. Generators with interior degeneracy on spaces of L^2 type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genni Fragnelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider operators in divergence and in nondivergence form with degeneracy at the interior of the space domain. Characterizing the domain of the operators, we prove that they generate positive analytic semigroups on spaces of L^2 type. Finally, some applications to linear and semilinear parabolic evolution problems and to linear hyperbolic ones are presented.

  14. The Effect of Using Print Media on Children’s L2 Literacy Development: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoor Tavakoli; Saeedeh Esmae’li

    2013-01-01

    This paper tries to examine the effect of using print media in the classroom on the children’s L2 literacy development in an EFL context. Since reading is regarded as a chief goal, in many second/foreign language teaching situations, it receives a special focus. Media as a tool for language learning/teaching, can help both instructed and non-instructed learners to overcome the difficult task of language learning. In order to determine the effects of print media usage on the development ...

  15. LA DIDATTICA DELL’ITALIANO L2 A DETENUTI STRANIERI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bonfanti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available L’insegnamento dell’italiano L2 all’interno degli istituti penitenziari è diventata un’esigenza fondamentale, data la crescente presenza di detenuti stranieri nelle strutture detentive del nostro Paese.Il presente lavoro analizza le peculiarità dell’insegnamento dell’italiano L2 a detenuti stranieri: ruolo e caratteristiche del docente, bisogni e motivazioni dell’apprendente, problematiche legate al contesto specifico di apprendimento. In particolare si intende mettere in evidenza il ruolo primario della scrittura come mezzo fondamentale per svolgere attività quotidiane (padroneggiare regolamenti, richieste, “domandine” e come strumento per la rieducazione.Per meglio comprendere le specificità dell’insegnamento in questo contesto, viene presentato un sillabo per apprendenti detenuti redatto da Antonella Benucci ed in appendice due interviste rivolte a docenti della Casa Circondariale di Monza.TEACHING ITALIAN L2 TO FOREIGN INMATESTeaching Italian L2 in prisons has become a basic need, given the growing number of foreign detainees in Italian prisons.This paper analyzes the peculiarity of teaching Italian L2 to foreign inmates: the teacher’s role and characteristics, the student’s needs and motivations, problems linked to the specific setting. We highlight the primary role of writing as a fundamental means for carrying out daily activities (mastering rules, requests, “small questions” and as a re-education tool.To better understand the specificity of teaching in this context, a syllabus for detainees compiled by Antonella Benucci is presented and there are two interviews with teachers working in a prison in Monza.

  16. Status of the T2L2/Jason2 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exertier, Pierre; Samain, Etienne; Bonnefond, Pascal; Guillemot, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    The T2L2 (Time Transfer by Laser Link) project, developed by CNES and OCA will permit the synchronization of remote ultra stable clocks and the determination of their performances over intercontinental distances. The principle of the experiment derives from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology with dedicated space equipment. T2L2 was accepted in 2005 to be on board the Jason2 altimetry satellite. The payload consists of both event timer and photo detection modules. The system uses the ultra-stable quartz oscillator of DORIS as on-board reference clock on one hand, and the Laser Reflector Array, making T2L2 a real two-way time transfer system on the other hand. The expected time stability of the T2L2 instrument (detection and timing), referenced by the DORIS oscillator and including all internal error sources should be at the level of 10-12 ps at 1 s and mode), data noises (of different sources, SLR and T2L2), and first error budget and time stability of ground to space time transfers. The paper describes the space experiment and highlights the different steps of the data processing after a first year of operations (between July 2008 and June 2009). We show the time stability which can be reached when a laser station is equipped with an Hydrogen Maser or a Cesium clock as a time reference; thus, the first estimations give 7 ps over 30 s. We conclude by presenting the campaigns of ground to ground time transfers already planned between the Paris Observatory and different places in Europe.

  17. Morphological Family Size Effects in Young First and Second Language Learners: Evidence of Cross-Language Semantic Activation in Visual Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw, Marlies; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined to what extent young second language (L2) learners showed morphological family size effects in L2 word recognition and whether the effects were grade-level related. Turkish-Dutch bilingual children (L2) and Dutch (first language, L1) children from second, fourth, and sixth grade performed a Dutch lexical decision task on words…

  18. Effects of Feedback Timing on Second Language Vocabulary Learning: Does Delaying Feedback Increase Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    Feedback, or information given to learners regarding their performance, is found to facilitate second language (L2) learning. Research also suggests that the timing of feedback (whether it is provided immediately or after a delay) may affect learning. The purpose of the present study was to identify the optimal feedback timing for L2 vocabulary…

  19. Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in L2 Learners: Some Effects of Bilinguality on L1 and L2 Processing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussias, Paola E.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates whether proficient second language (L2) speakers of Spanish and English use the same parsing strategies as monolinguals when reading temporarily ambiguous sentences containing a complex noun phrase followed by a relative clause, such as "Peter fell in love with the daughter of the psychologist who studied in California."…

  20. Cognição e aprendizagem de L2: o que nos diz a pesquisa nos paradigmas simbólico e conexionista

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mailce, Mota; Márcia Cristina, Zimmer.

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os principais aspectos teóricos de dois paradigmas de investigação da cognição humana _ o simbólico e o conexionista _ e discute como a pesquisa em cada paradigma tem fomentado os estudos sobre aprendizagem de L2. O paradigma simbólico postula a existência de representações men [...] tais através de regras lógicas e símbolos para explicar a aquisição e a utilização do conhecimento. O paradigma conexionista parte da premissa de que o processamento cognitivo está relacionado à maneira pela qual os neurônios se interconectam no cérebro. A partir dessas duas abordagens, o artigo examina como construtos tais como tipos de conhecimento, tipos de memória, processamento do insumo e atenção são apresentados nas duas teorias e como vêm sendo utilizados na pesquisa em L2. Abstract in english This paper presents the main tenets of two paradigms of investigation of human cognition _ the symbolic and the connectionist _ and discusses how research in each paradigm has fed studies in L2 learning. The symbolic paradigm explains the acquisition and use of knowledge through the existence of men [...] tal representations, logical rules, and symbols. The connectionist paradigm claims that human cognitive processing is related to how neurons are interconnected in the brain. The paper also examines how constructs such as types of knowledge, types of memory, input processing, and attention are presented in the two theories and how these constructs relate to current L2 research.

  1. MODE, MEANING, AND SYNAESTHESIA IN MULTIMEDIA L2 WRITING

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Evan Nelson

    2006-01-01

    This study of digital storytelling attempts to apply Kress's (2003) notions of synaesthesia, transformation, and transduction to the analysis of four undergraduate L2 writers' multimedia text creation processes. The students, entering freshmen, participated in an experimental course entitled "Multimedia Writing," whose purpose was to experience and explore the processes of multimodal textual communication. With the support of empirical data drawn from interviews, student journals, and the dig...

  2. Feedback in L2 writing: the students' perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vokic, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    Given the disparate views in L2 writing literature on what constitutes effective teacher feedback, this qualitative study approached this issue from the student’s perspective. In order to examine what constitutes effective teacher feedback from the student’s standpoint, fifty-four student responses to three drastically different feedback styles were analyzed. The results of this preliminary study are partially in line with Hyland (1998), since it was found that whether a ...

  3. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh; Ms. Georgia Kakourou; Dr. Pamela Greenwell

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2) was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of othe...

  4. Differences in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Yingli Wang

    2012-01-01

    Since the first contrastive rhetoric study by Kaplan in 1966, many studies have been produced, and over several decades of development, there have been many contributions gained from previous contrastive rhetoric studies. In this article, many kinds of differences existing in L1 and L2 academic writing have been discussed. I will categorize the differences in three major parts as following: differences in the level of lexicon, differences in the level of sentence, and differences in the level...

  5. L2 Quality as a Competitive Edge - Project Presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Marianne Grove; Kastberg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    In our paper we would like to present an interdisciplinary project "L2 as a Competitive Edge". We'll be doing this by first giving you a project overview in section 0. The overview will then in the section 1 and 2 be followed by a presentation of two of the most interesting themes, serving as point of departure for further discussion. The two themes are "The evaluation of language quality" and "Method - an Integrated Approach".

  6. Initiating round robins in the L2 classroom - preliminary observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    Complementing recent interactional research on the contingent operation of online task accomplishment, this paper deals with a specific way of organizing and managing tasks in plenary L2 classrooms – namely the round robin. This may seem like a “traditional” and rigid form of classroom organization that reduces students’ contributions to responses to the teacher’s elicitations. This paper shows that although the round robin puts certain interactional features out of play, it is nonetheless done ...

  7. 8-Meter UV/Optical Space Telescope at L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2008-01-01

    The unprecedented mass/volume capability of an Ares V enables the launch of 8 meter class monolithic space telescopes to the Earth-Sun L2 point. NASA MSFC has determined that a 6 to 8 meter class telescope using a massive high-TRL ground observatory class monolithic primary mirror is feasible. Mature, High-TRL design enables early deployment. Science Instruments, Expendables and Limited Life Components can be replace periodically via Spacecraft Autonomous Rendezvous and Docking.

  8. The Effects of Late Acquisition of L2 and the Consequences of Immigration on L1 for Semantic and Morpho-Syntactic Language Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherag, Andre; Demuth, Lisa; Rosler, Frank; Neville, Helen J.; Roder, Brigitte

    2004-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that some aspects of a second language (L2) might be learned easier than others if a language is learned late. On the other hand, non-use might result in a loss of language skills in one's native, i.e. one's first language (L1) (language attrition). To study which, if any, aspects of language are affected by either late…

  9. An Investigation of Personality and L2 Oral Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengdong Gan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates one dimension of personality, extroversion-introversion, and examines its potential impact on learner L2 oral performance. The study is innovative in that it analyzes not only the correlation between degree of extroversion and assessment scores based on analytic scoring but also the correlation between degree of extroversion and the discourse measures of accuracy, fluency and complexity commonly used as indices of L2 task performance in the L2 research. The data for this study were drawn from oral performances by 39 Cantonese-mother-tongue Form 4 (that is, Grade 9 secondary school ESL students engaging in school-based oral English assessment that has recently been implemented across secondary schools in Hong Kong. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was used to measure the students’ degree of extroversion. The findings indicate no significant correlations between degree of extroversion and students’ assessment scores, and between degree of extroversion and those discourse-based measures. In addition, further in-depth analysis of the discourse and interactional behavior of two students classified as an extrovert and an introvert based on their scores on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, suggests that in the context of group oral discussion described in this study, extroversion/introversion might impact in some way on learner discourse and interactional behavior only in the extreme cases, yet this influence seemed not reflected in the assessment scores assigned.

  10. COMPUTING THE VOCABULARY DEMANDS OF L2 READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Cobb

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic computing can make two important contributions to second language (L2 reading instruction. One is to resolve longstanding research issues that are based on an insufficiency of data for the researcher, and the other is to resolve related pedagogical problems based on insufficiency of input for the learner. The research section of the paper addresses the question of whether reading alone can give learners enough vocabulary to read. When the computer’s ability to process large amounts of both learner and linguistic data is applied to this question, it becomes clear that, for the vast majority of L2 learners, free or wide reading alone is not a sufficient source of vocabulary knowledge for reading. But computer processing also points to solutions to this problem. Through its ability to reorganize and link documents, the networked computer can increase the supply of vocabulary input that is available to the learner. The development section of the paper elaborates a principled role for computing in L2 reading pedagogy, with examples, in two broad areas, computer-based text design and computational enrichment of undesigned texts.

  11. L2 use and stimulus complexity in perceived acceent ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Astrid Zerla; Bahr, Ruth Huntley; Bryant, Judith Becker

    2005-04-01

    Listener perception of accentedness has been shown to be influenced by experience with L2 (measured by length of residence in US). However, frequency of L1 use and degree of linguistic complexity (defined by the number of non-native phonetic features targeted) may provide more insight into the role of experience in the perception of accentedness. Three groups of listeners (monolingual English and Spanish [L1] speakers divided into two groups of high and low use of English [L2]) rated the accentedness of bilingual speakers who spoke with varying degrees of accentedness. The speakers read sentences adapted from Magan (1998) to include linguistic aspects likely to be difficult for native Spanish speakers. Listeners performed similarly in rating speakers degree of accent. Amount of daily L1 use only influenced the ratings of the slightly accented group; the high-use bilingual group rated these speakers as more accented than the native English group, regardless of level of linguistic difficulty. These results suggest that the high-use groups lack of L2 experience made them less perceptually sensitive to certain phonetic features of English. Because speakers did not make the predicted target errors, the listener groups may have based their ratings on features not targeted in this investigation.

  12. L’AUTOBIOGRAFIA LINGUISTICA NELL’INSEGNAMENTO-APPRENDIMENTO DELL’ITALIANO L2/LS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Groppaldi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L'autobiografia linguistica è una attività particolarmente utile nell'insegnamento-apprendimento di una lingua straniera. L'apprendente immigrato è invitato a narrare in prima persona le esperienze linguistico-comunicative nella propria L1, nella L2 /LS che sta apprendendo e/o nella lingua seconda che ha acquisito come lingua di comunicazione e di studio nel suo paese di origine, le relazioni umane ed emotive che accompagnano  o hanno accompagnato queste esperienze, le situazioni che ne hanno favorito o ostacolato l'apprendimento. Con l'autobiografia linguistica l'apprendente straniero costruisce, attraverso la scrittura e quindi attraverso un processo di esplicitazione e di riflessione consapevole,  un ponte tra "là" e "qui", tra paese d'origine e il paese di arrivo, tra la vita "prima" e la vita "dopo" lo strappo della migrazione. Ricompone e dà senso alla propria storia, nelle due lingue, esprime affetti ed emozioni, rinomina il mondo e se ne riappropria ricostruendo insieme la propria identità, esplora se stesso e si fa conoscere ai suoi pari e all'insegnante in un rapporto di condivisione e di comprensione reciproca: si crea un contesto non di integrazione, ma di inclusione. A sua volta il docente può meglio comprendere le strategie di apprendimento dell'apprendente, la sua personalità, le sue difficoltà e progettare strategie didattiche più efficaci, perché più individuali e orientate al successo nella comunicazione e nell'apprendimento.   Linguistic autobiography is especially useful in the teaching and learning of a foreign language. The foreign learner is asked to narrate, in the first person, his/her linguistic-communicative experiences in their L1 and in the L2/FL which they are learning and/or in the second language they have acquired for communication or study in their home country, focusing on the emotional and human relationships which accompanied this experience and the situations which encouraged or blocked the learning. Through writing, speaking and thoughtful reflection, linguistic autobiography helps the foreign learner to construct a bridge between "there" and "here", between the home and the host country, between life "before" and "after" the shock of migration. This practice reorganizes and gives meaning to one's own history in both languages, through the expression of feelings and emotions, by defining and reclaiming the world as well as reconstructing identity, exploring oneself and showning oneself to peers and teachers in an environment of mutual sharing and understanding.  It creates a context for inclusion, not just integration. The teacher, in turn, can better understand the student's learning strategies, his/her personality and difficulties and thus plan more effective didactic interventions, since they are individualized and aimed at success in communication and learning.

  13. L2 Reading in Multilingual Eritrea: The Influences of L1 Reading and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Beckman, Danielle; Kurvers, Jeanne; Kroon, Sjaak

    2009-01-01

    A major question in L2 reading research is whether L2 reading is a language or a reading problem. Existing research, mainly carried out in Western contexts, demonstrates that L2 reading is influenced by L1 reading and L2 proficiency. This study applied the L2 reading theory in a non-Western context (Eritrea, East Africa) with L1 reading acquired…

  14. James Webb Space Telescope - L2 Communications for Science Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Jones, Ronald; Fatig, Curtis; Wasiak, Francis

    2008-01-01

    JWST is the first NASA mission at the second Lagrange point (L2) to identify the need for data rates higher than 10 megabits per second (Mbps). JWST will produce approximately 235 Gigabits of science data every day that will be downlinked to the Deep Space Network (DSN). To get the data rates desired required moving away from X-band frequencies to Ka-band frequencies. To accomplish this transition, the DSN is upgrading its infrastructure. This new range of frequencies are becoming the new standard for high data rate science missions at L2. With the new frequency range, the issues of alternatives antenna deployment, off nominal scenarios, NASA implementation of the Ka-band 26 GHz, and navigation requirements will be discussed in this paper. JWST is also using Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standard process for reliable file transfer using CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). For JWST the use of the CFDP protocol provides level zero processing at the DSN site. This paper will address NASA implementations of Ground Stations in support of Ka-band 26 GHz and lesson learned from implementing a file base (CFDP) protocol operational system.

  15. Morphological metamorphosis in relapsing lymphoblastic leukemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Lilleyman, J S; Britton, J A; Laycock, B J

    1981-01-01

    Blast cell morphology was assessed at diagnosis and subsequent bone marrow relapse in 33 unselected patients with lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Each marrow was classified 'blind' according to the French-American-British (FAB) criteria, and it was found that 19 of 24 (79%) patients initially typed as FAB L1 changed to FAB L2 during the course of their disease, but no patient made the reverse morphological change (p is less than 0.001). Five patients retained FAB L1 appearances; these included ...

  16. Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

  17. L’apport des TICE et de l’écriture collaborative au développement des compétences écrites dans l’acquisition/apprentissage d’une L2 Can new technologies and collaborative writing contribute to better written performance in second language acquisition/learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Bonnassies

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une recherche-action en école d’ingénieurs, nous avons cherché à développer un savoir et un savoir-faire propre à la technique du compte-rendu. Cet objectif était facilité par des activités langagières et des procédures formalisées sous forme de grilles d’auto-évaluation. L’apprentissage se déroulait dans un environnement collaboratif et s’appuyait sur des outils informatisés. En conséquence, nous avons comparé deux situations d’apprentissage autour de ces questions : dans quelle mesure une tâche médiatisée par l’ordinateur permet une meilleure appropriation de la technique d’écriture et, une fois acquis, ce savoir faire peut-il être transféré quel que soit le support ?This field research is aimed at teaching the report writing technique to engineering students through various language activities and self-assessment grids. They worked in a collaborative environment using new technologies. We compared two learning situations to show how computer-mediated tasks help improve the written performance and how this know-how is transferred to other learning situations.

  18. A Contrastive Study of L1 and L2 Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Moinzadeh; Salman Dezhara; Omid Rezaei

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to give a comprehensive and all out analysis of the processes and aspects involved in first and second language acquisition and learning since this may cause a better selection of the teaching materials, methodologies, techniques and also a more efficient deployment and implementation of them in second or foreign language learning classes.

  19. Ohmic plasma heating in the L-2 stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives the results of the first experiments on the L-2 stellarator, put into operation at the end of l975. The L-2 stellarator consists of a toroidal magnetic trap with a double (l=2) helical field. The major diameter of the torus D=200 cm, and the cross-sectional diameter of the vacuum chamber d=35 cm. The maximum magnetic field B0=20 kG (in the experiments under consideration, B00=20 kG, determined from stability and equilibrium conditions, is 1017 eV cm-3. Ohmic heating of the plasma was used in the first stage of the studies. At a current I approximately equal to 20 kA, a plasma with density n barsub(e) approximately equal to 1013 cm-3 was obtained, with a mean electron temperature T barsub(e) approximately equal to 300 eV and an effective charge Zsub(eff) approximately 3. The energy life-time of the plasma tausub(E) approximately equal to 6-8 ms approximately equal to 3.6x10-8a2B perpendicular, where B perpendicular = (Bsub(S)+Bsub(I)) perpendicular; (Bsub(S)) perpendicular is the average transversal stellarator field, (Bsub(I)) perpendicular is the current poloidal field. The relationship with the Bohm time tausub(Bohm) can be written tausub(E) approximately equal to (40-50) tausub(Bohm). At a current reaching a certain critical value Isub(cr)=2.5 B0 (a/g), corresponding to the total angle of rotational transform on the axis of rotational transformsub(?)(0) approximately equal to 1, the appearance of helical perturbations with n/m=1/1, limiting the magnitude of the plasma current, was observed. (author)

  20. Early literacy experiences constrain L1 and L2 reading procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, Adeetee

    2015-01-01

    Computational models of reading posit that there are two pathways to word recognition, using sublexical phonology or morphological/orthographic information. They further theorize that everyone uses both pathways to some extent, but the division of labor between the pathways can vary. This review argues that the first language one was taught to read, and the instructional method by which one was taught, can have profound and long-lasting effects on how one reads, not only in one’s first language, but also in one’s second language. Readers who first learn a transparent orthography rely more heavily on the sublexical phonology pathway, and this seems relatively impervious to instruction. Readers who first learn a more opaque orthography rely more on morphological/orthographic information, but the degree to which they do so can be modulated by instructional method. Finally, readers who first learned to read a highly opaque morphosyllabic orthography use less sublexical phonology while reading in their second language than do other second language learners and this effect may be heightened if they were not also exposed to an orthography that codes for phonological units during early literacy acquisition. These effects of early literacy experiences on reading procedure are persistent despite increases in reading ability.

  1. Early literacy experiences constrain L1 and L2 reading procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, Adeetee

    2015-01-01

    Computational models of reading posit that there are two pathways to word recognition, using sublexical phonology or morphological/orthographic information. They further theorize that everyone uses both pathways to some extent, but the division of labor between the pathways can vary. This review argues that the first language one was taught to read, and the instructional method by which one was taught, can have profound and long-lasting effects on how one reads, not only in one's first language, but also in one's second language. Readers who first learn a transparent orthography rely more heavily on the sublexical phonology pathway, and this seems relatively impervious to instruction. Readers who first learn a more opaque orthography rely more on morphological/orthographic information, but the degree to which they do so can be modulated by instructional method. Finally, readers who first learned to read a highly opaque morphosyllabic orthography use less sublexical phonology while reading in their second language than do other second language learners and this effect may be heightened if they were not also exposed to an orthography that codes for phonological units during early literacy acquisition. These effects of early literacy experiences on reading procedure are persistent despite increases in reading ability. PMID:26483714

  2. English L2 reading getting to the bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Birch, Barbara M

    2014-01-01

    English L2 Reading, Third Edition offers teachers research-based insights into bottom-up skills in reading English as a second language and a solid foundation on which to build reading instruction. Core linguistic and psycholinguistic concepts are presented within the context of their application to teaching. The goal is to balance or supplement (not replace) top-down approaches and methodologies with effective low-level options for teaching English reading. The text's pedagogical features- Questions, Study Guide Questions. Discussion Questions, Spotlight on Teaching sections- engage readers o

  3. Non-optionality at Zulu L2 first syntax

    OpenAIRE

    Sibusisiwe Dube

    2008-01-01

    The Valueless Features Hypothesis of Eubank (1993/94; 1994; 1996) proposes that certain types of apparently optional syntactic processes that appear in initial and not in mature state grammars are due to a lack of specification of inflectional feature values at the initial state of grammatical knowledge. Thus the apparent optionality in the placement of medial adverbs vis-a-vis thematic or finite main verbs evident in the early stages of second language (L2) acquisition is attributed to non-t...

  4. Learning Vocabulary via Mobile Phone: Persian EFL Learners in Focus

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Taki; Saeed Khazaei

    2011-01-01

    With encompassing power of cell phones and potentials of mobile learning for language teaching/learning, employing cell phones in language learning seems indispensable. Through exploiting the inherent capabilities of such devices this study investigated the efficacy of multimodal representation of L2 vocabularies for 158 pre-intermediate level L2 learners aged 18-23. Since short-term memory plays an important role in vocabulary learning, they were placed into four different short-term memory ...

  5. Architectural design and language learning in Second Life

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Christine; Wigham, Ciara R.; Foucher, Anne-Laure; Chanier, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates whether, by using a virtual world, it is possible to integrate architectural design and language (L2) learning in a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) approach and increase student motivation vis-à-vis L2 learning. We discuss the advantages and limitations of virtual worlds with reference to the two disciplines and describe the learning design for a higher education course which used Second Life (SL) for face-to-face and distance sessions. We present the c...

  6. River morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs

  7. Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Motohashi-Saigo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV and auditory-only (A-only Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two conditions (isolated words, carrier sentences. Fillers with long vowels were included. Participants completed a forced-choice identification task involving minimal triplets: singletons, geminates, long vowels (e.g., sasu, sassu, saasu. Results revealed a significant improvement in geminate identification following training, especially for AV; b significant effect of geminate (lowest scores for /s/; c no significant effect of condition; and d no significant improvement for the control group. Most errors were misperceptions of geminates as long vowels. Test of generalization revealed 5% decline in accuracy for AV and 14% for A-only. Geminate production improved significantly (especially for AV based on rater judgments; improvement was greatest for /k/ and smallest for /s/. Most production errors involved substitution of a singleton for a geminate. Post-study interviews produced positive comments on Web-based training. Waveforms increased awareness of durational differences. Results support the effectiveness of auditory-visual input in L2 perception training with transfer to novel stimuli and improved production.

  8. SYNCHRONOUS CMC, WORKING MEMORY, AND L2 ORAL PROFICIENCY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Payne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently a number of quasi-experimental studies have investigated the potential of a cross-modality transfer of second language competency between real-time, conversational exchange via text and speech (Abrams, 2003; Beauvious, 1998; Kost, 2004; Payne & Whitney, 2002. Payne and Whitney employed Levelt's (1989 model of language production and concepts from working memory as a rationale for a hypothesized connection between synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC and second language (L2 speech and as a basis for predicting the differential contributions of SCMC to the L2 oral proficiency development.This study extends the psycholinguistic framework reported in Payne and Whitney (2002 with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explore how individual differences in working memory capacity may affect the frequency of repetition and other patterns of language use in chatroom discourse. Working memory capacity was measured by a reading span and nonword repetition test. Oral proficiency was measured with a speaking task that solicited a 5-minute speech sample and was scored based on a holistic scale. The data collected from 20 chat sessions were analyzed for occurrences of repetition and relexicalization, as well as language output measures. Findings suggest a connection between working memory and language output as measured in this study.

  9. Can Retrieval Opportunities Increase Vocabulary Learning during Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcroft, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Because reading for meaning only can lead to low rates of second language (L2) vocabulary learning and because previous research has demonstrated the benefits of word retrieval opportunities for intentional L2 vocabulary learning (Barcroft, 2007; McNamara & Healy, 1995a, Experiment 2; Royer, 1973), the present study assessed the effect of…

  10. Effects of task repetition on L2 oral performance / Efeitos da repetição de tarefas na produção oral em L2

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kyria Rebeca, Finardi.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo parte do pressuposto de que falar um segundo idioma (L2) é uma habilidade cognitiva complexa (FORTKAMP, 2000) cuja execução parece envolver uma compensação entre os diferentes objetivos da fala, principalmente entre a fluência, a acurácia e a complexidade (BYGATE, 1996, 1999, 2001b; FOST [...] ER e SKEHAN, 1996; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998). Bygate (2001b) estudou os efeitos da familiaridade com a tarefa na produção oral em L2. Ele mostrou que na repetição de uma narrativa há ganhos, principalmente em termos de complexidade da fala, mas esse ganhos ocorrem em detrimento de outros aspectos, principalmente da perda na acurácia da fala. Este estudo investigou se os resultados reportados por Bygate (2001b) seriam similares no caso da repetição de uma tarefa de descrição. Segundo Robinson (2001), a descrição é uma tarefa menos complexa do que uma narrativa. Quatro medidas de produção oral foram calculadas seguindo Fortkamp (2000): fluência, acurácia, complexidade e densidade lexical. Os resultados deste estudo indicam ganhos em termos de complexidade de fala e esses ganhos parecem ter sido alcançados, principalmente, às custas da acurácia, portanto, corroborando resultados de Bygate (2001b) para essa condição de tarefa. Abstract in english This study departs from the assumption that speaking an L2 is a complex cognitive ability (FORTKAMP, 2000) whose execution seems to involve tradeoff effects among the different goals of speech production, mainly among fluency, accuracy and complexity (BYGATE, 1998, 1999, 2001b; FOSTER e SKEHAN, 1996 [...] ; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998). Bygate (2001b) studied the effects of task familiarity on L2 speech performance. He found that in repeating a narrative task there were gains in terms of complexity of speech and these gains were achieved at the cost of a loss especially in accuracy. The present study investigated whether the results reported in Bygate (2001b) would be similar in the case of a repetition of a picture description task. According to Robinson (2001), a description is less complex than a narrative task. Four measures of speech performance were calculated following Fortkamp (2000): fluency, accuracy, complexity and lexical density. Results indicate gains in complexity and these gains seem to have been paid, especially by gains in accuracy, thus corroborating Bygate´s (2001b) findings for this task condition.

  11. Effects of task repetition on L2 oral performance Efeitos da repetição de tarefas na produção oral em L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyria Rebeca Finardi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study departs from the assumption that speaking an L2 is a complex cognitive ability (FORTKAMP, 2000 whose execution seems to involve tradeoff effects among the different goals of speech production, mainly among fluency, accuracy and complexity (BYGATE, 1998, 1999, 2001b; FOSTER e SKEHAN, 1996; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998. Bygate (2001b studied the effects of task familiarity on L2 speech performance. He found that in repeating a narrative task there were gains in terms of complexity of speech and these gains were achieved at the cost of a loss especially in accuracy. The present study investigated whether the results reported in Bygate (2001b would be similar in the case of a repetition of a picture description task. According to Robinson (2001, a description is less complex than a narrative task. Four measures of speech performance were calculated following Fortkamp (2000: fluency, accuracy, complexity and lexical density. Results indicate gains in complexity and these gains seem to have been paid, especially by gains in accuracy, thus corroborating Bygate´s (2001b findings for this task condition.Este estudo parte do pressuposto de que falar um segundo idioma (L2 é uma habilidade cognitiva complexa (FORTKAMP, 2000 cuja execução parece envolver uma compensação entre os diferentes objetivos da fala, principalmente entre a fluência, a acurácia e a complexidade (BYGATE, 1996, 1999, 2001b; FOSTER e SKEHAN, 1996; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998. Bygate (2001b estudou os efeitos da familiaridade com a tarefa na produção oral em L2. Ele mostrou que na repetição de uma narrativa há ganhos, principalmente em termos de complexidade da fala, mas esse ganhos ocorrem em detrimento de outros aspectos, principalmente da perda na acurácia da fala. Este estudo investigou se os resultados reportados por Bygate (2001b seriam similares no caso da repetição de uma tarefa de descrição. Segundo Robinson (2001, a descrição é uma tarefa menos complexa do que uma narrativa. Quatro medidas de produção oral foram calculadas seguindo Fortkamp (2000: fluência, acurácia, complexidade e densidade lexical. Os resultados deste estudo indicam ganhos em termos de complexidade de fala e esses ganhos parecem ter sido alcançados, principalmente, às custas da acurácia, portanto, corroborando resultados de Bygate (2001b para essa condição de tarefa.

  12. The Relations among L1 (Spanish) Literacy Skills, L2 (English) Language, L2 Text Reading Fluency, and L2 Reading Comprehension for Spanish-Speaking ELL First Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relations of L2 (i.e., English) oral reading fluency, silent reading fluency, word reading automaticity, oral language skills, and L1 literacy skills (i.e., Spanish) to L2 reading comprehension for Spanish-speaking English language learners in the first grade (N = 150). An analysis was conducted for the entire sample as well as…

  13. The Use of Newspapers for L2 Reading: Practical Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Luque-Agulló; Lucas Gonz??lez-Fernández

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays the acquisition of literacy skills in the foreign language is a highly demanding task cognitively speaking. To improve this learning process, this paper presents a three-fold approach using print and virtual newspapers: first, a brief theoretical revision of the issues involved in learning how to read in a foreign language or transfer L1 reading skills to the foreign language, second, a wide selection of activities to be used when working with newspapers, and third, two sessions that...

  14. Going Blended: New Challenges for Second Generation L2 Tutors

    OpenAIRE

    Nissen, Elke; Tea, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second generation tutors within blended learning courses link the face-to-face and online course modalities - in their representations as well as through their pedagogical activities - and which aspects help them to feel involved in the course. The methodology used is a qualitative analysis of interviews with seven tutors of three different blended learning courses. The results show that most tutors indeed had difficulties gaining a deeper insight into the course desig...

  15. Working Memory Capacity, Inhibitory Control and the Role of L2 Proficiency in Aging L1 Dutch Speakers of Near-Native L2 English

    OpenAIRE

    Merel Keijzer

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the intricate relationship between working memory (WM) capacity and inhibitory control as a function of both L2 proficiency and age. In both its design and research questions, this study closely follows Gass & Lee’s work, where both L1 and L2 Reading Span Tasks (as measures of WM capacity) and L1 and L2 Stroop interference tasks (to measure inhibitory control) were administered. In this study, the test battery is augmented by both an L1 and L2 C-test of overall languag...

  16. Alternative Models of Self-regulation and Implications for L2 Strategy Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Ranalli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the proposal of Dörnyei and colleagues (Dörnyei, 2005; Tseng, Dörnyei, & Schmitt, 2006 to replace the construct of learning strategy with that of self-regulation and thus shift the research focus from specific strategic behaviors to a trait that is seen to underlie them. I argue that before doing so, we need a fuller understanding of what self-regulation entails and how it might intersect with traditional concerns of second language strategy research. To contribute to this understanding, I highlight alternative conceptualizations of self-regulation and then use data from my doctoral research to illustrate one in particular, the COPES model of self-regulated learning (Winne & Hadwin, 1998. This model’s explanatory power is contrasted with that of Dörnyei and colleagues’ conceptualization to show that, depending on the model one adopts, self-regulation is not only compatible with the study of specific strategies but useful for shedding new light on strategy research and integrating it with research in other related areas, such as L2 motivation.

  17. La video clase y la multimedia como medio de enseñanza-aprendizaje de los contenidos morfológicos / The videoconference and multimedia as teaching-learning means for morphologic contents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nieves E, Garriga Alfonso; Iliana, Robainas Fiallo; Dayren, Fernández Santamaría; Dunieska, Quiñones Cabrera; Rolando Ernesto, Medina Robainas.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En la última década, la videoconferencia y la multimedia están siendo percibidas como los medios con más posibilidades didácticas en contextos de enseñanza superior. En sus inicios, la videoconferencia suplió las limitaciones espacio-temporales de la educación a distancia. Progresivamente, este medi [...] o fue encontrando un reconocimiento en instituciones convencionales de enseñanza propiciado por el desarrollo de experiencias de calidad basadas en la incorporación de recursos externos al aula. Desde una perspectiva instrumentalista, los medios son soportes materiales de información que deben reflejar la realidad de la forma más perfecta posible. Responden a un modelo estándar de alumno y a una cultura escolar homogénea, y se consideran por sí mismos instrumentos generadores de aprendizajes. Las características del diseño didáctico y computacional de un entorno hipermedia para aprender se intenta conectar a la concepción de promover el aprendizaje utilizando la computadora. El entorno consiste en un conjunto de actividades basadas en andamiajes tendientes a inducir la construcción de significados mediante la activa participación del estudiante. Abstract in english During the last decade, the videoconference and multimedia are being perceived as the means with more didactic possibilities in the context of the high education. At the beginning, the videoconference helped avoiding limitations of the distance learning. Progressively, this means began to be recogni [...] zed in conventional teaching institutions because of the development of qualitative experiences based on the usage of out-class resources. From an instrumentalist perspective, the means are material supports of the information that should express the reality in the most possible perfect way. They answer to a standard model of students and to a homogeneous school culture, and are considered, by themselves, as instruments generating learning. The characteristics of a computational and didactic design of a hypermedia setting to learn are intended to be linked to a conception of promoting learning using computers. The setting is a group of activities based on structures tending to induce the construction of meanings through the active participation of the student.

  18. Hábitos de aprendizaje y rendimiento académico en la asignatura morfofisiología-II de la carrera de estomatología / Learning habits and academic performance in the II- Morphology and Physiology subject in Dentistry major

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan Félix, Albert Díaz; Ada Esther, González Cordero; Norma, Laborí Puentes; Mayra, Llano Lazo.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La asignatura Morfofisiología II que se imparte en primer año de la carrera de Estomatología resultó la de más bajo rendimiento académico. Objetivo: Caracterizar los hábitos de aprendizaje del estudiante de primer año de Estomatología, teniendo en cuenta su relación con sus diferencias indiv [...] iduales y rendimiento académico en la asignatura. Método: Se realizó una investigación descriptiva y de corte transversal en la asignatura Morfofisiología II, de la carrera de Estomatología de la provincia de Pinar del Río al finalizar el primer semestre del curso 2008-2009. La muestra estuvo constituida por 52 estudiantes de primer año, que cursan la carrera en la sede central. Se les aplicó una encuesta, cuyo cuestionario permitió evaluar sus hábitos de aprendizaje, y el nivel de motivación hacia la carrera y la asignatura. Los datos fueron procesados utilizando la estadística descriptiva y la prueba Ji cuadrado, con un nivel de confianza del 95 %. Resultados: Se encontraron malos hábitos de aprendizaje, en la mayoría de ellos no existió relación significativa entre hábitos de aprendizaje con respecto a la vía de ingreso y nota final de los estudiantes, resaltó la elevada motivación encontrada tanto por la carrera como por la asignatura, la variable motivación no guardó relación significativa con la nota final alcanzada. Se concluye que a pesar de los resultados alcanzados estos no influyeron significativamente en los resultados de la asignatura, gracias a las estrategias de enseñaza trazadas por el colectivo de profesores, pero sí indican la necesidad de establecer acciones con vistas al desarrollo de su aprendizaje autónomo Abstract in english ABSTRACT II-Morphology and Physiology subject taught to the first grade students of Dentistry had the lowest academic performance. Objective: Characterizing the learning habits in the student of first grade of dentistry subject having in mind the relationship with the individual differences and the [...] subject academic performance. Method: A descriptive and cross sectional research on the Morphology and Physiology subject in the dentistry students in Pinar del Rio city at ending the first semester of 2008-2009 course. The sample comprised of 52 students in the first grade of the dentistry major. A survey allowed us to know their learning habits and the level of motivation on the subject. Data were processed using descriptive statistics and the chi square test with a 95% of level of confidence. Results: It was found bad learning habits; in most of them there was no significative relationship between the learning habits and the way of admittance and the final mark of the students; a remarkably high motivation was observed on the major and the subject; the variable "motivation" had no significative relationship with the final mark achieved. It is concluded that the results obtained had no significative influence on the results of the subject thanks to the learning strategies proposed by the faculty but they do indicate the necessity of establishing prospective actions for the development of the autonomic learning

  19. Hábitos de aprendizaje y rendimiento académico en la asignatura morfofisiología-II de la carrera de estomatología Learning habits and academic performance in the II- Morphology and Physiology subject in Dentistry major

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Félix Albert Díaz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La asignatura Morfofisiología II que se imparte en primer año de la carrera de Estomatología resultó la de más bajo rendimiento académico. Objetivo: Caracterizar los hábitos de aprendizaje del estudiante de primer año de Estomatología, teniendo en cuenta su relación con sus diferencias individuales y rendimiento académico en la asignatura. Método: Se realizó una investigación descriptiva y de corte transversal en la asignatura Morfofisiología II, de la carrera de Estomatología de la provincia de Pinar del Río al finalizar el primer semestre del curso 2008-2009. La muestra estuvo constituida por 52 estudiantes de primer año, que cursan la carrera en la sede central. Se les aplicó una encuesta, cuyo cuestionario permitió evaluar sus hábitos de aprendizaje, y el nivel de motivación hacia la carrera y la asignatura. Los datos fueron procesados utilizando la estadística descriptiva y la prueba Ji cuadrado, con un nivel de confianza del 95 %. Resultados: Se encontraron malos hábitos de aprendizaje, en la mayoría de ellos no existió relación significativa entre hábitos de aprendizaje con respecto a la vía de ingreso y nota final de los estudiantes, resaltó la elevada motivación encontrada tanto por la carrera como por la asignatura, la variable motivación no guardó relación significativa con la nota final alcanzada. Se concluye que a pesar de los resultados alcanzados estos no influyeron significativamente en los resultados de la asignatura, gracias a las estrategias de enseñaza trazadas por el colectivo de profesores, pero sí indican la necesidad de establecer acciones con vistas al desarrollo de su aprendizaje autónomoABSTRACT II-Morphology and Physiology subject taught to the first grade students of Dentistry had the lowest academic performance. Objective: Characterizing the learning habits in the student of first grade of dentistry subject having in mind the relationship with the individual differences and the subject academic performance. Method: A descriptive and cross sectional research on the Morphology and Physiology subject in the dentistry students in Pinar del Rio city at ending the first semester of 2008-2009 course. The sample comprised of 52 students in the first grade of the dentistry major. A survey allowed us to know their learning habits and the level of motivation on the subject. Data were processed using descriptive statistics and the chi square test with a 95% of level of confidence. Results: It was found bad learning habits; in most of them there was no significative relationship between the learning habits and the way of admittance and the final mark of the students; a remarkably high motivation was observed on the major and the subject; the variable "motivation" had no significative relationship with the final mark achieved. It is concluded that the results obtained had no significative influence on the results of the subject thanks to the learning strategies proposed by the faculty but they do indicate the necessity of establishing prospective actions for the development of the autonomic learning

  20. Asymptotically periodic L^2 minimizers in strongly segregating diblock copolymers

    CERN Document Server

    Chmaj, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Using the delta correction to the standard free energy \\cite{bc} in the elastic setting with a quadratic foundation term and some parameters, we introduce a one dimension only model for strong segregation in diblock copolymers, whose sharp interface periodic microstructure is consistent with experiment in low temperatures. The Green's function pattern forming nonlocality is the same as in the Ohta-Kawasaki model. Thus we complete the statement in [31,p.349]: ``The detailed analysis of this model will be given elsewhere. Our preliminary results indicate that the new model exhibits periodic minimizers with sharp interfaces.'' We stress that the result is unexpected, as the functional is not well posed, moreover the instabilities in $L^2$ typically occur only along continuous nondifferentiable ``hairs''. We also improve the derivation done by van der Waals and use it and the above to show the existence of a phase transition with Maxwell's equal area rule. However, this model does not predict the universal critic...

  1. Optimized L2-Orthogonal STC CPM for 3 Antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Hesse, Matthias; Deneire, Luc

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce further our recently designed family of L2 orthogonal Space-Time codes for CPM. With their advantage of maintaining both the constant envelope properties of CPM, the diversity of Space-Time codes and moreover orthogonality, and thus reduced decoding complexity, these codes are also full rate, even for more than two transmitting antennas. The issue of power efficiency for these codes is first dealt with by proving that the inherent increase in bandwidth in these systems is quite moderate. It is then detailed how the initial state of the code influences the coding gain and has to be optimized. For the two and three antennas case, we determine the optimal values by computer simulations and show how the coding gain and therewith the bit error performance are significantly improved by this optimization.

  2. New Physics in {Delta}L = 2 neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delepine, David; Gonzalez Macias, Vannia [Division de Ciencias e Ingenierias de la Universidad de Guanajuato, C.P. 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Khalil, Shaaban [Centre for Theoretical Physics, British University in Egypt, El Sherouk City, Postal No, 11837, PO Box 43 (Egypt); Lopez Castro, Gabriel [Departamento de Fisica, Cinvestav, Apartado Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-04-01

    We propose a general framework to constrain {Delta}L = 2 processes by measuring observables associated with neutrino-antineutrino oscillations in {pi}{sup {+-}} decays. First, we use this formalism as a new strategy for detecting the CP-violating phases and the effective mass of muon Majorana neutrinos. Within the generic framework of quantum field theory, we compute the non-factorizable probability for producing a pair of same-charged muons in {pi}{sup {+-}} decays as a distinctive signature of {nu}{sub {mu}}-{nu}*{sub {mu}}. Using the neutrino-antineutrino oscillation probability reported by MINOS collaboration, a new stringent bound on the effective muon-neutrino mass is derived. Secondly, we interpret the production of the pair of same-charged muons as a result of lepton number violating (LNV) interactions at the neutrino source, which allow us to constrain New Physics.

  3. Grammatical Gender in Adult L2 Acquisition: Relations between Lexical and Syntactic Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Holger

    2013-01-01

    In order to identify the causes of inflectional variability in adult second-language (L2) acquisition, this study investigates lexical and syntactic aspects of gender processing in real-time L2 production and comprehension. Twenty advanced to near-native adult first language (L1) English speakers of L2 German and 20 native controls were tested in…

  4. Perceptual Filtering in L2 Lexical Memory: A Neural Network Approach to Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory has…

  5. SLA Research and L2 Pedagogy: Misapplications and Questions of Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Nina

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about the relevance and applicability of SLA theory and research for L2 pedagogy. There are those who maintain that SLA must be applicable to L2 pedagogy: a view based on the argument that because SLA is a subfield of applied linguistics, it should have direct relevance to L2 teaching. Others take the view that…

  6. Factors influencing subcellular localization of the human papillomavirus L2 minor structural protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two structural proteins form the capsids of papillomaviruses. The major structural protein L1 is the structural determinant of the capsids and is present in 360 copies arranged in 72 pentamers. The minor structural protein L2 is estimated to be present in twelve copies per capsid. Possible roles for L2 in interaction with cell surface receptors and in virion uptake have been suggested. As previously reported, L2 localizes in subnuclear domains identified as nuclear domain 10 (ND10). As it was demonstrated that L2 is able to recruit viral and cellular proteins to ND10, a possible role for L2 as a mediator in viral assembly has been proposed. In this study, we determined factors influencing the localization of L2 at ND10. Under conditions of moderate L2 expression level and in the absence of heterologous viral components, we observed that, in contrast to previous reports, L2 is mainly distributed homogeneously throughout the nucleus. L2, however, is recruited to ND10 at a higher expression level or in the presence of viral components derived from vaccinia virus or from Semliki Forest virus. We observed that translocation of L2 to ND10 is not a concentration-dependent accumulation but rather seems to be triggered by yet unidentified cellular factors. In contrast to HPV 11 and 16 L2, the HPV 18 L2 protein seems to require L1 for efficient nuclear accumulation

  7. Can Bilinguals See It Coming? Word Anticipation in L2 Sentence Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, Alice; Martin, Clara D.; Moreno, Eva M.; Costa, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Why is it more difficult to comprehend a 2nd (L2) than a 1st language (L1)? In the present article we investigate whether difficulties during L2 sentence comprehension come from differences in the way L1 and L2 speakers anticipate upcoming words. We recorded the brain activity (event-related potentials) of Spanish monolinguals, French-Spanish late…

  8. Seeking out Challenges to Develop L2 Self-Confidence: A Language Learner's Journey to Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwads, Emily; Roger, Peter Stewart

    2015-01-01

    As one constituent of second language (L2) motivation, L2 "self-­confidence" has been shown to be a significant predictor of language proficiency. More recently, L2 self-­confidence has been studied as part of the "willingness to communicate" (WTC) construct. Less is known, however, about the processes by which learners develop…

  9. Phonological Memory and the Acquisition of Grammar in Child L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul; Messer, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show that second language (L2) learners with large phonological memory spans outperform learners with smaller memory spans on tests of L2 grammar. The current study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and L2 grammar in more detail than has been done earlier. Specifically, we asked how phonological memory…

  10. IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2/LS CON TESTI TEATRALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminia Ardissino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio tratta dell'impiego di testi teatrali come fonti di esercizi per l'apprendimento dell'italiano L2/LS. Dopo alcune riflessioni teoriche, si presentano sei proposte di lavoro, con relative soluzioni, adatte a studenti del livello B2-C2 del quadro di riferimento. Si tratta di esercizi ricavati da drammi in un unico atto di Pirandello (La morsa e Lumìe di Sicilia, da Verga (un confronto fra Cavalleria rusticana nella forma drammatica e novellistica, e da Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre. Ogni proposta sfrutta una peculiarità del testo teatrale che si costituisce nell'incontro di dialoghi con didascalie. Anzitutto si tratta di comprendere come si costruiscono i personaggi, quindi di vedere la funzione delle didascalie in relazione al testo, infine di riflettere sulle diverse modalità in cui avvengono i dialoghi, includendo le forme di silenzio. Il testo teatrale appare così molto adatto ad esercizi di lingua, perché mette in gioco le capacità interpretative e immaginative degli studenti, li fa discutere e parlare sulla base delle loro intuizioni.   This paper investigates the use of play scripts as inspiration for Italian L2/FL exercises. After a brief discussion on theory, six project proposals and their solutions, suitable for B2-C2 level students, are presented.  These exercises are based on one-act plays by Pirandello (La Morsa and Lumìe di Sicilia, Verga (a comparison between Cavalleria Rusticana in drama and narrative forms and Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre.  Each project focuses on a specific aspect of the script  and is made up of dialogues with captions. After the way the characters are constructed is investigated, then the function of the captions in relation to the texts is considered, and finally students reflect on the different ways the dialogues are presented, including the pauses. Play scripts lend themselves to language exercises, because they encourage students to use their interpretation skills and imaginations to talk about their intuitions and ideas.

  11. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Iranian EFL Learners’ Level of L2 Lexical Knowledge: The Case of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Biria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human cognitive competence represents individuals’ subconscious knowledge of abilities, talents, and mental skills collectively called “multiple intelligences (MIs”, which play a pivotal role in facilitating human learning. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to determine the magnitude of the relationship existing between multiple intelligences and Iranian EFL learners’ level of second language (L2 lexical knowledge on one hand and the partializing impact of gender on the other. For this purpose, from the population of the senior undergraduate students majoring in translation at Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan (Isfahan Branch, Isfahan, Iran, a sample of 88 students, 24 males and 64 females, were randomly selected. First, Mckenzie’s (1999 MIs Inventory was administered to specify the size of individual types of intelligences in each learner’s MIs composite. Then, the learners were provided with Nation’s (2001 receptive level test a week later to gauge their level of L2 lexical knowledge. The findings revealed that the scores on MIs inventory correlated positively with those of L2 lexical knowledge. Alternatively, different types of intelligences served as useful predictors for estimating the quality of learners’ vocabulary knowledge. Finally, it was found out that gender did indeed have a different effect regarding the learners’ vocabulary knowledge.

  12. Beliefs about Second Language Learning: The Influence of Learning Context and Learning Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Osaimi, Saleh; Wedell, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Much second language acquisition research in recent decades has assumed that a learner's main purpose for learning a second language (L2) is to develop communicative competence. Consequently, many studies have focused on investigating ways in which teachers and/or the learning environment may support the development of such competence. In…

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of highly thermostable L2 lipase from the newly isolated Bacillus sp. L2

    OpenAIRE

    Shariff, Fairolniza Mohd; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd; Ali, Mohd Shukuri Mohamad; Chor, Adam Leow Thean; Basri, Mahiran; Salleh, Abu Bakar

    2010-01-01

    Thermostable recombinant L2 lipase from thermophilic Bacillus sp. L2 has been crystallized by using counter-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.7?Å resolution. The crystal belongs to the primitive orthorhombic space group P212121 with unit-cell parameters a = 87.44, b = 94.90, c = 126.46?Å.

  14. Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

    2011-11-01

    Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands. PMID:21767061

  15. Learning to read

    OpenAIRE

    Holdaway,Joanna

    2007-01-01

    More and more, schools all over the world are meeting the culturally and linguistically diverse classroom. Whilst this growing phenomenon offers an abundance of new experiences and learning opportunities to students and teachers alike, it can also present some challenges. For example, children learning English as a second language (L2 Learners) and who are entering into an English-speaking school can sometimes experience difficulties in becoming familiar with the phonological system of the...

  16. VLT/NACO Imaging of the Nearest AGB Star, L2 Puppis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montargès, M.; Kervella, P.; Ridgway, S. T.; Perrin, G.; Chesneau, O.

    2015-08-01

    AGB stars are the most important contributors to the chemical enrichment of the Galaxy. During their later evolutionary stages they experience intense pulsations and eject most of their layers as they become planetary nebulae (PNe). The process leading to the formation of bipolar PNe remains poorly understood. It is assumed that the circumstellar disk of an AGB star could collimate the stellar wind to form a bipolar PN, yet very few of these disks have been observed. Using the adaptive-optics system of the VLT/NACO instrument at the Paranal Observatory and a "lucky imaging" technique, our team obtained near-infrared diffraction-limited images of the nearest AGB star, L2 Puppis. The deconvolved images reveal a dark structure in front of the star whose morphology and photometry match a dusty edge-on disk of olivine and pyroxene modeled with a Monte-Carlo radiative transfer code. The L band images also show a loop structure, possibly the signature of an interacting hidden companion.

  17. Working memory capacity across L2 speech proficiency levels / Capacidade de memória de trabalho através de níveis de proficiência oral em L2

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gicele Vergine Vieira, Prebianca; Kyria Rebeca, Finardi; Janaina, Weissheimer.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investiga se a capacidade de memória de trabalho (CMT) varia entre idiomas e níveis de proficiência na fala em L2. Seguindo sugestões em Finardi e Weissheimer (2009) e Prebianca (2010) que demonstraram que a CMT varia em função do nível de proficiência da fala em L2, o presente trabalho [...] analisou três níveis de proficiência (elementar, intermediário e avançado) e dois idiomas (L1-português e L2-inglês). Dois testes de MT foram usados, um em L1 e outro em L2, ambos na modalidade oral. Sessenta estudantes adultos de inglês como língua estrangeira participaram no estudo: 19 elementares, 19 intermediários e 22 avançados. Resultados dos testes Kruskal-Wallis e Mann-Whitney corroboraram Finardi e Weissheimer (2009) e Prebianca (2010) sugerindo que a CMT medida com um teste de amplitude da fala em L2 parece confundir a relação entre níveis de proficiência oral e CMT. Abstract in english This study investigates whether working memory capacity (WMC) varies across languages and in the course of L2 speech proficiency levels. Following suggestions in Finardi and Weissheimer (2009) and Prebianca (2010), who found that WMC varied as a function of L2 speech proficiency, the present study a [...] ssessed three proficiency levels (elementary, intermediate and advanced) and two languages (L1-Portuguese and L2-English). Two WM tests were used, one in the L1 and another in the L2, both in the speaking mode. Sixty adult learners of English as a foreign language participated in the study: 19 elementary, 19 intermediate and 22 advanced learners. Results of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests corroborate Finardi and Weissheimer (2009) and Prebianca (2010) suggesting that WMC measured with a speaking span test in L2 seems to conflate the relationship between speech proficiency levels and WMC.

  18. Songs and singing in foreign language learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ludke, Karen M.

    2010-01-01

    Educators have claimed that listening to music in a second or foreign language (L2) can provide fun and motivating educational material and that singing can enhance the L2 learning process by improving listening and speaking skills, pronunciation, intonation, and vocabulary. Experiments have shown that under certain conditions, a sung presentation of linguistic material can facilitate verbal learning in the native language. To date, however, there is very little research eviden...

  19. Soft morphological filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Lasse; Astola, Jaakko T.; Neuvo, Yrjo A.

    1991-07-01

    New morphological operations, called soft morphological operations, are introduced. They maintain most of the properties of standard morphological operations, yet give improved performance under certain conditions. The main difference to standard morphological operations is that soft morphological operations are less sensitive to additive noise and to small variations in the shape of the objects to be filtered.

  20. Developmental Comparisons of Implicit and Explicit Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtman, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that children learn languages implicitly whereas older learners learn languages explicitly, and some have claimed that after puberty only explicit language learning is possible. However, older learners often receive more explicit instruction than child L2 learners, which may affect their learning strategies. This study…

  1. Teaching Requests to L2 Learners of Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Langer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In many language classrooms, the teaching of pragmatic forms is often ignored at all learner levels. This paper – part of a larger study that encompassed four speech acts – examines the benefits of explicit instruction of requests for beginning, intermediate, and advanced L2 learners of Spanish. The participants took a pre-test and post-test to measure the pragmatic gains over the course of an academic quarter, while the experimental groups from each level received specific lessons in pragmatic use of Spanish and the control group received no extra treatment during their courses. While the treatment consisted of provided online lessons on the common uses of four speech acts in Spanish, this paper focuses on the formulation of requests. The results show that the students that received the treatment had higher scores on the Dialogue Completion Test than the control group. Furthermore, the intermediate level showed the most improvement, suggesting that this is the optimal level for pragmatic development because learners at this level are the most receptive to the acquisition of requests. This investigation shows that the explicit teaching of requests is effective and should be addressed in the Spanish language classroom at all levels, especially at the intermediate level.

  2. The perceptual magnet effect (PME) in L2 consonants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kota

    2005-09-01

    The perceptual magnet effect (PME) has been investigated in conjunction with L1 vowels and consonants. However, there has been a paucity of examinations of the effect in L2 speech perception. The present study used the methodology of Iverson and Kuhl [P. Iverson and P. K. Kuhl, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 1130-1140 (1996)] to examine whether Japanese speakers who have had exposure to English-speaking environments for more than 1 year exhibit the PME for /r/ and /l/. Eighteen synthetic stimuli were generated. Ten Japanese speakers and 12 American English speakers participated in an identification and rating task. Each participant engaged in ten experimental sessions (ten sessions of each of the 18 stimuli). They chose either /ra/ or /la/ and gave a rating with a 1-7 scale. They also underwent a similarity scaling task to determine the similarity of 306 pairs of the 18 stimuli with a 1-7 scale. The results indicated that, while the English speakers demonstrated the PME, some native speakers of Japanese did exhibit the PME and prefer some exemplars of English /r/ and /l/ over others. The results also revealed that other Japanese speakers exhibited reorganized perceptual space without the PME.

  3. Optimal Decompositions of Translations of $L^{2}$-functions

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Palle E T

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we offer a computational approach to the spectral function for a finite family of commuting operators, and give applications. Motivated by questions in wavelets and in signal processing, we study a problem about spectral concentration of integral translations of functions in the Hilbert space $L^{2}(\\mathbb{R}^{n})$. Our approach applies more generally to families of $n$ arbitrary commuting unitary operators in a complex Hilbert space $\\mathcal{H}$, or equivalent the spectral theory of a unitary representation $U$ of the rank-$n$ lattice $\\mathbb{Z}^{n}$ in $\\mathbb{R}^{n}$. Starting with a non-zero vector $\\psi \\in \\mathcal{H}$, we look for relations among the vectors in the cyclic subspace in $\\mathcal{H}$ generated by $\\psi$. Since these vectors $\\{U(k)\\psi | k \\in \\mathbb{Z}^{n}\\}$ involve infinite ``linear combinations," the problem arises of giving geometric characterizations of these non-trivial linear relations. A special case of the problem arose initially in work of Kolmogorov under th...

  4. How Strategic Use of L1 in an L2-Medium Mathematics Classroom Facilitates L2 Interaction and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Nicole Judith

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in and hence a growing number of research studies on content and language integrated learning (CLIL) over the past two decades. One of the on-going debates in CLIL is on bilingualism versus monolingualism, or the role of the first language (L1) in subject teaching. So far, very few research projects have been…

  5. Impact of English Orthography on L2 Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Aslam Sipra

    2013-01-01

    English language has become unavoidable being a global language in the present era. Whether it is a field of business, technology or education, its significance can’t be denied. Thus, majority of the world is learning and speaking English owing to its dire need. Unfortunately, despite staining through different reforms, the orthography of English language failed to become learners’ friendly as it seems to be a queer language for the beginners. The present study describes the ways how English ...

  6. Working memory capacity, inhibitory control and the role of l2 proficiency in aging l1 dutch speakers of near-native l2 english.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijzer, Merel

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the intricate relationship between working memory (WM) capacity and inhibitory control as a function of both L2 proficiency and age. In both its design and research questions, this study closely follows Gass & Lee's work, where both L1 and L2 Reading Span Tasks (as measures of WM capacity) and L1 and L2 Stroop interference tasks (to measure inhibitory control) were administered. In this study, the test battery is augmented by both an L1 and L2 C-test of overall language proficiency. Participants were 63 L1 Dutch speakers of L2 English, who had been immersed in an L2 environment for a considerable amount of time. Their data were set off against those of 54 monolingual Dutch speakers and 56 monolingual English speakers. At the time of testing, all the bilingual participants had a near-native command of English and their L1 and L2 WM scores were not found to be significantly different. However, discrepancies did occur in Stroop test scores of inhibition, where the bilinguals performed better in their L2 English than L1 Dutch. These main effects often contradicted the results found in Gass & Lee's study, who examined less proficient L2 learners. An aging effect was furthermore found: older subjects consistently performed more poorly on WM and inhibition tasks than their younger peers. These results can shed light on how individual factors like WM capacity and inhibitory control interact in successful late bilinguals and how these dynamics shift with advanced age. PMID:24961529

  7. Working Memory Capacity, Inhibitory Control and the Role of L2 Proficiency in Aging L1 Dutch Speakers of Near-Native L2 English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merel Keijzer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the intricate relationship between working memory (WM capacity and inhibitory control as a function of both L2 proficiency and age. In both its design and research questions, this study closely follows Gass & Lee’s work, where both L1 and L2 Reading Span Tasks (as measures of WM capacity and L1 and L2 Stroop interference tasks (to measure inhibitory control were administered. In this study, the test battery is augmented by both an L1 and L2 C-test of overall language proficiency. Participants were 63 L1 Dutch speakers of L2 English, who had been immersed in an L2 environment for a considerable amount of time. Their data were set off against those of 54 monolingual Dutch speakers and 56 monolingual English speakers. At the time of testing, all the bilingual participants had a near-native command of English and their L1 and L2 WM scores were not found to be significantly different. However, discrepancies did occur in Stroop test scores of inhibition, where the bilinguals performed better in their L2 English than L1 Dutch. These main effects often contradicted the results found in Gass & Lee’s study, who examined less proficient L2 learners. An aging effect was furthermore found: older subjects consistently performed more poorly on WM and inhibition tasks than their younger peers. These results can shed light on how individual factors like WM capacity and inhibitory control interact in successful late bilinguals and how these dynamics shift with advanced age.

  8. Transfer in a Connectionist Model of the Acquisition of Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasser, M

    1995-01-01

    The morphological systems of natural languages are replete with examples of the same devices used for multiple purposes: (1) the same type of morphological process (for example, suffixation for both noun case and verb tense) and (2) identical morphemes (for example, the same suffix for English noun plural and possessive). These sorts of similarity would be expected to convey advantages on language learners in the form of transfer from one morphological category to another. Connectionist models of morphology acquisition have been faulted for their supposed inability to represent phonological similarity across morphological categories and hence to facilitate transfer. This paper describes a connectionist model of the acquisition of morphology which is shown to exhibit transfer of this type. The model treats the morphology acquisition problem as one of learning to map forms onto meanings and vice versa. As the network learns these mappings, it makes phonological generalizations which are embedded in connection w...

  9. Comparison of Different Machine Learning Algorithms for Lithological Mapping Using Remote Sensing Data and Morphological Features: A Case Study in Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Arsalan; Gloaguen, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Topographic effects and complex vegetation cover hinder lithology classification in mountain regions based not only in field, but also in reflectance remote sensing data. The area of interest "Bardi-Zard" is located in the NE of Iraq. It is part of the Zagros orogenic belt, where seven lithological units outcrop and is known for its chromite deposit. The aim of this study is to compare three machine learning algorithms (MLAs): Maximum Likelihood (ML), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and Random Forest (RF) in the context of a supervised lithology classification task using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER) satellite, its derived, spatial information (spatial coordinates) and geomorphic data. We emphasize the enhancement in remote sensing lithological mapping accuracy that arises from the integration of geomorphic features and spatial information (spatial coordinates) in classifications. This study identifies that RF is better than ML and SVM algorithms in almost the sixteen combination datasets, which were tested. The overall accuracy of the best dataset combination with the RF map for the all seven classes reach ~80% and the producer and user's accuracies are ~73.91% and 76.09% respectively while the kappa coefficient is ~0.76. TPI is more effective with SVM algorithm than an RF algorithm. This paper demonstrates that adding geomorphic indices such as TPI and spatial information in the dataset increases the lithological classification accuracy.

  10. Computer-Mediated Corrective Feedback and the Development of L2 Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Sauro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study that investigated the impact of two types of computer-mediated corrective feedback on the development of adult learners’ L2 knowledge: (1 corrective feedback that reformulates the error in the form of recasts, and (2 corrective feedback that supplies the learner with metalinguistic information about the nature of the error. High intermediate and advanced adult learners of English (n=23 from an intact class at a Swedish university were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (two feedback conditions and one control and were randomly paired with English native speakers. During task-based interaction via text-chat, the learners received focused corrective feedback on omission of the zero article with abstract noncount nouns (e.g., employment, global warming, culture. Computer-delivered pretests, posttests and delayed posttests of knowledge (acceptability judgments measured learning outcomes. Results showed no significant advantage for either feedback type on immediate or sustained gains in target form knowledge, although the metalinguistic group showed significant immediate gains relative to the control condition.

  11. L 2 Stability Estimates for Shock Solutions of Scalar Conservation Laws Using the Relative Entropy Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Nicholas

    2011-03-01

    We consider scalar nonviscous conservation laws with strictly convex flux in one spatial dimension, and we investigate the behavior of bounded L 2 perturbations of shock wave solutions to the Riemann problem using the relative entropy method. We show that up to a time-dependent translation of the shock, the L 2 norm of a perturbed solution relative to the shock wave is bounded above by the L 2 norm of the initial perturbation.

  12. L^2 stability estimates for shock solutions of scalar conservation laws using the relative entropy method

    OpenAIRE

    Leger, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We consider scalar nonviscous conservation laws with strictly convex flux in one spatial dimension, and we investigate the behavior of bounded L^2 perturbations of shock wave solutions to the Riemann problem using the relative entropy method. We show that up to a time-dependent translation of the shock, the L^2 norm of a perturbed solution relative to the shock wave is bounded above by the L^2 norm of the initial perturbation.

  13. On the vaguelet and Riesz properties of L^2-unbounded transformations of orthogonal wavelet bases

    OpenAIRE

    Didier, Gustavo; Jaffard, Stéphane; Pipiras, Vladas

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we prove that certain L^2-unbounded transformations of orthogonal wavelet bases generate vaguelets. The L^2-unbounded functions involved in the transformations are assumed to be quasi-homogeneous at high frequencies. We provide natural examples of functions which are not quasi-homogeneous and for which the resulting transformations are not vaguelets. We also address the related question of whether the considered family of functions is a Riesz basis in L^2(R). T...

  14. Unveiling the Mystery: Investigating L2 Reading Motivation in an EFL Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Sirin, Petek; Göktürk Saglam, Asli Lidice

    2012-01-01

    Research in L2 reading motivation has gained impetus and provided many insights into understanding the components of motivation and factors that affect L2 learners in terms of reading motivation. Although many studies can be found on L1 reading motivation, studies on L2 reading motivation seem to be relatively meager. Since action research encompasses a sequence of events and an approach to problem solving, the present study addressed to examine whether; (1) this sample of Turkish University ...

  15. The Effect of Lengthened Writing Approach on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Liu

    2009-01-01

    Based on empirical research and qualitative analysis, this paper aims to explore the effects of Lengthened Writing Approach on L2 vocabulary acquisition. The results show that, during L2 vocabulary teaching process, the proper application of Lengthened Writing Approach can effectively facilitate the memorization of new words, and this teaching approach is welcomed by most subjects. This study highlights the role of Lengthened Writing Approach in L2 vocabulary acquisition, and sheds light on t...

  16. Acquiring Receptive Morphology A Connectionist Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gasser, M

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a modular connectionist model of the acquisition of receptive inflectional morphology. The model takes inputs in the form of phones one at a time and outputs the associated roots and inflections. Simulations using artificial language stimuli demonstrate the capacity of the model to learn suffixation, prefixation, infixation, circumfixation, mutation, template, and deletion rules. Separate network modules responsible for syllables enable to the network to learn simple reduplication rules as well. The model also embodies constraints against association-line crossing.

  17. L2 Students’ Comments on Language Exchange Communities in Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Cem Balç?kanl?

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: EFL learners are rarely given opportunities to interact with native speakers and “…to do something with a language”. In Turkish settings, language learners mostly complain that they do not have enough opportunities to interact with native speakers, and class hours are too limited to acquire a language and more importantly they are not taught expressions that help them express themselves in daily contexts.Purpose of Study: This study aimed at investigating EFL (English as a ...

  18. Review of the Influence of L1 in L2 Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Zhanming WANG

    2014-01-01

    L1 has a significant influence on second language study. However, how L1 influence L2 is very complicated and abstract. But to study the mechanism of how L1 influence L2 is significant because L2 acquisition is making contribution on many fields like education and psychology. L1 is one of the central elements influencing SLA. In this course paper, we are going to overview what linguists have done about L1 and L2 and what approaches and theories they have made.

  19. Tense-Aspect Morphology in the Advanced English L2 Variety: Exploring Semantic, Discourse and Cross-linguistic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Vraciu, Eleonora Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    La tesi pertany a una línia d'estudis recentment iniciada amb l'objectiu de descriure la varietat de l'anglès avançat. Proposem una anàlisi integral d'una sèrie de factors semàntics, discursius i interlingüístics que conformen l'ús de la morfologia verbal que empren aprenents avançats catalans i francesos d'anglès idioma estranger; específicament dues poblacions d'especialistes de l'anglès (estudiants de Filologia Anglesa i professors d'anglès a la universitat). A partir d'un corpus de narrac...

  20. Second-language learning and changes in the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Osterhout, Lee; Poliakov, Andrew; Inoue, Kayo; McLaughlin, Judith; Valentine, Geoffrey; Pitkanen, Ilona; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl; Hirschensohn, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Presumably, second-language (L2) learning is mediated by changes in the brain. Little is known about what changes in the brain, how the brain changes, or when these changes occur during learning. Here, we illustrate by way of example how modern brain-based methods can be used to discern some of the changes that occur during L2 learning. Preliminary results from three studies indicate that classroom-based L2 instruction can result in changes in the brain’s electrical activity, in the location ...

  1. Didattica multicanale integrata: il fumetto parlante. Un’esperienza di scrittura creativa collaborativa in un corso di italiano L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Santalucia

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo, nella premessa, parte da riferimenti a S. Papert e al costruzionismo, per focalizzarsi poi su alcuni aspetti dell’ultimo lavoro di A.Pian che, con l’ elaborazione del concetto di didattica multicanale integrata, indica una prospettiva ulteriore per l’integrazione di strumenti tecnologici nei processi di insegnamento/apprendimento.Nella fase seguente questo lavoro illustra un esperimento di scrittura creativa collaborativa in un corso di Italiano L2 blended, effettuato attraverso un sistema wiki e la successiva elaborazione integrata di testo, immagini e narrazione orale in un “fumetto parlante”. Uno degli obiettivi fondamentali del progetto è stato quello di valutare se, e in quale modo, il percorso effettuato in un ambiente online potesse favorire lo sviluppo della competenza comunicativa da parte dei corsisti, insieme a quello di analizzare i codici linguistici attivati nell’interazione. Non ultimo, l’obiettivo di verificare la possibilità che i corsisti potessero sperimentare un percorso per la creazione di un oggetto didattico che possa dare anche “piacere estetico” nella fruizione.  Integrated multi-channel teaching: the cartoon speaker.An experience in collaborative creative writing in an Italian L2 course The article begins with references to S. Papert and constructionism, then focuses on certain aspects of the work of A. Pian, who elaborated the concept of integrated multi-channel learning, indicating a further perspective for the integration of technological tools in the teaching/learning process. An experiment in a blended Italian L2 collaborative creative writing course was carried out using a wiki system and the subsequent processing of the integrated text, images and storytelling into a “speech bubble”. A key objective of the project was to assess whether, and in what way, an online environment could favor the development of communicative competence on the part of the students, along with the analysis of the linguistic codes activated in the interaction. Last but not least, there was the objective to verify the possibility that the participants could create a learning object that would also give “aesthetic pleasure” when used.

  2. Nonnativeness in Near-Native Child L2 Starters of Japanese: Age and the Acquisition of Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tomomi

    2014-01-01

    Many age-related second language (L2) studies have confirmed that young children have a better chance to become nativelike in L2 acquisition than adults. The current study investigated whether age effects exist in the L2 acquisition of Japanese and whether nativelike proficiency is guaranteed for early child L2 starters after constant target…

  3. Web 2.0 and Second Language Learning: What Does the Research Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenggao; Vasquez, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews current research on the use of Web 2.0 technologies in second language (L2) learning. Its purpose is to investigate the theoretical perspectives framing it, to identify some of the benefits of using Web 2.0 technologies in L2 learning, and to discuss some of the limitations. The review reveals that blogs and wikis have been…

  4. Second Language Developmental Dynamics: How Dynamic Systems Theory Accounts for Issues in Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmawati

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic systems theory (DST) is presented in this article as a suitable approach to research the acquisition of second language (L2) because of its close alignment with the process of second language learning. Through a process of identifying and comparing the characteristics of a dynamic system with the process of L2 learning, this article…

  5. Bridging the Gap: Cognitive and Social Approaches to Research in Second Language Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulstijn, Jan H.; Young, Richard F.; Ortega, Lourdes; Bigelow, Martha; DeKeyser, Robert; Ellis, Nick C.; Lantolf, James P.; Mackey, Alison; Talmy, Steven

    2014-01-01

    For some, research in learning and teaching of a second language (L2) runs the risk of disintegrating into irreconcilable approaches to L2 learning and use. On the one side, we find researchers investigating linguistic-cognitive issues, often using quantitative research methods including inferential statistics; on the other side, we find…

  6. The Role of Narrative Structure in the Acquisition of English Tense-Aspect Morphology by Thai Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiravate, Boonjeera

    2011-01-01

    As regards the acquisition of L2 verbal morphology, one of the universal tendencies as elucidated by the Interlanguage Discourse Hypothesis (Bardovi-Harlig, 1994, p.43) is that language learners use emerging verbal morphology to distinguish foreground and background in narratives. This present study examines whether Thai EFL learners' use of…

  7. Alternativa metodológica para fortalecer el proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de Morfofisiología I en la carrera Enfermería / Methodological alternative to strengthen the teaching-learning process of Morphology and Phisiology I in the Nursing major

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Coralia, Quintero Martí; Magaly, Gort Hernández; Teresa, Verona Ferro; Marelis, Linares Miranda; José Luis, Cordero Pérez.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: la insuficiente apropiación de los contenidos de la asignatura Morfofisiología I por los estudiantes, es uno de los problemas esenciales en la carrera de Enfermería. Objetivo: diseñar una alternativa metodológica que fortalezca el proceso enseñanza aprendizaje (PEA) de la asignatura Mo [...] rfofisiología I en la carrera de Enfermería. Método: investigación-acción en la Filial Universitaria Municipal de Ciencias Médicas Los Palacios; universo y muestra: total de estudiantes de 2do año de enfermería durante los cursos 2008-2009 y 2009-2010 (46) y durante los cursos 2010-2011 y 2011-2012 (23); se utilizaron métodos observacionales, entrevistas, enfoque de sistema y modelación. Resultados: Las clases observadas de Bien ascendieron de 16,6% a 83,3 % y las observadas de Mal descendieron de 61,1% a 5,6%. La promoción mejoró en calidad y se elevó de 28,2% a 95,6%, se logro la mayor motivación y participación activa y protagónica de los estudiantes, así como seguridad y dominio en el tratamiento de los contenidos. Conclusiones: La alternativa metodológica permitió a los docentes potenciar las dimensiones cognitivas y motivaciones en los estudiantes por la asignatura Morfofisiología I y demostró un salto cualitativo y cuantitativo en los resultados obtenidos. Abstract in english Introduction: the students´ insufficient aprehension of the course contents in Morphology and Phisiology I is one of the main problems in the Nursing major. Objective: to design a methodological alternative to strengthen the teaching-learning process in the course subject in the Nursing major. Mater [...] ial and method: research-action in Los Palacios Municipal University Affiliate of Medical Sciences; target group and sample: the sheer number of Nursing second year students during the academic years 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 (46) and 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 (23); observational methods were used, as long as interviews, system approach and modelling. Results: the lessons evaluated with Good increased from 16.6% to 83.3% and those evaluated with Wrong decreased from 61.1% to 5.6%. Promotion improved in quality and increased from 28.2% to 95.6%, greater motivation and active and student-centered involvement was achieved, as well as self-confidence and aprehension of the subject contents. Conclusions: the methodological alternative permitted the teaching faculty to potentiate the students cognitive dimensions and motivations for the subject Morphology and Phisiology I and proved a qualitative and quantitative leap in the results obtained.

  8. Learning a Second Language Naturally the Voice Movement Icon Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Macedonia

    2013-01-01

    Second language (L2) instruction greatly differs from natural input during native language (L1) acquisition.Whereas a child collects sensorimotor experience while learning novel words, L2 employs primarily reading,writing and listening and comprehension. We describe an alternative proposal that integrates the body into thelearning process: the Voice Movement Icon (VMI) approach. A VMI consists of a word that is read and spokenin L2 and synchronously paired with an action or a gesture. A VMI i...

  9. miR-29b attenuates tumorigenicity and stemness maintenance in human glioblastoma multiforme by directly targeting BCL2L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Joo; Choi, Young Eun; Kim, Eun Sook; Han, Young-Hoon; Park, Myung-Jin; Bae, In Hwa

    2015-07-30

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor and exhibits aggressive and invasive behavior. We previously identified four miRNAs-miR-29b, 494, 193a-3p, and 30e-with enhanced expression in GBM following treatment of ionizing radiation by miRNA microarray analysis. In this study, we found that only miR-29b inhibited tumor cell migration and invasion by reducing MMP-2 activity via phospho-AKT/?-catenin signaling, and stimulated a more epithelial-like morphology. Moreover, miR-29b inhibits angiogenesis by attenuating tube formation and the expression of VEGF and Ang-2, and stemness maintenance in GBM cells, as demonstrated by decreasing neurosphere formation and cancer stem cell marker protein expression. These findings support the anti-tumor properties of miR-29b in human GBM cells. Furthermore, miR-29b expression was inversely proportional to that of BCL2L2 mRNA or protein in various cancer cell types. Interestingly, BCL2L2 mRNA is highly expressed in the mesenchymal type of GBM. To further elucidate the relationship between miR-29b and BCL2L2 in GBM, we performed co-transfection reporter assays and determined that miR-29b downregulates BCL2L2 expression by directly binding its 3'UTR. Finally, we confirmed that BCL2L2 repression is of central importance to miR-29b anti-tumor activity using functional assays to examine cell migration, invasion, angiogenesis, and stemness. From these data, we propose that miR-29b may be a useful therapeutic agent in GBM. PMID:26155940

  10. ERPs Recorded During Early Second Language Exposure Predict Syntactic Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In the present study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners’ proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared to closed-class function words, while low proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners’ L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition. PMID:24666165

  11. ERPs recorded during early second language exposure predict syntactic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J

    2014-09-01

    Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In this study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners' proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High-proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared with closed-class function words, whereas low-proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners' L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition. PMID:24666165

  12. Poverty-of-the-Stimulus and SLA Epistemology: Considering L2 Knowledge of Aspectual Phrasal Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jason; Iverson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Coupling a review of previous studies on the acquisition of grammatical aspects undertaken from contrasting paradigmatic views of second language acquisition (SLA) with new experimental data from L2 Portuguese, the present study contributes to this specific literature as well as general debates in L2 epistemology. We tested 31 adult English…

  13. The Role of Hypercorrection in the Acquisition of L2 Phonemic Contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Fred R.; Iverson, Gregory K.; Song, Jae Yung

    2013-01-01

    This article reports empirical findings from an ongoing investigation into the acquisition of second-language (L2) phonemic contrasts. Specifically, we consider the status and role of the phenomenon of hypercorrection in the various stages through which L2 learners develop and internalize a target language (TL) contrast. We adopt the prevailing…

  14. Developing an Online Placement Exam for Spanish Heritage Speakers and L2 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potowski, Kim; Parada, MaryAnn; Morgan-Short, Kara

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and piloting of an adaptive, online placement exam that will be administered to L2 and heritage learners of Spanish at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Particular attention is given to the structure of the exam and the linguistic strategies employed to distinguish heritage speakers from L2 learners.…

  15. The Interplay of Processing Task, Text Type, and Proficiency in L2 Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mami

    2012-01-01

    This study was an investigation of how particular processing tasks influence L2 reading in relation to text type effects and L2 reading proficiency. Two groups of Japanese university EFL students (N = 103), varying in English reading proficiency, read a narrative passage and an expository passage in one of three task conditions: outlining,…

  16. Gender in Italian-German Bilinguals: A Comparison with German L2 Learners of Italian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Giulia

    2013-01-01

    This study compares mastery of gender assignment and agreement in Italian by adult Italian-German bilinguals who have acquired two languages simultaneously (2L1), and by adult German highly proficient second language learners (L2ers) of Italian. Our data show that incompleteness in bilingual acquisition and in second language (L2) acquisition…

  17. Developmental Trends and L1 Effects in Early L2 Learners' Onset Cluster Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Anne-Michelle; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson; Paradis, Johanne

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on English onset cluster production in spontaneous speech samples of 10 children aged 5;04-6;09 from Chinese and Hindi/Punjabi first language (L1) backgrounds, each with less than a year of exposure to English. The results suggest commonalities between early second language (L2) learners and both monolingual and adult L2

  18. German Pitches in English: Production and Perception of Cross-Varietal Differences in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the effect of cross-varietal prosodic characteristics of two German varieties, Northern Standard German (NG) and Swiss German (SG), on the production and perception of foreign accent in L2 Belfast English. The analysis of production data revealed differences in the realisation of nuclear pitch accents in L1 German and L2

  19. Acquisition of Article Semantics by Child and Adult L2-English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionin, Tania; Zubizarreta, Maria Luisa; Philippov, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines article use in the L2-English of adult and child speakers of Russian, an article-less language. In earlier work on articles in adult L2-English, Ionin, Ko and Wexler (2004) proposed that speakers of article-less L1s fluctuate between dividing English articles on the basis of definiteness vs. specificity, as a result of direct…

  20. L2 Acquisition of Bulgarian Clitic Doubling: A Test Case for the Interface Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivan P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand the testing ground of the Interface Hypothesis (Sorace, 2006) by investigating the degree to which second language (L2) learners of Bulgarian with English as their first language (L1) had acquired the pragmatic function of clitic doubling as a topicality marker. Advanced and intermediate L2 speakers of…

  1. Estimativos L^2 para una clase de operadores pseudodiferenciales de?nidos en el toro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duván Cardona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se establecen estimativos L 2 para operadores pseudodiferenciales definidos en el toro. Los operadores considerados surgen del estudio de operadores entre grupos abelianos localmente compactos. Abstract. In this work we establish L 2 estimates from pseudo-differential operators defined on the torus. Such operators arise from the study of operators on locally compact abelian groups.

  2. Dense definiteness and boundedness of composition operators in $L^2$-spaces via inductive limits

    OpenAIRE

    Budzynski, Piotr; Planeta, Artur

    2014-01-01

    The questions of dense definiteness and boundedness of composition operators in $L^2$-spaces are studied by means of inductive limits of operators. Methods based on projective systems of measure spaces and inductive limits of $L^2$-spaces are developed. Illustrative examples are presented.

  3. L1 Use during L2 Writing: An Empirical Study of a Complex Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weijen, Daphne; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

    2009-01-01

    This study examined writers' use of their first language (L1) while writing in their second language (L2). Twenty students each wrote four short argumentative essays in their L1 (Dutch) and four in their L2 (English) under think-aloud conditions. We analysed whether L1 use varied between writers and tasks, and whether it was related to general…

  4. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

  5. Near soliton dynamics and singularity formation for L2 critical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This survey reviews the state of the art concerning singularity formation for two canonical dispersive problems: the L2 critical non-linear Schrödinger equation and the L2 critical generalized KdV equation. In particular, the currently very topical question of classifying flows with initial data near a soliton is addressed. Bibliography: 72 titles

  6. Mediation Strategies in L2 Writing Processes: A Case Study of Two Korean Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yon-Soo; Pyun, Danielle Ooyoung

    2013-01-01

    With the recent rise of sociocultural theory in second-language acquisition, attempts have been made to understand L2 learners' uses of different resources in writing, based on their cultural, historical, and institutional contexts. In line with L2 writing research within the sociocultural paradigm, this study investigates the writing strategies…

  7. Exploring the Potential Relationship between Eye Gaze and English L2 Speakers' Responses to Recasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Kim; Crowther, Dustin; Kielstra, Paula; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated whether joint attention through eye gaze was predictive of second language (L2) speakers' responses to recasts. L2 English learners (N = 20) carried out communicative tasks with research assistants who provided feedback in response to non-targetlike (non-TL) forms. Their interaction was audio-recorded and their…

  8. Effects of Age of L2 Acquisition on L1 Event Conceptualization Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylund, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the effects that the age of onset (AO) of second language (L2) acquisition exerts on the attrition of first language (L1) event conceptualization patterns. The subjects studied are L1 Spanish-L2 Swedish bilinguals living in Sweden. The specific research questions addressed in the study concern the role of AO in endpoint…

  9. Mandatory Second Language Learning in Post-Secondary Education: The Role of the Ideal Self and Imagery in Motivation and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sherry J.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of language learning in post-secondary higher education is compulsory. Many students in compulsory L2 courses demonstrate lower than average levels of achievement and persistence. Because L2 learning is an important component of a post-secondary education in modern society, improving the motivation to learn languages can improve both…

  10. Status of the L2 and Lunar Charged Particle Environment Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Diekmann, Anne M.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The L2 Charged Particle Environment (L2-CPE) model is an engineering tool which provides free field charged particle environments for distant magnetotail, magnetosheath, and solar wind environments. L2-CPE is intended for use in assessing contributions from low energy radiation environments (4.1 keV to few MeV) to radiation dose in thin materials used in construction of spacecraft to be placed in orbit about the Sun-Earth L2 point. This paper describes the status of the current version of the L2-CPE model including structure of the model used to organize plasma environments into solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail environments, the algorithms used to estimate radiation fluence in sparsely sampled environments, the updated graphical user interface, and output options for flux and fluence environments. In addition, we describe the status and plans for updating the model to include environments relevant to lunar programs.

  11. The Relationship between Phonological Memory, L2 Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Size of Iranian High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Ghazanfar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phonological memory (PM is viewed as one of the key elements in language learning. The present study was an effort to investigate the relationship between PM, reading comprehension, and vocabulary size of Iranian high school EFL learners. The participants were 58 high school freshmen and senior students. Administering Oxford Quick Placement Test (QPT, the participants were divided into two groups of proficiency, i.e. elementary and lower intermediate. Afterwards, two measures of PM, namely nonword repetition (NWRP and nonword recognition (NWRC tests, a reading comprehension test, and Schmitt’s vocabulary levels test were administered. The results showed a significant relationship between reading comprehension, vocabulary size, and PM measures at both levels of proficiency. Moreover, the regression analyses showed that NWRC can be a better predictor of L2 learners’ performance on reading comprehension at the lower intermediate level, and NWRC was found to be a better predictor of vocabulary size for both groups of language proficiency.

  12. Brain Responses before and after Intensive Second Language Learning: Proficiency Based Changes and First Language Background Effects in Adult Learners

    OpenAIRE

    White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner’s first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognitiv...

  13. Contribution to Vocabulary Learning via Mobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed Khazaie; Saeed Ketabi

    2011-01-01

    As mobile connectedness continues to sweep across the landscape, the value of deploying mobile technology at the service of learning and teaching seems to be both self-evident and unavoidable. To this end, this study employed multimedia to develop three types of vocabulary learning materials. Due to the importance of short-term memory in the realm of vocabulary learning, careful consideration was given to the L2 learners’ different visual and verbal short-term memories. 158 L2 learners aged 1...

  14. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students’ Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karbalaei Alireza

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The notion of “learner beliefs” has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners’ beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers’ beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading in English. 190 undergraduate college students completed the Survey of Reading Strategies questionnaire. The results indicated that the subjects in both groups reported almost similar patterns of strategy awareness while reading; however, Indians reported more awareness of global, support and total metacognitive reading strategies than Iranians while no significant difference was reported when using problem-solving strategies. These results can contribute to the necessity of reading strategies training in both contexts. La noción de “creencias del estudiante” ha ganado mucha atención en el ámbito de la adquisición de la segunda lengua. Aunque se han realizado diferentes estudios sobre las creencias de los estudiantes respecto al aprendizaje de la lengua, poco se ha investigado acerca de las creencias de los lectores de segunda lengua y su relación con estrategias de lectura. Este estudio investigó si había diferencias significativas entre los lectores de inglés como lengua extranjera y los lectores de inglés como segunda lengua en cuanto a la conciencia lectora y el uso de estrategias metacognitivas cuando leen en inglés. Ciento noventa estudiantes de pregrado completaron el cuestionario sobre estrategias lectoras. Los resultados mostraron que los sujetos de los dos grupos reportaron un patrón casi similar al uso de conciencia de estrategia mientras leían. Sin embargo, los estudiantes indios reportaron ser más conscientes respecto a estrategias metacognitivas lectoras totales, globales y de apoyo que los estudiantes iraníes, mientras que no se hallaron diferencias significativas al usar estrategias para la resolución de problemas. Estos resultados pueden contribuir a la necesidad de capacitación en estrategias lectoras en ambos contextos.

  15. TCF7L2 is a master regulator of insulin production and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuedan; Park, Soo-Young; Su, Jing; Bailey, Kathleen; Ottosson-Laakso, Emilia; Shcherbina, Liliya; Oskolkov, Nikolay; Zhang, Enming; Thevenin, Thomas; Fadista, João; Bennet, Hedvig; Vikman, Petter; Wierup, Nils; Fex, Malin; Rung, Johan; Wollheim, Claes; Nobrega, Marcelo; Renström, Erik; Groop, Leif; Hansson, Ola

    2014-12-15

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed >60 loci associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the underlying causal variants and functional mechanisms remain largely elusive. Although variants in TCF7L2 confer the strongest risk of T2D among common variants by presumed effects on islet function, the molecular mechanisms are not yet well understood. Using RNA-sequencing, we have identified a TCF7L2-regulated transcriptional network responsible for its effect on insulin secretion in rodent and human pancreatic islets. ISL1 is a primary target of TCF7L2 and regulates proinsulin production and processing via MAFA, PDX1, NKX6.1, PCSK1, PCSK2 and SLC30A8, thereby providing evidence for a coordinated regulation of insulin production and processing. The risk T-allele of rs7903146 was associated with increased TCF7L2 expression, and decreased insulin content and secretion. Using gene expression profiles of 66 human pancreatic islets donors', we also show that the identified TCF7L2-ISL1 transcriptional network is regulated in a genotype-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrate that not only synthesis of proinsulin is regulated by TCF7L2 but also processing and possibly clearance of proinsulin and insulin. These multiple targets in key pathways may explain why TCF7L2 has emerged as the gene showing one of the strongest associations with T2D. PMID:25015099

  16. Nuclear import strategies of high-risk HPV18 L2 minor capsid protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the nuclear import strategies of high-risk HPV18 L2 minor capsid protein. HPV18 L2 interacts with Kap ?2 adapter, and Kap ?2 and Kap ?3 nuclear import receptors. Moreover, binding of RanGTP to either Kap ?2 or Kap ?3 inhibits their interaction with L2, suggesting that these Kap ?/L2 complexes are import competent. Mapping studies show that HPV18 L2 contains two NLSs: in the N-terminus (nNLS) and in the C-terminus (cNLS), both of which can independently mediate nuclear import. Both nNLS and cNLS form a complex with Kap ?2?1 heterodimer and mediate nuclear import via a classical pathway. The nNLS is also essential for the interaction of HPV18 L2 with Kap ?2 and Kap ?3. Interestingly, both nNLS and cNLS interact with the viral DNA and this DNA binding occurs without nucleotide sequence specificity. Together, the data suggest that HPV18 L2 can interact via its NLSs with several Kaps and the viral DNA and may enter the nucleus via multiple import pathways mediated by Kap ?2?1 heterodimers, Kap ?2 and Kap ?3

  17. Nuclear import strategies of high-risk HPV18 L2 minor capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klucevsek, K; Daley, J; Darshan, M S; Bordeaux, J; Moroianu, J

    2006-08-15

    We have investigated the nuclear import strategies of high-risk HPV18 L2 minor capsid protein. HPV18 L2 interacts with Kap alpha2 adapter, and Kap beta2 and Kap beta3 nuclear import receptors. Moreover, binding of RanGTP to either Kap beta2 or Kap beta3 inhibits their interaction with L2, suggesting that these Kap beta/L2 complexes are import competent. Mapping studies show that HPV18 L2 contains two NLSs: in the N-terminus (nNLS) and in the C-terminus (cNLS), both of which can independently mediate nuclear import. Both nNLS and cNLS form a complex with Kap alpha2beta1 heterodimer and mediate nuclear import via a classical pathway. The nNLS is also essential for the interaction of HPV18 L2 with Kap beta2 and Kap beta3. Interestingly, both nNLS and cNLS interact with the viral DNA and this DNA binding occurs without nucleotide sequence specificity. Together, the data suggest that HPV18 L2 can interact via its NLSs with several Kaps and the viral DNA and may enter the nucleus via multiple import pathways mediated by Kap alpha2beta1 heterodimers, Kap beta2 and Kap beta3. PMID:16733063

  18. Examinando a relação L1-L2 na pedagogia de ensino de ESL

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heloísa Augusta Brito de, Mello.

    Full Text Available Neste artigo procuro refletir sobre como a relação L1-L2 tem sido tratada nas teorias de aquisição de línguas, na política e na pedagogia de ensino de L2, em especial no ensino de inglês como segunda língua (ESL). Ao longo do estudo, argumento que o ensino de L2 pode se beneficiar do uso da L1 na sa [...] la de aula, principalmente quando se trata de crianças em processo de escolarização por meio da L2, ao invés de se concentrar no modelo ideal monolíngüe. O cenário que deu origem a essas reflexões é uma sala de aula de ESL de uma escola de imersão em inglês situada na região centro-oeste do Brasil. Abstract in english This article seeks to reflect on how L1-L2 relationship has been treated in second language theories, policy and pedagogy, mainly in the teaching of English as a second language (ESL). It is argued that language teaching pedagogy would benefit by paying attention to the use of L1 in the L2 classroom [...] , especially in the case of whole schooling through L2, rather than concentrating primarily on the ideal monolingual model. The scenery that motivated these reflections is an ESL classroom of an English immersion school located in the central part of Brazil

  19. L2-stability of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near global Maxwellians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a L2-stability theory of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system for the two-species collisional plasma. We show that in a perturbative regime of a global Maxwellian, the L2-distance between two strong solutions can be controlled by that between initial data in a Lipschitz manner. Our stability result extends earlier results [Ha, S.-Y. and Xiao, Q.-H., “A revisiting to the L2-stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near global Maxwellians,” (submitted) and Ha, S.-Y., Yang, X.-F., and Yun, S.-B., “L2 stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near a global Maxwellian,” Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 197, 657–688 (2010)] on the L2-stability of the Boltzmann equation to the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent external forces. As a direct application of our stability result, we show that classical solutions in Duan et al. [“Optimal large-time behavior of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system in the whole space,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 24, 1497–1546 (2011)] and Guo [“The Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near Maxwellians,” Invent. Math. 153(3), 593–630 (2003)] satisfy a uniform L2-stability estimate. This is the first result on the L2-stability of the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent field equations in three dimensions

  20. IL FENOMENO DELL’ALTERNANZA L1/L2 NELL’INSEGNAMENTO DELL’ITALIANO COME LINGUA STRANIERA. ANALISI DI UN CORPUS DI INTERAZIONI DIDATTICHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Arrigoni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La modalità plurilingue della comunicazione in classi di lingua straniera può rientrare tra le strategie pedagogiche a disposizione dell’insegnante per il raggiungimento di precisi scopi didattici e formativi. Partendo da una breve analisi sul significato di parlante plurilingue e plurilinguismo stesso, in questo articolo si è voluto esaminare come si attua una educazione al plurilinguismo in contesti formativi e, in particolare, se e come l’utilizzo della L1 può costituire uno strumento di supporto all’insegnamento e all’apprendimento di una lingua straniera. A questo scopo sono stati analizzati i dati raccolti presso l’Università di Coventry durante corsi di italiano L2 per studenti anglofoni. I fenomeni di contatto linguistico L1/L2 più frequenti e significativi sono stati suddivisi in base al parlante e alle loro funzioni.   The phenomena of l1/l2 alternation in the teaching of italian as a foreign language. analysis of a corpus of didactic interactions Multilingual communication in foreign language classrooms can be considered as one of the teacher’s pedagogical  strategies to achieve specific educational aims. Through a brief analysis of the meaning of multilingual speakers and multilingualism, this article examines how an education to multilingualism in teaching contexts is carried out and, in particular, if and how the use of the L1 can be a helpful tool for the foreign language teaching and learning. For this purpose the data collected at Coventry University during Italian (L2 classrooms for English students were examined. The more common and meaningful phenomena of linguistic contact between L1 and L2 were grouped according to the speaker and to their functions.

  1. Quantifying Morphological Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Nihat Ay; Keyan Zahedi

    2013-01-01

    The field of embodied intelligence emphasises the importance of the morphology and environment with respect to the behaviour of a cognitive system. The contribution of the morphology to the behaviour, commonly known as morphological computation, is well-recognised in this community. We believe that the field would benefit from a formalisation of this concept as we would like to ask how much the morphology and the environment contribute to an embodied agent's behaviour, or ho...

  2. Mathematical Morphology: Star/Galaxy Differentiation & Galaxy Morphology Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, J A; Drinkwater, M J; Moore, Jason A.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Drinkwater, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    We present an application of Mathematical Morphology (MM) for the classification of astronomical objects, both for star/galaxy differentiation and galaxy morphology classification. We demonstrate that, for CCD images, 99.3 +/- 3.8 % of galaxies can be separated from stars using MM, with 19.4 +/- 7.9 % of the stars being misclassified. We demonstrate that, for photographic plate images, the number of galaxies correctly separated from the stars can be increased using our MM diffraction spike tool, which allows 51.0 +/- 6.0 % of the high-brightness galaxies that are inseparable in current techniques to be correctly classified, with only 1.4 +/- 0.5 % of the high-brightness stars contaminating the population. We demonstrate that elliptical (E) and late-type spiral (Sc-Sd) galaxies can be classified using MM at an accuracy of 91.4 +/- 7.8 %. It is a method involving less `free parameters' than current techniques, especially automated machine learning algorithms. The limitation of MM galaxy morphology based on seei...

  3. L2 and L3 integrated learning – lingua franca use in learning an additional language in the classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer; Wagner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This study offers an empirical account of the use of English in Danish-as-a-foreign-language classroom settings. We will refer to English as the lingua franca - which in itself is a second language for the majority of the participants in the data - and to Danish as the target language. We consider implications of lingua franca interaction in target language classroom interactions, and show how in sequences where participants orient to linguistic issues in the target language, for example grammat...

  4. L2 and L3 integrated learning – lingua franca use in learning an additional language in the classroom.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer; Wagner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This study offers an empirical account of the use of English in Danish-as-a-foreign-language classroom settings. We will refer to English as the lingua franca - which in itself is a second language for the majority of the participants in the data - and to Danish as the target language. We consider implications of lingua franca interaction in target language classroom interactions, and show how in sequences where participants orient to linguistic issues in the target language, for example grammatical forms or lexical items, they often do this with reference to the lingua franca.

  5. Computing Prosodic Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Kiraz, George Anton

    1996-01-01

    This paper establishes a framework under which various aspects of prosodic morphology, such as templatic morphology and infixation, can be handled under two-level theory using an implemented multi-tape two-level model. The paper provides a new computational analysis of root-and-pattern morphology based on prosody.

  6. Newton-Type Iterative Solver for Multiple View $L2$ Triangulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, F.; CHEN, Z

    2014-01-01

    In this note, we show that the L2 optimal solutions to most real multiple view L2 triangulation problems can be efficiently obtained by two-stage Newton-like iterative methods, while the difficulty of such problems mainly lies in how to verify the L2 optimality. Such a working two-stage bundle adjustment approach features: first, the algorithm is initialized by symmedian point triangulation, a multiple-view generalization of the mid-point method; second, a symbolic-numeric m...

  7. L1: MADRINHA OU MADRASTA? – O PAPEL DA L1 NA AQUISIÇÃO DA L2*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HELOÍSA AUGUSTA BRITO DE MELLO

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo discuto o papel da L1 no desenvolvimento da competência em L2 bem como na aquisição de conhecimentos. Ao longo de minhas reflexões, argumento que o ensino de L2 pode se beneficiar do uso da L1 na sala de aula, principalmente quando se trata de crianças em processo de escolarização por meio da L2, ao invés de se concentrar no modelo ideal monolíngüe. O cenárioque deu origem a essas reflexões é uma sala de aula de ESL de uma escola de imersão em inglês situada na região centro-oeste do Brasil.

  8. The role of task sequencing in L2 development as mediated by working memory capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Levkina, Mayya

    2014-01-01

    [cat] Aquesta dissertació ha estat motivada per l'interès creixent en la seqüenciació de tasques en el disseny curricular de la L2, per una banda, i la manca d'estudis empírics, d'altra banda, on la seqüenciació de tasques i els seus efectes en el desenvolupament de la L2 seria basat en la teoria i investigat empíricament. D'altra banda, no hi ha hagut investigació dut a terme per veure quina és la funció mediadora de capacitat de memòria operativa en el desenvolupament de la L2 a través de l...

  9. Multiwavelet Packets and Frame Packets of $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d)$

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biswaranjan Behera

    2001-11-01

    The orthonormal basis generated by a wavelet of $L^2(\\mathbb{R})$ has poor frequency localization. To overcome this disadvantage Coifman, Meyer, and Wickerhauser constructed wavelet packets. We extend this concept to the higher dimensions where we consider arbitrary dilation matrices. The resulting basis of $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d)$ is called the multiwavelet packet basis. The concept of wavelet frame packet is also generalized to this setting. Further, we show how to construct various orthonormal bases of $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^d)$ from the multiwavelet packets.

  10. A Protective and Broadly Cross-Neutralizing Epitope of Human Papillomavirus L2?

    OpenAIRE

    Gambhira, Ratish; Karanam, Balasubramanyam; Jagu, Subhashini; Roberts, Jeffrey N; Buck, Christopher B.; Bossis, Ioannis; Alphs, Hannah; Culp, Timothy; Christensen, Neil D.; Roden, Richard B S

    2007-01-01

    We generated a monoclonal antibody, RG-1, that binds to highly conserved L2 residues 17 to 36 and neutralizes human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) and HPV18. Passive immunotherapy with RG-1 was protective in mice. Antiserum to the HPV16 L2 peptide comprising residues 17 to 36 (peptide 17-36) neutralized pseudoviruses HPV5, HPV6, HPV16, HPV 18, HPV31, HPV 45, HPV 52, HPV 58, bovine papillomavirus 1, and HPV11 native virions. Depletion of HPV16 L2 peptide 17-36-reactive antibodies from cross-neutral...

  11. Deep Learning by Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Mallat, Stéphane; Waldspurger, Irène

    2013-01-01

    We introduce general scattering transforms as mathematical models of deep neural networks with l2 pooling. Scattering networks iteratively apply complex valued unitary operators, and the pooling is performed by a complex modulus. An expected scattering defines a contractive representation of a high-dimensional probability distribution, which preserves its mean-square norm. We show that unsupervised learning can be casted as an optimization of the space contraction to preserv...

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of highly thermostable L2 lipase from the newly isolated Bacillus sp. L2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermostable recombinant L2 lipase from thermophilic Bacillus sp. L2 has been crystallized by using counter-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution. The crystal belongs to the primitive orthorhombic space group P212121 with unit-cell parameters a = 87.44, b = 94.90, c = 126.46 Å. Purified thermostable recombinant L2 lipase from Bacillus sp. L2 was crystallized by the counter-diffusion method using 20% PEG 6000, 50 mM MES pH 6.5 and 50 mM NaCl as precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.7 Å resolution using an in-house Bruker X8 PROTEUM single-crystal diffractometer system. The crystal belonged to the primitive orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 87.44, b = 94.90, c = 126.46 Å. The asymmetric unit contained one single molecule of protein, with a Matthews coefficient (VM) of 2.85 Å3 Da?1 and a solvent content of 57%

  13. Cohomologie $L^2$ des vari\\'{e}t\\'{e}s QALE

    CERN Document Server

    Carron, G

    2005-01-01

    We give a topological interpretation of the space of $L^2$ harmonis forms of some QALE manifolds introduced by D. Joyce. We introduce a analytical criterium which make possible the used of Mayer-Vietoris sequence.

  14. IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L2 Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L2 Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets (ILUTP2) data set contains surface range values for Antarctica and Greenland derived...

  15. SAFARI 2000 MODIS MOD04_L2 Aerosol Data, GRANT Format, for Southern Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The subset of the MODIS MOD04_L2 aerosol product provided in this data set represents the swaths that coincide with known times of the South African...

  16. SAFARI 2000 MODIS MOD04_L2 Aerosol Data, GRANT Format, for Southern Africa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The subset of the MODIS MOD04_L2 aerosol product provided in this data set represents the swaths that coincide with known times of the South African Weather...

  17. IceBridge Geometrics 823A Cesium Magnetometer L2 Geolocated Magnetic Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA IceBridge Geometrics 823A Cesium Magnetometer L2 Geolocated Magnetic Anomalies (IMGEO2) data set contains magnetic anomaly measurements taken over...

  18. Pre-IceBridge LVIS L2 Geolocated Ground Elevation and Return Energy Quartiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Pre-IceBridge LVIS L2 Geolocated Ground Elevation and Return Energy Quartiles (BLVIS2) data set contains ground elevation measurements taken in 2007 over...

  19. EX1205L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1205L2: Northeast Canyons and...

  20. EX1304L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S. Canyons...

  1. EX1004L2 Water Column Summary Report and Profile Data Collection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A complete set of water column profile data and CTD Summary Report (if generated) generated by the Okeanos Explorer during EX1004L2: Exploration Indonesia - Bitung...

  2. EX1304L2 Dive04 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S....

  3. EX1404L2 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1404L2: Our Deepwater...

  4. EX1202L2 Dive16 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico...

  5. EX1304L2 Dive03 Ancillary Data Collection including reports, kmls, spreadsheets, images and data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard suite of ancillary data files generated through a scripting process following an ROV dive on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S....

  6. Working memory capacity and L2 speech production in a picture description task with repetition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyria Finardi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O estudo investiga a relação entre a capacidade de memória de trabalho e os ganhos na produção oral em L2 durante uma tarefa de descrição de figura com repetição. Partindo de Fortkamp (2000 que encontrou correlações entre a capacidade de memória de trabalho e medidas de produção oral em L2 e Bygate (2001b que mostrou que na repetição de tarefas os participantes ganham em complexidade de fala em detrimento, principalmente da acurácia e da fluência, este estudo propõe que pode haver correlações entre os ganhos na complexidade da fala em L2 e a capacidade de memória de trabalho. Resultados do experimento mostram ganhos na complexidade da fala em L2, mas os mesmos não correlacionam com a capacidade de memória de trabalho. A falta de correlações é explicada em razão do pequeno número de participantes que não permitiu variação na capacidade de memória de trabalho.

  7. The Impact of an Online Learning Community Project on University Chinese as a Foreign Language Students' Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shengrong; Zhu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of an online learning community project on university students' motivation in learning Chinese as a foreign language. A newly proposed second language (L2) motivation theory--the L2 motivational self system (Dornyei, 2005, 2009)--guided this study. A concurrent transformative mixed-methods design was employed to…

  8. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria is a Diagnostic Indicator of Leukodystrophy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Reza ASHRAFI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Ashrafi MR, Nikkhah A, Houshmand M, Aryani O. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria is a Diagnostic Indicator of Leukodystrophy: A CaseReport Iranian Journal of Child Neurology 2011;5(4:37-38. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive inherited neurometabolic disorder.It is characterized by slow progressive neurological dysfunction with cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, intellectual decline, and seizures. Herein, we report a case of a 7-year-old boy from Tehran whose symptoms and signs indicated leukoencephalopathy with macrocephaly and motor delay. References 1. Barth PG, Hoffmann GF, Jaeken J, Lehnert W, Hanefeld F, van Gennip AH, et al. L-2-hydroxyglutaric acidemia: a novel inherited neurometabolic disease. Ann Neurol 1992;32(1:66-71. 2. Duran M, Kamerling JP, Bakker HD, Van Gennip AH, Wadman S. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria: an inborn error of metabolism? J Inherit Metab Dis 1980;3(4:109-12. 3. Haliloglu G, Jobard F, Oguz KK, Anlar B, Akalan N, Coskun T, et al. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria and brain tumors in children with mutations in the L2HGDH gene: neuroimaging findings. Neuropediatrics  2008;39(2:119-22. 4. De Klerk JB, Huijmans JG, Stroink H, Robben SG, Jakobs C, Duran M. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: clinical heterogeneity versus biochemical homogeneity in a sibship. Neuropediatrics 1997;28(6:314-7. 5. Fenichel GM. Clinical pediatric neurology: a signs and symptoms approach. Saunders:Elsevier, 2009. 6. Diogo L, Fineza I, Canha J, Borges L, Cardoso ML, Vilarinho L. Macrocephaly as the presenting feature of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria in a 5-month-old boy. J Inherit Metab Dis 1996;19(3:369-70. 7. Rzem R, Van Schaftingen E, Veiga-da-Cunha M. The gene mutated in l-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria encodes l-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase. Biochimie 2006;88(1:113-6. 8. Shafeghati Y, Vakili G, Entezari A. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: A report of six cases and Review of the Literature. Arch Iran Med 2006;9(2:165-9. 

  9. The Relationship between (Meta)cognitive Strategies and Reading Comprehension in Iranian Female L2 Learners

    OpenAIRE

    Somayeh Karami; Mahmood Hashemian

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the possible effects of the Iranian elementary female L2 learners’ (meta)cognitive reading strategy knowledge on their reading comprehension in 3 different stages of reading, that is, prereading, while-reading, and postreading phases. In order to control the language proficiency factor, 40 L2 learners were selected through the application of the Oxford Placement Test. The participants belonged to 2 different age groups. Twenty of them were selected from the ...

  10. Mental lexicon, working memory and L2 (english) vocabulary in polish students with and without dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Lockiewicz, Marta; Jaskulska, Martyna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between access to the mental lexicon, working memory and knowledge of English (L2) vocabulary. Analyses were undertaken amongst monolingual speakers of Polish (26 with dyslexia, 24 without) who studied English as a second language as part of their compulsory educational programme at school. We assumed that students with dyslexia would manifest deficits in access to the mental lexicon and verbal working memory, and would have a limited L2 vo...

  11. Low Parametric Sensitivity Realizations with relaxed L2-dynamic-range-scaling constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Hilaire, Thibault

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new dynamic-range scaling for the implementation of filters/controllers in state-space form. Relaxing the classical L2-scaling constraints by specific fixed-point considerations allows for a higher degree of freedom for the optimal L2-parametric sensitivity problem. However, overflows in the implementation are still prevented. The underlying constrained problem is converted into an unconstrained problem for which a solution can be provided. This leads to realizations whi...

  12. A processability account of the L2 article acquisition by Bulgarian young learners of English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harakchiyska T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper sheds a new light on the acquisition of English articles by L2 young learners of English. It focuses on the interplay between L1 interference and the applicability of a recent cognitive theoretical framework – the Processability theory which serve as a basis for outlining the possible difficulties in the English article acquisition by Bulgarian 9-10-year old learners of English as L2.

  13. Based on combination of L2TP and IPSec VPN security technology research

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-qin Fan; Chi Li; Chao Sun

    2012-01-01

    This report is written to provide a method of building secure VPN by combination of L2TP and IPSec in order to meet the requirements of secure transmission of data and improve the VPN security technology. It remedies the secured short comes of L2TP Tunneling Protocol Tunneling Protocol and IPSec security. Simulation and analysis show that the construction method can improve the security of data transmission, and the simulation results of VPN is valuable for security professionals to refer.

  14. Main Ingredients for Success in L2 Academic Writing: Outlining, Drafting and Proofreading

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz-Luna, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Spanish undergraduates of English Studies are required to submit their essays in academic English, a genre which most of them are not acquainted with. This paper aims to explore the extralinguistic side of second language (L2) academic writing, more specifically, the combination of metalinguistic items (e.g. transition and frame markers, among others) with students’ writing strategies when composing an academic text in L2 English. The research sample conveys a group of 200 Spanish undergradua...

  15. MORE THAN A LINGUISTIC REFERENCE: THE INFLUENCE OF CORPUS TECHNOLOGY ON L2 ACADEMIC WRITING

    OpenAIRE

    Hyunsook Yoon

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative study that investigated the changes in students’ writing process associated with corpus use over an extended period of time. The primary purpose of this study was to examine how corpus technology affects students’ development of competence as second language (L2) writers. The research was mainly based on case studies with six L2 writers in an English for Academic Purposes writing course. The findings revealed that corpus use not only had an immediate effect...

  16. Unique splicing pattern of the TCF7L2 gene in human pancreatic islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmark, P; Hansson, O

    2009-01-01

    Intronic variation in the TCF7L2 gene exhibits the strongest association to type 2 diabetes observed to date, but the mechanism whereby this genetic variation translates into altered biological function is largely unknown. A possible explanation is a genotype-dependent difference in the complex splicing pattern; however, this has not previously been characterised in pancreatic or insulin target tissues. Here, the detailed TCF7L2 splicing pattern in five human tissues is described and dependence on risk genotype explored.

  17. A validation and application of the L2 motivational self system among Chinese learners of English

    OpenAIRE

    Magid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This thesis consists of two mixed-methods studies: a validation study and an application study of Dörnyei's (2009a) L2 Motivational Self System with participants from China. The quantitative part of the validation study involved 1,154 Chinese middle school and university students from mainland China and the follow-up qualitative study consisted of ten Chinese university students at a British university from mainland China. Structural equation models and correlational analyses validated the L2...

  18. An ERP study on L2 syntax processing: When do learners fail?

    OpenAIRE

    Meulman, Nienke; Stowe, Laurie A.; Sprenger, Simone A.; Bresser, Moniek; Schmid, Monika S.

    2014-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) can reveal online processing differences between native speakers and second language (L2) learners during language comprehension. Using the P600 as a measure of native-likeness, we investigated processing of grammatical gender agreement in highly proficient immersed Romance L2 learners of Dutch. We demonstrate that these late learners consistently fail to show native-like sensitivity to gender violations. This appears to be due to a combination of differe...

  19. A Novel Pair of Replacement Algorithms for L1 and L2 Cache for FFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Richa Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Processors speed is much faster than memory; to bridge this gap cache memory is used. This paper proposes a preeminent pair of replacement algorithms for Level 1 cache (L1 and Level 2 cache (L2 respectively for the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. The access patterns of L1 and L2 are different, when CPU does not get the desired data in L1 then it refers to L2. Thus the replacement algorithm which works efficiently for L1 may not be efficient for L2. With the memory access pattern of FFT, the paper has simulated and analyzed the behavior of various existing replacement algorithms on L1 and L2 respectively. The replacement algorithms which are taken into consideration are: Least Recently Used (LRU, Least Frequently Used (LFU and First In First Out (FIFO.This paper has also proposed new replacement algorithms for L1 (FFTNEW1 and for L2 (FFTNEW2 respectively for the same application. Simulation results shows that by applying the proposed pair of replacement algorithms miss rates are considerably reduced.

  20. Accuracy validation of T2L2 time transfer in co-location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laas-Bourez, Myrtille; Courde, Clément; Samain, Etienne; Exertier, Pierre; Guillemot, Philippe; Torre, Jean-Marie; Martin, Nicolas; Foussard, Claude

    2015-02-01

    The Time Transfer by Laser Link (T2L2) experiment has been developed in close collaboration between Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales and Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur. The aim is to synchronize remote ultra-stable clocks over large-scale distances using two laser ranging stations. This ground to space time transfer has been derived from laser telemetry technology with dedicated space equipment designed to record arrival time of laser pulses on board the satellite. For 3 years, specific campaigns have been organized to prove T2L2 performance. In April 2012, we performed a 2-week campaign with our two laser ranging stations, Métrologie Optique and French Transportable Laser Ranging Station, to demonstrate the T2L2 time transfer accuracy in co-location. We have compared three independent time transfer techniques: T2L2, GPS, and direct measurement, with both an event timer and an interval counter. The most important result obtained in this campaign was a mean agreement between T2L2 and a direct comparison better than 200 ps. This is the first major step to validate the uncertainty budget of the entire T2L2 experiment. This paper focuses on this campaign setup and the obtained results. PMID:25643076

  1. The Effect of Using Print Media on Children’s L2 Literacy Development: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Tavakoli

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to examine the effect of using print media in the classroom on the children’s L2 literacy development in an EFL context. Since reading is regarded as a chief goal, in many second/foreign language teaching situations, it receives a special focus. Media as a tool for language learning/teaching, can help both instructed and non-instructed learners to overcome the difficult task of language learning. In order to determine the effects of print media usage on the development of children’s foreign language reading abilities, 30 children aged between 7-8 familiar to English alphabet were selected. Based on DIBELS performance, participants were homogenized and assigned as low group. According to National Reading Panel, story books, magazines and newspapers were used to teach five areas of reading proficiency, i.e. phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and text comprehension. After one year of instruction, based on DIBELS performance, participants were assigned to medium and high groups; implying the effect of direct instruction and print media usage in classrooms for developing foreign language reading abilities. 

  2. A Survey Study of Autonomous Learning by Chinese Non-English Major Post-graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Jianping Xu

    2009-01-01

    This thesis reports a survey study of the autonomous L2 learning by 100 first-year non-English-major Chinese post-graduates via the instruments of a questionnaire and semi-structured interview after the questionnaire. It attends to address the following research question: To what extent do Chinese postgraduate students conduct autonomous L2 learning? It was found that the overall degree of the postgraduates’ autonomous English learning is not so satisfactory as expected. Much needs to be done...

  3. Second language learners’ achievement in literature through problem-based learning method

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Athar Hussain; Muhammad Nafees; Nabi Bux Jumani

    2009-01-01

    Teaching literature to L2 learners demands methodological training and innovative strategies to bring effectiveness in learning. Problem based instructional strategy is being widely used to determine its impact on learner’s achievement, retention, attitude etc. This paper explores the impact of Problem based learning method (PBLM) and Traditional lecture method on achievement of L2 learners in the learning of literature at grade XII in Pakistan. An experiment was conducted on 67 students, 34 ...

  4. Effectiveness of L2 spinal nerve infiltration for selective discogenic low back pain patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that rat L5/6 lumbar discs are innervated mainly by L2 dorsal root ganglion neurons. We previously reported that L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective for discogenic low back pain (DLBP) patients, although the diagnosis was based only on the results of physical examination, plain films, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate L2 spinal nerve block for DLBP patients retrospectively based on MRI findings and surgical results. A total of 62 patients with only LBP and no accompanying radicular pain were investigated. Patients had only one level of disc degeneration on MRI. When pain was provoked during discography, we performed surgery at the next stage (40 patients). In all, 22 patients were excluded owing to negative discography results. Of the 40 patients, we evaluated 25 strictly selected patients suffering from DLBP. DLBP was diagnosed when the patient experienced pain relief at least 2 years after anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Fifteen patients who did not show pain relief after surgery were used for the non-DLBP group. L2 spinal nerve infiltration using 1.5 ml of lidocaine was performed in all 40 patients before surgery. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score after L2 spinal nerve infiltration was recorded, and an association of L2 spinal nerve infiltration and DLBP was explored. Low back pain scores assessed using the VAS score, the Japanese Orthopedic Association score, and the Oswestry Disability Index score in the two groups were not significantly different. L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective for 27 patients but not effective for 13 patients; the VAS score after 15 min and 2 h improved in the DLBP group compared with that of the non-DLBP group (P<0.05). L2 spinal nerve infiltration was more effective in DLBP patients (21 patients, 84%) than in the non-DLBP group (6 patients, 40%) (P<0.05). In the current study, L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective in 84% of selected DLBP patients and is thought to be a useful tool for diagnosing DLBP. However, we should take into consideration that the L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective in 40% of non-DLBP patients as well. (author)

  5. Low doses of flagellin-L2 multimer vaccines protect against challenge with diverse papillomavirus genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalnin, Kirill; Tibbitts, Timothy; Yan, Yanhua; Stegalkina, Svetlana; Shen, Lihua; Costa, Victor; Sabharwal, Robert; Anderson, Stephen F.; Day, Patricia M.; Christensen, Neil; Schiller, John T.; Jagu, Subhashini; Roden, Richard B.S.; Almond, Jeffrey; Kleanthous, Harold

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified bacterial flagellin (Fla), a Toll-like receptor-5 (TLR5) ligand, was evaluated as a fusion partner for human papillomavirus (HPV) L2-based immunogens in two animal challenge models; either cutaneous inoculation of rabbits with HPV ‘quasivirions’ containing cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) genomes that induce warts, or intra-vaginal inoculation of mice with HPV ‘pseudovirions’ encapsidating a luciferase reporter plasmid and measurement of bioluminescence to determine infectivity. An Escherichia coli production system was developed for flagellin-L2 (Fla-L2) fusions containing either monomeric HPV-16 L2 a.a. 11(× 11–200) or oligomeric L2 comprising a fusion of the a.a. 11–88 peptides of five (Fla~5 × 11–88) or eight (Fla~8 × 11–88) genital HPV types. Immunogenicity and bioactivity of Fla-L2 constructs were assessed using an in vitro neutralization and cell-based TLR-5 binding assay, respectively. Efficacy was evaluated following active immunization of rabbits or mice administered 3 intramuscular doses of Fla-L2 recombinants without exogenous adjuvant, followed by challenge. In addition, passive immunization studies of naïve rabbits with serial dilutions of pooled immune sera were used to determine End-Point Protection Titers (EPPT) for each formulation against a broader spectrum of HPV quasivirions. Efficacy was assessed for up to 10 weeks on the basis of wart volume induced following challenge and results compared to licensed L1-VLP vaccines (Gardasil and Cervarix). Following active immunization at doses as low as 1 ?g, Fla-L2 fusions afforded complete protection against infection (mice) and disease (rabbits) following either homologous or heterologous HPV challenge. Passive immunization with anti-L2 immune sera discriminated between the different vaccine candidates under evaluation, demonstrated the protective role of antibody and suggested the superiority of this oligomeric L2-TLR5 agonist fusion approach compared to L1-based vaccines in its ability to cross-protect against non-vaccine HPV types. PMID:24780250

  6. Comprensión auditiva en inglés como L2: Efecto de la instrucción explícita de estrategias metacognitivas para su desarrollo / ESL listening comprehension: Effect of explicit metacognitive strategy training for its development

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LILIAN, GÓMEZ ÁLVAREZ; MARÍA SOLEDAD, SANDOVAL ZÚÑIGA; KATIA, SÁEZ CARRILLO.

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio cuasiexperimental fue determinar la importancia que tiene la instrucción explícita del uso de estrategias metacognitivas de planificación, monitoreo y evaluación en la comprensión auditiva de estudiantes universitarios de inglés como L2 en tres niveles de desarrollo [...] de la lengua. Los resultados sugieren que la instrucción explícita de este tipo de estrategias contribuye a una comprensión auditiva más efectiva y, por lo tanto, debería ser integrada a los programas regulares de instrucción en L2. Abstract in english The purspose of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate the effect of explicit instruction in the use of metacognitive strategies of planning, monitoring and evaluation on the listening performance of university ESL students in three competence levels. The study suggests that explicit metac [...] ognitive strategy training results in more effective L2 listening comprehension and, thus, it should be an integral part of any ESL learning program.

  7. THE MORPHOLOGICAL BASIS FOR OLFACTORY PERCEPTION OF STEROIDS DUING AGONISTIC BEHAVIOR IN LOBSTER: PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphological basis for olfactory perception of steroids during agonistic behavior in lobsters: preliminary experiments. Borsay Horowitz, DJ1, Kass-Simon, G2, Coglianese, D2, Martin, L2, Boseman, M2, Cromarty, S3, Randall, K3, Fini, A.3 1US EPA, NHEERL, ORD, Atlantic Ecology...

  8. False Cognates: The Effect of Mismatch in Morphological Complexity on a Backward Lexical Translation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Vikki; Kolokonte, Marina

    2015-01-01

    In this article we focus on "false cognates", lexical items that have overlapping orthographic/phonological properties but little or no semantic overlap. False-cognate pairs were created from French (second language or L2) and English (first language or L1) items by manipulating the levels of morphological correspondence between them.…

  9. Soft morphological image resizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseff, Pavel A.

    1997-04-01

    One important problem in computer vision and image processing is image resizing. Current techniques are generally based on different interpolation methods. These methods are convenient but the downsampled or upsampled image will include new gray values which are not present in the original image. Soft morphological interpolation is a new technique for resampling discrete data. The soft morphological operations are an alternative to the standard morphological operation. The generic description of hierarchical soft morphological transformations was done previously. The further development of soft morphological operations by a hierarchical structural system uses the relaxation of the requirement that the result of the operation must be the r-th largest or smallest value of the corresponding multiset, where r is an order index of the internal hard center. We will assume that any reasonable integer value is acceptable. The purpose of this paper is to derive the sot morphological convolution and compare the result of this convolution with the cubic convolution and Gaussian pyramid.

  10. Universality of striped morphologies

    OpenAIRE

    Edlund, Erik; Jacobi, Martin Nilsson

    2011-01-01

    We present a method for predicting the low-temperature behavior of spherical and Ising spin models with isotropic potentials. For the spherical model the characteristic length scales of the ground states are exactly determined but the morphology is shown to be degenerate with checkerboard patterns, stripes and more complex morphologies having identical energy. For the Ising models we show that the discretization breaks the degeneracy causing striped morphologies to be energe...

  11. Early L2 English Teaching in Iceland. A literature review of possible L2 effects on L1 early literacy development

    OpenAIRE

    Jóna Katrín Hilmarsdóttir 1982

    2010-01-01

    This thesis examines what effects early English instruction as a foreign language instruction may have on early literacy development in the first language. English exposure is high in Iceland and in light of recent changes in the curriculum for Icelandic grammar schools, where English instruction begins at ever lower levels; several questions have been left unanswered. Although not much research has been conducted on the possible effects of early L2 instruction on L1 literacy development, a...

  12. A Comparative Study on Error Analysis : Belgian (L1) and Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Chun

    Title: A Comparative Study on Error Analysis Subtitle: - Belgian (L1) and Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production Xiaoli Wu, Chun Zhang Abstract: Making errors is an inevitable and necessary part of learning. The collection, classification and analysis of errors in the written and spoken production of L2 learners has a long tradition in L2 pedagogy. Yet, in teaching and learning Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), only handful studies have been made either to define the ‘error’ in a pedagogically insightful way or to empirically investigate the occurrence of errors either in linguistic or pedagogical terms. The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate the theoretical and practical relevance of error analysis approach in CFL by investigating two cases - (1) Belgian (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production; (2) Danish (L1) learners’ use of Chinese (L2) comparative sentences in written production. The two casestudies were conducted at two universities of two countries: University of Leuven (LU), Belgium, and University of Aarhus (AU), Denmark during the academic year 2014/2015. There were altogether 87 students (N= 54 students from LU; and N= 33 students from AU) participating in the studies, among them 44 are 2nd-year students (n=28 from LU and n=16 from AU) and 43 3rd-year students (n=26 from LU and n=17 from AU). Students’ writing samples were first collected and the errors on the use of comparative sentences were then identified and described. The study results from the two case studies reveal that the use of ‘b? - ?’ has a very high error rate regardless of task types, proficiency level and learners’ first languages. After analyzing all the learner errors, a categorization framework of the grammatical errors with using comparative sentences is developed, which include comparative item-related errors, comparative result-related errors and blend errors. The results further indicate that these errors could attribute to negative L1 transfer and overgeneralization of grammatical rule and structures. Finally, pedagogical implication of CFL is discussed and future research is suggested. Keywords: error analysis, comparative sentences, comparative structure ‘‘b? - ?’, Chinese as a foreign language (CFL), written production

  13. Second-language learning and changes in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhout, Lee; Poliakov, Andrew; Inoue, Kayo; McLaughlin, Judith; Valentine, Geoffrey; Pitkanen, Ilona; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl; Hirschensohn, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Presumably, second-language (L2) learning is mediated by changes in the brain. Little is known about what changes in the brain, how the brain changes, or when these changes occur during learning. Here, we illustrate by way of example how modern brain-based methods can be used to discern some of the changes that occur during L2 learning. Preliminary results from three studies indicate that classroom-based L2 instruction can result in changes in the brain’s electrical activity, in the location of this activity within the brain, and in the structure of the learners’ brains. These changes can occur during the earliest stages of L2 acquisition. PMID:19079740

  14. Prognostic significance of PD-L1 and PD-L2 in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Mauricio Z; Sarian, Luis Otavio; Derchain, Sophie F M; Pinto, Glauce A; Vassallo, José

    2016-01-01

    PD-L1 and PD-L2 constitute an important antitumor immune response. In breast cancer, their prognostic value is still to be defined. In this study, we investigate the correlation between PD-L1 and PD-L2 protein expressions with clinical and pathologic features and disease-free survival and overall survival. To assess PD-L1 and PD-L2 expressions, we conducted immunohistochemistry studies using a breast cancer tissue microarray encompassing a total of 192 breast cancer cases, stages I, II, and III, with detailed clinical and outcome data. PD-L1 expression was present in 56.6% (107/189), and PD-L2 expression was identified in 50.8% (97/191) of breast cancer cases. Younger age at diagnosis, lymph node positivity, negative estrogen receptor, and recurrence at distant sites were all associated with both PD-L1 and PD-L2 expressions. The presence of larger tumors was associated only with PD-L1 expression. In our study, PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with better overall survival (P = .04) in breast cancer patients. Despite its association with poor clinical and pathologic features, PD-L1 expression emerges as a positive prognostic biomarker in breast cancer. This survival result might be due to the presence of a strong antitumor immune response leading to PD-L1 expression. PMID:26541326

  15. TCF7L2 polymorphisms and inflammatory markers before and after treatment with fenofibrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabagambe Edmond K

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation is implicated in causing diabetes. We tested whether transcription factor 7 like-2 (TCF7L2 gene polymorphisms (rs12255372 and rs7903146, consistently associated with type 2 diabetes, are associated with plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers before and after three weeks of daily treatment with fenofibrate. Methods Men and women in the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study (n = 1025, age 49 ± 16 y were included. All participants suspended use of lipid-lowering drugs for three weeks and were then given 160 mg/day of fenofibrate for three weeks. Inflammatory markers and lipids were measured before and after fenofibrate. ANOVA was used to test for differences across TCF7L2 genotypes. Results Under the additive or dominant model, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05 in the concentrations of inflammatory markers (hsCRP, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-? and MCP-1 across TCF7L2 genotypes in the period before or after treatment. For both rs12255372 and rs7903146, homozygote T-allele carriers had significantly higher (P Conclusion Overall these data show no association between TCF7L2 polymorphisms and the inflammatory markers suggesting that the effects of TCF7L2 on diabetes may not be via inflammation.

  16. Morphology and speech technology

    OpenAIRE

    Lüngen, Harald; Pampel, Martina; Drexel, Guido; Gibbon, Dafydd; Althoff, Frederek; Schillo, Christoph

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a morphological component in a speech recognition architecture for German dealing with the recognition of compounds from their individual constituents. The specification of our morphological model allows for variation in functionality, e.g. the reconstruction of split compounds, of lexicalised, and of non-lexicalised (unknown) compounds.An implementation and evaluation results for split compounds are presented.

  17. Abductive Reasoning and Second Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana S. Jovanovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Although much work has been conducted on deductive and inductive approaches to second language learning, insufficient attention has been dedicated to abductive reasoning. This paper presents the results from an exploratory study on the processes that motivate initial hypothesis-making and their possible repercussions for L2 instruction. More specifically, the beginner foreign language learners’ ability to infer word meaning based on their overall linguistic knowledge (e.g., knowledge of the first language, knowledge of other foreign languages was tested in order to draw conclusions about abductive reasoning in L2 learning.

  18. Demotivating Factors for English Language Learning Among University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Reyhaneh Ghadirzadeh; Fariba P. Hashtroudi; Omid Shokri

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Demotivation is a relatively new issue in the field of second/foreign Language (L2) learning motivation. Recognizing and removing barriers can have a marked effect on motivation and attention to learning in general and ESL/EFL learning in particular. Demotivating factors are essential factors which negatively influence the learner?s attitudes and behaviors and hence lead to undesired learning outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effective factors on...

  19. Using Mixed-Modality Learning Strategies via e-Learning for Second Language Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang-Chuan Ou; Wu, Wen-Chi Vivian

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrated an e-learning system, MyEVA, based on a mixed-modality vocabulary strategy in assisting learners of English as a second language (L2 learners) to improve their vocabulary. To explore the learning effectiveness of MyEVA, the study compared four vocabulary-learning techniques, MyEVA in preference mode, MyEVA in basic mode, an…

  20. Second language learning difficulties in Chinese children with dyslexia: what are the reading-related cognitive skills that contribute to English and Chinese word reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children-28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (RL) controls-participated and were administered measures of word reading, rapid naming, visual-orthographic skills, and phonological and morphological awareness in both L1 and L2. Children with dyslexia showed weaker performance than CA controls in both languages and had more difficulties in phonological awareness in English but not in Chinese. In addition, reading-related cognitive skills in Chinese contributed significantly to the ability to read English words, suggesting cross-linguistic transfer from L1 to L2. Results found evidence for different phonological units of awareness related to the characteristics of the different languages being learned, supporting the psycholinguistic grain size and linguistic coding differences hypotheses. PMID:19897734

  1. L2 norm performance index of synchronization and optimal control synthesis of complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chao; Chen, Guanrong; Huang, Lin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the synchronizability problem of dynamical networks is addressed, where better synchronizability means that the network synchronizes faster with lower-overshoot. The L2 norm of the error vector e is taken as a performance index to measure this kind of synchronizability. For the equilibrium synchronization case, it is shown that there is a close relationship between the L2 norm of the error vector e and the H2 norm of the transfer function G of the linearized network about the equilibrium point. Consequently, the effect of the network coupling topology on the H2 norm of the transfer function G is analyzed. Finally, an optimal controller is designed, according to the so-called LQR problem in modern control theory, which can drive the whole network to its equilibrium point and meanwhile minimize the L2 norm of the output of the linearized network.

  2. The expression of Path in L2 Danish by German and Turkish learners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Moiken

    2014-01-01

    Do language learners think in their first language (L1) when using their second language (L2)? This study explores the nature of crosslinguistic influence by investigating how German and Turkish learners of Danish express motion, paying special attention to the semantics of Path. We examined three aspects: overall Path frequency, Path complexity, and the subcomponents of Path. The presence of L1 influence in each aspect reflects how the interplay between form and meaning is carried over as a whole to the L2. In particular, we show how the selection of a specific Path meaning for expression in the L2 has its root in the structural and semantic properties of the L1. This raises important questions regarding how form and meaning are organized in the learner's mind.

  3. Control and Stabilization of the Benjamin-Ono Equation in {L^2({{T})}}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Camille; Linares, Felipe; Rosier, Lionel

    2015-12-01

    We study the control and stabilization of the Benjamin-Ono equation in {L^2({T})}, the lowest regularity where the initial value problem is well-posed. This problem was already initiated in Linares and Rosier (Trans Am Math Soc 367:4595-4626, 2015) where a stronger stabilization term was used (that makes the equation of parabolic type in the control zone). Here we employ a more natural stabilization term related to the L 2-norm. Moreover, by proving a theorem of controllability in L 2, we manage to prove the global controllability in large time. Our analysis relies strongly on the bilinear estimates proved in Molinet and Pilod (Anal PDE 5:365-395, 2012) and some new extension of these estimates established here.

  4. The Effects of Planned Instruction on Iranian L2 Learners' Interlanguage Pragmatic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Esmaeili

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The most compelling evidence that instruction in L2pragmatics is necessary comes from learners whoselanguage proficiency is advanced but their communicative actsfrequently contain pragmatic errors. The current studyevaluated the impact of explicit instruction on EFL learner'sawareness and production of three speech acts of request,apology, and complaint. It also probed whether learners’language proficiency plays any role in incorporatingpragmatic instruction into the L2 classroom. The instructionlasted for about 12 weeks. Achievement in L2 pragmaticswas assessed based on a pretest-posttest plan usingMultiple-Choice Discourse Comprehension Test (MDCTand Written Discourse Completion Test (WDCT. Thesignificant gains made by the experimental groups receivinginstruction support the claim recently made by instructionalpragmatics that explicit instruction does facilitate thedevelopment of pragmatically appropriate use of language.Yet, learners’ level of language proficiency had no significantrole in the incorporation of the instruction. Furthertheoretical issues are also discussed.

  5. Orbiting GPS Receiver Modified to Track New L2C Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Tom K.; Robison, David; Munson, Tim N.; Young, Larry E.; Stoyanov, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The L2C signal is a great step forward for civil applications of GPS, enabling high-accuracy dual-frequency measurements. Engineers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and ITT teamed to reprogram FPGA firmware and add tracking software on an orbiting receiver to track the new GPS L2C signal from SAC-C. SAC-C is an Argentinean science satellite and was launched in November 2000 with a BlackJack GPS receiver. This is a dual-frequency digital receiver with 48 tracking channels and four antennas. On SAC-C, it provides precise orbits, atmospheric occultation data, tests of GPS surface reflections, and serves as an orbiting test bed for new GPS development such as the L2C tracking reported here.

  6. Study of Heterogeneous Structure in Diesel Fuel Spray by Using Micro-Probe L2F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Daisaku; Yamamoto, Shohei; Ueki, Hironobu; Ishdia, Masahiro

    A L2F (Laser 2-Focus velocimeter) was applied for the measurements of the velocity and size of droplets in diesel fuel sprays. The micro-scale probe of the L2F has an advantage in avoiding the multiple scattering from droplets in a dense region of fuel sprays. A data sampling rate of 15MHz has been achieved in the L2F system for detecting almost all of the droplets which passed through the measurement probe. Diesel fuel was injected into the atmosphere by using a common rail injector. Measurement positions were located along the spray axis at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mm from the nozzle exit. Measurement result showed that the velocity and size of droplets decreased and the number density of droplets increased along the spray axis. It was clearly shown that the mass flow rate in the spray was highest near the spray tip and was lower inside the spray.

  7. The Dirichlet problem with L2-boundary data for elliptic linear equations

    CERN Document Server

    Chabrowski, Jan

    1991-01-01

    The Dirichlet problem has a very long history in mathematics and its importance in partial differential equations, harmonic analysis, potential theory and the applied sciences is well-known. In the last decade the Dirichlet problem with L2-boundary data has attracted the attention of several mathematicians. The significant features of this recent research are the use of weighted Sobolev spaces, existence results for elliptic equations under very weak regularity assumptions on coefficients, energy estimates involving L2-norm of a boundary data and the construction of a space larger than the usual Sobolev space W1,2 such that every L2-function on the boundary of a given set is the trace of a suitable element of this space. The book gives a concise account of main aspects of these recent developments and is intended for researchers and graduate students. Some basic knowledge of Sobolev spaces and measure theory is required.

  8. The nearby AGB star L2 Puppis: the birth of a planetary nebula ?

    CERN Document Server

    Kervella, P; Lagadec, E

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive optics observations in the infrared (VLT/NACO, Kervella et al. 2014) and visible (VLT/SPHERE, Kervella et al. 2015) domains revealed that the nearby AGB star L2 Pup (d=64 pc) is surrounded by a dust disk seen almost edge-on. Thermal emission from a large dust "loop" is detected at 4 microns up to more than 10 AU from the star. We also detect a secondary source at a separation of 32 mas, whose nature is uncertain. L2 Pup is currently a relatively "young" AGB star, so we may witness the formation of a planetary nebula. The mechanism that breaks the spherical symmetry of mass loss is currently uncertain, but we propose that the dust disk and companion are key elements in the shaping of the bipolar structure. L2 Pup emerges as an important system to test this hypothesis.

  9. Age of language learning shapes brain structure: a cortical thickness study of bilingual and monolingual individuals.

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, D.(University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, U.S.A.); Mok, K.; Chen, J-K; Watkins, KE

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of learning a second language (L2) on brain structure. Cortical thickness was measured in the MRI datasets of 22 monolinguals and 66 bilinguals. Some bilingual subjects had learned both languages simultaneously (0-3. years) while some had learned their L2 after achieving proficiency in their first language during either early (4-7. years) or late childhood (8-13. years). Later acquisition of L2 was associated with significantly thicker cortex in the left inferior front...

  10. Based on combination of L2TP and IPSec VPN security technology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-qin Fan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This report is written to provide a method of building secure VPN by combination of L2TP and IPSec in order to meet the requirements of secure transmission of data and improve the VPN security technology. It remedies the secured short comes of L2TP Tunneling Protocol Tunneling Protocol and IPSec security. Simulation and analysis show that the construction method can improve the security of data transmission, and the simulation results of VPN is valuable for security professionals to refer.

  11. Linear bound for the dyadic paraproduct on weighted Lebesgue space $L_2(w)$

    OpenAIRE

    Beznosova, Oleksandra V.

    2007-01-01

    The dyadic paraproduct is bounded in weighted Lebesgue spaces $L_p(w)$ if and only if the weight $w$ belongs to the Muckenhoupt class $A_p^d$. However, the sharp bounds on the norm of the dyadic paraproduct are not known even in the simplest $L_2(w)$ case. In this paper we prove the linear bound on the norm of the dyadic paraproduct in the weighted Lebesgue space $L_2(w)$ using Bellman function techniques and extrapolate this result to the $L_p(w)$ case.

  12. On the asymptotic expansion of the curvature of perturbations of the $L_{2}$ connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De, Amit

    2013-01-01

    We establish that the Hitchin connection is a perturbation of the $L_{2}$-connection. We notice that such a formulation of the Hitchin connection does not necessarily require the manifold in question possessing a rigid family of Kähler structures. We then proceed to calculate the asymptotic expansion of general perturbations of the $L_{2}$-connection, and see when under certain assumptions such perturbations are flat and projectively flat. During the calculations we also found an asymptotic expansion of the projection operator $\\pi_{\\sigma}^{\\left(k\\right)}$ which projects onto the holomorphic sections of the k-th tensor of prequantum line bundle.

  13. Association between TCF7L2 Genotype and Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients Treated with Gliclazide

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Javorský; Eva Babjaková; Lucia Klim?áková; Zbynek Schroner; Jozef Židzik; Mária Štolfová; Ján Šalagovi?; Ivan Tká?

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies showed associations between variants in TCF7L2 gene and the therapeutic response to sulfonylureas. All sulfonylureas stimulate insulin secretion by the closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel. The aim of the present study was to compare TCF7L2 genotype specific effect of gliclazide binding to KATP channel A-site (Group 1) with sulfonylureas binding to AB-site (Group 2). A total of 101 patients were treated with sulfonylureas for 6 months as an add-on therapy to the ...

  14. Trajectory and stability of Lagrangian point $L_2$ in the Sun-Earth system

    OpenAIRE

    Kushvah, Badam Singh

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes design of the trajectory and analysis of the stability of collinear point $L_2$ in the Sun-Earth system. The modified restricted three body problem with additional gravitational potential from the belt is used as the model for the Sun-Earth system. The effect of radiation pressure of the Sun and oblate shape of the Earth are considered. The point $L_2$ is asymptotically stable upto a specific value of time $t$ correspond to each set of values of paramete...

  15. Characteristics of Motivated L2 Class Groups: From Language Teachers’ and Students’ Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Lilian Ya-hui Chang

    2014-01-01

    In most learning situations, learners are learning with their peers, and the teacher is teaching to a class, not to an individual learner. As it is indisputable that learners conceptualize their learning as occurring in a group, it is logical to assume that the class group has some effect on learners’ learning. Thus, it could be constructive to investigate the characteristics of a motivating classroom environment and how teachers can help cultivate a more comforting learning environment foste...

  16. Primary or “Specific” Language Impairment and Children Learning a Second Language

    OpenAIRE

    KOHNERT, KATHRYN; Windsor, Jennifer; Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2008-01-01

    We review empirical findings from children with primary or “specific” language impairment (PLI) and children who learn a single language from birth (L1) and a second language (L2) beginning in childhood. The PLI profile is presented in terms of both language and nonlinguistic features. The discussion of L2 learners emphasizes variable patterns of growth and skill distribution in L1 and L2 which complicate the identification of PLI in linguistically diverse learners. We then introduce our rese...

  17. A real-time articulatory visual feedback approach with target presentation for second language pronunciation learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suemitsu, Atsuo; Dang, Jianwu; Ito, Takayuki; Tiede, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Articulatory information can support learning or remediating pronunciation of a second language (L2). This paper describes an electromagnetic articulometer-based visual-feedback approach using an articulatory target presented in real-time to facilitate L2 pronunciation learning. This approach trains learners to adjust articulatory positions to match targets for a L2 vowel estimated from productions of vowels that overlap in both L1 and L2. Training of Japanese learners for the American English vowel /æ/ that included visual training improved its pronunciation regardless of whether audio training was also included. Articulatory visual feedback is shown to be an effective method for facilitating L2 pronunciation learning. PMID:26520348

  18. Dissection of human papillomavirus type 33 L2 domains involved in nuclear domains (ND) 10 homing and reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have recently shown that the minor capsid protein L2 of human papillomavirus type 33 (HPV33) recruits the transcriptional repressor Daxx into nuclear domains (ND) 10 and causes the loss of the transcriptional activator Sp100 from these subnuclear structures . In order to dissect L2 domains involved in nuclear translocation, ND10 homing, loss of Sp100, and recruitment of Daxx, a detailed deletion mutagenesis of L2 was performed. Using immunofluorescence and green fluorescent protein fusions, we have identified two nuclear localization signals (NLS) in the central and C-terminal part of L2, respectively, homologous to previously identified NLS in HPV6B L2 . We mapped the ND10 localization domain to within a 30 amino acid peptide in the C-terminal half of L2. L2-induced attraction of Daxx into ND10, coimmunoprecipitation of L2 and Daxx, as well as induction of the loss of Sp100 from ND10 require an intact ND10 localization domain. This domain contains conserved PXXP motives characteristic of some protein/protein interacting domains. Our data also suggest that the Daxx/L2 interaction may be the driving force for L2 accumulation in ND10

  19. CD99-like 2 (CD99L2)-deficient mice are defective in the acute inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Nakisha S; Weber, Evan W; Winger, Ryan; Tourtellotte, Warren G; Park, Seong Hoe; Muller, William A

    2015-12-01

    CD99-Like 2 (CD99L2) is a Type I glycoprotein expressed on leukocytes and endothelial cells as well as other cell types. It is related to CD99, although it shows only 38% sequence identity. CD99L2 has been shown to play a role in leukocyte extravasation in mice under various inflammatory conditions using anti-CD99L2 antibodies and, in one case by targeted deletion of CD99L2. We report here studies on an independently made CD99L2 "knockout mouse" that extend our knowledge of the role of CD99L2 in inflammation. CD99L2 deficiency did not affect the total or relative numbers of circulating leukocyte subsets, red blood cells, or platelets. Neither did CD99L2 deficiency affect the expression of ICAM-1, PECAM, or CD99 on endothelial cells. Mice lacking CD99L2 had a defective inflammatory response in the thioglycollate peritonitis model with a greater than 80% block in neutrophil infiltration and a nearly complete block in monocyte emigration into the peritoneal cavity measured 16h after the inflammatory challenge. The mice will be a useful resource to study the role of CD99L2 in various acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26321243

  20. Universality of striped morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, E; Jacobi, M Nilsson

    2010-09-24

    We present a method for predicting the low-temperature behavior of spherical and Ising spin models with isotropic potentials. For the spherical model the characteristic length scales of the ground states are exactly determined but the morphology is shown to be degenerate with checkerboard patterns, stripes and more complex morphologies having identical energy. For the Ising models we show that the discretization breaks the degeneracy causing striped morphologies to be energetically favored and therefore they arise universally as ground states to potentials whose Hankel transforms have nontrivial minima. PMID:21230804

  1. Teaching of the Integrated Morphology Enseñanza de la Morfología Integrada

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Claudio Suazo Galdames; Mario Cantín López; Ivonne Patricia Bustos Alvarez; Guillermo Enrique Salgado Alarcón

    2008-01-01

    The changes in the university curriculum have made necessary the vertical and horizontal integration of contents that are taught in morphology sciences. In this study, students of the Morphology and Human Development Module of the cohorts 2006 and 2007 participated. In 2006 the students (n=83) developed the thematic unit of locomotive apparatus in a chronologicaly and sequentially integrated way. In 2007 (n=102) this same unit was developed in a totally integrated way, in form of learning obj...

  2. On the Syntax-Semantics Interface in Dutch: Adult and Child L2 Acquisition Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Using experimental data from adult and child non-native language acquirers (L2ers), this paper addresses "interface issues" in language acquisition in two different ways. First, it examines the acquisition of direct object scrambling in Dutch, a phenomenon which involves the interaction of at least two different modules of language, i.e., syntax…

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of zebrafish prototype galectin Drgal1-L2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebrafish Drgal1-L2 was expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized in the presence of lactose. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 1.5 Å. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are an important developmental and embryological model given the optical clarity of the embryos and larvae, which permits real-time viewing of developing pathologies. More recently, a broader scope for these vertebrates to model a range of human diseases, including some cancers, has been indicated. Zebrafish Drgal1-L2 has been identified as an orthologue of mammalian galectin-1, which is is a carbohydrate-binding protein that exhibits ?-galactoside-binding specificity and which is overexpressed by many aggressive human cancers. This study describes the cloning, expression in Escherichia coli, purification and crystallization of recombinant Drgal1-L2 protein in the presence of lactose (ligand). X-ray diffraction data from these novel crystals of zebrafish Drgal1-L2 were collected to a resolution of 1.5 Å using a synchrotron-radiation source, enabling their characterization

  4. Note-Taking Quality and Performance on an L2 Academic Listening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min-Young

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among the quality of L2 test takers' notes evaluated in terms of different levels of information and test takers' performance on open-ended listening tasks tapping into different comprehension subskills. In addition, this study examined the invariance of the structural relationships among the variables…

  5. A Longitudinal Investigation into L2 Learners' Cognitive Processes during Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The present study longitudinally investigates the cognitive processes of advanced L2 learners engaged in a multimedia task that elicited status-equal and status-unequal refusals in English during their study abroad. Data were collected three times by retrospective verbal report from 20 Chinese learners who were studying abroad over the course of…

  6. Production of Routines in L2 English: Effect of Proficiency and Study-Abroad Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Naoko

    2013-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the effect of proficiency and study abroad experience on L2 learners' ability to produce routines. Participants were 64 Japanese students in an English-medium university in Japan. They were divided into three groups: Group 1 had lower proficiency with no study abroad experience, Group 2 had higher proficiency but no…

  7. Cultural Familiarity in Inferential and Literal Comprehension in L2 Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Cem

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the role of culturally familiar background knowledge in inferential and literal comprehension in L2 reading. Ninety-eight Turkish EFL (English as a Foreign Language) university students were divided into two groups of equivalent English proficiency. They read either the original of an American short story or a "nativized"…

  8. Proficient Pair of Replacement Algorithms on L1 and L2 Cache for Merge Sort

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Richa

    2010-01-01

    Memory hierarchy is used to compete the processors speed. Cache memory is the fast memory which is used to conduit the speed difference of memory and processor. The access patterns of Level 1 cache (L1) and Level 2 cache (L2) are different, when CPU not gets the desired data in L1 then it accesses L2. Thus the replacement algorithm which works efficiently on L1 may not be as efficient on L2. Similarly various applications such as Matrix Multiplication, Web, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) etc will have varying access pattern. Thus same replacement algorithm for all types of application may not be efficient. This paper works for getting an efficient pair of replacement algorithm on L1 and L2 for the algorithm Merge Sort. With the memory reference string of Merge Sort, we have analyzed the behavior of various existing replacement algorithms on L1. The existing replacement algorithms which are taken into consideration are: Least Recently Used (LRU), Least Frequently Used (LFU) and First In First Out (FIFO). After A...

  9. L(2, 1-Labelings of Some Families of Oriented Planar Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Sagnik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we determine, or give lower and upper bounds on, the 2-dipath and oriented L(2, 1-span of the family of planar graphs, planar graphs with girth 5, 11, 16, partial k-trees, outerplanar graphs and cacti.

  10. Plural-Marking in L2 Korean: A Feature-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sun Hee; Lardiere, Donna

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the second language (L2) acquisition of the Korean plural marker -"tul" by native speakers of English. Seventy-seven learners at four Korean proficiency levels along with 31 native Korean-speaking controls completed five tasks designed to probe for knowledge of particular features and restrictions associated with so-called…

  11. Effects of Textual Enhancement and Input Enrichment on L2 Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassaei, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Research on second language (L2) acquisition has recently sought to include formal instruction into second and foreign language classrooms in a more unobtrusive and implicit manner. Textual enhancement and input enrichment are two techniques which are aimed at drawing learners' attention to specific linguistic features in input and at the same…

  12. Topological analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, P; Christiansen, Gunna; Birkelund, Svend

    1998-01-01

    Using monospecific polyclonal antisera to different parts of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 outer membrane protein 2 (Omp2), we show that the protein is localized at the inner surface of the outer membrane. Omp2 becomes immunoaccessible when Chlamydia elementary bodies are treated with dithiothreitol, and protease digestions indicate that Omp2 has a possible two-domain structure.

  13. Understanding L2 French Teaching Strategies in a Non-Target Language Classroom Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peijian; Yuan, Rui; Teng, Lin

    2015-01-01

    This research explored the congruence and disparity between teachers' and students' attitudes towards French as a second language (L2) teaching strategies in a non-target language classroom context in the USA. The findings suggest students' and teachers' attitudes towards the direct and indirect teaching strategies were generally consistent, but…

  14. L2-error estimates for the discrete ordinates method for three-dimensional neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prove L2-error estimates for the discrete ordinates method for the angular discretization of the three-dimensional neutron transport equation. The analysis is for monoenergetic three-dimensional transport of neutrons in a homogeneous uniform media and isotropic scattering is assumed. A special quadrature rule with relatively uniformly distributed discrete directions is considered

  15. The Effect of Lexical Coverage and Dictionary Use on L2 Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Caleb; Matsumoto, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to further understand the role of lexical coverage on L2 reading comprehension. It examines test scores of learners at or near the 90-95% coverage level to determine if this coverage range allows for comprehension of authentic texts. The findings suggest that 92-93% may be a threshold mark at which understanding of a text…

  16. Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) in L2 Oral Proficiency Development: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huifen

    2015-01-01

    The ever growing interest in the development of foreign or second (L2) oral proficiency in a computer-mediated communication (CMC) classroom has resulted in a large body of studies looking at both the direct and indirect effects of CMC interventions on the acquisition of oral competences. The present study employed a quantitative meta-analytic…

  17. The Acquisition of the Korean Honorific Affix "(u)si" by Advanced L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jeansue; Jiang, Nan

    2013-01-01

    An experiment investigated adult language learners' ability to develop fully integrated cognitive representations of a difficult second language (L2) morphosyntactic feature: the Korean honorific verbal affix "(u)si." Native speaker (NS) and nonnative speaker (NNS) latencies during a word-by-word self-paced reading comprehension…

  18. L2 EVIDENCE FOR THE STRUCTURE OF THE L1 LEXICON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Reiss

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper 1 suggest that L2 research could provide answers to questions concerning the structure of L1 grammars that cannot, as a matter of logic, be answered by only examining L1 data and intuitions. In other words, L2 data from an individual P can provide 'external' evidence bearing on the structure of P's L1 grammar, Ll,. This type of evidence will be particularly welcome where competing theories of Ll, are extensionally equivalent where they generate the sarne output representations. 1 am proposing, therefore, that L2 research need not restrict itself to maintaining consistency with work in theoretical linguistic modeling. Instead L2 research can itself make unique contributions to the general theory of grammar. In addition to potentially leading to fruitful results, the issues that provide the background to the discussion warrant examination on other grounds, since they help clarifj the goals of linguistic research and the compatibility of various frameworks of linguistic theory with their own stated goals.

  19. Cognate effects in sentence context depend on word class, L2 proficiency, and task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bultena, Sybrine; Dijkstra, Ton; van Hell, Janet G

    2014-01-01

    Noun translation equivalents that share orthographic and semantic features, called "cognates", are generally recognized faster than translation equivalents without such overlap. This cognate effect, which has also been obtained when cognates and noncognates were embedded in a sentence context, emerges from the coactivation of representations in two languages. The present study examined whether cognate facilitation in sentences is subject to effects of word class, reading proficiency in a second language (L2), and task demands. We measured eye movements (Experiment 1) and self-paced reading times (Experiment 2) for Dutch-English bilinguals reading L2 sentences that contained either a noun or a verb cognate. Results showed that cognate effects were smaller for verbs than for nouns. Furthermore, cognate facilitation was reduced for readers with a higher proficiency in L2 as expressed by self-ratings or reading speed in L2. Additionally, the results of the eye-movement study and the self-paced reading study indicated that the likelihood of observing cognate facilitation effects also depends on task demands. The obtained pattern of results helps to identify some of the boundaries of the cognate effect. PMID:24295513

  20. Evaluating Translation as an Explicit Instruction Tool to Improve L2 Written Skills: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariente-Beltran, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Some have argued in favor of translation in the L2 classroom (Danchev, 1983; Levenston, 1985; Ballester Casado, 1991; Newson, 1998; Malloy, 2001; Bonyadi, 2003; Colina, 2006; Kulwindr, 2005; Petrocchi, 2006; House, 2008), while others have argued against it (Sweet, 1899/1964; Jespersen, 1901/1904; Lado, 1957, 1964; Gatenby, 1967; Sankey, 1991),…

  1. Use of L1 in L2 Reading Comprehension among Tertiary ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Goh Hock; Hashim, Fatimah

    2006-01-01

    This study is an attempt to provide insights into the extent of first language (L1) use while reading second language (L2) texts in a collaborative situation among tertiary ESL learners. Through the identification of reading strategies utilized by the subjects, the study is also aimed at discovering possible reasons for the use of L1 while…

  2. Frequency of Input and L2 Collocational Processing: A Comparison of Congruent and Incongruent Collocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Brent; Gyllstad, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of frequency effects on the processing of congruent (i.e., having an equivalent first language [L1] construction) collocations and incongruent (i.e., not having an equivalent L1 construction) collocations in a second language (L2). An acceptability judgment task was administered to native and advanced…

  3. The Impact of a Subordinate L1 on L2 Auditory Processing in Adult Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Hoan, Minh; Taft, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    For bilinguals born in an English-speaking country or who arrive at a young age, English (L2) often becomes their dominant language by adulthood. This study examines whether such adult bilinguals show equivalent performance to monolingual English native speakers on three English auditory processing tasks: phonemic awareness, spelling-to-dictation…

  4. Modified Sparseness Controlled IPNLMS Algorithm Based on l_1, l_2 and l_? Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Samalla

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Acoustic Echo Cancellation (AEC, sparseness level of acoustic impulse response (AIR varies greatly in mobile environments. The modified sparseness-controlled Improved PNLMS (MSC-IPNLMS algorithm proposed in this paper, exploits the sparseness measure of AIR using l1, l2 and l? norms. The MSC-IPNLMS is the modified version of SC-IPNLMS which uses sparseness measure based on l1 and l2 norms. Sparseness measure using l1, l2 and l? norms is the good representation of both sparse and dense impulse response, where as the measure which uses l1 and l2 norms is the good representation of sparse impulse response only. The MSC-IPNLMS is based on IPNLMS which allocates adaptation step size gain in proportion to the magnitude of estimated filter weights. By estimating the sparseness of the AIR, the proposed MSC-IPNLMS algorithm assigns the gains for each step size such that the proportionate term of the IPNLMS will be given higher weighting for sparse impulse responses. For a less sparse impulse response, a higher weighting will be given to the NLMS term. Simulation results, with input as white Gaussian noise (WGN, show the improved performance over the SC-IPNLMS algorithm in both sparse and dense AIR.

  5. Investigating the Effects of Planning on L2 Text Chat Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, a small body of SLA research has examined the effects of task planning on L2 production. This research has revealed positive results concerning the effect of pre-task and online planning on oral and written production. However, no studies to date have investigated the joint effects of pre-task and online planning. In…

  6. Gender Differences in Compulsory School Pupils' L2 Self-Concepts: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Alastair

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on personality psychology research, Dornyei and his colleagues have recently developed an approach to understanding L2 motivation that positions the learner's self-recognition as a potential communicator in another language at its core, thus marking a break from the established social psychology paradigm. In this article it is argued that,…

  7. Exploring a New Technique for Comparing Bilinguals' L1 and L2 Reading Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauvin, Hanna S.; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    Is it possible to tell whether bilinguals are able to read simple text in their two languages equally fluently? Is it thus possible to distinguish balanced bilinguals from unbalanced bilinguals with respect to reading fluency in their first language (L1) and second language (L2)? In this study, we avoided making direct comparisons between L1 and…

  8. Optimal constant in an L^2 extension problem and a proof of a conjecture of Ohsawa

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Qi'an; Zhou, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we solve the optimal constant problem in the setting of Ohsawa's generalized $L^{2}$ extension theorem. As applications, we prove a conjecture of Ohsawa and the extended Suita conjecture, we also establish some relations between Bergman kernel and logarithmic capacity on compact and open Riemann surfaces.

  9. On the Impact of L2 Speech Rhythm on Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M. Paula; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Heine, Angela; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2015-01-01

    In an event-related potential (ERP) study we investigated the role of age of acquisition (AoA) on the use of second language rhythmic properties during syntactic ambiguity resolution. Syntactically ambiguous sentences embedded in rhythmically regular and irregular contexts were presented to Turkish early and late second language (L2) learners of…

  10. Questioning English Standards: Learner Attitudes and L2 Choices in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindal, Ulrikke

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates attitudes towards varieties of English among Norwegian adolescent learners and assesses the role of social evaluation for second language (L2) pronunciation choices by combining a verbal guise test with speaker commentary and reports of language choices. The results suggest that while American English is the most accessible…

  11. Bayesian model of categorical effects in L1 and L2 speech perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronrod, Yakov

    In this dissertation I present a model that captures categorical effects in both first language (L1) and second language (L2) speech perception. In L1 perception, categorical effects range between extremely strong for consonants to nearly continuous perception of vowels. I treat the problem of speech perception as a statistical inference problem and by quantifying categoricity I obtain a unified model of both strong and weak categorical effects. In this optimal inference mechanism, the listener uses their knowledge of categories and the acoustics of the signal to infer the intended productions of the speaker. The model splits up speech variability into meaningful category variance and perceptual noise variance. The ratio of these two variances, which I call Tau, directly correlates with the degree of categorical effects for a given phoneme or continuum. By fitting the model to behavioral data from different phonemes, I show how a single parametric quantitative variation can lead to the different degrees of categorical effects seen in perception experiments with different phonemes. In L2 perception, L1 categories have been shown to exert an effect on how L2 sounds are identified and how well the listener is able to discriminate them. Various models have been developed to relate the state of L1 categories with both the initial and eventual ability to process the L2. These models largely lacked a formalized metric to measure perceptual distance, a means of making a-priori predictions of behavior for a new contrast, and a way of describing non-discrete gradient effects. In the second part of my dissertation, I apply the same computational model that I used to unify L1 categorical effects to examining L2 perception. I show that we can use the model to make the same type of predictions as other SLA models, but also provide a quantitative framework while formalizing all measures of similarity and bias. Further, I show how using this model to consider L2 learners at different stages of development we can track specific parameters of categories as they change over time, giving us a look into the actual process of L2 category development.

  12. Using Multiple Sources of Information for Constraint-Based Morphological Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Tur, G

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents a constraint-based morphological disambiguation approach that is applicable to languages with complex morphology--specifically agglutinative languages with productive inflectional and derivational morphological phenomena. For morphologically complex languages like Turkish, automatic morphological disambiguation involves selecting for each token morphological parse(s), with the right set of inflectional and derivational markers. Our system combines corpus independent hand-crafted constraint rules, constraint rules that are learned via unsupervised learning from a training corpus, and additional statistical information obtained from the corpus to be morphologically disambiguated. The hand-crafted rules are linguistically motivated and tuned to improve precision without sacrificing recall. In certain respects, our approach has been motivated by Brill's recent work, but with the observation that his transformational approach is not directly applicable to languages like Turkish. Our approach a...

  13. Learning How to Learn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.; Lauridsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Ole Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Karen M. Lauridsen, Aarhus School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, Denmark Learning Styles in Higher Education – Learning How to Learn Applying learning styles (LS) in higher education teaching leads to positive results and enhanced student learning. However, learning styles should not only be considered a didactic matter for the teacher, but also a tool for the individual students to impr...

  14. Collaborative and Individual Output Tasks and Their Effects on Learning English Phrasal Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassaji, Hossein; Tian, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Current second language (L2) instruction research has encouraged the use of collaborative output tasks in L2 classrooms. This study examined and compared the effectiveness of two types of output tasks (reconstruction cloze tasks and reconstruction editing tasks) for learning English phrasal verbs. Of interest was whether doing the tasks…

  15. Morphological associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, G X; Sussner, P; Diza-de-Leon, J L

    1998-01-01

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. A nonlinear activation function usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network and set the next state of the neuron. In this paper we introduce a novel class of artificial neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before possible application of a nonlinear activation function. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. The main emphasis of the research presented here is on morphological associative memories. We examine the computing and storage capabilities of morphological associative memories and discuss differences between morphological models and traditional semilinear models such as the Hopfield net. PMID:18252452

  16. The Effects of Task Characteristics on L2 Learners’ Production of Complex, Accurate, and Fluent Oral Language

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoor Fahim; Saeed Nourzadeh; Jalil Fat’hi

    2011-01-01

    One recent fruitful development in the area of second language (L2) acquisition has been Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT). Consequently, L2 researchers have paid particular attention to the role that the employment of tasks plays in the development of interlanguage competence. Of particular interest have been the factors that increase the difficulty with which L2 learners perform and process pedagogical tasks. The present paper is an attempt to present a review of factors that have been fo...

  17. Microstructure and strenght of B2-ordered NiAl containing L2{sub 1}-Ni{sub 2}AlHf precipitates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh-ishi, K.; Horita, Z.; Nemoto, M. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-01

    Microstructural variations and correlated hardness changes during phase decomposition of B2-ordered NiAl({beta}) containing 2 mol% of Hf have been investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), hardness and creep tests. At the beginning of aging, fine platelets of L2{sub 1}-type Ni{sub 2}AlHf (Heusler phase) precipitate on the {l_brace}111{r_brace} planes of the matrix NiAl phase keeping a perfect lattice coherency. With longer periods of aging, Ni{sub 2}AlHf precipitates lose their lattice coherency and change their morphology to spherical ones surrounded by misfit dislocations. Compressive creep tests clearly indicated that the creep rate decreases appreciably by the fine precipitation of Ni{sub 2}AlHf phase. TEM observations of the interaction between dislocations and spherical precipitates revealed that the dislocations tend to be strongly attracted to the particle interfaces during the creep deformation. (orig.) 30 refs.

  18. A Growth Curve Analysis of Novel Word Learning by Sequential Bilingual Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal word learning studies which control for experience can advance understanding of language learning and potential intra- and inter-language relationships in developing bilinguals. We examined novel word learning in both the first (L1) and the second (L2) languages of bilingual children. The rate and shape of change as well as the role…

  19. Exploring the Development of "Interest" in Learning English as a Foreign/Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, Tan Bee

    2013-01-01

    The paper proposes a new conceptual perspective for understanding students' engagement in L2 learning, in particular the concept of interest development in learning English. It investigates situational features that trigger interest in learning English, employing data from interviews with non-native English speaking students studying in TESOL…

  20. Inter-language interference in VOT production by L2-dominant bilinguals: Asymmetries in phonetic code-switching

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniou, Mark; Best, Catherine T; Tyler, Michael D.; Kroos, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Speech production research has demonstrated that the first language (L1) often interferes with production in bilinguals’ second language (L2), but it has been suggested that bilinguals who are L2-dominant are the most likely to suppress this L1-interference. While prolonged contextual changes in bilinguals’ language use (e.g., stays overseas) are known to result in L1 and L2 phonetic shifts, code-switching provides the unique opportunity of observing the immediate phonetic effects of L1-L2 in...

  1. The l2 minor capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 16 interacts with a network of nuclear import receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darshan, Medha S; Lucchi, John; Harding, Emily; Moroianu, Junona

    2004-11-01

    The L2 minor capsid proteins enter the nucleus twice during viral infection: in the initial phase after virion disassembly and in the productive phase when, together with the L1 major capsid proteins, they assemble the replicated viral DNA into virions. In this study we investigated the interactions between the L2 protein of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) and nuclear import receptors. We discovered that HPV16 L2 interacts directly with both Kapbeta(2) and Kapbeta(3). Moreover, binding of Ran-GTP to either Kapbeta(2) or Kapbeta(3) inhibits its interaction with L2, suggesting that the Kapbeta/L2 complex is import competent. In addition, we found that L2 forms a complex with the Kapalpha(2)beta(1) heterodimer via interaction with the Kapalpha(2) adapter. In agreement with the binding data, nuclear import of L2 in digitonin-permeabilized cells could be mediated by either Kapalpha(2)beta(1) heterodimers, Kapbeta(2), or Kapbeta(3). Mapping studies revealed that HPV16 L2 contains two nuclear localization signals (NLSs), in the N terminus (nNLS) and C terminus (cNLS), that could mediate its nuclear import. Together the data suggest that HPV16 L2 interacts via its NLSs with a network of karyopherins and can enter the nucleus via several import pathways mediated by Kapalpha(2)beta(1) heterodimers, Kapbeta(2), and Kapbeta(3). PMID:15507604

  2. Requirements for an "Ideal" Bilingual L1 ?L2 Translation- Oriented Dictionary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Burkhanov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The major aim of this article is to outline the requirements for an "ideal" bilingualL1 ?L2 dictionary of the general vocabulary specifically designed for the purposes of professionaltranslation. The article challenges three commonly accepted beliefs: (a a bilingual dictionaryequals a translation dictionary; (b a bilingual dictionary is a source of immediately insertable lexicalequivalents of lemmata; and (c a bilingual dictionary solely furnishes semantic-pragmaticequivalents, whereas a monolingual dictionary always defines meanings of lexical items. It hasbeen claimed that bilingual lexicography should be based on a clear-cut conception of the futurereference work specified in terms of lexicographic parameters: (a the intended user group; (b thepurpose of the dictionary; etc. An "ideal" bilingual L1 ?L2 translation-oriented dictionary should bea reference work that is intended to serve the purpose of text production in L2. In the situation ofprofessional translation, L2 text production is subject to two types of constraints: (a constraintssuperimposed by the receptor language and culture; and (b constraints superimposed by thesource text. If constraints of the second type cannot be, in principle, envisaged, those of the firsttype can, and should be accounted for in a bilingual dictionary designed for the professionaltranslator. The article specifies some of the requirements for such a reference work.

    Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, TRANSLATION DICTIONARY, SEMANTICPRAGMATICEQUIVALENCE, INTERLINGUAL EQUIVALENCE, INTRALINGUAL EQUIVALENCE,DEFINING TECHNIQUE, EQUIVALENCE DEFINITION, PERIPHRASTIC DEFINITION,EXPLANATORY DEFINITION, PROFESSIONAL TRANSLATION, TRANSLATION THEORY,UNIT OF TRANSLATION.

    Opsomming: Vereistes vir 'n "ideale" tweetalige L1 ?L2- vertaal-georiënteerdewoordeboek. Die hoofdoel van hierdie artikel is om die vereistes te skets vir 'n L1 ?L2-woordeboek van die algemene woordeskat, spesifiek beplan vir die doeleindes van professionelevertaling. Die artikel weerlê drie algemeen aanvaarde opvattings: (a 'n tweetalige woordeboek isdieselfde as 'n vertaalwoordeboek; (b 'n tweetalige woordeboek is die bron van onmiddellik invoegbareleksikale ekwivalente van lemmata; en (c 'n tweetalige woordeboek verskaf uitsluitliksemanties-pragmatiese inligting, terwyl 'n eentalige woordeboek altyd betekenisse van leksikaleitems omskryf. Daar word beweer dat tweetalige leksikografie gebaseer behoort te wees op 'n duidelikomskrewe begrip van die toekomstige naslaanwerk, gespesifiseer in terme van leksikografieseparameters: (a die beoogde gebruikersgroep; (b die doel van die woordeboek; ens. 'n "Ideale"tweetalige L1 ?L2- vertaal-georiënteerde woordeboek behoort 'n naslaanwerk te wees wat beplan isom die doel van teksproduksie in L2 te dien. By die omstandigheid van professionele vertaling is L2-teksproduksie onderhewig aan twee soorte beperkings: (a beperkings opgelê deur die teikentaalen -kultuur; en (b beperkings opgelê deur die bronteks geskryf in L1. As beperkings van dietweede soort in beginsel nie voorsien kan word nie, kan en behoort dié van die eerste soortverantwoord te word in 'n tweetalige woordeboek wat vir die professionele vertaler beplan is. Dieartikel spesifiseer 'n aantal vereistes van so 'n naslaanwerk.

    Sleutelwoorde: TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK, VERTAALWOORDEBOEK, SEMANTIESPRAGMATIESEEKWIVALENSIE, INTERLINGUALE EKWIVALENSIE, INTRALINGUALEEKWIVALENSIE, DEFINIEERTEGNIEK, EKWIVALENSIEDEFINISIE, PERIFRASTIESE DEFINISIE,VERKLARENDE DEFINISIE, PROFESSIONELE VERTALING, VERTAALTEORIE, VERTAALEENHEID

  3. On the Nature of Morphological Awareness in Japanese-English Bilingual Children: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuko; Murphy, Victoria A.

    2013-01-01

    While morphological awareness has received much attention to date, little is understood about how morphological awareness develops within bilingual children learning typologically different languages. Therefore, we investigated children's knowledge of inflections and derivations in Japanese and English, and also asked whether morphological

  4. INSEGNARE L’ITALIANO L2 NELLA SCUOLA SUPERIORE DI PRIMO GRADO. IL LABORATORIO HOGWARTS: GIOCARE PER IMPARARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Sala

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo propone un progetto didattico per l’insegnamento dell’italiano L2 nella scuola superiore di primo grado che prevede l’inserimento di studenti stranieri, provenienti da paesi diversi, in un gioco di ruolo didattico ispirato alla saga di Harry Potter.Particolare attenzione è data al laboratorio Hogwarts, un laboratorio specifico il cui obiettivo è quello di promuovere l’interazione, la socializzazione, ma soprattutto l’apprendimento dell’italiano come lingua di comunicazione. La didattica del laboratorio fonde insieme elementi del metodo comunicativo ed elementi del metodo audiolinguale richiamando la didattica ludica in quanto il gioco è assunto come modalità strategica di apprendimento. L’idea che sta alla base del laboratorio Hogwarts è quella di coinvolgere gli apprendenti, stimolarne l’interesse e la curiosità attraverso l’utilizzo di materiale video (visual stimuli e attraverso l’attività ludica che mantiene viva la loro attenzione e la loro motivazione favorendone l’apprendimento linguistico attraverso il divertimento.TEACHING ITALIAN L2 IN MIDDLE SCHOOL. THE HOGWARTS LAB: LEARNNG BY PLAYINGThe article illustrates a project aimed at teaching Italian as a second language. The target audience is middle school students from different countries and with different L1 backgrounds. Students take part in didactic role-plays inspired by the Harry Potter series. Special emphasis is given to the Hogwarts Language Lab, which aims to promote interaction, socialization and second language acquisition. The Lab teaching strategy combines elements of the communicative approach and the audio-lingual method with role-playing. The principle behind the Hogwarts Lab is that the students have to be active participants rather than passive observers. Their involvement can be increased and their interest can be raised through the use of the video input (visual stimuli and role-playing as a teaching strategy. Students are encouraged to carry out tasks and activities using cooperation and collaboration, using Italian to communicate. They take an active part and there is increased involvement as the students “learn while they are playing”.

  5. Structural Priming and Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Ah; Christianson, Kiel

    2012-01-01

    Structural priming (or syntactic priming) is a speaker's tendency to reuse the same structural pattern as one that was previously encountered (Bock, 1986). This study investigated (a) whether the implicit learning processes involved in long-lag structural priming lead to differential second language (L2) improvement in producing two structural…

  6. What Data for Data-Driven Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Corpora have multiple affordances, not least for use by teachers and learners of a foreign language (L2) in what has come to be known as "data-driven learning" or DDL. The corpus and concordance interface were originally conceived by and for linguists, so other users need to adopt the role of "language researcher" to make the most of them. Despite…

  7. Learning How To Learn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Demian

    2000-01-01

    In one California high school, learning to learn is a measurable outcome assessed by all students' participation in graduation by exhibition. Students must meet state requirements and demonstrate learning prowess by publicly exhibiting their skills in math, science, language arts, social science, service learning, and postgraduation planning. (MLH)

  8. Crosslanguage Lexical Activation: A Test of the Revised Hierarchical and Morphological Decomposition Models in Arabic-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasem, Mousa; Foote, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the predictions of the revised hierarchical (RHM) and morphological decomposition (MDM) models with Arabic-English bilinguals. The RHM (Kroll & Stewart, 1994) predicts that the amount of activation of first language translation equivalents is negatively correlated with second language (L2) proficiency. The MDM (Frost, Forster, &…

  9. Shipibo-Spanish: Differences in Residual Transfer at the Syntax-Morphology and the Syntax-Pragmatics Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Liliana; Camacho, Jose; Ulloa, Jose Elias

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we present a study that tests the Interface Hypothesis (Sorace and Filiaci, 2006) at the syntax-pragmatics interface and its possible extension to the syntax-morphology interface in two groups of first language (L1) speakers of Shipibo with different levels of formal instruction in Spanish as a second language (L2). Shipibo is a…

  10. Sociolinguistic approaches to identity negotiation and language learning: A circumstantiality perspective on communities of practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Yu Shiang

    2013-01-01

    As a result of growing globalization, the learning experience of second/foreign (L2/FL) language learners has been inextricably linked to complex social structures and networks. Through a sociolinguistic lens, this paper provides a critical review of L2/FL learning, identity negotiation, and community of practice in the face of incremental changes in linguistic systems and norms concomitant with gradual transformations in politics, society, and economics. In different social structures, ident...

  11. On stochastic modeling of the modernized global positioning system (GPS) L2C signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to take full advantage of the modernized GPS L2C signal, it is essential that its stochastic characteristics and code bias be rigorously determined. In this paper, long sessions of GPS measurements are used to study the stochastic characteristics of the modernized GPS L2C signal. As a byproduct, the stochastic characteristics of the legacy GPS signals, namely C/A and P2 codes, are also determined, which are used to verify the developed stochastic model of the modernized signal. The differential code biases between P2 and C2, DCBP2-C2, are also estimated using the Bernese GPS software. It is shown that the developed models improved the precise point positioning (PPP) solution and convergence time

  12. Pre-LOCE thermal safety analysis of the LOFT reactor L2-2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study discusses the method of assuring adequate thermal safety margins for LOFT reactor operating conditions prior to a Loss of Coolant Experiment (LOCE). The L2-2 experiment, completed in December 1977, was the first large scale simulation of a LPWR double-ended pipe break. Test predictions and data analysis are only part of the LOFT effort. Also, adequate safety margins must be demonstrated for low flow conditions prior to a LOCE. This effort presents a unique problem because the initial LOCE test conditions require an operation with significant maximum linear heat generation rate (26.3 Kw/m for L2-2) with only 40% of normal core flow. The analysis logic is to assure adequate safety margin (ability to operate within acceptable consequence levels) by performing bounding calculations. With a few minor exceptions,no statistical combinations of uncertainties were made. Thus there is a high degree of confidence in the analyses conservatism

  13. Analysis of reflood behavior of LOFT L2-4 test and FLOOD 4 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FLOOD4 code which evaluates reflood behavior during LOCA of PWR is explained and is used to predict LOFT L2-4 test during reflood. The FLOOD4 model has downcomer, lower plenum, core, upper plenum, intact loop and broken loop in PWR, and the code calculates thermal and hydraulic behavior during reflood. Prediction of the L2-4 test presents the following requirements for revising and modifying the code: (1) To define a change of gap conductance in a nuclear fuel. (2) To investigate heat transfer correlation in dispersed flow and film boiling regime. (3) To consider superheated steam in dispersed flow regime and to replace empirical heat transfer correlations with analytical or semi-analytical ones. (4) To investigate flow resistance in downcommer, lower plenum and core. (author)

  14. Induced l2 filtering of fuzzy stochastic systems with time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojie Su; Peng Shi; Ligang Wu; Sing Kiong Nguang

    2013-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of induced l2 filter design for a class of discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy Itô stochastic systems with time-varying delays. Attention is focused on the design of the desired filter to guarantee an induced l2 performance for the filtering error system. A new comparison model is proposed by employing a new approximation for the time-varying delay state, and then, sufficient conditions for the obtained filtering error system are derived by this comparison model. A desired filter is constructed by solving a convex optimization problem, which can be efficiently solved by standard numerical algorithms. Finally, simulation examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. PMID:26502434

  15. MHD and transport study of the l=2 heliotron/torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle orbit, MHD and transport calculations are carried out for optimization of the next large scale helical system. The compatibility of high beta and good confinement in the l=2 and low M heliotron/torsatron is studied. Combined studies of MHD and particle orbit calculations predict that, when the plasma is shifted inward, a ?-value higher than 5% and good confinement can be obtained simultaneously. The breaking of magnetic surfaces due to the finite ? effect in an l=2 heliotron/torsatron configuration is studied by using a newly developed three dimensional equilibrium code. Breaking can be suppressed by a larger aspect ratio configuration, pressure profile control, shaping of magnetic surfaces and pitch modulation of helical coils. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs

  16. JNK1 Controls Dendritic Field Size in L2/3 and L5 of the Motor Cortex, Constrains Soma Size and Influences Fine Motor Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Kulesskaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic anomalies on the JNK pathway confer susceptibility to autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia and intellectual disability. The mechanism whereby a gain or loss of function in JNK signaling predisposes to these prevalent dendrite disorders, with associated motor dysfunction, remains unclear. Here we find that JNK1 regulates the dendritic field of L2/3 and L5 pyramidal neurons of the mouse motor cortex (M1, the main excitatory pathway controlling voluntary movement. In Jnk1-/- mice, basal dendrite branching of L5 pyramidal neurons is increased in M1, as is cell soma size, whereas in L2/3, dendritic arborization is decreased. We show that JNK1 phosphorylates rat HMW-MAP2 on T1619, T1622 and T1625 (Uniprot P15146 corresponding to mouse T1617, T1620, T1623, to create a binding motif, that is critical for MAP2 interaction with and stabilization of microtubules, and dendrite growth control. Targeted expression in M1 of GFP-HMW-MAP2 that is pseudo-phosphorylated on T1619, T1622 and T1625 increases dendrite complexity in L2/3 indicating that JNK1 phosphorylation of HMW-MAP2 regulates the dendritic field. Consistent with the morphological changes observed in L2/3 and L5, Jnk1-/- mice exhibit deficits in limb placement and motor coordination, while stride length is reduced in older animals. In summary, JNK1 phosphorylates HMW-MAP2 to increase its stabilization of microtubules while at the same time controlling dendritic fields in the main excitatory pathway of M1. Moreover, JNK1 contributes to normal functioning of fine motor coordination. We report for the first time, a quantitative sholl analysis of dendrite architecture, and of motor behavior in Jnk1-/- mice. Our results illustrate the molecular and behavioral consequences of interrupted JNK1 signaling and provide new ground for mechanistic understanding of those prevalent neuropyschiatric disorders where genetic disruption of the JNK pathway is central.

  17. Upregulation of PKD1L2 provokes a complex neuromuscular disease in the mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Mackenzie, Francesca E.; Romero, Rosario; Williams, Debbie; Gillingwater, Thomas; Hilton, Helen; Dick, Jim; Riddoch-Contreras, Joanna; Wong , Frances; Ireson, Lisa; Powles-Glover, Nicola; Riley, Genna; Underhill, Peter; Hough, Tertius; Arkell, Ruth; Greensmith, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Following a screen for neuromuscular mouse mutants, we identified ostes, a novel N-ethyl N-nitrosourea-induced mouse mutant with muscle atrophy. Genetic and biochemical evidence shows that upregulation of the novel, uncharacterized transient receptor potential polycystic (TRPP) channel PKD1L2 (polycystic kidney disease gene 1-like 2) underlies this disease. Ostes mice suffer from chronic neuromuscular impairments including neuromuscular junction degeneration, polyneuronal innervation and myop...

  18. PLAYING THE VIDEOTEXT: A MEDIA LITERACY PERSPECTIVE ON VIDEO-MEDIATED L2 LISTENING

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Gruba

    2006-01-01

    Adopting a literacy perspective towards student interactions with digital media can extend and develop views of second language (L2) listening comprehension. In this case study, variations in play are grounded in a media literacy perspective as a way to frame student work with authentic videotext. Twenty-two Australian students of Japanese watched three digitized news clips as they talked aloud. Qualitative analysis of their immediately retrospective verbal reports showed that learners do ind...

  19. Second Language Cyber Rhetoric: A Study of Chinese L2 Writers in an Online Usenet Group

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Bloch

    2004-01-01

    It has been argued that the expectations of traditional L2 writing classroom can be problematic for Chinese students, particularly in the area of argumentation and critical thinking. On the other hand, writing on the Internet has been shown to be substantially different in ways that may liberate the students from the constraints of the classroom. This argument, however, has typically focused on American writers, ignoring how cyberspace is being appropriated by those outside of the Western tra...

  20. Catégorisation de distorsions vocaliques produites par un apprenant hispanophone adulte en français L2

    OpenAIRE

    Magnen Cynthia; Gaillard Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Nous présentons les résultats d’un test de catégorisation libre portant sur quatorze distorsions de la voyelle [y] française produites lors de séances d’intégration phonétique par un apprenant hispanophone en français L2. Les distorsions sont classées par vingt-cinq participants francophones natifs. La perception des distorsions phonétiques en langue maternelle (L1) constitue un thème de recherche peu exploité ou seulement dans le domaine des pathologies. Dans cette étude, le stade de l’inte...