WorldWideScience
1

Phonological bases for L2 morphological learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g., inflate - inflation) from multiple exposures. Experiment 2 further assessed children's ability to use morphological cues for syntactic categorization through exposures to novel morphologically varying forms (e.g., lutate vs. lutant) presented in the corresponding sentential positions (noun vs. verb). The third-grade EFL learners revealed emergent sensitivity to the morphological cues in the input but failed in fully processing intraword variations. The learners with poorer L1 PA were likely to encounter difficulties in identifying morphological alternation rules and in discovering the syntactic properties of L2 morphology. In addition to L1 PA, L2 vocabulary knowledge also contributed significantly to L2 morphological learning. PMID:20091121

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2010-08-01

2

Phonological Bases for L2 Morphological Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…

Hu, Chieh-Fang

2010-01-01

3

From Seeing Adverbs to Seeing Verbal Morphology: Language Experience and Adult Acquisition of L2 Tense  

Science.gov (United States)

Adult learners have persistent difficulty processing second language (L2) inflectional morphology. We investigate associative learning explanations that involve the blocking of later experienced cues by earlier learned ones in the first language (L1; i.e., transfer) and the L2 (i.e., proficiency). Sagarra (2008) and Ellis and Sagarra (2010b) found…

Sagarra, Nuria; Ellis, Nick C.

2013-01-01

4

Morphological Congruency and the Acquisition of L2 Morphemes  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examined the proposal that the presence of a similar morpheme in the learner's first and second languages (L2) facilitates morphological development in the L2. Advanced Russian and Japanese speakers of English as a second language performed a self-paced reading task in which they read English sentences word by word for…

Jiang, Nan; Novokshanova, Eugenia; Masuda, Kyoko; Wang, Xin

2011-01-01

5

L2 motivation in foreign language learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study, which involved 130 US fourth to ninth graders enrolled in Chinese as a foreign language classrooms,intended to test Dörnyei’s L2 Motivation Self System and the seven motivational constructs identified in hisprevious study, and investigate whether the constructs found in this study differ based on the following differences:(a gender, (b grade level, and (c starting age of learning a foreign language. This study found four motivationalconstructs: instrumentality-dominant, attitudes toward the L2 speaker/community-dominant, learners’ perceptionof their parents’ proficiency in Chinese, and milieu. In addition, this study found a significant interactive effectbetween grade level and starting age of learning a foreign language. The younger learners in the foreign languagelate starter group perceived their parents as having higher proficiency in Chinese than how the older learners inthe late starter group perceived their parents.

Ko-Yin Sung

2013-10-01

6

Input frequencies in processing of verbal morphology in L1 and L2: Evidence from Russian  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study we take a usage-based perspective on the analysis of data from the acquisition of verbal morphology by Norwegian adult learners of L2 Russian, as compared to children acquiring Russian as an L1. According to the usage-based theories, language learning is input-driven and frequency of occurrence of grammatical structures and lexical items in the input plays a key role in this process. We have analysed to what extent the acquisition and processing of Russian verbal morphology by children and adult L2 learners is dependent on the input factors, in particular on type and token frequencies. Our analysis of the L2 input based on the written material used in the instruction shows a different distribution of frequencies as compared to the target language at large. The results of the tests that elicited present tense forms of verbs belonging to four different inflectional classes (-AJ-, -A-, -I-, and -OVA- have demonstrated that for both Russian children and L2 learners type frequency appears to be an important factor, influencing both correct stem recognition and generalisations. The results have also demonstrated token frequency effects. For L2 learners we observed also effects of formal instruction and greater reliance on morphological cues. In spite of the fact that L2 learners did not match completely any of the child groups, there are many similarities between L1 and L2 morphological processing, the main one being the role of frequency.

Tatiana Chernigovskaya

2011-02-01

7

Gaming as Extramural English L2 Learning and L2 Proficiency among Young Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

Today, playing digital games is an important part of many young people's everyday lives. Claims have been made that certain games, in particular massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) provide L2 English learners with a linguistically rich and cognitively challenging virtual environment that may be conducive to L2 learning, as…

Sylven, Liss Kerstin; Sundqvist, Pia

2012-01-01

8

Input frequencies in processing of verbal morphology in L1 and L2: Evidence from Russian  

OpenAIRE

In this study we take a usage-based perspective on the analysis of data from the acquisition of verbal morphology by Norwegian adult learners of L2 Russian, as compared to children acquiring Russian as an L1. According to the usage-based theories, language learning is input-driven and frequency of occurrence of grammatical structures and lexical items in the input plays a key role in this process. We have analysed to what extent the acquisition and processing of Russian verbal morphology by c...

Tatiana Chernigovskaya; Elena Tkachenko

2011-01-01

9

Knowledge sources in L2 learning  

OpenAIRE

Should one bother to teach grammar to second language (L2) learners of English? The purpose of this article is to examine the hypothesis that there is an interface between explicit and implicit knowledge sources. Three groups of learners at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University were asked to articulate, first without a prompt and then with a prompt, the grammatical rules they were applying to correct common errors.  The test results suggest that there is a high correlation between what...

Diana Ayliff

2011-01-01

10

Influence of syllable structure on l2 auditory word learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the role of syllable structure in L2 auditory word learning. Based on research on cross-linguistic variation of speech perception and lexical memory, it was hypothesized that Japanese L1 learners of English would learn English words with an open-syllable structure without consonant clusters better than words with a closed-syllable structure and consonant clusters. Two groups of college students (Japanese group, N = 22; and native speakers of English, N = 21) learned paired English pseudowords and pictures. The pseudoword types differed in terms of the syllable structure and consonant clusters (congruent vs. incongruent) and the position of consonant clusters (coda vs. onset). Recall accuracy was higher for the pseudowords in the congruent type and the pseudowords with the coda-consonant clusters. The syllable structure effect was obtained from both participant groups, disconfirming the hypothesized cross-linguistic influence on L2 auditory word learning. PMID:24493208

Hamada, Megumi; Goya, Hideki

2015-04-01

11

Age effects in L2 acquisition: ultimate attainment at the syntax-morphology interface  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a selective overview of studies that have examined age effects in second language (L2) acquisition. The focus was on adult second language learners and the L2 ultimate attainment at syntax-interface morphology, with particular attention given to the problematic case of inflectional morphology. We present different kinds of evidence including behavioural, descriptive and brain-based data. Although the main focus was on the syntax-morphology interface, other domains such as ...

Komar, Paulina

2010-01-01

12

Investigating the Relationship between the Morphological Processing of Regular and Irregular Words and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study investigates the relationship between the morphological processing of regular and irregular words and second language (L2 vocabulary acquisition. In considering that monolingual Arabic speakers derive a large number of new words from roots by leaning heavily on the regularity of rules in Arabic (Bar & Dershowitz, 2012; Habash, 2010, they are expected to experience difficulty when developing the lexicon of a language with less regular rules, such as English. To examine this assumption empirically, data were collected by administering an English receptive vocabulary knowledge test that included 100 regular and irregular inflected and derived words to 450 Arabic English as a foreign language (EFL learners from schools in Saudi Arabia. The test also included pesudowords (non-words to act as ‘gatekeepers’ against the possibility of guessing. The t-test results revealed a non-significant difference in learners’ uptake of L2 words, whether regular or irregular. However, the study indicates that word frequency plays a statistically significant role in learning L2 vocabulary that is irregularly inflected or derived. The frequency effect on irregular word morphology found in this study is in line with the approach of a dual-route mechanism. This approach suggests that irregular words are not rule-based, so are stored in the mental lexicon as full entries, whereas regular words are not. This article suggests that introducing rules for deriving new words from base forms to EFL learners in the early stages of learning would be very useful for L2 vocabulary development.Keywords: morphological processing, vocabulary acquisition, frequency, Arabic, mental lexicon

Ahmed Masrai

2015-07-01

13

Enhancing L2 Students' Listening Transcription Ability through a Focus on Morphological Awareness  

Science.gov (United States)

Morphological awareness (MA), defined as the ability to understand the morphemic structure of the words, has been reported to affect various aspects of second language performance including reading comprehension ability, spelling performance, etc. But the concept has been far less treated with reference to l2 listening. Against this background,…

Karimi, Mohammad Nabi

2013-01-01

14

Role of Phonological and Morphological Awareness in L2 Oral Word Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, 57 fifth-grade native Hebrew speakers performed orthographic-phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and oral word reading tasks in both Hebrew (first language [L1]) and English (second language [L2]). The results of the language-specific task scores in the two languages reflect, with certain qualifications, participants'…

Schiff, Rachel; Calif, Sharon

2007-01-01

15

The Role of Morphological and Contextual Information in L2 Lexical Inference  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the role of morphological and contextual information in inferring the meaning of unknown L2 words during reading. Four groups of college-level ESL students, beginning (n?=?34), intermediate (n?=?27), high-intermediate (n?=?21), and advanced (n?=?25), chose the inferred meanings of 20 pseudo compounds (e.g.,…

Hamada, Megumi

2014-01-01

16

L1 AND L2 GLOSSES: THEIR EFFECTS ON INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING  

OpenAIRE

This study examined the effectiveness of L1 and L2 glosses on incidental vocabulary learning in a multimedia environment. The investigation included the effects of additional pictorial cues in L1 and L2 glosses, and how these additions affect vocabulary learning. The analyses of a mixed design repeated measures 2 (L1, L2) X 2 (picture, no picture) X 2 (immediate test, delayed test) analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated no significant differences between L1 and L2 glosses for definition-suppl...

Makoto Yoshii

2006-01-01

17

Morphological and Phonological Factors in the Production of Verbal Inflection in Adult L2 Learners and Patients with Agrammatic Aphasia  

Science.gov (United States)

Failure to supply inflection is common in adult L2 learners of English and agrammatic aphasics (AAs), who are known to resort to bare verb forms. Among attempts to explain the absence of inflection are competing morphological and phonological explanations. In the L2 acquisition literature, omission of inflection is explained in terms of: mapping…

Szupica-Pyrzanowski, Malgorzata

2009-01-01

18

Effects of Perceptual Learning Style Preferences on L2 Lexical Inferencing  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of perceptual learning style preferences on L2 lexical inferencing and whether learners with certain perceptual learning styles benefited more from an explicitly instructional program. Joy Reid's (1995) Perceptual Learning Style Preferences (PLSP) Inventory and a lexical inferencing test…

Shen, Ming-yueh

2010-01-01

19

L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children: Effects of Learning Method and Cognate Status  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or word-mediated learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German. We examined children from fourth and eighth grades in a school setting. After a learning phase during which L2 words were…

Tonzar, Claudio; Lotto, Lorella; Job, Remo

2009-01-01

20

Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Instructed L2 Learning: The English Modals  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports the results of a quasi-experimental effects-of-instruction study examining the efficacy of applying a Cognitive Linguistic (CL) approach to L2 learning of the semantics of English modals. In spite of their frequency in typical input, modal verbs present L2 learners with difficulties, party due to their inherent…

Tyler, Andrea; Mueller, Charles M.; Ho, Vu

2010-01-01

21

Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

2014-01-01

22

Selecting ELL Textbooks: A Content Analysis of L2 Learning Strategies  

OpenAIRE

Although middle school teachers use a variety of ELL textbooks, many lack effective criteria to critically select materials that represent a wide range of L2 learning strategies. This study analyzed the illustrated and written content of 33 ELL textbooks to determine the range of L2 learning strategies represented. The researchers chose an intentional, convenience sample from each textbook to form the corpus they analyzed. They sought to answer the question: To what extent do middle school EL...

Labelle, Jeffrey T.

2010-01-01

23

Helping L2 Learners Reflect on Classroom Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports on a study that assigned Japanese students retrospective self-reporting tasks in which they were led to reflect upon their classroom second-language learning through self-analysis by reference to diaries, and by structured questionnaires and interviews on learning strategies, learner beliefs, and attitudes. (21 references) (Author/CK)

Matsumoto, Kazuko

1996-01-01

24

L2-norm multiple kernel learning and its application to biomedical data fusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper introduces the notion of optimizing different norms in the dual problem of support vector machines with multiple kernels. The selection of norms yields different extensions of multiple kernel learning (MKL such as L?, L1, and L2 MKL. In particular, L2 MKL is a novel method that leads to non-sparse optimal kernel coefficients, which is different from the sparse kernel coefficients optimized by the existing L? MKL method. In real biomedical applications, L2 MKL may have more advantages over sparse integration method for thoroughly combining complementary information in heterogeneous data sources. Results We provide a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the L2 optimization of kernels in the dual problem with the L2 coefficient regularization in the primal problem. Understanding the dual L2 problem grants a unified view on MKL and enables us to extend the L2 method to a wide range of machine learning problems. We implement L2 MKL for ranking and classification problems and compare its performance with the sparse L? and the averaging L1 MKL methods. The experiments are carried out on six real biomedical data sets and two large scale UCI data sets. L2 MKL yields better performance on most of the benchmark data sets. In particular, we propose a novel L2 MKL least squares support vector machine (LSSVM algorithm, which is shown to be an efficient and promising classifier for large scale data sets processing. Conclusions This paper extends the statistical framework of genomic data fusion based on MKL. Allowing non-sparse weights on the data sources is an attractive option in settings where we believe most data sources to be relevant to the problem at hand and want to avoid a "winner-takes-all" effect seen in L? MKL, which can be detrimental to the performance in prospective studies. The notion of optimizing L2 kernels can be straightforwardly extended to ranking, classification, regression, and clustering algorithms. To tackle the computational burden of MKL, this paper proposes several novel LSSVM based MKL algorithms. Systematic comparison on real data sets shows that LSSVM MKL has comparable performance as the conventional SVM MKL algorithms. Moreover, large scale numerical experiments indicate that when cast as semi-infinite programming, LSSVM MKL can be solved more efficiently than SVM MKL. Availability The MATLAB code of algorithms implemented in this paper is downloadable from http://homes.esat.kuleuven.be/~sistawww/bioi/syu/l2lssvm.html.

De Moor Bart

2010-06-01

25

The Effect of Conceptual Metaphors on Learning Idioms by L2 Learners  

OpenAIRE

This study examined the effect of conceptual metaphors on learning idioms by L2 learners. Seventy juniors participated in this study. They were grouped into two: Group 1 as the experimental group and Group 2 as the control group. Group 1 (n = 40) learned the idioms by conceptual metaphors and Group 2 (n = 30) by traditional methods. The participants were given a pretest in order to check the comprehension and production of idioms, metaphors, and conceptual metaphors. After the pretest, the id...

Elham Rahmani Samani; Mahmood Hashemian

2012-01-01

26

The Impact of Blended e-Learning on Undergraduate Academic Essay Writing in English (L2)  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes a quasi-experimental study into the impact of a blended e-learning environment on academic writing assignments in English (L2) at a Thai international college. An experimental group of 15 students used an on-line bulletin board, as well as face-to-face (F2F) communication in class, to share information for essay topics they…

Ferriman, Nicholas

2013-01-01

27

Classification of L2 Vocabulary Learning Strategies: Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses  

Science.gov (United States)

This research presents a classification theory for the L2 vocabulary learning strategies. Based on the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of strategies that adult Chinese English learners used, this theory identifies six categories, four of which are related to the cognitive process in lexical acquisition and the other two are…

Zhang, Bo; Li, Changyu

2011-01-01

28

The Relation between Teachers‘ Self-beliefs of L2 Learning and In-class Practices  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between Teachers’ self-belief of L2 learning and in-class practices and decisions. Thirty L2 teachers and 50 L2 learners participated in this study. To assess the learners’ general proficiency level, a standard Proficiency test (Oxford Placement Test, 2010 was administered. The participants were given a questionnaire including 22 questions specialized in teacher institutional design. Thirty teachers were observed by the researcher along with two colleagues as raters to achieve interrater reliability. Each teacher was observed two to five sessions continuously, their teaching was recorded by MP3 player to review again if needed. Some questions were specially designed to determine the teachers’ justification about what they did, behaved, and decided during language teaching according to teachers’ responses to the TBQ (Teacher Belief Questionnaire and researchers’ observation checklist. The results of the study showed that teachers’ self-belief of L2 learning exert no particular sort of effect on L2 teachers’ decision-making process and in-class instructional practices.

Frezia sheikhol-Eslami

2012-08-01

29

Active Learning through Materials Development: A Project for the Advanced L2 Classroom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Building on the notion of active learning, the assumption that students learn more when given opportunities to practice using their skills and to receive feedback on their performance, this article de-scribes a project undertaken in an Advanced (third-year Swahili course in which students were given the opportunity to develop L2 materials for computer-mediated peer instruction. The article exam-ines the goals, design and results of the project in light of the litera-ture on active learning and learner autonomy, and suggests how the project might be improved in order to serve as a model for other Ad-vanced L2 courses.

Katrina Daly Thompson

2008-01-01

30

Effects of l1 processing experience on l2 morphological awareness Effects of l1 processing experience on l2 morphological awareness  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To be an efficient and effective reader of a second language, one must develop cumulative insight into the internal structure of words, as well as acquire the necessary skills for using such insight in facilitating lexical processing and enhancing reading comprehension. In recent time, the growing recognition of the significance of these capabilities has led to a rapidly expanding body of research on intraword awareness, particularly among psychologists and reading specialists. Inasmuch as the resulting data base has clearly demonstrated that intraword awareness develops primarily through print processing experience (e.g., Yopp, 1988; Bowey, & Francis, 1991; Vellutino & Scanlon, 1987; Bertelson, Morais, Alegria, & Content, 1985; Morais, Cary, Alegria, & Bertelson, 1979; Perfetti, Beck, Bell & Hughes, 1987, we can expect that the nature of such awareness differs considerably from language to language, at least to the extent that their lexical structures vary. We also know that linguistic knowledge and processing skills transfer across languages among second language learners (e.g., Kilborn & Ito, 1989; Sasaki, 1992; Koda, 1993. Accordingly, we can both anticipate and infer that L2 lexical processing will be heavily constrained by L1 intraword structural knowledge. To be an efficient and effective reader of a second language, one must develop cumulative insight into the internal structure of words, as well as acquire the necessary skills for using such insight in facilitating lexical processing and enhancing reading comprehension. In recent time, the growing recognition of the significance of these capabilities has led to a rapidly expanding body of research on intraword awareness, particularly among psychologists and reading specialists. Inasmuch as the resulting data base has clearly demonstrated that intraword awareness develops primarily through print processing experience (e.g., Yopp, 1988; Bowey, & Francis, 1991; Vellutino & Scanlon, 1987; Bertelson, Morais, Alegria, & Content, 1985; Morais, Cary, Alegria, & Bertelson, 1979; Perfetti, Beck, Bell & Hughes, 1987, we can expect that the nature of such awareness differs considerably from language to language, at least to the extent that their lexical structures vary. We also know that linguistic knowledge and processing skills transfer across languages among second language learners (e.g., Kilborn & Ito, 1989; Sasaki, 1992; Koda, 1993. Accordingly, we can both anticipate and infer that L2 lexical processing will be heavily constrained by L1 intraword structural knowledge.

Keiko Koda

2008-04-01

31

Collaborative Concept Mapping as a Pre-Writing Strategy for L2 Learning: A Korean Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed at examining the use of concept mapping technique in a course module for Korean language learning with U.S. college students, who were prompted to engage in collaborative writing planning. The study assumed that concept mapping enhances students’ communicative interaction to promote their L2 writing. One hundred and twenty-three participants were recruited from three different proficiency level classes (beginning, intermediate, and advanced classes. Data were collected during three writing sessions: pretest of writing, individual planning, and collaborative planning. The MANCOVA results on the five components of composition score showed that the effect of collaborative concept mapping on L2 writing significantly differed across the three class levels. The study suggested practical implications for the use of collaborative mapping tasks in L2 writing contexts.

Yongjin Lee

2013-04-01

32

Learning through L2--Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and English as Medium of Instruction (EMI)  

Science.gov (United States)

Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has been promoted by the European Union as a means to achieve multilingualism. While in Germany and other European countries the trend to use the L2 as a medium of instruction is increasing, in Hong Kong, however, we see a converse development. Many schools switched from English as a medium of…

Wannagat, Ulrich

2007-01-01

33

Task-based Language Learning in Bilingual Montessori Elementary Schools: Customizing Foreign Language Learning and Promoting L2 Speaking Skills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foreign language learning has been a part of German elementary schools for several years now. Montessori schools focusing on individual learning, i.e. mostly independent from the teacher and based on auto-education, interest, and free choice, are also asked to teach an L2. The original lack of a concept of L2 learning for this environment has brought forth different approaches. Bilingual education seems to be feasible and applicable in Montessori education. The downside to this is that even in a bilingual classroom the Montessori way of learning may not allow for very much oral production of the foreign language. The role of L2 production (cf. Swain 1985, 1995, 2005 for language acquisition has been theoretically claimed and empirically investigated. Output can have a positive influence on L2 learning (cf. e.g. Izumi 2002, Keck et al. 2006. This also applies to interaction (cf. Long 1996, where negotiation of meaning and modified output are factors supporting L2 development (cf. e.g. de la Fuente 2002, McDonough 2005. Task-based Language Learning (TBLL presents itself as one way to promote oral language production and to provide opportunities for meaning-negotiation. Especially tasks with required information exchange and a closed outcome have been shown to be beneficial for the elicitation of negotiation of meaning and modified output. This paper argues that TBLL is a promising approach for the facilitation of L2 production and thus the development of speaking skills in a Montessori context. It also hypothesizes that TBLL can be implemented in a bilingual Montessori environment while still making the Montessori way of learning possible. Different tasks on various topics, examples of which are presented in this article, can lay the foundation for this. Offering such tasks in a bilingual Montessori elementary classroom promises to foster language production and the use of communication strategies like negotiation of meaning, both being facilitative for L2 acquisition. This hypothesis remains to be tested in future research.

Jana Winnefeld

2012-01-01

34

Multimedia Glosses and Their Effect on L2 Text Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning  

OpenAIRE

The present study investigates the effects that different types of multimedia glosses, namely textual, pictorial, and textual + pictorial, have on text comprehension and vocabulary learning when the goal is exclusively comprehension of a computerized text. This study is based on the theoretical framework of attention, which maintains that attention is critical in the acquisition process of an L2 (Robinson, 1995; Schmidt, 1995, 2001; Tomlin and Villa, 1994). Ninety-four participants read a tex...

Iñigo Yanguas

2009-01-01

35

Collaborative Concept Mapping as a Pre-Writing Strategy for L2 Learning: A Korean Application  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed at examining the use of concept mapping technique in a course module for Korean language learning with U.S. college students, who were prompted to engage in collaborative writing planning. The study assumed that concept mapping enhances students’ communicative interaction to promote their L2 writing. One hundred and twenty-three participants were recruited from three different proficiency level classes (beginning, intermediate, and advanced classes). Data were collected dur...

Yongjin Lee

2013-01-01

36

Unsupervised Learning of Morphology without Morphemes  

CERN Document Server

The first morphological learner based upon the theory of Whole Word Morphology Ford et al. (1997) is outlined, and preliminary evaluation results are presented. The program, Whole Word Morphologizer, takes a POS-tagged lexicon as input, induces morphological relationships without attempting to discover or identify morphemes, and is then able to generate new words beyond the learning sample. The accuracy (precision) of the generated new words is as high as 80% using the pure Whole Word theory, and 92% after a post-hoc adjustment is added to the routine.

Neuvel, S; Neuvel, Sylvain; Fulop, Sean A.

2002-01-01

37

The Effect of Conceptual Metaphors on Learning Idioms by L2 Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the effect of conceptual metaphors on learning idioms by L2 learners. Seventy juniors participated in this study. They were grouped into two: Group 1 as the experimental group and Group 2 as the control group. Group 1 (n = 40 learned the idioms by conceptual metaphors and Group 2 (n = 30 by traditional methods. The participants were given a pretest in order to check the comprehension and production of idioms, metaphors, and conceptual metaphors. After the pretest, the idioms were instructed to both groups. The first group received conceptual metaphor instruction and the second group the traditional methods. The idiom instruction lasted for one semester. Then, the posttest was given to the participants. Result showed that conceptual metaphors had a significant effect on learning idioms by the L2 participants (Group 1. Results also pointed to the fact that the effect of conceptual metaphors on learning idioms was more than that of traditional methods. Group 2 could learn idioms, but failed to draw the meaning of idioms because their metaphorical awareness had not developed.

Elham Rahmani Samani

2012-01-01

38

Machine Learning for Galaxy Morphology Classification  

CERN Document Server

In this work, decision tree learning algorithms and fuzzy inferencing systems are applied for galaxy morphology classification. In particular, the CART, the C4.5, the Random Forest and fuzzy logic algorithms are studied and reliable classifiers are developed to distinguish between spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies or star/unknown galactic objects. Morphology information for the training and testing datasets is obtained from the Galaxy Zoo project while the corresponding photometric and spectra parameters are downloaded from the SDSS DR7 catalogue.

Gauci, Adam; Abela, John; Magro, Alessio

2010-01-01

39

Machine Learning for Galaxy Morphology Classification  

OpenAIRE

In this work, decision tree learning algorithms and fuzzy inferencing systems are applied for galaxy morphology classification. In particular, the CART, the C4.5, the Random Forest and fuzzy logic algorithms are studied and reliable classifiers are developed to distinguish between spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies or star/unknown galactic objects. Morphology information for the training and testing datasets is obtained from the Galaxy Zoo project while the corresponding p...

Gauci, Adam; Adami, Kristian Zarb; Abela, John

2010-01-01

40

A Case Study on the Effects of an L2 Writing Instructional Model for Blended Learning in Higher Education  

Science.gov (United States)

This case study explores EFL (English as a foreign language) students' perceptions toward a prototype of an instructional model for second language (L2) writing in blended learning and the effects of the model on the development of L2 writing skills in higher education. This model is primarily founded on the process-oriented writing approach…

So, Lee; Lee, Chung Hyun

2013-01-01

41

Comments on Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?"  

Science.gov (United States)

Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?" (2011) offers some constructive criticism regarding the conventional terminology used in second language (L2) acquisition research and language pedagogy. Although the author finds much of their evidence reasonable and is…

Reynolds, Barry Lee

2012-01-01

42

Grammatical Error Diagnosis in Fluid Construction Grammar: A Case Study in L2 Spanish Verb Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Construction grammar (CG) has been proposed as an adequate grammatical formalism for building intelligent language tutoring systems because it is highly compatible with the learning strategies observed in second language learning. Unfortunately, the lack of computational CG implementations has made it impossible in the past to corroborate these…

Beuls, Katrien

2014-01-01

43

How Children Learn about Morphological Spelling Rules  

Science.gov (United States)

A 2-year longitudinal study was carried out to test the hypothesis that children's word-specific learning of inflectional spellings is an essential first step in their acquiring an understanding of morphological rules for spelling inflections. Ninety children, who were 6-years-old at the start of the project, were asked to spell pseudowords and…

Chliounaki, Kalliopi; Bryant, Peter

2007-01-01

44

Effect of CALL-based and Non-CALL Based Methods of Teaching on L2 Vocabulary Learning  

OpenAIRE

The use of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in the field of education has increased remarkably in recent years due to the swift and modern changes in language software. However, CALL is not widely employed in the field of second/foreign (L2) language learning in Iran. Interested in the application of CALL, this study examines two methods of vocabulary teaching/learning (CALL-based versus non-CALL based) in the short and long-term learning in the area of L2 vocabulary. It seeks to se...

Effat Bagheri; Ali Roohani; Dariush Nejad Ansari

2012-01-01

45

L2 Grammatical Gender in a Complex Morphological System: The Case of German  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to determine the nature of naturalistic learners' difficulty with grammatical gender in a complex morphological system, the longitudinal production data of an early naturalistic L1-Italian and L1-Turkish learner who are acquiring German are examined in light of current theories of gender within Chomsky's (1995) Minimalist Program. After…

Spinner, Patti; Juffs, Alan

2008-01-01

46

Multimedia Glosses and Their Effect on L2 Text Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects that different types of multimedia glosses, namely textual, pictorial, and textual + pictorial, have on text comprehension and vocabulary learning when the goal is exclusively comprehension of a computerized text. This study is based on the theoretical framework of attention, which maintains that attention is critical in the acquisition process of an L2 (Robinson, 1995; Schmidt, 1995, 2001; Tomlin and Villa, 1994. Ninety-four participants read a text under one of four gloss conditions while asked to think aloud. This study investigated whether any of the conditions promoted noticing and whether this noticing led to better comprehension of the text and learning of the target vocabulary words. Reading comprehension, recognition, and production measures were utilized in a pre-post test design. Results of quantitative and qualitative analyses of the data gathered showed first that all multimedia gloss groups noticed and recognized significantly more of the target words than the control group. Second, no significant differences were found among any of the groups in production of the target vocabulary items. Finally, regarding comprehension, results showed that the combination gloss group significantly outperformed all other groups. These results confirm that the multimedia glosses under investigation have a different effect on comprehension and vocabulary learning respectively.

Iñigo Yanguas

2009-06-01

47

A Study of Chinese and Japanese College Students’ L2 Learning Styles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 0 2 false false false EN-US ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 0 2 false false false EN-US ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:????; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:????; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-font-kerning:1.0pt;} Learning styles, much related to motivation and cognitive strategies, has been one of the most frequently discussed topics in the field of foreign/second language (L2 education. There is a considerable body of research on learning styles stemming from the domain of psychology to the conceptual field. As individuals learn in different ways from time to time, from culture to culture, and from context to context, findings of such research can only explain a comparatively small group of people’s temporary perceptions of their learning preferences to a selected subject surveyed. Sternberg (2001, p. 250 notes that “the literature has failed to provide any common conceptual framework and language,” while, according to Reid (1998, the concept is still not well understood. An enduring question for language researchers is the effect of individual differences on the efficacy of language learning (Nel, 2008. Much more research has to be done to address the issue of theoretical coherence as well as aiming for well-rounded empirical findings, tested through replication. Therefore, with an intention to contribute more data to cross-country research, this study investigated the differences and similarities of Chinese and Japanese college students’ perceptions of their current English learning styles through a classroom-based survey. Implications for the teaching and learning are discussed in the final section.

Man-ping Chu

2010-07-01

48

Verbal Inflectional Morphology in L1 and L2 Spanish: A Frequency Effects Study Examining Storage versus Composition.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the storage vs. composition of Spanish inflected verbal forms in L1 and L2 speakers of Spanish. L2 participants were selected to have mid-to-advanced proficiency, high classroom experience, and low immersion experience, typical of medium-to-advanced foreign language learners. Participants were shown the infinitival forms of verbs from either Class I (the default class, which takes new verbs) or Classes II and III (non-default classes), and were asked to produce either first-person singular present-tense or imperfect forms, in separate tasks. In the present tense, the L1 speakers showed inflected-form frequency effects (i.e., higher frequency forms were produced faster, which is taken as a reflection of storage) for stem-changing (irregular) verb-forms from both Class I (e.g., pensar-pienso) and Classes II and III (e.g., perder-pierdo), as well as for non-stem-changing (regular) forms in Classes II/III (e.g., vender-vendo), in which the regular transformation does not appear to constitute a default. In contrast, Class I regulars (e.g., pescar-pesco), whose non-stem-changing transformation constitutes a default (e.g., it is applied to new verbs), showed no frequency effects. L2 speakers showed frequency effects for all four conditions (Classes I and II/III, regulars and irregulars). In the imperfect tense, the L1 speakers showed frequency effects for Class II/III (-ía-suffixed) but not Class I (-aba-suffixed) forms, even though both involve non-stem-change (regular) default transformations. The L2 speakers showed frequency effects for both types of forms. The pattern of results was not explained by a wide range of potentially confounding experimental and statistical factors, and does not appear to be compatible with single-mechanism models, which argue that all linguistic forms are learned and processed in associative memory. The findings are consistent with a dual-system view in which both verb class and regularity influence the storage vs. composition of inflected forms. Specifically, the data suggest that in L1, inflected verbal forms are stored (as evidenced by frequency effects) unless they are both from Class I and undergo non-stem-changing default transformations. In contrast the findings suggest that at least these L2 participants may store all inflected verb-forms. Taken together, the results support dual-system models of L1 and L2 processing in which, at least at mid-to-advanced L2 proficiency and lower levels of immersion experience, the processing of rule-governed forms may depend not on L1 combinatorial processes, but instead on memorized representations. PMID:20419083

Bowden, Harriet Wood; Gelfand, Matthew P; Sanz, Cristina; Ullman, Michael T

2010-02-17

49

Narrative and identity construction: an analysis of the L2 Learning process  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A Aquisição de uma Segunda Língua (ASL) tem sido enfocada por vários pesquisadores que estudaram o processo sob diversas perspectivas (ex.: Ellis, 1997; Lantolf, 2000; Gardner, 1968), para poderem interpretar como os aprendizes adquirem a L2. Entretanto, esses estudos têm se limitado aos processos c [...] ognitivos e a outros fatores (cultural e sócio-cognitivo, por exemplo), em vez de focalizar as experiências dos aprendizes. Em virtude disso, este estudo investiga as experiências de aprendizes por meio de um grupo de auto-narrativas registradas pelo Projeto AMFALE (Aprendendo com memórias de falantes e de aprendizes de línguas estrangeiras), tendo como suporte básico o trabalho desenvolvido por Leppänen e Kalaja (2002), no qual as autoras, com base na teoria de Vladimir Propp sobre a morfologia do conto de fadas (2000), investigam o processo de aprendizagem de L2 a partir de auto-narrativas que refletem o processo heróico, ainda que árduo, dos contos de fadas, detalhado por Propp. Para tanto, o artigo se divide em duas partes. A primeira faz uma breve revisão do processo de construção de identidade, da importância da narrativa autobiográfica como expressão de identidade, chegando, por fim, aos critérios de análise de autobiografias no processo de aprendizagem de L2, identificados por Leppänen e Kalaja (2002). A segunda parte do estudo analisa alguns exemplos de autobiografias do projeto AMFALE sob a luz das referidas teorias. Abstract in english Second Language Acquisition (SLA) has been the focus of many linguists who have studied the process through varied perspectives, (e.g. Ellis, 1997; Lantolf, 2000; Gardner, 1968, to quote but a few) so that they may be able to interpret the way learners gather information regarding a second language [...] process. However, such foci have been limited to cognitive processes and other factors (e.g. cultural, socio-cognitive) rather than placed on the learners' experiences themselves. In view of this, this paper investigates learners' experiences through the analysis of a group of self narratives recorded by the AMFALE (Aprendendo com memórias de falantes e de aprendizes de língua estrangeira)² project, while, at the same time, analyzes such autobiographies in the light of Leppänen and Kalaja's (2002) work on autobiographies as learners' identities constructions, based on Vladimir Propp's book Morphology of the Folktale (2000). The study is divided in two parts: the first one briefly reviews the process of identity construction and the importance of autobiographies as a means of expression of the self. Besides, it also focuses on the criteria set forth by Leppänen and Kalaja (2002) for the analysis of autobiographies, based on Vladimir Propp's book Morphology of the folktale (2000). The second part focuses on the analyses of AMFALE autobiographies as stated above.

Luiz Antônio Caldeira, Andrade.

50

Contribution of Morphological Awareness and Lexical Inferencing Ability to L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension among Advanced EFL Learners: Testing Direct and Indirect Effects  

Science.gov (United States)

Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling)…

Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko

2012-01-01

51

An Investigation into the Modality Specificity of L2 Learners' STM Abilities in Learning Vocabulary via PDAs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Parallel with the rapid growth of wireless technology and potentials of mobile learning for language teaching/learning, employing mobile devices in language learning seems indispensable. To this end, designing learning materials suitable for different types of mobile devices regarding dual coding (DCT and cognitive load (CLT theories seems inevitable. In this study, multimedia were employed for designing two types of learning materials. Since short-term memory plays an important role in language learning, learners’ visual and verbal short-term memories were taken into consideration, too. 161 L2 Learners aged 19 and 23 years old participated in the major phases of an experiment via personal digital assistant (PDA. Based on their scores on the English vocabulary recognition and recall (EVRR tests and the statistical analysis of the results, it was revealed that delivery of learning materials with pictorial and written annotations combined rather than delivery of learning materials without such annotations to learners with high-visual and high-verbal abilities, learners with high-visual but low-verbal ability, and learners with low-visual but high-verbal ability results in better vocabulary learning outcomes. However, this was not the case for learners with low-visual and low-verbal abilities. This study acknowledges the relation between STM and the relevant modalities of materials presentation.Keywords: Mobile learning, PDA, Verbal and visual ability, Vocabulary learning

Saeed Khazaie

2012-09-01

52

Evolutionary Learning Algorithm for Multi-layer Morphological Neural Networks  

OpenAIRE

Morphological Neural Network (MNN) is a novel and important neural network and it has many applications such as image processing and pattern recognition. It makes sense to research the learning algorithm of MNN and its application. A method based on genetic algorithm is presented to train and implement multi-layer morphological neural network in this study. The algorithm calculates the weights and biases of morphological neural network and the genetic algorithm automatically acquire the learn...

He Chunmei

2013-01-01

53

The Effect of Multimedia Glosses on Online Computerized L2 Text Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning of Iranian EFL Learners  

OpenAIRE

This study investigated the effects of different types of multimedia glosses, namely text, picture, and text plus picture on online computerized L2 text comprehension and vocabulary learning of junior high school students. About 60 female Iranian junior high school students were selected from a population pool of 102 volunteers based on their performance on a standard English proficiency test (Nelson). Afterwards, they were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 15, three gloss groups, subsequently...

Omid Tabatabaei; Nasrin Shams

2011-01-01

54

Effect of CALL-based and Non-CALL Based Methods of Teaching on L2 Vocabulary Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The use of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL in the field of education has increased remarkably in recent years due to the swift and modern changes in language software. However, CALL is not widely employed in the field of second/foreign (L2 language learning in Iran. Interested in the application of CALL, this study examines two methods of vocabulary teaching/learning (CALL-based versus non-CALL based in the short and long-term learning in the area of L2 vocabulary. It seeks to see which method is more effective for teaching English vocabulary to young elementary Iranian EFL learners. To this end, 61 female Iranian EFL learners participated in the study through a purposive sampling. They were randomly assigned into CALL-users (n = 32 and non-CALL users (n = 29 and posttest control group design was employed. To collect data, a proficiency test was used to homogenize the participants and a multiple-choice vocabulary test was used as immediate and delayed posttests to find out the effectiveness of the methods in a shorter and longer period of time. The results of t-tests indicated that there was not a significant difference between the vocabulary scores of the CALL-users and non-CALL users in both short-term and long-term learning despite the fact that both methods appeared to be effective. Furthermore, both methods were found to be more effective in the short-term learning. Finally, the pedagogical implications of this study for L2 teachers and learners are presented.

Effat Bagheri

2012-07-01

55

Differential expression of Meis2, Mab21l2 and Tbx3 during limb development associated with diversification of limb morphology in mammals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bats are the only mammals capable of self-powered flight using wings. Differing from mouse or human limbs, four elongated digits within a broad wing membrane support the bat wing, and the foot of the bat has evolved a long calcar that spread the interfemoral membrane. Our recent mRNA sequencing (mRNA-Seq) study found unique expression patterns for genes at the 5' end of the Hoxd gene cluster and for Tbx3 that are associated with digit elongation and wing membrane growth in bats. In this study, we focused on two additional genes, Meis2 and Mab21l2, identified from the mRNA-Seq data. Using whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) we validated the mRNA-Seq results for differences in the expression patterns of Meis2 and Mab21l2 between bat and mouse limbs, and further characterize the timing and location of the expression of these two genes. These analyses suggest that Meis2 may function in wing membrane growth and Mab21l2 may have a role in AP and DV axial patterning. In addition, we found that Tbx3 is uniquely expressed in the unique calcar structure found in the bat hindlimb, suggesting a role for this gene in calcar growth and elongation. Moreover, analysis of the coding sequences for Meis2, Mab21l2 and Tbx3 showed that Meis2 and Mab21l2 have high sequence identity, consistent with the functions of genes being conserved, but that Tbx3 showed accelerated evolution in bats. However, evidence for positive selection in Tbx3 was not found, which would suggest that the function of this gene has not been changed. Together, our findings support the hypothesis that the modulation of the spatiotemporal expression patterns of multiple functional conserved genes control limb morphology and drive morphological change in the diversification of mammalian limbs. PMID:25166052

Dai, Mengyao; Wang, Yao; Fang, Lu; Irwin, David M; Zhu, Tengteng; Zhang, Junpeng; Zhang, Shuyi; Wang, Zhe

2014-01-01

56

Verbal Inflectional Morphology in L1 and L2 Spanish: A Frequency Effects Study Examining Storage versus Composition  

OpenAIRE

This study examines the storage vs. composition of Spanish inflected verbal forms in L1 and L2 speakers of Spanish. L2 participants were selected to have mid-to-advanced proficiency, high classroom experience, and low immersion experience, typical of medium-to-advanced foreign language learners. Participants were shown the infinitival forms of verbs from either Class I (the default class, which takes new verbs) or Classes II and III (non-default classes), and were asked to produce either firs...

Bowden, Harriet Wood; Gelfand, Matthew P.; Sanz, Cristina; Ullman, Michael T.

2010-01-01

57

Evolutionary Learning Algorithm for Multi-layer Morphological Neural Networks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphological Neural Network (MNN is a novel and important neural network and it has many applications such as image processing and pattern recognition. It makes sense to research the learning algorithm of MNN and its application. A method based on genetic algorithm is presented to train and implement multi-layer morphological neural network in this study. The algorithm calculates the weights and biases of morphological neural network and the genetic algorithm automatically acquire the learning rate. After that, the trained morphological neural network is applied to image restoration. The image restoration simulation and a comparison with the median filter are shown in the end. It shows that the morphological neural network is a quite good method applied to image restoration.

He Chunmei

2013-01-01

58

Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hand-coding locomotion controllers for modular robots is dif?cult due to their polymorphic nature. Instead, we propose to use a simple and distributed reinforcement learning strategy. ATRON modules with identical controllers can be assembled in any con?guration. To optimize the robot’s locomotion speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy’s performance on different robot con?gurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast as possible. We conclude that the learning strategy is effective and may be a practical approach to design gaits.

Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko

2009-01-01

59

The Status of Metalinguistic Knowledge in Instructed Adult L2 Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated second language metalinguistic knowledge, or explicit knowledge about the second language, in English-speaking university-level learners of German and Spanish. The status of metalinguistic knowledge in relation to the individual difference variables of language-learning aptitude, working memory for language, and…

Roehr, Karen; Ganem-Gutierrez, Gabriela Adela

2009-01-01

60

Corrective Feedback and Working Memory Capacity in Interaction-Driven L2 Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study explores the relative efficacy of recasts over metalinguistic feedback on the learning of the English "that"-trace filter and how working memory capacity (WMC) is related to the extent to which learners can benefit from recasts and metalinguistic feedback. Fifty-four Korean English as a foreign language (EFL) learners from six…

Goo, Jaemyung

2012-01-01

61

Individual variability in the perceptual learning of L2 speech sounds and its cognitive correlates  

OpenAIRE

This study explored which cognitive processes are related to individual variability in the learning of novel phonemic contrasts in a second language. 25 English participants were trained to perceive a Korean stop voicing contrast which is novel for English speakers. They were also presented with a large battery of tests which investigated different aspects of their perceptual and cognitive abilities, as well as pre- and posttraining tests of their ability to discriminate this nove...

Kim, Y. H.; Hazan, V.

2010-01-01

62

Not so Fast: A Discussion of L2 Morpheme Processing and Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

Learning inflectional morphology is a vexing problem for second language (L2) learners. Children acquiring their native language also experience some difficulty, which results in their committing overgeneralization errors. Long after individuals have achieved a high level of proficiency in the L2, they are still plagued by uncertainty when it…

Larsen-Freeman, Diane

2010-01-01

63

Developing Critical L2 Digital Literacy through the Use of Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Learning Management Systems such as Moodle  

Science.gov (United States)

Second Language (L2) Digital Literacy is of emerging importance within English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Korea, and will evolve to become regarded as the most critical component of overall L2 English Literacy. Computer-based Internet-hosted Learning Management Systems (LMS), such as the popular open-source Moodle, are rapidly being adopted worldwide for distance education, and are also being applied to blended (hybrid) education. In EFL Education, they have a special potential: by setting the LMS to force English to be used exclusively throughout a course website, the meta-language can be made the target L2 language. Of necessity, students develop the ability to use English to navigate the Internet, access and contribute to online resources, and engage in computer-mediated communication. Through such pragmatic engagement with English, students significantly develop their L2 Digital Literacy.

Meurant, Robert C.

64

Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) and L2 motivation associated with L2 pronunciation development in pre-service teachers of English / Estrategias de Aprendizaje de una Lengua y motivación L2 asociadas al desarrollo de la pronunciación de una L2 en estudiantes de Pedagogía en Inglés  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish La presente investigación busca develar los mecanismos sicosociales que utilizan los profesores de inglés de pre-servicio destacados en su desarrollo fonológico en inglés como L2, canalizados a través de estrategias de aprendizaje de una lengua. La investigación hace uso de la metodología de estudio [...] de caso y recaba información de los dos participantes a través de la entrevista semi-estructurada, cuyos resultados son analizados a la luz de la taxonomía propuesta por Oxford (1990). Los resultados corroboran en cierta medida estudios anteriores en los siguientes sentidos: (i) los participantes hacen amplio uso de estrategias indirectas, entre las cuales destacan las estrategias metacognitivas, planificación del aprendizaje y monitoreo; (ii) las estrategias metacognitivas se ven potenciadas cuando entran en contacto con el uso de estrategias directas, tales como la creación de imágenes mentales, aplicación de imagen y sonido, práctica, razonamiento cognitivo y foco atencional; y (iii) la motivación se presenta como variable movilizadora del repertorio de estrategias de aprendizaje. Abstract in english This study seeks to uncover the psychosocial mechanisms used by pre-service teachers of English with the purpose of developing an L2 phonological system, within a framework of language learning strategies (LLSs) The study makes use of a case study methodology and collects information through a semi- [...] structured interview, whose results are interpreted in light of Oxford's (1990) taxonomy. The results corroborate to some extent findings made in previous studies, amongst which are: (i) ample use of indirect strategies, amongst which metacognitive, planning and monitoring stand out; (ii) greater potential of metacognitive strategies when accompanied by use of direct strategies such as mental images, applying images and sounds, practising, analysing/reasoning, and paying attention; and (iii) the mobilisation power of motivation in connection with a strategy repertoire.

Mauricio, Véliz C.

65

Direct and Indirect Access to Corpora: An Exploratory Case Study Comparing Students' Error Correction and Learning Strategy Use in L2 Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies on students' use of corpora in L2 writing have demonstrated the benefits of corpora not only as a linguistic resource to improve their writing abilities but also as a cognitive tool to develop their learning skills and strategies. Most of the corpus studies, however, adopted either direct use or indirect use of corpora by students,…

Yoon, Hyunsook; Jo, Jung Won

2014-01-01

66

Galaxy Zoo: Reproducing Galaxy Morphologies Via Machine Learning  

CERN Document Server

We present morphological classifications obtained using machine learning for objects in SDSS DR7 that have been classified by Galaxy Zoo into three classes namely spirals, ellipticals and stars/unique objects. An artificial neural network is trained on a subset of objects classified by the human eye and we test whether the machine learning algorithm can reproduce the human classifications for the rest of the sample. We find that the success of the neural network in matching the human classifications depends crucially on the set of input parameters chosen for the machine-learning algorithm. The colours, concentrations and parameters associated with profile-fitting are reasonable in seperating the stars and galaxies into three classes. However, these results are considerably improved when adding adaptive shape parameters as well as texture. The adaptive moments and texture parameters alone cannot distinguish between stars and elliptical galaxies. Using a set of thirteen distance-independant parameters, the neur...

Banerji, Manda; Lintott, Chris J; Abdalla, Filipe B; Schawinski, Kevin; Andreescu, Dan; Bamford, Steven; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alex; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

2009-01-01

67

Galaxy Zoo: reproducing galaxy morphologies via machine learning  

Science.gov (United States)

We present morphological classifications obtained using machine learning for objects in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR6 that have been classified by Galaxy Zoo into three classes, namely early types, spirals and point sources/artefacts. An artificial neural network is trained on a subset of objects classified by the human eye, and we test whether the machine-learning algorithm can reproduce the human classifications for the rest of the sample. We find that the success of the neural network in matching the human classifications depends crucially on the set of input parameters chosen for the machine-learning algorithm. The colours and parameters associated with profile fitting are reasonable in separating the objects into three classes. However, these results are considerably improved when adding adaptive shape parameters as well as concentration and texture. The adaptive moments, concentration and texture parameters alone cannot distinguish between early type galaxies and the point sources/artefacts. Using a set of 12 parameters, the neural network is able to reproduce the human classifications to better than 90 per cent for all three morphological classes. We find that using a training set that is incomplete in magnitude does not degrade our results given our particular choice of the input parameters to the network. We conclude that it is promising to use machine-learning algorithms to perform morphological classification for the next generation of wide-field imaging surveys and that the Galaxy Zoo catalogue provides an invaluable training set for such purposes. This publication has been made possible by the participation of more than 100000 volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their contributions are individually acknowledged at http://www.galaxyzoo.org/Volunteers.aspx. E-mail: mbanerji@ast.cam.ac.uk ‡ Einstein Fellow.

Banerji, Manda; Lahav, Ofer; Lintott, Chris J.; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Schawinski, Kevin; Bamford, Steven P.; Andreescu, Dan; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M. Jordan; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alex; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

2010-07-01

68

Aptitude as Grammatical Sensitivity and the Initial Stages of Learning Japanese as a L2: Parametric Variation and Case Marking  

Science.gov (United States)

In this article, we challenge the notion that aptitude--operationalized as grammatical sensitivity as measured by the Words in Sentences section of the Modern Language Aptitude Test--is central to adult second language (L2) acquisition. We present the findings of a study on the acquisition of two properties of Japanese, head-final word order and…

VanPatten, Bill; Smith, Megan

2015-01-01

69

The Influence of Incidental and Intentional Vocabulary Acquisition and Vocabulary Strategy Use on Learning L2 Vocabularies  

OpenAIRE

This study is an attempt to investigate the role of incidental and intentional vocabulary acquisition in addition to the influence of language learning strategy: namely, the use of vocabulary strategy by Iranian EFL learners in learning new vocabularies. Accordingly, this study is two-faceted. First, Part A examines the difference between different modes of presentation, incidental and intentional learning of new vocabularies (i.e., incidental, etymology-based intentional, and meaning-based i...

Minoo Alemi; Alireza Tayebi

2011-01-01

70

Galaxy Image Processing and Morphological Classification Using Machine Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This work uses data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Galaxy Zoo Project for classification of galaxy morphologies via machine learning. SDSS imaging data together with reliable human classifications from Galaxy Zoo provide the training set and test set for the machine learning architectures. Classification is performed with hand-picked, pre-computed features from SDSS as well as with the raw imaging data from SDSS that was available to humans in the Galaxy Zoo project. With the hand-picked features and a logistic regression classifier, 95.21% classification accuracy and an area under the ROC curve of 0.986 are attained. In the case of the raw imaging data, the images are first processed to remove background noise, image artifacts, and celestial objects other than the galaxy of interest. They are then rotated onto their principle axis of variance to guarantee rotational invariance. The processed images are used to compute color information, up to 4^th order central normalized moments, and radial intensity profiles. These features are used to train a support vector machine with a 3^rd degree polynomial kernel, which achieves a classification accuracy of 95.89% with an ROC area of 0.943.

Kates-Harbeck, Julian

2012-03-01

71

The Influence of Incidental and Intentional Vocabulary Acquisition and Vocabulary Strategy Use on Learning L2 Vocabularies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the role of incidental and intentional vocabulary acquisition in addition to the influence of language learning strategy: namely, the use of vocabulary strategy by Iranian EFL learners in learning new vocabularies. Accordingly, this study is two-faceted. First, Part A examines the difference between different modes of presentation, incidental and intentional learning of new vocabularies (i.e., incidental, etymology-based intentional, and meaning-based intentional, and acquisition of new vocabularies. Part B investigates the impact of the use of language learning strategies—in this case vocabulary and reading strategy use using The Language Strategy Use Inventory—on the learning of new vocabularies. Part A, studying the influence of incidental as opposed to intentional presentation and acquisition of vocabularies, involved 30 students (i.e., 26 males and 4 females. Part B of the study, investigating the role of vocabulary learning strategy use, involved 59 students (i.e., 49 males and 10 females. The results of Part A shown by t-test indicate that, as far as performance of the students on a test of vocabulary acquisition is concerned, there is no significant difference between the two modes—incidental and intentional learning. However, for the same part, linear regression proved that among the vocabularies presented through different modes of presentation, it is vocabularies learned through meaning-based intentional mode that is the most predictive of the performance of the students on a test of vocabulary acquisition. Moreover, as for part B, the study found that there is a positive, but weak, correlation between the students’ vocabulary strategy use – measured by students filling out a self-report questionnaire entitled The Language Strategy Use Inventory developed by Cohen, A, Oxford, L. R, and Chi. J. – and their learning of new vocabularies. Finally, the findings of part B of the study indicate that, as the degree to which the students’ use of vocabulary strategy use increases, so does their use of reading strategy use.

Minoo Alemi

2011-01-01

72

Becoming an L2 Learner (Again): How a Brief Language Learning Experience Sparked Connections with SLA Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

A brief "language learning experience" (LLE) in Thai was integrated into a second language development course as part of postgraduate TESOL study at an Australian university. Sixty primary and secondary teachers from a range of schools evaluated the impact of the LLE by means of a questionnaire; the teachers proved highly affirming of…

Forman, Ross

2015-01-01

73

Enhancement of Automatization through Vocabulary Learning Using CALL: Can Prompt Language Processing Lead to Better Comprehension in L2 Reading?  

Science.gov (United States)

Our study aims to optimize a multimedia application for vocabulary learning for English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Our study is based on the concept that difficulty in reading a text in a second language is due to the need for more working memory for word decoding skills, although the working memory must also be used for text comprehension…

Sato, Takeshi; Matsunuma, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Akio

2013-01-01

74

On the Relationship between Self-regulated Learning Components and L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the past two decades, self-regulation has been the center of heated debate in educational psychology. The present study attempted to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' self-regulated learning components and vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension .To fulfill this objective, a 60-item vocabulary and reading comprehension TOEFL test was administered to a sample of 250 male and female college students majoring in English Teaching, English Language Translation, and English Literature. The Persian version of “Self- regulation Trait Questionnaire” was administered to the same participants. Pearson correlation procedure was used to analyze data. Results indicated that the correlation between self-regulated learning components: planning, self -checking, effort and self-efficacy gave mixed results. That is to say, two of the correlation coefficients, self –checking and effort were significant while the other two, planning and self-efficacy, were non-significant.

Abbas Ali Zarei

2012-09-01

75

On the Relationship between Self-regulated Learning Components and L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension  

OpenAIRE

In the past two decades, self-regulation has been the center of heated debate in educational psychology. The present study attempted to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' self-regulated learning components and vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension .To fulfill this objective, a 60-item vocabulary and reading comprehension TOEFL test was administered to a sample of 250 male and female college students majoring in English Teaching, English Language Translation, a...

Abbas Ali Zarei; Gamar Hatami

2012-01-01

76

Children benefit from morphological relatedness when they learn to spell new words.  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of morphologically related words often helps in selecting among spellings of sounds in French. For instance, final /wa/ may be spelled oi (e.g., envoi "sendoff"), oit (e.g., exploit "exploit"), ois (e.g., siamois, "siamese"), or oie (e.g., joie "joy"). The morphologically complex word exploiter "to exploit", with a pronounced t, can be used to indicate that the stem exploit is spelled with a silent t. We asked whether 8-year-old children benefited from such cues to learn new spellings. Children read silently stories which included two target nonwords, one presented in an opaque condition and the other in a morphological condition. In the opaque condition, the sentence provided semantic information (e.g., a vensois is a musical instrument) but no morphological information that could justify the spelling of the target word's final sound. Such justification was available in the morphological condition (e.g., the vensoisist plays the vensois instrument, which justifies that vensois includes a final silent s). 30 min after having read the stories, children's orthographic learning was assessed by asking them to choose the correct spelling of each nonword from among three phonologically plausible alternatives (e.g., vensois, vensoit, vensoie). Children chose correct spellings more often in the morphological condition than the opaque condition, even though the root (vensois) had been presented equally often in both conditions. That is, children benefited from information about the spelling of the morphologically complex word to learn the spelling of the stem. PMID:24109464

Pacton, Sébastien; Foulin, Jean Noël; Casalis, Séverine; Treiman, Rebecca

2013-01-01

77

Learning in student projects and morphological analysis of  Arctic particles.  

OpenAIRE

  Abstract This master thesis is divided into two parts, one pedagogical and one engineering. The purpose of the pedagogical part of this master thesis was to investigate how students learn during projects. At the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, three larger student projects occurred where the students themselves developed an probe that was launched into the atmosphere. The supervisors of the projects wanted to find out how the students learn during the project. The thesis includ...

Wahlberg, Alexander

2012-01-01

78

Italian speakers learn lexical stress of German morphologically complex words  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Italian speakers tend to stress the second component of German morphologically complex words such as compounds and prefix verbs even if the first component is lexically stressed. To improve their prosodic phrasing an automatic pronunciation teaching method was developed based on auditory feedback of prosodically corrected utterances in the learners’ own voices. Basically, the method copies contours of F0, local speech rate, and intensity from reference utterances of a Ge...

Bissiri, Maria Paola; Pfitzinger, Hartmut R.

2009-01-01

79

Unsupervised Discovery of Phonological Categories through Supervised Learning of Morphological Rules  

CERN Document Server

We describe a case study in the application of {\\em symbolic machine learning} techniques for the discovery of linguistic rules and categories. A supervised rule induction algorithm is used to learn to predict the correct diminutive suffix given the phonological representation of Dutch nouns. The system produces rules which are comparable to rules proposed by linguists. Furthermore, in the process of learning this morphological task, the phonemes used are grouped into phonologically relevant categories. We discuss the relevance of our method for linguistics and language technology.

Daelemans, W; Gillis, S; Daelemans, Walter; Berck, Peter; Gillis, Steven

1996-01-01

80

Fault-tolerant gait learning and morphology optimization of a polymorphic walking robot  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents experiments with a morphology-independent, life-long strategy for online learning of locomotion gaits. The experimental platform is a quadruped robot assembled from the LocoKit modular robotic construction kit. The learning strategy applies a stochastic optimization algorithm to optimize eight open parameters of a central pattern generator based gait implementation. We observe that the strategy converges in roughly ten minutes to gaits of similar or higher velocity than a manually designed gait and that the strategy readapts in the event of failed actuators. We also optimize offline the reachable space of a foot based on a reference design but finds that the reality gap hardens the successfully transference to the physical robot. To address this limitation, in future work we plan to study co-learning of morphological and control parameters directly on physical robots.

Christensen, David Johan; Larsen, JØrgen Christian

2013-01-01

81

Children benefit from morphological relatedness when they learn to spell new words  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of morphologically related words often helps in selecting among spellings of sounds in French. For instance, final /wa/ may be spelled oi (e.g., envoi ‘sendoff’, oit (e.g., exploit ‘exploit’, ois (e.g., siamois, ‘siamese’, or oie (e.g., joie ‘joy’. The morphologically complex word exploiter ‘to exploit’, with a pronounced t, can be used to indicate that the stem exploit is spelled with a silent t. We asked whether 8-year-old children benefited from such cues to learn new spellings. Children read silently stories which included two target nonwords, one presented in an opaque condition and the other in a morphological condition. In the opaque condition, the sentence provided semantic information (e.g., a vensois is a musical instrument but no morphological information that could justify the spelling of the target word’s final sound. Such justification was available in the morphological condition (e.g., the vensoisist plays the vensois instrument, which justifies that vensois includes a final silent s. Thirty minutes after having read the stories, children’s orthographic learning was assessed by asking them to choose the correct spelling of each nonword from among three phonologically plausible alternatives (e.g., vensois, vensoit, vensoie. Children chose correct spellings more often in the morphological condition than the opaque condition, even though the root (vensois had been presented equally often in both conditions. That is, children benefited from information about the spelling of the morphologically complex word to learn the spelling of the stem.

SebastienPacton

2013-10-01

82

ZPD-Activated Languaging and Collaborative L2 Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent second/foreign language (L2) research has witnessed the application of sociocultural tenets to L2 classrooms. This study aimed to probe whether Iranian L2 learners' engagement in ZPD-activated collaborative dialogue, or "languaging", mediates their learning process and, specifically, their appropriate use of metadiscourse to…

Mirzaei, Azizullah; Eslami, Zohreh R.

2015-01-01

83

?????????? ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? L_2. I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? [0,+? ? ??????? L 2 ? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????????????? ????. ???????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????. ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? - ?????? ? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????????.Some problems of aproximations of functions on half-interval [0,+? in the L 2-metric with certain weight by entire functions of exponential growth are studied. Modules of continuity which used in problems are constructed with help of generalized translations of Bessel. Direct theorems of Jacson type are proved. Nikolskii - Besov type function spaces are defined and their description are obtained in terms of the best approximations.

???????? ?. ?.

2000-01-01

84

?????????? ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? L_2.II  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? [0, +?? ? ??????? L 2 ? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????????????? ????. ???????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????. ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? - ?????? ? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????????. ????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?????? [17], ?????????????? ? ?????????? ??????? "????? ??????. ???. ??????????". ?????? ???????? ????????? §3, ? ????? §4 ? §5. ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? [17].Some problems of aproximations of functions on half-interval [0,+oo in the L2-metric with certain weight by entire functions of exponential growth are studied. Modules of continuity which used in problems are constructed with help of generalized translations of Bessel. Direct theorems of Jacson type are proved. Nikolskii-Besov type function spaces are defined and their description are obtained in terms of the best approximations.

???????? ?. ?.

2001-01-01

85

Modeling the variability in brain morphology and lesion distribution in multiple sclerosis by deep learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in brain morphology and white matter lesions are two hallmarks of multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology, but their variability beyond volumetrics is poorly characterized. To further our understanding of complex MS pathology, we aim to build a statistical model of brain images that can automatically discover spatial patterns of variability in brain morphology and lesion distribution. We propose building such a model using a deep belief network (DBN), a layered network whose parameters can be learned from training images. In contrast to other manifold learning algorithms, the DBN approach does not require a prebuilt proximity graph, which is particularly advantageous for modeling lesions, because their sparse and random nature makes defining a suitable distance measure between lesion images challenging. Our model consists of a morphology DBN, a lesion DBN, and a joint DBN that models concurring morphological and lesion patterns. Our results show that this model can automatically discover the classic patterns of MS pathology, as well as more subtle ones, and that the parameters computed have strong relationships to MS clinical scores. PMID:25485412

Brosch, Tom; Yoo, Youngjin; Li, David K B; Traboulsee, Anthony; Tam, Roger

2014-01-01

86

Effects of age of learning on voice onset time: categorical perception of Swedish stops by near-native L2 speakers.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of age of onset (AO) of L2 acquisition on the categorical perception of the voicing contrast in Swedish word-initial stops varying in voice onset time (VOT). Three voicing continua created on the basis of natural Swedish word pairs with /p-b/, /t-d/, /k-/ in initial position were presented to 41 Spanish early (AO 12) near-native speakers of L2 Swedish. Fifteen native speakers of Swedish served as controls. Categorizations were influenced by AO and listener status as L1/L2 speaker, in that the late learners deviated the most from native-speaker perception. In addition, only a small minority of the late learners perceived the voicing contrast in a way comparable to native-speaker categorization, while most early L2 learners demonstrated nativelike categorization patterns. However, when the results were combined with the L2 learners' production of Swedish voiceless stops (Stölten, 2005; Stölten, Abrahamsson & Hyltenstam, in press), nativelike production and perception was never found among the late learners, while a majority of the early learners still exhibited nativelike production and perception. It is concluded that, despite their being perceived as mother-tongue speakers of Swedish by native listeners, the late learners do not, after detailed phonetic scrutiny, exhibit a fully nativelike command of Swedish VOT. Consequently, being near-native rather than nativelike speakers of their second language, these individuals do not constitute the evidence necessary to reject the hypothesis of one or several critical (or sensitive) periods for language acquisition. PMID:25536842

Stölten, Katrin; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Hyltenstam, Kenneth

2014-12-01

87

Combining human and machine learning for morphological analysis of galaxy images  

CERN Document Server

The increasing importance of digital sky surveys collecting many millions of galaxy images has reinforced the need for robust methods that can perform morphological analysis of large galaxy image databases. Citizen science initiatives such as Galaxy Zoo showed that large datasets of galaxy images can be analyzed effectively by non-scientist volunteers, but since databases generated by robotic telescopes grow much faster than the processing power of any group of citizen scientists, it is clear that computer analysis is required. Here we propose to use citizen science data for training machine learning systems, and show experimental results demonstrating that machine learning systems can be trained with citizen science data. Our findings show that the performance of machine learning depends on the quality of the data, which can be improved by using samples that have a high degree of agreement between the citizen scientists. The source code of the method is publicly available.

Kuminski, Evan; Wallin, John; Shamir, Lior

2014-01-01

88

Introducing and evaluating MorphoDent, a Web-based learning program in dental morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

MorphoDent, a computer-assisted learning program designed to teach the anatomy of the adult dentition, was introduced into the curriculum of dentistry at the University of Saarland in Homburg, Germany. Thirty-six second-year students of the School of Dentistry were introduced to morphoDent alongside the traditional lectures of dental anatomy. Questionnaires that evaluated the students' perceptions of virtual learning as well as aspects of the functionality of the program educational objectives were developed and distributed to the students. Online tests were performed and compared with a traditional examination. All questionnaires were returned. A wide variety of aspects dealing the pedagogic implications of e-learning were evaluated by the students, with the overall result being that students are aware of the needed hardware and technical skills and expect the quality of their studies to improve by implementation of e-learning. All sophomores except one felt that morphoDent had helped them in learning dental morphology and reported enjoying the virtual anatomical examination. One-third reported technical difficulties in operating the program. The average exam score was 2.53 (SD: 0.66) for the traditional and 2.23 (SD: 0.59) for the online dental anatomy test. Students expressed their positive attitude towards e-learning in general and indicated that the use of photorealistic 3D models of human teeth supported the process of individual learning of dental anatomy. The online test could be rated as a good option for students' self-performance rating. PMID:20930244

Mitov, Gergo; Dillschneider, Timo; Abed, Mohammad Rabbo; Hohenberg, Gregor; Pospiech, Peter

2010-10-01

89

Negotiated Interaction in the L2 Classroom  

Science.gov (United States)

The present paper reports on an approximate replication of Foster's (1998) study on the negotiation of meaning. Foster investigated the interactional adjustments produced by L2 English learners working on different types of language learning tasks in a classroom setting. The replication study duplicates the methods of data collection and data…

Eckerth, Johannes

2009-01-01

90

A morphological perceptron with gradient-based learning for Brazilian stock market forecasting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several linear and non-linear techniques have been proposed to solve the stock market forecasting problem. However, a limitation arises from all these techniques and is known as the random walk dilemma (RWD). In this scenario, forecasts generated by arbitrary models have a characteristic one step ahead delay with respect to the time series values, so that, there is a time phase distortion in stock market phenomena reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a suitable model inspired by concepts in mathematical morphology (MM) and lattice theory (LT). This model is generically called the increasing morphological perceptron (IMP). Also, we present a gradient steepest descent method to design the proposed IMP based on ideas from the back-propagation (BP) algorithm and using a systematic approach to overcome the problem of non-differentiability of morphological operations. Into the learning process we have included a procedure to overcome the RWD, which is an automatic correction step that is geared toward eliminating time phase distortions that occur in stock market phenomena. Furthermore, an experimental analysis is conducted with the IMP using four complex non-linear problems of time series forecasting from the Brazilian stock market. Additionally, two natural phenomena time series are used to assess forecasting performance of the proposed IMP with other non financial time series. At the end, the obtained results are discussed and compared to results found using models recently proposed in the literature. PMID:22391234

Araújo, Ricardo de A

2012-04-01

91

Analysis of LOFT Tests L2-2, L2-3 and L3-0  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes LOFT Tests L2-2, L2-3, and L3-0 and presents conclusions reached from analysis of these tests. The LOFT L2 series of tests, called the power ascension series, originally consisted of six tests. The first four tests, L2-1 through L2-4, were identical except for step-wise increases in core power for each test. Comparison of these tests, and the nonnuclear Test L1-5, was planned to evaluate the effect of core power on system and ECC behavior during large cold leg break LOCA's. Tests L2-5 and L2-6 were to provide parametric investigations of the effect of loss of offsite power and prepressurized fuel. Prior to the start of the L2 series, it was decided Test L2-1 was not necessary due to the information learned from the LOFT nonnuclear tests and PBF lead rod tests. Tests L2-2 and L2-3 are described. The posttest analysis of Tests L2-2 and L2-3 is discussed, and conclusions reached from the comparisons of the experimental data to computer calculations presented. In addition, the results and implications of computer calculations on a commercial size PWR with the same model used for LOFT are presented. Finally, Test L3-0 is described and conclusions reached from it introduced

92

HABILIDADES COMUNICATIVAS EN L2 MEDIATIZADAS POR LA TECNOLOGIA EN EL CONTEXTO DE LOS ENFOQUES POR TAREAS Y COOPERATIVO / Communicative abilities in L2 mediated by technology in the context of task based teaching and cooperative learning / Habilidades comunicativas em L2 mediatizadas pela tecnologia no contexto dos enfoques por tarefas e cooperativo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese O objetivo principal deste artigo é determinar como os princípios teóricos do enfoque baseado em tarefas, a aprendizagem cooperativa e a metodologia CALL podem ser utilizados de maneira combinada no desenho de atividades para a melhora das habilidades lingüísticas. Com este objetivo, explora-se a ev [...] idência empírica a respeito da efetividade desta metodologia na aprendizagem do inglês como língua estrangeira num estudo cuasi-experimental com um pré- e pós-teste e um grupo controle. Os resultados obtidos revelam um maior incremento na aprendizagem do grupo experimental que utilizou a metodologia integrada em comparação com o grupo controle que trabalhou com uma metodologia tradicional. Isto sugere que o uso combinado do enfoque baseado em tarefas, a aprendizagem cooperativa e a metodologia CALL seria benéfico para o desenvolvimento das habilidades lingüísticas. Abstract in spanish El objetivo principal de este artículo es determinar cómo los principios metodológicos del enfoque basado en tareas, el aprendizaje cooperativo y la metodología CALL pueden ser utilizados de manera combinada en el diseño de actividades para el desarrollo de las habilidades lingüísticas. Con este obj [...] etivo, se explora evidencia empírica acerca de la efectividad de esta metodología en el aprendizaje de inglés como lengua extranjera en un estudio cuasiexperimental pre- y post- test grupo control. Los resultados obtenidos revelan un mayor incremento en el aprendizaje del grupo experimental que utilizó la metodología integrada en comparación con el grupo control que trabajó con una metodología tradicional. Esto sugiere que el uso combinado del enfoque basado en tareas, el aprendizaje cooperativo y la metodología CALL sería beneficioso para el desarrollo de las habilidades lingüísticas. Abstract in english The main objective of this article is to portray how the theoretical principles of task-based teaching, cooperative learning and CALL can be used together in the design of activities for the improvement of linguistic abilities. To achieve this, empirical evidence was examined in order to determine t [...] he efficiency of this integrated methodology vs. The traditional one commonly used for teaching English as a foreign language. Both methods were contrasted and tested in an experimental pre/post test control group research design. the results show that the experimental group, which used the integrated methodology, had a considerable language improvement compared to the control group that used a traditional one. This suggests that an integrated methodology using the approach of the task-based teaching, the cooperative learning and CALL would be beneficial for the improvement of linguistic abilities.

Angie, Quintanilla Espinoza; Anita, Ferreira Cabrera.

93

The ideal L2 selves of Japanese learners of English  

OpenAIRE

This thesis attempts to reinterpret language learning motivation through a consideration of the possibilities of applying theories of the self to L2 motivation theory. There were two overriding aims guiding my research; firstly to empirically test theoretical proposals suggesting that the concept of an ideal L2 self may represent a more effective base for understanding L2 motivation, and secondly to explore the possibilities suggested by this approach within the context of the Japanese Englis...

Ryan, Stephen

2008-01-01

94

L2 Motivation and Personality as Predictors of the Second Language Proficiency: Role of the Big Five Traits and L2 Motivational Self System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

This study examined the predictability of the L2 proficiency by personality and L2 motivational self system variables among 141 Iranian EFL university students. Participants completed Transparent Bipolar Inventory (Goldberg, 1992 as a personality measure, L2 motivational self system (Papi, 2010, and a self-rated measure of second language proficiency. Regression analyses showed that extroversion and openness to experience accounted for 13% of the variance in L2 proficiency; and ideal L2 self and L2 learning experience accounted for 35% of the variance in L2 proficiency. Further, extroversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and openness explained 25% of the variance of in ideal L2 self; neuroticism and conscientiousness explained 24% of the variance in ought-to L2 self; and conscientiousness and extroversion explained 26% of the variance in L2 learning experience. Hierarchical regressions also showed that L2 motivation is a more powerful predictor of L2 proficiency.

Key words: Second language proficiency; Big Five traits; Ideal L2 self; Ought to L2 self; L2 learning experience; Motivation

Zargham Ghapanchi

2011-12-01

95

The Effect of Technology-Supported Co-Sharing on L2 Vocabulary Strategy Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Strategies play an important role in learning a second or foreign language (L2). The aim of the current study was to develop and evaluate a co-sharing-based strategy learning system for L2 vocabulary learning known as "Mywordtools." Mywordtools is designed specifically for lexical learning, enabling learners to use the currently…

Lan, Yu-Ju

2013-01-01

96

Comments on Stefka H. Marinova-Todd, D. Bradford Marshall, and Catherine E. Snow's "Three Misconceptions About Age and L2 Learning" [and] Age and L2 Learning: The Hazards of Matching Practical "Implications" with Theoretical "Facts" [and] Missing the Point: A Response to Hyltenstam and Abrahamsson.  

Science.gov (United States)

Offers comments on an earlier article on age and second language learning, and questions the authors' of that article's interpretation of the research they reviewed. The authors of the original article respond to these comments and questions. (Author/VWL)

Hyltenstam, Kenneth; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Marshall, D. Bradford; Snow, Catherine E.

2001-01-01

97

Negative evidence in L2 acquisition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article deals with the L2 acquisition of differences between Norwegian and English passives, and presents data to show that the acquisition of these differences by Norwegian L2 acquirers of English cannot be fully explained by positive evidence, cues, conservativism or economy. Rather, it is argued, it is natural to consider whether indirect negative evidence may facilitate acquisition by inferencing. The structures in focus are impersonal passive constructions with postverbal NPs and passive constructions with intransitive verbs. These sentences are ungrammatical in English. Chomsky (1981 proposes that this is a result of passive morphology absorbing objective case in English. There is no such case to be assigned to the postverbal NP in impersonal passives. In passive constructions with intransitive verbs, the verb does not assign objective case, so that there is no case for the passive morphology to absorb. Thus, impersonal passives have to be changed into personal passives, where the NP receives nominative case, and the objective case is free to go to the passive morphology. Intransitive verbs, however, cannot be used in the passive voice at all. Both the structures discussed in this article, i.e. are grammatical in Norwegian. However, the options available in English, viz. personal passives and active sentences, are equally possible. Åfarli (1992 therefore proposes that Norwegian has optional case absorption (passive morphology optionally absorbs case. On the basis on such observations, we may propose a parameter with the settings [+case absorption] for English, and [-case absorption], signifying optional case absorption, for Norwegian. This means that none of the structures that are grammatical in English can function as positive evidence for the [+case absorption] setting, since they are also grammatical in optional case absorption languages. The question is how this parameter is set.

Anne Dahl

2005-02-01

98

L1 and L2 Strategy Use in Reading Comprehension of Chinese EFL Readers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study revealed the relationship between L1 (Mandarin Chinese) and L2 (English) strategy use in L2 reading comprehension by focusing on the correlation of L1 reading ability, L2 proficiency and employed reading strategies. The participants, 222 undergraduates learning English as a foreign language (EFL), were classified into skilled and…

Tsai, Yea-Ru; Ernst, Cheryl; Talley, Paul C.

2010-01-01

99

Speaking a L2: Second versus Foreign Language Acquisition  

OpenAIRE

This paper reports on a study carried out on referential communication strategies. It used the theoretical framework of Levelt’s (1989) model of L1 speech production in its application to L2 (DeBot, 1992). The study investigated the underlying processes of utterances of adult speakers who had to solve a referential communication task in L1 and L2. Two groups of participants were formed; the first group acquired the L2 in a second language environment (SLA) and the second group learned th...

Schuetze, Ulf

2004-01-01

100

A new approach to the learning of dental morphology, function, and esthetics: the "2D-3D-4D" concept.  

Science.gov (United States)

A concept is proposed for an approach to the learning of dental morphology and occlusion. Dental morphology, function, and esthetics should reflect a fundamental driving force, that is, the faithful emulation of the natural dentition's structural (functional, mechanical) and esthetic properties. The innovative part of the proposed approach is the emphasis on visual arts and the 2D-3D-4D aspect that starts with drawing (2D/3D) and continues with partial wax-up exercises that are followed by labial waxups and, finally, full wax-ups using innovative technical aids (electric waxers, prefabricated wax patterns, etc). Finally, the concept of layers (4D) and the histoanatomy of enamel/dentin and optical depth are taught through the realization of layering exercises (advanced acrylic mock-ups and composite resin restorations). All these techniques and materials are not only used to teach morphology and occlusion, but also constitute essential tools that will be of significant use for the student dentists and dental technologists in their future daily practice. The clinical significance of the presented methodology should allow not only students but also practicing dentists and dental technologists to help their youngest collaborators to develop a deep sense of morphology, function, and esthetics. PMID:25625126

Magne, Pascal

2015-01-01

101

Translation and Short-Term L2 Vocabulary Retention: Hindrance or Help?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study addresses the role that active translation may have in second language (L2) vocabulary learning. Some research suggests that translation might be an effective cognitive strategy for L2 vocabulary learning. Participants were 191 native French-speaking students enrolled in a TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) program.The study…

Hummel, Kirsten M.

2010-01-01

102

Empirical Comparison of Evaluation Methods for Unsupervised Learning of Morphology Comparaison empirique des méthodes d'évaluation de l'apprentissage non-supervisé de la morphologie  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Unsupervised and semi-supervised learning of morphology provide practical solutions for processing morphologically rich languages with less human labor than the traditional rule-based analyzers. Direct evaluation of the learning methods using linguistic reference analyses is important for their development, as evaluation through the final applications is often time consuming. However, even linguistic evaluation is not straightforward for full morphological analysis, because the morpheme labels generated by the learning method can be arbitrary. We review the previous evaluation methods for the learning tasks and propose new variations. In order to compare the methods, we perform an extensive meta-evaluation using the large collection of results from the Morpho Challenge competitions.

Sami Virpioja

2012-03-01

103

ERP correlates of intramodal and crossmodal L2 acquisition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study compared the neural correlates of an intramodally and a crossmodally acquired second language (L2. Deaf people who had learned their L1, German Sign Language (DGS, and their L2, German, through the visual modality were compared with hearing L2 learners of German and German native speakers. Correct and incorrect German sentences were presented word by word on a computer screen while the electroencephalogram was recorded. At the end of each sentence, the participants judged whether or not the sentence was correct. Two types of violations were realized: Either a semantically implausible noun or a violation of subject-verb number agreement was embedded at a sentence medial position. Results Semantic errors elicited an N400, followed by a late positivity in all groups. In native speakers of German, verb-agreement violations were followed by a left lateralized negativity, which has been associated with an automatic parsing process. We observed a syntax related negativity in both high performing hearing and deaf L2 learners as well. Finally, this negativity was followed by a posteriorly distributed positivity in all three groups. Conclusions Although deaf learners have learned German as an L2 mainly via the visual modality they seem to engage comparable processing mechanisms as hearing L2 learners. Thus, the data underscore the modality transcendence of language.

Salden Uta

2011-05-01

104

Cohomologie $L^2$ et parabolicite  

OpenAIRE

We obtain a topological interpretation for the space of $L^2$ harmonic forms for some complete Riemannian manifold : when the geometry at infinity is the geometry of a simply connected nilpotent Lie group, when the geometry at infinity is a symmetric space with non positive curvature and also when the geometry at infinity is parabolic.

Carron, Gilles

2004-01-01

105

Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots : Proceedings of the International Symposium on Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hand-coding locomotion controllers for modular robots is dif?cult due to their polymorphic nature. Instead, we propose to use a simple and distributed reinforcement learning strategy. ATRON modules with identical controllers can be assembled in any con?guration. To optimize the robot?s locomotion speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy?s performance on different robot con?gurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast as possible. We conclude that the learning strategy is effective and may be a practical approach to design gaits.

Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko

106

L2 Learners' and L2 Teachers' Stated L2 Beliefs  

OpenAIRE

This study was an exploratory study, which was designed to explore a group of university students' statements of their L2 beliefs. In this study the learners were the students who were studying at a two-year technical university program to become technicians. The study took place at the IUT (Institut Universitaire de Technologie) de Mont de Marsan (Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour). The researcher also attempted to explore the teachers' stated L2 beliefs to detect discordances betwee...

Gabillon, Zehra

2007-01-01

107

Learner Negotiation of L2 Form in Transcription Exercises  

Science.gov (United States)

Negotiation of language form is thought to engage learning processes by helping learners to notice gaps in their developing L2 and find target-like ways of filling them. Self-transcription, where learners work together to find language errors in recordings of their own oral output, is an awareness raising exercise that encourages such negotiation.…

Mennim, Paul

2012-01-01

108

Advances in deep learning for vision, with applications to industrial inspection: classification, segmentation and morphological extensions  

OpenAIRE

Learning features for object detection and recognition with deep learning has received increasing attention in the past several years and recently attained widespread popularity. In this PhD thesis we investigate its applications to the automatic surface inspection system of our industrial partner ArcelorMittal, for classification and segmentation problems. Currently employed algorithms, in fact, use fixed feature extractors which are hard to tune and require extensive prior-knowledge. Ou...

Masci, Jonathan; Schmidhuber, Ju?rgen

2014-01-01

109

Noticing in L2 writing  

OpenAIRE

The study investigated the ways L2 learners of English reflect on their use of English while completing a writing task and the strategies learners apply in order to resolve their language-related problems. Factors which might have some influence on the learners' noticing and problem-solving behaviour were explored using a qualitative, inductive research approach involving the detailed analyses of ten participants. Think-aloud protocols and stimulated recall interviews were used to investigate...

Geist, Monika

2013-01-01

110

Learning Novel Morphology: The Role of Meaning and Orientation of Attention at Initial Exposure  

Science.gov (United States)

A large body of research has shown that suffixes--both inflectional and derivational--can be primed with adult native speakers, which informs our understanding of storage and access to morphology in mature systems. However, this line of research has not yet been conducted from an acquisition perspective: Little is known about whether or not…

Marsden, Emma; Williams, John; Liu, Xierong

2013-01-01

111

Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses two well-known texts that respectively describe learning and teaching, drawn from the work of Freud and Plato. These texts are considered in psychoanalytic terms using a methodology drawn from the philosophy of Luce Irigaray. In particular the article addresses Irigaray's approach to the analysis of speech and utterance as a…

Peers, Chris

2012-01-01

112

Musical morphology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Morphologic measures have long been used to determine the patho-anatomical signature of different neurologic disorders. However, these measures can also be used to determine effects of specific learning tasks and quantifiable human abilities on cerebral structure. Musicians provide interesting opportunities for this type of analysis as their various skills, such as rhythmic ability and pitch and harmony discrimination (acquired through years of practicing and playing) can be quantified and compared using distinct morphologic analyses. Here, we review magnetic resonance imaging-based morphologic analyses in the music and neuroscience literature and provide some results from our own analysis of rhythmic ability in a cohort of musicians.

Chakravarty, M Mallar; Vuust, Peter

2009-01-01

113

L2 English Intonation: Relations between Form-Meaning Associations, Access to Meaning, and L1 Transfer  

Science.gov (United States)

Although there is consistent evidence that higher levels of processing, such as learning the form-meaning associations specific to the second language (L2), are a source of difficulty in acquiring L2 speech, no study has addressed how these levels interact in shaping L2 perception and production of intonation. We examine the hypothesis of whether…

Ortega-Llebaria, Marta; Colantoni, Laura

2014-01-01

114

Interpretation of Secondary Predicates by L1 and L2 Acquisition of Japanese  

OpenAIRE

This study reports the experimental data dealing with differences of the acquisition sequence of Japanese secondary depictive predicates and affectedness of Japanese verbs between Japanese speaking young children (L1 acquisition) and Mandarin Chinese speaking adults learning Japanese (L2 acquisition). The results support Schwartz and Sprouse’s (1996) and Eubank’s (1996) hypothesis that L2 grammar is derived from learners’ L1 grammar at an early stage of L2 acquisition.

Suzuki, Sayaka

2004-01-01

115

Classifier system for learning spatial representations based on a Pebble_Pond morphological wave-propagation algorithm  

Science.gov (United States)

Pebble_Pond performs morphologically based wave propagation on an input set of points on the plane, with the points corresponding to the locations of detected image features. The waves are allowed to pass through each other, resulting in an complex evolving state space from which can be obtained a diverse class of non-planar spatial measures and structures, e.g., all k nearest neighbors, k-th order Voronoi tessellations, and k-th order Gabriel graphs. One perspective on Pebble_Pond is that it takes spatial structure and transforms it into temporal structure. That is, at each iteration in the wave propagation, measures on the state space reflect spatial structure at the scale corresponding to the current iteration. Thus, at each iteration all measures obtained (in parallel) from the state space report on all spatial relations falling within the distance that the waves have propagated. This paper investigates how particular measures of the underlying state space can be used to provide basic input to a spatial learning system. The learning system to be described is based on induction via classifier systems that are modified by bucket-brigade and genetic algorithms. Classifier systems are especially useful in environments where pattern recognition actions at given time steps need to be linked with related pattern recognition actions occurring at latter time steps. This paper will describe how a classifier system can be built which exploits the parallelism and temporal ordering of the measures that arise out of the basic Pebble_Pond algorithm.

Skolnick, Michael M.

1992-11-01

116

Manifold learning for automatically predicting articular cartilage morphology in the knee with data from the osteoarthritis initiative (OAI)  

Science.gov (United States)

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative, debilitating disease with a large socio-economic impact. This study looks to manifold learning as an automatic approach to harness the plethora of data provided by the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). We construct several Laplacian Eigenmap embeddings of articular cartilage appearance from MR images of the knee using multiple MR sequences. A region of interest (ROI) defined as the weight bearing medial femur is automatically located in all images through non-rigid registration. A pairwise intensity based similarity measure is computed between all images, resulting in a fully connected graph, where each vertex represents an image and the weight of edges is the similarity measure. Spectral analysis is then applied to these pairwise similarities, which acts to reduce the dimensionality non-linearly and embeds these images in a manifold representation. In the manifold space, images that are close to each other are considered to be more "similar" than those far away. In the experiment presented here we use manifold learning to automatically predict the morphological changes in the articular cartilage by using the co-ordinates of the images in the manifold as independent variables for multiple linear regression. In the study presented here five manifolds are generated from five sequences of 390 distinct knees. We find statistically significant correlations (up to R2 = 0.75), between our predictors and the results presented in the literature.

Donoghue, C.; Rao, A.; Bull, A. M. J.; Rueckert, D.

2011-03-01

117

Enhancing Lexical Knowledge through L2 Medium Tasks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the L2 use rate in EFL classrooms through introducing three task conditions in learning lexical items. Date were collected from a group of freshman university students (male and female studying in Islamic Azad university of Sabzevar, Iran. (N=73. Based on their performance on a Michigan TOEFL reading test battery, they were first randomly divided into three groups, each completing one of the three vocabulary learning tasks that varied in the amount of L1/L2 use they induced during a two month period. The tasks were 'Reading plus further L2 reading', 'Reading plus L1 translation only' and 'dictionary work'. The statistical analysis of the students' performance on vocabulary post-tests was performed through One-Way ANOVA followed with the post hoc Regression Scheffe test to analyze which task has created a meaningful mean variability at 0/05 for both between and within groups. The results showed the outperformance of the group receiving 'reading plus further L2 reading' tasks and not the tasks involving more L1 use. (p:<0.05 Possible implications of the study are presented in the light of Task Load Involvement Hypothesis by (Laufer & Hulstijn, 2001.

Marjan Vosoughi

2012-08-01

118

Active learning of neuron morphology for accurate automated tracing of neurites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Automating the process of neurite tracing from light microscopy stacks of images is essential for large-scale or high-throughput quantitative studies of neural circuits. While the general layout of labeled neurites can be captured by many automated tracing algorithms, it is often not possible to differentiate reliably between the processes belonging to different cells. The reason is that some neurites in the stack may appear broken due to imperfect labeling, while others may appear fused due to the limited resolution of optical microscopy. Trained neuroanatomists routinely resolve such topological ambiguities during manual tracing tasks by combining information about distances between branches, branch orientations, intensities, calibers, tortuosities, colors, as well as the presence of spines or boutons. Likewise, to evaluate different topological scenarios automatically, we developed a machine learning approach that combines many of the above mentioned features. A specifically designed confidence measure was used to actively train the algorithm during user-assisted tracing procedure. Active learning significantly reduces the training time and makes it possible to obtain less than 1% generalization error rates by providing few training examples. To evaluate the overall performance of the algorithm a number of image stacks were reconstructed automatically, as well as manually by several trained users, making it possible to compare the automated traces to the baseline inter-user variability. Several geometrical and topological features of the traces were selected for the comparisons. These features include the total trace length, the total numbers of branch and terminal points, the affinity of corresponding traces, and the distances between corresponding branch and terminal points. Our results show that when the density of labeled neurites is sufficiently low, automated traces are not significantly different from manual reconstructions obtained by trained users.

Armen Stepanyants

2014-05-01

119

Language aptitude for pronunciation in advanced second language (L2) learners: behavioural predictors and neural substrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Individual differences in second language (L2) aptitude have been assumed to depend upon a variety of cognitive and personality factors. Especially, the cognitive factor phonological working memory has been conceptualised as language learning device. However, strong associations between phonological working memory and L2 aptitude have been previously found in early-stage learners only, not in advanced learners. The current study aimed at investigating the behavioural and neurobiological predictors of advanced L2 learning. Our behavioural results showed that phonetic coding ability and empathy, but not phonological working memory, predict L2 pronunciation aptitude in advanced learners. Second, functional neuroimaging revealed this behavioural trait to be correlated with hemodynamic responses of the cerebral network of speech motor control and auditory-perceptual areas. We suggest that the acquisition of L2 pronunciation aptitude is a dynamic process, requiring a variety of neural resources at different processing stages over time. PMID:23273501

Hu, Xiaochen; Ackermann, Hermann; Martin, Jason A; Erb, Michael; Winkler, Susanne; Reiterer, Susanne M

2013-12-01

120

Personalized versus Normal Practice of L2 Speaking on Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Proficiency  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Personalized learning is a self-initiated, self-directed or self-prioritized pursuit which gives the learner a degree of choice about the process of learning i.e. what to learn, how to learn and when to learn. Of course personalized learning does not indicate unlimited choice; because, L2 learners will still have targets to be met. However, it provides learners with the opportunity to learn in ways that suit their individual learning styles. The L2 learner should have the opportunity to freely choose a series of activities, already predisposed by the teacher, to improve and develop L2 proficiency. This is because human beings have different ways to learn and process information; and, these different ways of learning are independent of each other. In other words, learning styles and techniques differ across individuals; thus, personalized learning provides L2 learners to freely choose the activities they enjoy the most. So it is a student-centered learning method in which the interests and the preferences of the learner is taken into account.The present study is an investigation of a personalized versus normal practice of L2 proficiency. For this purpose an OPT (Oxford Placement Test was given to a total of 80 Iranian EFL learners. Then, 40 of them who were considered as intermediate learners were selected for the purpose of the study. The participants were randomly divided into two groups i.e. an experimental group and a control group. Both groups were pretested prior to the study. Then, the experimental group received the treatment in the form of personalized learning (games-based learning, songs, music, stories, English tongue twisters and the materials that the subjects were most interested in for ten sessions while the control group received a normal practice of speaking proficiency (based on New Interchange course books. After ten sessions, both groups were post tested. Then the results of the posttests were subjects of statistical analysis (independent-samples t-test. The results indicated that the experimental group did better than the control group and there is a significant difference between the mean scores of the experimental group who were exposed to a personalized learning and the control group who received a normal practice of oral proficiency i.e. a placebo. Based on the results of this study, L2 learner’ interests in carrying out joyful L2 activities can help to reach promising results.Keywords: Personalized learning, Oral proficiency, EFL learners, Communication

Ayda Rahmani

2015-03-01

121

Non-optionality at Zulu L2 first syntax  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Valueless Features Hypothesis of Eubank (1993/94; 1994; 1996 proposes that certain types of apparently optional syntactic processes that appear in initial and not in mature state grammars are due to a lack of specification of inflectional feature values at the initial state of grammatical knowledge. Thus the apparent optionality in the placement of medial adverbs vis-a-vis thematic or finite main verbs evident in the early stages of second language (L2 acquisition is attributed to non-transfer of the strength values of morphological features instantiated in the learners' first language (LJ. This paper provides experimental evidence from Zulu L2 acquisition of verb raising by English native speakers, which suggests non-optionality in the early developmental stages of L2 syntax. The paper suggests that the initial obligaloriness of a non-verb raising syntactic analysis evident in the early stages of Zulu L2 acquisition is LJ -based; indicating transfer of [- strong] Vfeatures in T instantiated in English. Die 'Valueless Features Hypothesis' van Eubank' (1993/94; 1994; 1996 stel voor dat sekere tipes skynbare opsionele sintaktiese prosesse wat by aanvanklike grammatikas voorkom, maar nie by grammatikas in 'n gevorderde stadium nie, die gevolg is van 'n gebrek aan spesifikasie van infleksionele kenmerkwaardes tydens die aanvanklike stadium van grammatikale kennis. Derhalwe word die skynbare opsionaliteit in die plasing van tussenbywoorde teenoor tematiese of hoofwerkwoorde in 'npersoonsvorm wat by die vroee stadiums van die aankweek van 'n tweede taal (L2 duidelik blyk, toegeskryf aan die nie-oordrag van die kragwaardes van morfologiese kenmerke wat in die leerder se eerste taal (LJ geinstansieer is. Hierdie skripsie lewer eksperimentele bewyse van werkwoordverheffing by die aanleer van Zulu (L2 deur aangebore Engelssprekendes, wat nie-opsionaliteit in die vroee ontwikkelingstadia van L2- sinsleer suggereer. Die skripsie stel voor dat die aanvanklike verpligting van 'n niewerkwoordverhejJende sintaktiese ontleding, wat in die vroee stadium by die aanleer van Zulu L2 voorkom, L1-gebaseer is; wat dui op 'n oordrag van [- sterk} V-kenmerke in T wat in Engels geinstansieer is.

Sibusisiwe Dube

2008-08-01

122

Digital Game-Based Learning (DGBL) in the L2 Classroom: The Impact of the UN's Off-the-Shelf Videogame, Food Force, on Learner Affect and Vocabulary Retention  

Science.gov (United States)

This mixed-method study explored the impact of "Food Force (FF)", a UN-sponsored off-the-shelf videogame, on learner affect and vocabulary learning and retention in a Japanese as a second/foreign language classroom. The videogame was integrated into an existing curriculum and two studies were performed. In Study 1 (n = 9), new vocabulary…

Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Schmidt, Matthew; Hayashi, Kentaro

2014-01-01

123

L2 Phonology Learning among Young-Adult Learners of English: Effects of Regular Classroom-based Instruction and L2 Proficiency / Enseñanza de la fonética de una segunda lengua en contextos escolares: Un análisis de las prácticas pedagógicas y sus efectos en el aprendizaje del inglés en jóvenes universitarios  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish A través de una metodología mixta, el presente estudio examinó el impacto de un curso de Fonología inglesa en la adquisición de sonidos vocálicos y consonánticos de estudiantes universitarios de inglés de nivel básico (n=4), pre-intermedio (n=8) e intermedio (n=6). El curso fue impartido por un prof [...] esor de inglés durante 16 semanas, cinco horas a la semana. Para determinar los efectos del curso, los estudiantes participaron en dos actividades orales durante una entrevista al inicio y fin del curso. Durante el mismo, se observaron nueve clases y el instructor reportó las actividades implementadas. Los análisis de varianza revelaron cambios positivos en la pronunciación de todos los estudiantes. En las observaciones y los reportes se constató una enseñanza fonológica sistematizada y focalizada a través de actividades variadas. Los resultados sugieren que este tipo de enseñanza permite a los estudiantes contrarrestar los efectos negativos que factores biológicos y la influencia de la lengua materna tienen durante el aprendizaje. Abstract in english Using a mixed methodology, this study examines the impact of a university-level English phonology course on the acquisition of vowel and consonant sounds in that language, by beginning (n = 4), pre-intermediate (n = 8) and intermediate-level (n = 6) students. The 5-hour-a-week, 16-week course was ta [...] ught by teacher of English. To determine the effects of the course, students participated in two oral activities during an interview at the beginning of the course, and another at the end. During these interview, nine classes were observed, and the instructor reported the activities implemented. The analysis of variance revealed positive changes in all the students pronunciation students. Observations and reports verified the presence of systematic and focused phonological teaching through a variety of activities. The results suggest that this type of teaching allows students to counteract the negative effects which biological factors and the influence of the mother tongue have on learning.

Diana, Morales Pech; Jesús, Izquierdo.

124

MOTHER TONGUE (L1 Vis-A-Vis OTHER TONGUE (L2?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Learning a language is always a difficult thing and more so when it comes to learning a second language (L2 for it reflects the complexity of learning a language which is the other tongue rather than the mother tongue of a person. The present paper proposes to focus on the prospects and benefits of the skill-based learning of the L2. All learners, as such pick up a language by two means: a acquisition of one's own language/mother tongue, and b learning another language. Acquisition is a subconscious and intuitive process, similar to that used by a child to pick up the first language (L1; and the second is conscious learning, in which a learner is aware of his/her own learning process.

Arun Behera

2012-07-01

125

Phantom Word Activation in L2  

Science.gov (United States)

L2 listening can involve the phantom activation of words which are not actually in the input. All spoken-word recognition involves multiple concurrent activation of word candidates, with selection of the correct words achieved by a process of competition between them. L2 listening involves more such activation than L1 listening, and we report two…

Broersma, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

2008-01-01

126

GLI ERRORI DI ITALIANO L1 ED L2: INTERFERENZA E APPRENDIMENTO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Si può oggi affrontare il tema degli errori di italiano da una prospettiva che possa giovare contemporaneamente a docenti di italiano L1 ed L2? Noi pensiamo di sì: la ricerca glottodidattica sembra aver ormai apprestato un terreno comune alle due situazioni di apprendimento, sgombrando il campo da vecchi pregiudizi e distinzioni che appaiono ormai superate. Attraverso la contrapposizione di concetti quali “lingua parlata/lingua scritta”,  “errori di lingua / errori di linguaggio”, “apprendimento spontaneo/apprendimento guidato”, “italiano L1/italiano L2”, “errori di apprendimento/errori di interferenza, si indicano diversi criteri per la interpretazione degli errori e la loro valutazione in relazione alle cause, alle situazioni comunicative, ai contesti o allo stadio di evoluzione dell’apprendimento della lingua.     Errors in italian L1 and L2: interference and learning   Can errors in Italian be approached in a way that benefits both L1 and L2 Italian teachers? We believe so: glottodidactic research seems to have prepared a common terrain for these two learning situations, clearing the field of old prejudices and obsolete distinctions.  Through the juxtaposition of concepts like “spoken language/written language”, “language errors/speech errors”, “spontaneous learning/guided learning”, “L1 Italian/L2 Italian”, “learning errors/interference errors”, different criteria for interpreting errors and evaluating them in relation to their causes, to communicative situations, to contexts and the developmental state in learning a language are singled out.

Rosaria Solarino

2011-02-01

127

Learning to Characterize Submarine Lava Flow Morphology at Seamounts and Spreading Centers using High Definition Video and Photomosaics  

Science.gov (United States)

In August, 2010 the UW ENLIGHTEN ’10 expedition provided ~140 hours of seafloor HD video footage at Axial Seamount, the most magmatically robust submarine volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. During this expedition, direct imagery from an Insite Pacific HD camera mounted on the ROV Jason 2 was used to classify broad expanses of seafloor where high power (8 kw) and high bandwidth (10 Gb/s) fiber optic cable will be laid as part of the Regional Scale Nodes (RSN) component of the NSF funded Ocean Observatories Initiative. The cable will provide power and two-way, real-time communication to an array of >20 sensors deployed at the summit of the volcano and at active sites of hydrothermal venting to investigate how active processes within the volcano and at seafloor hot springs within the caldera are connected. In addition to HD imagery, over 10,000 overlapping photographs from a down-looking still camera were merged and co-registered to create high resolution photomosaics of two areas within Axial’s caldera. Thousands of additional images were taken to characterize the seafloor along proposed cable routes, allowing optimal routes to be planned well in advance of deployment. Lowest risk areas included those free of large collapse basins, steep flow fronts and fissures. Characterizing the modes of lava distribution across the seafloor is crucial to understanding the construction history of the upper oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges. In part, reconstruction of crustal development and eruptive histories can be inferred from surface flow morphologies, which provide insights into lava emplacement dynamics and effusion rates of past eruptions. An online resource is under development that will educate students about lava flow morphologies through the use of HD video and still photographs. The objective of the LavaFlow exercise is to map out a proposed cable route across the Axial Seamount caldera. Students are first trained in appropriate terminology and background content to learn to recognize and identify various lava flow morphologies and volcanic features. They then conduct a virtual ROV Jason 2 dive using video and still photographs, and characterize the terrain. Their observations are supplemented by the integration of high resolution (1 m scale resolution) bathymetry collected with a RESON SeaBat 7125 sonar mounted on Jason 2 during ENLIGHTEN’10. Students visualize the bathymetry in 2D and 3D using CARIS HIPS 7.0 software. COVE (Collaborative Ocean Visualization Environment) geospatial software is then used to plan and map out an optimal cable route. The LavaFlow exercise allows students to employ the same technologies used by the RSN team for designing the Axial Seamount cabled observatory infrastructure. When completed in 2014, real-time HD imagery, geophysical, chemical and biological sensors will provide data in real-time from this site to educators throughout the US and globe via the Internet.

Fundis, A. T.; Sautter, L. R.; Kelley, D. S.; Delaney, J. R.; Kerr-Riess, M.; Denny, A. R.; Elend, M.

2010-12-01

128

Quantitative analysis of mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in living cells using high-content imaging, machine learning, and morphological binning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding the processes of mitochondrial dynamics (fission, fusion, biogenesis, and mitophagy) has been hampered by the lack of automated, deterministic methods to measure mitochondrial morphology from microscopic images. A method to quantify mitochondrial morphology and function is presented here using a commercially available automated high-content wide-field fluorescent microscopy platform and R programming-language-based semi-automated data analysis to achieve high throughput morphological categorization (puncta, rod, network, and large & round) and quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential. In conjunction with cellular respirometry to measure mitochondrial respiratory capacity, this method detected that increasing concentrations of toxicants known to directly or indirectly affect mitochondria (t-butyl hydroperoxide [TBHP], rotenone, antimycin A, oligomycin, ouabain, and carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone [FCCP]), decreased mitochondrial networked areas in cultured 661w cells to 0.60-0.80 at concentrations that inhibited respiratory capacity to 0.20-0.70 (fold change compared to vehicle). Concomitantly, mitochondrial swelling was increased from 1.4- to 2.3-fold of vehicle as indicated by changes in large & round areas in response to TBHP, oligomycin, or ouabain. Finally, the automated identification of mitochondrial location enabled accurate quantification of mitochondrial membrane potential by measuring intramitochondrial tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) fluorescence intensity. Administration of FCCP depolarized and administration of oligomycin hyperpolarized mitochondria, as evidenced by changes in intramitochondrial TMRM fluorescence intensities to 0.33- or 5.25-fold of vehicle control values, respectively. In summary, this high-content imaging method accurately quantified mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in hundreds of thousands of cells on a per-cell basis, with sufficient throughput for pharmacological or toxicological evaluation. PMID:25447550

Leonard, Anthony P; Cameron, Robert B; Speiser, Jaime L; Wolf, Bethany J; Peterson, Yuri K; Schnellmann, Rick G; Beeson, Craig C; Rohrer, Bärbel

2015-02-01

129

Review Article: A Tree in the Wood--A Review of Research on L2 Chinese Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been considerable research in Chinese as a second language (L2) in recent years, particularly in its morphological and syntactic aspects. This article reviews research in these aspects with reference to the broader discipline of second language acquisition (SLA) and suggests that L2 Chinese research has contributed to SLA through…

Zhao, Yang

2011-01-01

130

Using Eye-Tracking to Investigate Topics in L2 Acquisition and L2 Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

Second language (L2) researchers are becoming more interested in both L2 learners' knowledge of the target language and how that knowledge is put to use during real-time language processing. Researchers are therefore beginning to see the importance of combining traditional L2 research methods with those that capture the moment-by-moment…

Roberts, Leah; Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna

2013-01-01

131

Reading Attitudes in L1 and L2, and Their Influence on L2 Extensive Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the relationship between both first language (L1) and second language (L2) reading attitudes, and learners' performance in L2 extensive reading. Four reading attitude variables were identified (Comfort, Anxiety, Value, Self-perception), both in L1 and L2, according to learners' responses to a questionnaire. Results of analyses…

Yamashita, Junko

2004-01-01

132

Explicit Grammar Instruction and the Acquisition of Second Language Verbal Morphology: A Framework for Generalized Learning in Second Language Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

The dissertation outlines a framework for understanding variation in ultimate attainment and syntactic structure in second language acquisition by positing a distinction between competence-based and generalized learning processes. Within this framework, competence-based learning is theorized to employ inductive learning processes to acquire a…

Baugher, Mark W.

2012-01-01

133

Literary Language in Development of L2 Competence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nowadays it is believed that language in daily communication rather than literary language should be the target of learning in L2 education. This is mainly because literary language is said to be uncommon in life. This paper reports on a study in which some Hong Kong ESL learners’ English proficiency was re-examined through literary texts. These learners had reached intermediate or advanced levels of English prior to the study and were generally competent in daily English. However, many of them encountered difficulty in understanding literary language. Their proficiency in general English test could not match their performances in understanding literary works. The findings reveal that learners who are strong in general proficiency may not be good in understanding literary language. Lack of literary language in the curriculum results in a false and distorted picture about the learners’ proficiency. Literary language helps upgrade L2 learners’ real proficiency in the target language.Keywords: literature, literary language, L2 proficiency, reading competence

Dan Lu

2012-11-01

134

Explicit Knowledge and Processes from a Usage-Based Perspective: The Developmental Trajectory of an Instructed L2 Learner  

Science.gov (United States)

This article considers explicit knowledge and processes in second language (L2) learning from a usage-based theoretical perspective. It reports on the long-term development of a single instructed adult learner's use of two L2 constructions, the German Perfekt of "gehen" ("go," "walk") and "fahren"…

Roehr-Brackin, Karen

2014-01-01

135

Relations among L1 Reading, L2 Knowledge, and L2 Reading: Revisiting the Threshold Hypothesis  

OpenAIRE

This study attempted to test the threshold hypothesis in second/foreign language (L2) reading by investigating the relations among first language (L1) reading, L2 knowledge, and L2 reading comprehension in a sample of 2666 (1333 males and 1333 females) Korean EFL high school students. Three different methods of data analysis were utilized after closely looking into the methods of data analysis of the current literature on a language threshold. Statistical analysis revealed that the contributi...

Gi-Pyo Park

2013-01-01

136

Relations among L1 Reading, L2 Knowledge, and L2 Reading: Revisiting the Threshold Hypothesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study attempted to test the threshold hypothesis in second/foreign language (L2 reading by investigating the relations among first language (L1 reading, L2 knowledge, and L2 reading comprehension in a sample of 2666 (1333 males and 1333 females Korean EFL high school students. Three different methods of data analysis were utilized after closely looking into the methods of data analysis of the current literature on a language threshold. Statistical analysis revealed that the contribution of L1 reading and L2 knowledge to L2 reading was significant and substantial in the main and interaction effects, accounting for 54 percent of variance of L2 reading comprehension in tandem. However, the correlation of L1 reading to L2 reading showed, in general, a decreasing trend in accordance with the improvement of L2 knowledge, which is in contrast with the notion of a threshold level. This result of a language threshold was discussed in terms of a broad construct of language transfer and the interactive approach to reading in an L2.

Gi-Pyo Park

2013-11-01

137

Création et utilisation de ressources pédagogiques sur support numérique pour l'apprentissage d'une L2 : quelles compétences pour l'enseignant ? Designing and using digital learning resources for second language acquisition: what skills do teachers need?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available À l'Université de Technologie de Belfort-Montbéliard, des ressources pédagogiques sur support numérique ont été créées afin d'être intégrées au dispositif d'enseignement d'une UV d'anglais destinée à des élèves-ingénieurs. Dans le cadre d'une recherche-action, la nature et la fonction de ces ressources ont été établies à la lumière de connaissances théoriques, et les effets de leur intégration ont fait l'objet de mesures. Cet article se concentre sur les compétences qui ont été requises pour mettre en place ces ressources : compétences dans les domaines de la didactique des langues et de la création de pages HTML. Une ébauche de référentiel métier est proposée. Même si les résultats de cette expérience semblent positifs, la question demeure de savoir s'il est possible d'être en même temps enseignant et concepteur de ressources sur support numérique. Des éléments de réponse se trouvent peut-être davantage du côté de la gestion du temps, de la motivation et des savoir-faire relationnels que du seul côté des compétences informatiques. Cette expérience n'a nullement pour vocation de fixer les règles d'un exemple à suivre. Néanmoins, elle illustre le fait que la recherche-action peut être un moyen efficace de canaliser la diversité des motivations des enseignants impliqués dans des démarches innovantes et de promouvoir la responsabilité déontologique et épistémologique, ce qui contribuera à l'amélioration des pratiques d'enseignement.At the University of Technology of Belfort-Montbéliard, digital learning resources have been designed for and integrated with the pedagogical structure of an English credit course for engineering students. Within an action research procedure, the nature and functions of these resources have been established in the light of theoretical knowledge, and the effects of this integration have been assessed. This article focuses on the skills - in the fields of language pedagogy and of HTML page design - that have been required to set up these resources. It puts forth a tentative inventory of them. Even if this experiment appears to be successful, the question remains as to whether it is feasible to be both a teacher and a digital resource designer at the same time. Part of the answer might have more to do with time-management, motivation and interpersonal skills than with computer literacy. This experiment is in no way meant to set the rules of an example to follow. However, it illustrates that action research may be an efficient means to channel the various motivations of innovative teachers and to promote deontological as well as epistemological responsibility, which will contribute to improving teaching practice.

Paul Arthaud

2006-11-01

138

Review of Recent Research (2002-2009) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 German (Part 2)  

Science.gov (United States)

This review of research on the learning, teaching, and assessment of L2 German may be particularly timely due to developments from within the profession as well as recent political changes which continue to have a strong bearing on the way L2 German is promoted, learned, taught and assessed. Far from representing an isolated field of research…

Eckerth, Johannes; Tschirner, Erwin

2010-01-01

139

A Review of Recent Research (2000-2008) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 Spanish  

Science.gov (United States)

This review presents a broad picture of recent work on L2 Spanish in educational contexts. The thematic and geographic scope of the review is wide, in order to capture the diversity of learners and learning contexts of L2 Spanish, just two decades after teaching and learning the language gained impetus worldwide. Traditional second or foreign…

Anton, Marta

2011-01-01

140

Nonnative Processing of Verbal Morphology: In Search of Regularity  

Science.gov (United States)

There is little agreement on the mechanisms involved in second language (L2) processing of regular and irregular inflectional morphology and on the exact role of age, amount, and type of exposure to L2 resulting in differences in L2 input and use. The article contributes to the ongoing debates by reporting the results of two experiments on Russian…

Gor, Kira; Cook, Svetlana

2010-01-01

141

L2 Writing Conferences: Investigating Teacher Talk  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the role of social interaction through conversational activities is well established in the L2 writing classroom in relation to idea development, understanding rhetorical modes, the creation of a sense of audience, as well as the promotion of feedback, relatively little attention has been given to the actual discourse of teachers and…

Ewert, Doreen E.

2009-01-01

142

Exploring the Relationship between Reading Strategy Use and Multiple Intelligences among Successful L2 Readers  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the years, the multiple intelligences theory (MIT) proposed by Howard Gardner has renewed interest in learners' use of effective learning strategies and produced interesting results. This MIT-oriented study investigated the role of successful L2 readers' multiple intelligences in their effective use of reading strategies. To this…

Mirzaei, Azizullah; Rahimi Domakani, Masoud; Heidari, Najmeh

2014-01-01

143

Gender Differences in Identity and Acculturation Patterns and L2 Accent Attainment  

Science.gov (United States)

Addressing the influence of sociocultural theory, current views of second language acquisition situate language learning in a much broader context than the isolated box of the classroom. There is need to consider second language (L2) acquisition practices more broadly. This study addresses differences between girls and boys of Kurdish ethnic…

Polat, Nihat; Mahalingappa, Laura J.

2010-01-01

144

Non-Local Morphological PDEs and p-Laplacian Equation on Graphs with applications in image processing and machine learning  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we introduce a new class of nonlocal p-Laplacian operators that interpolate between non-local Laplacian and infinity Laplacian. These operators are discrete analogous of the game p-laplacian operators on Euclidean spaces, and involve discrete morphological gradient on graphs. We study the Dirichlet problem associated with the new p-Laplacian equation and prove existence and uniqueness of it's solution. We also consider non-local diffusion on graphs involving these operators. Fi...

Elmoataz, Abderrahim; Desquesnes, Xavier; Lezoray, Olivier

2012-01-01

145

Automated three-dimensional reconstruction and morphological analysis of dendritic spines based on semi-supervised learning  

OpenAIRE

A dendritic spine is a small membranous protrusion from a neuron's dendrite that typically receives input from a single synapse of an axon. Recent research shows that the morphological changes of dendritic spines have a close relationship with some specific diseases. The distribution of different dendritic spine phenotypes is a key indicator of such changes. Therefore, it is necessary to classify detected spines with different phenotypes online. Since the dendritic spines have complex three d...

Shi, Peng; Huang, Yue; Hong, Jinsheng

2014-01-01

146

L(2,1)-labelling of graphs  

OpenAIRE

Un $L(2,1)$-étiquettage d'un graphe est une fonction $f$ de l'ensemble des sommets vers les entiers positifs telle que $|f(x)-f(y)|\\geq 2$ si $dist(x,y)=1$ et $|f(x)-f(y)|\\geq 1$ si $dist(x,y)=2$, où $dist(u,v)$ est la distance entre les sommets~$u$ et~$v$ dans le graphe $G$. Le \\emph{span} d'un $L(2,1)$-étiquettage $f$ est la différence entre la plus grande et la plus petite étiquette utilisée par $f$ plus $1$. En 1992, Griggs et Yeh ont conjecturé que tout graphe de degré maximum $\\...

Havet, Frederic; Reed, Bruce; Sereni, Jean-sebastien

2008-01-01

147

Earth Atmosphere Observatory Formation at L2  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper is a product of research supported by NASA under RASC (the Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts) program. It presents an overall system architecture, and covers issues of deployment, navigation, and control related to a formation of two spacecraft in the neighborhood of the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point (on the Sun-Earth line), that serves as an observatory of Earth's atmosphere. The observatory concept definition study was a multi-center NASA effort conducted in 2003, and covered a much wider scope than is presented in this focused paper.The Earth observatory at L2 is a unique design concept that can improve the knowledge and understanding of dynamic, chemical and radiative mechanisms that cause changes in the atmosphere, and can lead to the development of models and techniques to predict short and long-term climate changes.

Mettler, Edward; Acikmese, A. Behcet; Breckenridge, William G.; Mecenka, Steven A.; Tubbs, Eldred F.

2004-01-01

148

The L^2 signature of torus knots  

CERN Document Server

We find a formula for the L2 signature of a (p,q) torus knot, which is the integral of the omega-signatures over the unit circle. We then apply this to a theorem of Cochran-Orr-Teichner to prove that the n-twisted doubles of the unknot, for n not 0 or 2, are not slice. This is a new proof of the result first proved by Casson and Gordon.

Collins, Julia

2010-01-01

149

Radiative Corrections to pi_{l2} and K_{l2} Decays  

OpenAIRE

We report on our reexamination of the radiative corrections to $\\pi_{l2}$ and $K_{l2}$ decays. We perform a matching calculation, using a specific model with vector meson dominance in the long distance part and the parton model in the short distance part. By considering the dependence on the matching scale and on the hadronic parameters, and by comparing with model independent estimates, we scrutinize the model dependence of the results. For the pseudoscalar meson decay cons...

Finkemeier, Markus

1995-01-01

150

An Application of the L2 Motivational Self System to Motivate Elementary School English Learners in Singapore  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available I will describe a program that I developed to motivate grade five elementary school learners of English in Singapore to put more time and effort into learning English by enhancing their vision of their Ideal second language (L2 self and making their goals for learning English more clear and specific. The Ideal L2 self is the representation of the L2 attributes that one wishes to possess if one is able to master one’s L2. The participants, who were separated into a control group and an experimental group, lacked both confidence in their English and the motivation to study it. They also had negative attitudes toward studying English. During the training program, which consisted of a series of workshops, I asked the participants in the experimental group to imagine scripted imagery situations to enhance their vision of their Ideal L2 self. I also helped these participants to develop clear and specific goals and action plans for learning English. The mixed methods longitudinal study, which lasted four months, employed a series of questionnaires and interviews in order to assess the participants’ motivational development. The main findings were that 90% of the participants in the experimental group became more motivated to learn English, more confident in their English, and exhibited more positive attitudes toward learning English as a result of the program.  Only 50% of the participants became motivated, 75% became more confident, and 90% improved their attitudes toward learning English in the control group.

Michael Magid

2014-01-01

151

Introduction. Beyond the Obvious: Do Second Language Learners Process Inflectional Morphology?  

Science.gov (United States)

Given that this special issue is devoted to the acquisition and processing of inflectional morphology by second language (L2) learners, the question in the title may appear redundant. However, recent research on first language (L1) and L2 morphological processing has challenged basic assumptions about the status of inflectional morphology in…

Gor, Kira

2010-01-01

152

Digital Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Have you ever wanted to look into the shape and structure of a suckermouth armored catfish? Well, the Digital Morphology website makes that possible. Created as part of the National Science Foundation Digital Library at The University of Texas at Austin, this library includes hundreds of 2D and 3D visualizations of the internal and external structure of living and extinct vertebrates, and a number of invertebrates as well. These images are generated by a X-ray CT scanner, which has greater resolution and penetrating power than a conventional medical diagnostic CAT scanner. Visitors can browse the library by scientific name, common name, or the popular What's New? area. The homepage includes eight different overview pages, which provide narrative essays and images of dinosaurs, tapirs, bats, and primates. The site also has a Learn More section which provides additional material on X-ray CT's and the science behind 3D printing.

2012-03-23

153

Mutual Compensation between L1 Reading Ability and L2 Language Proficiency in L2 Reading Comprehension.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates the contribution of first language (L1) reading ability and second or foreign language (L2) proficiency to L2 reading comprehension, by focusing on the compensation between L1 reading ability and L2 proficiency among Japanese university students. Demonstrates the mutual compensation between L1 reading ability and L2 proficiency. (SG)

Yamashita, Junko

2002-01-01

154

L2 Learners' Assessments of Accentedness, Fluency, and Comprehensibility of Native and Nonnative German Speech  

Science.gov (United States)

In early stages of classroom language learning, many adult second language (L2) learners communicate primarily with one another, yet we know little about which speech stream characteristics learners tune into or the extent to which they understand this lingua franca communication. In the current study, 25 native English speakers learning German as…

O'Brien, Mary Grantham

2014-01-01

155

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria in two female Yorkshire terriers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two female Yorkshire terrier puppies were presented with generalized tonic-clonic seizures and ataxia. MRI revealed bilaterally symmetrical, diffuse regions of gray matter hyperintensity on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences. Urinary organic acids were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and were consistent with a diagnosis of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA). The L2HGDH gene encodes for the enzyme L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase, which helps break down L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid. In both puppies described in this report, a homozygous mutation at the translation initiation codon of the homolog canine L2HGDH gene was detected (c.1A>G; p.Met1?), confirming the diagnosis of L2HGA at the DNA level. Canine L2HGA is caused by more than one mutation of L2HGDH, as reported in humans. PMID:22843824

Sanchez-Masian, Daniel F; Artuch, Rafael; Mascort, Joan; Jakobs, Corlenis; Salomons, Gajja; Zamora, Angeles; Casado, Mercedes; Fernandez, Matilde; Recio, Alfredo; Lujan, Alejandro

2012-01-01

156

The Task-Based Syllabus: Promoting L2 Acquisition and Learner Empowerment in an EFL Classroom  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how the Task-Based Syllabus (TBS can be used topromote L2 acquisition and learner empowerment in an English as a Foreign Language (EFLcontext. The paper begins by reviewing definitions of the Task-Based Syllabus as well as theterm “task” in relation to the syllabus. It then examines influential theories, which havehelped shape the Task-Based Syllabus before identifying its strengths and weaknesses in theclassroom. The author then identifies ideal teaching situations for implementing aTask-Based Syllabus in order to encourage L2 acquisition and facilitate learner motivationand empowerment by promoting language learning strategy awareness.

Gabriella Sophia Torres

2014-04-01

157

The Interrelationship of Autonomy, Motivation, and Academic Performance of Persian L2 Learners in Distance Education Contexts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among various variables affecting the learning of a language, motivation and autonomy play salient roles. The present study aimed at investigating the possible relationship among autonomy, motivation, and academic performance of Persian L2 learners. To do so, 60 Persian L2 learners from Shahrekord Payam-e-Noor University were randomly selected to see whether or not autonomy, motivation, and academic performance are interrelated. Two questionnaires, one for autonomy and one for motivation, were employed to gather the required data. Analyzing the data through correlation and regression, the results revealed that there is a significant relationship between autonomy and academic performance, and also between motivation and academic performance. On the contrary, no significant relationship was observed between motivation and autonomy. The results of studies like the current one will help L2 teachers and curriculum developers make L2 learners more self-directed, motivated, and successful in conducting their own learning in distance contexts.

Mahmood Hashemian

2011-04-01

158

The Contribution of L1 Phonemic Awareness into L2 Reading: The Case of Arab EFL Readers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cross-language transfer is the extent, if any, to which phonological awareness in L1 facilitates learning to read in L2. This has been an area of investigation wherein researchers looked into the orthographic and phonological component processing skills L2 learners develop and utilize to facilitate word recognition. Given the difference between the orthographic systems of Arabic (L1 and English (L2, how difficult is it for beginning Arab EFL learners to develop these skills? Arab EFL learners seem to have difficulty with prelexical word recognition processes leading to slower and perhaps even less accurate L2 word recognition skills. This study examines the possibility of transferring Arabic phonological awareness to learning English. Results are reported, most important of which is the confirmation of cross-language transfer.

Yousef Alshaboul

2014-02-01

159

FENÓMENOS DE REDUCCIÓN VOCÁLICA POR HABLANTES COLOMBIANOS DE INGLÉS COMO L2: UN ESTUDIO ACÚSTICO / VOWEL REDUCTION PHENOMENA BY COLOMBIAN SPANISH SPEAKERS OF L2 ENGLISH: AN ACOUSTIC STUDY / FENÔMENOS DE REDUÇÃO VOCÁLICA POR FALANTES COLOMBIANOS DE INGLÊS COMO L2: UM ESTUDO ACÚSTICO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Este estudo avaliou as capacidades de um grupo de falantes de inglês como segunda língua (L2), quando percebiam e produzia a vogal inglesa Schwa. Avaliaram-se as hipóteses propostas pelo Modelo de Aprendizagem da Fala (Speech Learning Model [SML, por sua sigla em inglês]), as quais sugerem que os fa [...] lantes de L2 poderiam criar categorias fonéticas para novos sons. Tomou-se a ortografia como uma possível variável que afeta as habilidades dos falantes de L2. O estudo foi realizado em três etapas: a primeira avaliou as capacidades iniciais dos falantes de L2; a segunda consistiu num treinamento fonético em processos de redução vocálica e Schwa; finalmente, a terceira avaliou as mesmas instâncias depois do treinamento. Os resultados sugerem que os falantes tenham sido influenciados pela ortografia e tenham percebido e produzido Schwas que se assemelhavam a suas vogais nativas. Abstract in spanish Este estudio evaluó las capacidades de un grupo de hablantes de inglés como segunda lengua (L2), cuando percibían y producía la vocal inglesa Schwa. Se evaluaron las hipótesis propuestas por el Modelo de Aprendizaje del Habla (Speech Learning Model [SML, por sus siglas en inglés]), las cuales sugier [...] en que los hablantes de L2 podrían crear categorías fonéticas para sonidos nuevos. Se tomó la ortografía como una posible variable que afecta las habilidades de los hablantes de L2. El estudio se realizó en tres etapas: la primera evaluó las capacidades iniciales de los hablantes de L2; la segunda consistió en un entrenamiento fonético en procesos de reducción vocálica y Schwa, y, finalmente, la tercera evaluó las mismas instancias después del entrenamiento. Los resultados sugieren que los hablantes fueron influenciados por la ortografía y percibieron y produjeron Schwas que asemejaban sus vocales nativas. Abstract in english This study assessed the performances of a group of speakers of L2 English when perceiving and producing the English vowel Schwa. It evaluated the hypotheses proposed by the Speech Learning Model (SML), developed by Flege and colleagues (1988, 1992, 1999, and 2002), which suggest that L2 speakers are [...] capable of creating phonetic categories for new L2 sounds. The effect of orthography was chosen as a variable that could affect L2 speakers’ abilities. The study was carried out in three stages: the first one evaluated initial L2 speakers’ perceptual and productive abilities; stage two consisted of pronunciation training in vowel reduction processes; and stage three evaluated performances after training. Results suggest that Second Language (L2) speakers were influenced by the orthography; therefore, they perceived and produced Schwas as instances of their native vowels.

Kelly Johanna, Vera Diettes.

2014-06-01

160

The Interrelationship of Autonomy, Motivation, and Academic Performance of Persian L2 Learners in Distance Education Contexts  

OpenAIRE

Among various variables affecting the learning of a language, motivation and autonomy play salient roles. The present study aimed at investigating the possible relationship among autonomy, motivation, and academic performance of Persian L2 learners. To do so, 60 Persian L2 learners from Shahrekord Payam-e-Noor University were randomly selected to see whether or not autonomy, motivation, and academic performance are interrelated. Two questionnaires, one for autonomy and one for motivation, wer...

Mahmood Hashemian; Kamal Heidari Soureshjani

2011-01-01

161

Interactions between text chat and audio modalities for L2 communication in the synthetic world Second Life.  

OpenAIRE

The interest in synthetic worlds for both language education (Cooke-Plagwitz, 2008; Molka-Danielson & Deutschmann, 2009) and architectural design (Gu. et al., 2009; Garner et al, 2011), coupled with the need of architects to develop adequate foreign language (L2) skills facilitating mobility and employability, led to the design of "Building Fragile Spaces." This hybrid Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) course was held in Spring 2011. It included distance French and English L2 ac...

Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

2012-01-01

162

Interactions between text chat and audio modalities for L2 communication and feedback in the synthetic world Second Life.  

OpenAIRE

This paper reports on a study of the interactions between text chat and audio modalities in L2 interaction in a synthetic (virtual) world and observes whether the text chat modality was used for corrective feedback and the characteristics of the latter. This is examined within the context of a hybrid Content and Language Integrated Learning design workshop. This course involved 17 students of architecture whose L2 was either French or English and for which the synthetic world environment Seco...

Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

2013-01-01

163

Nuclear fuel rod response during LOFT tests L2-2 and L2-3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Comparisons of the measured fuel rod peak cladding temperatures for the first two nuclear loss-of-coolant experiments (LOCE), LOCEs L2-2 and L2-3, are presented. These LOCEs were performed in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The LOCEs provided a basis for evaluating the effect of initial power on the maximum cladding temperatures during a large break (200%, guillotine) LOCE and identified important core thermal-hydraulic responses that influence the peak cladding temperatures

164

Sitio Web interactivo para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología del sistema muscular Interactive Website to learn the morphology of the muscular system  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Debido al desarrollo científico técnico alcanzado, se han insertado las tecnologías de la informática y las comunicaciones al proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de la disciplina Morfofisiología Humana. Se realizó una investigación de innovación tecnológica, en el área de pregrado de la Educación Médica, en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río; con el objetivo de elaborar un sistema de medios de enseñanza para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular. Se utilizaron los métodos empíricos, las encuestas a estudiantes, entrevistas a profesores de la asignatura y a los profesores asesores, criterio de expertos para validar el producto. Los métodos teóricos: histórico, lógico y sistémico, fueron utilizados en la revisión bibliográfica y el análisis documental que sustenta el estudio. Las guías de estudio se elaboraron por el modelo "WebQuest" y los ejercicios interactivos con el programa "exelearning". El sistema de medios de enseñanza se ubicó en el sitio Web "MioloWeb", elaborado con "Joomla 1.7". El contenido está estructurado en subtemas y en cada uno de ellos, se facilita al estudiante una variedad de materiales educativos computarizados, que permitirán el aprendizaje activo, consciente y desarrollador de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular, propiciando la interacción del estudiante de forma activa con los contenidos, la vinculación con las estrategias curriculares, la autoevaluación en la guía de estudio y en los ejercicios interactivos.Communicative and information technologies have been introduced in the teaching-learning process of Human Morphology Subject. A research paper of technological innovation was carried out in the pre-graduate area of Medical Education belonging to the University of Medical Sciences in Pinar del Rio, with the purpose of creating a system of teaching aids to learn the human morphology of the muscular system. Empirical methods used were: surveys to students and interviews to professors and consultants of the subject, in addition to the criteria of the experts to validate the product; using also the theoretical methods: historical-logic and systemic to conduct the literature review and documentary analysis to support the study. Study guides were created following “WebQuest” model and interactive exercises using “exelearning” program. The system of teaching aids was built-in to “MioloWeb” Website, created with “Joomla 1.7”. The content is structured into subtopics and in every one of them, a variety of educational computerized materials is facilitated to the students, allowing this way an active, conscious and expanded learning of the human morphology of the muscular system, favoring at the same time a dynamic interaction of the student with the contents, the connection with the curricular strategies, and self-evaluation which was included in the guide of study plus interactive exercises.

Orliany Alboniga Álvarez

2012-06-01

165

Sitio Web interactivo para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología del sistema muscular / Interactive Website to learn the morphology of the muscular system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Debido al desarrollo científico técnico alcanzado, se han insertado las tecnologías de la informática y las comunicaciones al proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de la disciplina Morfofisiología Humana. Se realizó una investigación de innovación tecnológica, en el área de pregrado de la Educación Médica, [...] en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río; con el objetivo de elaborar un sistema de medios de enseñanza para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular. Se utilizaron los métodos empíricos, las encuestas a estudiantes, entrevistas a profesores de la asignatura y a los profesores asesores, criterio de expertos para validar el producto. Los métodos teóricos: histórico, lógico y sistémico, fueron utilizados en la revisión bibliográfica y el análisis documental que sustenta el estudio. Las guías de estudio se elaboraron por el modelo "WebQuest" y los ejercicios interactivos con el programa "exelearning". El sistema de medios de enseñanza se ubicó en el sitio Web "MioloWeb", elaborado con "Joomla 1.7". El contenido está estructurado en subtemas y en cada uno de ellos, se facilita al estudiante una variedad de materiales educativos computarizados, que permitirán el aprendizaje activo, consciente y desarrollador de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular, propiciando la interacción del estudiante de forma activa con los contenidos, la vinculación con las estrategias curriculares, la autoevaluación en la guía de estudio y en los ejercicios interactivos. Abstract in english Communicative and information technologies have been introduced in the teaching-learning process of Human Morphology Subject. A research paper of technological innovation was carried out in the pre-graduate area of Medical Education belonging to the University of Medical Sciences in Pinar del Rio, w [...] ith the purpose of creating a system of teaching aids to learn the human morphology of the muscular system. Empirical methods used were: surveys to students and interviews to professors and consultants of the subject, in addition to the criteria of the experts to validate the product; using also the theoretical methods: historical-logic and systemic to conduct the literature review and documentary analysis to support the study. Study guides were created following “WebQuest” model and interactive exercises using “exelearning” program. The system of teaching aids was built-in to “MioloWeb” Website, created with “Joomla 1.7”. The content is structured into subtopics and in every one of them, a variety of educational computerized materials is facilitated to the students, allowing this way an active, conscious and expanded learning of the human morphology of the muscular system, favoring at the same time a dynamic interaction of the student with the contents, the connection with the curricular strategies, and self-evaluation which was included in the guide of study plus interactive exercises.

Orliany, Alboniga Álvarez; Iraida, Hidalgo Gato Castillo; Niurka, Cabrera Vázquez; Rafael, Capote Martínez; Dariel, Díaz Díaz.

2012-06-01

166

Sex differences in spatial learning and prefrontal and parietal cortical dendritic morphology in the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prefrontal and parietal cortex has been implicated in the mediation of spatially related behaviors in male and female laboratory rats. Meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, are diurnally-crepuscularly active microtine rodents that exhibit a variety of sexually dimorphic spatially associated behaviors in both the laboratory and wild. In the present study we examined both the spatial Morris water maze performance and dendritic architecture and branching of neuronal cells in the prefrontal and parietal cortex of reproductive male and female meadow voles. Males learned the location of the hidden platform in the water task faster than estrous females and on probe trials they spent more time in the previously correct quadrant than females. Dendritic analysis with Golgi-Cox stained sections showed that male voles had significantly more dendritic arborization in the medial prefrontal and parietal cortex than females. These sex differences in both spatial navigation ability and in neural structures related to spatial navigation in meadow voles suggest that the size of neural areas might be shaped by ecological pressures associated with sexually dimorphic spatial behaviors. PMID:9813234

Kavaliers, M; Ossenkopp, K P; Galea, L A; Kolb, B

1998-11-01

167

Cue Reliance in L2 Written Production  

Science.gov (United States)

Second language learners reach expert levels in relative cue weighting only gradually. On the basis of ensemble machine learning models fit to naturalistic written productions of German advanced learners of English and expert writers, we set out to reverse engineer differences in the weighting of multiple cues in a clause linearization problem. We…

Wiechmann, Daniel; Kerz, Elma

2014-01-01

168

L1 literacy affects L2 pronunciation intake and text vocalization  

Science.gov (United States)

For both deaf and hearing learners, L1 acquisition calls on auditive, gestural and visual modes in progressive processes over longer stages imposed in strictly anatomical and social order from the earliest pre-lexical phase [Jusczyk (1993), Kuhl & Meltzoff (1996)] to ultimate literacy. By contrast, L2 learning will call on accelerating procedures but with restricted input, arbitrated by L1 literacy as can be traced in the English of French-speaking learners, whether observed in spontaneous speech or in text vocalization modes. An inventory of their predictable omissions, intrusions and substitutions at suprasegmental and syllabic levels, many of which they can actually hear while unable to vocalize in real-time, suggests that a photogenic segmentation of continuous speech into alphabetical units has eclipsed the indispensable earlier phonogenic module, filtering L2 intake and output. This competing mode analysis hypothesizes a critical effect on L2 pronunciation of L1 graphemic procedures acquired usually before puberty, informing data for any Critical Period Hypothesis or amounts of L1 activation influencing L2 accent [Flege (1997, 1998)] or any psychoacoustic French deafness with regard to English stress-timing [Dupoux (1997)]. A metaphonic model [Howell & Dean (1991)] adapted for French learners may remedially distance L1 from L2 vocalization procedures.

Walton, Martin

2005-04-01

169

On Chinese EFL Learners’ Homonym Processing in Relation to Their Organization of L2 Mental Lexicon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Based on the models of lexical ambiguity resolution and the organization of L2 mental lexicon proposed by previous researchers in recent years, this paper aimed at investigating the correlation between the Chinese EFL learners’ homonym processing in relation to their organization of L2 mental lexicon through cross-modal sentence-priming lexical decision tasks and word association tasks completed by both English major and non-English major students. The results showed that there is a positive correlation between the learners’ organization of L2 mental lexicon and their performance on English homonym processing. Inferential statistic analysis indicates that learners whose L2 mental lexicon is more syntagmatically related can process the English homonym more effectively. They can use contextual cues (semantic and syntactic information to deactivate inappropriate meanings while low proficiency learners may be slower and less effective in using the sentence context cues needed for disambiguation. Therefore, it has been tentatively indicated that effective spreading activation of a word during reading and listening is important and helpful for learners’ comprehension, and pedagogically suggested that consciously categorizing syntagmatically related words in L2 mental lexicon during teaching and learning new English words can help reconstruct lexical networks so as to correctly and quickly retrieve the words from the mental lexicon in a certain context and better understand the meaning of the whole context in reading and listening.

Xiumei Yu

2011-08-01

170

The broader evolutionary lessons to be learned from a comparative and phylogenetic analysis of primate muscle morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present publication reviews the broader evolutionary implications of our long-term study of primate musculature. It summarizes the implications of the study for our understanding of the use of myological characters for phylogenetic reconstruction, for assessing the importance of homoplasy and reversions in evolution, and for our understanding of Dollo's law, the notion of 'direction' in evolution, the common myth of human complexity, the tempo and mode of primate and human evolutionary history, adaptive radiations, the notion that 'common' equals 'primitive' and the influence of morphogenesis on the variability of head, neck, pectoral and upper limb muscles. Among other results our study shows that myological characters are useful for phylogenetic reconstruction. The results also stress the importance of homoplasy and of evolutionary reversions in morphological evolution, and they provide examples of reversions that violate Dollo's law due to the retention of ancestral developmental pathways. They also show that contrary to the idea of a 'general molecular slow-down of hominoids' the rates of muscle evolution at the nodes leading to and within the hominoid clade are higher than those in most other primate clades. However, there is no evidence of a general trend or 'directionality' towards an increasing complexity during the evolutionary history of hominoids and of modern humans in particular, at least regarding the number of muscles or of muscle bundles. The rates of muscle evolution at the major euarchontan and primate nodes are different, but within each major primate clade (Strepsirrhini, Platyrrhini, Cercopithecidae and Hominoidea) the rates at the various nodes, and particularly at the nodes leading to the higher groups (i.e. those including more than one genus) are strikingly similar. Our results also support, in general terms, the assumption that 'common is primitive' and they lend some support for the 'vertebrate-specific model' in the sense that during the divergent events that resulted in these four major primate clades there was more emphasis on postcranial changes than on cranial changes. Our study of primates does not, however, support suggestions that the distal structures of the upper limb are more prone to variation than the proximal ones, or that the topological origins of the upper limb muscles are more prone to evolutionary change than their insertions. PMID:23530476

Diogo, Rui; Wood, Bernard

2013-11-01

171

The Perception of Lexical Similarities Between L2 English and L3 Swedish  

OpenAIRE

The present study investigates lexical similarity perceptions by students of Swedish as a foreign language (L3) with a good yet non-native proficiency in English (L2). The general theoretical framework is provided by studies in transfer of learning and its specific instance, transfer in language acquisition. It is accepted as true that all previous linguistic knowledge is facilitative in developing proficiency in a new language. However, a frequently reported phenomenon is that students see s...

Utgof, Darja

2008-01-01

172

Peer Review Comments Provided by High- and Low-Proficiency L2 Learners: A Comparative Study  

OpenAIRE

This study explored the variations in peer review comments provided by L2 writers of high and low proficiencies. Two sampling procedures were used. First, convenience sampling was used to locate a college essay composition course as the setting of the study. Second, purposeful sampling was used to identify high- and low-performing writers as the subjects, from whom the peer review comments were collected and analyzed. An instruction-learning cycle on argumentative essay writing was conducted ...

Hui-Chuan Liao; Ya-Fen Lo

2012-01-01

173

L2TTMON Monitoring Program for L2 Topological Trigger in H1 Experiment - User's Guide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monitoring software for the L2 Topological Trigger in H1 experiment consists of two parts working on two different computers. The hardware read-out and data processing is done on a fast FIC 8234 computer working with the OS9 real time operating system. The Macintosh Quadra is used as a Graphic User Interface for accessing the OS9 trigger monitoring software. The communication between both computers is based on the parallel connection between the Macintosh and the VME crate, where the FIC computer is placed. The special designed protocol (client-server) is used to communicate between both nodes. The general scheme of monitoring for the L2 Topological Trigger and detailed description of using of the monitoring software in both nodes are given in this guide. (author)

174

Initiating round robins in the L2 classroom - preliminary observations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Complementing recent interactional research on the contingent operation of online task accomplishment, this paper deals with a specific way of organizing and managing tasks in plenary L2 classrooms – namely the round robin. This may seem like a “traditional” and rigid form of classroom organization that reduces students’ contributions to responses to the teacher’s elicitations. This paper shows that although the round robin puts certain interactional features out of play, it is nonetheless done in and through participants’ mutual orientation to the ongoing activity. The paper describes the sequential position in which round robins are initiated and how this is talked and embodied into being by the participants as well as the design of the turn that initiates the round robin activity. Relevant to the initiation and further development of the round robin are the physical arrangement of the classroom and artefacts and graphic structures that are used not only as mediating tools in the (supposed) learning relevant activity, but also as structurally relevant features to organize the ongoing interaction, in which these activities emerge.

Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer

2011-01-01

175

La conscience morphologique est-elle une variable importante dans l'apprentissage de la lecture? / Morphological awareness: an important variable in learning to read? / Consciência morfológica é uma variável importante na aprendizagem da leitura?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: French Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo é uma revisão sistemática de trabalhos que tratam da relação entre consciência morfológica e aprendizagem da leitura. Esta síntese permite confirmar que a consciência morfológica contribui realmente para a aprendizagem da leitura (tanto no nível da instalação das habilidades de dec [...] odificação quanto no nível do desenvolvimento da compreensão). No entanto, parece que não são todos os mesmos aspectos da consciência morfológica que são ligados às capacidades de decodificação e às capacidades de compreensão. Logo, novas pesquisas deverão ser desenvolvidas para melhor apreender os papéis respectivos de cada um dos componentes da consciência morfológica. Abstract in english The present article is a concise review of researches addressing the links between morphological awareness and learning reading. This review points out that morphological awareness actually contributes to learning reading (both at the level of decoding skills installation and at the level of compreh [...] ension development). However, it seems that there are different aspects of morphological awareness which are bound to decoding and comprehension capacities. Further researches must be, thus, carried out to better highlight the respective roles of each of the components of morphological awareness.

Nathalie, Marec-Breton; Anne-Sophie, Besse; Carine, Royer.

2010-12-01

176

Morphological Errors in Spanish Second Language Learners and Heritage Speakers  

Science.gov (United States)

Morphological variability and the source of these errors have been intensely debated in SLA. A recurrent finding is that postpuberty second language (L2) learners often omit or use the wrong affix for nominal and verbal inflections in oral production but less so in written tasks. According to the missing surface inflection hypothesis, L2 learners…

Montrul, Silvina

2011-01-01

177

Design of dialogic eLearning-to-learn: metalearning as pedagogical methodology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents a perspective emphasising Meta learning (ML) as the most significant and pertinent feature for promoting a democratic, collaborative eLearning-to-Learn (eL2L) phenomenon in a global context. Through attempting to understand and clarify the powers of pedagogical design of global networked e Learning based on Learning-to-Learn (L2L), it makes a plea for L2L in a dialogic global learning context, offering a vision of global democratic citizens able to engage in critical dialogue with fellow learners. http://www.inderscience.com/search/index.php?action=record&rec_id=17675&prevQuery=&ps=10&m=or

Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

2008-01-01

178

An Investigation of Personality and L2 Oral Performance  

OpenAIRE

This study investigates one dimension of personality, extroversion-introversion, and examines its potential impact on learner L2 oral performance. The study is innovative in that it analyzes not only the correlation between degree of extroversion and assessment scores based on analytic scoring but also the correlation between degree of extroversion and the discourse measures of accuracy, fluency and complexity commonly used as indices of L2 task performance in the L2 research. The data for th...

Zhengdong Gan

2011-01-01

179

L 2 -Invariants of groups and discrete measured groupoids  

OpenAIRE

In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden L^2-Bettizahlen und Novikov-Shubin Invarianten von Gruppen untersucht. Die Definition von L^2-Bettizahlen wird auf diskrete messbare Gruppoide erweitert. Dies führt zu einem sehr algebraischen Beweis des Satzes von Damien Gaboriau, der besagt, dass L^2-Bettizahlen von Gruppen Invarianten des Orbitäquivalenztyps sind. Die dabei entwickelten Methoden führen auch zu einem Beweis der Quasi-Isometrieinvarianz von Novikov-Shubin ...

Sauer, R.

2003-01-01

180

Calibration of comprehension and performance in L2 reading  

OpenAIRE

Comprehension monitoring is crucial for successful reading. Although the researchers appreciate the importance of comprehension monitoring in L2 reading, there are only a few studies done on the comprehension monitoring ability of L2 readers. The main aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension monitoring abilities of university students while reading expository texts in L2. The results showed that the students’ were not able to calibrate their comprehension at above chance level...

Sarac, Seda; Tarhan, Betul

2009-01-01

181

Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students' Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2 (Creencias de estudiantes universitarios iraníes EFL e hindúes ESL acerca de las estrategias de lectura en L2)  

Science.gov (United States)

The notion of "learner beliefs" has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners' beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers' beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study…

Karbalaei, Alireza

2010-01-01

182

L^2-Betti numbers of one-relator groups  

CERN Document Server

We determine the L^2-Betti numbers of all one-relator groups and all surface-plus-one-relation groups (surface-plus-one-relation groups were introduced by Hempel who called them one-relator surface groups). In particular we show that for all such groups G, the L^2-Betti numbers b_n^{(2)}(G) are 0 for all n>1. We also obtain some information about the L^2-cohomology of left-orderable groups, and deduce the non-L^2 result that, in any left-orderable group of homological dimension one, all two-generator subgroups are free.

Dicks, W; Dicks, Warren; Linnell, Peter A.

2005-01-01

183

A Synopsis of L2 Teacher Belief Research  

OpenAIRE

This state-of- the-art article gives a synopsis of research conducted on L2 teacher beliefs. The first part of the paper presents a brief historical overview of the conceptualizations and terms used in L2 teacher beliefs. The second part of the paper provides a panorama of diverse research studies that looked into the relationships between L2 teacher beliefs and various L2 related inquiries in diverse contexts. The paper concludes arguing for a need for further research to investigate interre...

Gabillon, Zehra

2013-01-01

184

Giving Authentic Opportunities to Second Language Learners: A Look at a French Service-Learning Project  

Science.gov (United States)

Many college students feel that learning a second language (L2) is necessary to bring value to their future. However, many also feel that during their years of learning an L2, the only experience they acquire starts when they enter the classroom and stops when they leave it. This view may bring a lack of engagement in learning the L2. Research has…

Grim, Frederique

2010-01-01

185

An Exploration of Language Anxiety in L2 Academic Context for Chinese International Students in U.S. Universities  

Science.gov (United States)

This mix-methods study examined the language anxiety levels that the Chinese international students perceived in second language (L2) academic context at four universities in the northeastern region of the United States of America; it explored the impact of language anxiety that these students perceived on their academic learning; it also…

Zhao, Qing

2013-01-01

186

Study Quality in SLA: An Assessment of Designs, Analyses, and Reporting Practices in Quantitative L2 Research  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assesses research and reporting practices in quantitative second language (L2) research. A sample of 606 primary studies, published from 1990 to 2010 in "Language Learning and Studies in Second Language Acquisition," was collected and coded for designs, statistical analyses, reporting practices, and outcomes (i.e., effect…

Plonsky, Luke

2013-01-01

187

Fostering Metacognitive Genre Awareness in L2 Academic Reading and Writing: A Case Study of Pre-Service English Teachers  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the concept of metacognition has received considerable attention for its impact on learning across disciplinary areas, it has not been sufficiently discussed in the context of L2 academic reading and writing. In this paper, we bring together two theoretical frameworks, genre analysis and metacognition theory, and discuss the concept of…

Negretti, Raffaella; Kuteeva, Maria

2011-01-01

188

Vocabulary Teaching Strategies and Conceptual Representations of Words in L2 in Children: Evidence with Novice Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

A controversial issue in bilingual research is whether in the early stages of L2 learning, access to the conceptual system involves mediation of L1 lexical representations [Kroll, J. F., & Stewart, E. (1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations.…

Comesana, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel; Pineiro, Ana; Fraga, Isabel

2009-01-01

189

The Effects of Word Exposure Frequency and Elaboration of Word Processing on Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

Research on incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition through reading has claimed that repeated encounters with unfamiliar words and the relative elaboration of processing these words facilitate word learning. However, so far both variables have been investigated in isolation. To help close this research gap, the current study…

Eckerth, Johannes; Tavakoli, Parveneh

2012-01-01

190

An overview of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase gene (L2HGDH) variants: a genotype-phenotype study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is a rare, neurometabolic disorder with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Affected individuals only have neurological manifestations, including psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and more variably macrocephaly, or epilepsy. The diagnosis of L2HGA can be made based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical analysis, and mutational analysis of L2HGDH. About 200 patients with elevated concentrations of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) in the urine were referred for chiral determination of 2HG and L2HGDH mutational analysis. All patients with increased L2HG (n=106; 83 families) were included. Clinical information on 61 patients was obtained via questionnaires. In 82 families the mutations were detected by direct sequence analysis and/or multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA), including one case where MLPA was essential to detect the second allele. In another case RT-PCR followed by deep intronic sequencing was needed to detect the mutation. Thirty-five novel mutations as well as 35 reported mutations and 14 nondisease-related variants are reviewed and included in a novel Leiden Open source Variation Database (LOVD) for L2HGDH variants (http://www.LOVD.nl/L2HGDH). Every user can access the database and submit variants/patients. Furthermore, we report on the phenotype, including neurological manifestations and urinary levels of L2HG, and we evaluate the phenotype-genotype relationship.

Steenweg, Marjan E; Jakobs, Cornelis

2010-01-01

191

Phonological Similarity, Markedness, and Rate of L2 Acquisition.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates the interrelationship of several factors--phonological similarity between L1 and L2, transfer, and markedness as they relate to the acquisition of two English vowel phonemes by native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. Phonetic and phonological similarity between L1 and L2 appear to be important factors. (LMO)

Major, Roy C.

1987-01-01

192

Attention and L2 Learners' Segmentation of Complex Sentences  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of the current study is to investigate L2 Japanese learners' ability to segment complex sentences from aural input. Elementary- and early intermediate-level L2 learners in general have not developed the ability to use syntactic cues to interpret the meaning of sentences they hear. In the case of Japanese, recognition of…

Hagiwara, Akiko

2010-01-01

193

The Age Factor in L2 Acquisition : An empirical investigation into the choice of +/-- human relative pronouns by Spanish learners of English and the resetting of parameters  

OpenAIRE

A positive approach to Second Language (L2) acquisition is to follow Chomsky's (1981) Principles and Parameters theory. Following the latest approach of the Minimalist Program (Chomsky 1995), the question of whether language acquisition involves the acquisition of morphological features that define a particular language is discussed. We would also like to examine age-related effects (Birdsong 2000) and L2 development in the acquisition of one particular linguistic phenomenon, relative clauses...

Escobar, Mª A?ngeles

2001-01-01

194

Peer Response to L2 Student Writing: Patterns and Expectations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports the corrective feedback patterns in L2 writing and the student writers’ preferences for peer feedback. The study examines the actual focus of peer review and the types of corrective feedback provided in L2 composing process. Sixteen L2 matriculation students at a Malaysian university took part in five peer review sessions, responded to a debriefing questionnaire, and participated in an interview session after completing the peer review activities. Results show that peer responses to writing focused more on clarity of feedback unlike writer expectations which focused more on grammar correction. The study confirms the relevance of peer review as an alternative feedback delivery system in L2 writing and suggests that peer corrective feedback provides teachers with important perspectives about the L2 students’ language and writing knowledge.

Abdel Rahman Abdalla Salih

2013-01-01

195

L2-stability of distributed feedback systems: Singular perturbation  

Science.gov (United States)

A continuous time, single input-single output, linear, time-invariant, distributed feedback system F sup epsilon, containing a small delay of length epsilon in the loop, is considered. Conditions are given under which L2-stability and L2-instability of this feedback system can be deduced from those of the reduced model obtained by neglecting the delay. The two system models associated with F sup epsilon are the low-frequency model F and the high frequency model F. The condition for neglecting the small delay is the L2-stability of the family of high-frequency models, where epsilon or = 0 is sufficiently small. A lemma and a theorem are given. The lemma gives sharp Nyquist-type conditions for the L2-stability and L2-instability of the family of high frequency models for sufficiently small epsilon or = 0, while the Theorem gives explicit conditions under which the small delay may or may not be neglected.

Barman, J. F.; Callier, F. M.; Desoer, C. A.

1972-01-01

196

Analysis of Complimenting in L1 vs. L2 Written Discourse: A Case Study of Iranian Students Writing Review Letters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to compare and contrast complimenting as used in L1 (Farsi and L2 (English writings of Iranian students in a foreign language learning context. For the purpose, sixty five university senior students majoring in English and taking the specialized course called "essay writing" were selected for the study. First, they were instructed how to write review letters on their classmates' essays in both L1 and L2 and then their letters were analyzed on the basis of the framework provided by Johnson and Roen (1992, and Chafe and Danielwicz (1987. The results indicated that Iranian students (female and male did not make significantly different uses of L1 and L2 complimenting in terms of form and strategies. Also, the gender of the addressees was not accommodated to by the addressors differently as regards the use of form and strategies of complimenting in L1 and L2. The results suggest that L1 and L2, if used under some formal class based conditions, tend to become maximally similar, showing no transfer of L1 potentiality into L2.

Gholam Reza Zarei

2011-04-01

197

The Effect of Concept Mapping on Iranian Pre-intermediate L2 Reading Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Teachers are always looking for innovative ways to help students improve their reading comprehension. One popular method is the use of graphic organizers such as concept maps. This study examined the use of concept maps (a meta cognitive technique to aid reading comprehension of Iranian pre- intermediate L2 learners in one of the language institutes in Shiraz. The researcher wanted to find appropriate answers to the following research questions 1 does the application of concept mapping technique have any significant effect on Iranian pre-intermediate L2 reading comprehension 2 do Iranian pre-intermediate L2learners have positive attitude toward the application of concept maps in their reading classes? For this, 30 pre-intermediate L2 learners were selected and assigned as experimental group. This experimental group received instruction on how to use concept mapping technique as a pre-reading activity. This group took part in language classes twice a week for one hour and half and reading activities covered thirty minutes of the whole class and also they completed two thirty-minutes reading comprehension tests, one as the pre-test and the other as the post-test. The results of Wilcoxon Sign Rank test showed that the participants in concept mapping group performed better in post-test than in pre-test administration. Moreover, the results of Chi-square revealed that, on the whole, L2 learners had positive attitudes toward using concept mapping technique in reading classes. This study had theoretical as well as pedagogical implication in the field of second/ foreign teaching and learning.

Omid Tabatabaei

2014-11-01

198

TCF7L2 variation and proliferative diabetic retinopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is the most severe vision-threatening complication of diabetes. For investigation of genetic association between TCF7L2 and PDR in Caucasian type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its functional consequences, 383 T2DM patients with PDR (T2DM-PDR) and 756 T2DM patients without diabetic retinopathy (T2DM-no DR) were genotyped with rs7903146 in TCF7L2. We found that risk allele (T) frequency of rs7903146 was significantly higher in T2DM-PDR patients (allelic P = 2.52E-04). In lymphoblastoid cells induced to undergo endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by treatment of tunicamycin, higher fold change of TCF7L2 and VEGFA mRNA levels were observed in rs7903146-TT cells than in rs7903146-CC cells (P = 0.02 for TCF7L2; P = 0.004 for VEGFA), suggesting that ER stress plays a role in PDR pathogenesis. Silencing TCF7L2 resulted in decreased mRNA levels of both TCF7L2 and VEGFA (P rs7903146 is associated with PDR in Caucasian T2DM and suggest that TCF7L2 promotes pathological retinal neovascularization via ER stress-dependent upregulation of VEGFA. PMID:23434931

Luo, Jing; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Aaron Yun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Jin; Zhao, Jiagang; Ouyang, Hong; Luo, Hongrong; Song, Yaojun; Lee, Janet; Patel, Sherrina H; Shaw, Peter X; Sadda, Srinivas; Zhuo, Yehong; Rosenfeld, Michael G; Zhang, Kang

2013-07-01

199

Calibration of comprehension and performance in L2 reading  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Comprehension monitoring is crucial for successful reading. Although the researchers appreciate the importance of comprehension monitoring in L2 reading, there are only a few studies done on the comprehension monitoring ability of L2 readers. The main aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension monitoring abilities of university students while reading expository texts in L2. The results showed that the students’ were not able to calibrate their comprehension at above chance level whereas they were able to calibrate their performance. The results were discussed comparative to findings from earlier research in L1 reading.

Seda SARAC

2009-10-01

200

TCF7L2 polymorphism and colon cancer  

OpenAIRE

Polymorphisms of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene have been associated with insulin sensitivity and diabetes, and the TCF7L2 gene is involved in the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway, all factors thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. In this confirmatory study, we evaluated the rs7903146 TCF7L2 polymorphism with colon cancer using previously collected data on 1578 cases and 1966 controls. We did not observe a statistically significant association between the r...

Slattery, Martha L.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Wolff, Roger; Herrick, Jenifer; Caan, Bette J.; Potter, John D.

2008-01-01

201

Una estrategia para favorecer la comprensión y el aprendizaje en las Ciencias Morfológicas: Presentaciones en PowerPoint. [ A strategy to improve the comprehension and learning in morphological science: powerpoint presentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a hypertext to the Morphological Sciences in biological area was developed and evaluated. The application with format of digital atlas approaches Anatomical, Histological and Functional concepts about the man and animals in integrated form. PowerPoint presentation was developed to operators which experience in the handling of software are limited. This digital resource was qualified as a good complement of other didactic materials. In this knowledge area offers opportunity to develop significant knowledge to improve the understanding and learning through an interactive methodology

Carranza, Miriam L. y Celaya, Gabriela

2003-07-01

202

Morphological Analysis as a Vocabulary Strategy for L1 and L2 College Preparatory Students  

Science.gov (United States)

Students enrolled in a college preparatory reading class were categorized based on language origin. Native English speakers comprised one group and foreign students were dichotomized into Latin-based (for example, Spanish) and non Latin-based (for example, Japanese) language groups. A pretest assessment quantified existing knowledge of Latinate…

Bellomo, Tom S.

2009-01-01

203

L’apprendimento della lingua della medicina in L2: due manuali a confronto  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Insegnare la lingua speciale della medicina ad una classe di apprendenti L2 implica considerare diverse problematiche relative alle peculiarità del codice settoriale (variazioni diafasiche, particolarità del lessico, tecnicismi collaterali, ma anche relative al pubblico di apprendenti non italofono (tipologia, interessi, livello di apprendimento. Il panorama editoriale italiano offre pochi strumenti dedicati: tra questi Donatella Troncarelli, Dica 33. Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, 1994 e Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma edizioni, 2004. Questo studio intende mettere a confronto i due testi sottolineandone le caratteristiche e l’impostazione glottodidattica ed evidenziando come il contenuto linguistico sia proposto, quali siano le abilità favorite, quali gli obiettivi di apprendimento e quali gli strumenti forniti. Particolare attenzione viene prestata al lessico registrato nei glossari dei volumi.  Learning the language of medicine in l2: a comparison of two textbooks Teaching the special language of medicine to a class of L2 learners implies considering various issues related to the peculiarities of the sector-specific jargon (diphasic variations, peculiarities of vocabulary, collateral technicalities, also related to non-Italian-speaking learners (type, interests, level of learning. Italian publishers offer few dedicated tools: these include Donatella Troncarelli, Dica 33.Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, 1994 and Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma editions, 2004. This study aims to compare the two texts, highlighting their features and language teaching setting, showing how linguistic content is proposed, which skills are promoted, what the learning objectives are and what tools are provided. Particular attention is paid to the vocabulary in the glossaries.

Maria Polita

2013-07-01

204

The L(2,1-choosability of cycle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For a given graph $G=(V,E$, let $mathscr L(G={L(v : vin V}$ be a prescribed list assignment. $G$ is $mathscr L$-$L(2,1$-colorable if there exists a vertex labeling $f$ of $G$ such that $f(vin L(v$ for all $v in V$; $|f(u-f(v|geq 2$ if $d_G(u,v = 1$; and $|f(u-f(v|geq 1$ if $d_G(u,v=2$. If $G$ is $mathscr L$-$L(2,1$-colorable for every list assignment $mathscr L$ with $|L(v|geq k$ for all $vin V$, then $G$ is said to be $k$-$L(2,1$-choosable. In this paper, we prove all cycles are $5$-$L(2,1$-choosable.

Haiying Zhou

2012-09-01

205

How stressful is L2 stress? A cross-linguistic study of L2 perception and production of metrical systems  

OpenAIRE

This dissertation addresses the second language (L2) acquisition of word stress in production and perception, from both a phonological-theoretical and psycholinguistic angle. It investigates how cross-linguistic differences in the (types of) metrical systems of native speakers of a variety of first (native) languages (L1) affect the L2 acquisition of word stress. This includes the differences in the formal properties of L1 and L2 stress and the functional properties of L1 stress, and their im...

Kijak, A. M.

2009-01-01

206

$L^2$ cohomology of Manifolds with flat ends  

OpenAIRE

We give a topological interpretation of the space of $L^2$-harmonic forms on Manifold with flat ends. It is an answer to an old question of J. Dodziuk. We also give a Chern-Gauss-Bonnet formula for the $L^2$-Euler characteristic of some of these Manifolds. These results are applications of general theorems on complete Riemannian Manifold whose Gauss-Bonnet operator is non-parabolic at infinity.

Carron, Gilles

2001-01-01

207

Allophonic splits in L2 phonology: the question of learnability  

OpenAIRE

The research reported in this paper is intended as a contribution to the understanding of several wellknown problems relating to the leaming of phonemic contrasts in second language (L2) phonology. The paper describes a series of ongoing studies examining what Lado (1957) hypothesized to represent maximum diffículty in second language pronunciation, narnely, a phonemic split. This is the process involved when an L2 learner must split native language (NL) allophones into separate target langu...

Iverson, Gregory K.; Abdullah Elreye; Eckman, Fred R.

2001-01-01

208

When Learning English is Compulsory at School:  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Research findings highlight the role of motivation in the long-term process of learning a second/foreign language. One’s motivation can change even in a short period of time under the influence of multifarious factors. To enrich our understanding of the attitudinal/motivational basis of foreign language learning this study attempts to investigate L2 motivational fluctuation, and the possibility of predicting EFL learners’ motivated learning behavior in light of Dörnyei’s (2005, 2009 theory of L2 motivational self system. To this end, 1670 junior high and high school students studying English as a compulsory subject in Iran filled out L2 motivational self system questionnaire. Independent samples t-test and regression analyses were applied; and the findings indicated a higher motivational disposition for junior high school students in comparison to high school students, except for their attitudes towards L2 community. For both groups, attitudes towards L2 learning was the best predictor of students motivated learning behavior.Keywords: L2 Motivational Self System, Motivation, Ideal L2 Self, Ought-L2 Self, Attitudes towards L2 learning, Iran

Maryam Azarnoosh

2014-11-01

209

Morphological processing in early bilinguals: an ERP study of regular and irregular verb processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the age of acquisition of a language has an effect when learning a second language, the similarity between languages may also have a crucial role. The aim of the present study is to understand the influence of this latter factor in the acquisition of morphosyntactic information. With this purpose, two groups of highly proficient early Catalan-Spanish bilinguals were presented with a repetition-priming paradigm with regular and irregular verbs of Spanish. Catalan and Spanish have a similar suffix (-o) for regular verbs and completely different alternations for irregular verbs. Two types of irregular verbs were studied (semi-regular verbs with a systematic diphthong alternation, sentir-siento, and verbs with idiosyncratic changes, venir-vengo). Regular verbs showed the same centro-parietal N400 priming effect in the second-language speakers (L2) as in primary-language (L1) speakers. However, differences between groups, in the ERP pattern and the topography of the N400 effect, were observed for irregular morphology. In L1 speakers, the N400 effect was attenuated only for semi-regular verbs. In contrast, L2 speakers showed a reduced N400 priming effect in both irregular contrasts. This pattern of results suggests that the similarity between languages may help for similar structures but may interfere for dissimilar structures, at least when the two languages have very similar morphological systems. PMID:16023332

De Diego Balaguer, R; Sebastián-Gallés, N; Díaz, B; Rodríguez-Fornells, A

2005-09-01

210

The multipath and SNR Quality in civil code L2  

Science.gov (United States)

The new generation of GPS satellites, with the addition of the new L2C civil code, may provide to the users better positioning capabilities. The new code in the L2 may increase the signal robustness, improve resistance to interference, reduce tracking noise and consequently, improve accuracy and provide better positioning inside buildings and in wooded areas. The second civil frequency code will eliminate the need of using fragile semi- codeless tracking techniques currently used in connection with L2. The L2C has a different structure that allows civil and military share the same code. L2C owns two codes of different length: moderate code (CM) and long code (CL). The CM was chosen to have 10.230 chips repeated to every 20 millisecond. The CL was chosen to have 767250 chips with period of 1.5 second. The main reasons for these choices were due to excellent correlation properties. Furthermore, L2C enhances performance by having no data modulation on CL code, which improves, among others, the threshold tracking performance. Comparing the L2C acquisition with the C/A, the CM code is ten times longer than the C/A and the two components have half the total power. This is an important feature for many low-power applications. Although this signal has several advantages, some investigations about its performance are necessary, mainly about the provided accuracy under some effects, for example, multipath. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the L2C signal, as well as its quality using some parameters, such as Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and multipath level (MP). The experiment was realized at Sao Paulo State University UNESP in Presidente Prudente, Brazil. The data were collected by two receivers of different brands, both able to collect the L2C signal, and connected to the same antenna, thought the use of a splitter. The results showed that the MP and SNR values were better for the modernized satellites. Furthermore, the SNR values of the two receivers were similar while the MP values of one receiver showed better results than the other model. Therefore, the satellites with L2C code presented, as expected, better performance than those not modernized satellites in relation to SNR and MP.

Polezel, W. G.; Souza, E. M.; Monico, J. F.

2007-12-01

211

A Model of the Effect of Uncertainty on the C elegans L2/L2d Decision  

OpenAIRE

At the end of the first larval stage, the C elegans larva chooses between two developmental pathways, an L2 committed to reproductive development and an L2d, which has the option of undergoing reproductive development or entering the dauer diapause. I develop a quantitative model of this choice using mathematical tools developed for pricing financial options. The model predicts that the optimal decision must take into account not only the expected potential for reproductive ...

Avery, Leon

2014-01-01

212

Consideraciones metodológicas sobre la evaluación de la competencia oral en L2 / Methodological Considerations Concerning the Assessment of Oral Competency in a Second Language (L2)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este artículo se realiza una revisión acerca de las consideraciones metodológicas para la evaluación de la competencia oral en el aprendizaje de una segunda lengua (L2). Se analizan las características del constructo y su definición. En este caso, se refieren al ámbito competencial, que incluye l [...] a competencia en comprensión oral y la de expresión oral. Asimismo, se revisan conceptos referidos al modo en que diseñar instrumentos y/o técnicas evaluativas para la evaluación de las competencias que la integran y cuestiones respecto a fiabilidad, validez y establecimiento de puntos de corte. Abstract in english In this paper, methodological considerations are reviewed regarding the assessment of oral competence in the learning of a second language (L2). The characteristics of the construct and its definition are analyzed, including competence in listening comprehension and oral expression. Furthermore, con [...] cepts such as the design of instruments and/or evaluative techniques for the assessment of the competencies are examined as well as issues related to reliability, validity and cut off points.

José, González-Such; Jesús Miguel, Jornet Meliá; Margarita, Bakieva.

213

Lexical Inference in L2: Predictive Roles of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skill beyond Reading Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study examined the predictive roles of L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 word reading skills in explaining individual differences in lexical inferencing in the L2. Participants were 53 Israeli high school students who emigrated from the former Soviet Union, and spoke Russian as an L1 and Hebrew as an L2. L2 vocabulary knowledge and…

Prior, Anat; Goldina, Anna; Shany, Michal; Geva, Esther; Katzir, Tami

2014-01-01

214

Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students' Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2 Creencias de estudiantes universitarios iraníes EFL e hindúes ESL acerca de las estrategias de lectura en L2  

OpenAIRE

The notion of "learner beliefs" has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners' beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers' beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading in E...

Alireza Karbalaei

2010-01-01

215

The Role of Experience in the Acquisition and Production of Diminutives and Gender in Spanish: Evidence from L2 Learners and Heritage Speakers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined whether type of early language experience provides advantages to heritage speakers over second language (L2) learners with morphology, and investigated knowledge of gender agreement and its interaction with diminutive formation. Diminutives are a hallmark of Child Directed Speech in early language development and a highly…

Montrul, Silvina; de la Fuente, Israel; Davidson, Justin; Foote, Rebecca

2013-01-01

216

Results of the QUENCH-L2, DISCO-L2, and COMET-L2 experiments performed within the LACOMERA project at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The LACOMERA project at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany (FZK) is a 4-year action within the 5th Framework Programme of the EU which started in September 2002. Overall objective of the project is to offer research institutions from the EU Member Countries and Associated States access to four large-scale experimental facilities QUENCH, LIVE, DISCO, and COMET. These facilities are being used to investigate core melt scenarios from the beginning of core degradation to melt formation and relocation in the vessel, possible melt dispersion to the reactor cavity, and finally corium concrete interaction and corium coolability in the reactor cavity. The paper summarizes the main results obtained in the following three experiments: QUENCH-L2: boil-off of a flooded bundle. The test is of a generic interest for all reactor types, provided a link between the severe accident and design basis areas, and would deliver oxidation and thermal hydraulic data at high temperatures. DISCO-L2: fluid-dynamic, thermal, and chemical processes during melt ejection out of a breach in the lower head of a pressure vessel of the VVER-1000/320 type of reactor. COMET-L2: investigation of long-term melt-concrete interaction of metallic corium in a cylindrical siliceous concrete cavity under dry conditions with decay heat simulation of intermediate power during the first test phase, and subsequently at reduced power during the second test phase

217

On the Role of Phonological Processing in L2 Reading  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper provides a review of ideas and research regarding the role of phonological processing as a bottom-up, component processing mechanism in second language reading comprehension. Firstly, it sketches a brief history of approaches and theoretical models towards L2 reading comprehension in the SLA literature. Secondly, it acknowledges the fact that with the undue dominance of top-down psycholinguistic models, the role of bottom-up processes in L2 reading has been systematically neglected. And finally an accumulated body of literature is presented which comprehensively delineates the studies carried out to examine the contributory role of phonological processing as a type of bottom-up proceesing in L2 reading.

Mohammad Khatib

2012-01-01

218

The TCF7L2 locus and type 1 diabetes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background TCF7L2 belongs to a subfamily of TCF7-like HMG box-containing transcription factors, and maps to human chromosome 10q25.3. A recent study identified genetic association of type 2 diabetes (T2D with this gene, correlated with diminished insulin secretion. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of genetic association between TCF7L2 and type 1 diabetes (T1D. Methods The SNP most significantly associated with T2D, rs7903146, was genotyped in 886 T1D nuclear family trios with ethnic backgrounds of mixed European descent. Results This study found no T1D association with, and no age-of-onset effect from rs7903146. Conclusion This study suggests that a T2D mechanism mediated by TCF7L2 does not participate in the etiology of T1D.

Polychronakos Constantin

2007-08-01

219

On Written Corrective Feedback in L2 Writing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Truscott (1996 questions the practicability of grammar correction, and he believes that written corrective feedback (WCF is not only a waste of time, but even harmful to the students as well. This has led to a great deal of discussion and research on WCF in second-language (L2 writing. Ferris (1999 is the representative opponent of Truscott’s point of view, who argues that WCF should not be abandoned in that it can improve the accuracy of L2 learners’ writing. Many empirical studies have been conducted and the results support Ferris’ view that WCF is useful in promoting the development of L2 writing. This paper gives a literature review from a dichotomy perspective of WCF.

Xu Shao

2015-02-01

220

Teaching Writing Skills Based on a Genre Approach to L2 Primary School Students: An Action Research  

OpenAIRE

This article, based on research findings, examines the effect of implementing a genre approach to develop writing competency of Year 5 and 6 L2 primary school students. Using action research, the genre approach was implemented over a 10-week term with two lessons per week in a culturally and linguistically diverse ESL class in a South Australian public metropolitan primary school. Two specific genres, Report and Essay writing, were taught using a three-staged teaching and learning cycle (TLC)...

Hyejeong Ahn

2012-01-01

221

Memória de trabalho e desempenho em tarefas de L2  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O presente artigo examina se a natureza da relação entre memória de trabalho e desempenho em tarefas de língua estrangeira (L2) é geral ou específica. Uma bateria de quatro testes de memória de trabalho em inglês e quatro tarefas de desempenho foi aplicada em doze estudantes universitários de nível [...] elementar em inglês como L2. A análise mostrou uma correlação significativa entre a medida geral de memória de trabalho e as tarefas de leitura, sintaxe e produção oral. Quanto às tarefas de memória de trabalho específicas, a medida de amplitude de leitura correlacionou significativamente com a tarefa de sintaxe, e a medida de amplitude oral correlacionou tanto com as tarefas de produção oral, quanto com as de sintaxe. Os resultados do presente estudo sinalizam para uma natureza híbrida da relação entre memória de trabalho e desempenho em tarefas em L2. Abstract in english This paper examines whether the nature of the relationship between working memory and the performance in L2 tasks is domain-free or task-specific. A set of four working memory tests in English and four L2 performance tasks was applied to twelve undergraduate beginner students of English as a second [...] language. Correlational analyses showed significant correlation between the operation-word span test and the reading, syntactic and speaking tasks. As for the specific span tests, the reading span test correlated significantly with the syntactic task, and the speaking span test correlated both with the speech production task and the syntactic task. The results of the present study point to a hybrid nature of the relationship between working memory capacity and L2 task performance.

Ingrid, Fontanini; Janaina, Weissheimer; Joara Martin, Bergsleithner; Magareth, Perucci; Raquel, D' Ely.

222

Tissue-Specific Alternative Splicing of TCF7L2  

OpenAIRE

Common variants in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene have been identified as the strongest genetic risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the mechanisms by which these non-coding variants increase risk for T2D are not well-established. We used 13 expression assays to survey mRNA expression of multiple TCF7L2 splicing forms in up to 380 samples from eight types of human tissue (pancreas, pancreatic islets, colon, liver, monocytes, skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose t...

Prokunina-olsson, Ludmila; Welch, Cullan; Hansson, Ola; Adhikari, Neeta; Usher, Nicolle; Tong, Maurine; Sprau, Andrew; Swift, Amy; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Erdos, Michael R.; Harmon, Brennan; Kotova, Olga; Hoffman, Eric P.; Groop, Leif; Boehnke, Michael

2009-01-01

223

TCF7L2 Variation and Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy  

OpenAIRE

Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is the most severe vision-threatening complication of diabetes. For investigation of genetic association between TCF7L2 and PDR in Caucasian type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its functional consequences, 383 T2DM patients with PDR (T2DM-PDR) and 756 T2DM patients without diabetic retinopathy (T2DM–no DR) were genotyped with rs7903146 in TCF7L2. We found that risk allele (T) frequency of rs7903146 was significantly higher in T2DM-PDR patients (allel...

Luo, Jing; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Aaron Yun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Jin; Zhao, Jiagang; Ouyang, Hong; Luo, Hongrong; Song, Yaojun; Lee, Janet; Patel, Sherrina H.; Shaw, Peter X.; Sadda, Srinivas; Zhuo, Yehong; Rosenfeld, Michael G.

2013-01-01

224

Task Complexity and L2 Narrative Oral Production  

OpenAIRE

[cat] Aquest treball investiga l'impacte de la manipulació simultània del temps de planificació i el grau de desplaçament en el temps i l'espai sobre la producció narrativa oral en l'L2. En primer lloc, i basant-se en models psicolingüístics consolidats de producció oral, el treball examina les similituds i les diferències entre la producció oral en l'L1 i en l'L2, i analitza com els processos d'atenció i memòria condicionen el processament per a la comprensió, la producció i l'...

Gilabert Guerrero, Roger

2005-01-01

225

$L^{2}$-Riemann-Roch Inequalities for Covering Manifolds  

CERN Document Server

We study the existence of $L^2$ holomorphic sections of invariant linebundles over Galois coverings of Zariski open sets in Moishezon manilolds. Weshow that the von Neuman dimension of the space of $L^2$ holomorphic sectionsis bounded below under reasonable curvature conditions. We also give criteriafor a a compact complex space with isolated singularities and some relatedstrongly pseudoconcave manifolds to be Moishezon. Their coverings are thenstudied with the same methods. As applications we give weak Lefschetz theoremsusing the Napier--Ramachandran proof of the Nori theorem.

Todor, R; Todor, Radu; Marinescu, George

2000-01-01

226

Convergence Rates in L 2 for Elliptic Homogenization Problems  

Science.gov (United States)

We study rates of convergence of solutions in L 2 and H 1/2 for a family of elliptic systems {\\{mathcal{L}_\\varepsilon\\}} with rapidly oscillating coefficients in Lipschitz domains with Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions. As a consequence, we obtain convergence rates for Dirichlet, Neumann, and Steklov eigenvalues of {\\{mathcal{L}_\\varepsilon\\}} . Most of our results, which rely on the recently established uniform estimates for the L 2 Dirichlet and Neumann problems in Kenig and Shen (Math Ann 350:867-917, 2011; Commun Pure Appl Math 64:1-44, 2011) are new even for smooth domains.

Kenig, Carlos E.; Lin, Fanghua; Shen, Zhongwei

2012-03-01

227

Learning Vocabulary in EFL Contexts through Vocabulary Learning Strategies  

OpenAIRE

Vocabulary learning is one of the major challenges foreign language learners face during the processof learning a language. One way to alley the burden is to assist students in becoming independent learners duringthe process of L2 vocabulary learning. This could be achieved through instructing learners to apply vocabularylearning strategies as efficiently as possible. The main pursuit of the present article is to suggest a framework fortraining EFL learners in vocabulary learning strategies. ...

Ghazal, Lotfi

2007-01-01

228

Morphological Family Size Effects in Young First and Second Language Learners: Evidence of Cross-Language Semantic Activation in Visual Word Recognition  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined to what extent young second language (L2) learners showed morphological family size effects in L2 word recognition and whether the effects were grade-level related. Turkish-Dutch bilingual children (L2) and Dutch (first language, L1) children from second, fourth, and sixth grade performed a Dutch lexical decision task on words…

de Zeeuw, Marlies; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

2012-01-01

229

Ultimate Attainment of Anaphora Resolution in L2 Chinese  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study tests the Interface Hypothesis through forward and backward anaphora in complex sentences with temporal subordinate clauses in highly proficient English-speaking learners' second-language (L2) Chinese. Forward anaphora is involved when the overt pronoun "ta" "he/she" or a null element appears in the…

Zhao, Lucy Xia

2014-01-01

230

Correspondences, von Neumann algebras and holomorphic $L^2$ torsion  

CERN Document Server

Given a holomorphic Hilbertian bundle on a compact complex manifold, we introduce the notion of holomorphic $L^2$ torsion, which lies in the determinant line of the twisted $L^2$ Dolbeault cohomology and represents a volume element there. Here we utilise the theory of determinant lines of Hilbertian modules over finite von Neumann algebras as developed in an earlier paper by the authors. This specialises to the Ray-Singer-Quillen holomorphic torsion in the finite dimensional case. We compute a metric variation formula for the holomorphic $L^2$ torsion, which shows that it is not in general independent of the choice of Hermitian metrics on the complex manifold and on the holomorphic Hilbertian bundle, which are needed to define it. We therefore initiate the theory of correspondences of determinant lines, that enables us to define a relative holomorphic $L^2$ torsion for a pair of flat Hilbertian bundles, which we prove is independent of the choice of Hermitian metrics on the complex manifold and on the flat Hi...

Carey, A L; Mathai, V; Carey, Alan L.; Farber, Michael; Mathai, Varghese

1997-01-01

231

Memorization versus Semantic Mapping in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the effects of two cognitive strategies, rote memorization and semantic mapping, on L2 vocabulary acquisition. Thirty-eight intermediate female EFL learners divided into two experimental groups participated in this study. Each experimental group used one of the strategies for vocabulary acquisition. After the four-month…

Khoii, Roya; Sharififar, Samira

2013-01-01

232

Rigidity and $L^2$ cohomology of hyperbolic manifolds  

CERN Document Server

When $X=\\Gamma\\backslash \\H^n$ is a real hyperbolic manifold, it is already known that if the critical exponent is small enough then some cohomology spaces and some spaces of $L^2$ harmonic forms vanish. In this paper, we show rigidity results in the borderline case of these vanishing results.

Carron, Gilles

2009-01-01

233

Rigidity and $L^2$ cohomology of hyperbolic manifolds  

OpenAIRE

When $X=\\Gamma\\backslash \\H^n$ is a real hyperbolic manifold, it is already known that if the critical exponent is small enough then some cohomology spaces and some spaces of $L^2$ harmonic forms vanish. In this paper, we show rigidity results in the borderline case of these vanishing results.

Carron, Gilles

2011-01-01

234

Awareness of L1/L2 Differences: Does It Matter?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is an investigation of the extent to which francophone learners of English as a second language (ESL) are aware of the differences between French and English question formation and how such awareness relates to their L2 performance. Three tasks were administered to 58 grades 5 and 6 francophone ESL learners. In a grammaticality…

Ammar, Ahlem; Lightbown, Patsy M.; Spada, Nina

2010-01-01

235

Variables Affecting L2 Gains during Study Abroad  

Science.gov (United States)

Second language (L2) gains during study abroad have been related to several variables including length of stay (Llanes, 2011), language use (Martinsen, Baker, Dewey, Bown, & Johnson, 2010), and social network development (Isabelli-García, 2006), among others. However, most studies have investigated only a few predictors in single study abroad…

Baker-Smemoe, Wendy; Dewey, Dan P.; Bown, Jennifer; Martinsen, Rob A.

2014-01-01

236

Affective Variables and Japanese L2 Reading Ability  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates how 17 affective factors are related to Japanese second language (L2) reading comprehension and "kanji" knowledge test scores of 43 university students in advanced Japanese courses. Major findings are that: a) reading comprehension ability and "kanji" knowledge have direct associations with self-perception of Japanese…

Kondo-Brown, Kimi

2006-01-01

237

Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

2010-01-01

238

Galaxy Morphology  

CERN Document Server

Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or between a perturbation and the basic state of a stellar disk, can also drive secular transformations. In this series of lectures, I review many aspects of galaxy morphology with a view to delineating some of the possible evolutionary pathways between different galaxy types.

Buta, Ronald J

2013-01-01

239

Galaxy Morphology  

OpenAIRE

Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass...

Buta, Ronald J.

2013-01-01

240

LA DIDATTICA DELL’ITALIANO L2 A DETENUTI STRANIERI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L’insegnamento dell’italiano L2 all’interno degli istituti penitenziari è diventata un’esigenza fondamentale, data la crescente presenza di detenuti stranieri nelle strutture detentive del nostro Paese.Il presente lavoro analizza le peculiarità dell’insegnamento dell’italiano L2 a detenuti stranieri: ruolo e caratteristiche del docente, bisogni e motivazioni dell’apprendente, problematiche legate al contesto specifico di apprendimento. In particolare si intende mettere in evidenza il ruolo primario della scrittura come mezzo fondamentale per svolgere attività quotidiane (padroneggiare regolamenti, richieste, “domandine” e come strumento per la rieducazione.Per meglio comprendere le specificità dell’insegnamento in questo contesto, viene presentato un sillabo per apprendenti detenuti redatto da Antonella Benucci ed in appendice due interviste rivolte a docenti della Casa Circondariale di Monza.TEACHING ITALIAN L2 TO FOREIGN INMATESTeaching Italian L2 in prisons has become a basic need, given the growing number of foreign detainees in Italian prisons.This paper analyzes the peculiarity of teaching Italian L2 to foreign inmates: the teacher’s role and characteristics, the student’s needs and motivations, problems linked to the specific setting. We highlight the primary role of writing as a fundamental means for carrying out daily activities (mastering rules, requests, “small questions” and as a re-education tool.To better understand the specificity of teaching in this context, a syllabus for detainees compiled by Antonella Benucci is presented and there are two interviews with teachers working in a prison in Monza.

Valentina Bonfanti

2012-07-01

241

Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution in L2 Learners: Some Effects of Bilinguality on L1 and L2 Processing Strategies  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates whether proficient second language (L2) speakers of Spanish and English use the same parsing strategies as monolinguals when reading temporarily ambiguous sentences containing a complex noun phrase followed by a relative clause, such as "Peter fell in love with the daughter of the psychologist who studied in California."…

Dussias, Paola E.

2003-01-01

242

The Effects of Late Acquisition of L2 and the Consequences of Immigration on L1 for Semantic and Morpho-Syntactic Language Aspects  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been hypothesized that some aspects of a second language (L2) might be learned easier than others if a language is learned late. On the other hand, non-use might result in a loss of language skills in one's native, i.e. one's first language (L1) (language attrition). To study which, if any, aspects of language are affected by either late…

Scherag, Andre; Demuth, Lisa; Rosler, Frank; Neville, Helen J.; Roder, Brigitte

2004-01-01

243

Architectural design and language learning in Second Life  

OpenAIRE

This study investigates whether, by using a virtual world, it is possible to integrate architectural design and language (L2) learning in a Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) approach and increase student motivation vis-à-vis L2 learning. We discuss the advantages and limitations of virtual worlds with reference to the two disciplines and describe the learning design for a higher education course which used Second Life (SL) for face-to-face and distance sessions. We present the ...

Rodrigues, Christine; Wigham, Ciara R.; Foucher, Anne-laure; Chanier, Thierry

2012-01-01

244

Learning Vocabulary via Mobile Phone: Persian EFL Learners in Focus  

OpenAIRE

With encompassing power of cell phones and potentials of mobile learning for language teaching/learning, employing cell phones in language learning seems indispensable. Through exploiting the inherent capabilities of such devices this study investigated the efficacy of multimodal representation of L2 vocabularies for 158 pre-intermediate level L2 learners aged 18-23. Since short-term memory plays an important role in vocabulary learning, they were placed into four different short-term memory ...

Saeed Taki; Saeed Khazaei

2011-01-01

245

L2 Motivation and Personality as Predictors of the Second Language Proficiency: Role of the Big Five Traits and L2 Motivational Self System  

OpenAIRE

This study examined the predictability of the L2 proficiency by personality and L2 motivational self system variables among 141 Iranian EFL university students. Participants completed Transparent Bipolar Inventory (Goldberg, 1992) as a personality measure, L2 motivational self system (Papi, 2010), and a self-rated measure of second language proficiency. Regression analyses showed that extroversion and openness to experience accounted for 13% of the variance in L2 proficiency; and ide...

Zargham Ghapanchi; Gholam Hassan Khajavy; Seyyedeh Fatemeh Asadpour

2011-01-01

246

L’apport des TICE et de l’écriture collaborative au développement des compétences écrites dans l’acquisition/apprentissage d’une L2 Can new technologies and collaborative writing contribute to better written performance in second language acquisition/learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une recherche-action en école d’ingénieurs, nous avons cherché à développer un savoir et un savoir-faire propre à la technique du compte-rendu. Cet objectif était facilité par des activités langagières et des procédures formalisées sous forme de grilles d’auto-évaluation. L’apprentissage se déroulait dans un environnement collaboratif et s’appuyait sur des outils informatisés. En conséquence, nous avons comparé deux situations d’apprentissage autour de ces questions : dans quelle mesure une tâche médiatisée par l’ordinateur permet une meilleure appropriation de la technique d’écriture et, une fois acquis, ce savoir faire peut-il être transféré quel que soit le support ?This field research is aimed at teaching the report writing technique to engineering students through various language activities and self-assessment grids. They worked in a collaborative environment using new technologies. We compared two learning situations to show how computer-mediated tasks help improve the written performance and how this know-how is transferred to other learning situations.

Isabelle Bonnassies

2012-03-01

247

L’AUTOBIOGRAFIA LINGUISTICA NELL’INSEGNAMENTO-APPRENDIMENTO DELL’ITALIANO L2/LS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L'autobiografia linguistica è una attività particolarmente utile nell'insegnamento-apprendimento di una lingua straniera. L'apprendente immigrato è invitato a narrare in prima persona le esperienze linguistico-comunicative nella propria L1, nella L2 /LS che sta apprendendo e/o nella lingua seconda che ha acquisito come lingua di comunicazione e di studio nel suo paese di origine, le relazioni umane ed emotive che accompagnano  o hanno accompagnato queste esperienze, le situazioni che ne hanno favorito o ostacolato l'apprendimento. Con l'autobiografia linguistica l'apprendente straniero costruisce, attraverso la scrittura e quindi attraverso un processo di esplicitazione e di riflessione consapevole,  un ponte tra "là" e "qui", tra paese d'origine e il paese di arrivo, tra la vita "prima" e la vita "dopo" lo strappo della migrazione. Ricompone e dà senso alla propria storia, nelle due lingue, esprime affetti ed emozioni, rinomina il mondo e se ne riappropria ricostruendo insieme la propria identità, esplora se stesso e si fa conoscere ai suoi pari e all'insegnante in un rapporto di condivisione e di comprensione reciproca: si crea un contesto non di integrazione, ma di inclusione. A sua volta il docente può meglio comprendere le strategie di apprendimento dell'apprendente, la sua personalità, le sue difficoltà e progettare strategie didattiche più efficaci, perché più individuali e orientate al successo nella comunicazione e nell'apprendimento.   Linguistic autobiography is especially useful in the teaching and learning of a foreign language. The foreign learner is asked to narrate, in the first person, his/her linguistic-communicative experiences in their L1 and in the L2/FL which they are learning and/or in the second language they have acquired for communication or study in their home country, focusing on the emotional and human relationships which accompanied this experience and the situations which encouraged or blocked the learning. Through writing, speaking and thoughtful reflection, linguistic autobiography helps the foreign learner to construct a bridge between "there" and "here", between the home and the host country, between life "before" and "after" the shock of migration. This practice reorganizes and gives meaning to one's own history in both languages, through the expression of feelings and emotions, by defining and reclaiming the world as well as reconstructing identity, exploring oneself and showning oneself to peers and teachers in an environment of mutual sharing and understanding.  It creates a context for inclusion, not just integration. The teacher, in turn, can better understand the student's learning strategies, his/her personality and difficulties and thus plan more effective didactic interventions, since they are individualized and aimed at success in communication and learning.

Andrea Groppaldi

2010-09-01

248

River morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs

249

Hábitos de aprendizaje y rendimiento académico en la asignatura morfofisiología-II de la carrera de estomatología Learning habits and academic performance in the II- Morphology and Physiology subject in Dentistry major  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available RESUMEN La asignatura Morfofisiología II que se imparte en primer año de la carrera de Estomatología resultó la de más bajo rendimiento académico. Objetivo: Caracterizar los hábitos de aprendizaje del estudiante de primer año de Estomatología, teniendo en cuenta su relación con sus diferencias individuales y rendimiento académico en la asignatura. Método: Se realizó una investigación descriptiva y de corte transversal en la asignatura Morfofisiología II, de la carrera de Estomatología de la provincia de Pinar del Río al finalizar el primer semestre del curso 2008-2009. La muestra estuvo constituida por 52 estudiantes de primer año, que cursan la carrera en la sede central. Se les aplicó una encuesta, cuyo cuestionario permitió evaluar sus hábitos de aprendizaje, y el nivel de motivación hacia la carrera y la asignatura. Los datos fueron procesados utilizando la estadística descriptiva y la prueba Ji cuadrado, con un nivel de confianza del 95 %. Resultados: Se encontraron malos hábitos de aprendizaje, en la mayoría de ellos no existió relación significativa entre hábitos de aprendizaje con respecto a la vía de ingreso y nota final de los estudiantes, resaltó la elevada motivación encontrada tanto por la carrera como por la asignatura, la variable motivación no guardó relación significativa con la nota final alcanzada. Se concluye que a pesar de los resultados alcanzados estos no influyeron significativamente en los resultados de la asignatura, gracias a las estrategias de enseñaza trazadas por el colectivo de profesores, pero sí indican la necesidad de establecer acciones con vistas al desarrollo de su aprendizaje autónomoABSTRACT II-Morphology and Physiology subject taught to the first grade students of Dentistry had the lowest academic performance. Objective: Characterizing the learning habits in the student of first grade of dentistry subject having in mind the relationship with the individual differences and the subject academic performance. Method: A descriptive and cross sectional research on the Morphology and Physiology subject in the dentistry students in Pinar del Rio city at ending the first semester of 2008-2009 course. The sample comprised of 52 students in the first grade of the dentistry major. A survey allowed us to know their learning habits and the level of motivation on the subject. Data were processed using descriptive statistics and the chi square test with a 95% of level of confidence. Results: It was found bad learning habits; in most of them there was no significative relationship between the learning habits and the way of admittance and the final mark of the students; a remarkably high motivation was observed on the major and the subject; the variable "motivation" had no significative relationship with the final mark achieved. It is concluded that the results obtained had no significative influence on the results of the subject thanks to the learning strategies proposed by the faculty but they do indicate the necessity of establishing prospective actions for the development of the autonomic learning

Juan Félix Albert Díaz

2009-09-01

250

Hábitos de aprendizaje y rendimiento académico en la asignatura morfofisiología-II de la carrera de estomatología / Learning habits and academic performance in the II- Morphology and Physiology subject in Dentistry major  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish RESUMEN La asignatura Morfofisiología II que se imparte en primer año de la carrera de Estomatología resultó la de más bajo rendimiento académico. Objetivo: Caracterizar los hábitos de aprendizaje del estudiante de primer año de Estomatología, teniendo en cuenta su relación con sus diferencias indiv [...] iduales y rendimiento académico en la asignatura. Método: Se realizó una investigación descriptiva y de corte transversal en la asignatura Morfofisiología II, de la carrera de Estomatología de la provincia de Pinar del Río al finalizar el primer semestre del curso 2008-2009. La muestra estuvo constituida por 52 estudiantes de primer año, que cursan la carrera en la sede central. Se les aplicó una encuesta, cuyo cuestionario permitió evaluar sus hábitos de aprendizaje, y el nivel de motivación hacia la carrera y la asignatura. Los datos fueron procesados utilizando la estadística descriptiva y la prueba Ji cuadrado, con un nivel de confianza del 95 %. Resultados: Se encontraron malos hábitos de aprendizaje, en la mayoría de ellos no existió relación significativa entre hábitos de aprendizaje con respecto a la vía de ingreso y nota final de los estudiantes, resaltó la elevada motivación encontrada tanto por la carrera como por la asignatura, la variable motivación no guardó relación significativa con la nota final alcanzada. Se concluye que a pesar de los resultados alcanzados estos no influyeron significativamente en los resultados de la asignatura, gracias a las estrategias de enseñaza trazadas por el colectivo de profesores, pero sí indican la necesidad de establecer acciones con vistas al desarrollo de su aprendizaje autónomo Abstract in english ABSTRACT II-Morphology and Physiology subject taught to the first grade students of Dentistry had the lowest academic performance. Objective: Characterizing the learning habits in the student of first grade of dentistry subject having in mind the relationship with the individual differences and the [...] subject academic performance. Method: A descriptive and cross sectional research on the Morphology and Physiology subject in the dentistry students in Pinar del Rio city at ending the first semester of 2008-2009 course. The sample comprised of 52 students in the first grade of the dentistry major. A survey allowed us to know their learning habits and the level of motivation on the subject. Data were processed using descriptive statistics and the chi square test with a 95% of level of confidence. Results: It was found bad learning habits; in most of them there was no significative relationship between the learning habits and the way of admittance and the final mark of the students; a remarkably high motivation was observed on the major and the subject; the variable "motivation" had no significative relationship with the final mark achieved. It is concluded that the results obtained had no significative influence on the results of the subject thanks to the learning strategies proposed by the faculty but they do indicate the necessity of establishing prospective actions for the development of the autonomic learning

Juan Félix, Albert Díaz; Ada Esther, González Cordero; Norma, Laborí Puentes; Mayra, Llano Lazo.

2009-09-01

251

[DPY19L2 gene and globozoospermia: an update].  

Science.gov (United States)

Globozoospermia is a severe teratozoospermia, and the cases with 100% round-headed sperm are rare clinically. Globozoospermia is generally characterized by absence or abnormality of acrosome, accompanied by round-headed sperm with deranged midpiece and tails. The acrosome normally contains the enzymes that enable sperm to fertilize oocytes, while defective sperm cannot independently fertilize oocytes either in vivo or in vitro, and therefore globozoospermia makes males infertile clinically. Recent studies show that the deletion of the DPY19L2 (dpy-19-like 2) gene is a major cause of globozoospermia. This paper updates the relationship between DPY19L2 and globozoospermia to provide some evidence for further studies on the gene diagnosis and molecular mechanisms of globozoospermia. PMID:23214256

Wu, Qiu-Yue; Li, Na; Xia, Xin-Yi; Yin, Zhi-Min

2012-11-01

252

Amenable L2-theoretic methods and knot concordance  

CERN Document Server

We introduce new obstructions to topological knot concordance. These are obtained from amenable groups in Strebel's class, possibly with torsion, using a recently suggested $L^2$-theoretic method due to Orr and the author. Concerning $(h)$-solvable knots which are defined in terms of certain Whitney towers of height $h$ in bounding 4-manifolds, we use the obstructions to reveal new structure in the knot concordance group not detected by prior known invariants: for any $n>1$ there are $(n)$-solvable knots which are not $(n.5)$-solvable (and therefore not slice) but have vanishing Cochran-Orr-Teichner $L^2$-signature obstructions as well as Levine algebraic obstructions and Casson-Gordon invariants.

Cha, Jae Choon

2010-01-01

253

Polarimetric studies of comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR)  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work, we report the results obtained from polarimetric observations of comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR) in the photometric R filter. The observations have been performed with the 1.04-m Sampurnanand telescope of ARIES near Nainital in India on March 11 & 12, 2013 at 31° phase angle. The intensity and polarization profiles of the comet have shown a noticeable variation with the cometocentric distance in all possible directions which suggest physical dust evolution. The degree of polarization obtained from our study is almost uniform with the aperture changes on both nights of observation. A jet is detected in both the intensity and polarization maps of comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR) in the tailward direction.

Roy, P. Deb; Sekhar Das, H.; Medhi, B.

2014-07-01

254

Imaging polarimetry of Comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR)  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the polarimetric results and analysis of Comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR) observed at 31°.1 phase angle before perihelion passage. The observations of the comet were carried out using ARIES Imaging Polarimeter (AIMPOL) mounted on the 1.04-m Sampurnanand telescope of ARIES, Nainital, India on 11 and 12 March, 2013 using R photometric band (? = 630 nm, ?? = 120 nm) . The extended coma of the comet (?65000 km) shows a significant variation in the intensity as well as polarization profile in all considered directions which suggest that the dust particles originate from the active areas of the nucleus. The elongation of the coma is prominent along the Sun-comet position angle. The polarization of Comet C/2012 L2 (LINEAR) do not show steep radial dependence on the aperture size during both the nights of observation. A jet extended in the antisolar direction is well observed in both intensity and polarization map.

Deb Roy, P.; Das, H. S.; Medhi, Biman J.

2015-01-01

255

The L(2,1)-Labeling of Some Middle Graphs  

OpenAIRE

An (2,1) L -labeling of a graph G is a function f from the vertex set V (G) to the set of all nonnegative integers such that |f(x)-f(y)| >= 2 if d(x,y) = 1 and |f(x)-f(y)| >= 1 if if d(x,y) = 2. The L(2,1) -labeling number ?(G) of G is the smallest number k such that G has an L(2,1)-labeling with max{f(v): v? V(G). In this paper we completely determine ?-number for middle graph of path Pn, cycle Cn , star K1,n , friendship graph Fn and wheel Wn.

Bantva, Devsi D.; Vaidya, Samir K.

2010-01-01

256

Willingness to Communicate and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: L2 Communication and Acculturative Stress as Transaction  

Science.gov (United States)

Although much research has focused on the influence of second language (L2) proficiency on L2 use and on outcomes of intercultural adaptation, these two strands have remained largely separate. This study examines the impact of willingness to communicate in the L2 (L2 WTC) on the daily hassles and stress of international students, with the aim of…

Gallagher, H. Colin

2013-01-01

257

Optimized L2-Orthogonal STC CPM for 3 Antennas  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, we introduce further our recently designed family of L2 orthogonal Space-Time codes for CPM. With their advantage of maintaining both the constant envelope properties of CPM, the diversity of Space-Time codes and moreover orthogonality, and thus reduced decoding complexity, these codes are also full rate, even for more than two transmitting antennas. The issue of power efficiency for these codes is first dealt with by proving that the inherent increase in band...

Hesse, Matthias; Lebrun, Jerome; Deneire, Luc

2008-01-01

258

Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype  

OpenAIRE

Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2) was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of othe...

Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh; Ms. Georgia Kakourou; Dr. Pamela Greenwell

2006-01-01

259

Perception of L2 Fluency in Study Abroad Context  

OpenAIRE

This article discusses the results of and on-going study investigating twelve Finnish university students' fluency in three Russian L2 reading aloud tasks administrered before, during and after their period of study abroad. Here, we discuss the students' self-evaluated fluency and their responses to questions concerning the development of their pronunciation skills, comparing these with the fluency ratings given to them by Finnish teachers of Russian.

Ullakonoja, Riikka; Dufva, Hannele

2008-01-01

260

Some Sharp L^2 Inequalities for Dirac Type Operators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We use the spectra of Dirac type operators on the sphere $S^n$ to produce sharp $L^2$ inequalities on the sphere. These operators include the Dirac operator on $S^n$, the conformal Laplacian and Paenitz operator. We use the Cayley transform, or stereographic projection, to obtain similar inequalities for powers of the Dirac operator and their inverses in ${mathbb R}^n$.

Alexander Balinsky

2007-11-01

261

James Webb Space Telescope - L2 Communications for Science Data Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

JWST is the first NASA mission at the second Lagrange point (L2) to identify the need for data rates higher than 10 megabits per second (Mbps). JWST will produce approximately 235 Gigabits of science data every day that will be downlinked to the Deep Space Network (DSN). To get the data rates desired required moving away from X-band frequencies to Ka-band frequencies. To accomplish this transition, the DSN is upgrading its infrastructure. This new range of frequencies are becoming the new standard for high data rate science missions at L2. With the new frequency range, the issues of alternatives antenna deployment, off nominal scenarios, NASA implementation of the Ka-band 26 GHz, and navigation requirements will be discussed in this paper. JWST is also using Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standard process for reliable file transfer using CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). For JWST the use of the CFDP protocol provides level zero processing at the DSN site. This paper will address NASA implementations of Ground Stations in support of Ka-band 26 GHz and lesson learned from implementing a file base (CFDP) protocol operational system.

Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Jones, Ronald; Fatig, Curtis; Wasiak, Francis

2008-01-01

262

L2 OSTC-CPM: Theory and design  

CERN Document Server

The combination of space-time coding (STC) and continuous phase modulation (CPM) is an attractive field of research because both STC and CPM bring many advantages for wireless communications. Zhang and Fitz [1] were the first to apply this idea by constructing a trellis based scheme. But for these codes the decoding effort grows exponentially with the number of transmitting antennas. This was circumvented by orthogonal codes introduced by Wang and Xia [2]. Unfortunately, based on Alamouti code [3], this design is restricted to two antennas. However, by relaxing the orthogonality condition, we prove here that it is possible to design L2-orthogonal space-time codes which achieve full rate and full diversity with low decoding effort. In part one, we generalize the two-antenna code proposed by Wang and Xia [2] from pointwise to L2-orthogonality and in part two we present the first L2-orthogonal code for CPM with three antennas. In this report, we detail these results and focus on the properties of these codes. Of...

Hesse, Matthias; Deneire, Luc

2008-01-01

263

The Role of L1 in L2 Idiom Comprehension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of first language (L1 transfer in Iranian EFL learners' second language (L2 idiom comprehension. It was also sought to understand whether there is any significant difference between learners of different proficiency levels and their use of L1 in decoding L2 idioms. To do this, the participants of different levels of language proficiency were asked to participate in this study. The L2 idioms were categorized based on their similarity to L1 into three groups of identical, similar and different. A think-aloud protocol analysis was performed and participants were asked to verbalize their thoughts as they read the target idioms in order to detect the strategies they used. The results showed that the most favoured strategy used by learners of different levels was translation. Translation to L1 (Persian was also the most-frequent strategy in decoding similar, identical and different types of idioms. It was also revealed that generally the participants of different levels were significantly different from each other in using strategies.

Saeed Taki

2013-07-01

264

COMPUTING THE VOCABULARY DEMANDS OF L2 READING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Linguistic computing can make two important contributions to second language (L2 reading instruction. One is to resolve longstanding research issues that are based on an insufficiency of data for the researcher, and the other is to resolve related pedagogical problems based on insufficiency of input for the learner. The research section of the paper addresses the question of whether reading alone can give learners enough vocabulary to read. When the computer’s ability to process large amounts of both learner and linguistic data is applied to this question, it becomes clear that, for the vast majority of L2 learners, free or wide reading alone is not a sufficient source of vocabulary knowledge for reading. But computer processing also points to solutions to this problem. Through its ability to reorganize and link documents, the networked computer can increase the supply of vocabulary input that is available to the learner. The development section of the paper elaborates a principled role for computing in L2 reading pedagogy, with examples, in two broad areas, computer-based text design and computational enrichment of undesigned texts.

Tom Cobb

2007-02-01

265

An Investigation of Personality and L2 Oral Performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates one dimension of personality, extroversion-introversion, and examines its potential impact on learner L2 oral performance. The study is innovative in that it analyzes not only the correlation between degree of extroversion and assessment scores based on analytic scoring but also the correlation between degree of extroversion and the discourse measures of accuracy, fluency and complexity commonly used as indices of L2 task performance in the L2 research. The data for this study were drawn from oral performances by 39 Cantonese-mother-tongue Form 4 (that is, Grade 9 secondary school ESL students engaging in school-based oral English assessment that has recently been implemented across secondary schools in Hong Kong. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was used to measure the students’ degree of extroversion. The findings indicate no significant correlations between degree of extroversion and students’ assessment scores, and between degree of extroversion and those discourse-based measures. In addition, further in-depth analysis of the discourse and interactional behavior of two students classified as an extrovert and an introvert based on their scores on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, suggests that in the context of group oral discussion described in this study, extroversion/introversion might impact in some way on learner discourse and interactional behavior only in the extreme cases, yet this influence seemed not reflected in the assessment scores assigned.

Zhengdong Gan

2011-11-01

266

Currentless plasma production and heating by ECR in the L-2 stellarator. L-2 Team and ECRH Team  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By using a gyrotron with 200 kW microwave power, ? = 1 cm a gaussian-like microwave beam is transmitted to the L-2 vessel. The waves of extraordinary polarisation are launched from the strong field side with microwave power PHF=100 kW and puls duration up to 10 ms. Slow density growth rate is necessary for successful plasma heating. The heating has a resonance behaviour upon Bo and rather high efficiency Pabsorbed/PHF 30-50%

267

A Contrastive Study of L1 and L2 Acquisition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to give a comprehensive and all out analysis of the processes and aspects involved in first and second language acquisition and learning since this may cause a better selection of the teaching materials, methodologies, techniques and also a more efficient deployment and implementation of them in second or foreign language learning classes.

Ahmad Moinzadeh

2012-01-01

268

Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle  

Science.gov (United States)

Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

Meurant, Robert C.

269

Automatic quantitative morphological analysis of interacting galaxies  

CERN Document Server

The large number of galaxies imaged by digital sky surveys reinforces the need for computational methods for analyzing galaxy morphology. While the morphology of most galaxies can be associated with a stage on the Hubble sequence, morphology of galaxy mergers is far more complex due to the combination of two or more galaxies with different morphologies and the interaction between them. Here we propose a computational method based on unsupervised machine learning that can quantitatively analyze morphologies of galaxy mergers and associate galaxies by their morphology. The method works by first generating multiple synthetic galaxy models for each galaxy merger, and then extracting a large set of numerical image content descriptors for each galaxy model. These numbers are weighted using Fisher discriminant scores, and then the similarities between the galaxy mergers are deduced using a variation of Weighted Nearest Neighbor analysis such that the Fisher scores are used as weights. The similarities between the ga...

Shamir, Lior; Wallin, John

2013-01-01

270

Stress sensitivity of stylolite morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Stylolites are rough surfaces that form by localized stress-induced dissolution. Using a set of limestone rock samples collected at different depths from a vertical section in Cirque de Navacelles (France), we study the influence of the lithostatic stress on the stylolites morphology on the basis of a recent morphogenesis model. We measured the roughness of a series of bedding-parallel stylolites and show that their morphology exhibits a scaling invariance with two self-affine scaling regimes separated by a crossover-length ( L) at the millimeter scale consistent with previous studies. The importance of the present contribution is to estimate the stylolite formation stress ? from the sample position in the stratigraphic series and compare it to the crossover-length L using the expected relationship: L ˜ ?-2. We obtained a successful prediction of the crossover behavior and reasonable absolute stress magnitude estimates using relevant parameters: depth of stylolite formation between 300 to 600 m with corresponding normal stress in the range of 10-18 MPa. Accordingly, the stylolite morphology contains a signature of the stress field during formation and we thus suggest that stylolites could be used as paleo-stress gauges of deformation processes in the upper crust.

Ebner, Marcus; Koehn, Daniel; Toussaint, Renaud; Renard, François; Schmittbuhl, Jean

2009-01-01

271

Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays  

OpenAIRE

The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV) and auditory-only (A-only) Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two conditions (isolated words, carrier sentences). Fillers with long vowels were included. Participants completed a forced-choice identification task invo...

Miki Motohashi-Saigo; Hardison, Debra M.

2009-01-01

272

Strong limit theorems in noncommutative L2-spaces  

CERN Document Server

The noncommutative versions of fundamental classical results on the almost sure convergence in L2-spaces are discussed: individual ergodic theorems, strong laws of large numbers, theorems on convergence of orthogonal series, of martingales of powers of contractions etc. The proofs introduce new techniques in von Neumann algebras. The reader is assumed to master the fundamentals of functional analysis and probability. The book is written mainly for mathematicians and physicists familiar with probability theory and interested in applications of operator algebras to quantum statistical mechanics.

Jajte, Ryszard

1991-01-01

273

L2-L0 regularization path tracking algorithms  

OpenAIRE

Sparse signal approximation can be formulated as the mixed L2-L0 minimization problem min_x J(x;lambda)=||y-Ax||_2^2+lambda||x||_0. We propose two heuristic search algorithms to minimize J for a continuum of lambda-values, yielding a sequence of coarse to fine approximations. Continuation Single Best Replacement is a bidirectional greedy algorithm adapted from the Single Best Replacement algorithm previously proposed for minimizing J for fixed lambda. L0 regularization path track is a more co...

Soussen, Charles; Idier, Je?rome; Duan, Junbo; Brie, David

2014-01-01

274

English L2 reading getting to the bottom  

CERN Document Server

English L2 Reading, Third Edition offers teachers research-based insights into bottom-up skills in reading English as a second language and a solid foundation on which to build reading instruction. Core linguistic and psycholinguistic concepts are presented within the context of their application to teaching. The goal is to balance or supplement (not replace) top-down approaches and methodologies with effective low-level options for teaching English reading. The text's pedagogical features- Questions, Study Guide Questions. Discussion Questions, Spotlight on Teaching sections- engage readers o

Birch, Barbara M

2014-01-01

275

The radiation environment at L2 as seen by Gaia  

Science.gov (United States)

The radiation environment at L2 is of great importance to the science instruments of Gaia. Especially the non-ionising damage to the CCDs and the resulting increase in charge transfer inefficiency will ultimately limit the achievable science performance. With its launch in December 2013 for a nominal mission of 5 years Gaia is continuously collecting invaluable information of radiation effects on the 106 CCDs in the FPA from the analysis of the science data and dedicated calibration procedures. The paper shows first results and discusses the detected irradiation background with respect to predictions and reviews operational implications for the mission.

Kohley, Ralf; Crowley, Cian M.; Garé, Philippe; Chassat, François; Short, Alexander D.; Martin-Fleitas, Juan M.; Mora, Alcione; Abreu-Aramburu, Asier; Prod'homme, Thibaut

2014-07-01

276

Contribution of Morphological Awareness to Second-Language Reading Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates the contribution of second-language (L2) morphological awareness to foreign language reading comprehension. Tenth graders (n = 188) at a South Korean high school were assessed on 6 reading- and language-related variables: phonological decoding, listening comprehension, vocabulary knowledge, passage-level reading…

Jeon, Eun Hee

2011-01-01

277

Morphological Structure in Native and Nonnative Language Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents a selective overview of studies that have investigated how advanced adult second language (L2) learners process morphologically complex words. The studies reported here have used different kinds of experimental tasks (including speeded grammaticality judgments, lexical decision, and priming) to examine three domains of…

Clahsen, Harald; Felser, Claudia; Neubauer, Kathleen; Sato, Mikako; Silva, Renita

2010-01-01

278

Is Learning to Rank Worth It? A Statistical Analysis of Learning to Rank Methods  

OpenAIRE

The Learning to Rank (L2R) research field has experienced a fast paced growth over the last few years, with a wide variety of benchmark datasets and baselines available for experimentation. We here investigate the main assumption behind this field, which is that, the use of sophisticated L2R algorithms and models, produce significant gains over more traditional and simple information retrieval approaches. Our experimental results surprisingly indicate that many L2R algorithm...

Gomes, Guilherme Castro Mendes; Oliveira, Vitor Campos; Almeida, Jussara Marques; Gonc?alves, Marcos Andre?

2013-01-01

279

Songs and singing in foreign language learning  

OpenAIRE

Educators have claimed that listening to music in a second or foreign language (L2) can provide fun and motivating educational material and that singing can enhance the L2 learning process by improving listening and speaking skills, pronunciation, intonation, and vocabulary. Experiments have shown that under certain conditions, a sung presentation of linguistic material can facilitate verbal learning in the native language. To date, however, there is very little research eviden...

Ludke, Karen M.

2010-01-01

280

Going Blended: New Challenges for Second Generation L2 Tutors  

OpenAIRE

This study explores how second generation tutors within blended learning courses link the face-to-face and online course modalities - in their representations as well as through their pedagogical activities - and which aspects help them to feel involved in the course. The methodology used is a qualitative analysis of interviews with seven tutors of three different blended learning courses. The results show that most tutors indeed had difficulties gaining a deeper insight into the course desig...

Nissen, Elke; Tea, Elena

2012-01-01

281

L2 Orthogonal Space Time Code for Continuous Phase Modulation  

CERN Document Server

To combine the high power efficiency of Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) with either high spectral efficiency or enhanced performance in low Signal to Noise conditions, some authors have proposed to introduce CPM in a MIMO frame, by using Space Time Codes (STC). In this paper, we address the code design problem of Space Time Block Codes combined with CPM and introduce a new design criterion based on L2 orthogonality. This L2 orthogonality condition, with the help of simplifying assumption, leads, in the 2x2 case, to a new family of codes. These codes generalize the Wang and Xia code, which was based on pointwise orthogonality. Simulations indicate that the new codes achieve full diversity and a slightly better coding gain. Moreover, one of the codes can be interpreted as two antennas fed by two conventional CPMs using the same data but with different alphabet sets. Inspection of these alphabet sets lead also to a simple explanation of the (small) spectrum broadening of Space Time Coded CPM.

Hesse, Matthias; Deneire, Luc

2008-01-01

282

Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV and auditory-only (A-only Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two conditions (isolated words, carrier sentences. Fillers with long vowels were included. Participants completed a forced-choice identification task involving minimal triplets: singletons, geminates, long vowels (e.g., sasu, sassu, saasu. Results revealed a significant improvement in geminate identification following training, especially for AV; b significant effect of geminate (lowest scores for /s/; c no significant effect of condition; and d no significant improvement for the control group. Most errors were misperceptions of geminates as long vowels. Test of generalization revealed 5% decline in accuracy for AV and 14% for A-only. Geminate production improved significantly (especially for AV based on rater judgments; improvement was greatest for /k/ and smallest for /s/. Most production errors involved substitution of a singleton for a geminate. Post-study interviews produced positive comments on Web-based training. Waveforms increased awareness of durational differences. Results support the effectiveness of auditory-visual input in L2 perception training with transfer to novel stimuli and improved production.

Miki Motohashi-Saigo

2009-06-01

283

SYNCHRONOUS CMC, WORKING MEMORY, AND L2 ORAL PROFICIENCY DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Recently a number of quasi-experimental studies have investigated the potential of a cross-modality transfer of second language competency between real-time, conversational exchange via text and speech (Abrams, 2003; Beauvious, 1998; Kost, 2004; Payne & Whitney, 2002. Payne and Whitney employed Levelt's (1989 model of language production and concepts from working memory as a rationale for a hypothesized connection between synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC and second language (L2 speech and as a basis for predicting the differential contributions of SCMC to the L2 oral proficiency development.This study extends the psycholinguistic framework reported in Payne and Whitney (2002 with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explore how individual differences in working memory capacity may affect the frequency of repetition and other patterns of language use in chatroom discourse. Working memory capacity was measured by a reading span and nonword repetition test. Oral proficiency was measured with a speaking task that solicited a 5-minute speech sample and was scored based on a holistic scale. The data collected from 20 chat sessions were analyzed for occurrences of repetition and relexicalization, as well as language output measures. Findings suggest a connection between working memory and language output as measured in this study.

J. Scott Payne

2005-09-01

284

Effects of task repetition on L2 oral performance / Efeitos da repetição de tarefas na produção oral em L2  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Este estudo parte do pressuposto de que falar um segundo idioma (L2) é uma habilidade cognitiva complexa (FORTKAMP, 2000) cuja execução parece envolver uma compensação entre os diferentes objetivos da fala, principalmente entre a fluência, a acurácia e a complexidade (BYGATE, 1996, 1999, 2001b; FOST [...] ER e SKEHAN, 1996; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998). Bygate (2001b) estudou os efeitos da familiaridade com a tarefa na produção oral em L2. Ele mostrou que na repetição de uma narrativa há ganhos, principalmente em termos de complexidade da fala, mas esse ganhos ocorrem em detrimento de outros aspectos, principalmente da perda na acurácia da fala. Este estudo investigou se os resultados reportados por Bygate (2001b) seriam similares no caso da repetição de uma tarefa de descrição. Segundo Robinson (2001), a descrição é uma tarefa menos complexa do que uma narrativa. Quatro medidas de produção oral foram calculadas seguindo Fortkamp (2000): fluência, acurácia, complexidade e densidade lexical. Os resultados deste estudo indicam ganhos em termos de complexidade de fala e esses ganhos parecem ter sido alcançados, principalmente, às custas da acurácia, portanto, corroborando resultados de Bygate (2001b) para essa condição de tarefa. Abstract in english This study departs from the assumption that speaking an L2 is a complex cognitive ability (FORTKAMP, 2000) whose execution seems to involve tradeoff effects among the different goals of speech production, mainly among fluency, accuracy and complexity (BYGATE, 1998, 1999, 2001b; FOSTER e SKEHAN, 1996 [...] ; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998). Bygate (2001b) studied the effects of task familiarity on L2 speech performance. He found that in repeating a narrative task there were gains in terms of complexity of speech and these gains were achieved at the cost of a loss especially in accuracy. The present study investigated whether the results reported in Bygate (2001b) would be similar in the case of a repetition of a picture description task. According to Robinson (2001), a description is less complex than a narrative task. Four measures of speech performance were calculated following Fortkamp (2000): fluency, accuracy, complexity and lexical density. Results indicate gains in complexity and these gains seem to have been paid, especially by gains in accuracy, thus corroborating Bygate´s (2001b) findings for this task condition.

Kyria Rebeca, Finardi.

2008-06-01

285

LA RIFLESSIONE METALINGUISTICA NEI MANUALI D’ITALIANO L2: CASE STUDY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Gli “attori” di un corso di lingua sono gli apprendenti, il docente facilitatore e… il manuale. La scelta di quest’ultimo, e quindi la metodologia didattica che lo sottende, contribuiscono in maniera decisiva a delineare il percorso d’apprendimento esplicitando finalità e priorità didattiche. In un panorama editoriale ormai ricco e variegato non è sempre agevole districarsi fra le numerose proposte di libri di testo. Oltre alla centralità del discente e al metodo comunicativo, requisiti in linea con i dettami dell’European Common Framework presenti, seppur in dosi differenti, nella quasi totalità dei manuali, altri elementi meritano la dovuta considerazione. La riflessione metalinguistica, per esempio, si è affacciata solo recentemente sulla “scena” glottodidattica assumendo un ruolo tutt’altro che secondario.METALINGUISTIC REFLECTION IN ITALIAN L2 TEXT BOOKS: A CASE STUDYThe “actors” in a language course are the learners, the teacher/facilitator and… the textbook. Choosing a textbook, and the didactic methodology underlying it, contribute in a decisive way to the learning process by directing the learning objectives and choices. With a varied choice of textbooks available, it is not always easy to evaluate them. Student-centered courses using the communicative method, indications in line with the European Common Framework, are aspects which vary in quantity from text to text but which characterize them all. There are, however, also other elements to consider. Metalinguistic reflection, for example, has only recently taken on a primary role in the glottodidactic scenario.

Claudia Matthiae

2012-07-01

286

Alternative Models of Self-regulation and Implications for L2 Strategy Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the proposal of Dörnyei and colleagues (Dörnyei, 2005; Tseng, Dörnyei, & Schmitt, 2006 to replace the construct of learning strategy with that of self-regulation and thus shift the research focus from specific strategic behaviors to a trait that is seen to underlie them. I argue that before doing so, we need a fuller understanding of what self-regulation entails and how it might intersect with traditional concerns of second language strategy research. To contribute to this understanding, I highlight alternative conceptualizations of self-regulation and then use data from my doctoral research to illustrate one in particular, the COPES model of self-regulated learning (Winne & Hadwin, 1998. This model’s explanatory power is contrasted with that of Dörnyei and colleagues’ conceptualization to show that, depending on the model one adopts, self-regulation is not only compatible with the study of specific strategies but useful for shedding new light on strategy research and integrating it with research in other related areas, such as L2 motivation.

Jim Ranalli

2012-12-01

287

A comparative assessment of the L1 and L2 reading performance of Grade 7 learners in English  

OpenAIRE

The role of English and the indigenous languages in South African schooling is highly contested. Research endorses the mother tongue (L1) as the most appropriate language of learning and teaching (LoLT) and the basis for the addition of a second language (L2). However, in South Africa English is the preferred LoLT and English proficiency is integral to academic achievement. This article reports on an investigation of Grade 7 Xitsonga-speaking learners’ reading performance in English and in ...

Manyike, Tintswalo V.; Eleanor Lemmer

2011-01-01

288

The Effects of L2C Signal Tracking on High-Precision Carrier Phase GPS Positioning  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2005, the L2C signal was introduced to improve the accuracy, tracking and redundancy of the GPS system for civilian users. The L2C signal also provides improved SNR data when compared with the L2P(Y) legacy signal, comparable to that of the L1 C/A-code, which allows for better tracking at lower elevations. With the recent launch of the first block II-F satellite (SVN62/PRN25), there are 8 healthy satellites broadcasting L2C signals, or 25% of the constellation. However, GNSS network operators such as the UNAVCO Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) have been hesitant to use the new signal as it is not well determined how tracking and logging L2C could affect the positions derived from L2 carrier phase measurements for a given receiver. The L2C carrier phase is in quadrature (90° out of phase) with the L2P(Y) phase that has been used by high-precision positioning software since the beginning of GPS. To complicate matters further, some receiver manufacturers (e.g. Trimble) correct for this when logging L2C phase while others (e.g. Topcon) do not. The L2C capability of receivers currently in widespread use in permanent networks can depend on firmware as well as hardware; in some cases receivers can simultaneously track L2C and L2P(Y) phases and some can track only one or the other, and the resulting observation files can depend on how individual operators configure the devices. In cases where both L2C and L2P(Y) are logged simultaneously, translation software (such as UNAVCO’s teqc) must be used carefully in order to select which L2 observation is written to RINEX (2.11) and used in positioning. Modifications were recently made to teqc to eliminate potential confusion in that part of the process; if L2C code observations appear in a RINEX (2.11) file produced by teqc, the L2 phase and S2 SNR observations were from the L2C carrier for those satellites. To date L2C analyses have been restricted to special applications such as snow depth and soil moisture using SNR data (Larson et al, 2010). We use several different methods to determine the effect that tracking and logging L2C has on carrier phase measurements and positioning for various receiver models and configurations. Our analyses use GAMIT and TRACK to calculate positions and baseline lengths including zero-length baselines, position time series from a subset of 10 PBO stations that have been L2C enabled, phase residual comparisons and direct comparisons of the L2 phase observable. Twenty-four hour zero-length baseline solutions using L2 show sub-millimeter differences in the mean positions for both the horizontal and vertical components. Direct comparisons of the L2 phase observable from RINEX (2.11) files with and without the L2C observable show sub-millicycle differences over a 24 hour mean with variations up to ~±0.06 cycles for satellites that broadcast L2C. Our results show that the magnitude of the variations increased at low elevations. Separate correlation of the L2 and L2C signals may explain this difference. The number of L2 observations increased when the L2C observable was recorded, while the number of cycle slips above 10 degrees in elevation decreased when L2C was recorded. The behavior of the L2P(Y) phase observations or positions from a given receiver was not affected by the enabling of L2C tracking.

Berglund, H.; Blume, F.; Estey, L. H.; Borsa, A. A.

2010-12-01

289

The Relations among L1 (Spanish) Literacy Skills, L2 (English) Language, L2 Text Reading Fluency, and L2 Reading Comprehension for Spanish-Speaking ELL First Grade Students  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigated the relations of L2 (i.e., English) oral reading fluency, silent reading fluency, word reading automaticity, oral language skills, and L1 literacy skills (i.e., Spanish) to L2 reading comprehension for Spanish-speaking English language learners in the first grade (N = 150). An analysis was conducted for the entire sample as well as…

Kim, Young-Suk

2012-01-01

290

Working Memory Capacity, Inhibitory Control and the Role of L2 Proficiency in Aging L1 Dutch Speakers of Near-Native L2 English  

OpenAIRE

This paper examines the intricate relationship between working memory (WM) capacity and inhibitory control as a function of both L2 proficiency and age. In both its design and research questions, this study closely follows Gass & Lee’s work, where both L1 and L2 Reading Span Tasks (as measures of WM capacity) and L1 and L2 Stroop interference tasks (to measure inhibitory control) were administered. In this study, the test battery is augmented by both an L1 and L2 C-test of overall langu...

Merel Keijzer

2013-01-01

291

Induction of L1 and L2 ?-Lactamases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia?  

OpenAIRE

Isogenic L1 and L2 gene knockout mutants of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KJ (KJ?L1 and KJ?L2, respectively) were constructed by xylE gene replacement. Induction kinetics of the L1 and L2 genes were evaluated by testing catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity in the mutants. The results suggested that the induction of the L1 and L2 genes was differentially regulated.

Hu, Rouh-mei; Huang, Kuang-jay; Wu, Lii-tzu; Hsiao, Ying-ju; Yang, Tsuey-ching

2007-01-01

292

Optimized L2-Orthogonal STC CPM for 3 Antennas  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we introduce further our recently designed family of L2 orthogonal Space-Time codes for CPM. With their advantage of maintaining both the constant envelope properties of CPM, the diversity of Space-Time codes and moreover orthogonality, and thus reduced decoding complexity, these codes are also full rate, even for more than two transmitting antennas. The issue of power efficiency for these codes is first dealt with by proving that the inherent increase in bandwidth in these systems is quite moderate. It is then detailed how the initial state of the code influences the coding gain and has to be optimized. For the two and three antennas case, we determine the optimal values by computer simulations and show how the coding gain and therewith the bit error performance are significantly improved by this optimization.

Hesse, Matthias; Deneire, Luc

2009-01-01

293

Projective multiresolution analyses for $L^2(R^2)$  

CERN Document Server

We define the notion of "projective" multiresolution analyses, for which, by definition, the initial space corresponds to a finitely generated projective module over the algebra $C(\\btn)$ of continuous complex-valued functions on an $n$-torus. The case of ordinary multi-wavelets is that in which the projective module is actually free. We discuss the properties of projective multiresolution analyses, including the frames which they provide for $L^2(\\brn)$. Then we show how to construct examples for the case of any diagonal $2 \\times 2$ dilation matrix with integer entries, with initial module specified to be any fixed finitely generated projective $C(\\mathbb T^2)$-module. We compute the isomorphism classes of the corresponding wavelet modules.

Packer, J A; Packer, Judith A.; Rieffel, Marc A.

2003-01-01

294

Telescope Formation at L2 for Observing Earth's Atmosphere  

Science.gov (United States)

Two documents describe a proposed Earth-atmosphere observatory to orbit the Sun at the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point -- a point of unstable equilibrium in the shadow of the Earth, about 1.5 million km from the Earth along an outward projection of the Earth-Sun axis. The observatory would comprise two spacecraft flying in precision formation: (1) a primary-aperture spacecraft, from which would be deployed a 25-m diameter membrane primary mirror aimed at the Earth, and (2) a secondary-telescope spacecraft at the focal plane of the primary mirror, 125-m distant along the axis towards the Earth. The secondary telescope would be aimed at the primary mirror and slowly rotated to scan the focused annular image of the visible illuminated portion of the Earth's atmosphere during continuous occultation of the Sun.

Mettler, Edward; Acikmese, Behcet; Breckenridge, William; Macenka, Steven; Hein, Randall; Tubbs, Eldred

2007-01-01

295

Asymptotically periodic L^2 minimizers in strongly segregating diblock copolymers  

CERN Document Server

Using the delta correction to the standard free energy \\cite{bc} in the elastic setting with a quadratic foundation term and some parameters, we introduce a one dimension only model for strong segregation in diblock copolymers, whose sharp interface periodic microstructure is consistent with experiment in low temperatures. The Green's function pattern forming nonlocality is the same as in the Ohta-Kawasaki model. Thus we complete the statement in [31,p.349]: ``The detailed analysis of this model will be given elsewhere. Our preliminary results indicate that the new model exhibits periodic minimizers with sharp interfaces.'' We stress that the result is unexpected, as the functional is not well posed, moreover the instabilities in $L^2$ typically occur only along continuous nondifferentiable ``hairs''. We also improve the derivation done by van der Waals and use it and the above to show the existence of a phase transition with Maxwell's equal area rule. However, this model does not predict the universal critic...

Chmaj, Adam

2009-01-01

296

Transfer in a Connectionist Model of the Acquisition of Morphology  

CERN Document Server

The morphological systems of natural languages are replete with examples of the same devices used for multiple purposes: (1) the same type of morphological process (for example, suffixation for both noun case and verb tense) and (2) identical morphemes (for example, the same suffix for English noun plural and possessive). These sorts of similarity would be expected to convey advantages on language learners in the form of transfer from one morphological category to another. Connectionist models of morphology acquisition have been faulted for their supposed inability to represent phonological similarity across morphological categories and hence to facilitate transfer. This paper describes a connectionist model of the acquisition of morphology which is shown to exhibit transfer of this type. The model treats the morphology acquisition problem as one of learning to map forms onto meanings and vice versa. As the network learns these mappings, it makes phonological generalizations which are embedded in connection w...

Gasser, M

1995-01-01

297

IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2/LS CON TESTI TEATRALI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Il saggio tratta dell'impiego di testi teatrali come fonti di esercizi per l'apprendimento dell'italiano L2/LS. Dopo alcune riflessioni teoriche, si presentano sei proposte di lavoro, con relative soluzioni, adatte a studenti del livello B2-C2 del quadro di riferimento. Si tratta di esercizi ricavati da drammi in un unico atto di Pirandello (La morsa e Lumìe di Sicilia, da Verga (un confronto fra Cavalleria rusticana nella forma drammatica e novellistica, e da Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre. Ogni proposta sfrutta una peculiarità del testo teatrale che si costituisce nell'incontro di dialoghi con didascalie. Anzitutto si tratta di comprendere come si costruiscono i personaggi, quindi di vedere la funzione delle didascalie in relazione al testo, infine di riflettere sulle diverse modalità in cui avvengono i dialoghi, includendo le forme di silenzio. Il testo teatrale appare così molto adatto ad esercizi di lingua, perché mette in gioco le capacità interpretative e immaginative degli studenti, li fa discutere e parlare sulla base delle loro intuizioni.   This paper investigates the use of play scripts as inspiration for Italian L2/FL exercises. After a brief discussion on theory, six project proposals and their solutions, suitable for B2-C2 level students, are presented.  These exercises are based on one-act plays by Pirandello (La Morsa and Lumìe di Sicilia, Verga (a comparison between Cavalleria Rusticana in drama and narrative forms and Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre.  Each project focuses on a specific aspect of the script  and is made up of dialogues with captions. After the way the characters are constructed is investigated, then the function of the captions in relation to the texts is considered, and finally students reflect on the different ways the dialogues are presented, including the pauses. Play scripts lend themselves to language exercises, because they encourage students to use their interpretation skills and imaginations to talk about their intuitions and ideas.

Erminia Ardissino

2010-09-01

298

SLA Research and L2 Pedagogy: Misapplications and Questions of Relevance  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been considerable debate about the relevance and applicability of SLA theory and research for L2 pedagogy. There are those who maintain that SLA must be applicable to L2 pedagogy: a view based on the argument that because SLA is a subfield of applied linguistics, it should have direct relevance to L2 teaching. Others take the view that…

Spada, Nina

2015-01-01

299

Perceptual Filtering in L2 Lexical Memory: A Neural Network Approach to Second Language Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory has…

Nelson, Robert

2012-01-01

300

Individual Variation in L2 Study-Abroad Outcomes: A Case Study from Indonesian Pragmatics  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a study of two Australian learners of Indonesian during a short stay abroad. It examines their contrasting success in acquiring L2 address terms, in tandem with their contrasting experiences of the L2 culture setting. It thereby helps explain the persistent finding of great individual variation in L2 gains--and in particular pragmatic…

Hassall, Timothy

2015-01-01

301

L(2,1-Labeling Number of the Product and the Join Graph on Two Fans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L(2,1-labeling number of the product and the join graph on two fans are discussed in this paper, we proved that L(2,1-labeling number of the product graph on two fans is ?(G ? ?+3 , L(2,1-labeling number of the join graph on two fans is ?(G ? 2?+3.

Sumei Zhang

2013-06-01

302

Deconstructing Comprehensibility: Identifying the Linguistic Influences on Listeners' L2 Comprehensibility Ratings  

Science.gov (United States)

Comprehensibility, a major concept in second language (L2) pronunciation research that denotes listeners' perceptions of how easily they understand L2 speech, is central to interlocutors' communicative success in real-world contexts. Although comprehensibility has been modeled in several L2 oral proficiency scales--for example, the Test of English…

Isaacs, Talia; Trofimovich, Pavel

2012-01-01

303

NON SOLO LINGUA. I CORSI DI ITALIANO L2 PER DONNE MIGRANTI TRA BISOGNI LINGUISTICI E DESIDERIO DI INTEGRAZIONE.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Come si organizza un corso di italiano L2 per donne migranti? Perché questi corsi si differenziano dalle altre proposte formative rivolte ad adulti immigrati? Basandosi sulle indicazioni del vademecum Tutte le mamme a scuola, il presente contributo cerca di rispondere a queste domande analizzando i bisogni linguistici delle donne migranti, interrogandosi su quale italiano insegnare, su quale metodo didattico adottare con particolare attenzione all’approccio autobiografico e all’“imparare facendo” e presentando i libri di testo rivolti a questa tipologia di apprendenti. Le tre interviste in appendice, raccolte in tre diversi centri che si occupano di corsi di italiano L2 per donne immigrate, raccontano come tutte queste indicazioni possano essere messe in pratica per cercare di soddisfare quel desiderio di integrazione e promozione sociale di cui le allieve si fanno portatrici,  che rende la classe di lingua non solo il luogo in cui si impara a parlare italiano, ma anche un laboratorio sociale in cui sperimentare modi diversi di approcciarsi e di considerare la diversità.     Not only language. Italian L2 for migrant women between linguistic needs and the desire for integration.   How is an Italian L2 course organized for migrant women? Why are these courses different from other classes designed for adult immigrants? Based on the indications in the handbook Tutte le mamme a scuola, this article tries to answer these questions analyzing the linguistic needs of migrant women, considering what Italian should be taught, what teaching method should be used with special attention placed on the autobiographical approach and “learning by doing”. The three interviews in the appendix, from three different centers which offer Italian L2 courses to immigrant women, tell about how these indications can be put into practice to satisfy the desire for the integration and social inclusion of these students, making the language class more than a place where Italian is learned, but it becomes a social laboratory where different approaches can be tried out and diversities can be made evident.

Viviana Solcia

2012-02-01

304

Task Design for L2 Oral Practice in Audioblogs  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of oral skills poses a challenge in language teaching whether this takes place face-to-face, through distance education or in blended learning contexts. Two main problems arise: first of all students don't have enough opportunity to use their target language orally, and secondly, students oral performance is mostly unrecorded and…

Appel, Christine; Borges, Federico

2012-01-01

305

Implicit and Explicit Recasts in L2 Oral French Interaction  

Science.gov (United States)

This laboratory-based study of second- and third-year American university students learning French examines the effectiveness of implicit and explicit corrective feedback on noun-adjective agreement errors. The treatment consisted of one hour of interactive tasks. Implicit feedback was operationalized as a single recast with interrogative…

Erlam, Rosemary; Loewen, Shawn

2010-01-01

306

RGMb is a novel binding partner for PD-L2 and its engagement with PD-L2 promotes respiratory tolerance  

Science.gov (United States)

We report that programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2), a known ligand of PD-1, also binds to repulsive guidance molecule b (RGMb), which was originally identified in the nervous system as a co-receptor for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). PD-L2 and BMP-2/4 bind to distinct sites on RGMb. Normal resting lung interstitial macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells express high levels of RGMb mRNA, whereas lung dendritic cells express PD-L2. Blockade of the RGMb–PD-L2 interaction markedly impaired the development of respiratory tolerance by interfering with the initial T cell expansion required for respiratory tolerance. Experiments with PD-L2–deficient mice showed that PD-L2 expression on non–T cells was critical for respiratory tolerance, but expression on T cells was not required. Because PD-L2 binds to both PD-1, which inhibits antitumor immunity, and to RGMb, which regulates respiratory immunity, targeting the PD-L2 pathway has therapeutic potential for asthma, cancer, and other immune-mediated disorders. Understanding this pathway may provide insights into how to optimally modulate the PD-1 pathway in cancer immunotherapy while minimizing adverse events. PMID:24752301

Xiao, Yanping; Yu, Sanhong; Zhu, Baogong; Bedoret, Denis; Bu, Xia; Francisco, Loise M.; Hua, Ping; Duke-Cohan, Jonathan S.; Umetsu, Dale T.; Sharpe, Arlene H.; DeKruyff, Rosemarie H.

2014-01-01

307

Alternativa metodológica para fortalecer el proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de Morfofisiología I en la carrera Enfermería / Methodological alternative to strengthen the teaching-learning process of Morphology and Phisiology I in the Nursing major  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: la insuficiente apropiación de los contenidos de la asignatura Morfofisiología I por los estudiantes, es uno de los problemas esenciales en la carrera de Enfermería. Objetivo: diseñar una alternativa metodológica que fortalezca el proceso enseñanza aprendizaje (PEA) de la asignatura Mo [...] rfofisiología I en la carrera de Enfermería. Método: investigación-acción en la Filial Universitaria Municipal de Ciencias Médicas Los Palacios; universo y muestra: total de estudiantes de 2do año de enfermería durante los cursos 2008-2009 y 2009-2010 (46) y durante los cursos 2010-2011 y 2011-2012 (23); se utilizaron métodos observacionales, entrevistas, enfoque de sistema y modelación. Resultados: Las clases observadas de Bien ascendieron de 16,6% a 83,3 % y las observadas de Mal descendieron de 61,1% a 5,6%. La promoción mejoró en calidad y se elevó de 28,2% a 95,6%, se logro la mayor motivación y participación activa y protagónica de los estudiantes, así como seguridad y dominio en el tratamiento de los contenidos. Conclusiones: La alternativa metodológica permitió a los docentes potenciar las dimensiones cognitivas y motivaciones en los estudiantes por la asignatura Morfofisiología I y demostró un salto cualitativo y cuantitativo en los resultados obtenidos. Abstract in english Introduction: the students´ insufficient aprehension of the course contents in Morphology and Phisiology I is one of the main problems in the Nursing major. Objective: to design a methodological alternative to strengthen the teaching-learning process in the course subject in the Nursing major. Mater [...] ial and method: research-action in Los Palacios Municipal University Affiliate of Medical Sciences; target group and sample: the sheer number of Nursing second year students during the academic years 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 (46) and 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 (23); observational methods were used, as long as interviews, system approach and modelling. Results: the lessons evaluated with Good increased from 16.6% to 83.3% and those evaluated with Wrong decreased from 61.1% to 5.6%. Promotion improved in quality and increased from 28.2% to 95.6%, greater motivation and active and student-centered involvement was achieved, as well as self-confidence and aprehension of the subject contents. Conclusions: the methodological alternative permitted the teaching faculty to potentiate the students cognitive dimensions and motivations for the subject Morphology and Phisiology I and proved a qualitative and quantitative leap in the results obtained.

Coralia, Quintero Martí; Magaly, Gort Hernández; Teresa, Verona Ferro; Marelis, Linares Miranda; José Luis, Cordero Pérez.

2013-12-01

308

Interpretation of English reflexives by child and adult L2 learners  

CERN Document Server

This book casts new light on the debate of adult L2 learners' access to Universal Grammar (UG) by comparing the performance of adult L2 learners with that of child L2 learners. The study in this book compares Arabic- and Chinese-speaking child and adult L2 learners' acquisition of English reflexives, particularly concentrating on the differences between child and adult L2 learners in terms of their a) acquisition of the local binding of English reflexives, b) obedience of UG constraints on re...

Kafri, Amer Al

2013-01-01

309

Online pronoun resolution in L2 discourse: L1 influence and general learner effects  

OpenAIRE

This study investigates whether advanced second language (L2) learners of a nonnull subject language (Dutch) are influenced by their null subject first language (L1) (Turkish) in their offline and online resolution of subject pronouns in L2 discourse. To tease apart potential L1 effects from possible general L2 processing effects, we also tested a group of German L2 learners of Dutch who were predicted to perform like the native Dutch speakers. The two L2 groups differed in their offline inte...

Roberts, Leah; Gullberg, Marianne; Indefrey, Peter

2008-01-01

310

ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY AND L2 SPEECH DEVELOPMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este estudo investiga se a capacidade de memória operacional de um indivíduo varia de acordo com sua proficiência oral na língua estrangeira (L2. Setenta e nove alunos das universidades federais da Bahia e de Santa Catarina foram distribuídos em dois grupos de proficiência (básico e intermediário e submetidos a uma adaptação em L2 do Teste de Amplitude de Memória Oral de Daneman (1991. Correlações positivas e estatisticamente significativas parecem indicar que a capacidade de memória operacional do indivíduo varia em função do seu nível de proficiência oral em L2.PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Aquisição de L2, memória operacional, proficiência em L2.

KYRIA FINARDI e JANAINA WEISSHEIMER

2008-04-01

311

Linguistic interference between L1 and L2 in internationally adopted children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bilingual children learning two languages either simultaneously or successively experience patterns of cross-language interference or facilitation due to similarities and differences between the languages. Internationally adopted toddlers are only truly bilingual for a short period of time because the first language disappears quickly after adoption. Yet residual effects of the disappearing first language might impact patterns of learning the new language. To determine if cross-language patterns affected language learning in very young children, language samples were collected from 23 children adopted from Eastern Europe between 11 and 23 months of age. Samples were collected at 6-month intervals during the first year after adoption, then annually up through age 4. Age and order of acquisition of several grammatical morphemes including V + ing, articles, contracted and uncontracted copulas, and contracted and uncontracted auxiliary were explored. These morphological structures developed in the same sequence observed in monolingual children speaking English and were not notably impacted by cross-linguistic factors from language 1. Guidelines for professionals and parents are discussed. PMID:15731971

Glennen, Sharon; Rosinsky-Grunhut, Ariella; Tracy, Rachel

2005-02-01

312

Working memory capacity across L2 speech proficiency levels / Capacidade de memória de trabalho através de níveis de proficiência oral em L2  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo investiga se a capacidade de memória de trabalho (CMT) varia entre idiomas e níveis de proficiência na fala em L2. Seguindo sugestões em Finardi e Weissheimer (2009) e Prebianca (2010) que demonstraram que a CMT varia em função do nível de proficiência da fala em L2, o presente trabalho [...] analisou três níveis de proficiência (elementar, intermediário e avançado) e dois idiomas (L1-português e L2-inglês). Dois testes de MT foram usados, um em L1 e outro em L2, ambos na modalidade oral. Sessenta estudantes adultos de inglês como língua estrangeira participaram no estudo: 19 elementares, 19 intermediários e 22 avançados. Resultados dos testes Kruskal-Wallis e Mann-Whitney corroboraram Finardi e Weissheimer (2009) e Prebianca (2010) sugerindo que a CMT medida com um teste de amplitude da fala em L2 parece confundir a relação entre níveis de proficiência oral e CMT. Abstract in english This study investigates whether working memory capacity (WMC) varies across languages and in the course of L2 speech proficiency levels. Following suggestions in Finardi and Weissheimer (2009) and Prebianca (2010), who found that WMC varied as a function of L2 speech proficiency, the present study a [...] ssessed three proficiency levels (elementary, intermediate and advanced) and two languages (L1-Portuguese and L2-English). Two WM tests were used, one in the L1 and another in the L2, both in the speaking mode. Sixty adult learners of English as a foreign language participated in the study: 19 elementary, 19 intermediate and 22 advanced learners. Results of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests corroborate Finardi and Weissheimer (2009) and Prebianca (2010) suggesting that WMC measured with a speaking span test in L2 seems to conflate the relationship between speech proficiency levels and WMC.

Gicele Vergine Vieira, Prebianca; Kyria Rebeca, Finardi; Janaina, Weissheimer.

2014-06-01

313

Morphological priming during language switching: an ERP study  

OpenAIRE

Bilingual language control (BLC) is a much-debated issue in recent literature. Some models assume BLC is achieved by various types of inhibition of the non-target language, whereas other models do not assume any inhibitory mechanisms. In an event-related potential (ERP) study involving a long-lag morphological priming paradigm, participants were required to name pictures and read aloud words in both their L1 (Dutch) and L2 (English). Switch blocks contained intervening L1 items between L2 pri...

Lensink, Saskia E.; Verdonschot, Rinus G.; Schiller, Niels O.

2014-01-01

314

Trajectory design for space missions to libration point L2.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work is focused on the detection and computation of "free" transfer trajectories from parking orbits around the Earth to quasiperiodic orbits around the collinear libration point L(2), in the Sun-Earth system; no correction or insertion maneuvers into the final orbits have been considered. The circular restricted three-body problem is the mathematical model used to describe the motion of a spacecraft, in the gravitational field of the two primaries, computed by integrating the nonlinearized equations of motion. A shooting method has been designed and developed to determine the increment of velocity required for the perigee maneuver, which injects a spacecraft into its transfer trajectory: first the velocity boundary for the Earth escape/capture condition is detected and then an iterative bisection method is applied until the burnout velocity, tangential to the parking orbit, leads the spacecraft to its final Lissajous orbit. For a launch from Kourou at local noon, Ariane5 GTO and Soyuz GTO "equivalent" have been studied and compared, considering fuel minimization for the transfer maneuver and general mission constraints, as maximum excursion of the final Lissajous orbit from the ecliptic plane and eclipses avoidance during the mission. This analysis highlights advantages and drawbacks of various parking orbits. Mission goals are the key factor for the tradeoff among orbit selection, launch options, and the other constraints, fixed by mission requirements. PMID:16510417

Di Salvo, Alessio

2005-12-01

315

Recent results of ECRH experiments on L-2M stellarator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results are reported from experimental study of ECH heated plasma in the L-2M stellarator with special emphasis on studying the turbulent processes. It is shown that the total plasma energy at fixed total heating power is strongly dependent on the plasma position. Visible degradation of plasma confinement is observed for the inward shifted magnetic configurations where the stability conditions of ideal interchange MHD modes are violated. However, even in this case the situation can be improved by decreasing the average radius of the plasma boundary with the help of graphite limiter resulting in the increase of the Shafranov shift of magnetic surfaces and deepening of the magnetic well due to the effect of self-stabilization. This in turn causes stabilization of ideal MHD interchange modes and visible increase in plasma energy and volume average value of beta. Statistical properties of turbulence was studied both for the central part of the plasma column and for the plasma edge. It is shown that one of the critical factors determining the coherent structures and turbulent fluxes in the edge plasma is the radial electric field. (author)

316

Assessing Learners’ Comprehension of Logical Connectives in L2 Texts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To successfully comprehend a text, readers must be able to establish coherent representation of its meaning. Construction of coherent text representation presupposes an ability to identify coherence relations that bind discourse segments together. These relations can be implicit or marked by a variety of linguistic devices such as logical connectives and signaling phrases. While there has been a growing awareness among the teachers and EFL material writers about the important role that knowledge of marker words plays in comprehension of L2 discourse, there is only a limited number of suitable test designs that allow assessment of learners’ understanding of these words. The current paper summarizes the major findings of the research on the role of discourse markers in text processing and presents two test formats that could be used to measure students’ understanding of conjunctions as text structure markers: a ‘paraphrase’ judgment task and text diagrams. The advantages and potential limitations of each test format are examined from both the teacher and the student perspectives.

Zorana Vasiljevic

2013-01-01

317

L2 Students’ Comments on Language Exchange Communities in Language Learning  

OpenAIRE

Problem Statement: EFL learners are rarely given opportunities to interact with native speakers and “…to do something with a language”. In Turkish settings, language learners mostly complain that they do not have enough opportunities to interact with native speakers, and class hours are too limited to acquire a language and more importantly they are not taught expressions that help them express themselves in daily contexts.Purpose of Study: This study aimed at investigating EFL (English...

Cem Balç?kanl?

2012-01-01

318

Interaction of CD99 with Its Paralog CD99L2 Positively Regulates CD99L2 Trafficking to Cell Surfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

Mouse CD99 and its paralog CD99-like 2 (CD99L2) are surface proteins implicated in cellular adhesion and migration. Although their distributions overlap in a wide variety of cells, their physical/functional relationship is currently unknown. In this study, we show the interaction between the two molecules and its consequence for membrane trafficking of mouse (m)CD99L2. The interaction was analyzed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation, immunoprecipitation, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays. When coexpressed, mCD99 formed heterodimers with mCD99L2, as well as homodimers, and the heterodimers were localized more efficiently at the plasma membrane than were the homodimers. Their interaction was cytoplasmic domain–dependent and enhanced mCD99L2 trafficking to the plasma membrane regardless of whether it was transiently overexpressed or endogenously expressed. Surface levels of endogenous mCD99L2 were markedly low on thymocytes, splenic leukocytes, and CTL lines derived from CD99-deficient mice. Importantly, the surface levels of mCD99L2 on mCD99-deficient cells recovered significantly when wild-type mCD99 was exogenously introduced, but they remained low when a cytoplasmic domain mutant of mCD99 was introduced. Our results demonstrate a novel role for mCD99 in membrane trafficking of mCD99L2, providing useful insights into controlling transendothelial migration of leukocytes. PMID:24133166

Nam, Giri; Lee, Young-Kwan; Lee, Hye Yeong; Ma, Min Jung; Araki, Masatake; Araki, Kimi; Lee, Seungbok; Lee, Im-Soon

2013-01-01

319

A Contrastive Study of English-Arabic Noun Morphology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study aims at comparing and contrasting English and Arabic noun morphology to determine the points where they differ. These differences are the main cause of difficulty in the learning of the second language. Teaching will be directed at those points where there are structural differences. This in turn determines what the teacher has to teach and what the learner has to learn. The whole focus of the present analysis will be confined to noun morphology in both languages.

Jamal Azmi Salim

2013-05-01

320

Working Memory Capacity, Inhibitory Control and the Role of L2 Proficiency in Aging L1 Dutch Speakers of Near-Native L2 English  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper examines the intricate relationship between working memory (WM capacity and inhibitory control as a function of both L2 proficiency and age. In both its design and research questions, this study closely follows Gass & Lee’s work, where both L1 and L2 Reading Span Tasks (as measures of WM capacity and L1 and L2 Stroop interference tasks (to measure inhibitory control were administered. In this study, the test battery is augmented by both an L1 and L2 C-test of overall language proficiency. Participants were 63 L1 Dutch speakers of L2 English, who had been immersed in an L2 environment for a considerable amount of time. Their data were set off against those of 54 monolingual Dutch speakers and 56 monolingual English speakers. At the time of testing, all the bilingual participants had a near-native command of English and their L1 and L2 WM scores were not found to be significantly different. However, discrepancies did occur in Stroop test scores of inhibition, where the bilinguals performed better in their L2 English than L1 Dutch. These main effects often contradicted the results found in Gass & Lee’s study, who examined less proficient L2 learners. An aging effect was furthermore found: older subjects consistently performed more poorly on WM and inhibition tasks than their younger peers. These results can shed light on how individual factors like WM capacity and inhibitory control interact in successful late bilinguals and how these dynamics shift with advanced age.

Merel Keijzer

2013-08-01

321

Learning a Second Language Naturally the Voice Movement Icon Approach  

OpenAIRE

Second language (L2) instruction greatly differs from natural input during native language (L1) acquisition.Whereas a child collects sensorimotor experience while learning novel words, L2 employs primarily reading,writing and listening and comprehension. We describe an alternative proposal that integrates the body into thelearning process: the Voice Movement Icon (VMI) approach. A VMI consists of a word that is read and spokenin L2 and synchronously paired with an action or a gesture. A VMI i...

Manuela Macedonia

2013-01-01

322

Computer-Mediated Corrective Feedback and the Development of L2 Grammar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on a study that investigated the impact of two types of computer-mediated corrective feedback on the development of adult learners’ L2 knowledge: (1 corrective feedback that reformulates the error in the form of recasts, and (2 corrective feedback that supplies the learner with metalinguistic information about the nature of the error. High intermediate and advanced adult learners of English (n=23 from an intact class at a Swedish university were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (two feedback conditions and one control and were randomly paired with English native speakers. During task-based interaction via text-chat, the learners received focused corrective feedback on omission of the zero article with abstract noncount nouns (e.g., employment, global warming, culture. Computer-delivered pretests, posttests and delayed posttests of knowledge (acceptability judgments measured learning outcomes. Results showed no significant advantage for either feedback type on immediate or sustained gains in target form knowledge, although the metalinguistic group showed significant immediate gains relative to the control condition.

Shannon Sauro

2009-02-01

323

Peer Review Comments Provided by High- and Low-Proficiency L2 Learners: A Comparative Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study explored the variations in peer review comments provided by L2 writers of high and low proficiencies. Two sampling procedures were used. First, convenience sampling was used to locate a college essay composition course as the setting of the study. Second, purposeful sampling was used to identify high- and low-performing writers as the subjects, from whom the peer review comments were collected and analyzed. An instruction-learning cycle on argumentative essay writing was conducted for 4 weeks. Each student was subsequently provided with the same sample argumentative essay and a peer review form to conduct the review. The rubrics on the review form included introduction, support for position, sequence, refutation, conclusion, voice, and grammar and spelling. Content analysis was conducted to compare the manner in which the comments varied among students of different writing proficiency levels. The results indicate that, although identifying problems was the dominant comment type of both high- and low-performing writers, high-performing writers tended to provide more details when explaining the identified problems and offering suggestions for revisions. The findings are discussed regarding the implications to peer review training.

Hui-Chuan Liao

2012-08-01

324

COMPETENZA PRAGMATICA IN ITALIANO L2: L’USO DEI SEGNALI DISCORSIVI DA PARTE DEGLI APPRENDENTI CROATI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Questo contributo esplora la produzione dialogica in italiano da parte degli apprendenti di lingua materna croata con l’obiettivo di determinare la loro competenza interazionale e pragmatica in italiano L2. Particolare attenzione si è rivolta ad un aspetto caratteristico della produzione dialogica, ai segnali discorsivi ? espedienti dialogici per eccellenza. I parlanti nativi usano segnali discorsivi con una vasta gamma di funzioni dialogiche, mentre l’acquisizione dei segnali discorsivi italiani è un territorio relativamente inesplorato e i segnali discorsivi vengono raramente insegnati. in maniera esplicita. La capacità di riconoscere e utilizzare i segnali discorsivi italiani adeguatamente, vale a dire secondo le loro funzioni pragmatiche, rivela il livello della competenza pragmatica dell’apprendente di una lingua straniera. Ai fini dello studio presente, gli apprendenti di italiano sono stati classificati in diversi gruppi in base alla durata dell’ istruzione (principianti, intermedi, avanzati e/o al tipo di ambiente di apprendimento (studenti universitari, corsi di lingua straniera, “full immersion”. L’analisi si è concentrata maggiormente sulla frequenza d’uso e su alcune funzioni dei segnali discorsivi italiani adoperati. Lo scopo di questo studio era quello di esaminare la differenza tra l’uso dei segnali discorsivi relativo ai diversi livelli e ambienti educativi della lingua italiana da parte degli apprendenti croati di italiano L2 e di osservare le caratteristiche di una possibile influenza derivata dal L1.     Pragmatic competence in Italian L2: the use of discourse signals in Croatian-speaking learners This contribution explores the dialogue production of Croatian-speaking learners of Italian as a second language (L2 with the objective to determine their competence in L2 interactions. Special attention is paid to one particular aspect of dialogue production, discourse markers -dialogical expedients par excellence. Native speakers use discourse markers for a wide variety of dialogue functions, while the acquisition of (Italian discourse markers is a relatively unexplored area and discourse markers are hardly ever explicitly taught. The ability to recognize and use Italian discourse markers correctly, in terms of their pragmatic functions, reveals the learners’ pragmatic competence. For this particular study, the learners of Italian were classified in different groups according to length of instruction (basic, elementary, advanced and/or type of learning environment (university students, foreign language courses, “full immersion”. The analysis focused on the frequency of use and some functions of Italian discourse markers. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference between the Italian learners’ use of discourse markers and to observe the instances of a possible L1 influence.

Magdalena Nigoevi?

2012-02-01

325

Phonological Memory and Children's Second Language Grammar Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the role of phonological memory in second language (L2) grammar learning in a group of native French-speaking children undergoing a 5-month intensive English program. Phonological memory (as referenced by Arabic [ANWR] and English [ENWR] nonword repetition tasks), L2 vocabulary (receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge),…

French, Leif M.; O'Brien, Irena

2008-01-01

326

Functional Connectivity Changes in Second Language Vocabulary Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

Functional connectivity changes in the language network (Price, 2010), and in a control network involved in second language (L2) processing (Abutalebi & Green, 2007) were examined in a group of Persian (L1) speakers learning French (L2) words. Measures of network integration that characterize the global integrative state of a network (Marrelec,…

Saidi, Ladan Ghazi; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Pelegrini-Issac, Melani; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana-Ines

2013-01-01

327

Pure Hodge structure on the $L_2$-cohomology of varieties with isolated singularities  

CERN Document Server

Let $V$ be a complex projective variety with isolated singularities. Let the smooth part be given the metric induced by a projective imbedding. Then we develop the $L_2$ harmonic theory and construct a pure Hodge structure on the $L_2$-cohomology of $V$. If the dimension of $V$ is two, we put a cohomological Hodge structure on its complex of sheaves of $L_2$ forms.

Pardon, W L; Pardon, William; Stern, Mark

1997-01-01

328

L^2 stability estimates for shock solutions of scalar conservation laws using the relative entropy method  

OpenAIRE

We consider scalar nonviscous conservation laws with strictly convex flux in one spatial dimension, and we investigate the behavior of bounded L^2 perturbations of shock wave solutions to the Riemann problem using the relative entropy method. We show that up to a time-dependent translation of the shock, the L^2 norm of a perturbed solution relative to the shock wave is bounded above by the L^2 norm of the initial perturbation.

Leger, Nicholas

2009-01-01

329

L 2 Stability Estimates for Shock Solutions of Scalar Conservation Laws Using the Relative Entropy Method  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider scalar nonviscous conservation laws with strictly convex flux in one spatial dimension, and we investigate the behavior of bounded L 2 perturbations of shock wave solutions to the Riemann problem using the relative entropy method. We show that up to a time-dependent translation of the shock, the L 2 norm of a perturbed solution relative to the shock wave is bounded above by the L 2 norm of the initial perturbation.

Leger, Nicholas

2011-03-01

330

Papillomavirus pseudovirions packaged with the L2 gene induce cross-neutralizing antibodies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Current vaccines against HPVs are constituted of L1 protein self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs and they have been shown to protect against natural HPV16 and HPV18 infections and associated lesions. In addition, limited cross-protection has been observed against closely related types. Immunization with L2 protein in animal models has been shown to provide cross-protection against distant papillomavirus types, suggesting that the L2 protein contains cross-neutralizing epitopes. However, vaccination with L2 protein or L2 peptides does not induce high titers of anti-L2 antibodies. In order to develop a vaccine with the potential to protect against other high-risk HPV types, we have produced HPV58 pseudovirions encoding the HPV31 L2 protein and compared their capacity to induce cross-neutralizing antibodies with that of HPV L1 and HPV L1/L2 VLPs. Methods The titers of neutralizing antibodies against HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and HPV58 induced in Balb/c mice were compared after immunization with L2-containing vaccines. Results Low titers of cross-neutralizing antibodies were detected in mice when immunized with L1/L2 VLPs, and the highest levels of cross-neutralizing antibodies were observed in mice immunized with HPV 58 L1/L2 pseudovirions encoding the HPV 31 L2 protein. Conclusions The results obtained indicate that high levels of cross-neutralizing antibodies are only observed after immunization with pseudovirions encoding the L2 protein. HPV pseudovirions thus represent a possible new strategy for the generation of a broad-spectrum vaccine to protect against high-risk HPVs and associated neoplasia.

Duarte-Forero Diego F

2010-03-01

331

Unveiling the Mystery: Investigating L2 Reading Motivation in an EFL Classroom  

OpenAIRE

Research in L2 reading motivation has gained impetus and provided many insights into understanding the components of motivation and factors that affect L2 learners in terms of reading motivation. Although many studies can be found on L1 reading motivation, studies on L2 reading motivation seem to be relatively meager. Since action research encompasses a sequence of events and an approach to problem solving, the present study addressed to examine whether; (1) this sample of Turkish University ...

Sirin, Petek; Ga?¶kta?¼rk Saglam, Asli Lidice

2012-01-01

332

Evidence for Association between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and TCF7L2 and Glucose Intolerance in Women with PCOS and TCF7L2  

OpenAIRE

Context and Objective: Of the recently identified type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) susceptibility loci, transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) confers the greatest relative risk for T2D and significantly predicts conversion to T2D in persons with impaired glucose tolerance. TCF7L2 is, therefore, also a strong candidate gene for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine disorder characterized by androgen excess and menstrual irregularities and associated with insulin resistance and a ...

Biyasheva, Assel; Legro, Richard S.; Dunaif, Andrea; Urbanek, Margrit

2009-01-01

333

Understanding the role of culture during teaching and learning through English second language at a university of technology / Dorothea Susanna Vosloo  

OpenAIRE

This study focuses on understanding the role of culture during teaching and learning through English L2 at the University of Technology; determine the fundamental nature of culture; gain a better understanding of the role of cultural factors that influence L2 teaching and learning of the 1st year students; and propose possible solutions to deal with problems caused by the influence of culture on teaching and learning through English L2. South Africa is a multicultural and multilingual country...

Vosloo, Dorothea Susanna

2011-01-01

334

A Czech Morphological Lexicon  

OpenAIRE

In this paper, a treatment of Czech phonological rules in two-level morphology approach is described. First the possible phonological alternations in Czech are listed and then their treatment in a practical application of a Czech morphological lexicon.

Skoumalova, Hana

1997-01-01

335

AUTOBIOGRAFIE LINGUISTICHE CON UNA CLASSE DI ITALIANO L2 DI SINOFONI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Convinta dell’utilità didattica del racconto autobiografico nel processo di apprendimento/insegnamento dell’italiano da parte di studenti stranieri, presento un’unità didattica di approccio alle autobiografie linguistiche, progettata per giovani apprendenti sinofoni, con una competenza dell’italiano oscillante tra i livelli A2 e B1, giunti in Italia per compiere gli studi universitari.Il percorso didattico ha come punto d’arrivo la stesura da parte di degli studenti della propria autobiografia linguistica; è organizzato in fasi e prevede attività che coinvolgono la ricezione orale e scritta, la produzione orale e scritta e l’interazione.L’unità didattica si propone di far conoscere il genere dell’autobiografia e in particolare di quella in cui chi scrive racconta la propria esperienza con le lingue; di stimolare gli studenti a riflettere su se stessi, sulle loro abitudini linguistiche, sulle esperienze pregresse di studio delle lingue e di contatto con le culture di cui le lingue sono veicolo; di incoraggiare gli allievi a parlare di sé.Si prevede, inoltre, nel corso delle attività proposte, l’introduzione di alcune nozioni di linguistica, come, ad esempio, le nozioni di lingua madre, competenza e varietà linguistica.LINGUISTIC AUTOBIOGRAPHIES: AN EXPERIENCE WITH CHINESE-SPEAKING ITALIAN L2 LEARNERSI am convinced of the utility of autobiography in the Italian L2 teaching/learning process with foreign students, and I present a teaching unit centered on linguistic autobiography, designed for young Chinese-speaking learners with A2-B1 competence in Italian, who are studying at Italian universities.The process culminates in the students’ written linguistic autobiography, organized in phases and involving oral and written activities including reception, production and interaction.The unit aims at making the students familiar with the genre of autobiography, focusing on personal experience with languages, in order to stimulate the students to reflect on themselves, their linguistic habits, their former experiences studying languages and contact with cultures where language is the vehicle, as well as encouraging the students to talk about themselves.A few linguistic notions are also introduced, including the idea of mother tongue, competence and linguistic variety.

Lorenza Corti

2012-07-01

336

The Influence of Cross-Linguistic Input and L2 Proficiency on L2 Reading Comprehension among Spanish-Speaking Adults Learning English as a Second Language  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing literacy and language proficiency in English is essential to thrive in school and in the workforce in American society. Research on cross-linguistic influences on text-level skills is scant, especially studies investigating reading comprehension among language-minority adults. The present study investigated the effects of…

Rodriguez, Astrid Sussette

2010-01-01

337

Didattica multicanale integrata: il fumetto parlante. Un’esperienza di scrittura creativa collaborativa in un corso di italiano L2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L’articolo, nella premessa, parte da riferimenti a S. Papert e al costruzionismo, per focalizzarsi poi su alcuni aspetti dell’ultimo lavoro di A.Pian che, con l’ elaborazione del concetto di didattica multicanale integrata, indica una prospettiva ulteriore per l’integrazione di strumenti tecnologici nei processi di insegnamento/apprendimento.Nella fase seguente questo lavoro illustra un esperimento di scrittura creativa collaborativa in un corso di Italiano L2 blended, effettuato attraverso un sistema wiki e la successiva elaborazione integrata di testo, immagini e narrazione orale in un “fumetto parlante”. Uno degli obiettivi fondamentali del progetto è stato quello di valutare se, e in quale modo, il percorso effettuato in un ambiente online potesse favorire lo sviluppo della competenza comunicativa da parte dei corsisti, insieme a quello di analizzare i codici linguistici attivati nell’interazione. Non ultimo, l’obiettivo di verificare la possibilità che i corsisti potessero sperimentare un percorso per la creazione di un oggetto didattico che possa dare anche “piacere estetico” nella fruizione.  Integrated multi-channel teaching: the cartoon speaker.An experience in collaborative creative writing in an Italian L2 course The article begins with references to S. Papert and constructionism, then focuses on certain aspects of the work of A. Pian, who elaborated the concept of integrated multi-channel learning, indicating a further perspective for the integration of technological tools in the teaching/learning process. An experiment in a blended Italian L2 collaborative creative writing course was carried out using a wiki system and the subsequent processing of the integrated text, images and storytelling into a “speech bubble”. A key objective of the project was to assess whether, and in what way, an online environment could favor the development of communicative competence on the part of the students, along with the analysis of the linguistic codes activated in the interaction. Last but not least, there was the objective to verify the possibility that the participants could create a learning object that would also give “aesthetic pleasure” when used.

Diego Santalucia

2013-07-01

338

Non-academic L2 Users: A Neglected Research Pool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available English Language Teaching (ELT articles are published and their results are relied on without delving into their methodological credibility. A research study cannot be considered valid unless its population is precisely determined and defined. This article shows the considerable size of non-academic English learners in Iran and argues that the population in ELT research should not be limited only to university and school students who are easily accessible but it should also include the sizeable non-academic sector. To do this, 170 PhD dissertations and MA theses in TEFL were randomly selected. The result showed that only less than 9% of the participants belonged to non-academic sector. The article also argues that there is wrong overgeneralization of even the existing ELT academic researches to non-academic situation. Finally it compares academic and non-academic English learners to show how the latter are highly motivated to learn.

Talebinezhad, Mohammad Reza

2005-01-01

339

Brain Responses before and after Intensive Second Language Learning: Proficiency Based Changes and First Language Background Effects in Adult Learners  

OpenAIRE

This longitudinal study tracked the neuro-cognitive changes associated with second language (L2) grammar learning in adults in order to investigate how L2 processing is shaped by a learner’s first language (L1) background and L2 proficiency. Previous studies using event-related potentials (ERPs) have argued that late L2 learners cannot elicit a P600 in response to L2 grammatical structures that do not exist in the L1 or that are different in the L1 and L2. We tested whether the neuro-cognit...

White, Erin Jacquelyn; Genesee, Fred; Steinhauer, Karsten

2012-01-01

340

The Relationship of Reading Attitudes between L1 and L2: An Investigation of Adult EFL Learners in Japan  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the transfer of reading attitudes from L1 to L2, drawing on the linguistic threshold hypothesis. Participants were Japanese university-level EFL students. Their L1 and L2 reading attitudes were estimated using a Likert scale, and their L2 proficiency was measured using a test. The study found that the students' L1 and L2

Yamashita, Junko

2007-01-01

341

L2 and L3 integrated learning – lingua franca use in learning an additional language in the classroom.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This study offers an empirical account of the use of English in Danish-as-a-foreign-language classroom settings. We will refer to English as the lingua franca - which in itself is a second language for the majority of the participants in the data - and to Danish as the target language. We consider implications of lingua franca interaction in target language classroom interactions, and show how in sequences where participants orient to linguistic issues in the target language, for example grammatical forms or lexical items, they often do this with reference to the lingua franca.

Hazel, Spencer; Wagner, Johannes

2015-01-01

342

Perceptions of the Difficulties of Postgraduate L2 Thesis Students Writing the Discussion Section  

Science.gov (United States)

In postgraduate study, students including L2 students are often required to write a thesis and, as a growing literature reveals, L2 students often experience difficulties in the writing of this genre. While most of this research has involved surveys (questionnaires and interviews) and case studies of supervisor perceptions, only a few studies have…

Bitchener, John; Basturkmen, Helen

2006-01-01

343

L2 Reading Comprehension and Its Correlates: A Meta-Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

The present meta-analysis examined the overall average correlation (weighted for sample size and corrected for measurement error) between passage-level second language (L2) reading comprehension and 10 key reading component variables investigated in the research domain. Four high-evidence correlates (with 18 or more accumulated effect sizes: L2

Jeon, Eun Hee; Yamashita, Junko

2014-01-01

344

Glossing Frequency and L2 Reading Comprehension: The Influence of CALL Glossing  

Science.gov (United States)

This study challenges the assertion that an increase in L1 glossing results in more L2 reading comprehension. The results of this study, a quantitative meta-analysis, indicate that there is a significant difference (p = 0.04) in L2 reading comprehension between groups based on how much L1 glossing is provided. It was found that the group with the…

Taylor, Alan

2014-01-01

345

Contributions of Prior Knowledge, Motivation, and Strategies to Korean College Students' L2 Writing Development  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study examined Korean college students' L2 writing development and performance, motivation, and strategies while taking ESL writing classes. The present study expands the literature by examining the effects of various learner characteristics on L2 writing development. The selection and the expected effects of learner variables were…

Chae, Soo Eun

2011-01-01

346

German Pitches in English: Production and Perception of Cross-Varietal Differences in L2  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examines the effect of cross-varietal prosodic characteristics of two German varieties, Northern Standard German (NG) and Swiss German (SG), on the production and perception of foreign accent in L2 Belfast English. The analysis of production data revealed differences in the realisation of nuclear pitch accents in L1 German and L2

Ulbrich, Christiane

2013-01-01

347

Construction of a Rated Speech Corpus of L2 Learners' Spontaneous Speech  

Science.gov (United States)

This work reports on the construction of a rated database of spontaneous speech produced by second language (L2) learners of English. Spontaneous speech was collected from 28 L2 speakers representing six language backgrounds and five different proficiency levels. Speech was elicited using formats similar to that of the TOEFL iBT and the Speaking…

Yoon, Su-Youn; Pierce, Lisa; Huensch, Amanda; Juul, Eric; Perkins, Samantha; Sproat, Richard; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

2009-01-01

348

Islands and Objects in L2 Spanish: Do You Know the Learners Who Drop___?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study tests native Brazilian Portuguese (BP) speakers of second language (L2) Spanish in the domain of phonologically null object pronouns. This is a worthwhile first language (L1)-L2 pairing given that these languages are historically and typologically related and both seemingly allow for object drop. Nevertheless, the underlying syntax of…

Rothman, Jason; Iverson, Michael

2013-01-01

349

75 FR 28469 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS332L2 Helicopters  

Science.gov (United States)

...Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model AS332L2 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal...airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS332L2 helicopters...approved by the aviation authority of France and is approved for operation in the...

2010-05-21

350

Becoming 'American-Italian": An Immigrant's Narrative of Acquiring English as an L2  

Science.gov (United States)

This article tells the story of a child immigrant's L2 acquisition process. The narrative demonstrates the effects of social and academic factors on motivation to acquire an L2 and the result of immigration at a young age on cultural identity formation. The article begins by discussing the need for research into sociocultural factors in the second…

Amicucci, Ann N.

2012-01-01

351

Simulation-Based L2 Writing Instruction: Enhancement through Genre Analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers have highlighted various benefits of the simulation-based approach to second language (L2) writing instruction. In this article, the author argues, with specific pedagogical scenarios, that an explicit focus on genre and genre analysis in simulation-based L2 writing instruction can further enhance learners' reading of content…

Cheng, An

2007-01-01

352

Proficiency Level and the Interaction of Lexical and Morphosyntactic Information during L2 Sentence Processing  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a self-paced reading task, the present study explores how second language (L2) German speakers at different proficiency levels use case-marking information when processing subject-object ambiguities in German. Results indicate that advanced L2 German speakers rapidly integrated case-marking information during online processing, exhibiting a…

Jackson, Carrie

2008-01-01

353

L2 Acquisition of German Plurals: How Students Form Them and Textbooks Teach Them.  

Science.gov (United States)

Investigates the following questions: 1) Is there improvement in second language (L2) German learners' understanding of German pluralization as the level of German study advances; and 2) What second language acquisition tendencies can be observed in L2 German production of plurals? ( (Author/VWL)

Dykstra-Pruim, Pennylyn

2003-01-01

354

Explaining Individual Variation in L2 Perception: Rounded Vowels in English Learners of German  

Science.gov (United States)

Most empirical research in L2 vowel perception focuses on the development of groups of learners. However, recent studies indicate that individual learners' developmental paths in L2 vowel perception may not be uniform (e.g., Escudero, 2001; Escudero and Boersma, 2004; Morrison, 2009). The aim of the present study is to add to this line of research…

Mayr, Robert; Escudero, Paola

2010-01-01

355

Gender in Italian-German Bilinguals: A Comparison with German L2 Learners of Italian  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compares mastery of gender assignment and agreement in Italian by adult Italian-German bilinguals who have acquired two languages simultaneously (2L1), and by adult German highly proficient second language learners (L2ers) of Italian. Our data show that incompleteness in bilingual acquisition and in second language (L2) acquisition…

Bianchi, Giulia

2013-01-01

356

The Development of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in the Written Production of L2 French  

Science.gov (United States)

The present longitudinal case study investigated the development of fluency, complexity and accuracy--and the possible relationships between them--in the written production of L2 French. We assessed fluency and complexity in five intermediate learners by means of conventional indicators for written L2 (cf. Wolfe-Quintero et al. 1998), while…

Gunnarsson, Cecilia

2012-01-01

357

Native Speakers' Perceptions of Fluency and Accent in L2 Speech  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral fluency and foreign accent distinguish L2 from L1 speech production. In language testing practices, both fluency and accent are usually assessed by raters. This study investigates what exactly native raters of fluency and accent take into account when judging L2. Our aim is to explore the relationship between objectively measured temporal,…

Pinget, Anne-France; Bosker, Hans Rutger; Quené, Hugo; de Jong, Nivja H.

2014-01-01

358

Examining Reading Fluency in a Foreign Language: Effects of Text Segmentation on L2 Readers  

Science.gov (United States)

Grouping words into meaningful chunks is a fundamental process for fluent reading. The present study is an attempt to understand the relationship between chunking and second language (L2) reading fluency. The effects of text segmentation on comprehension, rate, and regression in L2 reading were investigated using a self-paced reading task in a…

Yamashita, Junko; Ichikawa, Shingo

2010-01-01

359

Extensive Reading and Development of Different Aspects of L2 Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive reading has been drawing increasing attention from L2 educators as a potentially effective form of L2 reading instruction. However, some researchers argue that it is not easy to observe the benefits of extensive reading in the short term. The present study was motivated by the need to elucidate the differential effects of extensive…

Yamashita, Junko

2008-01-01

360

Mediation Strategies in L2 Writing Processes: A Case Study of Two Korean Language Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

With the recent rise of sociocultural theory in second-language acquisition, attempts have been made to understand L2 learners' uses of different resources in writing, based on their cultural, historical, and institutional contexts. In line with L2 writing research within the sociocultural paradigm, this study investigates the writing strategies…

Kang, Yon-Soo; Pyun, Danielle Ooyoung

2013-01-01

361

Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

Lu, Yanbin

2010-01-01

362

Emergent L2 German Writing Ability in a Curricular Context: A Longitudinal Study of Grammatical Metaphor  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper reports on a study of emergent adult instructed L2 German writing ability in a college-level program that developed an explicit curriculum-based approach to supporting L2 writing. It uses systemic-functional linguistics (SFL) as its theoretical framework and traces writing development through a central construct in the theory, the…

Byrnes, Heidi

2009-01-01

363

Frequency Effects in L2 Multiword Unit Processing: Evidence from Self-Paced Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

Many second language acquisition (SLA) studies have traditionally limited their scope of investigation to the description and analysis of errors in L2 learners' use of multiword units. Recently, researchers have begun to approach this topic from a psycholinguistic perspective, examining the processing of multiword units by L2 learners. However,…

Kim, Soo Hyon; Kim, Ji Hyon

2012-01-01

364

Resolving Referential Conflicts in L2 Interaction: The Effect of Proficiency and Interactive Role.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines resolution of referential conflicts in second-language (L2) interaction in two different pairings of L2 learners. Pairs where the higher proficiency member was in the dominant role engaged in little interactive behavior, whereas pairs where the less proficient member was dominant engaged in substantial negotiation and interaction and were…

Yule, George; Macdonald, Doris

1990-01-01

365

The Potential Influence of L1 (Chinese) on L2 (English) Communication  

Science.gov (United States)

A major issue in the field of L2 acquisition is the role that language learners' L1 plays in the acquisition of an L2. This article shows some of the salient linguistic features of Chinese that may present communication challenges for Chinese-speaking learners of English as an additional language. Instructors' awareness of such features will…

Huang, Li-Shih

2010-01-01

366

The Use of Conjunctions in Cognitively Simple versus Complex Oral L2 Tasks  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study explores the use of conjunctions in simple versus complex argumentative tasks performed by second language (L2) learners as a specific measure for the amount of reasoning involved in task performance. The Cognition Hypothesis (Robinson, 2005) states that an increase in cognitive task complexity promotes improvements in L2

Michel, Marije C.

2013-01-01

367

The human complement fragment receptor, C5L2, is a recycling decoy receptor.  

Science.gov (United States)

C5L2 is a 7 transmembrane domain receptor for complement fragment C5a that, unlike the classical C5a receptor, C5aR, does not couple to G proteins. However, in mice where C5L2 has been deleted, the response to C5a is altered, suggesting that C5L2 may have a signaling function. In order to investigate whether human C5L2 also has some capacity to transduce signals, we have attempted to produce a signaling competent form of human C5L2 by inserting C5aR sequences at three key G protein activation motifs. However, we detected neither an intracellular Ca(2+) response nor beta-arrestin redistribution in mutated C5L2, suggesting that the potential for G protein coupling is completely absent in this receptor and that, in humans, C5L2 may have functions that are unrelated to signaling. In confirmation of this, we detected constitutive ligand-independent internalization of C5L2 that resulted in the rapid accumulation of C5a and its stable metabolite, C5a des Arg, within the cell with only a small net change in cell surface receptor levels. Internalization was found to be through a clathrin-dependent mechanism that led to the retention and, in cells natively expressing C5L2, the degradation of the ligand within an intracellular compartment. In contrast, the classical C5a receptor, C5aR, internalized ligand much more slowly and a majority of this ligand was released back into the extracellular environment in an apparently undegraded form. These data suggest that a major function of human C5L2 is to remove active complement fragments from the extracellular environment. PMID:19100624

Scola, Anne-Marie; Johswich, Kay-Ole; Morgan, B Paul; Klos, Andreas; Monk, Peter N

2009-03-01

368

Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students’ Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The notion of “learner beliefs” has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners’ beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers’ beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading in English. 190 undergraduate college students completed the Survey of Reading Strategies questionnaire. The results indicated that the subjects in both groups reported almost similar patterns of strategy awareness while reading; however, Indians reported more awareness of global, support and total metacognitive reading strategies than Iranians while no significant difference was reported when using problem-solving strategies. These results can contribute to the necessity of reading strategies training in both contexts. La noción de “creencias del estudiante” ha ganado mucha atención en el ámbito de la adquisición de la segunda lengua. Aunque se han realizado diferentes estudios sobre las creencias de los estudiantes respecto al aprendizaje de la lengua, poco se ha investigado acerca de las creencias de los lectores de segunda lengua y su relación con estrategias de lectura. Este estudio investigó si había diferencias significativas entre los lectores de inglés como lengua extranjera y los lectores de inglés como segunda lengua en cuanto a la conciencia lectora y el uso de estrategias metacognitivas cuando leen en inglés. Ciento noventa estudiantes de pregrado completaron el cuestionario sobre estrategias lectoras. Los resultados mostraron que los sujetos de los dos grupos reportaron un patrón casi similar al uso de conciencia de estrategia mientras leían. Sin embargo, los estudiantes indios reportaron ser más conscientes respecto a estrategias metacognitivas lectoras totales, globales y de apoyo que los estudiantes iraníes, mientras que no se hallaron diferencias significativas al usar estrategias para la resolución de problemas. Estos resultados pueden contribuir a la necesidad de capacitación en estrategias lectoras en ambos contextos.

Karbalaei Alireza

2010-11-01

369

IL FENOMENO DELL’ALTERNANZA L1/L2 NELL’INSEGNAMENTO DELL’ITALIANO COME LINGUA STRANIERA. ANALISI DI UN CORPUS DI INTERAZIONI DIDATTICHE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La modalità plurilingue della comunicazione in classi di lingua straniera può rientrare tra le strategie pedagogiche a disposizione dell’insegnante per il raggiungimento di precisi scopi didattici e formativi. Partendo da una breve analisi sul significato di parlante plurilingue e plurilinguismo stesso, in questo articolo si è voluto esaminare come si attua una educazione al plurilinguismo in contesti formativi e, in particolare, se e come l’utilizzo della L1 può costituire uno strumento di supporto all’insegnamento e all’apprendimento di una lingua straniera. A questo scopo sono stati analizzati i dati raccolti presso l’Università di Coventry durante corsi di italiano L2 per studenti anglofoni. I fenomeni di contatto linguistico L1/L2 più frequenti e significativi sono stati suddivisi in base al parlante e alle loro funzioni.   The phenomena of l1/l2 alternation in the teaching of italian as a foreign language. analysis of a corpus of didactic interactions Multilingual communication in foreign language classrooms can be considered as one of the teacher’s pedagogical  strategies to achieve specific educational aims. Through a brief analysis of the meaning of multilingual speakers and multilingualism, this article examines how an education to multilingualism in teaching contexts is carried out and, in particular, if and how the use of the L1 can be a helpful tool for the foreign language teaching and learning. For this purpose the data collected at Coventry University during Italian (L2 classrooms for English students were examined. The more common and meaningful phenomena of linguistic contact between L1 and L2 were grouped according to the speaker and to their functions.

Paola Arrigoni

2012-02-01

370

Speech rate perception in Spanish L1 and L2: Effect of L1, perceived degree of regional accent and competence in L2  

OpenAIRE

The present research examines the role of the following factors in the perception of speech rate in Spanish : the L1 (Spanish or French), the perceived degree of regional accent in Spanish and the competence in Spanish L2 (i.e. oral comprehension in L2). Results are the following : 1) The non-natives speakers of Spanish perceive the rate of speech as faster than natives. 2) The perceived degree of regional accent has no effect on the perception of speech rate in natives. 3) The oral comprehen...

Schwab, Sandra

2014-01-01

371

Characterization and transcriptional regulation analysis of the porcine TNFAIP8L2 gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 8-like 2 (TNFAIP8L2) is a new member of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced protein 8 (TNFAIP8) family that functions as an important factor in the maintenance of immune homeostasis. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences and analyzed the genomic structure of porcine TNFAIP8L2. RH mapping using the IMpRH panel showed that this gene was closely linked to microsatellite marker SW512 in pig chromosome 4. Subcellular localization analysis showed GFP-TNFAIP8L2 fusion protein distributed in nucleus as well as cytoplasm including mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that porcine TNFAIP8L2 was more highly expressed in spleen than other tissues. To understand its characterization of transcriptional regulation, we cloned approximately 2 kb of 5'-regulatory region upstream to the porcine TNFAIP8L2 translational start site and generated sequential deletion constructs evaluated in dual-luciferase reporter assay. The results demonstrated that its core promoter is 435 base pairs (bp) upstream to the transcription initiation site. Then, site-directed mutation experiment combined with electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) indicated that M-CAT binding factor (MCBF) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) were important transcription factors for porcine TNFAIP8L2. These findings provide an important basis for further understanding of porcine TNFAIP8L2 regulation and function in swine. PMID:20640581

Li, Anning; Chen, Yaosheng; Zhao, Xiao; Niu, Yuna; Cong, Peiqing; Zhang, Zongwu; Chen, Weiquan; Jiang, Wei; Mo, Delin

2010-09-01

372

TCF7L2 is a master regulator of insulin production and processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genome-wide association studies have revealed >60 loci associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the underlying causal variants and functional mechanisms remain largely elusive. Although variants in TCF7L2 confer the strongest risk of T2D among common variants by presumed effects on islet function, the molecular mechanisms are not yet well understood. Using RNA-sequencing, we have identified a TCF7L2-regulated transcriptional network responsible for its effect on insulin secretion in rodent and human pancreatic islets. ISL1 is a primary target of TCF7L2 and regulates proinsulin production and processing via MAFA, PDX1, NKX6.1, PCSK1, PCSK2 and SLC30A8, thereby providing evidence for a coordinated regulation of insulin production and processing. The risk T-allele of rs7903146 was associated with increased TCF7L2 expression, and decreased insulin content and secretion. Using gene expression profiles of 66 human pancreatic islets donors', we also show that the identified TCF7L2-ISL1 transcriptional network is regulated in a genotype-dependent manner. Taken together, these results demonstrate that not only synthesis of proinsulin is regulated by TCF7L2 but also processing and possibly clearance of proinsulin and insulin. These multiple targets in key pathways may explain why TCF7L2 has emerged as the gene showing one of the strongest associations with T2D. PMID:25015099

Zhou, Yuedan; Park, Soo-Young; Su, Jing; Bailey, Kathleen; Ottosson-Laakso, Emilia; Shcherbina, Liliya; Oskolkov, Nikolay; Zhang, Enming; Thevenin, Thomas; Fadista, João; Bennet, Hedvig; Vikman, Petter; Wierup, Nils; Fex, Malin; Rung, Johan; Wollheim, Claes; Nobrega, Marcelo; Renström, Erik; Groop, Leif; Hansson, Ola

2014-12-15

373

L2-stability of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near global Maxwellians  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present a L2-stability theory of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system for the two-species collisional plasma. We show that in a perturbative regime of a global Maxwellian, the L2-distance between two strong solutions can be controlled by that between initial data in a Lipschitz manner. Our stability result extends earlier results [Ha, S.-Y. and Xiao, Q.-H., “A revisiting to the L2-stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near global Maxwellians,” (submitted) and Ha, S.-Y., Yang, X.-F., and Yun, S.-B., “L2 stability theory of the Boltzmann equation near a global Maxwellian,” Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 197, 657–688 (2010)] on the L2-stability of the Boltzmann equation to the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent external forces. As a direct application of our stability result, we show that classical solutions in Duan et al. [“Optimal large-time behavior of the Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system in the whole space,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 24, 1497–1546 (2011)] and Guo [“The Vlasov-Maxwell-Boltzmann system near Maxwellians,” Invent. Math. 153(3), 593–630 (2003)] satisfy a uniform L2-stability estimate. This is the first result on the L2-stability of the Boltzmann equation coupled with self-consistent field equations in three dimensions

374

Asimmetrie L1/L2: una sfida nella didattica di “lingua e traduzione”.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Asymmetries Between L1 and L2: a Challenge in the Teaching of "Language and Translation" Language teaching is deeply connected to the cognitive and brain sciences. The attribution of meaning of linguistic messages depends on the interaction between the communicant’s brain and the external world. The interaction is based on the cognitive and emotional experience shared by a L-community. Competence in L2 is acquired by the development of an internal data base of contextualised .units of living speech. (Lurija 1976. L2 teaching is particularly successful when the L2 units are inscribed in memory by means of the functionally equivalent L1 units. Selection of the L1/L2 correspondent units is due to the principle of markedness: each unit of L1 has a functional equivalent in one and only one unit of the L2. Because of the interlingual asymmetries (a set of Italian/Russian examples is given, functional equivalence differs from morphosyntactic and lexical equivalence. The competency in ascribing a degree of markedness to each linguistic unit needs the regular implicit acquisition of the L2 intonational and prosodic system; the processes of the metalinguistic conscious reflection are instead a .hindrance. to the procedural acting of a “living speaker”.

Laura Salmon

2004-12-01

375

Modified Sparseness Controlled IPNLMS Algorithm Based on l_1, l_2 and l_? Norms  

OpenAIRE

In the context of Acoustic Echo Cancellation (AEC), sparseness level of acoustic impulse response (AIR) varies greatly in mobile environments. The modified sparseness-controlled Improved PNLMS (MSC-IPNLMS) algorithm proposed in this paper, exploits the sparseness measure of AIR using l1, l2 and l? norms. The MSC-IPNLMS is the modified version of SC-IPNLMS which uses sparseness measure based on l1 and l2 norms. Sparseness measure using l1, l2 and l? norms is the good representation of bot...

Krishna Samalla; Ch Satyanarayana

2013-01-01

376

Nondispersive solutions to the $L^2$-critical half-wave equation  

OpenAIRE

We consider the focusing $L^2$-critical half-wave equation in one space dimension $$ i \\partial_t u = D u - |u|^2 u, $$ where $D$ denotes the first-order fractional derivative. Standard arguments show that there is a critical threshold $M_* > 0$ such that all $H^{1/2}$ solutions with $\\| u \\|_{L^2} < M_*$ extend globally in time, while solutions with $\\| u \\|_{L^2} \\geq M_*$ may develop singularities in finite time. In this paper, we first prove the existence of a family o...

Krieger, Joachim; Lenzmann, Enno; Raphael, Pierre

2013-01-01

377

Mutations in MAB21L2 Result in Ocular Coloboma, Microcornea and Cataracts  

Science.gov (United States)

Ocular coloboma results from abnormal embryonic development and is often associated with additional ocular and systemic features. Coloboma is a highly heterogeneous disorder with many cases remaining unexplained. Whole exome sequencing from two cousins affected with dominant coloboma with microcornea, cataracts, and skeletal dysplasia identified a novel heterozygous allele in MAB21L2, c.151 C>G, p.(Arg51Gly); the mutation was present in all five family members with the disease and appeared de novo in the first affected generation of the three-generational pedigree. MAB21L2 encodes a protein similar to C. elegans mab-21 cell fate-determining factor; the molecular function of MAB21L2 is largely unknown. To further evaluate the role of MAB21L2, zebrafish mutants carrying a p.(Gln48Serfs*5) frameshift truncation (mab21l2Q48Sfs*5) and a p.(Arg51_Phe52del) in-frame deletion (mab21l2R51_F52del) were developed with TALEN technology. Homozygous zebrafish embryos from both lines developed variable lens and coloboma phenotypes: mab21l2Q48Sfs*5 embryos demonstrated severe lens and retinal defects with complete lethality while mab21l2R51_F52del mutants displayed a milder lens phenotype and severe coloboma with a small number of fish surviving to adulthood. Protein studies showed decreased stability for the human p.(Arg51Gly) and zebrafish p.(Arg51_Phe52del) mutant proteins and predicted a complete loss-of-function for the zebrafish p.(Gln48Serfs*5) frameshift truncation. Additionally, in contrast to wild-type human MAB21L2 transcript, mutant p.(Arg51Gly) mRNA failed to efficiently rescue the ocular phenotype when injected into mab21l2Q48Sfs*5 embryos, suggesting this allele is functionally deficient. Histology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization experiments identified retinal invagination defects, an increase in cell death, abnormal proliferation patterns, and altered expression of several ocular markers in the mab21l2 mutants. These findings support the identification of MAB21L2 as a novel factor involved in human coloboma and highlight the power of genome editing manipulation in model organisms for analysis of the effects of whole exome variation in humans. PMID:25719200

Deml, Brett; Kariminejad, Ariana; Borujerdi, Razieh H. R.; Muheisen, Sanaa; Reis, Linda M.; Semina, Elena V.

2015-01-01

378

Variation in TCF7L2 influences therapeutic response to sulfonylureas: a GoDARTs study.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: There is considerable interindividual variation in sulfonylurea response in type 2 diabetes. Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) variants have been identified to be strongly associated with type 2 diabetes risk, probably due to decreased beta-cell function. We hypothesized that variation in TCF7L2 would influence response to sulfonylureas but not metformin. We studied the effect of TCF7L2 rs12255372 and rs7903146 genotypes on glycemic response. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The D...

Pearson, Er; Donnelly, La; Kimber, C.; Whitley, A.; Doney, As; Mccarthy, Mi; Hattersley, AT; Morris, AD; Palmer, Cn

2007-01-01

379

A Protective and Broadly Cross-Neutralizing Epitope of Human Papillomavirus L2?  

OpenAIRE

We generated a monoclonal antibody, RG-1, that binds to highly conserved L2 residues 17 to 36 and neutralizes human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) and HPV18. Passive immunotherapy with RG-1 was protective in mice. Antiserum to the HPV16 L2 peptide comprising residues 17 to 36 (peptide 17-36) neutralized pseudoviruses HPV5, HPV6, HPV16, HPV 18, HPV31, HPV 45, HPV 52, HPV 58, bovine papillomavirus 1, and HPV11 native virions. Depletion of HPV16 L2 peptide 17-36-reactive antibodies from cross-neutral...

Gambhira, Ratish; Karanam, Balasubramanyam; Jagu, Subhashini; Roberts, Jeffrey N.; Buck, Christopher B.; Bossis, Ioannis; Alphs, Hannah; Culp, Timothy; Christensen, Neil D.; Roden, Richard B. S.

2007-01-01

380

Fourier restriction Theorem and characterization of weak $L^2$ eigenfunctions of the Laplace--Beltrami operator  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we prove the Fourier restriction theorem for $p=2$ on Riemannian symmetric spaces of noncompact type with real rank one which extends the earlier result proved in \\cite[Theorem 1.1]{KRS}. This result depends on the weak $L^2$ estimates of the Poisson transform of $L^2$ function. By using this estimate of the Poisson transform we also characterizes all weak $L^2$ eigenfunction of the Laplace--Beltrami operator of Riemannian symmetric spaces of noncompact type with real rank one and eigenvalue $-(\\lambda^2+\\rho^2)$ for $\\lambda\\in\\R\\setminus\\{0\\}$.

Kumar, Pratyoosh

2012-01-01

381

Morphology, Memory and the Mental Lexicon  

OpenAIRE

Recent experimental evidence on morphological learning and processing has prompted a less deterministic and modular view of the interaction between stored word knowledge and on-line processing. Storing a word in the mental lexicon does not simply entail keeping a faithful memory image of that word in the most compact way. It also requires encoding and manipulating such image through topological structures that are optimally adapted to word production and comprehension. Temporal Self-Organizin...

Ferro, Marcello; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

2010-01-01

382

Bilingual Lexical Access during L1 Sentence Reading: The Effects of L2 Knowledge, Semantic Constraint, and L1-L2 Intermixing  

Science.gov (United States)

Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function…

Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

2011-01-01

383

Working memory capacity and L2 speech production in a picture description task with repetition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O estudo investiga a relação entre a capacidade de memória de trabalho e os ganhos na produção oral em L2 durante uma tarefa de descrição de figura com repetição. Partindo de Fortkamp (2000 que encontrou correlações entre a capacidade de memória de trabalho e medidas de produção oral em L2 e Bygate (2001b que mostrou que na repetição de tarefas os participantes ganham em complexidade de fala em detrimento, principalmente da acurácia e da fluência, este estudo propõe que pode haver correlações entre os ganhos na complexidade da fala em L2 e a capacidade de memória de trabalho. Resultados do experimento mostram ganhos na complexidade da fala em L2, mas os mesmos não correlacionam com a capacidade de memória de trabalho. A falta de correlações é explicada em razão do pequeno número de participantes que não permitiu variação na capacidade de memória de trabalho.

Kyria Finardi

2012-11-01

384

The processing and comprehension of wh-questions among L2 German speakers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using the self-paced-reading paradigm, the present study examines whether highly proficient second language (L2) speakers of German (English L1) use case-marking information during the on-line comprehension of unambiguous wh-extractions, even when task demands do not draw explicit attention to this morphosyntactic feature in German. Results support previous findings, in that both the native and the L2 German speakers exhibited an immediate subject-preference in the matrix clause, suggesting they were sensitive to case-marking information. However, only among the native speakers did this subject-preference carry over to reading times in the complement clause. The results from the present study are discussed in light of current debates regarding the ability of L2 speakers to attain native-like processing strategies in their L2. PMID:20161006

Jackson, Carrie N; Bobb, Susan C

2009-10-01

385

Beneficiated coals' char morphology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira, La Jagua (Cesar, Guachinte (Valle del Cauca and Nechí (Antioquia. Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thickness. It was found that char morphology depended on coal rank and maceral composition. Morphological characteristics like high porosity, thinner walls and network-like morphology which are beneficial in improving combustion were present in vitrinite- and liptinite-rich lowest-ranking coals. Beneficiated coals showed that their chars had better performance regarding their morphological characteristics than their original coal chars.

Diana Vargas

2012-09-01

386

The Effect of Using Print Media on Children’s L2 Literacy Development: A Longitudinal Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper tries to examine the effect of using print media in the classroom on the children’s L2 literacy development in an EFL context. Since reading is regarded as a chief goal, in many second/foreign language teaching situations, it receives a special focus. Media as a tool for language learning/teaching, can help both instructed and non-instructed learners to overcome the difficult task of language learning. In order to determine the effects of print media usage on the development of children’s foreign language reading abilities, 30 children aged between 7-8 familiar to English alphabet were selected. Based on DIBELS performance, participants were homogenized and assigned as low group. According to National Reading Panel, story books, magazines and newspapers were used to teach five areas of reading proficiency, i.e. phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and text comprehension. After one year of instruction, based on DIBELS performance, participants were assigned to medium and high groups; implying the effect of direct instruction and print media usage in classrooms for developing foreign language reading abilities. 

Mansoor Tavakoli

2013-05-01

387

Identification and characterization of the human Cdc2l2 gene promoter.  

Science.gov (United States)

The CDK11 (cyclin-dependent kinase 11, formerly known as PITSLRE) protein kinases are part of the large family of p34(cdc2)-related kinases and have been shown to play a role in cell cycle progression, RNA processing and apoptosis. They are encoded by two genes-cell division control like 1 (Cdc2L1) and cell division control like 2 (Cdc2L2). To date, little is known about the transcription factors controlling their expression. To understand the mechanisms underlying the regulation of CDK11 gene expression, we cloned and identified the Cdc2L2 promoter and determined its transcriptional regulatory elements. By deletion analysis, a region between nucleotides -145 and +10 was identified to be critical for basal level transcription of the Cdc2L2 gene. Sequencing analysis revealed that the proximal promoter of the Cdc2L2 gene is GC rich and does not contain TATA and CAAT boxes. However, multiple consensus and near consensus transcription factor binding sites were found to be present in this region, such as two Ets-1, one cAMP-responsive element (CRE) and one TCF11/LCR-F1/Nrf1 binding sites. Site-directed mutagenesis and transfection studies revealed that all these binding sites were necessary to achieve sustained transcriptional activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed that transcription factors Ets-1 and CREB bind to the Cdc2L2 promoter elements, indicating their potential role in the transcriptional regulation of Cdc2L2 gene. More importantly, Ets-1, CREB and phosphorylated CREB were found binding to the endogenous Cdc2L2 promoter using chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay. Our results provide the foundation for further studies into the regulation of Cdc2L2 gene expression in normal homeostasis and cancer. PMID:15087126

Feng, Yongmei; Goulet, Anne-Christine; Nelson, Mark A

2004-04-14

388

On the $L^2$ well posedness of Hyperbolic Initial Boundary Value Problems  

OpenAIRE

In this paper we give a class of hyperbolic systems, which includes systems with constant mutliplicities but significantly wider, for which the initial boundary value problem with source term and initial and boundary data in $L^2$, is well posed in $L^2$, provided that the necessary uniform Lopatinski condition is satisfied. Moreover, the speed of propagation is the speed of the interior problem. In the opposite direction, we show on an example that, even for symmetric systems in the sense of...

Metivier, Guy

2014-01-01

389

The Relationship between (Meta)cognitive Strategies and Reading Comprehension in Iranian Female L2 Learners  

OpenAIRE

The present study aimed to examine the possible effects of the Iranian elementary female L2 learners’ (meta)cognitive reading strategy knowledge on their reading comprehension in 3 different stages of reading, that is, prereading, while-reading, and postreading phases. In order to control the language proficiency factor, 40 L2 learners were selected through the application of the Oxford Placement Test. The participants belonged to 2 different age groups. Twenty of them were selected from th...

Somayeh Karami; Mahmood Hashemian

2012-01-01

390

A Computational Investigation of Cohesion and Lexical Network Density in L2 Writing  

OpenAIRE

This study used a new computational linguistics tool, the Coh-Metrix, to investigate and measure the differences in cohesion and lexical network density between native speaker and non-native speaker writing, as well as to investigate L2 proficiency level differences in cohesion and lexical network density. This study analyzed data from three corpora with the Coh-Metrix: the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE) as an L2 higher proficiency group, the Louvain Corpus of Native English E...

Clarence Green

2012-01-01

391

A processability account of the L2 article acquisition by Bulgarian young learners of English  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper sheds a new light on the acquisition of English articles by L2 young learners of English. It focuses on the interplay between L1 interference and the applicability of a recent cognitive theoretical framework – the Processability theory which serve as a basis for outlining the possible difficulties in the English article acquisition by Bulgarian 9-10-year old learners of English as L2.

Harakchiyska T. K.

2012-12-01

392

The vulnerability of gender on determiners in L1, 2L1 and L2 acquisition  

OpenAIRE

The acquisition of gender has been reported to be problematic for some groups of learners acquiring Germanic or Romance languages. It has been shown that L1 learners do better in gender acquisition than others, like bilingual children, child L2 learners and adult L2 learners. The reason for these differences is however not always clear. In this paper, we study the acquisition of gender on determiners by different groups of learners. We concentrate on the acquisition of French, Italian, Spanis...

Elisabeth van der Linden; Aafke Hulk

2009-01-01

393

A Multimeric L2 Vaccine for Prevention of Animal Papillomavirus Infections  

OpenAIRE

It is unclear what level of neutralizing antibody is sufficient to protect cattle from experimental bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV4) challenge. Markedly lower, and often undetected, serum neutralizing antibody titers were associated with protection in cattle vaccinated with BPV4 L2 as compared to L1 VLP. We hypothesized that vaccination with concatemers of the N-terminal protective epitopes of L2 derived from multiple animal papillomavirus types would enhance the breadth and strength of im...

Jagu, Subhashini; Malandro, Nicole; Kwak, Kihyuck; Yuan, Hang; Schlegel, Richard; Palmer, Kenneth E.; Huh, Warner K.; Campo, M. Saveria; Roden, Richard Bs

2011-01-01

394

The processing and comprehension of wh-questions among L2 German speakers  

OpenAIRE

Using the self-paced-reading paradigm, the present study examines whether highly proficient second language (L2) speakers of German (English L1) use case-marking information during the on-line comprehension of unambiguous wh-extractions, even when task demands do not draw explicit attention to this morphosyntactic feature in German. Results support previous findings, in that both the native and the L2 German speakers exhibited an immediate subject-preference in the matrix clause, suggesting t...

Jackson, Carrie N.; Bobb, Susan C.

2009-01-01

395

Working memory capacity and L2 University Students comprehension of linear texts and hypertexts  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between working memory capacity and L2 reading comprehension of both linear texts and hypertexts. Three different instruments were used to measure comprehension (recall, comprehension questions and perception of contradictions) and the Reading Span Test (Daneman & Carpenter, 1980) was used as a measure of working memory capacity. Forty-two speakers of English as an L2 from two different L1 backgrounds (21 Brazilians and 21 Chin...

Lêda Maria Braga Tomitch; Ingrid Fontanini

2009-01-01

396

On Chinese EFL Learners’ Homonym Processing in Relation to Their Organization of L2 Mental Lexicon  

OpenAIRE

Based on the models of lexical ambiguity resolution and the organization of L2 mental lexicon proposed by previous researchers in recent years, this paper aimed at investigating the correlation between the Chinese EFL learners’ homonym processing in relation to their organization of L2 mental lexicon through cross-modal sentence-priming lexical decision tasks and word association tasks completed by both English major and non-English major students. The results showed that there is a positiv...

Xiumei Yu; Zhenyu Xu; Lan Sun

2011-01-01

397

Reframing one's experience: Face, identity and roles in L2 argumentative discourse  

OpenAIRE

This paper argues that the field of interlanguage pragmatics – the study of L2 use and development – has neglected facework strategies that are directed towards the speaker rather than the hearer. These strategies serve to present particular identities and qualities of the speaker. This is exemplified through examples from L2 learners of German at three different levels of proficiency taking part in an argumentation task and retrospective interviews with thee learners. The analysis shows ...

Dippold, D.

2008-01-01

398

Low Parametric Sensitivity Realizations with relaxed L2-dynamic-range-scaling constraints  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents a new dynamic-range scaling for the implementation of filters/controllers in state-space form. Relaxing the classical L2-scaling constraints by specific fixed-point considerations allows for a higher degree of freedom for the optimal L2-parametric sensitivity problem. However, overflows in the implementation are still prevented. The underlying constrained problem is converted into an unconstrained problem for which a solution can be provided. This leads to realizations whi...

Hilaire, Thibault

2009-01-01

399

The L2F - UPC Speaker Recognition System for NIST SRE 2010  

OpenAIRE

This document describes the joint submission of the INESC-ID’s Spoken Language Systems Laboratory (L 2 F) and the TALP Research Center from the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) to the 2010 NIST Speaker Recognition evaluation. The L2F-UPC primary system is composed by the fusion of ?ve individual sub-systems. Speaker recognition results have been submitted only for the core-core condition

Abad, Alberto; Luque, Jordi; Trancoso, Isabel; Hernando Perica?s, Francisco Javier

2011-01-01

400

An Experimental Study on the Effects of Different Reading Tasks on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

OpenAIRE

This empirical study was undertaken to test the Involvement Load Hypothesis (Laufer and Hulstijn, 2001) by examining the impact of three tasks on vocabulary acquisition. It was designed to test and develop the involvement load hypothesis by examining the impact of different reading tasks on the L2 vocabulary acquisition. The results show that reading tasks could facilitate L2 vocabulary acquisition. The hypothesis is basically supported, but it is expected that it will be further improved and...

Jianping Xu

2009-01-01

401

Macrophages in Drosophila embryos and L2 cells exhibit scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis.  

OpenAIRE

Mammalian macrophage scavenger receptors exhibit unusually broad binding specificity and are implicated in atherosclerosis and host defense. Scavenger receptor-like endocytosis was observed in Drosophila melanogaster embryos and in primary embryonic cell cultures. This receptor activity was expressed primarily by macrophages. The Drosophila Schneider L2, but not the Kc, cell line also exhibited a scavenger receptor-mediated endocytic pathway similar to its mammalian counterpart. L2 receptors ...

Abrams, J. M.; Lux, A.; Steller, H.; Krieger, M.

1992-01-01

402

Chances and Limits of the Coordination Chemistry with Bis(benzene-l,2-dithiolato Ligands  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The incorporation of benzene-l,2-dithiolato building blocks into supramolecular coordination assemblies is the main objective of the investigations described here. Special interest is directed towards dinuclear complexes with bis(benzene-l,2-dithiolato ligands, which might be able to form helical structures. Bis(benzene-l,2-dithiolato ligands are accessible by ortho-functionalization and subsequent linkage of two benzene-l,2-dithiol units. The preparation of well defined complexes of titanium, cobalt and nickel with bis(benzene-l,2-dithiolato ligands requires strictly thermodynamic equilibration conditions. In that case the size and shape of the ligand backbone determine if dinuclear double-stranded or mononuclear chelate complexes are obtained. The dinuclear double-stranded complexes with Ni(II and Ni(III are characterized by a coplanar non-helical arrangement of the square-planar bis(benzene-l,2-dithiolatonickelate moieties. The complete structural characterization of the series [M(C6H4S2-1,23]n- (n = 0, 1, 2 for molybdenum and tungsten indicates an interesting coordination chemistry of dinuclear triple-stranded complexes.

Wolfram W. Seidel

2004-01-01

403

A Novel Pair of Replacement Algorithms for L1 and L2 Cache for FFT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Processors speed is much faster than memory; to bridge this gap cache memory is used. This paper proposes a preeminent pair of replacement algorithms for Level 1 cache (L1 and Level 2 cache (L2 respectively for the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. The access patterns of L1 and L2 are different, when CPU does not get the desired data in L1 then it refers to L2. Thus the replacement algorithm which works efficiently for L1 may not be efficient for L2. With the memory access pattern of FFT, the paper has simulated and analyzed the behavior of various existing replacement algorithms on L1 and L2 respectively. The replacement algorithms which are taken into consideration are: Least Recently Used (LRU, Least Frequently Used (LFU and First In First Out (FIFO.This paper has also proposed new replacement algorithms for L1 (FFTNEW1 and for L2 (FFTNEW2 respectively for the same application. Simulation results shows that by applying the proposed pair of replacement algorithms miss rates are considerably reduced.

Ms. Richa Gupta

2010-01-01

404

Second language learning difficulties in Chinese children with dyslexia: what are the reading-related cognitive skills that contribute to English and Chinese word reading?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the relations between reading-related cognitive skills and word reading development of Chinese children with dyslexia in their Chinese language (L1) and in English (L2). A total of 84 bilingual children-28 with dyslexia, 28 chronological age (CA) controls, and 28 reading-level (RL) controls-participated and were administered measures of word reading, rapid naming, visual-orthographic skills, and phonological and morphological awareness in both L1 and L2. Children with dyslexia showed weaker performance than CA controls in both languages and had more difficulties in phonological awareness in English but not in Chinese. In addition, reading-related cognitive skills in Chinese contributed significantly to the ability to read English words, suggesting cross-linguistic transfer from L1 to L2. Results found evidence for different phonological units of awareness related to the characteristics of the different languages being learned, supporting the psycholinguistic grain size and linguistic coding differences hypotheses. PMID:19897734

Chung, Kevin Kien Hoa; Ho, Connie Suk-Han

2010-01-01

405

Investigation of factors behind foreign accent in the L2 acquisition of Japanese lexical pitch accent by adult English speakers  

OpenAIRE

The productions of adult second language (L2) learners are often detected as having a foreign accent by native speakers of the target language. However, there is no clear answer for what kind of problems contribute to L2 learners’ foreign accent. This thesis aims to investigate potential factors behind foreign accent. We intend to achieve this goal by examining cross-linguistic empirical evidence of the L2 acquisition of Japanese lexical pitch accent by English learners. L2 p...

Sakamoto, Emi

2011-01-01

406

Low doses of flagellin-L2 multimer vaccines protect against challenge with diverse papillomavirus genotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetically modified bacterial flagellin (Fla), a Toll-like receptor-5 (TLR5) ligand, was evaluated as a fusion partner for human papillomavirus (HPV) L2-based immunogens in two animal challenge models; either cutaneous inoculation of rabbits with HPV 'quasivirions' containing cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV) genomes that induce warts, or intra-vaginal inoculation of mice with HPV 'pseudovirions' encapsidating a luciferase reporter plasmid and measurement of bioluminescence to determine infectivity. An Escherichia coli production system was developed for flagellin-L2 (Fla-L2) fusions containing either monomeric HPV-16 L2 a.a. 11(×11-200) or oligomeric L2 comprising a fusion of the a.a. 11-88 peptides of five (Fla?5×11-88) or eight (Fla?8×11-88) genital HPV types. Immunogenicity and bioactivity of Fla-L2 constructs were assessed using an in vitro neutralization and cell-based TLR-5 binding assay, respectively. Efficacy was evaluated following active immunization of rabbits or mice administered 3 intramuscular doses of Fla-L2 recombinants without exogenous adjuvant, followed by challenge. In addition, passive immunization studies of naïve rabbits with serial dilutions of pooled immune sera were used to determine End-Point Protection Titers (EPPT) for each formulation against a broader spectrum of HPV quasivirions. Efficacy was assessed for up to 10 weeks on the basis of wart volume induced following challenge and results compared to licensed L1-VLP vaccines (Gardasil and Cervarix). Following active immunization at doses as low as 1 ?g, Fla-L2 fusions afforded complete protection against infection (mice) and disease (rabbits) following either homologous or heterologous HPV challenge. Passive immunization with anti-L2 immune sera discriminated between the different vaccine candidates under evaluation, demonstrated the protective role of antibody and suggested the superiority of this oligomeric L2-TLR5 agonist fusion approach compared to L1-based vaccines in its ability to cross-protect against non-vaccine HPV types. PMID:24780250

Kalnin, Kirill; Tibbitts, Timothy; Yan, Yanhua; Stegalkina, Svetlana; Shen, Lihua; Costa, Victor; Sabharwal, Robert; Anderson, Stephen F; Day, Patricia M; Christensen, Neil; Schiller, John T; Jagu, Subhashini; Roden, Richard B S; Almond, Jeffrey; Kleanthous, Harold

2014-06-12

407

Effectiveness of L2 spinal nerve infiltration for selective discogenic low back pain patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It has been reported that rat L5/6 lumbar discs are innervated mainly by L2 dorsal root ganglion neurons. We previously reported that L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective for discogenic low back pain (DLBP) patients, although the diagnosis was based only on the results of physical examination, plain films, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate L2 spinal nerve block for DLBP patients retrospectively based on MRI findings and surgical results. A total of 62 patients with only LBP and no accompanying radicular pain were investigated. Patients had only one level of disc degeneration on MRI. When pain was provoked during discography, we performed surgery at the next stage (40 patients). In all, 22 patients were excluded owing to negative discography results. Of the 40 patients, we evaluated 25 strictly selected patients suffering from DLBP. DLBP was diagnosed when the patient experienced pain relief at least 2 years after anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Fifteen patients who did not show pain relief after surgery were used for the non-DLBP group. L2 spinal nerve infiltration using 1.5 ml of lidocaine was performed in all 40 patients before surgery. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score after L2 spinal nerve infiltration was recorded, and an association of L2 spinal nerve infiltration and DLBP was explored. Low back pain scores assessed using the VAS score, the Japanese Orthopedic Association score, and the Oswestry Didic Association score, and the Oswestry Disability Index score in the two groups were not significantly different. L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective for 27 patients but not effective for 13 patients; the VAS score after 15 min and 2 h improved in the DLBP group compared with that of the non-DLBP group (P<0.05). L2 spinal nerve infiltration was more effective in DLBP patients (21 patients, 84%) than in the non-DLBP group (6 patients, 40%) (P<0.05). In the current study, L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective in 84% of selected DLBP patients and is thought to be a useful tool for diagnosing DLBP. However, we should take into consideration that the L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective in 40% of non-DLBP patients as well. (author)

408

Genome Sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia S028, an Isolate Harboring the AmpR-L2 Resistance Module  

OpenAIRE

Multidrug-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has emerged as an important cause of nosocomial infections, which is attributable mainly to the production of diverse ?-lactamases by S. maltophilia. The L2 ?-lactamase mediated by the AmpR-L2 module is the most represented lactamase. Here, we announce the genome sequence of S028, an isolate harboring the AmpR-L2 module.

Song, Shiping; Yuan, Xitong; Liu, Shiwei; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Yufei; Ke, Yuehua; Xu, Jie; Huang, Liuyu; Chen, Zeliang; Li, Yan

2012-01-01

409

Service Learning, Phonemic Perception, and Learner Motivation: A Quantitative Study  

Science.gov (United States)

A nine-week empirical study of 25 adults in a second language (L2) Spanish phonetics course explored whether students' participation in service-learning language exchange sessions with native Spanish speakers outside of class influenced learners' (1) motivation for foreign language learning and (2) phonemic perception in Spanish. Divided…

Medina, Almitra; Gordon, Leslie

2014-01-01

410

Learning Styles and Performance in Second Language Tasks  

Science.gov (United States)

Given the paucity of research that has examined associations between learning styles and chosen academic discipline in connection with performance on different second language (L2) verbal fluency tasks, the authors undertook the current study with the aim of investigating the relationship between Greek students' learning styles and performance on…

Andreou, Eleni; Andreou, Georgia; Vlachos, Filippos

2008-01-01

411

Interweaving meaning generation in science with learning to learn together processes using Web 2.0 tools  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The literature of the science education does not offer much data concerning meaning generation (MG and learning to learn together (L2L2 processes. The objective of this paper is the study of how a group of students working with an on?line Platform, interact, collaborate and express themselves to generate meanings with regard to moving in 3d Newtonian spaces. The students create models of motions using 3d Juggler, a web?based half?baked microworld and communicate their ideas via the Platform’s shared workspaces. The study was implemented with a small number of Greek students (four of the 8th grade. The results of this study demonstrate that there is a relation between L2L2 processes and the creation of meanings in collectives as they use different web tools. After completing the scientific task (MG, the students of a Subgroup move to the Argumentation/Discussion tool to share with the other Subgroup the values of the parameters for which they attained their goal (L2L2 and MG processes. Distributed leadership and peer assessment are two of those L2L2 key aspects which dominate and influence students’ MG processes.

Zacharoula Smyrnaiou

2012-01-01

412

CONSTRUCTIONS AND OBSTRUCTIONS OF TEACHER EXPLANATION TO STUDENTS’ LEAR-NING: PERSPECTIVES OF STIBA SATYA WACANA STUDENTS  

OpenAIRE

This study investigated learners’ perspectives on how a teacher explanation can facilitate or hinder their learning. The results suggested that teacher’s use of mixed L1 and L2 in an explanation is preferred by most student-respondents since it can expedite their learning. Using only L2 is also preferred because students believe that it gives them more exposure to English and as English department students, they have to use English. It, however, can impede learning when teachers...

Debora Tri Ragawanti

2007-01-01

413

Codages orthographique et phonologique en reconnaissance visuelle de mots en L2 chez des apprenants L2 : mécanismes lexicaux et sublexicaux  

OpenAIRE

L'acquisition des représentations orthographiques et phonologiques en anglais langue seconde (L2) chez des francophones (élèves en classe de 6ème et de 4ème, étudiants universitaires) était examinée dans ce travail. La technique d'amorçage masqué permettait de révéler la précision du codage orthographique lexical, après seulement deux années d'acquisition de l'anglais, et ce, indépendamment de la typicalité orthographique des mots (étude 1). Des éléments en faveur d'un acc...

Commissaire, Eva

2012-01-01

414

Extrinsic morphology of graphene  

OpenAIRE

Graphene is intrinsically non-flat and corrugates randomly. Since the corrugating physics of atomically-thin graphene is strongly tied to its electronics properties, randomly corrugating morphology of graphene poses significant challenge to its application in nanoelectronic devices for which precise (digital) control is the key. Recent studies revealed that the morphology of substrate-supported graphene is regulated by the graphene-substrate interaction, thus is distinct fro...

Li, Teng

2011-01-01

415

Investigating the Role of L2 Language Proficiency in Word Association Behavior of L2 Learners: A Case of Iranian EFL Learners  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last few decades word association research has provided precise insight into the development and organization of the mental lexicon; however, there is still sufficient ground for more exploration to gain a better understanding of how L2 learners’ mental lexicon might be organized and how word association behavior may vary according to L2 proficiency level. This paper was intended to investigate the development of mental lexicon through a psycholinguistic experiment and more specifically, to explore the possible role L2 language proficiency may have in word association behaviors of Iranian EFL learners. To this end, a standardized English placement test (OPT and a word association test were administered to 120 undergraduate EFL learners. The elicited responses were classified based on Peppard's (2007 model and then analyzed in terms of the frequency of each type of word association. The results indicated that upper intermediate students' responses were significantly more frequent than beginners' responses in the categories of "Synonymy" and "Hypernymy and Hyponymy" which are paradigmatic relations and the beginners' responses were significantly more frequent in the category of "Grammatical collocation" which is a syntagmatic relation. These findings, which support McCarthy (1990 and Meara (1982, are not in line with Wolter’(2001 belief about the re-evaluation of the syntagmatic-paradigmatic shift in the case of nonnative speakers. The study implies important implications for vocabulary teaching through assisting learners in building stronger semantic links between words.

Bahareh Khazaeenezhad

2013-01-01

416

DPY19L2 deletion as a major cause of globozoospermia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Globozoospermia, characterized by round-headed spermatozoa, is a rare (teratozoospermia consisting primarily of spermatozoa lacking an acrosome. Studying a Jordanian consanguineous family in which five brothers were diagnosed with complete globozoospermia, we showed that the four out of five analyzed infertile brothers carried a homozygous deletion of 200 kb on chromosome 12 encompassing only DPY19L2. Very similar deletions were found in three additional unrelated patients, suggesting that DPY19L2 deletion is a major cause of globozoospermia, given that 19% (4 of 21) of the analyzed patients had such deletion. The deletion is most probably due to a nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR), because the gene is surrounded by two low copy repeats (LCRs). We found DPY19L2 deletion in patients from three different origins and two different breakpoints, strongly suggesting that the deletion results from recurrent events linked to the specific architectural feature of this locus rather than from a founder effect, without fully excluding a recent founder effect. DPY19L2 is associated with a complete form of globozoospermia, as is the case for the first two genes found to be associated with globozoospermia, SPATA16 or PICK1. However, in contrast to SPATA16, for which no pregnancy was reported, pregnancies were achieved, via intracytoplasmic sperm injection, for two patients with DPY19L2 deletion, who then fathered three children. PMID:21397063

Koscinski, Isabelle; Elinati, Elias; Fossard, Camille; Redin, Claire; Muller, Jean; Velez de la Calle, Juan; Schmitt, Françoise; Ben Khelifa, Mariem; Ray, Pierre F; Ray, Pierre; Kilani, Zaid; Barratt, Christopher L R; Viville, Stéphane

2011-03-11

417

TCF7L2 polymorphisms and inflammatory markers before and after treatment with fenofibrate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation is implicated in causing diabetes. We tested whether transcription factor 7 like-2 (TCF7L2 gene polymorphisms (rs12255372 and rs7903146, consistently associated with type 2 diabetes, are associated with plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers before and after three weeks of daily treatment with fenofibrate. Methods Men and women in the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study (n = 1025, age 49 ± 16 y were included. All participants suspended use of lipid-lowering drugs for three weeks and were then given 160 mg/day of fenofibrate for three weeks. Inflammatory markers and lipids were measured before and after fenofibrate. ANOVA was used to test for differences across TCF7L2 genotypes. Results Under the additive or dominant model, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05 in the concentrations of inflammatory markers (hsCRP, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-? and MCP-1 across TCF7L2 genotypes in the period before or after treatment. For both rs12255372 and rs7903146, homozygote T-allele carriers had significantly higher (P Conclusion Overall these data show no association between TCF7L2 polymorphisms and the inflammatory markers suggesting that the effects of TCF7L2 on diabetes may not be via inflammation.

Kabagambe Edmond K

2009-10-01

418

A multimeric L2 vaccine for prevention of animal papillomavirus infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is unclear what level of neutralizing antibody is sufficient to protect cattle from experimental bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV4) challenge. Markedly lower, and often undetected, serum neutralizing antibody titers were associated with protection in cattle vaccinated with BPV4 L2 as compared to L1 VLP. We hypothesized that vaccination with concatemers of the N-terminal protective epitopes of L2 derived from multiple animal papillomavirus types would enhance the breadth and strength of immunity. Therefore we generated a multimeric L2 antigen derived from three bovine and three canine papillomavirus types with divergent phenotypes and purified it from bacteria. Mice vaccinated three times with this six type L2 vaccine formulated in alum or RIBI adjuvant generated robust serum neutralizing antibody titers against BPV1, BPV4 and canine oral papillomavirus (COPV). Furthermore, vaccination with this six type L2 vaccine formulated in adjuvant, like BPV1 L1 VLP, protected the mice from experimental challenge with BPV1 pseudovirus. PMID:21920572

Jagu, Subhashini; Malandro, Nicole; Kwak, Kihyuck; Yuan, Hang; Schlegel, Richard; Palmer, Kenneth E; Huh, Warner K; Campo, M Saveria; Roden, Richard B S

2011-11-10

419

On Singularity formation for the L^2-critical Boson star equation  

CERN Document Server

We prove a general, non-perturbative result about finite-time blowup solutions for the $L^2$-critical boson star equation $i\\partial_t u = \\sqrt{-\\Delta+m^2} \\, u - (|x|^{-1} \\ast |u|^2) u$ in 3 space dimensions. Under the sole assumption that the solution blows up in $H^{1/2}$ at finite time, we show that $u(t)$ has a unique weak limit in $L^2$ and that $|u(t)|^2$ has a unique weak limit in the sense of measures. Moreover, we prove that the limiting measure exhibits minimal mass concentration. A central ingredient used in the proof is a "finite speed of propagation" property, which puts a strong rigidity on the blowup behavior of $u$. As the second main result, we prove that any radial finite-time blowup solution $u$ converges strongly in $L^2$ away from the origin. For radial solutions, this result establishes a large data blowup conjecture for the $L^2$-critical boson star equation, similar to a conjecture which was originally formulated by F. Merle and P. Raphael for the $L^2$-critical nonlinear Schr\\"odi...

Lenzmann, Enno

2011-01-01

420

Tcf7l2 Is Required for Left-Right Asymmetric Differentiation of Habenular Neurons  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary Background Although left-right asymmetries are common features of nervous systems, their developmental bases are largely unknown. In the zebrafish epithalamus, dorsal habenular neurons adopt medial (dHbm) and lateral (dHbl) subnuclear character at very different frequencies on the left and right sides. The left-sided parapineal promotes the elaboration of dHbl character in the left habenula, albeit by an unknown mechanism. Likewise, the genetic pathways acting within habenular neurons to control their asymmetric differentiated character are unknown. Results In a forward genetic screen for mutations that result in loss of habenular asymmetry, we identified two mutant alleles of tcf7l2, a gene that encodes a transcriptional regulator of Wnt signaling. In tcf7l2 mutants, most neurons on both sides differentiate with dHbl identity. Consequently, the habenulae develop symmetrically, with both sides adopting a pronounced leftward character. Tcf7l2 acts cell automously in nascent equipotential neurons, and on the right side, it promotes dHbm and suppresses dHbl differentiation. On the left, the parapineal prevents this Tcf7l2-dependent process, thereby promoting dHbl differentiation. Conclusions Tcf7l2 is essential for lateralized fate selection by habenular neurons that can differentiate along two alternative pathways, thereby leading to major neural circuit asymmetries. PMID:25201686

Hüsken, Ulrike; Stickney, Heather L.; Gestri, Gaia; Bianco, Isaac H.; Faro, Ana; Young, Rodrigo M.; Roussigne, Myriam; Hawkins, Thomas A.; Beretta, Carlo A.; Brinkmann, Irena; Paolini, Alessio; Jacinto, Raquel; Albadri, Shahad; Dreosti, Elena; Tsalavouta, Matina; Schwarz, Quenten; Cavodeassi, Florencia; Barth, Anukampa K.; Wen, Lu; Zhang, Bo; Blader, Patrick; Yaksi, Emre; Poggi, Lucia; Zigman, Mihaela; Lin, Shuo; Wilson, Stephen W.; Carl, Matthias

2014-01-01

421

Image processing and mathematical morphology fundamentals and applications  

CERN Document Server

In the development of digital multimedia, the importance and impact of image processing and mathematical morphology are well documented in areas ranging from automated vision detection and inspection to object recognition, image analysis and pattern recognition. Those working in these ever-evolving fields require a solid grasp of basic fundamentals, theory, and related applications and few books can provide the unique tools for learning contained in this text. Image Processing and Mathematical Morphology: Fundamentals and Applications is a comprehensive, wide-ranging overview of morphological

Shih, Frank Y

2009-01-01

422

Willingness To Communicate, Social Support, and Language Learning Orientations of Immersion Students.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypothesized that orientations toward language learning (L2) as well as social support would influence students willingness to communicate (WTC) in a second language. Grade 9 L2 students of French immersion participated in the study. Results showed endorsement of all five orientations (travel, job related, friendship with Francophones, personal…

MacIntyre, Peter D.; Baker, Susan C.; Clement, Richard; Conrod, Sarah

2001-01-01

423

Changes in protein expression in testes of L2 strain Taiwan country chickens in response to acute heat stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Heat stress causes a decrease of fertility in roosters. Yet, the way acute heat stress affects protein expression remains poorly understood. This study investigated differential protein expression in testes of the L2 strain of Taiwan country chickens following acute heat stress. Twelve 45-week-old roosters were allocated into four groups, including control roosters kept at 25 °C, roosters subjected to 38 °C acute heat stress for 4 hours without recovery, with 2 hours of recovery, and with 6 hours of recovery. Testis samples were collected for morphologic assay and protein analysis. Some of the differentially expressed proteins were validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Abnormal and apoptotic spermatogenic cells were observed at 2 hours of recovery after acute heat stress, especially among the spermatocytes. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed that 119 protein spots were differentially expressed in chicken testes following heat stress, and peptide mass fingerprinting revealed that these spots contained 92 distinct proteins. In the heat-stressed samples, the heat shock proteins, chaperonin containing t-complex, and proteasome subunits were downregulated, and glutathione S-transferase, transgelin, and DJ-1 were upregulated. Our results demonstrate that acute heat stress impairs the processes of translation, protein folding, and protein degradation, and thus results in apoptosis and interferes with spermatogenesis. On the other hand, the increased expression of antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione S-transferase and DJ-1, may attenuate heat-induced damage. These findings may have implications for breeding chickens that can tolerate more extreme conditions. PMID:24725420

Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Chen, Chao-Jung; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

2014-07-01

424

Ultrastructure of dendritic spines: correlation between synaptic and spine morphologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dendritic spines are critical elements of cortical circuits, since they establish most excitatory synapses. Recent studies have reported correlations between morphological and functional parameters of spines. Specifically, the spine head volume is correlated with the area of the postsynaptic density (PSD, the number of postsynaptic receptors and the ready-releasable pool of transmitter, whereas the length of the spine neck is proportional to the degree of biochemical and electrical isolation of the spine from its parent dendrite. Therefore, the morphology of a spine could determine its synaptic strength and learning rules. To better understand the natural variability of neocortical spine morphologies, we used a combination of gold-toned Golgi impregnations and serial thin-section electron microscopy and performed three-dimensional reconstructions of spines from layer 2/3 pyramidal cells from mouse visual cortex. We characterized the structure and synaptic features of 144 completed reconstructed spines, and analyzed their morphologies according to their positions. For all morphological parameters analyzed, spines exhibited a continuum of variability, without clearly distinguishable subtypes of spines or clear dependence of their morphologies on their distance to the soma. On average, the spine head volume was correlated strongly with PSD area and weakly with neck diameter, but not with neck length. The large morphological diversity suggests an equally large variability of synaptic strength and learning rules.

JavierDeFelipe

2007-10-01

425

What Data for Data-Driven Learning?  

Science.gov (United States)

Corpora have multiple affordances, not least for use by teachers and learners of a foreign language (L2) in what has come to be known as "data-driven learning" or DDL. The corpus and concordance interface were originally conceived by and for linguists, so other users need to adopt the role of "language researcher" to make the most of them. Despite…

Boulton, Alex

2012-01-01

426

Second Language Reading and Vocabulary Learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

This book contains 14 essays on reading and vocabulary learning in second language acquisition. Chapters include: "Research on ESL/EFL Vocabulary Acquisition: Putting It in Context" (James Coady); "Implications for L2 Vocabulary Acquisition and Instruction From L1 Vocabulary Research" (Fredricka Stoller and William Grabe); "Patterns and Perils of…

Huckin, Thomas, Ed.; And Others

427

The Dirichlet problem with L2-boundary data for elliptic linear equations  

CERN Document Server

The Dirichlet problem has a very long history in mathematics and its importance in partial differential equations, harmonic analysis, potential theory and the applied sciences is well-known. In the last decade the Dirichlet problem with L2-boundary data has attracted the attention of several mathematicians. The significant features of this recent research are the use of weighted Sobolev spaces, existence results for elliptic equations under very weak regularity assumptions on coefficients, energy estimates involving L2-norm of a boundary data and the construction of a space larger than the usual Sobolev space W1,2 such that every L2-function on the boundary of a given set is the trace of a suitable element of this space. The book gives a concise account of main aspects of these recent developments and is intended for researchers and graduate students. Some basic knowledge of Sobolev spaces and measure theory is required.

Chabrowski, Jan

1991-01-01

428

Differences in adult L2 grammars of Lithuanian: The case of gender agreement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article presents results obtained from an empirical investigation into the acquisition of gender agreement in Lithuanian as a second language (L2. A total of 59 L2 learners of Lithuanian and 10 Lithuanian native speakers, as controls, took part in this study. The participants came from diverse ?rst language (L1 backgrounds (i.e., Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Latvian, and English. The data were collected using a written translation task. The results of the study showed some statistically significant differences between English speaking learners of Lithuanian and non-native English speaking learners of Lithuanian. The findings support the Full Transfer Full Access hypothesis (Schwartz, Sprouse 1994, 1996 which argues for the interaction of L1 transfer and Universal Grammar in the development of adult L2 grammars.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa4.06

Simona Ma?iukaité

2008-05-01

429

Orbiting GPS Receiver Modified to Track New L2C Signal  

Science.gov (United States)

The L2C signal is a great step forward for civil applications of GPS, enabling high-accuracy dual-frequency measurements. Engineers from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and ITT teamed to reprogram FPGA firmware and add tracking software on an orbiting receiver to track the new GPS L2C signal from SAC-C. SAC-C is an Argentinean science satellite and was launched in November 2000 with a BlackJack GPS receiver. This is a dual-frequency digital receiver with 48 tracking channels and four antennas. On SAC-C, it provides precise orbits, atmospheric occultation data, tests of GPS surface reflections, and serves as an orbiting test bed for new GPS development such as the L2C tracking reported here.

Meehan, Tom K.; Robison, David; Munson, Tim N.; Young, Larry E.; Stoyanov, Stephen

2006-01-01

430

Working memory capacity and L2 University Students comprehension of linear texts and hypertexts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between working memory capacity and L2 reading comprehension of both linear texts and hypertexts. Three different instruments were used to measure comprehension (recall, comprehension questions and perception of contradictions and the Reading Span Test (Daneman & Carpenter, 1980 was used as a measure of working memory capacity. Forty-two speakers of English as an L2 from two different L1 backgrounds (21 Brazilians and 21 Chinese participated in the study. The results obtained signal to the fact that hypertexts might compromise comprehension, especially for low-span participants. The broad conclusion achieved in this study is that different variables including readers’ working memory capacity, their first language, and the mode of text presentation may interfere in L2 reading, and each one of these aspects might hamper, in different ways, the construction of a coherent mental representation of the text being read.

Lêda Maria Braga Tomitch

2009-12-01

431

Study of Heterogeneous Structure in Diesel Fuel Spray by Using Micro-Probe L2F  

Science.gov (United States)

A L2F (Laser 2-Focus velocimeter) was applied for the measurements of the velocity and size of droplets in diesel fuel sprays. The micro-scale probe of the L2F has an advantage in avoiding the multiple scattering from droplets in a dense region of fuel sprays. A data sampling rate of 15MHz has been achieved in the L2F system for detecting almost all of the droplets which passed through the measurement probe. Diesel fuel was injected into the atmosphere by using a common rail injector. Measurement positions were located along the spray axis at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mm from the nozzle exit. Measurement result showed that the velocity and size of droplets decreased and the number density of droplets increased along the spray axis. It was clearly shown that the mass flow rate in the spray was highest near the spray tip and was lower inside the spray.

Sakaguchi, Daisaku; Yamamoto, Shohei; Ueki, Hironobu; Ishdia, Masahiro

432

The Effects of Planned Instruction on Iranian L2 Learners' Interlanguage Pragmatic Development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The most compelling evidence that instruction in L2pragmatics is necessary comes from learners whoselanguage proficiency is advanced but their communicative actsfrequently contain pragmatic errors. The current studyevaluated the impact of explicit instruction on EFL learner'sawareness and production of three speech acts of request,apology, and complaint. It also probed whether learners’language proficiency plays any role in incorporatingpragmatic instruction into the L2 classroom. The instructionlasted for about 12 weeks. Achievement in L2 pragmaticswas assessed based on a pretest-posttest plan usingMultiple-Choice Discourse Comprehension Test (MDCTand Written Discourse Completion Test (WDCT. Thesignificant gains made by the experimental groups receivinginstruction support the claim recently made by instructionalpragmatics that explicit instruction does facilitate thedevelopment of pragmatically appropriate use of language.Yet, learners’ level of language proficiency had no significantrole in the incorporation of the instruction. Furthertheoretical issues are also discussed.

Maryam Esmaeili

2013-05-01

433

A linear time algorithm for L(2,1)-labeling of trees  

OpenAIRE

An L(2,1)-labeling of a graph $G$ is an assignment $f$ from the vertex set $V(G)$ to the set of nonnegative integers such that $|f(x)-f(y)|\\ge 2$ if $x$ and $y$ are adjacent and $|f(x)-f(y)|\\ge 1$ if $x$ and $y$ are at distance 2, for all $x$ and $y$ in $V(G)$. A $k$-L(2,1)-labeling is an assignment $f:V(G)\\to\\{0,..., k\\}$, and the L(2,1)-labeling problem asks the minimum $k$, which we denote by $\\lambda(G)$, among all possible assignments. It is known that this problem is N...

Hasunuma, Toru; Ishii, Toshimasa; Ono, Hirotaka; Uno, Yushi

2008-01-01

434

On the Nature of Morphological Awareness in Japanese-English Bilingual Children: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective  

Science.gov (United States)

While morphological awareness has received much attention to date, little is understood about how morphological awareness develops within bilingual children learning typologically different languages. Therefore, we investigated children's knowledge of inflections and derivations in Japanese and English, and also asked whether morphological

Hayashi, Yuko; Murphy, Victoria A.

2013-01-01

435

Association between TCF7L2 Genotype and Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients Treated with Gliclazide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies showed associations between variants in TCF7L2 gene and the therapeutic response to sulfonylureas. All sulfonylureas stimulate insulin secretion by the closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel. The aim of the present study was to compare TCF7L2 genotype specific effect of gliclazide binding to KATP channel A-site (Group 1) with sulfonylureas binding to AB-site (Group 2). A total of 101 patients were treated with sulfonylureas for 6 months as an add-on therapy to the previous metformin treatment. TCF7L2 rs7903146 C/T genotype was identified by real-time PCR with subsequent melting curve analysis. Analyses using the dominant genetic model showed significantly higher effect of gliclazide in the CC genotype group in comparison with combined CT + TT genotype group (1.32 ± 0.15% versus 0.73 ± 0.11%, P (adj) = 0.005). No significant difference in ?HbA1c between the patients with CC genotype and the T-allele carriers was observed in Group 2. In the multivariate analysis, only the TCF7L2 genotype (P = 0.006) and the baseline HbA1c (P < 0.001) were significant predictors of ?HbA1c. After introducing an interaction term between the TCF7L2 genotype and the sulfonylurea type into multivariate model, the interaction became a significant predictor (P = 0.023) of ?HbA1c. The results indicate significantly higher difference in ?HbA1c among the TCF7L2 genotypes in patients treated with gliclazide than in patients treated with glimepiride, glibenclamide, or glipizide. PMID:23509454

Javorský, Martin; Babjaková, Eva; Klim?áková, Lucia; Schroner, Zbynek; Zidzik, Jozef; Stolfová, Mária; Salagovi?, Ján; Tká?, Ivan

2013-01-01

436

ALHAMBRA survey: morphological classification  

Science.gov (United States)

The Advanced Large Homogeneous Area Medium Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey is a photometric survey designed to study systematically cosmic evolution and cosmic variance (Moles et al. 2008). It employs 20 continuous medium-band filters (3500 - 9700 Å), plus JHK near-infrared (NIR) bands, which enable measurements of photometric redshifts with good accuracy. ALHAMBRA covers > 4 deg2 in eight discontinuous regions (~ 0.5 deg2 per region), of theseseven fields overlap with other extragalactic, multiwavelength surveys (DEEP2, SDSS, COSMOS, HDF-N, Groth, ELAIS-N1). We detect > 600.000 sources, reaching the depth of R(AB) ~ 25.0, and photometric accuracy of 2-4% (Husillos et al., in prep.). Photometric redshifts are measured using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code (Benítez et al. 2000), reaching one of the best accuracies up to date of ?z/z classification of galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey (Povi? et al., in prep.), we used the galaxy Support Vector Machine code (galSVM; Huertas-Company 2008, 2009), one of the new non-parametric methods for morphological classification, specially useful when dealing with low resolution and high-redshift data. To test the accuracy of our morphological classification we used a sample of 3000 local, visually classified galaxies (Nair & Abraham 2010), moving them to conditions typical of our ALHAMBRA data (taking into account the background, redshift and magnitude distributions, etc.), and measuring their morphology using galSVM. Finally, we measured the morphology of ALHAMBRA galaxies, obtaining for each source seven morphological parameters (two concentration indexes, asymmetry, Gini, M20 moment of light, smoothness, and elongation), probability if the source belongs to early- or late-type, and its error. Comparing ALHAMBRA morph COSMOS/ACS morphology (obtained with the same method) we expect to have qualitative separation in two main morphological types for ~ 20.000 sources in 8 ALHAMBRA fields. For early-type galaxies we expect to recover ~ 70% and 30-40% up to magnitudes 20.0 and 21.5, respectively, having the contamination of late-types of < 7%. For late-type galaxies, we expect to recover ~ 70%, 60 - 70%, and ~ 30% of sources up to magnitudes 22.0, 22.5, and 23.0, respectively, having the contamination of early-types of <= 10%. These data will be used to study the evolution of active and non-active galaxies respect to morphology and morphological properties of galaxies in groups and clusters.

Povi?, M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Aguerri, J. A. López; Husillos, C.; Molino, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.

2015-03-01

437

TCF7L2 Polymorphisms Modulate Proinsulin Levels and ?-Cell Function in a British Europid Population  

OpenAIRE

Rapidly accumulating evidence shows that common T-cell transcription factor (TCF)7L2 polymorphisms confer risk of type 2 diabetes through unknown mechanisms. We examined the association between four TCF7L2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including rs7903146, and measures of insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in 1,697 Europid men and women of the population-based MRC (Medical Research Council)-Ely study. The T-(minor) allele of rs7903146 was strongly and positively associated wi...

Loos, Ruth J. F.; Franks, Paul W.; Francis, Richard W.; Barroso, Ine?s; Gribble, Fiona M.; Savage, David B.; Ong, Ken K.; O Rahilly, Stephen; Wareham, Nicholas J.

2007-01-01

438

Association between TCF7L2 Genotype and Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients Treated with Gliclazide  

OpenAIRE

Previous studies showed associations between variants in TCF7L2 gene and the therapeutic response to sulfonylureas. All sulfonylureas stimulate insulin secretion by the closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel. The aim of the present study was to compare TCF7L2 genotype specific effect of gliclazide binding to KATP channel A-site (Group 1) with sulfonylureas binding to AB-site (Group 2). A total of 101 patients were treated with sulfonylureas for 6 months as an add-on therapy to the ...

Martin Javorský; Eva Babjaková; Amp Xe Kov Amp Xe, Lucia Klim Amp X. D.; Zbynek Schroner; Idzik, Jozef Amp X. D.; Tolfov Amp Xe, M. Amp Xe Ria Amp X.; Ján Šalagovi?; Ivan Tká?

2013-01-01

439

On the asymptotic expansion of the curvature of perturbations of the $L_{2}$ connection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We establish that the Hitchin connection is a perturbation of the $L_{2}$-connection. We notice that such a formulation of the Hitchin connection does not necessarily require the manifold in question possessing a rigid family of Kähler structures. We then proceed to calculate the asymptotic expansion of general perturbations of the $L_{2}$-connection, and see when under certain assumptions such perturbations are flat and projectively flat. During the calculations we also found an asymptotic expansion of the projection operator $\\pi_{\\sigma}^{\\left(k\\right)}$ which projects onto the holomorphic sections of the k-th tensor of prequantum line bundle.

De, Amit

2013-01-01

440

TCF7L2 Polymorphism, Weight Loss and Proinsulin: Insulin Ratio in the Diabetes Prevention Program  

OpenAIRE

Aims: TCF7L2 variants have been associated with type 2 diabetes, body mass index (BMI), and deficits in proinsulin processing and insulin secretion. Here we sought to test whether these effects were apparent in high-risk individuals and modify treatment responses. Methods: We examined the potential role of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 variant in predicting resistance to weight loss or a lack of improvement of proinsulin processing during 2.5-years of follow-up participants (N = 2,994) from the Diabet...

Mccaffery, Jeanne M.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Franks, Paul; Dagogo-jack, Sam; Wing, Rena R.; Knowler, William C.; Delahanty, Linda; Dabelea, Dana; Hamman, Richard; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Florez, Jose C.

2011-01-01

441

Plasticity of recurrent L2/3 inhibition and gamma oscillations by whisker experience  

OpenAIRE

Local recurrent networks in neocortex are critical nodes for sensory processing, but their regulation by experience is much less understood than long-distance (translaminar or cross-columnar) projections. We studied local L2/3 recurrent networks in rat somatosensory cortex during deprivation-induced whisker map plasticity, by expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in L2/3 pyramidal cells and measuring light-evoked synaptic currents in ex vivo S1 slices. In columns with intact whiskers, brief li...

Shao, Yu R.; Isett, Brian R.; Miyashita, Toshio; Chung, Jason; Pourzia, Olivia; Gasperini, Robert J.; Feldman, Daniel E.

2013-01-01

442

Stability and L2 performance analysis of stochastic delayed neural networks.  

Science.gov (United States)

This brief focuses on the robust mean-square exponential stability and L(2) performance analysis for a class of uncertain time-delay neural networks perturbed by both additive and multiplicative stochastic noises. New mean-square exponential stability and L(2) performance criteria are developed based on the delay partition Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional method and generalized Finsler lemma which is applicable to stochastic systems. The analytical results are established without involving any model transformation, estimation for cross terms, additional free-weighting matrices, or tuning parameters. Numerical examples are presented to verify that the proposed approach is both less conservative and less computationally complex than the existing ones. PMID:21843984

Chen, Yun; Zheng, Wei Xing

2011-10-01

443

Concentration Properties of a Gaussian Field Given that its $L^2$-Norm is Large  

CERN Document Server

The realizations of a Gaussian field are investigated in the limit where its $L^2$-norm is large. Concentration onto the eigenspace associated with the largest eigenvalue of the covariance of the field is proved. When the covariance is trace class, the concentration is in probability for the $L^2$-norm. A stronger concentration, in mean for the sup-norm, is proved for a smaller class of Gaussian fields, and an example of a field belonging to that class is given. A possible connection with Bose-Einstein condensation is briefly discussed.

Mounaix, Philippe

2010-01-01

444

Platelet morphology analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Platelets are very small blood cells (1.5-3 ?m), which play a major role in primary haemostasis and in coagulation mechanisms. Platelet characterization requires their counting (see Chapter 15 ) associated with accurate morphology analysis. We describe the major steps in order to correctly obtain stained blood films, which can be analyzed by optical microscope. Platelet morphology abnormalities are found in acquired malignant hematological diseases such myeloproliferative or myelodysplastic syndromes and acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. A careful analysis of the platelet size and morphology, by detecting either normal platelets with or without excessive anisocytosis, microplatelets, or large/giant platelets, will contribute to inherited thrombocytopenia diagnosis and gather substantial data when looking for an acquired platelet disorders. PMID:23546716

Latger-Cannard, Véronique; Fenneteau, Odile; Salignac, Sylvain; Lecompte, Thomas Pierre; Schlegel, Nicole

2013-01-01

445

Sociolinguistic approaches to identity negotiation and language learning: A circumstantiality perspective on communities of practice  

OpenAIRE

As a result of growing globalization, the learning experience of second/foreign (L2/FL) language learners has been inextricably linked to complex social structures and networks. Through a sociolinguistic lens, this paper provides a critical review of L2/FL learning, identity negotiation, and community of practice in the face of incremental changes in linguistic systems and norms concomitant with gradual transformations in politics, society, and economics. In different social structures, ident...

Jou, Yu Shiang

2013-01-01

446

Classroom tandem – Outlining a Model for Language Learning and Instruction  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this paper is to outline classroom tandem by comparing it with informal tandem learning contexts and other language instruction methods. Classroom tandem is used for second language instruction in mixed language groups in the subjects of Finnish and Swedish as L2. Tandem learning entails that two persons with different mother tongues learn each other’s native languages in reciprocal cooperation. The students function, in turns, as a second language learner and as a model in the n...

Karjalainen, Katri; Po?rn, Michaela; Rusk, Fredrik; Bjo?rkskog, Linda

2013-01-01

447

Examining the Including and Excluding Roles of Positive Evidence: A Study of a Case Where L2/L1 Grammar Intersects.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study argues that positive second-language (L2) data do not necessarily rule out inappropriate L2 grammar. Rather, L2 learners appear to postulate first-language (L1) grammar as an interim theory about the L2, at least in the initial stages of L2 acquisition. The case where L2 grammar intersects L1 concerning time adverbial clauses was chosen…

Inaba, Midori

1993-01-01

448

COMPREENSÃO DE EXPRESSÕES IDIOMÁTICAS DA LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA COMO L2: EVIDÊNCIAS DE PROTOCOLOS VERBAIS / Understanding Portuguese idiomatic expressions as L2: evidence of verbal protocols / Comprensión de Expresiones Idiomáticas de la Lengua Portuguesa como L2: evidencias de protocolos verbales  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo relata um estudo cujo objetivo foi investigar em que medida os processos cognitivos utilizados por cinco falantes de português como L2 para compreender dez expressões idiomáticas (EIs) de forma descontextualizada seriam similares aos utilizados para a compreensão das mesmas expressões em [...] contexto. A análise dos dados, coletados por meio de protocolos verbais retrospectivos e de pausa, revelou que o uso de analogia e associações a partir de conhecimentos prévios foi a estratégia preferencial para as EIs descontextualizadas, enquanto o uso de indícios microtextuais foi a mais empregada nas EIs em contexto. Além disso, os dados apontaram para uma aproximação apenas parcial dos processos cognitivos empregados pelos participantes nos dois contextos de atribuição de significado a novas EIs. Os resultados são avaliados com base em Liontas (2001, 2002), Polónia (2009) e Sadeghi, Dastjerd e Ketabi (2010). Abstract in spanish Este artículo expone un estudio cuyo objetivo fue investigar en qué medida los procesos cognitivos utilizados por cinco hablantes de portugués como L2 para comprender diez expresiones idiomáticas (EIs) de manera descontextualizada podrían ser similares a aquellos utilizados para la comprensión de la [...] s mismas expresiones en contexto. El análisis de datos, recogidos por medio de protocolos verbales retrospectivos y de pausa, reveló que el uso de analogía y asociaciones desde conocimientos previos fue la estrategia preferencial para las EIs descontextualizadas, mientras el uso de indicios micro textuales fue la más empleada en las EIs en contexto. Además, los datos apuntaran para una aproximación solamente parcial de los procesos cognitivos empleados por los participantes en los dos contextos de atribución de significado para nuevas EIs. Los resultados son evaluados con base en Liontas (2001, 2002), Polónia (2009) e Sadeghi, Dastjerd e Ketabi (2010). Abstract in english A report is presented on a study that aimed at investigating to what extent the cognitive processes used by five Portuguese L2 speakers to understand ten idiomatic phrases (EIs) in a decontextualized way would be similar to those used for the understanding of the same phrases in a context. The analy [...] sis of the data, collected by means of retrospective verbal protocols and protocols of pause, revealed that the use of analogy and associations based on previous knowledge was the preferential strategy for the decontextualized idiomatic phrases, while the use of microtextual signs was the most used one in those EIs on a context. In addition, the data pointed to an approximation only partial of the cognitive processes used by the participants in both contexts of attribution of meaning to new EIs. The results are assessed based on Liontas (2001, 2002), Polónia (2009) and Sadeghi, Dastjerd and Ketabi (2010).

Alessandra, Baldo.

2014-05-01

449

Etymology and the Development of L2 Vocabulary: The Case of ESL Students at the University of Botswana  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Part of the history of English is that many of its words are of Graeco-Latinate origin. Hence, the vocabulary of the language comprises words which are short and familiar and those which are foreign and long (Quirk,1978, p. 138. However, both L1 and L2 users have to get acquainted with the second group, which dominates academic discourse. Our students are disadvantaged on two grounds. Firstly, vocabulary instruction for them seems quite deficient in scope and depth, and secondly, the students tend to acquire the vocabulary of academic discourse necessary for their success in tandem with the learning of concepts which come incased in words they are unfamiliar with. Our paper uses data collected from the students’ writing over a period of twenty years to examine their specific problems relating to the etymology of English words. Two questions are addressed: What problems does the etymology of English words pose for ESL students? What measures can be adopted to alleviate these problems? We discuss confused pairs of words, pairs erroneously considered synonymous, and coinage resulting from student’s lack of appropriate vocabulary. We recommend that teaching the etymology of words used in academic discourse would assist our students to improve their fluency in English.

Alec Pongweni

2013-07-01

450

The Effect of Lexical Coverage and Dictionary Use on L2 Reading Comprehension  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to further understand the role of lexical coverage on L2 reading comprehension. It examines test scores of learners at or near the 90-95% coverage level to determine if this coverage range allows for comprehension of authentic texts. The findings suggest that 92-93% may be a threshold mark at which understanding of a text…

Prichard, Caleb; Matsumoto, Yuko

2011-01-01

451

An $L^2$-theory on SPDE driven by L\\'evy processes  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we develop an $L_2$-theory for stochastic partial differential equations driven by L\\'evy process