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Phonological bases for L2 morphological learning.  

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Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g., inflate - inflation) from multiple exposures. Experiment 2 further assessed children's ability to use morphological cues for syntactic categorization through exposures to novel morphologically varying forms (e.g., lutate vs. lutant) presented in the corresponding sentential positions (noun vs. verb). The third-grade EFL learners revealed emergent sensitivity to the morphological cues in the input but failed in fully processing intraword variations. The learners with poorer L1 PA were likely to encounter difficulties in identifying morphological alternation rules and in discovering the syntactic properties of L2 morphology. In addition to L1 PA, L2 vocabulary knowledge also contributed significantly to L2 morphological learning.

Hu CF

2010-08-01

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Planning, Recasts, and Learning of L2 Morphology  

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This study investigated two issues: (1) whether availability of planning time affects learners' ability to notice and learn from recasts in the input; and (2) whether pre-task or online planning is more effective. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups that formed the treatment conditions: a no planning group (N = 13), a pre-task…

Romanova, Natalia

2010-01-01

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Morphological Congruency and the Acquisition of L2 Morphemes  

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The present study examined the proposal that the presence of a similar morpheme in the learner's first and second languages (L2) facilitates morphological development in the L2. Advanced Russian and Japanese speakers of English as a second language performed a self-paced reading task in which they read English sentences word by word for…

Jiang, Nan; Novokshanova, Eugenia; Masuda, Kyoko; Wang, Xin

2011-01-01

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The development of inflectional morphology in l2 acquisition: a cross-linguistic analysis The development of inflectional morphology in l2 acquisition: a cross-linguistic analysis  

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Full Text Available The development of several grammatical features among adult L2 (second language) learners (e.g., inflectional morphology) may be guided by strictly general cognitive processes (e.g., Bley-Vroman, 1989; Schmidt, 1990). For instance, Flynn and Manuel (1991) argue that general learning mechanisms — non-modular and unrelated to Universal Grammar (UG) — may determine the acquisition of “ peripheral" language phenomena: Many studies that argue for differences between the child L1 learner and the adult L2 learner in ultimate attainment focus on surface aspects of L2 language knowledge connected to "periphery" of language knowledge (e.g., lexical or language-specific agreement phenomena) rather than to the more abstract subsystems of principles and rules of UG. Similarly, Schwartz (1993, p. 159) claims that it is not arranted to extend the UG argument for the acquisition of syntax "to the other domains of the grammar, in particular to the lexicon and morphology (e.g., paradigms of inflection)." Schwartz states further that inflectional endings are among the most difficult features of nonnative languages for adult learners: "highest amount of variability and lowest degree of success." Schwartz (1993, p. 160) speculates that "the syntax (being built on the basis of primary linguistic data) continues to grow but the morphology seems to lag behind: learned linguistic knowledge, in this case inflectional verbal morphology, just cannot feed into the grammar." The development of several grammatical features among adult L2 (second language) learners (e.g., inflectional morphology) may be guided by strictly general cognitive processes (e.g., Bley-Vroman, 1989; Schmidt, 1990). For instance, Flynn and Manuel (1991) argue that general learning mechanisms — non-modular and unrelated to Universal Grammar (UG) — may determine the acquisition of “ peripheral" language phenomena: Many studies that argue for differences between the child L1 learner and the adult L2 learner in ultimate attainment focus on surface aspects of L2 language knowledge connected to "periphery" of language knowledge (e.g., lexical or language-specific agreement phenomena) rather than to the more abstract subsystems of principles and rules of UG. Similarly, Schwartz (1993, p. 159) claims that it is not arranted to extend the UG argument for the acquisition of syntax "to the other domains of the grammar, in particular to the lexicon and morphology (e.g., paradigms of inflection)." Schwartz states further that inflectional endings are among the most difficult features of nonnative languages for adult learners: "highest amount of variability and lowest degree of success." Schwartz (1993, p. 160) speculates that "the syntax (being built on the basis of primary linguistic data) continues to grow but the morphology seems to lag behind: learned linguistic knowledge, in this case inflectional verbal morphology, just cannot feed into the grammar."

M. Rafael Salaberry

2008-01-01

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Knowledge sources in L2 learning  

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Full Text Available Should one bother to teach grammar to second language (L2) learners of English? The purpose of this article is to examine the hypothesis that there is an interface between explicit and implicit knowledge sources. Three groups of learners at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University were asked to articulate, first without a prompt and then with a prompt, the grammatical rules they were applying to correct common errors.  The test results suggest that there is a high correlation between what they seemingly know implicitly and the hidden, possibly previously explicit knowledge source on which they are drawing.  The article concludes by discussing some of the theoretical implications of the research.

Diana Ayliff

2011-01-01

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Relative Importance of Learning Variables on L2 Performance  

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Full Text Available In this article, the results of a pilot study investigating the relative importance of various learner variables on L2 performance are presented. The study was conducted with the participation of forty students enrolled in a beginning Spanish class at a large midwestern university. The CANAL?S test, FLCAS and SILL surveys were administered to evaluate language learning aptitude, anxiety and learning strategy use. Demographic data and exam grades were also recorded. The data was first analyzed within the framework of a causal model with correlational and multiple regression analyses. A second step involved the evaluation of the relative importance of the learner variables. Third, the validity of the causality postulated between foreign language anxiety and L2 performance was examined. Overall, this paper confirmed the prevailing role played by language learning aptitude and anxiety, and demonstrated the applicability of a multivariate model to analyze the impact of individual differences on L2 performance.

Olivares-Cuhat, Gabriela

2010-01-01

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Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

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Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee

2013-01-01

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Styles and learning strategies in teaching Croatian as L2  

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Full Text Available Due to the complexity of learning in general, as well as second language learning, it is very important for language teachers to create a classroom environment where their students can achieve their maximum during the given period. The first part of this paper gives an overview of the literature dealing with the differences between cognitive and learning style, as well as learning strategies. It was found that learners achieve the best results in learning when learning circumstances are appropriate to their cognitive and learning styles. Language learners are found to be influenced by different methods of learning not only by their cognitive styles, but depending on their age. Research in sla associated with the styles and learning strategies did not confirm that all relevant differentiations for learning in general play an important role in language learning (e.g. field-dependence research in sla is not conclusive). However, findings are useful for language teachers, hence they should, among other things, be instructed to identify the cognitive style and learning style typical of their students, to offer them a variety of appropriate activities. Therefore the second and the third part of the paper offer some basic characteristics of analytic and global cognitive styles, as well as audio, visual and kinesthetic learning styles, along with some useful activities for Croatian L2 learners with each of them.

Ana Grgi?; Zrinka Kolakovi?

2010-01-01

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Individual Differences in L2 Learning and Long-Term L1-L2 Relationships  

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In this article, I describe studies conducted over 25 years with secondary and post-secondary L2 learners in the United States. The evidence from these studies shows that there are important connections between students' early L1 skills and their L2 aptitude and L2 proficiency and that individual differences in students' L1 skills in elementary…

Sparks, Richard L.

2012-01-01

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Event-Related Brain Potentials and Second Language Learning: Syntactic Processing in Late L2 Learners at Different L2 Proficiency Levels  

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There are several major questions in the literature on late second language (L2) learning and processing. Some of these questions include: Can late L2 learners process an L2 in a native-like way? What is the nature of the differences in L2 processing among L2 learners at different levels of L2 proficiency? In this article, we review studies that…

van Hell, Janet G.; Tokowicz, Natasha

2010-01-01

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The L1 in L2 learning: teachers' beliefs and practices  

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Opinions concerning the use of the L1 in L2 learning and teaching have differed markedly over the years. For much of the past century, it has generally been asserted by theorists and methodologists that the L1 has a largely negative influence on L2 learning and that its use should therefore be kept ...

Song, Y; Andrews, SJ

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L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children: Effects of Learning Method and Cognate Status  

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In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or word-mediated learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German. We examined children from fourth and eighth grades in a school setting. After a learning phase during which L2 words were…

Tonzar, Claudio; Lotto, Lorella; Job, Remo

2009-01-01

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Extracting Phonological Patterns for L2 Word Learning: The Effect of Poor Phonological Awareness.  

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An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of Chinese-speaking six-grade students took a multi-trial L2 (English) word learning task after being exposed to a set of familiar words that rhymed with the target words. Children's PA was measured at grade 3. Children with relatively poorer L1 PA and those with better L1 PA did not differ in identifying the forms of the new words. However, children with poorer L1 PA demonstrated reduced performance in naming pictures with labels that rhymed with the pre-exposure words than with labels that did not rhyme with the pre-exposure words. Children with better L1 PA were not affected by the recurring rime shared by the pre-exposure words and the target words. These findings suggest that poor L1 PA may impede L2 word learning via difficulty in abstracting phonological patterns away from L2 input to scaffold word learning.

Hu CF

2013-09-01

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L1 AND L2 GLOSSES: THEIR EFFECTS ON INCIDENTAL VOCABULARY LEARNING  

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Full Text Available This study examined the effectiveness of L1 and L2 glosses on incidental vocabulary learning in a multimedia environment. The investigation included the effects of additional pictorial cues in L1 and L2 glosses, and how these additions affect vocabulary learning. The analyses of a mixed design repeated measures 2 (L1, L2) X 2 (picture, no picture) X 2 (immediate test, delayed test) analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated no significant differences between L1 and L2 glosses for definition-supply and recognition tasks and showed significant differences between picture (text-plus-picture) and no-picture (text-only) glosses for definition-supply test only. The results also revealed significant interaction effects between languages and tests indicating that L1 and L2 groups showed different patterns of vocabulary retention over time. Findings suggest that both L1 and L2 glosses are effective for incidental vocabulary learning, but long-term retention may differ between the two types; and that the effect of additional visual cues on vocabulary learning may rely on the nature of the tasks given.

Makoto Yoshii

2006-01-01

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Enhancing l2 students' listening transcription ability through a focus on morphological awareness.  

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Morphological awareness (MA), defined as the ability to understand the morphemic structure of the words, has been reported to affect various aspects of second language performance including reading comprehension ability, spelling performance, etc. But the concept has been far less treated with reference to l2 listening. Against this background, this study investigated the link between MA and listening transcription ability of Iranian pre-university students. To this aim, 40 pre-university students participated in the study and were assigned to control and experimental groups. Prior to giving any instruction regarding the morphological character of English words, the two groups were given three short listening passages to transcribe as pre-tests. The results of the independent-samples t test run for the purpose of comparing the means of the two groups in the pre-test revealed no significant difference between the two groups in their listening transcription ability. The experimental group, then, received five 1-h sessions briefing them on the morphological realization of English words. The two groups were then given three short listening passages to transcribe as their as post-tests. The results of the independent-samples t tests attested to the significant difference between the two groups; thus, supporting the relationship between MA and listening transcription ability. PMID:22935851

Karimi, Mohammad Nabi

2013-10-01

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Enhancing l2 students' listening transcription ability through a focus on morphological awareness.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Morphological awareness (MA), defined as the ability to understand the morphemic structure of the words, has been reported to affect various aspects of second language performance including reading comprehension ability, spelling performance, etc. But the concept has been far less treated with reference to l2 listening. Against this background, this study investigated the link between MA and listening transcription ability of Iranian pre-university students. To this aim, 40 pre-university students participated in the study and were assigned to control and experimental groups. Prior to giving any instruction regarding the morphological character of English words, the two groups were given three short listening passages to transcribe as pre-tests. The results of the independent-samples t test run for the purpose of comparing the means of the two groups in the pre-test revealed no significant difference between the two groups in their listening transcription ability. The experimental group, then, received five 1-h sessions briefing them on the morphological realization of English words. The two groups were then given three short listening passages to transcribe as their as post-tests. The results of the independent-samples t tests attested to the significant difference between the two groups; thus, supporting the relationship between MA and listening transcription ability.

Karimi MN

2013-10-01

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L2-norm multiple kernel learning and its application to biomedical data fusion  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper introduces the notion of optimizing different norms in the dual problem of support vector machines with multiple kernels. The selection of norms yields different extensions of multiple kernel learning (MKL) such as L?, L1, and L2 MKL. In particular, L2 MKL is a novel method that leads to non-sparse optimal kernel coefficients, which is different from the sparse kernel coefficients optimized by the existing L? MKL method. In real biomedical applications, L2 MKL may have more advantages over sparse integration method for thoroughly combining complementary information in heterogeneous data sources. Results We provide a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the L2 optimization of kernels in the dual problem with the L2 coefficient regularization in the primal problem. Understanding the dual L2 problem grants a unified view on MKL and enables us to extend the L2 method to a wide range of machine learning problems. We implement L2 MKL for ranking and classification problems and compare its performance with the sparse L? and the averaging L1 MKL methods. The experiments are carried out on six real biomedical data sets and two large scale UCI data sets. L2 MKL yields better performance on most of the benchmark data sets. In particular, we propose a novel L2 MKL least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) algorithm, which is shown to be an efficient and promising classifier for large scale data sets processing. Conclusions This paper extends the statistical framework of genomic data fusion based on MKL. Allowing non-sparse weights on the data sources is an attractive option in settings where we believe most data sources to be relevant to the problem at hand and want to avoid a "winner-takes-all" effect seen in L? MKL, which can be detrimental to the performance in prospective studies. The notion of optimizing L2 kernels can be straightforwardly extended to ranking, classification, regression, and clustering algorithms. To tackle the computational burden of MKL, this paper proposes several novel LSSVM based MKL algorithms. Systematic comparison on real data sets shows that LSSVM MKL has comparable performance as the conventional SVM MKL algorithms. Moreover, large scale numerical experiments indicate that when cast as semi-infinite programming, LSSVM MKL can be solved more efficiently than SVM MKL. Availability The MATLAB code of algorithms implemented in this paper is downloadable from http://homes.esat.kuleuven.be/~sistawww/bioi/syu/l2lssvm.html.

Yu Shi; Falck Tillmann; Daemen Anneleen; Tranchevent Leon-Charles; Suykens Johan AK; De Moor Bart; Moreau Yves

2010-01-01

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Learning L2 Vocabulary with American TV Drama From the Learner’s Perspective  

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Full Text Available Following the trend of computer assisted language learning (CALL), in Taiwan, most language classes now have equivalent media support for language teachers and learners. Implementing videos into classroom activities is one of the choices. The current study explores the process of implementing American TV drama in L2 vocabulary learning from learners’ perspectives. Twenty-eight Taiwanese EFL adult learners participate in the study. Authentic video clips from three different American dramas- “How I met your mother”, “The King of Queens”, and “Reba” are adopted. After three sessions of class activities including clip watching, class discussion, word listing, etc., students complete a 4-likert scale questionnaire and are individually interviewed by the researcher to give their opinions. The results reveal positive comments on the facilitative role of TV drama in learning new vocabulary as previous studies suggested, but learners’ comments point out some crucial factors while learning L2 vocabulary with TV drama. First of all, the interest level and the familiarity of the content is an important factor. In addition, the images, subtitles and repetition help participants to “remember” the target words. Other factors such as the authenticity of the language, the contextual meaning of the words, and the dramatic performances all contribute to the learning of the L2 vocabulary. In the end of the study, working memory system, the context, acquisition-learning hypothesis (Krashen, 1981), and noticing hypothesis (Schmidt, 1990) are further discussed. 

Yu-Chia Wang

2012-01-01

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Language Experience in L2 Phonological Learning: Effects of Psycholinguistic and Sociolinguistic Variables  

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|The goal of this paper is to discuss language experience in second language (L2) phonological learning, with a particular focus on lexical frequency, attention to form, and ethnic identity as factors that influence the role of language experience. First, several difficulties associated with the study of language experience are discussed. Then,…

Trofimovich, Pavel

2011-01-01

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Selecting ELL Textbooks: A Content Analysis of L2 Learning Strategies  

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Full Text Available Although middle school teachers use a variety of ELL textbooks, many lack effective criteria to critically select materials that represent a wide range of L2 learning strategies. This study analyzed the illustrated and written content of 33 ELL textbooks to determine the range of L2 learning strategies represented. The researchers chose an intentional, convenience sample from each textbook to form the corpus they analyzed. They sought to answer the question: To what extent do middle school ELL texts depict frequency and variation of language learning strategies in illustrations and written texts? To measure the content, the researchers developed a coding instrument to track how frequently each of 15 language learning strategies was portrayed. They concluded that 6 of the 33 textbooks had a good to excellent range of L2 learning strategies in both illustrated and written representation. The study provides recommendations for teachers regarding selection of ELL textbooks appropriate for their students along with a sample coding instrument for their use.

Jeffrey T LaBelle

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Effects of l1 processing experience on l2 morphological awareness Effects of l1 processing experience on l2 morphological awareness  

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Full Text Available To be an efficient and effective reader of a second language, one must develop cumulative insight into the internal structure of words, as well as acquire the necessary skills for using such insight in facilitating lexical processing and enhancing reading comprehension. In recent time, the growing recognition of the significance of these capabilities has led to a rapidly expanding body of research on intraword awareness, particularly among psychologists and reading specialists. Inasmuch as the resulting data base has clearly demonstrated that intraword awareness develops primarily through print processing experience (e.g., Yopp, 1988; Bowey, & Francis, 1991; Vellutino & Scanlon, 1987; Bertelson, Morais, Alegria, & Content, 1985; Morais, Cary, Alegria, & Bertelson, 1979; Perfetti, Beck, Bell & Hughes, 1987), we can expect that the nature of such awareness differs considerably from language to language, at least to the extent that their lexical structures vary. We also know that linguistic knowledge and processing skills transfer across languages among second language learners (e.g., Kilborn & Ito, 1989; Sasaki, 1992; Koda, 1993). Accordingly, we can both anticipate and infer that L2 lexical processing will be heavily constrained by L1 intraword structural knowledge. To be an efficient and effective reader of a second language, one must develop cumulative insight into the internal structure of words, as well as acquire the necessary skills for using such insight in facilitating lexical processing and enhancing reading comprehension. In recent time, the growing recognition of the significance of these capabilities has led to a rapidly expanding body of research on intraword awareness, particularly among psychologists and reading specialists. Inasmuch as the resulting data base has clearly demonstrated that intraword awareness develops primarily through print processing experience (e.g., Yopp, 1988; Bowey, & Francis, 1991; Vellutino & Scanlon, 1987; Bertelson, Morais, Alegria, & Content, 1985; Morais, Cary, Alegria, & Bertelson, 1979; Perfetti, Beck, Bell & Hughes, 1987), we can expect that the nature of such awareness differs considerably from language to language, at least to the extent that their lexical structures vary. We also know that linguistic knowledge and processing skills transfer across languages among second language learners (e.g., Kilborn & Ito, 1989; Sasaki, 1992; Koda, 1993). Accordingly, we can both anticipate and infer that L2 lexical processing will be heavily constrained by L1 intraword structural knowledge.

Keiko Koda; Estuko Takahashi; Michel Fender

2008-01-01

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Task-based Language Learning in Bilingual Montessori Elementary Schools: Customizing Foreign Language Learning and Promoting L2 Speaking Skills  

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Full Text Available Foreign language learning has been a part of German elementary schools for several years now. Montessori schools focusing on individual learning, i.e. mostly independent from the teacher and based on auto-education, interest, and free choice, are also asked to teach an L2. The original lack of a concept of L2 learning for this environment has brought forth different approaches. Bilingual education seems to be feasible and applicable in Montessori education. The downside to this is that even in a bilingual classroom the Montessori way of learning may not allow for very much oral production of the foreign language. The role of L2 production (cf. Swain 1985, 1995, 2005) for language acquisition has been theoretically claimed and empirically investigated. Output can have a positive influence on L2 learning (cf. e.g. Izumi 2002, Keck et al. 2006). This also applies to interaction (cf. Long 1996), where negotiation of meaning and modified output are factors supporting L2 development (cf. e.g. de la Fuente 2002, McDonough 2005). Task-based Language Learning (TBLL) presents itself as one way to promote oral language production and to provide opportunities for meaning-negotiation. Especially tasks with required information exchange and a closed outcome have been shown to be beneficial for the elicitation of negotiation of meaning and modified output. This paper argues that TBLL is a promising approach for the facilitation of L2 production and thus the development of speaking skills in a Montessori context. It also hypothesizes that TBLL can be implemented in a bilingual Montessori environment while still making the Montessori way of learning possible. Different tasks on various topics, examples of which are presented in this article, can lay the foundation for this. Offering such tasks in a bilingual Montessori elementary classroom promises to foster language production and the use of communication strategies like negotiation of meaning, both being facilitative for L2 acquisition. This hypothesis remains to be tested in future research.

Jana Winnefeld

2012-01-01

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Fossilization in Steady State L2 Grammars: Persistent Problems with Inflectional Morphology.  

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Provides a case study of the fossilized endstate of the second language (L2) English grammar of an adult native speaker of Turkish. Results are presented from production data, concentrating on verbal and nominal inflection and associated syntactic properties. (Author/VWL)

White, Lydia

2003-01-01

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The Role of Grammar Awareness in Learning English Wh-Movement by Chinese L2 Learners  

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Full Text Available This experimental study aimed at examining the role of grammar awareness in learning English wh-movement by Chinese EFL learners. Eighty adult native speakers of Chinese took grammaticality judgment tests (GJT) in order to find out whether they were constrained by Chinese wh-in-situ parameters. The mean scores of the GJT in the pretest and posttest were compared to observe the effect of the grammar awareness-raising model (GARM) guided instruction on wh-movement. Both within-group and between-group comparisons showed that when L2 learners were aware of the target linguistic phenomenon, their performance in judging the grammaticality of the wh-movement was improved. It is concluded that the role of grammar awareness in learning English wh-movement is positively related to the subjects’ performance in GJT.

Kun Hou; Sanooch Segkhoonthod Na-Thalang

2013-01-01

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L1 regularization is better than L2 for learning and predicting chaotic systems  

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Emergent behaviors are in the focus of recent research interest. It is then of considerable importance to investigate what optimizations suit the learning and prediction of chaotic systems, the putative candidates for emergence. We have compared L1 and L2 regularizations on predicting chaotic time series using linear recurrent neural networks. The internal representation and the weights of the networks were optimized in a unifying framework. Computational tests on different problems indicate considerable advantages for the L1 regularization: It had considerably better learning time and better interpolating capabilities. We shall argue that optimization viewed as a maximum likelihood estimation justifies our results, because L1 regularization fits heavy-tailed distributions -- an apparently general feature of emergent systems -- better.

Szabó, Z

2004-01-01

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Multimedia Glosses and Their Effect on L2 Text Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning  

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Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects that different types of multimedia glosses, namely textual, pictorial, and textual + pictorial, have on text comprehension and vocabulary learning when the goal is exclusively comprehension of a computerized text. This study is based on the theoretical framework of attention, which maintains that attention is critical in the acquisition process of an L2 (Robinson, 1995; Schmidt, 1995, 2001; Tomlin and Villa, 1994). Ninety-four participants read a text under one of four gloss conditions while asked to think aloud. This study investigated whether any of the conditions promoted noticing and whether this noticing led to better comprehension of the text and learning of the target vocabulary words. Reading comprehension, recognition, and production measures were utilized in a pre-post test design. Results of quantitative and qualitative analyses of the data gathered showed first that all multimedia gloss groups noticed and recognized significantly more of the target words than the control group. Second, no significant differences were found among any of the groups in production of the target vocabulary items. Finally, regarding comprehension, results showed that the combination gloss group significantly outperformed all other groups. These results confirm that the multimedia glosses under investigation have a different effect on comprehension and vocabulary learning respectively.

Iñigo Yanguas

2009-01-01

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Dissociating Syntax from Morphology in a Divergent L2 End-State Grammar.  

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Examines whether thematic verb-raising is optional in second-language learners' grammars, investigating data from a native Chinese speaker whose English grammar has fossilized with regard to verbal agreement morphology. Data show that, despite omission of regular agreement suffixation in about 96% of obligatory contexts, thematic verbs are never…

Lardiere, Donna

1998-01-01

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Narrative and identity construction: an analysis of the L2 Learning process  

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Full Text Available Second Language Acquisition (SLA) has been the focus of many linguists who have studied the process through varied perspectives, (e.g. Ellis, 1997; Lantolf, 2000; Gardner, 1968, to quote but a few) so that they may be able to interpret the way learners gather information regarding a second language process. However, such foci have been limited to cognitive processes and other factors (e.g. cultural, socio-cognitive) rather than placed on the learners' experiences themselves. In view of this, this paper investigates learners' experiences through the analysis of a group of self narratives recorded by the AMFALE (Aprendendo com memórias de falantes e de aprendizes de língua estrangeira)² project, while, at the same time, analyzes such autobiographies in the light of Leppänen and Kalaja's (2002) work on autobiographies as learners' identities constructions, based on Vladimir Propp's book Morphology of the Folktale (2000). The study is divided in two parts: the first one briefly reviews the process of identity construction and the importance of autobiographies as a means of expression of the self. Besides, it also focuses on the criteria set forth by Leppänen and Kalaja (2002) for the analysis of autobiographies, based on Vladimir Propp's book Morphology of the folktale (2000). The second part focuses on the analyses of AMFALE autobiographies as stated above.A Aquisição de uma Segunda Língua (ASL) tem sido enfocada por vários pesquisadores que estudaram o processo sob diversas perspectivas (ex.: Ellis, 1997; Lantolf, 2000; Gardner, 1968), para poderem interpretar como os aprendizes adquirem a L2. Entretanto, esses estudos têm se limitado aos processos cognitivos e a outros fatores (cultural e sócio-cognitivo, por exemplo), em vez de focalizar as experiências dos aprendizes. Em virtude disso, este estudo investiga as experiências de aprendizes por meio de um grupo de auto-narrativas registradas pelo Projeto AMFALE (Aprendendo com memórias de falantes e de aprendizes de línguas estrangeiras), tendo como suporte básico o trabalho desenvolvido por Leppänen e Kalaja (2002), no qual as autoras, com base na teoria de Vladimir Propp sobre a morfologia do conto de fadas (2000), investigam o processo de aprendizagem de L2 a partir de auto-narrativas que refletem o processo heróico, ainda que árduo, dos contos de fadas, detalhado por Propp. Para tanto, o artigo se divide em duas partes. A primeira faz uma breve revisão do processo de construção de identidade, da importância da narrativa autobiográfica como expressão de identidade, chegando, por fim, aos critérios de análise de autobiografias no processo de aprendizagem de L2, identificados por Leppänen e Kalaja (2002). A segunda parte do estudo analisa alguns exemplos de autobiografias do projeto AMFALE sob a luz das referidas teorias.

Luiz Antônio Caldeira Andrade

2007-01-01

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A Study of Chinese and Japanese College Studentsâ?? L2 Learning Styles  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 0 2 false false false EN-US ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 0 2 false false false EN-US ZH-TW X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:????; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; mso-bidi-font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:????; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-font-kerning:1.0pt;} Learning styles, much related to motivation and cognitive strategies, has been one of the most frequently discussed topics in the field of foreign/second language (L2) education. There is a considerable body of research on learning styles stemming from the domain of psychology to the conceptual field. As individuals learn in different ways from time to time, from culture to culture, and from context to context, findings of such research can only explain a comparatively small group of people�s temporary perceptions of their learning preferences to a selected subject surveyed. Sternberg (2001, p. 250) notes that �the literature has failed to provide any common conceptual framework and language,� while, according to Reid (1998), the concept is still not well understood. An enduring question for language researchers is the effect of individual differences on the efficacy of language learning (Nel, 2008). Much more research has to be done to address the issue of theoretical coherence as well as aiming for well-rounded empirical findings, tested through replication. Therefore, with an intention to contribute more data to cross-country research, this study investigated the differences and similarities of Chinese and Japanese college students� perceptions of their current English learning styles through a classroom-based survey. Implications for the teaching and learning are discussed in the final section.

Man-ping Chu; Tomoko Nakamura

2010-01-01

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The Learner’s Mother Tongue in the L2 Learning-Teaching Symbiosis  

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Full Text Available This paper has a two-fold purpose. One is to review the stances of language-oriented theorists, who are practicing foreign/second-language teachers and learners from various parts of the world, regarding the long-standing controversy over whether or not the learner’s mother tongue plays a positive role in the foreign/second-language learning-teaching context. A second purpose is to offer, from a non-native-speaker L2-teacher standpoint, some suggestions on when and how learners’ native language can be capitalised on in the process of learning another language. This implies that the learner’s mother tongue can be a valuable tool at the disposal of foreign/second-language teachers in their classrooms worldwide. Key words: language-oriented professionals, role of mother tongue, foreign/secondlanguage learning context El presente artículo tiene dos propósitos. Uno es examinar las posturas de expertos en el área del lenguaje, docentes de lengua extranjera o segunda lengua y aprendices de varias partes del mundo en relación con la controversia que ha existido desde hace mucho tiempo respecto a si la lengua materna del estudiante desempeña o no un papel positivo en el contexto de la enseñanza y aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera o de una segunda lengua. Un segundo objetivo es ofrecer desde un punto de vista de un profesor no nativo de segunda lengua, algunas sugerencias sobre cuándo y cómo la lengua materna de los aprendices puede ser una ventaja en el proceso de aprendizaje de otra lengua. Esto implica que la lengua materna del aprendiz puede ser un instrumento valioso a disposición de profesores de lengua extranjera o segunda lengua de todo el mundo, en sus aulas de clase. Palabras claves: profesionales del lenguaje, papel de la lengua materna, contexto de enseñanza/aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera o segunda lengua

Hitotuzi Nilton

2006-01-01

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Morphological Segmentation on Learned Boundaries  

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Colour information is usually not enough to segment natural complex scenes. Texture contains relevant information that segmentation approaches should consider. Martin et al. [Learning to detect natural image boundaries using local brightness, color, and texture cues, IEEE Transactions on Pattern Ana...

Hanbury, Allan; Marcotegui, Beatriz

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Narrative and identity construction: an analysis of the L2 Learning process  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A Aquisição de uma Segunda Língua (ASL) tem sido enfocada por vários pesquisadores que estudaram o processo sob diversas perspectivas (ex.: Ellis, 1997; Lantolf, 2000; Gardner, 1968), para poderem interpretar como os aprendizes adquirem a L2. Entretanto, esses estudos têm se limitado aos processos cognitivos e a outros fatores (cultural e sócio-cognitivo, por exemplo), em vez de focalizar as experiências dos aprendizes. Em virtude disso, este estudo investiga as ex (more) periências de aprendizes por meio de um grupo de auto-narrativas registradas pelo Projeto AMFALE (Aprendendo com memórias de falantes e de aprendizes de línguas estrangeiras), tendo como suporte básico o trabalho desenvolvido por Leppänen e Kalaja (2002), no qual as autoras, com base na teoria de Vladimir Propp sobre a morfologia do conto de fadas (2000), investigam o processo de aprendizagem de L2 a partir de auto-narrativas que refletem o processo heróico, ainda que árduo, dos contos de fadas, detalhado por Propp. Para tanto, o artigo se divide em duas partes. A primeira faz uma breve revisão do processo de construção de identidade, da importância da narrativa autobiográfica como expressão de identidade, chegando, por fim, aos critérios de análise de autobiografias no processo de aprendizagem de L2, identificados por Leppänen e Kalaja (2002). A segunda parte do estudo analisa alguns exemplos de autobiografias do projeto AMFALE sob a luz das referidas teorias. Abstract in english Second Language Acquisition (SLA) has been the focus of many linguists who have studied the process through varied perspectives, (e.g. Ellis, 1997; Lantolf, 2000; Gardner, 1968, to quote but a few) so that they may be able to interpret the way learners gather information regarding a second language process. However, such foci have been limited to cognitive processes and other factors (e.g. cultural, socio-cognitive) rather than placed on the learners' experiences themselv (more) es. In view of this, this paper investigates learners' experiences through the analysis of a group of self narratives recorded by the AMFALE (Aprendendo com memórias de falantes e de aprendizes de língua estrangeira)² project, while, at the same time, analyzes such autobiographies in the light of Leppänen and Kalaja's (2002) work on autobiographies as learners' identities constructions, based on Vladimir Propp's book Morphology of the Folktale (2000). The study is divided in two parts: the first one briefly reviews the process of identity construction and the importance of autobiographies as a means of expression of the self. Besides, it also focuses on the criteria set forth by Leppänen and Kalaja (2002) for the analysis of autobiographies, based on Vladimir Propp's book Morphology of the folktale (2000). The second part focuses on the analyses of AMFALE autobiographies as stated above.

Andrade, Luiz Antônio Caldeira

2007-01-01

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Gender Differences in L2 Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning in the Video-based CALL Program  

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Full Text Available This study examined whether there were significant differences between males and females in comprehension, vocabulary acquisition and vocabulary retention in the video-based computer assisted language learning (CALL) program. In total, 74 male and 43 female university students taking Freshman English course in Taiwan joined this study. A quantitative analysis of video comprehension tests, vocabulary immediate tests, and vocabulary retention tests was conducted. Two types of videotexts ranked as easy and difficult materials were used. The statistic results showed that first, regardless of videotext difficulty, females achieved higher percentage scores than males in comprehension, vocabulary immediate, and vocabulary retention tests. Second, with an easy videotext, females achieved significantly higher scores of comprehension and vocabulary retention tests than males. Third, a within-group comparison showed that females achieved significantly higher scores of both vocabulary immediate and retention tests of the easy segment than their scores of the difficult segment. Fourth, males themselves acquired vocabulary significantly better while viewing the easy segment; however, males’ comprehension of the difficult videotext was significantly better than their score of the easy one. Finally, instructional recommendations were presented to enhance L2 instruction through the video-based CALL program.

Lu-Fang Lin

2011-01-01

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The Effect of Multimedia Glosses on Online Computerized L2 Text Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning of Iranian EFL Learners  

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Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of different types of multimedia glosses, namely text, picture, and text plus picture on online computerized L2 text comprehension and vocabulary learning of junior high school students. About 60 female Iranian junior high school students were selected from a population pool of 102 volunteers based on their performance on a standard English proficiency test (Nelson). Afterwards, they were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 15, three gloss groups, subsequently exposed to the research treatment and one control group. Taking advantage of the results of the pilot study, some words of the computerized written texts were glossed and hyperlinked by a computer software program. When the students clicked on hyperlinked words, a new page appeared and showed the word with a definition in English (textual gloss group), a picture (pictorial gloss group), or a combination of both definition and picture (textual plus pictorial gloss group). Participants in each experimental group read the texts under one of the three mentioned conditions. Statistical analyses of the results reveal that 1) all multimedia gloss groups comprehended computerized L2 texts significantly better than the control group, 2) A significant difference between the multimedia gloss groups and the control group in the production of the target vocabulary items was found. 3) The mix gloss group insignificantly outperformed the textual and pictorial gloss groups in computerized L2 text comprehension, and 4) regarding vocabulary learning, the mix gloss group significantly outperformed the other two gloss groups. Hence, the findings of this study indicate that utilizing computers and multimedia glosses can be influential in language teaching in general and online L2 text comprehension as well as incidental vocabulary learning in particular.

Omid Tabatabaei; Nasrin Shams

2011-01-01

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Study Abroad, Previous Language Experience, and Spanish L2 Development  

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|This study investigates second language (L2) development of Spanish verbal morphology, subject omissions, and subject-verb (SV) inversions by learners in two different proficiency levels and learning contexts. Oral narratives from 40 L2 learners at the intermediate and advanced levels, both at home and in a study abroad (SA) program, were…

Marques-Pascual, Laura

2011-01-01

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Multi-Task Feature Learning Via Efficient l2,1-Norm Minimization  

CERN Document Server

The problem of joint feature selection across a group of related tasks has applications in many areas including biomedical informatics and computer vision. We consider the l2,1-norm regularized regression model for joint feature selection from multiple tasks, which can be derived in the probabilistic framework by assuming a suitable prior from the exponential family. One appealing feature of the l2,1-norm regularization is that it encourages multiple predictors to share similar sparsity patterns. However, the resulting optimization problem is challenging to solve due to the non-smoothness of the l2,1-norm regularization. In this paper, we propose to accelerate the computation by reformulating it as two equivalent smooth convex optimization problems which are then solved via the Nesterov's method-an optimal first-order black-box method for smooth convex optimization. A key building block in solving the reformulations is the Euclidean projection. We show that the Euclidean projection for the first reformulation...

Liu, Jun; Ye, Jieping

2012-01-01

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Online multilingual vocabulary system and its application in L2 learning  

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Full Text Available In the field of second language teaching, vocabulary has been one of the most neglected areas in the classroom. Although language teachers/ instructors are well aware of the importance of vocabulary, there is not enough time in the classroom to actually “teach” vocabulary. Therefore, we need to find ways to promote autonomous vocabulary learning so that students can make good use of their time outside theclassrooms.In this study, we present an online vocabulary learning system that we have developed. The results obtained from our evaluation experiment indicate that our system is more effective in retaining the meaning of the words compared to the traditional learning method.As an example of applying this system to language learning, we will give a demonstration of a Japanese onomatopoeia dictionary that we are compiling. Onomatopoeia are especially troublesome for learners of the Japanese language. Although they are frequently used in both written and spoken Japanese, they are very difficult to translate to other languages. We demonstrate that by employing our system, learners are better able to understand the meaning and the context of eachlexical item.

Haruko Miyakoda; Kei-ichi Kaneko; Masatoshi Ishikawa; Norihide Shinagawa

2010-01-01

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Gender Differences in L2 Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning in the Video-based CALL Program  

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This study examined whether there were significant differences between males and females in comprehension, vocabulary acquisition and vocabulary retention in the video-based computer assisted language learning (CALL) program. In total, 74 male and 43 female university students taking Freshman Englis...

Lu-Fang Lin

39

Estilos de pensamiento Cognitive styles: an approach to autonomous learning in L2 adult students  

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Full Text Available El siguiente artículo resume los resultados de una investigación descriptivo-cualitativa sobre estilos cognitivos o de pensamiento, llevado a cabo con miembros del programa de extensión académica en la UPB, con el objetivo de describir los estilos de pensamiento de los estudiantes que les permitan reconocer y utilizar estrategias meta cognitivas para desarrollar un nivel consciente de responsabilidad y autonomía en el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera. El marco teórico de este estudio se basa en conceptos tales como estilos cognitivos, estrategias meta cognitivas, aptitud, así como la autonomía y la responsabilidad en el aprendizaje. Los instrumentos diseñados para la recopilación de datos fueron un test sobre estilos cognitivos, en segundo lugar, un cuestionario semiestructurado con los siguientes ítems: proceso de toma de decisiones, la auto descripción como aprendices, las percepciones del estudiante sobre el papel del profesor, incluido el uso de estrategias meta cognitivas, tercero , una entrevista abierta con el objetivo de medir el impacto que tiene el concebir un proceso de aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera desde la perspectiva de los estilos de pensamiento. Los resultados mostraron la expectativa de los estudiantes para reconocer las capacidades humanas, la necesidad de adquirir la competencia estratégica, la necesidad real de participar abiertamente en la planificación de metas y objetivos, y en la auto-evaluación formativa del proceso de aprendizaje, así como el deseo de pasar de un proceso centrado en tareas, a un proceso centrado en la autonomía. The following article sums up the findings of a descriptive-qualitative research on cognitive styles carried out with members of the Academic Extension program at the UPB, aiming at describing the cognitive styles of students that enable them to recognize and use metacognitive strategies in order to develop a conscious level of autonomy and responsibility in learning a foreign language. This study was theoretically supported by concepts such as cognitive styles, metacognitive strategies, aptitude in learning, as well as autonomy and responsibility. The instruments used in the data collection procedures were first a test on cognitive styles, second, a semi structured questionnaire on decision making process, self description as learners, student´s perceptions on the teacher´s role, including the use of metacognitive strategies, third, an open interview aiming at measuring the impact of being aware of learning a foreign language from the perspective of cognitive styles. Results showed students’ inner expectations to recognize human abilities, the need to acquire strategic competence, the real need to openly participate in planning of goals and objectives, self assessment on formative learning process, as well as turning to be autonomous centered learners, rather that task oriented students.

Atehortúa Atehortúa José Nicolás

2010-01-01

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Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) and L2 motivation associated with L2 pronunciation development in pre-service teachers of English Estrategias de Aprendizaje de una Lengua y motivación L2 asociadas al desarrollo de la pronunciación de una L2 en estudiantes de Pedagogía en Inglés  

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Full Text Available This study seeks to uncover the psychosocial mechanisms used by pre-service teachers of English with the purpose of developing an L2 phonological system, within a framework of language learning strategies (LLSs) The study makes use of a case study methodology and collects information through a semi-structured interview, whose results are interpreted in light of Oxford's (1990) taxonomy. The results corroborate to some extent findings made in previous studies, amongst which are: (i) ample use of indirect strategies, amongst which metacognitive, planning and monitoring stand out; (ii) greater potential of metacognitive strategies when accompanied by use of direct strategies such as mental images, applying images and sounds, practising, analysing/reasoning, and paying attention; and (iii) the mobilisation power of motivation in connection with a strategy repertoire.La presente investigación busca develar los mecanismos sicosociales que utilizan los profesores de inglés de pre-servicio destacados en su desarrollo fonológico en inglés como L2, canalizados a través de estrategias de aprendizaje de una lengua. La investigación hace uso de la metodología de estudio de caso y recaba información de los dos participantes a través de la entrevista semi-estructurada, cuyos resultados son analizados a la luz de la taxonomía propuesta por Oxford (1990). Los resultados corroboran en cierta medida estudios anteriores en los siguientes sentidos: (i) los participantes hacen amplio uso de estrategias indirectas, entre las cuales destacan las estrategias metacognitivas, planificación del aprendizaje y monitoreo; (ii) las estrategias metacognitivas se ven potenciadas cuando entran en contacto con el uso de estrategias directas, tales como la creación de imágenes mentales, aplicación de imagen y sonido, práctica, razonamiento cognitivo y foco atencional; y (iii) la motivación se presenta como variable movilizadora del repertorio de estrategias de aprendizaje.

Mauricio Véliz C

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) and L2 motivation associated with L2 pronunciation development in pre-service teachers of English/ Estrategias de Aprendizaje de una Lengua y motivación L2 asociadas al desarrollo de la pronunciación de una L2 en estudiantes de Pedagogía en Inglés  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La presente investigación busca develar los mecanismos sicosociales que utilizan los profesores de inglés de pre-servicio destacados en su desarrollo fonológico en inglés como L2, canalizados a través de estrategias de aprendizaje de una lengua. La investigación hace uso de la metodología de estudio de caso y recaba información de los dos participantes a través de la entrevista semi-estructurada, cuyos resultados son analizados a la luz de la taxonomía propuesta (more) por Oxford (1990). Los resultados corroboran en cierta medida estudios anteriores en los siguientes sentidos: (i) los participantes hacen amplio uso de estrategias indirectas, entre las cuales destacan las estrategias metacognitivas, planificación del aprendizaje y monitoreo; (ii) las estrategias metacognitivas se ven potenciadas cuando entran en contacto con el uso de estrategias directas, tales como la creación de imágenes mentales, aplicación de imagen y sonido, práctica, razonamiento cognitivo y foco atencional; y (iii) la motivación se presenta como variable movilizadora del repertorio de estrategias de aprendizaje. Abstract in english This study seeks to uncover the psychosocial mechanisms used by pre-service teachers of English with the purpose of developing an L2 phonological system, within a framework of language learning strategies (LLSs) The study makes use of a case study methodology and collects information through a semi-structured interview, whose results are interpreted in light of Oxford's (1990) taxonomy. The results corroborate to some extent findings made in previous studies, amongst whic (more) h are: (i) ample use of indirect strategies, amongst which metacognitive, planning and monitoring stand out; (ii) greater potential of metacognitive strategies when accompanied by use of direct strategies such as mental images, applying images and sounds, practising, analysing/reasoning, and paying attention; and (iii) the mobilisation power of motivation in connection with a strategy repertoire.

Véliz C, Mauricio

2012-01-01

42

Developing Critical L2 Digital Literacy through the Use of Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Learning Management Systems such as Moodle  

Science.gov (United States)

Second Language (L2) Digital Literacy is of emerging importance within English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Korea, and will evolve to become regarded as the most critical component of overall L2 English Literacy. Computer-based Internet-hosted Learning Management Systems (LMS), such as the popular open-source Moodle, are rapidly being adopted worldwide for distance education, and are also being applied to blended (hybrid) education. In EFL Education, they have a special potential: by setting the LMS to force English to be used exclusively throughout a course website, the meta-language can be made the target L2 language. Of necessity, students develop the ability to use English to navigate the Internet, access and contribute to online resources, and engage in computer-mediated communication. Through such pragmatic engagement with English, students significantly develop their L2 Digital Literacy.

Meurant, Robert C.

43

Cantonese English as a Second Language Learners' Perceived Relations between "Similar" L1 and L2 Speech Sounds: A Test of the Speech Learning Model  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports on the results of a research study that investigated Cantonese English as a second language (ESL) learners' perception of English speech sounds, their perceived relations between "similar" English and Cantonese sounds, as well as the applicability of the claims of the Speech Learning Model (SLM) to second language (L2

Chan, Alice Y. W.

2012-01-01

44

A Morphological Tagger Based on a Learning Classifier System  

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Full Text Available Task of morphological tagging of text is usually solved by a statistics-based approach. Knowledge-base, obtained by a classical algorithmic often not easy to manipulate – correcting orincorporating additional information is hard. The proposed approach offers an easy way to learn a compact and precise rule-base using just basic mathematical operation. Learning and inference process is computationally simple and mostly depends on the dictionary lookup algorithm. This approach offers a comparable performance to other ones.

HLADEK Daniel; STAS Ján; JUHAR Jozef

2011-01-01

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Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: evidence from two learning methods in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyse the effect of two learning methods (picture- vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and non-cognates) in early stages of children's L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age = 10.87 years; SD= 0.85), participated in the study. None of them had prior knowledge of Basque (the L2 in this study). After a learning phase in which L2 words were learned either by a picture- or a word-based method, children were tested in a backward-word translation recognition task at two times (immediately vs. one week later). Results showed that the participants made more errors when rejecting semantically related than semantically unrelated words as correct translations (semantic interference effect). The magnitude of this effect was higher in the delayed test condition regardless of the learning method. Moreover, the overall performance of participants from the word-based method was better than the performance of participants from the picture-word method. Results were discussed concerning the most significant bilingual lexical processing models.

Comesaña M; Soares AP; Sánchez-Casas R; Lima C

2012-08-01

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L2 Negation Constructions at Work  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the usage- and exemplar-based roots of second language (L2) negation construction learning. Based on two longitudinal case studies involving two adult L2 English learners and a corpus of 63 three-hour sessions of recorded classroom interactions, the study shows that L2 learning follows the predictions of usage-based models of…

Eskildsen, Soren W.

2012-01-01

47

Unsupervised Learning of Morphology for English and Inuktitut  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a simple unsupervised techniquefor learning morphology by identifying hubsin an automaton. For our purposes, a hub is anode in a graph with in-degree greater thanone and out-degree greater than one. We createa word-trie, transform it into a minimalDFA, then identify hubs. Those hubs markthe boundary between root and suffix,achieving similar performance to more complexmixtures of techniques.

Howard Johnson; Joel Martin

48

Impact of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) on pancreatic islet function and morphology in mice and men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Common genetic variations in the gene encoding transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) reveal the strongest association with type 2-diabetes known to date. These lead to impaired insulin production and output, but the mechanisms of disease remain incompletely known. In this issue of Diabetologia, two publications provide new insights into TCF7L2-dependent diabetes.

Renström E

2012-10-01

49

Galaxy Zoo: Reproducing Galaxy Morphologies Via Machine Learning  

CERN Document Server

We present morphological classifications obtained using machine learning for objects in SDSS DR7 that have been classified by Galaxy Zoo into three classes namely spirals, ellipticals and stars/unique objects. An artificial neural network is trained on a subset of objects classified by the human eye and we test whether the machine learning algorithm can reproduce the human classifications for the rest of the sample. We find that the success of the neural network in matching the human classifications depends crucially on the set of input parameters chosen for the machine-learning algorithm. The colours, concentrations and parameters associated with profile-fitting are reasonable in seperating the stars and galaxies into three classes. However, these results are considerably improved when adding adaptive shape parameters as well as texture. The adaptive moments and texture parameters alone cannot distinguish between stars and elliptical galaxies. Using a set of thirteen distance-independant parameters, the neur...

Banerji, Manda; Lintott, Chris J; Abdalla, Filipe B; Schawinski, Kevin; Andreescu, Dan; Bamford, Steven; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alex; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

2009-01-01

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The Influence of Incidental and Intentional Vocabulary Acquisition and Vocabulary Strategy Use on Learning L2 Vocabularies  

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Full Text Available This study is an attempt to investigate the role of incidental and intentional vocabulary acquisition in addition to the influence of language learning strategy: namely, the use of vocabulary strategy by Iranian EFL learners in learning new vocabularies. Accordingly, this study is two-faceted. First, Part A examines the difference between different modes of presentation, incidental and intentional learning of new vocabularies (i.e., incidental, etymology-based intentional, and meaning-based intentional), and acquisition of new vocabularies. Part B investigates the impact of the use of language learning strategies—in this case vocabulary and reading strategy use using The Language Strategy Use Inventory—on the learning of new vocabularies. Part A, studying the influence of incidental as opposed to intentional presentation and acquisition of vocabularies, involved 30 students (i.e., 26 males and 4 females). Part B of the study, investigating the role of vocabulary learning strategy use, involved 59 students (i.e., 49 males and 10 females). The results of Part A shown by t-test indicate that, as far as performance of the students on a test of vocabulary acquisition is concerned, there is no significant difference between the two modes—incidental and intentional learning. However, for the same part, linear regression proved that among the vocabularies presented through different modes of presentation, it is vocabularies learned through meaning-based intentional mode that is the most predictive of the performance of the students on a test of vocabulary acquisition. Moreover, as for part B, the study found that there is a positive, but weak, correlation between the students’ vocabulary strategy use – measured by students filling out a self-report questionnaire entitled The Language Strategy Use Inventory developed by Cohen, A, Oxford, L. R, and Chi. J. – and their learning of new vocabularies. Finally, the findings of part B of the study indicate that, as the degree to which the students’ use of vocabulary strategy use increases, so does their use of reading strategy use.

Minoo Alemi; Alireza Tayebi

2011-01-01

51

The Effects of Task Involvement Load on L2 Incidental Vocabulary Learning: A Meta-Analytic Study  

Science.gov (United States)

This meta-analytic study provides a systematic statistical synthesis of the effects of output tasks on second or foreign incidental vocabulary learning. A total of 12 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Five mediator variables were examined: design quality, types of output task, time on task, genres of text, and text-target word ratios.…

Huang, Shufen; Willson, Victor; Eslami, Zohreh

2012-01-01

52

On the Relationship between Self-regulated Learning Components and L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension  

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Full Text Available In the past two decades, self-regulation has been the center of heated debate in educational psychology. The present study attempted to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' self-regulated learning components and vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension .To fulfill this objective, a 60-item vocabulary and reading comprehension TOEFL test was administered to a sample of 250 male and female college students majoring in English Teaching, English Language Translation, and English Literature. The Persian version of “Self- regulation Trait Questionnaire” was administered to the same participants. Pearson correlation procedure was used to analyze data. Results indicated that the correlation between self-regulated learning components: planning, self -checking, effort and self-efficacy gave mixed results. That is to say, two of the correlation coefficients, self –checking and effort were significant while the other two, planning and self-efficacy, were non-significant.

Abbas Ali Zarei; Gamar Hatami

2012-01-01

53

The Effect of Exposure to the Visual Medium on Learning Pronunciation and Word Stress of L2 Learners  

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Full Text Available This study examined the effect of exposure to the visual medium on learning pronunciation and word stress. Thirty junior high school students participated in this study. They were divided into an experimental and a control group each included 15 students. The participants were given a pretest in order to make sure that they were homogeneous with regard to their pronunciation and word stress. Both groups received instruction on key to phonetic symbols available in the back of their textbooks and on the stress of English words. The participants in the experimental group read the computerized written passages while they had access to the pronunciation of the target words through phonetic symbols of the words. The control group listened to the teacher reading the same passages and repeated after her without having any access to the computer and experimental materials. Finally, the attitudinal questionnaire was given to the participants in experimental group to elicit their attitude towards their practicing technique. The findings revealed that visual medium had significant effect on learning word stress but not pronunciation of target words. Furthermore, using computer as a visual medium increased students’ motivation for both pronunciation and word stress learning.

Zahra Fotovatnia; Mahboubeh Omidi

2013-01-01

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Impact of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) on pancreatic islet function and morphology in mice and men  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Common genetic variations in the gene encoding transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) reveal the strongest association with type 2-diabetes known to date. These lead to impaired insulin production and output, but the mechanisms of disease remain incompletely known. In this issue of Diabetologia, two...

Renström, E.

55

Impact of transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) on pancreatic islet function and morphology in mice and men.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Common genetic variations in the gene encoding transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) reveal the strongest association with type 2-diabetes known to date. These lead to impaired insulin production and output, but the mechanisms of disease remain incompletely known. In this issue of Diabetologia, two...

Renström, Erik

56

Children benefit from morphological relatedness when they learn to spell new words  

Science.gov (United States)

Use of morphologically related words often helps in selecting among spellings of sounds in French. For instance, final /wa/ may be spelled oi (e.g., envoi “sendoff”), oit (e.g., exploit “exploit”), ois (e.g., siamois, “siamese”), or oie (e.g., joie “joy”). The morphologically complex word exploiter “to exploit”, with a pronounced t, can be used to indicate that the stem exploit is spelled with a silent t. We asked whether 8-year-old children benefited from such cues to learn new spellings. Children read silently stories which included two target nonwords, one presented in an opaque condition and the other in a morphological condition. In the opaque condition, the sentence provided semantic information (e.g., a vensois is a musical instrument) but no morphological information that could justify the spelling of the target word's final sound. Such justification was available in the morphological condition (e.g., the vensoisist plays the vensois instrument, which justifies that vensois includes a final silent s). 30 min after having read the stories, children's orthographic learning was assessed by asking them to choose the correct spelling of each nonword from among three phonologically plausible alternatives (e.g., vensois, vensoit, vensoie). Children chose correct spellings more often in the morphological condition than the opaque condition, even though the root (vensois) had been presented equally often in both conditions. That is, children benefited from information about the spelling of the morphologically complex word to learn the spelling of the stem.

Pacton, Sebastien; Foulin, Jean Noel; Casalis, Severine; Treiman, Rebecca

2013-01-01

57

The Role of Morphological Awareness in Reading Comprehension among Typical and Learning Disabled Native Arabic Speakers  

Science.gov (United States)

This work examines the role of morphological awareness in contrast to phonological processing in reading comprehension amongst two groups of native Arabic children: a group with learning disabilities (LD) and a mainstream group who were matched to the LD group in age or reading level. Measures of reading comprehension fluency, phonological skills,…

Mahfoudhi, Abdessatar; Elbeheri, Gad; Al-Rashidi, Mousa; Everatt, John

2010-01-01

58

Fault-tolerant gait learning and morphology optimization of a polymorphic walking robot  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper presents experiments with a morphology-independent, life-long strategy for online learning of locomotion gaits. The experimental platform is a quadruped robot assembled from the LocoKit modular robotic construction kit. The learning strategy applies a stochastic optimization algorithm to optimize eight open parameters of a central pattern generator based gait implementation. We observe that the strategy converges in roughly ten minutes to gaits of similar or higher velocity than a manually designed gait and that the strategy readapts in the event of failed actuators. We also optimize offline the reachable space of a foot based on a reference design but finds that the reality gap hardens the successfully transference to the physical robot. To address this limitation, in future work we plan to study co-learning of morphological and control parameters directly on physical robots.

Christensen, David Johan; Larsen, JØrgen Christian

2013-01-01

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HABILIDADES COMUNICATIVAS EN L2 MEDIATIZADAS POR LA TECNOLOGIA EN EL CONTEXTO DE LOS ENFOQUES POR TAREAS Y COOPERATIVO Habilidades comunicativas em L2 mediatizadas pela tecnologia no contexto dos enfoques por tarefas e cooperativo Communicative abilities in L2 mediated by technology in the context of task based teaching and cooperative learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este artículo es determinar cómo los principios metodológicos del enfoque basado en tareas, el aprendizaje cooperativo y la metodología CALL pueden ser utilizados de manera combinada en el diseño de actividades para el desarrollo de las habilidades lingüísticas. Con este objetivo, se explora evidencia empírica acerca de la efectividad de esta metodología en el aprendizaje de inglés como lengua extranjera en un estudio cuasiexperimental pre- y post- test grupo control. Los resultados obtenidos revelan un mayor incremento en el aprendizaje del grupo experimental que utilizó la metodología integrada en comparación con el grupo control que trabajó con una metodología tradicional. Esto sugiere que el uso combinado del enfoque basado en tareas, el aprendizaje cooperativo y la metodología CALL sería beneficioso para el desarrollo de las habilidades lingüísticas.O objetivo principal deste artigo é determinar como os princípios teóricos do enfoque baseado em tarefas, a aprendizagem cooperativa e a metodologia CALL podem ser utilizados de maneira combinada no desenho de atividades para a melhora das habilidades lingüísticas. Com este objetivo, explora-se a evidência empírica a respeito da efetividade desta metodologia na aprendizagem do inglês como língua estrangeira num estudo cuasi-experimental com um pré- e pós-teste e um grupo controle. Os resultados obtidos revelam um maior incremento na aprendizagem do grupo experimental que utilizou a metodologia integrada em comparação com o grupo controle que trabalhou com uma metodologia tradicional. Isto sugere que o uso combinado do enfoque baseado em tarefas, a aprendizagem cooperativa e a metodologia CALL seria benéfico para o desenvolvimento das habilidades lingüísticas.The main objective of this article is to portray how the theoretical principles of task-based teaching, cooperative learning and CALL can be used together in the design of activities for the improvement of linguistic abilities. To achieve this, empirical evidence was examined in order to determine the efficiency of this integrated methodology vs. The traditional one commonly used for teaching English as a foreign language. Both methods were contrasted and tested in an experimental pre/post test control group research design. the results show that the experimental group, which used the integrated methodology, had a considerable language improvement compared to the control group that used a traditional one. This suggests that an integrated methodology using the approach of the task-based teaching, the cooperative learning and CALL would be beneficial for the improvement of linguistic abilities.

Angie Quintanilla Espinoza; Anita Ferreira Cabrera

2010-01-01

60

Morphological changes in dendritic spines of Purkinje cells associated with motor learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experience-dependent changes of spine structure and number may contribute to long-term memory storage. Although several studies demonstrated structural spine plasticity following associative learning, there is limited evidence associating motor learning with alteration of spine morphology. Here, we investigated this issue in the cerebellar Purkinje cells using high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM). Adult rats were trained in an obstacle course, demanding significant motor coordination to complete. Control animals either traversed an obstacle-free runway or remained sedentary. Quantitative analysis of spine morphology showed that the density and length of dendritic spines along the distal dendrites of Purkinje cells were significantly increased in the rats that learned complex motor skills compared to active or inactive controls. Classification of spines into shape categories indicated that the increased spine density and length after motor learning was mainly attributable to an increase in thin spines. These findings suggest that motor learning induces structural spine plasticity in the cerebellar Purkinje neurons, which may play a crucial role in acquiring complex motor skills. PMID:17720555

Lee, Kea Joo; Jung, Joon Goo; Arii, Tatsuo; Imoto, Keiji; Rhyu, Im Joo

2007-08-27

 
 
 
 
61

Morphological changes in dendritic spines of Purkinje cells associated with motor learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Experience-dependent changes of spine structure and number may contribute to long-term memory storage. Although several studies demonstrated structural spine plasticity following associative learning, there is limited evidence associating motor learning with alteration of spine morphology. Here, we investigated this issue in the cerebellar Purkinje cells using high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM). Adult rats were trained in an obstacle course, demanding significant motor coordination to complete. Control animals either traversed an obstacle-free runway or remained sedentary. Quantitative analysis of spine morphology showed that the density and length of dendritic spines along the distal dendrites of Purkinje cells were significantly increased in the rats that learned complex motor skills compared to active or inactive controls. Classification of spines into shape categories indicated that the increased spine density and length after motor learning was mainly attributable to an increase in thin spines. These findings suggest that motor learning induces structural spine plasticity in the cerebellar Purkinje neurons, which may play a crucial role in acquiring complex motor skills.

Lee KJ; Jung JG; Arii T; Imoto K; Rhyu IJ

2007-11-01

62

Morphological analysis in school-age children: dynamic assessment of a word learning strategy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Morphological analysis is the ability to use knowledge of root words and affixes to determine the meanings of unfamiliar, morphologically complex words. Beginning in the early elementary grades and continuing into the college years, it is a primary strategy that is used to increase one's knowledge of difficult vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to investigate how well school-age children could use morphological analysis to explain word meanings. The study was also designed to examine individual differences in this domain in relation to children's broader literacy skills. METHOD: The ability of 50 typically developing sixth-grade children to explain the meanings of 15 low-frequency morphologically complex words was measured using a dynamic assessment procedure. Children were individually interviewed and were asked to define each word. As needed, varying degrees of adult scaffolding were provided. Children were also assessed for their word knowledge and reading comprehension. RESULTS: Performance on the dynamic assessment task revealed a wide range of skill levels in these children and was positively related to the children's literacy levels. Although some children readily used morphological analysis to explain the meanings of unfamiliar words, others required greater amounts of adult scaffolding to be successful. IMPLICATIONS: Suggestions are offered for ways to employ dynamic assessment to examine children's ability to use morphological analysis as a word learning strategy.

Larsen JA; Nippold MA

2007-07-01

63

Experiência em sala de aula: evidência empírica da complexidade no ensino e aprendizagem de LE/ Classroom experience: empirical evidence of complexity in l2 teaching and learning  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este artigo argumenta pela compreensão do construto experiência, como um Sistema Adaptativo Complexo, tendo em vista que, para compreendê-la, toda experiência encapsula um processo, no qual outros eventos que a perpassam são trazidos à tona. Para tal, partimos da pesquisa sobre experiências, apresentando trechos de relatos de estudantes e professores sobre eventos vivenciados em salas de aula de língua estrangeira (LE), como evidência empírica de conceitos da co (more) mplexidade, aplicados aos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE. Explicitamos, assim, a relação entre experiência, como construto, e caos / complexidade, como teoria, para compreender a natureza dos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE em salas de aula. Abstract in english This article argues for understanding the construct of experience as a complex adaptive system since experience, as a process, encapsulates other events that permeate it, bringing them to the fore. To this end, we briefly review research on experience and present excerpts from students? and teachers? report data of events experienced in the foreign language classrooms as empirical evidence of applying complexity theory concepts to understand the processes of foreign lan (more) guage teaching and learning. Thus, the explicit relationship between experience, as a construct, and chaos / complexity, as a theory, play a role for understanding the nature of classroom foreign language teaching and learning.

Miccoli, Laura Stella; Lima, Carolina Vianini A.

2012-01-01

64

Experiência em sala de aula: evidência empírica da complexidade no ensino e aprendizagem de LE Classroom experience: empirical evidence of complexity in l2 teaching and learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo argumenta pela compreensão do construto experiência, como um Sistema Adaptativo Complexo, tendo em vista que, para compreendê-la, toda experiência encapsula um processo, no qual outros eventos que a perpassam são trazidos à tona. Para tal, partimos da pesquisa sobre experiências, apresentando trechos de relatos de estudantes e professores sobre eventos vivenciados em salas de aula de língua estrangeira (LE), como evidência empírica de conceitos da complexidade, aplicados aos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE. Explicitamos, assim, a relação entre experiência, como construto, e caos / complexidade, como teoria, para compreender a natureza dos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE em salas de aula.This article argues for understanding the construct of experience as a complex adaptive system since experience, as a process, encapsulates other events that permeate it, bringing them to the fore. To this end, we briefly review research on experience and present excerpts from students’ and teachers’ report data of events experienced in the foreign language classrooms as empirical evidence of applying complexity theory concepts to understand the processes of foreign language teaching and learning. Thus, the explicit relationship between experience, as a construct, and chaos / complexity, as a theory, play a role for understanding the nature of classroom foreign language teaching and learning.

Laura Stella Miccoli; Carolina Vianini A. Lima

2012-01-01

65

Analysis of LOFT Tests L2-2, L2-3 and L3-0  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes LOFT Tests L2-2, L2-3, and L3-0 and presents conclusions reached from analysis of these tests. The LOFT L2 series of tests, called the power ascension series, originally consisted of six tests. The first four tests, L2-1 through L2-4, were identical except for step-wise increases in core power for each test. Comparison of these tests, and the nonnuclear Test L1-5, was planned to evaluate the effect of core power on system and ECC behavior during large cold leg break LOCA's. Tests L2-5 and L2-6 were to provide parametric investigations of the effect of loss of offsite power and prepressurized fuel. Prior to the start of the L2 series, it was decided Test L2-1 was not necessary due to the information learned from the LOFT nonnuclear tests and PBF lead rod tests. Tests L2-2 and L2-3 are described. The posttest analysis of Tests L2-2 and L2-3 is discussed, and conclusions reached from the comparisons of the experimental data to computer calculations presented. In addition, the results and implications of computer calculations on a commercial size PWR with the same model used for LOFT are presented. Finally, Test L3-0 is described and conclusions reached from it introduced

1979-11-30

66

Lexical representation of novel L2 contrasts  

Science.gov (United States)

There is much interest among psychologists and linguists in the influence of the native language sound system on the acquisition of second languages (Best, 1995; Flege, 1995). Most studies of second language (L2) speech focus on how learners perceive and produce L2 sounds, but we know of only two that have considered how novel sound contrasts are encoded in learners' lexical representations of L2 words (Pallier et al., 2001; Ota et al., 2002). In this study we investigated how native speakers of English encode Japanese consonant quantity contrasts in their developing Japanese lexicons at different stages of acquisition (Japanese contrasts singleton versus geminate consonants but English does not). Monolingual English speakers, native English speakers learning Japanese for one year, and native speakers of Japanese were taught a set of Japanese nonwords containing singleton and geminate consonants. Subjects then performed memory tasks eliciting perception and production data to determine whether they encoded the Japanese consonant quantity contrast lexically. Overall accuracy in these tasks was a function of Japanese language experience, and acoustic analysis of the production data revealed non-native-like patterns of differentiation of singleton and geminate consonants among the L2 learners of Japanese. Implications for theories of L2 speech are discussed.

Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Masuda, Kyoko

2005-04-01

67

Variations autour de la tâche dans l'enseignement / apprentissage des langues aujourd'hui What kind of tasks are used for L2 teaching and learning today?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article se donne pour objectif d'identifier les types de tâches, et leurs dénominateurs communs, qui sont présentés aujourd'hui – où "l'approche par les tâches" est soutenue par le Conseil de l'Europe – aux apprenants. Il analyse pour cela les articles issus de deux numéros de revues et un ouvrage collectif récents. Il apparaît que la grande majorité des scénarios pédagogiques s'y inscrit dans la perspective actionnelle... du moins d'après la déclaration des auteurs, car leur définition de ce qu'est une tâche ne correspond pas toujours à celle du CECR. Pour le public visé, étudiants ou professionnels, on propose le plus souvent des mono-tâches, mais également des projets, ou encore des simulations avec un enchaînement de plusieurs tâches. Elles s'inscrivent généralement dans la (future) réalité sociale des apprenants, mais certaines laissent également la place à des thèmes artistiques ou (inter)culturels. Contrairement à ce que l'on aurait pu attendre dans une démarche qui responsabilise l'apprenant, le recours à Internet n'est pas toujours systématique.At a time when action- and task-based learning is sustained by the European Council, this paper explores which types of tasks are given to second language learners today and what aspects these tasks have in common. The paper analyses two recent issues of scientific journals and one collective book. The analysis shows that the majority of pedagogical scenarios described in these texts claim to adopt an action- and task-based approach. However, in reality the way they define a task does not always correspond to the definition given by the European Framework of Reference for Languages. The described tasks are exclusively dedicated to higher and professional education; they are mostly single tasks, but they can also be projects and simulations including several successive tasks. They generally correspond to the learners' (future) reality, with themes that are nevertheless sometimes a little bit less “pragmatic”, like artistic or (inter)cultural ones. Contrary to what one might have expected within an approach that gives responsibility to the learner and where public access to the learners' productions is valued, the pedagogical scenarios do not systematically integrate the use of the Internet.

Elke Nissen

2011-01-01

68

L2 Motivation and Personality as Predictors of the Second Language Proficiency: Role of the Big Five Traits and L2 Motivational Self System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study examined the predictability of the L2 proficiency by personality and L2 motivational self system variables among 141 Iranian EFL university students. Participants completed Transparent Bipolar Inventory (Goldberg, 1992) as a personality measure, L2 motivational self system (Papi, 2010), and a self-rated measure of second language proficiency. Regression analyses showed that extroversion and openness to experience accounted for 13% of the variance in L2 proficiency; and ideal L2 self and L2 learning experience accounted for 35% of the variance in L2 proficiency. Further, extroversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and openness explained 25% of the variance of in ideal L2 self; neuroticism and conscientiousness explained 24% of the variance in ought-to L2 self; and conscientiousness and extroversion explained 26% of the variance in L2 learning experience. Hierarchical regressions also showed that L2 motivation is a more powerful predictor of L2 proficiency.Key words: Second language proficiency; Big Five traits; Ideal L2 self; Ought to L2 self; L2 learning experience; Motivation

Zargham Ghapanchi; Gholam Hassan Khajavy; Seyyedeh Fatemeh Asadpour

2011-01-01

69

Discrepancies between L2 Teacher and L2 Learner Beliefs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This state of the art article overviews the literature on discrepancies between foreign language teacher and learner beliefs. In the first section, the author draws the reader's attention to the significance of discrepancies between the L2 teacher and L2 learner perceptions and provides a synopsis o...

Gabillon, Zehra

70

The Learner´s Mother Tongue in the L2 Learning-Teaching Symbiosis La lengua materna del estudiante en la simbiosis entre enseñanza y aprendizaje de una segunda lengua  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper has a two-fold purpose. One is to review the stances of language-oriented theorists, who are practicing foreign/second-language teachers and learners from various parts of the world, regarding the long-standing controversy over whether or not the learner´s mother tongue plays a positive role in the foreign/second-language learning-teaching context. A second purpose is to offer, from a non-native-speaker L2-teacher standpoint, some suggestions on when and how learners´ native language can be capitalised on in the process of learning another language. This implies that the learner´s mother tongue can be a valuable tool at the disposal of foreign/second-language teachers in their classrooms worldwide.El presente artículo tiene dos propósitos. Uno es examinar las posturas de expertos en el área del lenguaje, docentes de lengua extranjera o segunda lengua y aprendices de varias partes del mundo en relación con la controversia que ha existido desde hace mucho tiempo respecto a si la lengua materna del estudiante desempeña o no un papel positivo en el contexto de la enseñanza y aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera o de una segunda lengua. Un segundo objetivo es ofrecer desde un punto de vista de un profesor no nativo de segunda lengua, algunas sugerencias sobre cuándo y cómo la lengua materna de los aprendices puede ser una ventaja en el proceso de aprendizaje de otra lengua. Esto implica que la lengua materna del aprendiz puede ser un instrumento valioso a disposición de profesores de lengua extranjera o segunda lengua de todo el mundo, en sus aulas de clase.

Nilton Hitotuzi

2006-01-01

71

The Learner´s Mother Tongue in the L2 Learning-Teaching Symbiosis/ La lengua materna del estudiante en la simbiosis entre enseñanza y aprendizaje de una segunda lengua  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El presente artículo tiene dos propósitos. Uno es examinar las posturas de expertos en el área del lenguaje, docentes de lengua extranjera o segunda lengua y aprendices de varias partes del mundo en relación con la controversia que ha existido desde hace mucho tiempo respecto a si la lengua materna del estudiante desempeña o no un papel positivo en el contexto de la enseñanza y aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera o de una segunda lengua. Un segundo objetivo es ofre (more) cer desde un punto de vista de un profesor no nativo de segunda lengua, algunas sugerencias sobre cuándo y cómo la lengua materna de los aprendices puede ser una ventaja en el proceso de aprendizaje de otra lengua. Esto implica que la lengua materna del aprendiz puede ser un instrumento valioso a disposición de profesores de lengua extranjera o segunda lengua de todo el mundo, en sus aulas de clase. Abstract in english This paper has a two-fold purpose. One is to review the stances of language-oriented theorists, who are practicing foreign/second-language teachers and learners from various parts of the world, regarding the long-standing controversy over whether or not the learner´s mother tongue plays a positive role in the foreign/second-language learning-teaching context. A second purpose is to offer, from a non-native-speaker L2-teacher standpoint, some suggestions on when and how l (more) earners´ native language can be capitalised on in the process of learning another language. This implies that the learner´s mother tongue can be a valuable tool at the disposal of foreign/second-language teachers in their classrooms worldwide.

Hitotuzi, Nilton

2006-10-01

72

Discrepancies between L2 Teacher and L2 Learner Beliefs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This state of the art article overviews the literature on discrepancies between foreign language teacher and learner beliefs. In the first section, the author draws the reader’s attention to the significance of discrepancies between the L2 teacher and L2 learner perceptions and provides a synopsis of both practical-anecdotal and empirical evidence on the possible consequences of such discrepancies. In the second part of this paper, drawing upon relevant literature, the author suggests some ways of overcoming discrepancies between teachers and learners’ understandings concerning foreign language practices.

Zehra Gabillon

2012-01-01

73

La création de pages Internet dans le cadre de parcours individualisé : la place de la méthodologie dans l'apprentissage des langues. Creating Internet Pages for L2 Self-learning : Where Methodology Fits In  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Les projets en ligne tracent un parcours utile pour un travail de compréhension globale, et c’est donc à partir du projet que nous cherchons à développer une méthodologie précise pour les tâches que nous demandons aux apprenants. Cependant, l’input compréhensible n’est pas suffisant pour un apprentissage de toutes les compétences d’une L2. Un travail qui ne demande jamais d’analyse au niveau de la structure de la langue ou des formes ne peut pas sensibiliser suffisamment les apprenants pour qu’ils aient une interlangue qui se développe. Il nous semble que le projet doit être inscrit dans un cadre qui trace un parcours méthodologique très précis tout en permettant à l’apprenant un travail autant de précision que de compréhension globale. Nous prenons un exemple pour illustrer ce que nous sommes en train de créer sur les pages Internet.On line language projects suggest worthwhile steps to take for overall comprehension work, which is why we have chosen to use projects to develop a specific methodology for tasks that we have our learners do. However, comprehensible input is insufficient for learning all of the language skills. Work that never demands an analysis of language structure or form cannot make learners sufficiently aware of the language in order to have their interlanguage develop. It seems to us that projects should include a very specific methodology that allows learners to work on precision as well as overall comprehension. We discuss an example of the pages we are in the process of creating on Internet.

Joline Boulon

1998-01-01

74

CALL--Enhanced L2 Listening Skills--Aiming for Automatization in a Multimedia Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening…

Mayor, Maria Jesus Blasco

2009-01-01

75

Atiyah's $L^2$-Index theorem  

CERN Multimedia

The $L^2$-Index Theorem of Atiyah \\cite{atiyah} expresses the index of an elliptic operator on a closed manifold $M$ in terms of the $G$-equivariant index of some regular covering $\\widetilde{M}$ of $M$, with $G$ the group of covering transformations. Atiyah's proof is analytic in nature. Our proof is algebraic and involves an embedding of a given group into an acyclic one, together with naturality properties of the indices.

Chatterji, Indira

2010-01-01

76

An amorphous model for morphological processing in visual comprehension based on naive discriminative learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 2-layer symbolic network model based on the equilibrium equations of the Rescorla-Wagner model (Danks, 2003) is proposed. The study first presents 2 experiments in Serbian, which reveal for sentential reading the inflectional paradigmatic effects previously observed by Milin, Filipovi? ?ur?evi?, and Moscoso del Prado Martín (2009) for unprimed lexical decision. The empirical results are successfully modeled without having to assume separate representations for inflections or data structures such as inflectional paradigms. In the next step, the same naive discriminative learning approach is pitted against a wide range of effects documented in the morphological processing literature. Frequency effects for complex words as well as for phrases (Arnon & Snider, 2010) emerge in the model without the presence of whole-word or whole-phrase representations. Family size effects (Moscoso del Prado Martín, Bertram, Häikiö, Schreuder, & Baayen, 2004; Schreuder & Baayen, 1997) emerge in the simulations across simple words, derived words, and compounds, without derived words or compounds being represented as such. It is shown that for pseudo-derived words no special morpho-orthographic segmentation mechanism, as posited by Rastle, Davis, and New (2004), is required. The model also replicates the finding of Plag and Baayen (2009) that, on average, words with more productive affixes elicit longer response latencies; at the same time, it predicts that productive affixes afford faster response latencies for new words. English phrasal paradigmatic effects modulating isolated word reading are reported and modeled, showing that the paradigmatic effects characterizing Serbian case inflection have crosslinguistic scope.

Baayen RH; Milin P; ?ur?evi? DF; Hendrix P; Marelli M

2011-07-01

77

ERP correlates of intramodal and crossmodal L2 acquisition.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The present study compared the neural correlates of an intramodally and a crossmodally acquired second language (L2). Deaf people who had learned their L1, German Sign Language (DGS), and their L2, German, through the visual modality were compared with hearing L2 learners of German and German native speakers. Correct and incorrect German sentences were presented word by word on a computer screen while the electroencephalogram was recorded. At the end of each sentence, the participants judged whether or not the sentence was correct. Two types of violations were realized: Either a semantically implausible noun or a violation of subject-verb number agreement was embedded at a sentence medial position. RESULTS: Semantic errors elicited an N400, followed by a late positivity in all groups. In native speakers of German, verb-agreement violations were followed by a left lateralized negativity, which has been associated with an automatic parsing process. We observed a syntax related negativity in both high performing hearing and deaf L2 learners as well. Finally, this negativity was followed by a posteriorly distributed positivity in all three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although deaf learners have learned German as an L2 mainly via the visual modality they seem to engage comparable processing mechanisms as hearing L2 learners. Thus, the data underscore the modality transcendence of language.

Skotara N; Kügow M; Salden U; Hänel-Faulhaber B; Röder B

2011-01-01

78

ERP correlates of intramodal and crossmodal L2 acquisition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study compared the neural correlates of an intramodally and a crossmodally acquired second language (L2). Deaf people who had learned their L1, German Sign Language (DGS), and their L2, German, through the visual modality were compared with hearing L2 learners of German and German native speakers. Correct and incorrect German sentences were presented word by word on a computer screen while the electroencephalogram was recorded. At the end of each sentence, the participants judged whether or not the sentence was correct. Two types of violations were realized: Either a semantically implausible noun or a violation of subject-verb number agreement was embedded at a sentence medial position. Results Semantic errors elicited an N400, followed by a late positivity in all groups. In native speakers of German, verb-agreement violations were followed by a left lateralized negativity, which has been associated with an automatic parsing process. We observed a syntax related negativity in both high performing hearing and deaf L2 learners as well. Finally, this negativity was followed by a posteriorly distributed positivity in all three groups. Conclusions Although deaf learners have learned German as an L2 mainly via the visual modality they seem to engage comparable processing mechanisms as hearing L2 learners. Thus, the data underscore the modality transcendence of language.

Skotara Nils; Kügow Monique; Salden Uta; Hänel-Faulhaber Barbara; Röder Brigitte

2011-01-01

79

A Study of Age Influence in L2 Acquisition  

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Full Text Available The study of the second language (L2) acquisition has drawn more and more attention since the 1960s. This paper tries to explore the influence of learners’ age factor as well as the other factors related to age in L2 acquisition. Considering the fact that most learners are adolescents and adults in the current foreign language education, we find it quite necessary to compare and analyze their advantages and disadvantages in foreign language learning and their learning styles, so as to improve their foreign language learning efficiency. In this paper comparisons and analyses are carried out on children, adolescents and adults to examine their characteristics respectively and their influences on language learning.

Chao Zhang

2009-01-01

80

The L1=L2 Hypotheses: A Reconsideration  

Science.gov (United States)

Discusses the L1=L2 hypothesis which states that, all other things except knowledge of language being equal, first language acquisition is the same as second language acquisition. Reviews the evidence for and against the hypothesis, looks at current research and considers the general distinction between formal and informal learning. (SED)

Ellis, Rod

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Deconstructing Gender Stereotyping through Literature in L2  

Science.gov (United States)

While it is generally accepted that literature fosters (inter)cultural learning, few qualitative studies have sought to understand in what ways interculturality is developed. This article investigates the development of Spanish L2 students' intercultural awareness through the reading of a short story entitled "Norma y Ester" by Argentine writer,…

Yulita, Leticia

2010-01-01

82

A interação e o processo de negociação em L2  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma investigação sobre a interação e as negociações desencadeadas por atividades comunicativas em uma sala de aula de nível básico de francês como segunda língua (L2). A partir da teoria sociointeracionista (Vygotsky, 1998), os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o processo interacional incentiva a troca de informações entre os aprendizes, favorecendo a negociação, e, também, que os aprendizes utilizaram estratégias de mediação para realizar as suas negociações. Os aprendizes receberam input modificado e tiveram mais oportunidades para a produção de output compreensível. Este relato, portanto, mostra que, ao negociar para a compreensão e a produção de textos em L2, os aprendizes se comprometeram, tornando-se agentes responsáveis e, sobretudo, colaboradores do processo de ensino/aprendizagem da L2.This paper investigated the interaction and the negotiations generated by communicative activities proposed in a French as a second language (L2) basic class. Based on the socio-interactionist theory (Vygotsky, 1998), the results show that the interactional process encourages the exchange of information among learners, helping negotiation. Besides that, learners also use mediating strategies to do the negotiations. The learners receive modified input and have more opportunities to produce comprehensible output. This paper, therefore, shows that, to negotiate, to understand and to produce L2 texts, the learners committed themselves, becoming responsible agents, and, above all, collaborators in the L2 learning/teaching process.

Cláudia Eliana Bassi; Deise Prina Dutra

2004-01-01

83

Drosophila rugose is a functional homolog of mammalian Neurobeachin and affects synaptic architecture, brain morphology, and associative learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neurobeachin (Nbea) is implicated in vesicle trafficking in the regulatory secretory pathway, but details on its molecular function are currently unknown. We have used Drosophila melanogaster mutants for rugose (rg), the Drosophila homolog of Nbea, to further elucidate the function of this multidomain protein. Rg is expressed in a granular pattern reminiscent of the Golgi network in neuronal cell bodies and colocalizes with transgenic Nbea, suggesting a function in secretory regulation. In contrast to Nbea(-/-) mice, rg null mutants are viable and fertile and exhibit aberrant associative odor learning, changes in gross brain morphology, and synaptic architecture as determined at the larval neuromuscular junction. At the same time, basal synaptic transmission is essentially unaffected, suggesting that structural and functional aspects are separable. Rg phenotypes can be rescued by a Drosophila rg+ transgene, whereas a mouse Nbea transgene rescues aversive odor learning and synaptic architecture; it fails to rescue brain morphology and appetitive odor learning. This dissociation between the functional redundancy of either the mouse or the fly transgene suggests that their complex composition of numerous functional and highly conserved domains support independent functions. We propose that the detailed compendium of phenotypes exhibited by the Drosophila rg null mutant provided here will serve as a test bed for dissecting the different functional domains of BEACH (for beige and human Chediak-Higashi syndrome) proteins, such as Rugose, mouse Nbea, or Nbea orthologs in other species, such as human. PMID:23100440

Volders, Karolien; Scholz, Sabrina; Slabbaert, Jan R; Nagel, Anja C; Verstreken, Patrik; Creemers, John W M; Callaerts, Patrick; Schwärzel, Martin

2012-10-24

84

Drosophila rugose is a functional homolog of mammalian Neurobeachin and affects synaptic architecture, brain morphology, and associative learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Neurobeachin (Nbea) is implicated in vesicle trafficking in the regulatory secretory pathway, but details on its molecular function are currently unknown. We have used Drosophila melanogaster mutants for rugose (rg), the Drosophila homolog of Nbea, to further elucidate the function of this multidomain protein. Rg is expressed in a granular pattern reminiscent of the Golgi network in neuronal cell bodies and colocalizes with transgenic Nbea, suggesting a function in secretory regulation. In contrast to Nbea(-/-) mice, rg null mutants are viable and fertile and exhibit aberrant associative odor learning, changes in gross brain morphology, and synaptic architecture as determined at the larval neuromuscular junction. At the same time, basal synaptic transmission is essentially unaffected, suggesting that structural and functional aspects are separable. Rg phenotypes can be rescued by a Drosophila rg+ transgene, whereas a mouse Nbea transgene rescues aversive odor learning and synaptic architecture; it fails to rescue brain morphology and appetitive odor learning. This dissociation between the functional redundancy of either the mouse or the fly transgene suggests that their complex composition of numerous functional and highly conserved domains support independent functions. We propose that the detailed compendium of phenotypes exhibited by the Drosophila rg null mutant provided here will serve as a test bed for dissecting the different functional domains of BEACH (for beige and human Chediak-Higashi syndrome) proteins, such as Rugose, mouse Nbea, or Nbea orthologs in other species, such as human.

Volders K; Scholz S; Slabbaert JR; Nagel AC; Verstreken P; Creemers JW; Callaerts P; Schwärzel M

2012-10-01

85

Empirical Comparison of Evaluation Methods for Unsupervised Learning of Morphology Comparaison empirique des méthodes d'évaluation de l'apprentissage non-supervisé de la morphologie  

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Full Text Available Unsupervised and semi-supervised learning of morphology provide practical solutions for processing morphologically rich languages with less human labor than the traditional rule-based analyzers. Direct evaluation of the learning methods using linguistic reference analyses is important for their development, as evaluation through the final applications is often time consuming. However, even linguistic evaluation is not straightforward for full morphological analysis, because the morpheme labels generated by the learning method can be arbitrary. We review the previous evaluation methods for the learning tasks and propose new variations. In order to compare the methods, we perform an extensive meta-evaluation using the large collection of results from the Morpho Challenge competitions.

Sami Virpioja; Ville T. Turunen; Sebastian Spiegler; Oskar Kohonen; Mikko Kurimo

2012-01-01

86

Learner Perceptions of Instruction in L2 Pragmatics  

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Full Text Available In Taiwan, pragmatic competence has often been a neglected area in English education. Learners may be linguistically competent, but do not know how to use L2 appropriately. Through the teaching of complaint behaviors, the author demonstrates how pragmatic components can be incorporated into a college-level language classroom. After the instruction, the self reports of the forty participants showed a positive attitude toward such instruction. They also reported that the teaching materials were suitable, but suggested that the instruction would have been more interesting if videos or films had been included. When it comes to learning difficulties, most learners reported that more instructional time was needed to turn knowledge about L2 complaints to actual productions. These findings can serve as offering advice to language teachers when they plan their lessons in L2 pragmatics.

Yuanshan Chen

2009-01-01

87

Enhancing Lexical Knowledge through L2 Medium Tasks  

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Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the L2 use rate in EFL classrooms through introducing three task conditions in learning lexical items. Date were collected from a group of freshman university students (male and female) studying in Islamic Azad university of Sabzevar, Iran. (N=73). Based on their performance on a Michigan TOEFL reading test battery, they were first randomly divided into three groups, each completing one of the three vocabulary learning tasks that varied in the amount of L1/L2 use they induced during a two month period. The tasks were 'Reading plus further L2 reading', 'Reading plus L1 translation only' and 'dictionary work'. The statistical analysis of the students' performance on vocabulary post-tests was performed through One-Way ANOVA followed with the post hoc Regression Scheffe test to analyze which task has created a meaningful mean variability at 0/05 for both between and within groups. The results showed the outperformance of the group receiving 'reading plus further L2 reading' tasks and not the tasks involving more L1 use. (p:

Marjan Vosoughi

2012-01-01

88

Measurements of Development in L2 Written Production: The Case of L2 Chinese  

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This study investigates measures for second language (L2) writing development. A T-unit, which has been found the most satisfactory unit of analysis for measuring L2 development in English, is extended to measure L2 Chinese writing development through a cross-sectional design in this study. Data were collected from three L2 Chinese learner groups…

Jiang, Wenying

2013-01-01

89

Long-Term Crosslinguistic Transfer of Skills from L1 to L2  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the relationship of first language (L1) skills in elementary school and second language (L2) learning in high school. Students classified as high-, average-, and low-proficiency L2 learners were compared on L1 achievement measures of reading, spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, and listening comprehension…

Sparks, Richard; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

2009-01-01

90

L2 Phonology Learning among Young-Adult Learners of English: Effects of Regular Classroom-based Instruction and L2 Proficiency/ Enseñanza de la fonética de una segunda lengua en contextos escolares: Un análisis de las prácticas pedagógicas y sus efectos en el aprendizaje del inglés en jóvenes universitarios  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish A través de una metodología mixta, el presente estudio examinó el impacto de un curso de Fonología inglesa en la adquisición de sonidos vocálicos y consonánticos de estudiantes universitarios de inglés de nivel básico (n=4), pre-intermedio (n=8) e intermedio (n=6). El curso fue impartido por un profesor de inglés durante 16 semanas, cinco horas a la semana. Para determinar los efectos del curso, los estudiantes participaron en dos actividades orales durante una (more) entrevista al inicio y fin del curso. Durante el mismo, se observaron nueve clases y el instructor reportó las actividades implementadas. Los análisis de varianza revelaron cambios positivos en la pronunciación de todos los estudiantes. En las observaciones y los reportes se constató una enseñanza fonológica sistematizada y focalizada a través de actividades variadas. Los resultados sugieren que este tipo de enseñanza permite a los estudiantes contrarrestar los efectos negativos que factores biológicos y la influencia de la lengua materna tienen durante el aprendizaje. Abstract in english Using a mixed methodology, this study examines the impact of a university-level English phonology course on the acquisition of vowel and consonant sounds in that language, by beginning (n = 4), pre-intermediate (n = 8) and intermediate-level (n = 6) students. The 5-hour-a-week, 16-week course was taught by teacher of English. To determine the effects of the course, students participated in two oral activities during an interview at the beginning of the course, and another (more) at the end. During these interview, nine classes were observed, and the instructor reported the activities implemented. The analysis of variance revealed positive changes in all the students pronunciation students. Observations and reports verified the presence of systematic and focused phonological teaching through a variety of activities. The results suggest that this type of teaching allows students to counteract the negative effects which biological factors and the influence of the mother tongue have on learning.

Morales Pech, Diana; Izquierdo, Jesús

2011-01-01

91

A spatio-temporal latent atlas for semi-supervised learning of fetal brain segmentations and morphological age estimation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prenatal neuroimaging requires reference models that reflect the normal spectrum of fetal brain development, and summarize observations from a representative sample of individuals. Collecting a sufficiently large data set of manually annotated data to construct a comprehensive in vivo atlas of rapidly developing structures is challenging but necessary for large population studies and clinical application. We propose a method for the semi-supervised learning of a spatio-temporal latent atlas of fetal brain development, and corresponding segmentations of emerging cerebral structures, such as the ventricles or cortex. The atlas is based on the annotation of a few examples, and a large number of imaging data without annotation. It models the morphological and developmental variability across the population. Furthermore, it serves as basis for the estimation of a structures' morphological age, and its deviation from the nominal gestational age during the assessment of pathologies. Experimental results covering the gestational period of 20-30 gestational weeks demonstrate segmentation accuracy achievable with minimal annotation, and precision of morphological age estimation. Age estimation results on fetuses suffering from lissencephaly demonstrate that they detect significant differences in the age offset compared to a control group.

Dittrich E; Riklin Raviv T; Kasprian G; Donner R; Brugger PC; Prayer D; Langs G

2013-08-01

92

Vocabulary teaching strategies and conceptual representations of words in L2 in children: evidence with novice learners.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A controversial issue in bilingual research is whether in the early stages of L2 learning, access to the conceptual system involves mediation of L1 lexical representations [Kroll, J. F., & Stewart, E. (1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations. Journal of Memory and Language, 33, 149-174] or a direct route from the L2 word [Altarriba, J., & Mathis, K. M. (1997). Conceptual and lexical development in second language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 36, 550-568; Finkbeiner, M., & Nicol, J. (2003). Semantic category effects in second language word learning. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 369-383]. The main goal of this paper is to study, in a child population, whether the creation of conceptual representations for L2 words is possible, even after only one session of learning of the L2 vocabulary. Furthermore, we do so by examining the efficacy of two different L2 learning methods: L2-L1 association learning vs. L2-picture association learning. A translation recognition task was employed to test whether there was a difference between a semantically related pair and an unrelated pair across conditions (i.e., a semantic interference effect). Results showed a significant semantic interference effect-a conceptual effect-in children after just one vocabulary learning session. Importantly, the L2-picture method produced a greater semantic interference effect than the L2-L1 method. The implications of these findings for models of bilingual memory are examined.

Comesaña M; Perea M; Piñeiro A; Fraga I

2009-09-01

93

The Acquisition of L2 Phonology  

Science.gov (United States)

The Acquisition of L2 Phonology is a wide-ranging new collection which focuses on various aspects of the acquisition of an L2 phonological system. The authors are researchers and practitioners from five different countries. The volume has been divided into three major sections. Phonetic Analysis presents five studies of language learners in both…

Wojtaszek, Adam; Arabski, Janusz

2011-01-01

94

Language aptitude for pronunciation in advanced second language (L2) Learners: Behavioural predictors and neural substrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Individual differences in second language (L2) aptitude have been assumed to depend upon a variety of cognitive and personality factors. Especially, the cognitive factor phonological working memory has been conceptualised as language learning device. However, strong associations between phonological working memory and L2 aptitude have been previously found in early-stage learners only, not in advanced learners. The current study aimed at investigating the behavioural and neurobiological predictors of advanced L2 learning. Our behavioural results showed that phonetic coding ability and empathy, but not phonological working memory, predict L2 pronunciation aptitude in advanced learners. Second, functional neuroimaging revealed this behavioural trait to be correlated with hemodynamic responses of the cerebral network of speech motor control and auditory-perceptual areas. We suggest that the acquisition of L2 pronunciation aptitude is a dynamic process, requiring a variety of neural resources at different processing stages over time. PMID:23273501

Hu, Xiaochen; Ackermann, Hermann; Martin, Jason A; Erb, Michael; Winkler, Susanne; Reiterer, Susanne M

2012-12-27

95

Language aptitude for pronunciation in advanced second language (L2) Learners: Behavioural predictors and neural substrates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Individual differences in second language (L2) aptitude have been assumed to depend upon a variety of cognitive and personality factors. Especially, the cognitive factor phonological working memory has been conceptualised as language learning device. However, strong associations between phonological working memory and L2 aptitude have been previously found in early-stage learners only, not in advanced learners. The current study aimed at investigating the behavioural and neurobiological predictors of advanced L2 learning. Our behavioural results showed that phonetic coding ability and empathy, but not phonological working memory, predict L2 pronunciation aptitude in advanced learners. Second, functional neuroimaging revealed this behavioural trait to be correlated with hemodynamic responses of the cerebral network of speech motor control and auditory-perceptual areas. We suggest that the acquisition of L2 pronunciation aptitude is a dynamic process, requiring a variety of neural resources at different processing stages over time.

Hu X; Ackermann H; Martin JA; Erb M; Winkler S; Reiterer SM

2012-12-01

96

FACEBOOK DOES IT REALLY WORK FOR L2 LEARNERS  

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Full Text Available The abundance of the information and communication technology has endowed institution of higher education educators and e-learning users with the focused apparatus that can be employed as instructive devices in the classrooms. This paper provides an account of how Facebook was incorporated as a pedagogical means in the ESL settings and reports on the students’ stance and perception on the use of this social intermediate to enhance their L2 learning. Data was collected via a survey questionnaire concerning a particular group of transfer students at the tertiary stage. By the means of planned framework and structure, the students carried out several stages of the activities entrenched specifically for the English subject that they enrolled during the summer semester. The questionnaire was then administered and analysis of data in the signified affirmative responses from the students visà-vis to the use of Facebook in learning activities. They professed that the utilization of Facebook had generally enhanced their L2 skills such as reading and writing, expanded theirsocial circles, improved their communication skills and minimized their apprehension when learning and using the language among their peers. The paper concludes by stressing the advantages that can be attained as a result of the implementation of Facebook in languagelearning contexts.

Malissa Maria Mahmud

2012-01-01

97

Cannabinoid mitigation of neuronal morphological change important to development and learning: insight from a zebra finch model of psychopharmacology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Normal CNS development proceeds through late-postnatal stages of adolescent development. The activity-dependence of this development underscores the significance of CNS-active drug exposure prior to completion of brain maturation. Exogenous modulation of signaling important in regulating normal development is of particular concern. This mini-review presents a summary of the accumulated behavioral, physiological and biochemical evidence supporting such a key regulatory role for endocannabinoid signaling during late-postnatal CNS development. Our focus is on the data obtained using a unique zebra finch model of developmental psychopharmacology. This animal has allowed investigation of neuronal morphological effects essential to establishment and maintenance of neural circuitry, including processes related to synaptogenesis and dendritic spine dynamics. Altered neurophysiology that follows exogenous cannabinoid exposure during adolescent development has the potential to persistently alter cognition, learning and memory.

Soderstrom K; Gilbert MT

2013-03-01

98

$L_2$ boosting in kernel regression  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we investigate the theoretical and empirical properties of $L_2$ boosting with kernel regression estimates as weak learners. We show that each step of $L_2$ boosting reduces the bias of the estimate by two orders of magnitude, while it does not deteriorate the order of the variance. We illustrate the theoretical findings by some simulated examples. Also, we demonstrate that $L_2$ boosting is superior to the use of higher-order kernels, which is a well-known method of reducing the bias of the kernel estimate.

Park, B U; Ha, S; 10.3150/08-BEJ160

2009-01-01

99

Self-directed study and carving tooth models for learning tooth morphology: perceptions of students at the university of aberdeen, Scotland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tooth morphology has been taught at the University of Aberdeen Dental School, United Kingdom, through self-directed workshops, using online handouts and tooth models. Tooth carving sessions were recently added to introduce manual skills training through learning tooth morphology at an early stage of the dental course. The aim of this study was to assess students' perception of both teaching modalities to evaluate their usefulness and to allow further course development. The subjects of this study were first-year dental students. Students' opinions were sought upon completion of the tooth morphology sessions using a structured questionnaire that investigated their views about the effectiveness of both learning methods. The results suggest that self-directed workshops represent an effective way of learning tooth morphology; however, the students recommended further development of the course to make it more focused. Although students questioned the value of the carving sessions, they agreed that it helped to develop their manual dexterity, which was one of the main objectives of the exercise. Further review and development of the course is required in addition to follow-up of the students' performance in clinical skills to further elucidate any advantages of tooth carving to advocate it as a mode of learning.

Eid RA; Ewan K; Foley J; Oweis Y; Jayasinghe J

2013-09-01

100

GLI ERRORI DI ITALIANO L1 ED L2: INTERFERENZA E APPRENDIMENTO  

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Full Text Available Si può oggi affrontare il tema degli errori di italiano da una prospettiva che possa giovare contemporaneamente a docenti di italiano L1 ed L2? Noi pensiamo di sì: la ricerca glottodidattica sembra aver ormai apprestato un terreno comune alle due situazioni di apprendimento, sgombrando il campo da vecchi pregiudizi e distinzioni che appaiono ormai superate. Attraverso la contrapposizione di concetti quali “lingua parlata/lingua scritta”,  “errori di lingua / errori di linguaggio”, “apprendimento spontaneo/apprendimento guidato”, “italiano L1/italiano L2”, “errori di apprendimento/errori di interferenza, si indicano diversi criteri per la interpretazione degli errori e la loro valutazione in relazione alle cause, alle situazioni comunicative, ai contesti o allo stadio di evoluzione dell’apprendimento della lingua.     Errors in italian L1 and L2: interference and learning   Can errors in Italian be approached in a way that benefits both L1 and L2 Italian teachers? We believe so: glottodidactic research seems to have prepared a common terrain for these two learning situations, clearing the field of old prejudices and obsolete distinctions.  Through the juxtaposition of concepts like “spoken language/written language”, “language errors/speech errors”, “spontaneous learning/guided learning”, “L1 Italian/L2 Italian”, “learning errors/interference errors”, different criteria for interpreting errors and evaluating them in relation to their causes, to communicative situations, to contexts and the developmental state in learning a language are singled out.

Rosaria Solarino

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Characteristic of L=2 helical heliac  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been shown numerically that a L=2 helical heliac has a large helical axis, that is, Heliac-like magnetic configuration and lower magnetic ripple than for L=1. Magnetic shear is also improved for a L=2 helical heliac comparing with a Heliotron/Torsatron with similar coil parameters. A magnetic configuration having a magnetic well over wide range, moderate magnetic shear and relatively lower magnetic ripple is found. (author).

Kogoshi, Sumio; Tanomuro, Nobu (Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Katsurai, Makoto

1994-05-01

102

LA ICLASSE – SMARTPHONE E ITALIANO L2/LS  

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Full Text Available Mai come oggi le classi (di Italiano L2, ma non solo) sono così fortemente colonizzate dal digitale. L’invasione si è palesata sotto forma di telefonini cellulari (smartphone) e tablet dotati di connessione internet e infinite potenzialità sotto forma di applicazioni che possono sia aiutare il discente sia, se male impiegati, ostacolarlo dall’intraprendere un proficuo percorso di apprendimento. Compito dell’insegnante di lingua è circoscrivere l’influenza e l’uso di tali strumenti – che non sono mero techné, ma un modo di funzionare di una generazione – non  per vietarli ma per proporre un approccio e un loro utilizzo costruttivo quali mezzi dalle grandi potenzialità nell’apprendimento di una lingua straniera.     The 1st class – Smartphones and Italian L2/FL   Classrooms (for Italian L2, but not only) have never before been so strongly digitally oriented. This invasion is made tangible by smartphones and tablets equipped with internet connections and infinite potential thanks to applications which can help students in their studies, or hinder them if used incorrectly. The language teacher’s task is to circumscribe the influence and use of these tools– which are not mere techné, but the way an entire generation functions – not to prohibit using them but to propose using them constructively, thanks to their great potential for foreign language learning.

Filippo Zanoli

2012-01-01

103

Isolation of mycoplasma virus L2 insertion variants and miniviruses.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We isolated two spontaneous variants of mycoplasma virus L2. Both variants, designated L2ins1 and L2ins2, contained a 3.1-kilobase-pair (kbp) insertion in the 11.8-kbp wild-type L2 genome. The insert DNA was shown to be derived from two noncontiguous regions of the L2 genome, and L2ins1 and L2ins2 d...

Dybvig, K; Sladek, T L; Maniloff, J

104

Review Article: A Tree in the Wood--A Review of Research on L2 Chinese Acquisition  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been considerable research in Chinese as a second language (L2) in recent years, particularly in its morphological and syntactic aspects. This article reviews research in these aspects with reference to the broader discipline of second language acquisition (SLA) and suggests that L2 Chinese research has contributed to SLA through…

Zhao, Yang

2011-01-01

105

The Effect of Lengthened Writing Approach on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition  

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Full Text Available Based on empirical research and qualitative analysis, this paper aims to explore the effects of Lengthened Writing Approach on L2 vocabulary acquisition. The results show that, during L2 vocabulary teaching process, the proper application of Lengthened Writing Approach can effectively facilitate the memorization of new words, and this teaching approach is welcomed by most subjects. This study highlights the role of Lengthened Writing Approach in L2 vocabulary acquisition, and sheds light on the college English learning and teaching.

Jing Liu

2009-01-01

106

$L^2$-boundedness and $L^2$-compactness of a class of Fourier integral operators  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we study the $L^2$-boundedness and $L^2$-compactness of a class of Fourier integral operators. These operators are bounded (respectively compact) if the weight of the amplitude is bounded (respectively tends to 0).

Bekkai Messirdi; Bekkai Messirdi

2006-01-01

107

The Interrelationship of Autonomy, Motivation, and Academic Performance of Persian L2 Learners in Distance Education Contexts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Among various variables affecting the learning of a language, motivation and autonomy play salient roles. The present study aimed at investigating the possible relationship among autonomy, motivation, and academic performance of Persian L2 learners. To do so, 60 Persian L2 learners from Shahrekord P...

Mahmood Hashemian; Kamal Heidari Soureshjani

108

An Investigation of How the Channel of Input and Access to Test Questions Affect L2 Listening Test Performance  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of video technology has become widespread in the teaching and testing of second-language (L2) listening, yet research into how this technology affects the learning and testing process has lagged. The current study investigated how the channel of input (audiovisual vs. audio-only) used on an L2 listening test affected test-taker…

Wagner, Elvis

2013-01-01

109

Are Alphabetic Language-Derived Models of L2 Reading Relevant to L1 Logographic Background Readers?  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we argue that second language (L2) reading research, which has been informed by studies involving first language (L1) alphabetic English reading, may be less relevant to L2 readers with non-alphabetic reading backgrounds, such as Chinese readers with an L1 logographic (Chinese character) learning history. We provide both…

Ehrich, John Fitzgerald; Zhang, Lawrence Jun; Mu, Jon Congjun; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

2013-01-01

110

The L^2 signature of torus knots  

CERN Multimedia

We find a formula for the L2 signature of a (p,q) torus knot, which is the integral of the omega-signatures over the unit circle. We then apply this to a theorem of Cochran-Orr-Teichner to prove that the n-twisted doubles of the unknot, for n not 0 or 2, are not slice. This is a new proof of the result first proved by Casson and Gordon.

Collins, Julia

2010-01-01

111

Instability study for LOFT for L2-1, L2-2, and L2-3 pretest steady-state operating conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The results are presented of a thermal-hydrodynamic flow instability study of the LOFT reactor for the L2-1, L2-2, and L2-3 pretest steady-state operating conditions. Comparison is made between the LOFT reactor and a typical PWR, and the effects on stability of differences in operating parameters and geometry are discussed. Results indicate that the LOFT reactor will be thermal-hydrodynamically stable for nominal and worst case operating conditions. The study supports the LOFT Experimental Safety Analyses for the L2-1, L2-2, and L2-3 tests

1978-01-01

112

L^2 torsion without the determinant class condition and extended L^2 cohomology  

CERN Multimedia

We associate determinant lines to objects of the extended abelian category built out of a von Neumann category with a trace. Using this we suggest constructions of the combinatorial and the analytic L^2 torsions which, unlike the work of the previous authors, requires no additional assumptions; in particular we do not impose the determinant class condition. The resulting torsions are elements of the determinant line of the extended L^2 cohomology. Under the determinant class assumption the L^2 torsions of this paper specialize to the invariants studied in our previous work. Applying a recent theorem of D. Burghelea, L. Friedlander and T. Kappeler we obtain a Cheeger - Muller type theorem stating the equality between the combinatorial and the analytic L^2 torsions.

Braverman, M; Farber, M; Mathai, V

2004-01-01

113

Impact of English Orthography on L2 Acquisition  

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Full Text Available English language has become unavoidable being a global language in the present era. Whether it is a field of business, technology or education, its significance can’t be denied. Thus, majority of the world is learning and speaking English owing to its dire need. Unfortunately, despite staining through different reforms, the orthography of English language failed to become learners’ friendly as it seems to be a queer language for the beginners. The present study describes the ways how English orthography becomes impediment for EFL learners. It elucidates how learners in general and Urdu learners of English language in particular, are influenced by its deep orthography. The article reviews the interesting history of English orthography. Moreover, it reveals the phonological relationship between Urdu and English Consonants that causes inferences based on grapheme to phoneme conversion. The study highlights problems posed by English vowels resulting in wrong assumptions by L2 learners from English orthography. It sums up showing the significance of phonological awareness of English spellings to avoid wrong L2 phonology.

Muhammad Aslam Sipra

2013-01-01

114

The Definition and Measurement of L2 Explicit Knowledge  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of theories of second language L2 acquisition acknowledge a role for explicit L2 knowledge. However, the testing of these theories remains problematic because of the lack of a widely accepted means for measuring L2 explicit knowledge. This article seeks to address this lacuna by examining L2 explicit knowledge from two perspectives.…

Ellis, Rod

2004-01-01

115

$L^{2}$ cohomology of hyperkähler quotients  

CERN Multimedia

A result of Jost and Zuo is used to show that for a large class of finite-dimensional hyperkähler quotients, the only L2 harmonic forms lie in the middle dimension, and are of type (k,k) with respect to all complex structures. The argument is extended to some moduli spaces which appear as infinite-dimensional quotients such as Higgs bundle and SU(2) monopole moduli spaces. In the latter case we recover some of the S-duality predictions of Sen.

Hitchin, Nigel J

2000-01-01

116

Awareness of L1 and L2 word-formation mechanisms for the development of a more autonomous L2 learner El conocimiento de los mecanismos de formación de palabras en la L1 y en la L2 y su repercusión en el aprendizaje autónomo de la L2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unlike traditional approaches, new communicative trends disregard the role of word-formation mechanisms. They tend to focus on syntax and/or vocabulary without analyzing the mechanisms involved in the creation of lexical items. In this paper, based on the analysis of the use of prefixes by L2 learne...

Balteiro Fernández, Isabel

117

Character Reading Fluency, Word Segmentation Accuracy, and Reading Comprehension in L2 Chinese  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study investigated the relationships between lower-level processing and general reading comprehension among adult L2 (second-language) beginning learners of Chinese, in both target and non-target language learning environments. Lower-level processing in Chinese reading includes the factors of character-naming accuracy, character-naming…

Shen, Helen H.; Jiang, Xin

2013-01-01

118

A child's development of interactional competence in a Swedish L2 classroom  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study explores a child's emergent second language (L2) interactional competence during her first year in a Swedish immersion classroom. Within the theoretical framework of situated learning, it focuses on how she acquires expertise in a specific classroom practice: multiparty classroom talk. Th...

Cekaite Thunqvist, Asta

119

Learner Beliefs on L2 Attitudes and Motivation: An Exploratory Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This small-scale exploratory study investigated a group of French university students' beliefs about the English language and English language learning, and the impact these beliefs had on the learners' L2 attitudes and motivation. The study employed a three-phased research paradigm. The first phase...

Gabillon, Zehra

120

3D Structure Elucidation of Thermostable L2 Lipase from Thermophilic Bacillus sp. L2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The crystallization of proteins makes it possible to determine their structure by X-ray crystallography, and is therefore important for the analysis of protein structure-function relationships. L2 lipase was crystallized by using the J-tube counter diffusion method. A crystallization consisting of 20% PEG 6000, 50 mM MES pH 6.5 and 50 mM NaCl was found to be the best condition to produce crystals with good shape and size (0.5 × 0.1 × 0.2 mm). The protein concentration used for the crystallization was 3 mg/mL. L2 lipase crystal has two crystal forms, Shape 1 and Shape 2. Shape 2 L2 lipase crystal was diffracted at 1.5 Å and the crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 72.0, b = 81.8, c = 83.4 Å, ? = ? = ? = 90°. There is one molecule per asymmetric unit and the solvent content of the crystals is 56.9%, with a Matthew’s coefficient of 2.85 Å Da?1. The 3D structure of L2 lipase revealed topological organization of ?/?-hydrolase fold consisting of 11 ?-strands and 13 ?-helices. Ser-113, His-358 and Asp-317 were assigned as catalytic triad residues. One Ca2+ and one Zn2+ were found in the L2 lipase molecule.

Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd. Rahman; Fairolniza Mohd Shariff; Mahiran Basri; Abu Bakar Salleh

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Recursos de inferência lexical em L2  

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Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os resultados de um estudo sobre os recursos empregados para a realização de inferências lexicais por dezesseis sujeitos proficientes em leitura em L2, com base em Nassaji (2003). As principais questões sob investigação eram: (a) quais são as estratégias e as fontes de conhecimento utilizadas pelos leitores?; (b) há uma relação entre tipo de recurso utilizado e desempenho inferencial? A análise dos dados revelou que releitura e análise foram as estratégias preferenciais dos sujeitos, o mesmo valendo para as fontes de conhecimento discursivo e morfológico. Além disso, apesar de esses recursos terem sido empregados com eficácia na maioria dos casos, não foi possível estabelecer correlação entre tipos de estratégias e de fontes de conhecimento mais utilizados e desempenho inferencial dos sujeitos.

Baldo, Alessandra

2009-01-01

122

IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2 CON LE CANZONI. UN CONTRIBUTO DIDATTICO  

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Full Text Available Il presente contributo si inserisce nel filone degli studi che hanno messo in evidenza la potenziale ricchezza della canzone come strumento di facilitazione dell’apprendimento della L2, e come mezzo per l’approccio al testo letterario per studenti di italiano L1, additandone il carattere di attività particolarmente efficace e ‘consonante’ con una prospettiva umanistico-affettiva, comunicativa, nonché socio-costruttivista. In queste pagine sono presentate alcune attività didattiche (pensate ora per gli apprendenti di italiano L2, ora per gli studenti di italiano L1) formulate a partire da alcuni testi del cantautore Claudio Baglioni (Io sono qui, Le vie dei Colori, Bolero, Fammi andar via tratti dall’album Io sono qui, 1995, edizioni CBS). I testi qui didattizzati sono utilizzabili in diverse prospettive: grammaticale, lessicale, retorica, socio-culturale, ecc.; e per diversi livelli di competenza linguistica (L2: A1-C1; L1).     Learning italian l2 through song.  A didactic contribution   This article is part of a series of studies which focus on the potential richness of songs as tools for facilitating L2 learning, as well as being a way to approach literary texts for L1 Italian students, being a particularly effective activity from a humanistic-affective, communicative and socio-constructivist point of view.  A few didactic activities are presented (designed for L2 Italian learners, or for L1 Italian learners) based on songs by Claudio Baglioni (Io sono qui, Le vie dei Colori, Bolero, Fammi andar via from the album Io sono qui, 1995, edizioni CBS).  The texts were adapted for diverse didactic uses: grammatical, lexical, rhetorical, socio-cultural, etc and for different levels of linguistic competence (L2: A1-C1, L1)

Elisabetta Mauroni

2011-01-01

123

How L2 Words Are Stored: The Episodic L2 Hypothesis  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reports findings from 3 experiments examining whether 2nd language (L2) words are represented in episodic memory, as originally proposed by Jiang and Forster (2001). Experiment 1 was a direct replication of Jiang and Forster, testing highly proficient Chinese-English bilinguals. Masked translation priming was obtained in an episodic…

Witzel, Naoko Ouchi; Forster, Kenneth I.

2012-01-01

124

VIDEOGIOCHI E ITALIANO L2/LS  

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Full Text Available L'articolo prende in considerazione alcune ipotesi sull'uso del videogioco nell'insegnamento/apprendimento della lingua straniera supportate dall'analisi di alcuni videogames per uso didattico. Pur non nascondendo le difficoltà che l'insegnante può incontrare nell'integrare il videogioco nel percorso di insegnamento/apprendimento di una lingua straniera in classe, diversi sono i motivi per i quali il videogioco può essere considerato un efficace strumento di apprendimento linguistico. Innanzitutto perché gli input linguistici possono essere numerosi e vari, in secondo luogo perché è vettore di lingua che coinvolge i diversi sensi e diverse operazioni cognitive e, in terzo luogo perché trasforma il processo dell'apprendimento da simbolico a esperienziale. Infine perché si tratta di un mezzo divertente capace di creare interesse ad apprendere offrendo opportunità straordinarie in quanto attiva negli apprendenti, soprattutto più giovani, due fattori chiave per un apprendimento solido e duraturo: l'esperienza e la motivazione, elementi che spesso le metodologie tradizionali trascurano. A conclusione dell'articolo viene proposta di attività didattica di italiano LS con una serie di suggerimenti per l'insegnante.   This article discusses the use of videogames in teaching/learning a foreign language and analyzes a few didactic videogames. While not underestimating the difficulties that teachers may have in integrating videogames in the teaching/learning process in a classroom, there are different reasons why videogames can be considered effective tools for language learning. First of all, the linguistic input is varied and rich, and secondly it is a way of engaging different senses and cognitive processes, and in the third place it transforms learning from something symbolic to something experiential. Finally, it is an amusing way to generate interest in learning by offering an extraordinary opportunity, since it activates two key aspects for solid and long-lasting learning, especially in younger students: experience and motivation.  These aspects are often overlooked in more traditional methods. The article concludes with examples of didactic activities for Italian FL teaching and a series of suggestions for the teacher.

Filippo Zanoli

2010-01-01

125

L2 harmonic forms and the structure of complete manifolds  

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Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the relation between the existence of L2 harmonic one-forms on a complete noncompact manifold and its structure. In particular, we prove an improved Bochner inequality for L2 harmonic one-forms and demonstrate that in the equality case the set of L2 harmonic one-forms spans a totally geodesic submanifold

Nelia Charalambous

2007-01-01

126

The Interrelationship of Autonomy, Motivation, and Academic Performance of Persian L2 Learners in Distance Education Contexts  

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Full Text Available Among various variables affecting the learning of a language, motivation and autonomy play salient roles. The present study aimed at investigating the possible relationship among autonomy, motivation, and academic performance of Persian L2 learners. To do so, 60 Persian L2 learners from Shahrekord Payam-e-Noor University were randomly selected to see whether or not autonomy, motivation, and academic performance are interrelated. Two questionnaires, one for autonomy and one for motivation, were employed to gather the required data. Analyzing the data through correlation and regression, the results revealed that there is a significant relationship between autonomy and academic performance, and also between motivation and academic performance. On the contrary, no significant relationship was observed between motivation and autonomy. The results of studies like the current one will help L2 teachers and curriculum developers make L2 learners more self-directed, motivated, and successful in conducting their own learning in distance contexts.

Mahmood Hashemian; Kamal Heidari Soureshjani

2011-01-01

127

The Role of L1 and L2 Working Memory in Literal and Inferential Comprehension in L2 Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

Reading span as a measure of L1 or L2 working memory capacity is shown to be related to L2 reading comprehension. Albeit limited, there is research on the relationship between both L1 and L2 reading spans and their roles in L2 reading comprehension, yet these studies take reading as a global construct rather than delving into its multi-level…

Alptekin, Cem; Ercetin, Gulcan

2010-01-01

128

Interactional Feedback and the Impact of Attitude and Motivation on Noticing L2 Form  

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Full Text Available A number of second language (L2) studies have recently discovered the positive impacts of interactional feedback (IF) in L2 development by connecting the underlying processes such as noticing. The current study followed a two-fold purpose: first to examine the impact of IF on noticing question forms in Iranian L2 classroom context and secondly to investigate the possible effects of motivation and attitude on noting IF. IF was provided to experimental group learners in response to their production problems with question forms. Learners’ noticing was assessed through on-line learning journals, introspective comments while checking with audiotapes, and questionnaire responses. Learners’ motivation was also assessed using Gardner’s (1996) attitude/motivation test. The results point to a positive relationship between IF in the classroom and the learners’ reports about question forms of English. The results also confirmed the existence of a positive correlation between motivation and noticing.

Mohammad Amin Bassiri

2011-01-01

129

Relationships among L1 Print Exposure and Early L1 Literacy Skills, L2 Aptitude, and L2 Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

Authors examined the relationship between individual differences in L1 print exposure and differences in early L1 skills and later L2 aptitude, L2 proficiency, and L2 classroom achievement. Participants were administered measures of L1 word decoding, spelling, phonemic awareness, reading comprehension, receptive vocabulary, and listening…

Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

2012-01-01

130

L1 literacy affects L2 pronunciation intake and text vocalization  

Science.gov (United States)

For both deaf and hearing learners, L1 acquisition calls on auditive, gestural and visual modes in progressive processes over longer stages imposed in strictly anatomical and social order from the earliest pre-lexical phase [Jusczyk (1993), Kuhl & Meltzoff (1996)] to ultimate literacy. By contrast, L2 learning will call on accelerating procedures but with restricted input, arbitrated by L1 literacy as can be traced in the English of French-speaking learners, whether observed in spontaneous speech or in text vocalization modes. An inventory of their predictable omissions, intrusions and substitutions at suprasegmental and syllabic levels, many of which they can actually hear while unable to vocalize in real-time, suggests that a photogenic segmentation of continuous speech into alphabetical units has eclipsed the indispensable earlier phonogenic module, filtering L2 intake and output. This competing mode analysis hypothesizes a critical effect on L2 pronunciation of L1 graphemic procedures acquired usually before puberty, informing data for any Critical Period Hypothesis or amounts of L1 activation influencing L2 accent [Flege (1997, 1998)] or any psychoacoustic French deafness with regard to English stress-timing [Dupoux (1997)]. A metaphonic model [Howell & Dean (1991)] adapted for French learners may remedially distance L1 from L2 vocalization procedures.

Walton, Martin

2005-04-01

131

On Chinese EFL Learners’ Homonym Processing in Relation to Their Organization of L2 Mental Lexicon  

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Full Text Available Based on the models of lexical ambiguity resolution and the organization of L2 mental lexicon proposed by previous researchers in recent years, this paper aimed at investigating the correlation between the Chinese EFL learners’ homonym processing in relation to their organization of L2 mental lexicon through cross-modal sentence-priming lexical decision tasks and word association tasks completed by both English major and non-English major students. The results showed that there is a positive correlation between the learners’ organization of L2 mental lexicon and their performance on English homonym processing. Inferential statistic analysis indicates that learners whose L2 mental lexicon is more syntagmatically related can process the English homonym more effectively. They can use contextual cues (semantic and syntactic information) to deactivate inappropriate meanings while low proficiency learners may be slower and less effective in using the sentence context cues needed for disambiguation. Therefore, it has been tentatively indicated that effective spreading activation of a word during reading and listening is important and helpful for learners’ comprehension, and pedagogically suggested that consciously categorizing syntagmatically related words in L2 mental lexicon during teaching and learning new English words can help reconstruct lexical networks so as to correctly and quickly retrieve the words from the mental lexicon in a certain context and better understand the meaning of the whole context in reading and listening.

Xiumei Yu; Zhenyu Xu; Lan Sun

2011-01-01

132

INITIATING ROUND ROBINS IN THE L2 CLASSROOM – PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS  

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Full Text Available Complementing recent interactional research on the contingent operation of online task accomplishment, this paper deals with a specific way of organizing and managing tasks in plenary L2 classrooms – namely the round robin. This may seem like a “traditional” and rigid form of classroom organization that reduces students’ contributions to responses to the teacher’s elicitations. This paper shows that although the round robin puts certain interactional features out of play, it is nonetheless done in and through participants’ mutual orientation to the ongoing activity. The paper describes the sequential position in which round robins are initiated and how this is talked and embodied into being by the participants as well as the design of the turn that initiates the round robin activity. Relevant to the initiation and further development of the round robin are the physical arrangement of the classroom and artefacts and graphic structures that are used not only as mediating tools in the (supposed) learning relevant activity, but also as structurally relevant features to organize the ongoing interaction, in which these activities emerge.

Kristian MORTENSEN; Spencer HAZEL

2011-01-01

133

L’italiano L2 : auto-apprendimento e narratività. Materiali multimediali di italiano L2 per bambini e ragazzi.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 14 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Normal 0 14 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Insegnare l'italiano come seconda lingua ai bambini e ragazzi di recente immigrazione è un percorso  delicato e complesso che  fa ormai parte  dei compiti professionali ";ordinari"; dei docenti che operano nelle classi sempre più multiculturali e plurilingui. La modalità di insegnamento/apprendimento della L2 più diffusa ed efficace è quella integrata: l'alunno non italofono è inserito nella classe comune e, parallelamente, in determinati momenti, frequenta il laboratorio  di italiano L2. Per  sostenere  questo modello integrato e accompagnare il  viaggio dentro l'italiano dei bambini e dei ragazzi neoarrivati, servono materiali didattici flessibili e ricchi di proposte, utilizzabili in maniera autonoma e in piccolo gruppo; proponibili in maniera tradizionale o anche attraverso la LIM; adatti a sviluppare competenze diverse, proprie della lingua per comunicare, dell'italiano scritto e propedeutiche all'apprendimento del curricolo comune. I due corsi di italiano L2  che vengono presentati nell'ultima parte dell'articolo rispondono a queste esigenze, in quanto a) sono rivolti l'uno ai bambini e l'altro ai ragazzi stranieri neo arrivati; b) si propongono  il passaggio dal livello prebasico ai livelli A1, A2 e B1 del QCERL; c) si basano su un forte impianto narrativo che sviluppa coinvolgimento e identificazione; d) sono attenti allo sviluppo della lingua orale e dello scritto, dell'italiano per comunicare e per lo studio; e) hanno una chiara caratterizzazione interculturale.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Teaching Italian as a second language to newly immigrated children and young people is a delicate and complex undertaking which has become part of the job for teachers working in increasingly multicultural and multilingual classes.  The most widespread and effective way of teaching/learning the L2 is the integrated approach: the non-Italian-speaking child is placed in an ordinary class and, parallel to this, there are times when (s)he attends a workshop of Italian as a second language.  To support this integrated approach and accompany the new arrivals in their journey into the Italian language, flexible teaching/learning materials are needed, with a wealth of suggestions that can be used independently and with a small group; they should be suitable for use either traditionally or through LIM and appropriate for developing different competences in the language of communication, written Italian and preparation for learning in the core curriculum.  The two courses of Italian as L2 presented in the final part of the article satisfy these demands since a) the former is intended for newly-arrived children from abroad and the latter for newly-arrived young people; b) they are intended for the shift from pre-elementary to levels A1, A2 and B1 of the QCERL; c) they are founded on a solid narrative basis which develops involvement and identification; d) they take into careful account the development of the oral and written language, and that o

Graziella Favaro

2009-01-01

134

Postnatal disruption of the disintegrin/metalloproteinase ADAM10 in brain causes epileptic seizures, learning deficits, altered spine morphology, and defective synaptic functions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The metalloproteinase ADAM10 is of importance for Notch-dependent cortical brain development. The protease is tightly linked with ?-secretase activity toward the amyloid precursor protein (APP) substrate. Increasing ADAM10 activity is suggested as a therapy to prevent the production of the neurotoxic amyloid ? (A?) peptide in Alzheimer's disease. To investigate the function of ADAM10 in postnatal brain, we generated Adam10 conditional knock-out (A10cKO) mice using a CaMKII?-Cre deleter strain. The lack of ADAM10 protein expression was evident in the brain cortex leading to a reduced generation of sAPP? and increased levels of sAPP? and endogenous A? peptides. The A10cKO mice are characterized by weight loss and increased mortality after weaning associated with seizures. Behavioral comparison of adult mice revealed that the loss of ADAM10 in the A10cKO mice resulted in decreased neuromotor abilities and reduced learning performance, which were associated with altered in vivo network activities in the hippocampal CA1 region and impaired synaptic function. Histological and ultrastructural analysis of ADAM10-depleted brain revealed astrogliosis, microglia activation, and impaired number and altered morphology of postsynaptic spine structures. A defect in spine morphology was further supported by a reduction of the expression of NMDA receptors subunit 2A and 2B. The reduced shedding of essential postsynaptic cell adhesion proteins such as N-Cadherin, Nectin-1, and APP may explain the postsynaptic defects and the impaired learning, altered network activity, and synaptic plasticity of the A10cKO mice. Our study reveals that ADAM10 is instrumental for synaptic and neuronal network function in the adult murine brain. PMID:23926248

Prox, Johannes; Bernreuther, Christian; Altmeppen, Hermann; Grendel, Jasper; Glatzel, Markus; D'Hooge, Rudi; Stroobants, Stijn; Ahmed, Tariq; Balschun, Detlef; Willem, Michael; Lammich, Sven; Isbrandt, Dirk; Schweizer, Michaela; Horré, Katrien; De Strooper, Bart; Saftig, Paul

2013-08-01

135

Best estimate experiment predictions for LOFT nuclear experiments L2-2, L2-3, and L2-4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A comprehensive analysis with the RELAP4/MOD6 and FRAP-T4 computer codes was performed to predict the LOFT transient thermal-hydraulic and fuel mechanical responses for nuclear Loss-of-Coolant Experiments L2-2, L2-3, and L2-4. The three experiments will simulate 200% double-ended offset shear breaks in one of the cold legs of a large four-loop pressurized water reactor and will be conducted at increasing power levels

1978-01-01

136

Tcf7l2 is tightly controlled during myelin formation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent, studies have shown that Tcf7l2, an important transcription factor in Wnt pathway, plays critical roles in oligodendrocyte development. In this article we report a study showing that Tcf7l2 is under tight regulation during myelin formation. We have found that during early development, Tcf7l2 mRNA appears much earlier than the protein, suggesting a regulation at the translational level. We induced demyelination in a mouse model by a dietary toxin, where remyelination followed after a few weeks, and found that Tcf7l2 protein was expressed specifically during the active remyelination phase. Similarly, in human patients with demyelination diseases, Tcf7l2 protein expression was specifically promoted in regions undergoing active remyelination. During remyelination, Tcf7l2 was only expressed in non-dividing oligodendrocyte precursors and was associated with modest levels of nuclear beta-catenin. We also documented that Tcf7l2 could form protein complex with Olig2, but not with Olig1. Our data showed that during myelin formation, Tcf7l2/beta-catenin is regulated temporally, spatially, and also at levels of expression. These data suggest a key role for Tcf7l2 in myelination/remyelination processes via a tightly controlled activation of Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and the interaction with Olig2.

Fu H; Kesari S; Cai J

2012-04-01

137

L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ?8kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2.

Wang JW; Roden RB

2013-10-01

138

L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ?8kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. PMID:23689062

Wang, Joshua W; Roden, Richard B S

2013-05-17

139

Purification of recombinant EGFP by fusion with L2 (252-273) from ribosomal protein L2 using magnetic particles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A basic polypeptide L2 (252-273) derived from Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L2 was used as a purification tag. In order to develop faster, less expensive methods for expression and purification of proteins, the L2 (252-273)-small ubiquitin like modifier (SUMO) fusion expression system was constructed. We comparatively analyzed the adsorption properties of the deleted protein of L2 (L2 (252-273)) on diatomite and superparamagnetic carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles. The time required to reach adsorption equilibrium of L2 (252-273) fusion protein on diatomite was shorter than that of L2 (252-273) fusion protein on magnetic particles. The maximum adsorption capacity of L2 (252-273) fusion protein on magnetic particles was about 5 times larger than that of L2 (252-273) fusion protein on diatomite. SUMO was introduced as a specific protease cleavage site between the target protein and the purification tags. The enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as a model protein was fused with the L2 (252-273)-SUMO fusion protein and purified by a simple method which involves the electrostatic adsorption of L2 (252-273) fusion proteins on superparamagnetic carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles and the L2 (252-273)-SUMO fusion partner was removed based on the robust cleavage by the poly lysine tagged SUMO protease. The high purity of tag-free EGFP (>93%) was obtained. Our results preliminary proved that the system was an effective fusion expression system for the production of recombinant proteins in E. coli.

Li J; Dong Y; Zhang Y; Yang Y

2013-02-01

140

An overview of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase gene (L2HGDH) variants: a genotype-phenotype study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is a rare, neurometabolic disorder with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Affected individuals only have neurological manifestations, including psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and more variably macrocephaly, or epilepsy. The diagnosis of L2HGA can be made based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical analysis, and mutational analysis of L2HGDH. About 200 patients with elevated concentrations of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) in the urine were referred for chiral determination of 2HG and L2HGDH mutational analysis. All patients with increased L2HG (n=106; 83 families) were included. Clinical information on 61 patients was obtained via questionnaires. In 82 families the mutations were detected by direct sequence analysis and/or multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA), including one case where MLPA was essential to detect the second allele. In another case RT-PCR followed by deep intronic sequencing was needed to detect the mutation. Thirty-five novel mutations as well as 35 reported mutations and 14 nondisease-related variants are reviewed and included in a novel Leiden Open source Variation Database (LOVD) for L2HGDH variants (http://www.LOVD.nl/L2HGDH). Every user can access the database and submit variants/patients. Furthermore, we report on the phenotype, including neurological manifestations and urinary levels of L2HG, and we evaluate the phenotype-genotype relationship.

Steenweg, Marjan E; Jakobs, Cornelis

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

L2-SVM: Dependence on the regularization parameter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The goal of this paper is to announce some results dealing with mathematical properties of so-called L2 Soft-Margin Support Vector Machines (L2-SVMs) for data classification. Their dual formulations build a family of quadratic programming problems depending on one regularization parameter. The depen...

Doktorski, L.

142

L2 Requests: Preference Structure in Talk-in-Interaction  

Science.gov (United States)

This study provides an empirical examination of how American learners of German accomplish the social action of requesting in L2 conversation, demonstrating how L2 learners use their linguistic and interactional resources to orient to preference structure in their talk. The data illustrate the sequential contingencies surrounding requests and…

Taleghani-Nikazm, Carmen; Huth, Thorsten

2010-01-01

143

Processability Approach to Arabic L2 Teaching and Syllabus Design  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to identify the relationship between the developmental hierarchy in the acquisition of Arabic as a second language (Arabic L2) and formal classroom instruction. It provides a general presentation of the current debate on the influence of formal instruction in the acquisition of L2. Special attention is given to the subset of…

Al Shatter, Ghassan

2011-01-01

144

Sources of Difficulty in L2 Scope Judgments  

Science.gov (United States)

|Second language (L2) learners have been found to experience difficulty in tasks that require the integration of discourse-pragmatic properties with syntactic and semantic properties (Sorace and Serratrice, 2009; Tsimpli and Sorace, 2006; Valenzuela, 2006). The present article investigates the sources of L2 difficulty in a phenomenon where…

Chung, Eun Seon

2013-01-01

145

Reactive arthritis associated with L2b lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract An ongoing outbreak of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) L2b proctitis, predominantly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) has been reported in industrialized countries. We describe a case of reactive arthritis after L2b proctitis. This case ex...

146

Sources of Difficulty in L2 Scope Judgments  

Science.gov (United States)

Second language (L2) learners have been found to experience difficulty in tasks that require the integration of discourse-pragmatic properties with syntactic and semantic properties (Sorace and Serratrice, 2009; Tsimpli and Sorace, 2006; Valenzuela, 2006). The present article investigates the sources of L2 difficulty in a phenomenon where multiple…

Chung, Eun Seon

2013-01-01

147

Peer Response to L2 Student Writing: Patterns and Expectations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports the corrective feedback patterns in L2 writing and the student writers’ preferences for peer feedback. The study examines the actual focus of peer review and the types of corrective feedback provided in L2 composing process. Sixteen L2 matriculation students at a Malaysian university took part in five peer review sessions, responded to a debriefing questionnaire, and participated in an interview session after completing the peer review activities. Results show that peer responses to writing focused more on clarity of feedback unlike writer expectations which focused more on grammar correction. The study confirms the relevance of peer review as an alternative feedback delivery system in L2 writing and suggests that peer corrective feedback provides teachers with important perspectives about the L2 students’ language and writing knowledge.

Abdel Rahman Abdalla Salih

2013-01-01

148

Digital Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Have you ever wanted to look into the shape and structure of a suckermouth armored catfish? Well, the Digital Morphology website makes that possible. Created as part of the National Science Foundation Digital Library at The University of Texas at Austin, this library includes hundreds of 2D and 3D visualizations of the internal and external structure of living and extinct vertebrates, and a number of invertebrates as well. These images are generated by a X-ray CT scanner, which has greater resolution and penetrating power than a conventional medical diagnostic CAT scanner. Visitors can browse the library by scientific name, common name, or the popular What's New? area. The homepage includes eight different overview pages, which provide narrative essays and images of dinosaurs, tapirs, bats, and primates. The site also has a Learn More section which provides additional material on X-ray CT's and the science behind 3D printing.

2012-03-23

149

Limited TCF7L2 Expression in MS Lesions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Multiple sclerosis is the most frequent demyelinating disease in the human CNS characterized by inflammation, demyelination, relative axonal loss and gliosis. Remyelination occurs, but is frequently absent or restricted to a small remyelinated rim at the lesion border. Impaired differentiation of oligodendroglial precursor cells is one factor contributing to limited remyelination, especially in chronic MS. TCF7L2 is an oligodendroglial transcription factor regulating myelin gene expression during developmental myelination as well as remyelination. TCF7L2 binds to co-effectors such as ?-catenin or histone deacetylases and thereby activates or inhibits the transcription of downstream genes involved in oligodendroglial differentiation. To determine whether TCF7L2 can be used as a marker for differentiating or myelinating oligodendrocytes, we analyzed the expression patterns of TCF7L2 during myelination and remyelination in human and murine CNS tissue samples. Here, we demonstrate that marked expression of TCF7L2 in oligodendrocytes is restricted to a well defined time period during developmental myelination in human and mouse CNS tissue samples. In demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, TCF7L2 is reexpressed in oligodendrocytes in a subset of MS patients, but is also present in tissue samples from patients with non-demyelinating, inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, TCF7L2 expression was also detected in astrocytes. HDAC2, a potential binding partner of TCF7L2 that promotes oligodendroglial differentiation and myelination, is expressed in the majority of oligodendrocytes in controls and MS tissue samples. In summary, our data demonstrate that the expression of TCF7L2 in oligodendrocytes is limited to a certain differentiation stage; however the expression of TCF7L2 is neither restricted to the oligodendroglial lineage nor to (re-)myelinating conditions.

Lürbke A; Hagemeier K; Cui QL; Metz I; Brück W; Antel J; Kuhlmann T

2013-01-01

150

TCF7L2 variation and proliferative diabetic retinopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is the most severe vision-threatening complication of diabetes. For investigation of genetic association between TCF7L2 and PDR in Caucasian type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its functional consequences, 383 T2DM patients with PDR (T2DM-PDR) and 756 T2DM patients without diabetic retinopathy (T2DM-no DR) were genotyped with rs7903146 in TCF7L2. We found that risk allele (T) frequency of rs7903146 was significantly higher in T2DM-PDR patients (allelic P = 2.52E-04). In lymphoblastoid cells induced to undergo endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by treatment of tunicamycin, higher fold change of TCF7L2 and VEGFA mRNA levels were observed in rs7903146-TT cells than in rs7903146-CC cells (P = 0.02 for TCF7L2; P = 0.004 for VEGFA), suggesting that ER stress plays a role in PDR pathogenesis. Silencing TCF7L2 resulted in decreased mRNA levels of both TCF7L2 and VEGFA (P TCF7L2 and VEGFA mRNA levels than those of controls (P = 2.9E-04 for TCF7L2; P = 1.9E-07 for VEGFA). Together, data from our study show that TCF7L2-rs7903146 is associated with PDR in Caucasian T2DM and suggest that TCF7L2 promotes pathological retinal neovascularization via ER stress-dependent upregulation of VEGFA. PMID:23434931

Luo, Jing; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Aaron Yun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Jin; Zhao, Jiagang; Ouyang, Hong; Luo, Hongrong; Song, Yaojun; Lee, Janet; Patel, Sherrina H; Shaw, Peter X; Sadda, Srinivas; Zhuo, Yehong; Rosenfeld, Michael G; Zhang, Kang

2013-02-22

151

Limited TCF7L2 Expression in MS Lesions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple sclerosis is the most frequent demyelinating disease in the human CNS characterized by inflammation, demyelination, relative axonal loss and gliosis. Remyelination occurs, but is frequently absent or restricted to a small remyelinated rim at the lesion border. Impaired differentiation of oligodendroglial precursor cells is one factor contributing to limited remyelination, especially in chronic MS. TCF7L2 is an oligodendroglial transcription factor regulating myelin gene expression during developmental myelination as well as remyelination. TCF7L2 binds to co-effectors such as ?-catenin or histone deacetylases and thereby activates or inhibits the transcription of downstream genes involved in oligodendroglial differentiation. To determine whether TCF7L2 can be used as a marker for differentiating or myelinating oligodendrocytes, we analyzed the expression patterns of TCF7L2 during myelination and remyelination in human and murine CNS tissue samples. Here, we demonstrate that marked expression of TCF7L2 in oligodendrocytes is restricted to a well defined time period during developmental myelination in human and mouse CNS tissue samples. In demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, TCF7L2 is reexpressed in oligodendrocytes in a subset of MS patients, but is also present in tissue samples from patients with non-demyelinating, inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, TCF7L2 expression was also detected in astrocytes. HDAC2, a potential binding partner of TCF7L2 that promotes oligodendroglial differentiation and myelination, is expressed in the majority of oligodendrocytes in controls and MS tissue samples. In summary, our data demonstrate that the expression of TCF7L2 in oligodendrocytes is limited to a certain differentiation stage; however the expression of TCF7L2 is neither restricted to the oligodendroglial lineage nor to (re-)myelinating conditions. PMID:23977356

Lürbke, Alexander; Hagemeier, Karin; Cui, Qiao-Ling; Metz, Imke; Brück, Wolfgang; Antel, Jack; Kuhlmann, Tanja

2013-08-20

152

Limited TCF7L2 Expression in MS Lesions  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple sclerosis is the most frequent demyelinating disease in the human CNS characterized by inflammation, demyelination, relative axonal loss and gliosis. Remyelination occurs, but is frequently absent or restricted to a small remyelinated rim at the lesion border. Impaired differentiation of oligodendroglial precursor cells is one factor contributing to limited remyelination, especially in chronic MS. TCF7L2 is an oligodendroglial transcription factor regulating myelin gene expression during developmental myelination as well as remyelination. TCF7L2 binds to co-effectors such as ?-catenin or histone deacetylases and thereby activates or inhibits the transcription of downstream genes involved in oligodendroglial differentiation. To determine whether TCF7L2 can be used as a marker for differentiating or myelinating oligodendrocytes, we analyzed the expression patterns of TCF7L2 during myelination and remyelination in human and murine CNS tissue samples. Here, we demonstrate that marked expression of TCF7L2 in oligodendrocytes is restricted to a well defined time period during developmental myelination in human and mouse CNS tissue samples. In demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, TCF7L2 is reexpressed in oligodendrocytes in a subset of MS patients, but is also present in tissue samples from patients with non-demyelinating, inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, TCF7L2 expression was also detected in astrocytes. HDAC2, a potential binding partner of TCF7L2 that promotes oligodendroglial differentiation and myelination, is expressed in the majority of oligodendrocytes in controls and MS tissue samples. In summary, our data demonstrate that the expression of TCF7L2 in oligodendrocytes is limited to a certain differentiation stage; however the expression of TCF7L2 is neither restricted to the oligodendroglial lineage nor to (re-)myelinating conditions.

Lurbke, Alexander; Hagemeier, Karin; Cui, Qiao-Ling; Metz, Imke; Bruck, Wolfgang; Antel, Jack; Kuhlmann, Tanja

2013-01-01

153

TCF7L2 variation and proliferative diabetic retinopathy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is the most severe vision-threatening complication of diabetes. For investigation of genetic association between TCF7L2 and PDR in Caucasian type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its functional consequences, 383 T2DM patients with PDR (T2DM-PDR) and 756 T2DM patients without diabetic retinopathy (T2DM-no DR) were genotyped with rs7903146 in TCF7L2. We found that risk allele (T) frequency of rs7903146 was significantly higher in T2DM-PDR patients (allelic P = 2.52E-04). In lymphoblastoid cells induced to undergo endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by treatment of tunicamycin, higher fold change of TCF7L2 and VEGFA mRNA levels were observed in rs7903146-TT cells than in rs7903146-CC cells (P = 0.02 for TCF7L2; P = 0.004 for VEGFA), suggesting that ER stress plays a role in PDR pathogenesis. Silencing TCF7L2 resulted in decreased mRNA levels of both TCF7L2 and VEGFA (P < 0.001). Retinas of oxygen-induced retinopathy mice (a model for PDR) had higher TCF7L2 and VEGFA mRNA levels than those of controls (P = 2.9E-04 for TCF7L2; P = 1.9E-07 for VEGFA). Together, data from our study show that TCF7L2-rs7903146 is associated with PDR in Caucasian T2DM and suggest that TCF7L2 promotes pathological retinal neovascularization via ER stress-dependent upregulation of VEGFA.

Luo J; Zhao L; Chen AY; Zhang X; Zhu J; Zhao J; Ouyang H; Luo H; Song Y; Lee J; Patel SH; Shaw PX; Sadda S; Zhuo Y; Rosenfeld MG; Zhang K

2013-07-01

154

TCF7L2 polymorphism and cognitive test performance in cardiovascular disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: The present study examines cognitive function among transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) genotype groups in a sample of older adults with cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We recruited 111 older adults with diagnosed cardiovascular disease from outpatient cardiology clinics. Neuropsychological tests assessed the following domains of cognitive functioning: global function, attention/executive/psychomotor speed, learning and memory, visuospatial/construction, motor, and language. Genotyping of TCF7L2 single nucleotide polymorphism rs7903146 was conducted to determine membership in the TT, CT, or CC genotype groups. RESULTS: Controlling for diabetes status, participants with the TT genotype of TCF7L2 (n= 12) performed worse on tests of attention/executive function/processing speed than those with the CC (n= 46) and CT (n= 53) genotypes, despite no between-group differences in demographic or medical variables. CONCLUSIONS: Older cardiovascular disease patients with the TCF7L2 TT genotype performed worse on tests of attention/executive/ psychomotor speed than CC and CT genotype carriers. Further work using neuroimaging and glucose tolerance indices is needed to clarify underlying mechanisms.

Keary TA; Gunstad J; Benitez A; Spitznagel MB; McCaffery J; McGeary JE; Poppas A; Paul RH; Sweet LH; Cohen RA

2012-06-01

155

Sitio Web interactivo para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología del sistema muscular/ Interactive Website to learn the morphology of the muscular system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Debido al desarrollo científico técnico alcanzado, se han insertado las tecnologías de la informática y las comunicaciones al proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de la disciplina Morfofisiología Humana. Se realizó una investigación de innovación tecnológica, en el área de pregrado de la Educación Médica, en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río; con el objetivo de elaborar un sistema de medios de enseñanza para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología (more) humana del sistema muscular. Se utilizaron los métodos empíricos, las encuestas a estudiantes, entrevistas a profesores de la asignatura y a los profesores asesores, criterio de expertos para validar el producto. Los métodos teóricos: histórico, lógico y sistémico, fueron utilizados en la revisión bibliográfica y el análisis documental que sustenta el estudio. Las guías de estudio se elaboraron por el modelo "WebQuest" y los ejercicios interactivos con el programa "exelearning". El sistema de medios de enseñanza se ubicó en el sitio Web "MioloWeb", elaborado con "Joomla 1.7". El contenido está estructurado en subtemas y en cada uno de ellos, se facilita al estudiante una variedad de materiales educativos computarizados, que permitirán el aprendizaje activo, consciente y desarrollador de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular, propiciando la interacción del estudiante de forma activa con los contenidos, la vinculación con las estrategias curriculares, la autoevaluación en la guía de estudio y en los ejercicios interactivos. Abstract in english Communicative and information technologies have been introduced in the teaching-learning process of Human Morphology Subject. A research paper of technological innovation was carried out in the pre-graduate area of Medical Education belonging to the University of Medical Sciences in Pinar del Rio, with the purpose of creating a system of teaching aids to learn the human morphology of the muscular system. Empirical methods used were: surveys to students and interviews to p (more) rofessors and consultants of the subject, in addition to the criteria of the experts to validate the product; using also the theoretical methods: historical-logic and systemic to conduct the literature review and documentary analysis to support the study. Study guides were created following “WebQuest” model and interactive exercises using “exelearning” program. The system of teaching aids was built-in to “MioloWeb” Website, created with “Joomla 1.7”. The content is structured into subtopics and in every one of them, a variety of educational computerized materials is facilitated to the students, allowing this way an active, conscious and expanded learning of the human morphology of the muscular system, favoring at the same time a dynamic interaction of the student with the contents, the connection with the curricular strategies, and self-evaluation which was included in the guide of study plus interactive exercises.

Alboniga Álvarez, Orliany; Hidalgo Gato Castillo, Iraida; Cabrera Vázquez, Niurka; Capote Martínez, Rafael; Díaz Díaz, Dariel

2012-06-01

156

A L2HGDH initiator methionine codon mutation in a Yorkshire terrier with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a metabolic repair deficiency characterized by elevated levels of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological signs associated with the disease in humans and dogs include seizures, ataxia and deme...

Farias Fabiana HG; Zeng Rong; Johnson Gary S; Shelton G D; Paquette Dominique; O’Brien Dennis P

157

Pun recognition in L1 and L2 readers : Seven days without a pun makes one weak  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Language play has an important position in the use of language. Cook (in Lucas, 2005) makes the argument that language play is even one of the primary uses of language. Partly due to the focus on research in second language learning, advanced L2 users’ language processing gets little attention in re...

Burns, Erik

158

L1 and L2 Picture Naming in Mandarin-English Bilinguals: A Test of Bilingual Dual Coding Theory  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the nature of bilinguals' conceptual representations and the links from these representations to words in L1 and L2. Specifically, we tested an assumption of the Bilingual Dual Coding Theory that conceptual representations include image representations, and that learning two languages in separate contexts can result in…

Jared, Debra; Poh, Rebecca Pei Yun; Paivio, Allan

2013-01-01

159

Analysis of Complimenting in L1 vs. L2 Written Discourse: A Case Study of Iranian Students Writing Review Letters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was carried out to compare and contrast complimenting as used in L1 (Farsi) and L2 (English) writings of Iranian students in a foreign language learning context. For the purpose, sixty five university senior students majoring in English and taking the specialized course called "ess...

Gholam Reza Zarei

160

Sex differences in spatial learning and prefrontal and parietal cortical dendritic morphology in the meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prefrontal and parietal cortex has been implicated in the mediation of spatially related behaviors in male and female laboratory rats. Meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, are diurnally-crepuscularly active microtine rodents that exhibit a variety of sexually dimorphic spatially associated behaviors in both the laboratory and wild. In the present study we examined both the spatial Morris water maze performance and dendritic architecture and branching of neuronal cells in the prefrontal and parietal cortex of reproductive male and female meadow voles. Males learned the location of the hidden platform in the water task faster than estrous females and on probe trials they spent more time in the previously correct quadrant than females. Dendritic analysis with Golgi-Cox stained sections showed that male voles had significantly more dendritic arborization in the medial prefrontal and parietal cortex than females. These sex differences in both spatial navigation ability and in neural structures related to spatial navigation in meadow voles suggest that the size of neural areas might be shaped by ecological pressures associated with sexually dimorphic spatial behaviors. PMID:9813234

Kavaliers, M; Ossenkopp, K P; Galea, L A; Kolb, B

1998-11-01

 
 
 
 
161

Role of L2 cysteines in papillomavirus infection and neutralization  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Vaccination of mice with minor capsid protein L2 or passive transfer with the L2-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody RG-1 protects against human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) challenge. Here we explored the nature of the RG-1 epitope and its contribution to viral infectivity. RG-1 bound equivalently HPV16 L2 residues 17-36 with or without an intact C22-C28 disulphide bridge. HPV16 L2 mutations K20A, C22A, C22S, C28A, C28S, or P29A prevented RG-1 binding, whereas Y19A, K23A or Q24A had no impact. Mutation of either C22 or C28 to alanine or serine compromises HPV16 pseudoviral infectivity both in vitro and in the murine vaginal tract, but does not impact pseudovirion assembly. Despite their lack of infectivity, HPV16 pseudovirions containing C22S or C28S mutant L2 bind to cell surfaces, are taken up, and expose the 17-36 region on the virion surface as for wild type HPV16 pseudovirions suggesting normal furin cleavage of L2. Mutation of the second cysteine residue in Bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) L2 to serine (C25S) dramatically reduced the infectivity of BPV1 pseudovirions. Surprisingly, in contrast to the double mutation in HPV16 L2, the BPV1 L2 C19S, C25S double mutation reduced BPV1 pseudovirion infectivity of 293TT cells by only half.

Gambhira Ratish; Jagu Subhashini; Karanam Balasubramanyam; Day Patricia M; Roden Richard

2009-01-01

162

L2-6 fuel prepressurization and initial conditions. [PWR  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the major objectives of LOFT LOCE L2-6 is to study the system response to a large primary system rupture when fuel deformation occurs. The original test plan called for fuel which was prepressurized to a typical beginning-of-life pressure, 2.4 MPa, and initial test conditions identical to the conditions used in LOCE L2-3. Based upon L2-3 data, analysis indicates that for these conditions, no fuel deformation can be expected.

Burtt, J.D.

1980-06-19

163

Testing L2 Vocabulary Recognition and Recall Using Pictorial and Written Test Items  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes two studies that examined the effects of pictorial and written annotations on second language (L2) vocabulary learning from a multimedia environment. In both studies, students were randomly assigned to one of four aural multimedia groups: a control group that received no annotations, and three treatment groups that provided written, pictorial, or both written and pictorial annotations while listening. In the first study, students in the three treatment groups recognized English translations or pictorial representations of French keywords better than the control group that received no annotations during listening. In the second study, students produced English translations of French keywords best when the mode of testing matched the treatment mode. These results add to the growing body of literature on the beneficial effects of annotations on L2 vocabulary recognition and recall.

Linda Jones

2004-01-01

164

The broader evolutionary lessons to be learned from a comparative and phylogenetic analysis of primate muscle morphology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present publication reviews the broader evolutionary implications of our long-term study of primate musculature. It summarizes the implications of the study for our understanding of the use of myological characters for phylogenetic reconstruction, for assessing the importance of homoplasy and reversions in evolution, and for our understanding of Dollo's law, the notion of 'direction' in evolution, the common myth of human complexity, the tempo and mode of primate and human evolutionary history, adaptive radiations, the notion that 'common' equals 'primitive' and the influence of morphogenesis on the variability of head, neck, pectoral and upper limb muscles. Among other results our study shows that myological characters are useful for phylogenetic reconstruction. The results also stress the importance of homoplasy and of evolutionary reversions in morphological evolution, and they provide examples of reversions that violate Dollo's law due to the retention of ancestral developmental pathways. They also show that contrary to the idea of a 'general molecular slow-down of hominoids' the rates of muscle evolution at the nodes leading to and within the hominoid clade are higher than those in most other primate clades. However, there is no evidence of a general trend or 'directionality' towards an increasing complexity during the evolutionary history of hominoids and of modern humans in particular, at least regarding the number of muscles or of muscle bundles. The rates of muscle evolution at the major euarchontan and primate nodes are different, but within each major primate clade (Strepsirrhini, Platyrrhini, Cercopithecidae and Hominoidea) the rates at the various nodes, and particularly at the nodes leading to the higher groups (i.e. those including more than one genus) are strikingly similar. Our results also support, in general terms, the assumption that 'common is primitive' and they lend some support for the 'vertebrate-specific model' in the sense that during the divergent events that resulted in these four major primate clades there was more emphasis on postcranial changes than on cranial changes. Our study of primates does not, however, support suggestions that the distal structures of the upper limb are more prone to variation than the proximal ones, or that the topological origins of the upper limb muscles are more prone to evolutionary change than their insertions.

Diogo R; Wood B

2013-11-01

165

The L(2,1)-choosability of cycle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For a given graph $G=(V,E)$, let $mathscr L(G)={L(v) : vin V}$ be a prescribed list assignment. $G$ is $mathscr L$-$L(2,1)$-colorable if there exists a vertex labeling $f$ of $G$ such that $f(v)in L(v)$ for all $v in V$; $|f(u)-f(v)|geq 2$ if $d_G(u,v) = 1$; and $|f(u)-f(v)|geq 1$ if $d_G(u,v)=2$. If $G$ is $mathscr L$-$L(2,1)$-colorable for every list assignment $mathscr L$ with $|L(v)|geq k$ for all $vin V$, then $G$ is said to be $k$-$L(2,1)$-choosable. In this paper, we prove all cycles are $5$-$L(2,1)$-choosable.

Haiying Zhou; Wai Chee Shiu; Peter Che Bor Lam

2012-01-01

166

Inference with formal analogical proportions: application to the automatic learning of morphology Du quatrième de proportion comme principe inductif : une proposition et son application à l'apprentissage de la morphologie  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We present an analogical learning model which exploits the notion of formal analogical proportions; this approach requires the ability to define these proportions and to implement them efficiently. We propose an algebraic definition of this notion, which applies to a large range of structured objects: words, attribute-value structures, labeled trees. We test this inference model by applying it to the task of learning morphological analyses of unknown forms. We can assess the validity of the approach thanks to experimental results that are given for several lexicons.

Nicolas Stroppa; François Yvon

2007-01-01

167

The Motivation of L2 Learners: Does it decrease with age?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigated the motivation of a heterogeneous group of students studying English as a foreign language at the International School in Tripoli area. The aim of the study was to find out the extent to which various factors affect students’ motivation and achievement in second/foreign language learning particularly as they enter the senior high school. The research also looked into the temporal dimension of L2 motivation to see if the students’ motivation changes as they enter the senior high school. One hundred and forty four students from thirty five nationalities learning English and five teachers participated in the completion of the questionnaire surveys. Twenty students and three teachers took part in the semi-structured interviews. Data were drawn from students’ examination results and a combined quantitative-qualitative approach in which student and teacher questionnaire surveys were followed by a round of student and teacher interviews. The results of the ‘Student’s Motivation Questionnaire’ show that L2 motivation in the sample decreases with age: The results of one-way analyses of variance across the five age groups investigated show that the older learners tend to score significantly lower on the motivational scales and the interviews data gives further support to this finding. There are a number of influential factors that affect learners’ motivation: in particular the role of the teacher was seen fundamental in determining the attitude to the language and in supplying motivation. Other external factors include aspects related to the learning context.

Pauline Ghenghesh

2010-01-01

168

Analysis of Complimenting in L1 vs. L2 Written Discourse: A Case Study of Iranian Students Writing Review Letters  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was carried out to compare and contrast complimenting as used in L1 (Farsi) and L2 (English) writings of Iranian students in a foreign language learning context. For the purpose, sixty five university senior students majoring in English and taking the specialized course called "essay writing" were selected for the study. First, they were instructed how to write review letters on their classmates' essays in both L1 and L2 and then their letters were analyzed on the basis of the framework provided by Johnson and Roen (1992), and Chafe and Danielwicz (1987). The results indicated that Iranian students (female and male) did not make significantly different uses of L1 and L2 complimenting in terms of form and strategies. Also, the gender of the addressees was not accommodated to by the addressors differently as regards the use of form and strategies of complimenting in L1 and L2. The results suggest that L1 and L2, if used under some formal class based conditions, tend to become maximally similar, showing no transfer of L1 potentiality into L2.

Gholam Reza Zarei

2011-01-01

169

The Effect of Persian L2 Learners’ Proficiency Level on their Degree of Observing Subjacency in L2  

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Full Text Available This experimental study examined how L2 learners’ L2 proficiency level affected their performance in GJ tasks while rendering WH-questions using a repeated measures design. Participants included 60 female Persian EFL participants from the Islamic Azad University - Khorasgan Branch - at two levels of English proficiency (i.e. High- and Low-Intermediate levels). The instruments (i.e. explicit written, implicit written, oral stimulus, and no stimulus GJ tasks) involved rendering different cases of subjacency in four consecutive time settings for four weeks per each GJ task by each participant. The results revealed that L2 proficiency level is of no significant effects on the L2 learners’ performance on WH-questions.

Behrouz Nouri Samani; Ahmad Reza Lotfi

2011-01-01

170

La conscience morphologique est-elle une variable importante dans l'apprentissage de la lecture?/ Consciência morfológica é uma variável importante na aprendizagem da leitura?/ Morphological awareness: an important variable in learning to read?  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O presente artigo é uma revisão sistemática de trabalhos que tratam da relação entre consciência morfológica e aprendizagem da leitura. Esta síntese permite confirmar que a consciência morfológica contribui realmente para a aprendizagem da leitura (tanto no nível da instalação das habilidades de decodificação quanto no nível do desenvolvimento da compreensão). No entanto, parece que não são todos os mesmos aspectos da consciência morfológica que são (more) ligados às capacidades de decodificação e às capacidades de compreensão. Logo, novas pesquisas deverão ser desenvolvidas para melhor apreender os papéis respectivos de cada um dos componentes da consciência morfológica. Abstract in english The present article is a concise review of researches addressing the links between morphological awareness and learning reading. This review points out that morphological awareness actually contributes to learning reading (both at the level of decoding skills installation and at the level of comprehension development). However, it seems that there are different aspects of morphological awareness which are bound to decoding and comprehension capacities. Further researches (more) must be, thus, carried out to better highlight the respective roles of each of the components of morphological awareness.

Marec-Breton, Nathalie; Besse, Anne-Sophie; Royer, Carine

2010-12-01

171

Results of the QUENCH-L2, DISCO-L2, and COMET-L2 Experiments Performed Within the LACOMERA Project at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The LACOMERA project at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany, is a 4 year action within the 5. Framework Programme of the EU which started in September 2002. Overall objective of the project is to offer research institutions from the EU member countries and associated states access to four large-scale experimental facilities QUENCH, LIVE, DISCO, and COMET. These facilities are being used to investigate core melt scenarios from the beginning of core degradation to melt formation and relocation in the vessel, possible melt dispersion to the reactor cavity, and finally corium concrete interaction and corium coolability in the reactor cavity. The paper summarizes the main results obtained in the following three experiments: QUENCH-L2: Boil-off of a flooded bundle. The test is of a generic interest for all reactor types, provided a link between the severe accident and design basis areas, and would deliver oxidation and thermal hydraulic data at high temperatures. DISCO-L2: Fluid-dynamic, thermal, and chemical processes during melt ejection out of a breach in the lower head of a pressure vessel of the VVER-1000/320 type of reactor. COMET-L2: Investigation of long-term melt-concrete interaction of metallic corium in a cylindrical siliceous concrete cavity under dry conditions with decay heat simulation of intermediate power during the first test phase, and subsequently at reduced power during the second test phase. (authors)

2006-01-01

172

Results of the QUENCH-L2, DISCO-L2, and COMET-L2 experiments performed within the LACOMERA project at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The LACOMERA project at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany (FZK) is a 4-year action within the 5th Framework Programme of the EU which started in September 2002. Overall objective of the project is to offer research institutions from the EU Member Countries and Associated States access to four large-scale experimental facilities QUENCH, LIVE, DISCO, and COMET. These facilities are being used to investigate core melt scenarios from the beginning of core degradation to melt formation and relocation in the vessel, possible melt dispersion to the reactor cavity, and finally corium concrete interaction and corium coolability in the reactor cavity. The paper summarizes the main results obtained in the following three experiments: QUENCH-L2: boil-off of a flooded bundle. The test is of a generic interest for all reactor types, provided a link between the severe accident and design basis areas, and would deliver oxidation and thermal hydraulic data at high temperatures. DISCO-L2: fluid-dynamic, thermal, and chemical processes during melt ejection out of a breach in the lower head of a pressure vessel of the VVER-1000/320 type of reactor. COMET-L2: investigation of long-term melt-concrete interaction of metallic corium in a cylindrical siliceous concrete cavity under dry conditions with decay heat simulation of intermediate power during the first test phase, and subsequently at reduced power during the second test phase.

Miassoedov, Alexei [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail: alexei.miassoedov@iket.fzk.de; Alsmeyer, Hans; Meyer, Leonhard; Steinbrueck, Martin [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Groudev, Pavlin [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Ivanov, Ivan [Technical University of Sofia, BG-1797 Sofia (Bulgaria); Sdouz, Gert [ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

2008-08-15

173

MORE THAN A LINGUISTIC REFERENCE: THE INFLUENCE OF CORPUS TECHNOLOGY ON L2 ACADEMIC WRITING  

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Full Text Available This paper reports on a qualitative study that investigated the changes in students’ writing process associated with corpus use over an extended period of time. The primary purpose of this study was to examine how corpus technology affects students’ development of competence as second language (L2) writers. The research was mainly based on case studies with six L2 writers in an English for Academic Purposes writing course. The findings revealed that corpus use not only had an immediate effect by helping the students solve immediate writing/language problems, but also promoted their perceptions of lexico-grammar and language awareness. Once the corpus approach was introduced to the writing process, the students assumed more responsibility for their writing and became more independent writers, and their confidence in writing increased. This studyidentified a wide variety of individual experiences and learning contexts that were involved in deciding the levels of the students’ willingness and success in using corpora. This paper also discusses the distinctive contributions of general corpora to English for Academic Purposes and the importance of lexical and grammatical aspects in L2 writing pedagogy.

Hyunsook Yoon

2008-01-01

174

The TCF7L2 locus and type 1 diabetes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background TCF7L2 belongs to a subfamily of TCF7-like HMG box-containing transcription factors, and maps to human chromosome 10q25.3. A recent study identified genetic association of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with this gene, correlated with diminished insulin secretion. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of genetic association between TCF7L2 and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Methods The SNP most significantly associated with T2D, rs7903146, was genotyped in 886 T1D nuclear family trios with ethnic backgrounds of mixed European descent. Results This study found no T1D association with, and no age-of-onset effect from rs7903146. Conclusion This study suggests that a T2D mechanism mediated by TCF7L2 does not participate in the etiology of T1D.

Qu Hui-Qi; Polychronakos Constantin

2007-01-01

175

Assessing L2 Lexical Versus Inflectional Accuracy Across Skill Levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study measures whether number and type of morphemes in an elicited imitation string results in a greater number of modifications with L2 experience. Rationale is drawn from L2 working memory processing limitations at distinct levels of proficiency. 38 subjects (L2 Spanish university students) comprise three proficiency groups: beginning, undergraduate majors and graduate students. Number of morphemes was varied within each syllable count; and responses were either correct or modified (lexemically/inflectionally as deletions or substitutions). Two way ANOVAs determined significance between mean proportions for each group. Findings indicate that increases in number of morphemes yielded significant differences; and that while the lowest proficiency group produced higher proportions of lexical deletions, the more advanced groups' modifications were inflectional substitutions.

West DE

2013-09-01

176

On the Role of Phonological Processing in L2 Reading  

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Full Text Available This paper provides a review of ideas and research regarding the role of phonological processing as a bottom-up, component processing mechanism in second language reading comprehension. Firstly, it sketches a brief history of approaches and theoretical models towards L2 reading comprehension in the SLA literature. Secondly, it acknowledges the fact that with the undue dominance of top-down psycholinguistic models, the role of bottom-up processes in L2 reading has been systematically neglected. And finally an accumulated body of literature is presented which comprehensively delineates the studies carried out to examine the contributory role of phonological processing as a type of bottom-up proceesing in L2 reading.

Mohammad Khatib; Jalil Fat?hi

2012-01-01

177

Memória de trabalho e desempenho em tarefas de L2  

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Full Text Available O presente artigo examina se a natureza da relação entre memória de trabalho e desempenho em tarefas de língua estrangeira (L2) é geral ou específica. Uma bateria de quatro testes de memória de trabalho em inglês e quatro tarefas de desempenho foi aplicada em doze estudantes universitários de nível elementar em inglês como L2. A análise mostrou uma correlação significativa entre a medida geral de memória de trabalho e as tarefas de leitura, sintaxe e produção oral. Quanto às tarefas de memória de trabalho específicas, a medida de amplitude de leitura correlacionou significativamente com a tarefa de sintaxe, e a medida de amplitude oral correlacionou tanto com as tarefas de produção oral, quanto com as de sintaxe. Os resultados do presente estudo sinalizam para uma natureza híbrida da relação entre memória de trabalho e desempenho em tarefas em L2.This paper examines whether the nature of the relationship between working memory and the performance in L2 tasks is domain-free or task-specific. A set of four working memory tests in English and four L2 performance tasks was applied to twelve undergraduate beginner students of English as a second language. Correlational analyses showed significant correlation between the operation-word span test and the reading, syntactic and speaking tasks. As for the specific span tests, the reading span test correlated significantly with the syntactic task, and the speaking span test correlated both with the speech production task and the syntactic task. The results of the present study point to a hybrid nature of the relationship between working memory capacity and L2 task performance.

Ingrid Fontanini; Janaina Weissheimer; Joara Martin Bergsleithner; Magareth Perucci; Raquel D'Ely

2005-01-01

178

$L_2$ discrepancy of linearly digit scrambled Zaremba point sets  

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Full Text Available We give an exact formula for the $L_2$ discrepancyof a class of generalized two-dimensional Hammersley point sets in base $b$, namely generalized Zaremba point sets.For the construction of such point sets one needs sequences of permutations of the form $\\pi_l(k)=\\alpha k +l \\pmod{b}$ for $k,l \\in {0,\\ldots,b-1}$. As a corollary we obtain a condition on these sequences which yields the best possible order of $L_2$ discrepancy of generalized Zaremba point sets in the sense of Roth's lower bound, with very small leading constants.

Henri Faure; Friedrich Pillichshammer; Gottlieb Pirsic

2011-01-01

179

L^2-Invariants of Finite Aspherical CW-Complexes  

CERN Document Server

Let $X$ be a finite aspherical CW-complex whose fundamental group $\\pi_1(X)$ possesses a subnormal series $\\pi_1(X) \\rhd G_m \\rhd ... \\rhd G_0$ with a non-trivial elementary amenable group $G_0$. We investigate the $L^2$-invariants of the universal covering of such a CW-complex $X$. We show that the Novikov-Shubin invariants $\\alpha_n({\\tilde X})$ are positive. We further prove that the $L^2$-torsion $\\rho^{(2)}({\\tilde X})$ vanishes if $\\pi_1(X)$ has semi-integral determinant.

Wegner, Christian

2008-01-01

180

A L2HGDH initiator methionine codon mutation in a Yorkshire terrier with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a metabolic repair deficiency characterized by elevated levels of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological signs associated with the disease in humans and dogs include seizures, ataxia and dementia. Case presentation Here we describe an 8?month old Yorkshire terrier that presented with episodes of hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. Between episodes, the dog’s behavior and neurologic examinations were normal. A T2 weighted MRI of the brain showed diffuse grey matter hyperintensity and a urine metabolite screen showed elevated 2-hydroxyglutaric acid. We sequenced all 10 exons and intron-exon borders of L2HGDH from the affected dog and identified a homozygous A to G transition in the initiator methionine codon. The first inframe methionine is at p.M183 which is past the mitochondrial targeting domain of the protein. Initiation of translation at p.M183 would encode an N-terminal truncated protein unlikely to be functional. Conclusions We have identified a mutation in the initiation codon of L2HGDH that is likely to result in a non-functional gene. The Yorkshire terrier could serve as an animal model to understand the pathogenesis of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria and to evaluate potential therapies.

Farias Fabiana HG; Zeng Rong; Johnson Gary S; Shelton G D; Paquette Dominique; O’Brien Dennis P

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Test-Takers' Interaction with an L2 Video Listening Test  

Science.gov (United States)

Video technology is commonly used in L2 classrooms, but it is rarely used in assessing L2 listening, and there is little research investigating how L2 listeners process video texts (spoken texts that include the visual channel). The purpose of this study is to examine how L2 test-takers interact with a video listening test: the rate L2 listening…

Wagner, Elvis

2010-01-01

182

The TCF7L2 locus and type 1 diabetes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background TCF7L2 belongs to a subfamily of TCF7-like HMG box-containing transcription factors, and maps to human chromosome 10q25.3. A recent study identified genetic association of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with this gene, correlated with diminished insulin secretion...

Qu Hui-Qi; Polychronakos Constantin

183

Tissue-Specific Alternative Splicing of TCF7L2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Common variants in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene have been identified as the strongest genetic risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the mechanisms by which these non-coding variants increase risk for T2D are not well-established. We used 13 expression assays to survey m...

Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Welch, Cullan; Hansson, Ola; Adhikari, Neeta; Usher, Nicolle; Tong, Maurine; Sprau, Andrew

184

Tissue-specific alternative splicing of TCF7L2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Common variants in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene have been identified as the strongest genetic risk factors for type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the mechanisms by which these non-coding variants increase risk for T2D are not well-established. We used 13 expression assays to survey m...

Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Welch, Cullan; Hansson, Ola; Adhikari, Neeta; Scott, Laura J.; Usher, Nicolle; Tong, Maurine

185

$L^2$-index formula for proper cocompact group actions  

CERN Document Server

We study the index of the $G$-invariant elliptic pseudo-differential operator acting on a complete Riemannian manifold, where a unimodular, locally compact group $G$ acts properly and cocompactly. An $L^2$-index formula was obtained using the heat kernel method.

Wang, Hang

2011-01-01

186

Sur la L2-cohomologie des varietes a courbure negative  

CERN Document Server

We give a topological interpretation of the space of L2-harmonic forms on finite-volume manifolds with sufficiently pinched negative curvature. We give examples showing that this interpretation fails if the curvature is not sufficiently pinched. The mehtod used applies to other situations, e.g. asymptotically complex hyperbolic manifolds, or harmonic forms with weights.

Yeganefar, N

2002-01-01

187

Discretization of the continuum spectra using L2 basis sets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief discussion on the basis set problem associated to bound states calculations is presented. The possibility of a discrete-basis-set representation of the continuum states of atoms and molecules is discussed and a criterium to select an adequate L2 basis to represent the continuum is presented. (A.C.A.S.).

1988-01-01

188

Calogero model and sL(2,R) algebra  

CERN Multimedia

The Calogero model with external harmonic oscillator potential is discussed from sL(2,R) algebra point of view. Explicit formulae for functions with exponential time behaviour are given; in particular, the integrals of motion are constructed and their involutiveness demonstrated. The superintegrability of the model appears to be a simple consequence of the formalism.

Gonera, C

1999-01-01

189

Epilogue: Exploring L2 Writing-SLA Interfaces  

Science.gov (United States)

In this closing commentary, I first briefly recognize areas that have made the dialogue between the fields of second language (L2) writing and second language acquisition (SLA) difficult in the past. I then offer some comments on the interfaces that are brought to the fore by the contributions gathered in the special issue. The themes explored are…

Ortega, Lourdes

2012-01-01

190

Feedback stabilization experiments using l = 2 equilibrium windings in Scyllac  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The confinement time in the Scyllac Sector Feedback Experiment has been extended with a pre-programmed equilibrium compensation force. This force was produced by driving a current with a flexible waveform in an additional set of l = 2 windings

1977-09-23

191

L2-Accented Speech in L3 Production  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper is aimed at investigating the sources of cross-linguistic influence in the third language (L3) phonology, and, particularly, the impact of the second language (L2) on the phonological acquisition of another foreign language. The study consisted in foreign accent judgements performed by a group of expert judges who were presented with…

Wrembel, Magdalena

2010-01-01

192

The Teaching of L2 Pronunciation through Processing Instruction  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of this study is to pilot test whether the instructional approach known as Processing Instruction could be adapted to the teaching of second language (L2) pronunciation. The target sounds selected were the Spanish tap and trill. Three groups of high school students of Spanish as a foreign language participated in the study. One group…

Gonzales-Bueno, Manuela; Quintana-Lara, Marcela

2011-01-01

193

Rigidity and $L^2$ cohomology of hyperbolic manifolds  

CERN Document Server

When $X=\\Gamma\\backslash \\H^n$ is a real hyperbolic manifold, it is already known that if the critical exponent is small enough then some cohomology spaces and some spaces of $L^2$ harmonic forms vanish. In this paper, we show rigidity results in the borderline case of these vanishing results.

Carron, Gilles

2009-01-01

194

L2 formulation of multidimensional scalar conservation laws  

CERN Document Server

We show that Kruzhkov's theory of entropy solutions to multidimensional scalar conservation laws can be entirely recast in L2 and fits into the general theory of maximal monotone operators in Hilbert spaces. Our approach is based on a combination of level-set, kinetic and transport-collapse approximations, in the spirit of previous works by Giga, Miyakawa, Osher, Tsai and the author.

Brenier, Y

2006-01-01

195

Initiating round robins in the L2 classroom - preliminary observations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Complementing recent interactional research on the contingent operation of online task accomplishment, this paper deals with a specific way of organizing and managing tasks in plenary L2 classrooms – namely the round robin. This may seem like a “traditional” and rigid form of classroom organization ...

Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer

196

Reovirus guanylyltransferase is L2 gene product lambda  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Reovirus guanylyltransferase, studied as a covalent enzyme-GMP intermediate, was used to guanylate appropriate acceptor molecules in vitro to produce authentic cap structures. Guanylyltransferase activity was associated with ?2, the 140-kilodalton product of the L2 gene segment of reovirus serotypes 1 and 3

1986-01-01

197

Teaching L2 Pragmatics: Opportunities for Continuing Professional Development  

Science.gov (United States)

Teaching L2 pragmatics is often not covered in teacher education programs, and is an excellent area for continuing professional development. As part of a larger project on instructed interlanguage pragmatics, volunteer instructor participants were asked to teach a series of lessons on pragmatics to university-aged (19-23) ESL learners in ESL and…

Vellenga, Heidi

2011-01-01

198

Optimization of multimeric human papillomavirus L2 vaccines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We sought to define the protective epitopes within the amino terminus of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 minor capsid protein L2. Passive transfer of mice with rabbit antisera to HPV16 L2 peptides 17-36, 32-51 and 65-81 provided significant protection against vaginal HPV16 challenge, whereas antisera to 47-66, 108-120 or 373-392 did not. Vaccination with L1 virus-like particles induces a high titer, but generally type-restricted neutralizing antibody response. Conversely, vaccination with L2 11-88, especially multimers thereof, induces antibodies that neutralize a broad range of papillomavirus types, albeit at lower titers than for L1 VLP. With the intent of enhancing the immunogenicity and the breadth of protection by focusing the immune response to the key protective epitopes, we designed L2 fusion proteins consisting of residues ?11-88 of eight divergent mucosal HPV types 6, 16, 18, 31, 39, 51, 56, 73 (11-88×8) or residues ?13-47 of fifteen HPV types (13-47×15). The 11-88×8 was significantly more immunogenic than 13-47×15 in Balb/c mice regardless of the adjuvant used, suggesting the value of including the 65-81 protective epitope in the vaccine. Since the L2 47-66 peptide antiserum failed to elicit significant protection, we generated an 11-88×8 construct deleted for this region in each subunit (11-88×8?). Mice were vaccinated with 11-88×8 and 11-88×8? to determine if deletion of this non-protective epitope enhanced the neutralizing antibody response. However, 11-88×8? was significantly less immunogenic than 11-88×8, and even the addition of a known T helper epitope, PADRE, to the construct (11-88×8?PADRE) failed to recover the immunogenicity of 11-88×8 in C57BL/6 mice, suggesting that while L2 47-66 is not a critical protective or T helper epitope, it nevertheless contributes to the immunogenicity of the L2 11-88×8 multimer vaccine.

Jagu S; Kwak K; Karanam B; Huh WK; Damotharan V; Chivukula SV; Roden RB

2013-01-01

199

Topic familiarity, passage sight vocabulary, and L2 lexical inferencing: An investigation in the Iranian EFL context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of topic familiarity and passage sight vocabulary on L2 lexical inferencing in the EFL (English as a foreign language) learning context of Iran. 114 undergraduate university students read four narratives (2 more and 2 less familiar) constructed by Pulido (2000) containing 32 nonsense words. The meanings of the target words were inferred and difficulty in guessing was rated. Analyses of the repeated-measures design reveal (1) a strong impact of topic familiarity and an independent effect of passage sight vocabulary on L2 lexical inferencing, (2) significant impact of passage sight vocabulary and no significant effect of topic familiarity on the perceived difficulty/ease in L2 lexical inferencing, and (3) no significant interaction between topic familiarity and passage sight vocabulary on L2 lexical inferencing and difficulty/ease in L2 lexical inferencing. The significance of the findings pertaining to lexical inferencing is discussed, and practical pedagogical implications and applications are presented.

Atef-Vahid, Sara; Maftoon, Parviz; Zahedi, Keivan

2013-01-01

200

LA DIDATTICA DELL’ITALIANO L2 A DETENUTI STRANIERI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available L’insegnamento dell’italiano L2 all’interno degli istituti penitenziari è diventata un’esigenza fondamentale, data la crescente presenza di detenuti stranieri nelle strutture detentive del nostro Paese.Il presente lavoro analizza le peculiarità dell’insegnamento dell’italiano L2 a detenuti stranieri: ruolo e caratteristiche del docente, bisogni e motivazioni dell’apprendente, problematiche legate al contesto specifico di apprendimento. In particolare si intende mettere in evidenza il ruolo primario della scrittura come mezzo fondamentale per svolgere attività quotidiane (padroneggiare regolamenti, richieste, “domandine”) e come strumento per la rieducazione.Per meglio comprendere le specificità dell’insegnamento in questo contesto, viene presentato un sillabo per apprendenti detenuti redatto da Antonella Benucci ed in appendice due interviste rivolte a docenti della Casa Circondariale di Monza.TEACHING ITALIAN L2 TO FOREIGN INMATESTeaching Italian L2 in prisons has become a basic need, given the growing number of foreign detainees in Italian prisons.This paper analyzes the peculiarity of teaching Italian L2 to foreign inmates: the teacher’s role and characteristics, the student’s needs and motivations, problems linked to the specific setting. We highlight the primary role of writing as a fundamental means for carrying out daily activities (mastering rules, requests, “small questions”) and as a re-education tool.To better understand the specificity of teaching in this context, a syllabus for detainees compiled by Antonella Benucci is presented and there are two interviews with teachers working in a prison in Monza.

Valentina Bonfanti

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Information Theoretic Learning  

CERN Multimedia

Information Theoretic Learning (ITL) is a framework where the conventional concepts of second order statistics (covariance, L2 distances, correlation functions) are substituted by scalars and functions with information theoretic underpinnings. This book deals with the ITL algorithms to adapt linear or nonlinear learning machines

Principe, Jose C

2010-01-01

202

3D Structure Elucidation of Thermostable L2 Lipase from Thermophilic Bacillus sp. L2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The crystallization of proteins makes it possible to determine their structure by X-ray crystallography, and is therefore important for the analysis of protein structure-function relationships. L2 lipase was crystallized by using the J-tube counter diffusion method. A crystallization consisting of 2...

Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd. Rahman; Fairolniza Mohd Shariff; Mahiran Basri; Abu Bakar Salleh

203

Grammatical Gender Processing in L2: Electrophysiological Evidence of the Effect of L1-L2 Syntactic Similarity  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the effect of proficiency and similarity between the first and the second language on grammatical gender processing in L2. In three experiments, we manipulated gender agreement violations within the determiner phrase (DP), between the determiner and the noun (Experiment 1), the postposed adjective and the noun (Experiment 2)…

Foucart, Alice; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

2011-01-01

204

Analysis of LOFT large break experiments L2-3 and L2-5 using RELAP5/MOD1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Calculations of Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Experimental L2-3 and L2-5 were performed to evaluate input models and assess the capability of the RELAP5/MOD1 computer code to calculate large-break, loss-of-coolant experiments (LOCES) in the LOFT facility. The LOFT facility is a 50 MW (thermal) pressurized water reactor (PWR) experimental facility which was designed to simulate the thermal-hydraulic behavior of a four-loop, commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). It is extensively instrumented to provide detailed information beyond that available in a commercial PWR. Experiments L2-3 and L2-5 were the second and third large-break LOCEs performed in the LOFT facility with its nuclear core producing power. Both experiments simulated a LOCA which results from a 200%, double-ended offset shear break in a cold leg of a four-loop commercial PWR. Results are presented

1983-11-04

205

L’apport des TICE et de l’écriture collaborative au développement des compétences écrites dans l’acquisition/apprentissage d’une L2 Can new technologies and collaborative writing contribute to better written performance in second language acquisition/learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dans le cadre d’une recherche-action en école d’ingénieurs, nous avons cherché à développer un savoir et un savoir-faire propre à la technique du compte-rendu. Cet objectif était facilité par des activités langagières et des procédures formalisées sous forme de grilles d’auto-évaluation. L’apprentissage se déroulait dans un environnement collaboratif et s’appuyait sur des outils informatisés. En conséquence, nous avons comparé deux situations d’apprentissage autour de ces questions : dans quelle mesure une tâche médiatisée par l’ordinateur permet une meilleure appropriation de la technique d’écriture et, une fois acquis, ce savoir faire peut-il être transféré quel que soit le support ?This field research is aimed at teaching the report writing technique to engineering students through various language activities and self-assessment grids. They worked in a collaborative environment using new technologies. We compared two learning situations to show how computer-mediated tasks help improve the written performance and how this know-how is transferred to other learning situations.

Isabelle Bonnassies

2012-01-01

206

Amenable L2-theoretic methods and knot concordance  

CERN Document Server

We introduce new obstructions to topological knot concordance. These are obtained from amenable groups in Strebel's class, possibly with torsion, using a recently suggested $L^2$-theoretic method due to Orr and the author. Concerning $(h)$-solvable knots which are defined in terms of certain Whitney towers of height $h$ in bounding 4-manifolds, we use the obstructions to reveal new structure in the knot concordance group not detected by prior known invariants: for any $n>1$ there are $(n)$-solvable knots which are not $(n.5)$-solvable (and therefore not slice) but have vanishing Cochran-Orr-Teichner $L^2$-signature obstructions as well as Levine algebraic obstructions and Casson-Gordon invariants.

Cha, Jae Choon

2010-01-01

207

The L(2,1)-Labeling of Some Middle Graphs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An (2,1) L -labeling of a graph G is a function f from the vertex set V (G) to the set of all nonnegative integers such that |f(x)-f(y)| >= 2 if d(x,y) = 1 and |f(x)-f(y)| >= 1 if if d(x,y) = 2. The L(2,1) -labeling number ?(G) of G is the smallest number k such that G has an L(2,1)-labeling with max{f(v): v? V(G). In this paper we completely determine ?-number for middle graph of path Pn, cycle Cn , star K1,n , friendship graph Fn and wheel Wn.

Samir K. Vaidya; Devsi D. Bantva

2010-01-01

208

Spatially resolved spectral measurements in the L-2 stellarator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experiments on the behavior of light impurities in the plasma of the L-2 stellarator are reported. The diagnostic apparatus used for chord measurements of the emission intensity in the ion lines is described. The method for converting the results of these measurements to the local intensity is also described. The experimental results are used along with numerical calculations to estimate the electron temperature in the region corresponding to the maximum emission of the impurity ions. This temperature is found to be half the ionization potential of the ion. The electron temperature profile at the periphery of the plasma column is constructed from the spectral measurements. The dynamics of this profile in several operating regimes of the L-2 is studied.

Voronov, G.S.; Larionova, N.F.

1982-11-01

209

On the L^2-metric of vortex moduli spaces  

CERN Multimedia

We derive general expressions for the Kaehler form of the L^2-metric in terms of standard 2-forms on vortex moduli spaces. In the case of abelian vortices in gauged linear sigma-models, this allows us to compute explicitly the Kaehler class of the L^2-metric. As an application we compute the total volume of the moduli space of abelian semi-local vortices. In the strong coupling limit, this then leads to conjectural formulae for the volume of the space of holomorphic maps from a compact Riemann surface to projective space. Finally we show that the localization results of Samols in the abelian Higgs model extend to more general models. These include linear non-abelian vortices and vortices in gauged toric sigma-models.

Baptista, J M

2010-01-01

210

Affine synthesis in the space L2(Rd)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We establish some theorems on the representation of functions f element of L2(Rd) by series of the form f=?jelementofN?kelementofZdcj,k?j,k that are absolutely convergent with respect to the index j (that is, ?jelementofN||?kelementofZdcj,k?j,k||2j,k(x)=|det aj|1/2?(ajx-bk), j element of N, k element of Zd, is an affine system of functions. We prove the validity of the Bui-Laugesen conjecture on the sufficiency of the Daubechies conditions for a positive solution of the affine synthesis problem in the space L2(Rd). A constructive solution is given for this problem under a localization of the Daubechies conditions

2009-02-28

211

Heat wave modulation experiments in the L-2M stellarator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The heat wave modulation was used in ECRH experiments in the L-2M stellarator to determine the absorption region and the thermal diffusion coefficient. The temperature response of the plasma was followed by ECE and SXR diagnostics. It is shown that the absorption region has a nonlocal character, and its size is dependent on the magnetic field. The estimated value of the electron thermal diffusivity coefficient turns out to be higher than expected.

Akulina, D.; Batanov, G.; Berezhetskii, M.; Gladkov, G.; Grebenshchikov, S.; Estrada, T.; Fedyanin, O.; Kharchev, N.; Kholnov, Yu.; Kolik, L.; Larionova, N.; Likin, K.; Luna, Elena de la; Meshcheryakov, A.; Sanchez, J.; Sarksyan, K.; Sbitnikova, I

2001-01-01

212

Developmental expression of Mab21l2 during mouse embryogenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

mab-21 has been identified as a critical component required for sensory organ identity establishment in Caenorhabditis elegans. [Chow, K.L., Emmons, S.W., 1994. Development 120, 2579-2592; Chow, E. L., Hall, D.H., Emmons, S.W., 1995. Development 121, 3615-3625]. Human and mouse homologs of this gene have been isolated and their transcripts are predominantly detected in the eye and cerebellum [Margolis, R.L., Stine, O.C., McInnis, M.G., et al., 1996. Hum. Mol. Genet 5, 607-616; Mariani, M., Corradi, A., Baldessari, D., et al., 1998. Mech. Dev. 79, 131-135. We report here the expression profile of a second murine mab-21 homolog, Mab21l2 [Wong, R.L.Y., Wong, H.T., Chow, K.L., 1999. Cyto. Cell Genet., [in press]. Whole mount in situ hybridization data from embryonic day 8.5 to day 15 revealed that Mab21l2 expression patterns partially overlapped with that of Mab21l1. In addition, its strong expression in the mid- and hindbrain, otic vesicle, optic vesicle, maxillary and mandibular process, paraxial mesoderm, dorsal midline, limb bud and developing digits suggest that Mab21l2 has more diverse functions in vertebrate development.

Wong RL; Chan KK; Chow KL

1999-09-01

213

An Investigation of Personality and L2 Oral Performance  

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Full Text Available This study investigates one dimension of personality, extroversion-introversion, and examines its potential impact on learner L2 oral performance. The study is innovative in that it analyzes not only the correlation between degree of extroversion and assessment scores based on analytic scoring but also the correlation between degree of extroversion and the discourse measures of accuracy, fluency and complexity commonly used as indices of L2 task performance in the L2 research. The data for this study were drawn from oral performances by 39 Cantonese-mother-tongue Form 4 (that is, Grade 9) secondary school ESL students engaging in school-based oral English assessment that has recently been implemented across secondary schools in Hong Kong. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was used to measure the students’ degree of extroversion. The findings indicate no significant correlations between degree of extroversion and students’ assessment scores, and between degree of extroversion and those discourse-based measures. In addition, further in-depth analysis of the discourse and interactional behavior of two students classified as an extrovert and an introvert based on their scores on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, suggests that in the context of group oral discussion described in this study, extroversion/introversion might impact in some way on learner discourse and interactional behavior only in the extreme cases, yet this influence seemed not reflected in the assessment scores assigned.

Zhengdong Gan

2011-01-01

214

COMPUTING THE VOCABULARY DEMANDS OF L2 READING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Linguistic computing can make two important contributions to second language (L2) reading instruction. One is to resolve longstanding research issues that are based on an insufficiency of data for the researcher, and the other is to resolve related pedagogical problems based on insufficiency of input for the learner. The research section of the paper addresses the question of whether reading alone can give learners enough vocabulary to read. When the computer’s ability to process large amounts of both learner and linguistic data is applied to this question, it becomes clear that, for the vast majority of L2 learners, free or wide reading alone is not a sufficient source of vocabulary knowledge for reading. But computer processing also points to solutions to this problem. Through its ability to reorganize and link documents, the networked computer can increase the supply of vocabulary input that is available to the learner. The development section of the paper elaborates a principled role for computing in L2 reading pedagogy, with examples, in two broad areas, computer-based text design and computational enrichment of undesigned texts.

Tom Cobb

2007-01-01

215

CONSIDERAZIONI SULLA DIDATTICA DELL’ITALIANO L2 IN SVIZZERA  

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Full Text Available L'articolo propone alcune considerazioni sulla didattica dell'italiano come L2 in Svizzera, partendo da una breve disamina della posizione che l'italiano ha in Svizzera all'interno del suo territorio e nei Cantoni non italofoni. Si è dunque trattato della didattica dell'italiano L2 in Svizzera abbozzando i tratti principali che caratterizzano la didattica fuori e all'interno del territorio italofono. Si è anche proposta una lista di alcuni lessemi marcati in diatopia che caratterizzano l'italiano in Svizzera, sottolineando come questi e altri tratti più squisitamente sociolinguistici possano indurre a considerare anche l'italiano come una lingua pluricentrica, con le implicazioni che questo concetto ha per la didattica dell'italiano L2 in Svizzera, anche dal punto di vista della riflessione metalinguistica.   The paper proposes some considerations concerning teaching Italian as a second language in Switzerland. Through a brief description of the position of Italian inside the Swiss quadrilingualism the teaching approaches are discussed taking into account the peculiar situation inside and outside the Italian territory. Besides the paper presents a list of some common lexemes diatopically marked inducing, along with sociolinguistic parameters, at considering Italian as a pluricentric language with the implication the concept may have concerning the teaching of Italian as a second language in Switzerland.

Elena Maria Pandolfi

2010-01-01

216

Una estrategia para favorecer la comprensión y el aprendizaje en las Ciencias Morfológicas: Presentaciones en PowerPoint. [ A strategy to improve the comprehension and learning in morphological science: powerpoint presentation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, a hypertext to the Morphological Sciences in biological area was developed and evaluated. The application with format of digital atlas approaches Anatomical, Histological and Functional concepts about the man and animals in integrated form. PowerPoint presentation was developed to operators which experience in the handling of software are limited. This digital resource was qualified as a good complement of other didactic materials. In this knowledge area offers opportunity to develop significant knowledge to improve the understanding and learning through an interactive methodology

Carranza, Miriam L. y Celaya, Gabriela

2003-01-01

217

The Role of Experience in the Acquisition and Production of Diminutives and Gender in Spanish: Evidence from L2 Learners and Heritage Speakers  

Science.gov (United States)

|This study examined whether type of early language experience provides advantages to heritage speakers over second language (L2) learners with morphology, and investigated knowledge of gender agreement and its interaction with diminutive formation. Diminutives are a hallmark of Child Directed Speech in early language development and a highly…

Montrul, Silvina; de la Fuente, Israel; Davidson, Justin; Foote, Rebecca

2013-01-01

218

The Role of Experience in the Acquisition and Production of Diminutives and Gender in Spanish: Evidence from L2 Learners and Heritage Speakers  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined whether type of early language experience provides advantages to heritage speakers over second language (L2) learners with morphology, and investigated knowledge of gender agreement and its interaction with diminutive formation. Diminutives are a hallmark of Child Directed Speech in early language development and a highly…

Montrul, Silvina; de la Fuente, Israel; Davidson, Justin; Foote, Rebecca

2013-01-01

219

L2 Motivation and Personality as Predictors of the Second Language Proficiency: Role of the Big Five Traits and L2 Motivational Self System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study examined the predictability of the L2 proficiency by personality and L2 motivational self system variables among 141 Iranian EFL university students. Participants completed Transparent Bipolar Inventory (Goldberg, 1992) as a personality measure, L2 motivational self system (Papi,...

Zargham Ghapanchi; Gholam Hassan Khajavy; Seyyedeh Fatemeh Asadpour

220

Willingness to Communicate and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: L2 Communication and Acculturative Stress as Transaction  

Science.gov (United States)

Although much research has focused on the influence of second language (L2) proficiency on L2 use and on outcomes of intercultural adaptation, these two strands have remained largely separate. This study examines the impact of willingness to communicate in the L2 (L2 WTC) on the daily hassles and stress of international students, with the aim of…

Gallagher, H. Colin

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Review of L-2M Stellarator Recent Results  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The latest experimental results of L-2M are presented and discussed. Solitary edge localized transport events (SELEs) that drastically differ from edge localized modes (ELMs) normally observed at other devices are presented here. Mirnov signals are inert to SELE. After SELE plasma energy slowly monotonically increase up to the end of the discharge(as well as the average plasma density n). SELEs are indicated only at sufficiently high plasma densities, and for the given value of average density they appear only at higher heating powers. Mirnov signals are inert to SELE. We can say with a fair degree of confidence that SELE indicate the transition to the regime with better confinement.We discuss also in passing whether high frequency components of electromagnetic oscillations can play role in plasma transport. Plasma confinement in non-standard L-2M configurations that are obtained by the decrease of current in the helical windings with four equal steps to the half of initial value was investigated. It is shown that the decrease of the total energy with the rotational transform value is significantly more pessimistic than that following from the International Stellarator Scaling ISS95. Another possibility to change the configuration is the use of co/contra ohmic current within the standard configuration of L-2M. With the value of co injected current confinement initially slightly improves. Higher positive currents lead to definite degradation of the confinement connected with strong MHD activity. Contra injected (negative) currents lead to moderate decrease of electron temperature at given average density and heating power. MHD activity in this case is much smaller than that of co injected current. (Author)

Shchepetov, S. V.; Akulina, D. K.; Batanov, G. M.; Berezhetskii, M. S.; Fedyanin, O. I.; Gladkov, G. A.; Grebenshchikov, S. E.; Kharchev, N. K.; Khol, Y. V.; Kovrizhnykh, L. M.; Kuznetsov, A. B.; Larionova, N. F.; Letunov, A. A.; Logvinenko, V. P.; Malykh, N. I.; Meshcheryakov, A. I.; Pshenichnikov, A. A.; Sarksyan, K. A.; Skvortsova, N. N.; Vasilkov, D. G.; Voronova, E. V.; Voronov, G. S.

2005-07-01

222

Current heating of plasma in the L-2 stellarator  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report gives the results of the first experiments on the L-2 stellarator, put into operation at the end of 1975. The L-2 stellarator consists of a toroidal magnetic trap with a double (l = 2) helical field. The major diameter of the torus D = 200 cm, and the cross sectional diameter of the vacuum chamber d = 35 cm. The maximum magnetic field B0 = 20 KG (in the experiments under consideration, B0 less than or eaual to 14 KG). The rotational transform angle on the axis Z/sub delta/(o) - 0.2, on the boundary surface Z/sub delta/(a) = 0.7, and the shear theta approximately equal to 0.5. The mean radius of the boundary magnetic surface anti a = 11.5 cm. The limiting gas kinetic plasma pressure at B0 = 20 KOe, determined from stability and equilibrium conditions, is 1017 eV cm-3. Ohmic heating of the plasma was used in the first stage of the studies. At a current I approximately equal to 20 KA, a plasma with density anti n/sub e/ approximately equal to 1013 cm-3 was obtained, with a mean electron temperature anti T/sub e/ approximately equal to 300 eV and an effective charge Z/sub eff/ = 3. The energy lifetime of the plasma tau/sub E/ approximately equal to 4-8 msec. At a current reaching a certain critical value (I/sub cr/ approximately B0), corresponding to the total angle of twist on the axis Z/sub ?(o) approximately equal to 1, the appearance of helical perturbations with r/m = 1/1, limiting the magnitude of the plasma current, was observed

1976-10-06

223

L2 Reading in Multilingual Eritrea: The Influences of L1 Reading and English Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

A major question in L2 reading research is whether L2 reading is a language or a reading problem. Existing research, mainly carried out in Western contexts, demonstrates that L2 reading is influenced by L1 reading and L2 proficiency. This study applied the L2 reading theory in a non-Western context (Eritrea, East Africa) with L1 reading acquired…

Asfaha, Yonas Mesfun; Beckman, Danielle; Kurvers, Jeanne; Kroon, Sjaak

2009-01-01

224

L^2-cohomology of locally symmetric spaces, I  

CERN Document Server

Let X be a locally symmetric space associated to a reductive algebraic group G defined over Q. L-modules are a combinatorial analogue of constructible sheaves on the reductive Borel-Serre compactification of X; they were introduced in [math.RT/0112251]. That paper also introduced the micro-support of an L-module, a combinatorial invariant that to a great extent characterizes the cohomology of the associated sheaf. The theory has been successfully applied to solve a number of problems concerning the intersection cohomology and weighted cohomology of the reductive Borel-Serre compactification [math.RT/0112251], as well as the ordinary cohomology of X [math.RT/0112250]. In this paper we extend the theory to treat L^2-cohomology. In particular we construct an L-module whose cohomology is the L^2-cohomology of X and we calculate its micro-support. As an application we obtain a new proof of the conjectures of Borel and Zucker.

Saper, L

2004-01-01

225

Acquisition of L2 Japanese Geminates: Training with Waveform Displays  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The value of waveform displays as visual feedback was explored in a training study involving perception and production of L2 Japanese by beginning-level L1 English learners. A pretest-posttest design compared auditory-visual (AV) and auditory-only (A-only) Web-based training. Stimuli were singleton and geminate /t,k,s/ followed by /a,u/ in two conditions (isolated words, carrier sentences). Fillers with long vowels were included. Participants completed a forced-choice identification task involving minimal triplets: singletons, geminates, long vowels (e.g., sasu, sassu, saasu). Results revealed a) significant improvement in geminate identification following training, especially for AV; b) significant effect of geminate (lowest scores for /s/); c) no significant effect of condition; and d) no significant improvement for the control group. Most errors were misperceptions of geminates as long vowels. Test of generalization revealed 5% decline in accuracy for AV and 14% for A-only. Geminate production improved significantly (especially for AV) based on rater judgments; improvement was greatest for /k/ and smallest for /s/. Most production errors involved substitution of a singleton for a geminate. Post-study interviews produced positive comments on Web-based training. Waveforms increased awareness of durational differences. Results support the effectiveness of auditory-visual input in L2 perception training with transfer to novel stimuli and improved production.

Miki Motohashi-Saigo; Debra M. Hardison

2009-01-01

226

SYNCHRONOUS CMC, WORKING MEMORY, AND L2 ORAL PROFICIENCY DEVELOPMENT  

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Full Text Available Recently a number of quasi-experimental studies have investigated the potential of a cross-modality transfer of second language competency between real-time, conversational exchange via text and speech (Abrams, 2003; Beauvious, 1998; Kost, 2004; Payne & Whitney, 2002). Payne and Whitney employed Levelt's (1989) model of language production and concepts from working memory as a rationale for a hypothesized connection between synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) and second language (L2) speech and as a basis for predicting the differential contributions of SCMC to the L2 oral proficiency development.This study extends the psycholinguistic framework reported in Payne and Whitney (2002) with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explore how individual differences in working memory capacity may affect the frequency of repetition and other patterns of language use in chatroom discourse. Working memory capacity was measured by a reading span and nonword repetition test. Oral proficiency was measured with a speaking task that solicited a 5-minute speech sample and was scored based on a holistic scale. The data collected from 20 chat sessions were analyzed for occurrences of repetition and relexicalization, as well as language output measures. Findings suggest a connection between working memory and language output as measured in this study.

J. Scott Payne

2005-01-01

227

L2 Orthogonal Space Time Code for Continuous Phase Modulation  

CERN Multimedia

To combine the high power efficiency of Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) with either high spectral efficiency or enhanced performance in low Signal to Noise conditions, some authors have proposed to introduce CPM in a MIMO frame, by using Space Time Codes (STC). In this paper, we address the code design problem of Space Time Block Codes combined with CPM and introduce a new design criterion based on L2 orthogonality. This L2 orthogonality condition, with the help of simplifying assumption, leads, in the 2x2 case, to a new family of codes. These codes generalize the Wang and Xia code, which was based on pointwise orthogonality. Simulations indicate that the new codes achieve full diversity and a slightly better coding gain. Moreover, one of the codes can be interpreted as two antennas fed by two conventional CPMs using the same data but with different alphabet sets. Inspection of these alphabet sets lead also to a simple explanation of the (small) spectrum broadening of Space Time Coded CPM.

Hesse, Matthias; Deneire, Luc

2008-01-01

228

Unsupervised learning of morphological families: comparison of methods and multilingual aspects Apprentissage non supervise? de familles morphologiques : comparaison de me?thodes et aspects multilingues  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article describes MorphoClust and MorphoNet, two methods for the unsupervised acquisition of morphological families. MorphoClust builds families by iterative conflations, similarly to hierchical clustering methods. The MorphoNet method relies on community detection in lexical networks. The nodes of these networks stand for words while edges represent morphological transformation rules which are automatically acquired based on graphical similarities between words. The two methods are applied to a German-English bilingual lexicon, both in isolation and in combination. We evaluate the results using the CELEX lexical database.

Delphine Bernhard

2011-01-01

229

Effects of task repetition on L2 oral performance Efeitos da repetição de tarefas na produção oral em L2  

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Full Text Available This study departs from the assumption that speaking an L2 is a complex cognitive ability (FORTKAMP, 2000) whose execution seems to involve tradeoff effects among the different goals of speech production, mainly among fluency, accuracy and complexity (BYGATE, 1998, 1999, 2001b; FOSTER e SKEHAN, 1996; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998). Bygate (2001b) studied the effects of task familiarity on L2 speech performance. He found that in repeating a narrative task there were gains in terms of complexity of speech and these gains were achieved at the cost of a loss especially in accuracy. The present study investigated whether the results reported in Bygate (2001b) would be similar in the case of a repetition of a picture description task. According to Robinson (2001), a description is less complex than a narrative task. Four measures of speech performance were calculated following Fortkamp (2000): fluency, accuracy, complexity and lexical density. Results indicate gains in complexity and these gains seem to have been paid, especially by gains in accuracy, thus corroborating Bygate´s (2001b) findings for this task condition.Este estudo parte do pressuposto de que falar um segundo idioma (L2) é uma habilidade cognitiva complexa (FORTKAMP, 2000) cuja execução parece envolver uma compensação entre os diferentes objetivos da fala, principalmente entre a fluência, a acurácia e a complexidade (BYGATE, 1996, 1999, 2001b; FOSTER e SKEHAN, 1996; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998). Bygate (2001b) estudou os efeitos da familiaridade com a tarefa na produção oral em L2. Ele mostrou que na repetição de uma narrativa há ganhos, principalmente em termos de complexidade da fala, mas esse ganhos ocorrem em detrimento de outros aspectos, principalmente da perda na acurácia da fala. Este estudo investigou se os resultados reportados por Bygate (2001b) seriam similares no caso da repetição de uma tarefa de descrição. Segundo Robinson (2001), a descrição é uma tarefa menos complexa do que uma narrativa. Quatro medidas de produção oral foram calculadas seguindo Fortkamp (2000): fluência, acurácia, complexidade e densidade lexical. Os resultados deste estudo indicam ganhos em termos de complexidade de fala e esses ganhos parecem ter sido alcançados, principalmente, às custas da acurácia, portanto, corroborando resultados de Bygate (2001b) para essa condição de tarefa.

Kyria Rebeca Finardi

2008-01-01

230

Mathematical morphology  

CERN Multimedia

Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoret

Najman, Laurent

2013-01-01

231

Galaxy Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Hidden in the bewildering details of galaxy morphology are clues to how galaxies formed and have evolved over a Hubble time. This article reviews the phenomenology of galaxy morphology and classification using an extensive set of illustrations to delineate as many types as possible and to show how different types connect to various physical processes and characteristics. The old classification systems are refined, and new types introduced, as the explosion in available morphological data has modified our views on the structure and evolution of galaxies.

Buta, Ronald J.

232

Projective multiresolution analyses for $L^2(R^2)$  

CERN Multimedia

We define the notion of "projective" multiresolution analyses, for which, by definition, the initial space corresponds to a finitely generated projective module over the algebra $C(\\btn)$ of continuous complex-valued functions on an $n$-torus. The case of ordinary multi-wavelets is that in which the projective module is actually free. We discuss the properties of projective multiresolution analyses, including the frames which they provide for $L^2(\\brn)$. Then we show how to construct examples for the case of any diagonal $2 \\times 2$ dilation matrix with integer entries, with initial module specified to be any fixed finitely generated projective $C(\\mathbb T^2)$-module. We compute the isomorphism classes of the corresponding wavelet modules.

Packer, J A; Packer, Judith A.; Rieffel, Marc A.

2003-01-01

233

MODE, MEANING, AND SYNAESTHESIA IN MULTIMEDIA L2 WRITING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study of digital storytelling attempts to apply Kress's (2003) notions of synaesthesia, transformation, and transduction to the analysis of four undergraduate L2 writers' multimedia text creation processes. The students, entering freshmen, participated in an experimental course entitled "Multimedia Writing," whose purpose was to experience and explore the processes of multimodal textual communication. With the support of empirical data drawn from interviews, student journals, and the digital story-related artifacts themselves, the author shows how synaesthetically derived meaning may be a natural part of the process of creating multimodal texts. Considering the special case of non-native English speakers, the paper also demonstrates that synaesthesia may have both amplifying and limiting effects on the projection of authorial intention and voice. Before reading the following, it is suggested that the reader view examples of the multimedia essays discussed herein.

Mark Evan Nelson

2006-01-01

234

Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle  

Science.gov (United States)

Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

Meurant, Robert C.

235

IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2/LS CON TESTI TEATRALI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Il saggio tratta dell'impiego di testi teatrali come fonti di esercizi per l'apprendimento dell'italiano L2/LS. Dopo alcune riflessioni teoriche, si presentano sei proposte di lavoro, con relative soluzioni, adatte a studenti del livello B2-C2 del quadro di riferimento. Si tratta di esercizi ricavati da drammi in un unico atto di Pirandello (La morsa e Lumìe di Sicilia), da Verga (un confronto fra Cavalleria rusticana nella forma drammatica e novellistica), e da Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre). Ogni proposta sfrutta una peculiarità del testo teatrale che si costituisce nell'incontro di dialoghi con didascalie. Anzitutto si tratta di comprendere come si costruiscono i personaggi, quindi di vedere la funzione delle didascalie in relazione al testo, infine di riflettere sulle diverse modalità in cui avvengono i dialoghi, includendo le forme di silenzio. Il testo teatrale appare così molto adatto ad esercizi di lingua, perché mette in gioco le capacità interpretative e immaginative degli studenti, li fa discutere e parlare sulla base delle loro intuizioni.   This paper investigates the use of play scripts as inspiration for Italian L2/FL exercises. After a brief discussion on theory, six project proposals and their solutions, suitable for B2-C2 level students, are presented.  These exercises are based on one-act plays by Pirandello (La Morsa and Lumìe di Sicilia), Verga (a comparison between Cavalleria Rusticana in drama and narrative forms) and Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre).  Each project focuses on a specific aspect of the script  and is made up of dialogues with captions. After the way the characters are constructed is investigated, then the function of the captions in relation to the texts is considered, and finally students reflect on the different ways the dialogues are presented, including the pauses. Play scripts lend themselves to language exercises, because they encourage students to use their interpretation skills and imaginations to talk about their intuitions and ideas.

Erminia Ardissino

2010-01-01

236

LA RIFLESSIONE METALINGUISTICA NEI MANUALI D’ITALIANO L2: CASE STUDY  

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Full Text Available Gli “attori” di un corso di lingua sono gli apprendenti, il docente facilitatore e… il manuale. La scelta di quest’ultimo, e quindi la metodologia didattica che lo sottende, contribuiscono in maniera decisiva a delineare il percorso d’apprendimento esplicitando finalità e priorità didattiche. In un panorama editoriale ormai ricco e variegato non è sempre agevole districarsi fra le numerose proposte di libri di testo. Oltre alla centralità del discente e al metodo comunicativo, requisiti in linea con i dettami dell’European Common Framework presenti, seppur in dosi differenti, nella quasi totalità dei manuali, altri elementi meritano la dovuta considerazione. La riflessione metalinguistica, per esempio, si è affacciata solo recentemente sulla “scena” glottodidattica assumendo un ruolo tutt’altro che secondario.METALINGUISTIC REFLECTION IN ITALIAN L2 TEXT BOOKS: A CASE STUDYThe “actors” in a language course are the learners, the teacher/facilitator and… the textbook. Choosing a textbook, and the didactic methodology underlying it, contribute in a decisive way to the learning process by directing the learning objectives and choices. With a varied choice of textbooks available, it is not always easy to evaluate them. Student-centered courses using the communicative method, indications in line with the European Common Framework, are aspects which vary in quantity from text to text but which characterize them all. There are, however, also other elements to consider. Metalinguistic reflection, for example, has only recently taken on a primary role in the glottodidactic scenario.

Claudia Matthiae

2012-01-01

237

The Use of Newspapers for L2 Reading: Practical Activities  

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Full Text Available Nowadays the acquisition of literacy skills in the foreign language is a highly demanding task cognitively speaking. To improve this learning process, this paper presents a three-fold approach using print and virtual newspapers: first, a brief theoretical revision of the issues involved in learning how to read in a foreign language or transfer L1 reading skills to the foreign language, second, a wide selection of activities to be used when working with newspapers, and third, two sessions that exploit newspapers in the classroom which can constitute part of a wider lesson plan for Students preparing the English test for the University Entrance Exam (2nd of Bachillerato in the Spanish Educative System).

Gloria Luque-Agulló; Lucas González-Fernández

2012-01-01

238

La video clase y la multimedia como medio de enseñanza-aprendizaje de los contenidos morfológicos The videoconference and multimedia as teaching-learning means for morphologic contents  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En la última década, la videoconferencia y la multimedia están siendo percibidas como los medios con más posibilidades didácticas en contextos de enseñanza superior. En sus inicios, la videoconferencia suplió las limitaciones espacio-temporales de la educación a distancia. Progresivamente, este medio fue encontrando un reconocimiento en instituciones convencionales de enseñanza propiciado por el desarrollo de experiencias de calidad basadas en la incorporación de recursos externos al aula. Desde una perspectiva instrumentalista, los medios son soportes materiales de información que deben reflejar la realidad de la forma más perfecta posible. Responden a un modelo estándar de alumno y a una cultura escolar homogénea, y se consideran por sí mismos instrumentos generadores de aprendizajes. Las características del diseño didáctico y computacional de un entorno hipermedia para aprender se intenta conectar a la concepción de promover el aprendizaje utilizando la computadora. El entorno consiste en un conjunto de actividades basadas en andamiajes tendientes a inducir la construcción de significados mediante la activa participación del estudiante.During the last decade, the videoconference and multimedia are being perceived as the means with more didactic possibilities in the context of the high education. At the beginning, the videoconference helped avoiding limitations of the distance learning. Progressively, this means began to be recognized in conventional teaching institutions because of the development of qualitative experiences based on the usage of out-class resources. From an instrumentalist perspective, the means are material supports of the information that should express the reality in the most possible perfect way. They answer to a standard model of students and to a homogeneous school culture, and are considered, by themselves, as instruments generating learning. The characteristics of a computational and didactic design of a hypermedia setting to learn are intended to be linked to a conception of promoting learning using computers. The setting is a group of activities based on structures tending to induce the construction of meanings through the active participation of the student.

Nieves E Garriga Alfonso; Iliana Robainas Fiallo; Dayren Fernández Santamaría; Dunieska Quiñones Cabrera; Rolando Ernesto Medina Robainas

2009-01-01

239

Marqueurs cadratifs temporels et argumentatifs dans les récits d’apprenants néerlandophones de français L2  

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Full Text Available Cet article présente une étude quantitative sur corpus examinant la présence et la fréquence de marqueurs cadratifs temporels et de marqueurs argumentatifs dans les narrations orales (Frog Story, Mayer, 1969) d’apprenants néerlandophones de français L2. Les narrations proviennent de groupes d’apprenants néerlandophones en Flandre et à Bruxelles, de 1re et de 6e année de l’enseignement secondaire (n = 10 pour chaque groupe). La production de marqueurs cadratifs temporels et de marqueurs argumentatifs des différents groupes d’apprenants a été comparée à celle de locuteurs natifs du même âge et de même niveau scolaire. Les hypothèses de recherche formulées visent à détailler l’impact du contact curriculaire et extracurriculaire sur la production de ces marqueurs par ces apprenants. Les résultats ne vont pas de manière univoque dans le sens des hypothèses de recherche : l’impact d’un contact plus accru avec le français L2 semble influencer différemment les productions des apprenants. En outre, les résultats ne montrent pas toujours des différences statistiquement significatives entre apprenants et locuteurs natifs.This paper proposes a quantitative corpus-based study investigating the presence of temporal framing and argumentative markers in the narrative monologues of Dutch-speaking learners of French as a second language. The narrative texts were collected from Dutch-speaking monolinguals from two contexts (Flanders and Brussels) and at two different stages of their learning curriculum (1st and last year of secondary education). Ten subjects from each group were asked to tell a wordless picture-book story (Frog Story, Mayer, 1969). The production of temporal framing and argumentative markers in these narratives has been compared to that of groups of native speakers of the same age and curricular level. We hypothesized that the amount of curricular and extracurricular contact would influence the production of temporal framing and argumentative markers. The results are not straightforward: more contact with French as an L2 seems to influence learners’ performance differently, and we do not always find a significant difference with the native speaker groups.

Aurélie Welcomme

2011-01-01

240

Factors influencing subcellular localization of the human papillomavirus L2 minor structural protein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Two structural proteins form the capsids of papillomaviruses. The major structural protein L1 is the structural determinant of the capsids and is present in 360 copies arranged in 72 pentamers. The minor structural protein L2 is estimated to be present in twelve copies per capsid. Possible roles for L2 in interaction with cell surface receptors and in virion uptake have been suggested. As previously reported, L2 localizes in subnuclear domains identified as nuclear domain 10 (ND10). As it was demonstrated that L2 is able to recruit viral and cellular proteins to ND10, a possible role for L2 as a mediator in viral assembly has been proposed. In this study, we determined factors influencing the localization of L2 at ND10. Under conditions of moderate L2 expression level and in the absence of heterologous viral components, we observed that, in contrast to previous reports, L2 is mainly distributed homogeneously throughout the nucleus. L2, however, is recruited to ND10 at a higher expression level or in the presence of viral components derived from vaccinia virus or from Semliki Forest virus. We observed that translocation of L2 to ND10 is not a concentration-dependent accumulation but rather seems to be triggered by yet unidentified cellular factors. In contrast to HPV 11 and 16 L2, the HPV 18 L2 protein seems to require L1 for efficient nuclear accumulation

2006-02-05

 
 
 
 
241

Distinguishing Features in Scoring L2 Chinese Speaking Performance: How Do They Work?  

Science.gov (United States)

For Chinese as a second language (L2 Chinese), there has been little research into "distinguishing features" (Fulcher, 1996; Iwashita et al., 2008) used in scoring L2 Chinese speaking performance. The study reported here investigates the relationship between the distinguishing features of L2 Chinese spoken performances and the scores awarded by…

Jin, Tan; Mak, Barley

2013-01-01

242

L2 Reading Research and Pedagogical Considerations in the Teaching of French and Francophone Theater  

Science.gov (United States)

Little research on improving second language (L2) reading comprehension of French and francophone theater has been conducted. This study provides insight into enhancing L2 comprehension of drama by combining L2 research with examples from L'accent grave by Jacques Prevert, Ton beau capitaine by Simone Schwarz-Bart (1987), Un Touareg s'est marie a…

Edwards, Carole; Taylor, Alan M.

2012-01-01

243

mRNA Instability Elements in the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 L2 Coding Region  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human papillomavirus capsid proteins L1 and L2 are detected only in terminally differentiated cells, indicating that expression of the L1 and L2 genes is blocked in dividing cells. The results presented here establish that the human papillomavirus type 16 L2 coding region contains cis-acting inhibit...

Sokolowski, Marcus; Tan, Wei; Jellne, Marianne; Schwartz, Stefan

244

Induction of L1 and L2 ?-Lactamases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Isogenic L1 and L2 gene knockout mutants of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KJ (KJ?L1 and KJ?L2, respectively) were constructed by xylE gene replacement. Induction kinetics of the L1 and L2 genes were evaluated by testing catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity in the mutants. The results suggested that the ...

Hu, Rouh-Mei; Huang, Kuang-Jay; Wu, Lii-Tzu; Hsiao, Ying-Ju; Yang, Tsuey-Ching

245

Pragmatic and Grammatical Competence, Length of Residence, and Overall L2 Proficiency  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the influence of length of residence in the target language community and overall L2 proficiency on L2 pragmatic competence with a reference to L2 grammatical competence. Participants were 126 international students in the US with two academic levels of English proficiency from 17 countries, speaking 20 languages. A…

Xu, Wei; Case, Rod E.; Wang, Yu

2009-01-01

246

Lexical vs. Syntactic Competence in L2 English  

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Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between lexical and syntactic competences of fairly advanced learners of English. The data consisted of written tasks where the subjects were asked to translate a text written in their L1 Finnish into their L2 English. The subjects were participants in an entrance examination, seeking admittance to study English Philology at the university. The results confirmed the findings of an earlier study (Pietilä, 2009), where the best candidates were found to manifest almost faultless syntax but produced a considerable number of lexical errors. In the present study, the performance of the 50 most successful candidates in the translation task was further compared with the performance of those 50 candidates who got the lowest grades in this task. The least proficient applicants also produced more lexical than syntactic errors, but the difference was smaller than in the case of the top candidates. In other words, the least proficient candidates had considerable problems with some syntactic features as well. The results seem to imply that lexical and syntactic competence do not develop in parallel. What is more, advanced learners tend to lack precision in their vocabulary.

Päivi Pietilä

2012-01-01

247

Assessing Learners’ Comprehension of Logical Connectives in L2 Texts  

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Full Text Available To successfully comprehend a text, readers must be able to establish coherent representation of its meaning. Construction of coherent text representation presupposes an ability to identify coherence relations that bind discourse segments together. These relations can be implicit or marked by a variety of linguistic devices such as logical connectives and signaling phrases. While there has been a growing awareness among the teachers and EFL material writers about the important role that knowledge of marker words plays in comprehension of L2 discourse, there is only a limited number of suitable test designs that allow assessment of learners’ understanding of these words. The current paper summarizes the major findings of the research on the role of discourse markers in text processing and presents two test formats that could be used to measure students’ understanding of conjunctions as text structure markers: a ‘paraphrase’ judgment task and text diagrams. The advantages and potential limitations of each test format are examined from both the teacher and the student perspectives.

Zorana Vasiljevic

2013-01-01

248

Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype  

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Full Text Available Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2) was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of other infective agents. For these reasons, glycosidases are likely to provide important information regarding the general behaviour of this bacterium. Ten different glycosides bound to p-nitrophenol (pNP) substrate were tested. Assays were performed on lysed and unlysed chlamydial extracts.Our results provided strong evidence for the existence of glycosidase activity in C.trachomatis, strain SA2F peaking at pH 5.0 and pH 7.5-8.0 There was a high enzymatic activity against p-NPa mannopyranoside and p-NP b-N acetylglucosamine with a recovery of 88% suggesting that the enzymes were present on the bacterial surface. Activity against these sugars, which form part of either the extracellular filler or in endoplasmic reticulum may suggest of a possible mechanism of cellular invasion.

Dr. Pamela Greenwell; Ms. Georgia Kakourou; Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh

2006-01-01

249

O papel da consciência morfológica para a alfabetização em leitura El papel de las habilidades morfológicas y la alfabetización en la lectura The role of morphological awareness in reading learning  

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Full Text Available Dentre as habilidades metalingüísticas três parecem ajudar o leitor aprendiz a aprender a ler e escrever: a consciência fonológica, a consciência sintática e a consciência morfológica. Das três habilidades, a menos estudada é a consciência morfológica. No entanto, este estado de coisas está mudando e está se formando um novo corpo de conhecimento sobre o papel das habilidades morfológicas e a alfabetização. À medida que esse campo de pesquisa avança novas questões teóricas e metodológicas vão sendo levantadas. Com base na literatura publicada recentemente na área, este artigo discute algumas destas questões.Entre las habilidades metalingüísticas, tres parecen ayudar el lector aprendiz a aprender a leer y escribir: la conciencia fonológica, la consciencia sintática, y la conciencia morfológica. De las tres habilidades, la que es menos estudiada es la conciencia morfológica. Sin embargo, este estado de cosas están cambiando y un nuevo cuerpo de conocimiento se está formando sobre el papel de las habilidades morfológicas y la alfabetización. En la medida que ese campo de pesquisa avanza, nuevas cuestiones teóricas y metodológicas se van levantando. Con base en la literatura publicada recientemente en el área, este artículo debate algunas de estas cuestiones.Among the metalinguistic abilities three seem to help children to learn to read and to write: phonological awareness, syntactic awareness and morphological awareness. Of the three abilities, the least studied one is morphological awareness. However, this state of things is changing and a new body of knowledge has been formed about the role of morphological abilities in literacy. As this field of research advances, new theoretical and methodological questions are raised. Based on recent published literature in this field, this article discusses some of these questions.

Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da Mota

2009-01-01

250

O papel da consciência morfológica para a alfabetização em leitura/ The role of morphological awareness in reading learning/ El papel de las habilidades morfológicas y la alfabetización en la lectura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Dentre as habilidades metalingüísticas três parecem ajudar o leitor aprendiz a aprender a ler e escrever: a consciência fonológica, a consciência sintática e a consciência morfológica. Das três habilidades, a menos estudada é a consciência morfológica. No entanto, este estado de coisas está mudando e está se formando um novo corpo de conhecimento sobre o papel das habilidades morfológicas e a alfabetização. À medida que esse campo de pesquisa avança no (more) vas questões teóricas e metodológicas vão sendo levantadas. Com base na literatura publicada recentemente na área, este artigo discute algumas destas questões. Abstract in spanish Entre las habilidades metalingüísticas, tres parecen ayudar el lector aprendiz a aprender a leer y escribir: la conciencia fonológica, la consciencia sintática, y la conciencia morfológica. De las tres habilidades, la que es menos estudiada es la conciencia morfológica. Sin embargo, este estado de cosas están cambiando y un nuevo cuerpo de conocimiento se está formando sobre el papel de las habilidades morfológicas y la alfabetización. En la medida que ese campo (more) de pesquisa avanza, nuevas cuestiones teóricas y metodológicas se van levantando. Con base en la literatura publicada recientemente en el área, este artículo debate algunas de estas cuestiones. Abstract in english Among the metalinguistic abilities three seem to help children to learn to read and to write: phonological awareness, syntactic awareness and morphological awareness. Of the three abilities, the least studied one is morphological awareness. However, this state of things is changing and a new body of knowledge has been formed about the role of morphological abilities in literacy. As this field of research advances, new theoretical and methodological questions are raised. Based on recent published literature in this field, this article discusses some of these questions.

Mota, Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da

2009-03-01

251

Evidence for Association between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and TCF7L2 and Glucose Intolerance in Women with PCOS and TCF7L2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Context and Objective: Of the recently identified type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) susceptibility loci, transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) confers the greatest relative risk for T2D and significantly predicts conversion to T2D in persons with impaired glucose tolerance. TCF7L2 is, therefore, also ...

Biyasheva, Assel; Legro, Richard S.; Dunaif, Andrea; Urbanek, Margrit

252

Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1-L2 intermixing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function of age of L2 acquisition and task demands (i.e., inclusion of L2 sentences). In Experiment 1, participants read high and low constraint English (L1) sentences containing interlingual homographs, cognates, or control words. In Experiment 2, we included French (L2) filler sentences to increase salience of the L2 during L1 reading. The results suggest that bilinguals reading in their L1 show nonselective activation to the extent that they acquired their L2 early in life. Similar to our previous work on L2 reading, high contextual constraint attenuated cross-language activation for cognates. The inclusion of French filler items promoted greater cross-language activation, especially for late stage reading measures. Thus, L1 bilingual reading is modulated by L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and task demands.

Titone D; Libben M; Mercier J; Whitford V; Pivneva I

2011-11-01

253

Quantifying the Quality Difference between L1 and L2 Essays: A Rating Procedure with Bilingual Raters and L1 and L2 Benchmark Essays  

Science.gov (United States)

It is the consensus that, as a result of the extra constraints placed on working memory, texts written in a second language (L2) are usually of lower quality than texts written in the first language (L1) by the same writer. However, no method is currently available for quantifying the quality difference between L1 and L2 texts. In the present…

Tillema, Marion; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

2013-01-01

254

Working Memory Capacity, Inhibitory Control and the Role of L2 Proficiency in Aging L1 Dutch Speakers of Near-Native L2 English  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper examines the intricate relationship between working memory (WM) capacity and inhibitory control as a function of both L2 proficiency and age. In both its design and research questions, this study closely follows Gass & Lee’s work, where both L1 and L2 Reading Span Tasks (as measures of WM...

Merel Keijzer

255

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of highly thermostable L2 lipase from the newly isolated Bacillus sp. L2  

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Thermostable recombinant L2 lipase from thermophilic Bacillus sp. L2 has been crystallized by using counter-diffusion method and diffracted to 2.7?Å resolution. The crystal belongs to the primitive orthorhombic space group P212121 with unit-cell parameters a = 87.44, b = 94.90, c = 126.46?Å.

Shariff, Fairolniza Mohd; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abd.; Ali, Mohd Shukuri Mohamad; Chor, Adam Leow Thean

256

L2 boundedness of the Cauchy transform implies L2 boundedness of all Carlderón-Zygmund operators associated to odd kernels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Let [mu] be a Radon measure on C without atoms. In this paper we prove that if the Cauchy transform is bounded in L2([mu]) then all 1-dimensional Calderón-Zygmund operators associated to odd and sufficiently smooth kernels are also bounded in L2 ([mu]).

Tolsa, Xavier

257

Hábitos de aprendizaje y rendimiento académico en la asignatura morfofisiología-II de la carrera de estomatología/ Learning habits and academic performance in the II- Morphology and Physiology subject in Dentistry major  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish RESUMEN La asignatura Morfofisiología II que se imparte en primer año de la carrera de Estomatología resultó la de más bajo rendimiento académico. Objetivo: Caracterizar los hábitos de aprendizaje del estudiante de primer año de Estomatología, teniendo en cuenta su relación con sus diferencias individuales y rendimiento académico en la asignatura. Método: Se realizó una investigación descriptiva y de corte transversal en la asignatura Morfofisiología II, de (more) la carrera de Estomatología de la provincia de Pinar del Río al finalizar el primer semestre del curso 2008-2009. La muestra estuvo constituida por 52 estudiantes de primer año, que cursan la carrera en la sede central. Se les aplicó una encuesta, cuyo cuestionario permitió evaluar sus hábitos de aprendizaje, y el nivel de motivación hacia la carrera y la asignatura. Los datos fueron procesados utilizando la estadística descriptiva y la prueba Ji cuadrado, con un nivel de confianza del 95 %. Resultados: Se encontraron malos hábitos de aprendizaje, en la mayoría de ellos no existió relación significativa entre hábitos de aprendizaje con respecto a la vía de ingreso y nota final de los estudiantes, resaltó la elevada motivación encontrada tanto por la carrera como por la asignatura, la variable motivación no guardó relación significativa con la nota final alcanzada. Se concluye que a pesar de los resultados alcanzados estos no influyeron significativamente en los resultados de la asignatura, gracias a las estrategias de enseñaza trazadas por el colectivo de profesores, pero sí indican la necesidad de establecer acciones con vistas al desarrollo de su aprendizaje autónomo Abstract in english ABSTRACT II-Morphology and Physiology subject taught to the first grade students of Dentistry had the lowest academic performance. Objective: Characterizing the learning habits in the student of first grade of dentistry subject having in mind the relationship with the individual differences and the subject academic performance. Method: A descriptive and cross sectional research on the Morphology and Physiology subject in the dentistry students in Pinar del Rio city at end (more) ing the first semester of 2008-2009 course. The sample comprised of 52 students in the first grade of the dentistry major. A survey allowed us to know their learning habits and the level of motivation on the subject. Data were processed using descriptive statistics and the chi square test with a 95% of level of confidence. Results: It was found bad learning habits; in most of them there was no significative relationship between the learning habits and the way of admittance and the final mark of the students; a remarkably high motivation was observed on the major and the subject; the variable "motivation" had no significative relationship with the final mark achieved. It is concluded that the results obtained had no significative influence on the results of the subject thanks to the learning strategies proposed by the faculty but they do indicate the necessity of establishing prospective actions for the development of the autonomic learning

Albert Díaz, Juan Félix; González Cordero, Ada Esther; Laborí Puentes, Norma; Llano Lazo, Mayra

2009-09-01

258

NON SOLO LINGUA. I CORSI DI ITALIANO L2 PER DONNE MIGRANTI TRA BISOGNI LINGUISTICI E DESIDERIO DI INTEGRAZIONE.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Come si organizza un corso di italiano L2 per donne migranti? Perché questi corsi si differenziano dalle altre proposte formative rivolte ad adulti immigrati? Basandosi sulle indicazioni del vademecum Tutte le mamme a scuola, il presente contributo cerca di rispondere a queste domande analizzando i bisogni linguistici delle donne migranti, interrogandosi su quale italiano insegnare, su quale metodo didattico adottare con particolare attenzione all’approccio autobiografico e all’“imparare facendo” e presentando i libri di testo rivolti a questa tipologia di apprendenti. Le tre interviste in appendice, raccolte in tre diversi centri che si occupano di corsi di italiano L2 per donne immigrate, raccontano come tutte queste indicazioni possano essere messe in pratica per cercare di soddisfare quel desiderio di integrazione e promozione sociale di cui le allieve si fanno portatrici,  che rende la classe di lingua non solo il luogo in cui si impara a parlare italiano, ma anche un laboratorio sociale in cui sperimentare modi diversi di approcciarsi e di considerare la diversità.     Not only language. Italian L2 for migrant women between linguistic needs and the desire for integration.   How is an Italian L2 course organized for migrant women? Why are these courses different from other classes designed for adult immigrants? Based on the indications in the handbook Tutte le mamme a scuola, this article tries to answer these questions analyzing the linguistic needs of migrant women, considering what Italian should be taught, what teaching method should be used with special attention placed on the autobiographical approach and “learning by doing”. The three interviews in the appendix, from three different centers which offer Italian L2 courses to immigrant women, tell about how these indications can be put into practice to satisfy the desire for the integration and social inclusion of these students, making the language class more than a place where Italian is learned, but it becomes a social laboratory where different approaches can be tried out and diversities can be made evident.

Viviana Solcia

2012-01-01

259

Assessment of RELAP5/MOD3 against integral effect test of LOFT L2-3, L2-5 and semiscale S-06-3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Capability of RELAP5/MOD3.1 to predict overall LOCA thermal hydraulic phenomena was assessed using integral effect tests of LOFT L2-3, L2-5 and Semiscale S-06-3. Experiment LOFT L2-3 is characterized by the continuous operation of primary coolant pumps, which are coasted down in the L2-5 experiment. Semiscale S-06-3 is a small scale counterpart experiment to LOFT L2-3. Simulation of LOFT experiments showed good calculation of the system hydraulics and reasonable prediction of the cladding temperatures except at the upper part of the core, where the top-down quenching of the fuel rod was poor calculated. Simulation of Semiscale S-06-3 showed good prediction of the system thermal hydraulic parameters except the fact that fuel rod quenching was consistently earlier to the poor prediction of the ECC bypass

1994-01-01

260

Synthesis, integration, and restriction and modification of mycoplasma virus L2 DNA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mycoplasma virus L2 is an enveloped, nonlytic virus containing double-stranded, superhelical DNA. The L2 virion contains about 7 to 8 major proteins identified by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but the virion has no discernible capsid structure. It has been suggested that the L2 virion is a DNA-protein condensation surrounded by a lipid-protein membrane. The host for mycoplasma virus L2 is Acholeplasma laidlawii. A. laidlawii has no cell wall and contains a small genome, 1 x 10/sup 9/ daltons, which is two to three times smaller than that of most bacteria. Infection of A. laidlawii by L2 is nonlytic. The studies in this thesis show that L2 DNA synthesis begins at about 1 hour of infection and lasts throughout the infection. Viral DNA synthesis is inhibited by chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and novobiocin. Packaging of L2 DNA into progeny virus is also inhibited by chloramphenicol and novobiocin. It is concluded that protein synthesis and probably DNA gyrase activity are required for L2 DNA synthesis, and for packaging of L2 DNA into progeny virus. DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrate that L2 DNA integrates into the host cell during infection, and subsequent to infection the cells are mycoplasma virus L2 lysogens. The viral site of integration has been roughly mapped. L2 virus is restricted and modified by A. laidlawii strains JA1 and K2. The nature of the modification in strain K2 has been elucidated. Two L2 variants containing insertions in the viral DNA were identified in these studies. Restriction endonuclease cleavage maps of these variants have been determined. DNA from L2 and another isolate of L2, MV-Lg-L 172, are compared in these studies. 74 references, 33 figures, 6 tables. (ACR)

Dybvig, K.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

La video clase y la multimedia como medio de enseñanza-aprendizaje de los contenidos morfológicos/ The videoconference and multimedia as teaching-learning means for morphologic contents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En la última década, la videoconferencia y la multimedia están siendo percibidas como los medios con más posibilidades didácticas en contextos de enseñanza superior. En sus inicios, la videoconferencia suplió las limitaciones espacio-temporales de la educación a distancia. Progresivamente, este medio fue encontrando un reconocimiento en instituciones convencionales de enseñanza propiciado por el desarrollo de experiencias de calidad basadas en la incorporación d (more) e recursos externos al aula. Desde una perspectiva instrumentalista, los medios son soportes materiales de información que deben reflejar la realidad de la forma más perfecta posible. Responden a un modelo estándar de alumno y a una cultura escolar homogénea, y se consideran por sí mismos instrumentos generadores de aprendizajes. Las características del diseño didáctico y computacional de un entorno hipermedia para aprender se intenta conectar a la concepción de promover el aprendizaje utilizando la computadora. El entorno consiste en un conjunto de actividades basadas en andamiajes tendientes a inducir la construcción de significados mediante la activa participación del estudiante. Abstract in english During the last decade, the videoconference and multimedia are being perceived as the means with more didactic possibilities in the context of the high education. At the beginning, the videoconference helped avoiding limitations of the distance learning. Progressively, this means began to be recognized in conventional teaching institutions because of the development of qualitative experiences based on the usage of out-class resources. From an instrumentalist perspective, (more) the means are material supports of the information that should express the reality in the most possible perfect way. They answer to a standard model of students and to a homogeneous school culture, and are considered, by themselves, as instruments generating learning. The characteristics of a computational and didactic design of a hypermedia setting to learn are intended to be linked to a conception of promoting learning using computers. The setting is a group of activities based on structures tending to induce the construction of meanings through the active participation of the student.

Garriga Alfonso, Nieves E; Robainas Fiallo, Iliana; Fernández Santamaría, Dayren; Quiñones Cabrera, Dunieska; Medina Robainas, Rolando Ernesto

2009-08-01

262

ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKING MEMORY CAPACITY AND L2 SPEECH DEVELOPMENT  

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Full Text Available Este estudo investiga se a capacidade de memória operacional de um indivíduo varia de acordo com sua proficiência oral na língua estrangeira (L2). Setenta e nove alunos das universidades federais da Bahia e de Santa Catarina foram distribuídos em dois grupos de proficiência (básico e intermediário) e submetidos a uma adaptação em L2 do Teste de Amplitude de Memória Oral de Daneman (1991). Correlações positivas e estatisticamente significativas parecem indicar que a capacidade de memória operacional do indivíduo varia em função do seu nível de proficiência oral em L2.PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Aquisição de L2, memória operacional, proficiência em L2.

KYRIA FINARDI e JANAINA WEISSHEIMER

2008-01-01

263

Quick-look report on LOFT Nuclear Experiment L2-3  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The preliminary evaluation has been completed of the results of the LOFT nuclear Loss-of-Coolant Experiment (LOCE) L2-3, which was successfully conducted on May 12, 1979. LOCE L2-3, the second experiment in the LOFT Power Ascension Series L2, simulated a complete double-ended offset shear break of a large pressurized water reactor inlet pipe. The initial conditions for LOCE L2-3 were selected to simulate the primary coolant and core conditions typical of a commercial reactor operating at normal power. Selected data confirm that the objectives of LOCE L2-3 were successfully achieved

1979-01-01

264

Interpretation of English reflexives by child and adult L2 learners  

CERN Multimedia

This book casts new light on the debate of adult L2 learners' access to Universal Grammar (UG) by comparing the performance of adult L2 learners with that of child L2 learners. The study in this book compares Arabic- and Chinese-speaking child and adult L2 learners' acquisition of English reflexives, particularly concentrating on the differences between child and adult L2 learners in terms of their a) acquisition of the local binding of English reflexives, b) obedience of UG constraints on re...

Kafri, Amer Al

2013-01-01

265

LOFT/L2-5, Loss of Fluid Test, 3. NRC L2 Large Break LOCA Experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] 1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCA is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: This experiment was the third of the NRC L2 Series of nuclear large Break LOCA experiments, conducted on 16 June 1981. It simulated a 100% cold leg break with a maximum heat generation of 40 kW/m and rapid pump coast down

1981-06-16

266

LOFT/L2-3, Loss of Fluid Test, 2. NRC L2 Large Break LOCA Experiment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] 1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCA is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: This experiment was the second of the NRC L2 Series of nuclear large Break LOCA experiments, and was conducted on 12 May 1979. It simulated a 100% cold leg break with a maximum heat generation of 39 kW/m

1979-05-12

267

[The minimally invasive anterolateral approach to L2-L5].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Minimally invasive anterolateral retroperitoneal approach to the lumbar spinal levels L2-L5. INDICATIONS: Anterior interbody fusion for the treatment of degenerative disk disease (DDD), degenerative instability, isthmic and degenerative spondylolisthesis, tumors, degenerative scoliosis, fractures, spondylodiscitis, failed back syndrome (pseudarthrosis, post-diskectomy). CONTRAINDICATIONS: No absolute contraindications. Relative contraindications are previous surgeries via a sinistral retroperitoneal approach or a far lateral anatomy of the left iliac common vein covering the lateral annulus of the disk space L4/5. SURGICAL TECHNIQUE: A small skin incision over the left abdominal wall is followed by a blunt muscle-splitting approach to the retroperitoneal space and the anterolateral circumference of the lumbar spine. A diskectomy, corporectomy and/or grafting (iliac crest or cage) may be performed for a solid ventral fusion. POSTOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT: Early mobilization from the 1st postoperative day in all cases of combined ALIF (anterior lumbar interbody fusion)/ posterior instrumentation procedures. Thromboembolic prophylaxis with fractionated heparin. Light meals up until recovery of the first bowel movements. A brace is recommended depending on the type of the intervention for a duration of up to 12 weeks. No limitations for standing, walking or sitting in the immediate postoperative period. RESULTS: Minimally invasive anterior interbody fusion procedures with iliac crest bone graft were performed in 120 patients (average age 56.3 years, range 26-84 years) in combination with a dorsal instrumentation. 16 patients were treated with a double-level procedure. Duration of surgery ranged between 50 and 192 min (mean 102.2 min). The intraoperative blood loss was 67.3 cm(3). At the 6-month follow-up, the fusion rate was 95.6%. No vessel, bowel, kidney or spleen injuries were observed.

Mehren C; Mayer HM; Siepe C; Grochulla F; Korge A

2010-05-01

268

Galaxy Morphology  

CERN Multimedia

Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or between a perturbation and the basic state of a stellar disk, can also drive secular transformations. In this series of lectures, I review many aspects of galaxy morphology with a view to delineating some of the possible evolutionary pathways between different galaxy types.

Buta, Ronald J

2013-01-01

269

Contribution to Vocabulary Learning via Mobiles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As mobile connectedness continues to sweep across the landscape, the value of deploying mobile technology at the service of learning and teaching seems to be both self-evident and unavoidable. To this end, this study employed multimedia to develop three types of vocabulary learning materials. Due to the importance of short-term memory in the realm of vocabulary learning, careful consideration was given to the L2 learners’ different visual and verbal short-term memories. 158 L2 learners aged 18-23 participated in the major phases of vocabulary learning experiment through mobile. Based on their scores on the English Vocabulary and Recall tests and statistical analysis of the results it was revealed that L2 learners with high-visual and high-verbal abilities find it easier to learn the content presented with both pictorial and written annotations. However, L2 learners with low-visual and low-verbal abilities benefit from learning materials presented without annotations. Furthermore, delivery of learning materials with pictorial annotation to learners with high-visual ability and the delivery of learning materials with written annotation to learners with high-verbal ability result in better vocabulary learning. The findings of this study could perform as a roadmap in creating learning materials for mobile learning English language.

Saeed Khazaie; Saeed Ketabi

2011-01-01

270

The ABF1 factor is the transcriptional activator of the L2 ribosomal protein genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The same factor, ABF1, binds to the promoters of the two gene copies (L2A and L2B) coding for the ribosomal protein L2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In vitro binding experiments and in vivo functional analysis showed that the different affinities of the L2A and L2B promoters for the ABF1 factor are r...

Della Seta, F; Ciafré, S A; Marck, C; Santoro, B; Presutti, C; Sentenac, A; Bozzoni, I

271

Learning Vocabulary in EFL Contexts through Vocabulary Learning Strategies  

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Full Text Available Vocabulary learning is one of the major challenges foreign language learners face during the processof learning a language. One way to alley the burden is to assist students in becoming independent learners duringthe process of L2 vocabulary learning. This could be achieved through instructing learners to apply vocabularylearning strategies as efficiently as possible. The main pursuit of the present article is to suggest a framework fortraining EFL learners in vocabulary learning strategies. In so doing, an account of different taxonomies ofvocabulary learning strategies and a rationale for strategy training are presented.

Lotfi GHAZAL

2007-01-01

272

Working Memory Capacity, Inhibitory Control and the Role of L2 Proficiency in Aging L1 Dutch Speakers of Near-Native L2 English  

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Full Text Available This paper examines the intricate relationship between working memory (WM) capacity and inhibitory control as a function of both L2 proficiency and age. In both its design and research questions, this study closely follows Gass & Lee’s work, where both L1 and L2 Reading Span Tasks (as measures of WM capacity) and L1 and L2 Stroop interference tasks (to measure inhibitory control) were administered. In this study, the test battery is augmented by both an L1 and L2 C-test of overall language proficiency. Participants were 63 L1 Dutch speakers of L2 English, who had been immersed in an L2 environment for a considerable amount of time. Their data were set off against those of 54 monolingual Dutch speakers and 56 monolingual English speakers. At the time of testing, all the bilingual participants had a near-native command of English and their L1 and L2 WM scores were not found to be significantly different. However, discrepancies did occur in Stroop test scores of inhibition, where the bilinguals performed better in their L2 English than L1 Dutch. These main effects often contradicted the results found in Gass & Lee’s study, who examined less proficient L2 learners. An aging effect was furthermore found: older subjects consistently performed more poorly on WM and inhibition tasks than their younger peers. These results can shed light on how individual factors like WM capacity and inhibitory control interact in successful late bilinguals and how these dynamics shift with advanced age.

Merel Keijzer

2013-01-01

273

Non-academic L2 Users: A Neglected Research Pool  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available English Language Teaching (ELT) articles are published and their results are relied on without delving into their methodological credibility. A research study cannot be considered valid unless its population is precisely determined and defined. This article shows the considerable size of non-academic English learners in Iran and argues that the population in ELT research should not be limited only to university and school students who are easily accessible but it should also include the sizeable non-academic sector. To do this, 170 PhD dissertations and MA theses in TEFL were randomly selected. The result showed that only less than 9% of the participants belonged to non-academic sector. The article also argues that there is wrong overgeneralization of even the existing ELT academic researches to non-academic situation. Finally it compares academic and non-academic English learners to show how the latter are highly motivated to learn.

Talebinezhad, Mohammad Reza; Sadeghi Beniss, Aran Reza

2005-01-01

274

Peer Review Comments Provided by High- and Low-Proficiency L2 Learners: A Comparative Study  

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Full Text Available This study explored the variations in peer review comments provided by L2 writers of high and low proficiencies. Two sampling procedures were used. First, convenience sampling was used to locate a college essay composition course as the setting of the study. Second, purposeful sampling was used to identify high- and low-performing writers as the subjects, from whom the peer review comments were collected and analyzed. An instruction-learning cycle on argumentative essay writing was conducted for 4 weeks. Each student was subsequently provided with the same sample argumentative essay and a peer review form to conduct the review. The rubrics on the review form included introduction, support for position, sequence, refutation, conclusion, voice, and grammar and spelling. Content analysis was conducted to compare the manner in which the comments varied among students of different writing proficiency levels. The results indicate that, although identifying problems was the dominant comment type of both high- and low-performing writers, high-performing writers tended to provide more details when explaining the identified problems and offering suggestions for revisions. The findings are discussed regarding the implications to peer review training.

Hui-Chuan Liao; Ya-Fen Lo

2012-01-01

275

Computer-Mediated Corrective Feedback and the Development of L2 Grammar  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reports on a study that investigated the impact of two types of computer-mediated corrective feedback on the development of adult learners’ L2 knowledge: (1) corrective feedback that reformulates the error in the form of recasts, and (2) corrective feedback that supplies the learner with metalinguistic information about the nature of the error. High intermediate and advanced adult learners of English (n=23) from an intact class at a Swedish university were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (two feedback conditions and one control) and were randomly paired with English native speakers. During task-based interaction via text-chat, the learners received focused corrective feedback on omission of the zero article with abstract noncount nouns (e.g., employment, global warming, culture). Computer-delivered pretests, posttests and delayed posttests of knowledge (acceptability judgments) measured learning outcomes. Results showed no significant advantage for either feedback type on immediate or sustained gains in target form knowledge, although the metalinguistic group showed significant immediate gains relative to the control condition.

Shannon Sauro

2009-01-01

276

Development of human papillomavirus chimaeric L1/L2 candidate vaccines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines based on the L1 capsid protein have been shown to be efficient prophylactic vaccines, albeit type-specific. As a first step to investigate the feasibility of extending protection against non-vaccine types, HPV-16 L1 chimaeras were generated. The region downstream of L1 amino acid (aa) 413 was replaced with selected cross-neutralising epitopes (aa 108-120; 56-81 and 17-36) derived from the HPV-16 L2 protein, generating proteins designated SAF, L2.56 and L2.17, respectively. The chimaera L1BPV containing BPV-1 L2 peptide aa 1-88 was similarly constructed. The chimaeras were evaluated for expression in insect cells; their ability to form particles was studied by electron microscopy, and their immunogenicity was evaluated in mice. SAF, L2.56 and L2.17 proteins were expressed to high concentrations in insect cells and elicited HPV-16 pseudovirus-neutralising anti-L1 antibodies. L2.56 and L2.17 also elicited anti-L2 antibodies. L1BPV was a poor vaccine candidate due to low levels of expression with concomitant lack of immunogenicity. All chimaeras assembled into tertiary structures. The results indicate that chimaeric L1 vaccines incorporating cross-neutralising L2 peptides could be promising second-generation prophylactic HPV vaccine candidates.

McGrath M; de Villiers GK; Shephard E; Hitzeroth II; Rybicki EP

2013-10-01

277

Development of human papillomavirus chimaeric L1/L2 candidate vaccines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines based on the L1 capsid protein have been shown to be efficient prophylactic vaccines, albeit type-specific. As a first step to investigate the feasibility of extending protection against non-vaccine types, HPV-16 L1 chimaeras were generated. The region downstream of L1 amino acid (aa) 413 was replaced with selected cross-neutralising epitopes (aa 108-120; 56-81 and 17-36) derived from the HPV-16 L2 protein, generating proteins designated SAF, L2.56 and L2.17, respectively. The chimaera L1BPV containing BPV-1 L2 peptide aa 1-88 was similarly constructed. The chimaeras were evaluated for expression in insect cells; their ability to form particles was studied by electron microscopy, and their immunogenicity was evaluated in mice. SAF, L2.56 and L2.17 proteins were expressed to high concentrations in insect cells and elicited HPV-16 pseudovirus-neutralising anti-L1 antibodies. L2.56 and L2.17 also elicited anti-L2 antibodies. L1BPV was a poor vaccine candidate due to low levels of expression with concomitant lack of immunogenicity. All chimaeras assembled into tertiary structures. The results indicate that chimaeric L1 vaccines incorporating cross-neutralising L2 peptides could be promising second-generation prophylactic HPV vaccine candidates. PMID:23636405

McGrath, Marieta; de Villiers, Gillian K; Shephard, Enid; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

2013-05-01

278

Reduction in Tcf7l2 Expression Decreases Diabetic Susceptibility in Mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The WNT signaling pathway effector gene TCF7L2 has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unclear how this gene affects diabetic pathogenesis. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of Tcf7l2 haploinsufficiency on metabolic phenotypes in mice.Experimental Design: Tcf7l2 knockout (Tcf7l-/-) mice were generated. Because of the early mortality of Tcf7l2-/- mice, we characterized the metabolic phenotypes of heterozygous Tcf7l2+/- mice in comparison to the wild-type controls. The mice were fed a normal chow diet or a high fat diet (HFD) for 9 weeks.Results: The Tcf7l2+/- mice showed significant differences from the wild-type mice with regards to body weight, fasting glucose and insulin levels. Tcf7l2+/- mice displayed improved glucose tolerance. In the liver of Tcf7l2+/- mice fed on the HFD, reduced lipogenesis and hepatic triglyceride levels were observed when compared with those of wild-type mice. Furthermore, the Tcf7l2+/- mice fed on the HFD exhibited decreased peripheral fat deposition. Immunohistochemistry in mouse pancreatic islets showed that endogenous expression of Tcf7l2 was upregulated in the wild-type mice, but not in the Tcf7l2+/- mice, after feeding with the HFD. However, the haploinsufficiency of Tcf7l2 in mouse pancreatic islets resulted in little changes in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.Conclusion: These results suggest that decreased expression of Tcf7l2 confers reduction of diabetic susceptibility in mice via regulation on the metabolism of glucose and lipid.

Hyekyung Yang, Qing Li, Jong-Hwan Lee, Yan Shu

2012-01-01

279

Reduction in Tcf7l2 expression decreases diabetic susceptibility in mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The WNT signaling pathway effector gene TCF7L2 has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unclear how this gene affects diabetic pathogenesis. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of Tcf7l2 haploinsufficiency on metabolic phenotypes in mice. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tcf7l2 knockout (Tcf7l?/?) mice were generated. Because of the early mortality of Tcf7l2?/? mice, we characterized the metabolic phenotypes of heterozygous Tcf7l2?/? mice in comparison to the wild-type controls. The mice were fed a normal chow diet or a high fat diet (HFD) for 9 weeks. RESULTS: The Tcf7l2?/? mice showed significant differences from the wild-type mice with regards to body weight, fasting glucose and insulin levels. Tcf7l2?/? mice displayed improved glucose tolerance. In the liver of Tcf7l2?/? mice fed on the HFD, reduced lipogenesis and hepatic triglyceride levels were observed when compared with those of wild-type mice. Furthermore, the Tcf7l2?/? mice fed on the HFD exhibited decreased peripheral fat deposition. Immunohistochemistry in mouse pancreatic islets showed that endogenous expression of Tcf7l2 was upregulated in the wild-type mice, but not in the Tcf7l2?/? mice, after feeding with the HFD. However, the haploinsufficiency of Tcf7l2 in mouse pancreatic islets resulted in little changes in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that decreased expression of Tcf7l2 confers reduction of diabetic susceptibility in mice via regulation on the metabolism of glucose and lipid.

Yang H; Li Q; Lee JH; Shu Y

2012-01-01

280

The Influence of Schema and Cultural Difference on L1 and L2 Reading  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Reading in L1 shares numerous basic elements with reading in L2, and the processes also differ greatly. Intriguing questions involve whether there are two parallel cognitive processes at work, or whether there are processing strategies that accommodate both L1 and L2. This paper examines how reading in L1 is different from and similar to reading in L2. More specifically, factors of cultural difference and schema will also be examined.

Shi-sheng Yang

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

International Standard Problem 13 (LOFT Experiment L2-5). Final comparison report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] LOFT experiment L2-5 was designated International Standard Problem 13 by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Comparisons between measurements from Experiment L2-5 were made with calculations from 11 international participants using five different computer codes. LOFT Experiment L2-5 simulated a double ended guillotine cold leg rupture of a primary coolant loop of a large pressurized water reactor, coupled with a loss of offsite power

1984-01-01

282

COMPETENZA PRAGMATICA IN ITALIANO L2: L’USO DEI SEGNALI DISCORSIVI DA PARTE DEGLI APPRENDENTI CROATI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Questo contributo esplora la produzione dialogica in italiano da parte degli apprendenti di lingua materna croata con l’obiettivo di determinare la loro competenza interazionale e pragmatica in italiano L2. Particolare attenzione si è rivolta ad un aspetto caratteristico della produzione dialogica, ai segnali discorsivi ? espedienti dialogici per eccellenza. I parlanti nativi usano segnali discorsivi con una vasta gamma di funzioni dialogiche, mentre l’acquisizione dei segnali discorsivi italiani è un territorio relativamente inesplorato e i segnali discorsivi vengono raramente insegnati. in maniera esplicita. La capacità di riconoscere e utilizzare i segnali discorsivi italiani adeguatamente, vale a dire secondo le loro funzioni pragmatiche, rivela il livello della competenza pragmatica dell’apprendente di una lingua straniera. Ai fini dello studio presente, gli apprendenti di italiano sono stati classificati in diversi gruppi in base alla durata dell’ istruzione (principianti, intermedi, avanzati) e/o al tipo di ambiente di apprendimento (studenti universitari, corsi di lingua straniera, “full immersion”). L’analisi si è concentrata maggiormente sulla frequenza d’uso e su alcune funzioni dei segnali discorsivi italiani adoperati. Lo scopo di questo studio era quello di esaminare la differenza tra l’uso dei segnali discorsivi relativo ai diversi livelli e ambienti educativi della lingua italiana da parte degli apprendenti croati di italiano L2 e di osservare le caratteristiche di una possibile influenza derivata dal L1.     Pragmatic competence in Italian L2: the use of discourse signals in Croatian-speaking learners This contribution explores the dialogue production of Croatian-speaking learners of Italian as a second language (L2) with the objective to determine their competence in L2 interactions. Special attention is paid to one particular aspect of dialogue production, discourse markers -dialogical expedients par excellence. Native speakers use discourse markers for a wide variety of dialogue functions, while the acquisition of (Italian) discourse markers is a relatively unexplored area and discourse markers are hardly ever explicitly taught. The ability to recognize and use Italian discourse markers correctly, in terms of their pragmatic functions, reveals the learners’ pragmatic competence. For this particular study, the learners of Italian were classified in different groups according to length of instruction (basic, elementary, advanced) and/or type of learning environment (university students, foreign language courses, “full immersion”). The analysis focused on the frequency of use and some functions of Italian discourse markers. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference between the Italian learners’ use of discourse markers and to observe the instances of a possible L1 influence.

Magdalena Nigoevi?; Patricia Su?i?

2012-01-01

283

AUTOBIOGRAFIE LINGUISTICHE CON UNA CLASSE DI ITALIANO L2 DI SINOFONI  

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Full Text Available Convinta dell’utilità didattica del racconto autobiografico nel processo di apprendimento/insegnamento dell’italiano da parte di studenti stranieri, presento un’unità didattica di approccio alle autobiografie linguistiche, progettata per giovani apprendenti sinofoni, con una competenza dell’italiano oscillante tra i livelli A2 e B1, giunti in Italia per compiere gli studi universitari.Il percorso didattico ha come punto d’arrivo la stesura da parte di degli studenti della propria autobiografia linguistica; è organizzato in fasi e prevede attività che coinvolgono la ricezione orale e scritta, la produzione orale e scritta e l’interazione.L’unità didattica si propone di far conoscere il genere dell’autobiografia e in particolare di quella in cui chi scrive racconta la propria esperienza con le lingue; di stimolare gli studenti a riflettere su se stessi, sulle loro abitudini linguistiche, sulle esperienze pregresse di studio delle lingue e di contatto con le culture di cui le lingue sono veicolo; di incoraggiare gli allievi a parlare di sé.Si prevede, inoltre, nel corso delle attività proposte, l’introduzione di alcune nozioni di linguistica, come, ad esempio, le nozioni di lingua madre, competenza e varietà linguistica.LINGUISTIC AUTOBIOGRAPHIES: AN EXPERIENCE WITH CHINESE-SPEAKING ITALIAN L2 LEARNERSI am convinced of the utility of autobiography in the Italian L2 teaching/learning process with foreign students, and I present a teaching unit centered on linguistic autobiography, designed for young Chinese-speaking learners with A2-B1 competence in Italian, who are studying at Italian universities.The process culminates in the students’ written linguistic autobiography, organized in phases and involving oral and written activities including reception, production and interaction.The unit aims at making the students familiar with the genre of autobiography, focusing on personal experience with languages, in order to stimulate the students to reflect on themselves, their linguistic habits, their former experiences studying languages and contact with cultures where language is the vehicle, as well as encouraging the students to talk about themselves.A few linguistic notions are also introduced, including the idea of mother tongue, competence and linguistic variety.

Lorenza Corti

2012-01-01

284

Functional connectivity changes in second language vocabulary learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Functional connectivity changes in the language network (Price, 2010), and in a control network involved in second language (L2) processing (Abutalebi & Green, 2007) were examined in a group of Persian (L1) speakers learning French (L2) words. Measures of network integration that characterize the global integrative state of a network (Marrelec, Bellec et al., 2008) were gathered, in the shallow and consolidation phases of L2 vocabulary learning. Functional connectivity remained unchanged across learning phases for L1, whereas total, between- and within-network integration levels decreased as proficiency for L2 increased. The results of this study provide the first functional connectivity evidence regarding the dynamic role of the language processing and cognitive control networks in L2 learning (Abutalebi, Cappa, & Perani, 2005; Altarriba & Heredia, 2008; Leonard et al., 2011; Parker-Jones et al., 2011). Thus, increased proficiency results in a higher degree of automaticity and lower cognitive effort (Segalowitz & Hulstijn, 2005).

Ghazi Saidi L; Perlbarg V; Marrelec G; Pélégrini-Issac M; Benali H; Ansaldo AI

2013-01-01

285

L2T: a Literate Programming tool (that extracts code from program source files towards TEX)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This report describes an utility program that allows easy insertions of program source snippets towardsT E X les. The originality of L2T is that it extracts denitions from the les where they appear andwraps them appropriately within T E X macros for insertion into documentation les. L2T decorrelateswriting documentation from programming: it is therefore possible to separately develop programs anddocumentations and to merge them at the end to produce up to date nal documents. L2T also has somepretty-printing capabilities (for Scheme denitions only) to produce denotations full of greek letters. L2Thas been used since 1991.This documentation is a reference guide to L2T and, being itself processed by L2T, it provides someexamples of use both in source and nal form.L2T sources are gathered in a le named l2t*.tar.gz which can be anonymously ftp-ed withhttp://www-spi.lip6.fr/~queinnec/Programs/l2t*. A binary rpm package also exists for Linux, see theWWW page below...

Christian Queinnec; Pierre Marie Curie

286

PD-L2 modulates asthma severity by directly decreasing dendritic cell IL-12 production.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies examining the role of programmed death 1 (PD-1) ligand 2 (PD-L2)/PD-1 in asthma have yielded conflicting results. To clarify its role, we examined the PD-L2 expression in biopsies from human asthmatics and the lungs of aeroallergen-treated mice. PD-L2 expression in bronchial biopsies correlated with the severity of asthma. In mice, allergen exposure increased PD-L2 expression on pulmonary myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), and PD-L2 blockade diminished allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). By contrast, PD-1 blockade had no impact, suggesting that PD-L2 promotes AHR in a PD-1-independent manner. Decreased AHR was associated with enhanced serum interleukin (IL)-12 p40, and in vitro stimulation of DCs with allergen and PD-L2-Fc reduced IL-12 p70 production, suggesting that PD-L2 inhibits allergen-driven IL-12 production. In our model, IL-12 did not diminish T helper type 2 responses but rather directly antagonized IL-13-inducible gene expression, highlighting a novel role for IL-12 in regulation of IL-13 signaling. Thus, allergen-driven enhancement of PD-L2 signaling through a PD-1-independent mechanism limits IL-12 secretion, exacerbating AHR.

Lewkowich IP; Lajoie S; Stoffers SL; Suzuki Y; Richgels PK; Dienger K; Sproles AA; Yagita H; Hamid Q; Wills-Karp M

2013-07-01

287

The Ultraviolet Morphology Of Galaxies  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The vacuum ultraviolet offers a unique perspective on galaxy morphology,stellar populations, and interstellar material which is of particular relevanceto interpreting high redshift galaxies and the history of cosmic star formation.Here we review UV imaging studies of galaxies since 1990.INTRODUCTIONThe concepts of morphology and classification are closely linked. Classificationis one of the most powerful organizing tools ever developed by science, butas it is applied to galaxies, morphology is more than simple classification. It isa means to inferring the evolutionary state and history of galaxies. There is aset of conventional associations we have learned to make between morphologyand the inferred nature of galaxies. Regularity or symmetry are taken to implystability, i.e. some kind of equilibrium state. There is, for instance, the powerfulnotion that in such situations we can infer the three-dimensional structureof galaxies from their two-dimensional appearance. A...

Robert W. O'connell

288

Progressive hearing loss and gradual deterioration of sensory hair bundles in the ears of mice lacking the actin-binding protein Eps8L2.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mechanotransduction in the mammalian auditory system depends on mechanosensitive channels in the hair bundles that project from the apical surface of the sensory hair cells. Individual stereocilia within each bundle contain a core of tightly packed actin filaments, whose length is dynamically regulated during development and in the adult. We show that the actin-binding protein epidermal growth factor receptor pathway substrate 8 (Eps8)L2, a member of the Eps8-like protein family, is a newly identified hair bundle protein that is localized at the tips of stereocilia of both cochlear and vestibular hair cells. It has a spatiotemporal expression pattern that complements that of Eps8. In the cochlea, whereas Eps8 is essential for the initial elongation of stereocilia, Eps8L2 is required for their maintenance in adult hair cells. In the absence of both proteins, the ordered staircase structure of the hair bundle in the cochlea decays. In contrast to the early profound hearing loss associated with an absence of Eps8, Eps8L2 null-mutant mice exhibit a late-onset, progressive hearing loss that is directly linked to a gradual deterioration in hair bundle morphology. We conclude that Eps8L2 is required for the long-term maintenance of the staircase structure and mechanosensory function of auditory hair bundles. It complements the developmental role of Eps8 and is a candidate gene for progressive age-related hearing loss.

Furness DN; Johnson SL; Manor U; Rüttiger L; Tocchetti A; Offenhauser N; Olt J; Goodyear RJ; Vijayakumar S; Dai Y; Hackney CM; Franz C; Di Fiore PP; Masetto S; Jones SM; Knipper M; Holley MC; Richardson GP; Kachar B; Marcotti W

2013-08-01

289

Automatic quantitative morphological analysis of interacting galaxies  

CERN Document Server

The large number of galaxies imaged by digital sky surveys reinforces the need for computational methods for analyzing galaxy morphology. While the morphology of most galaxies can be associated with a stage on the Hubble sequence, morphology of galaxy mergers is far more complex due to the combination of two or more galaxies with different morphologies and the interaction between them. Here we propose a computational method based on unsupervised machine learning that can quantitatively analyze morphologies of galaxy mergers and associate galaxies by their morphology. The method works by first generating multiple synthetic galaxy models for each galaxy merger, and then extracting a large set of numerical image content descriptors for each galaxy model. These numbers are weighted using Fisher discriminant scores, and then the similarities between the galaxy mergers are deduced using a variation of Weighted Nearest Neighbor analysis such that the Fisher scores are used as weights. The similarities between the ga...

Shamir, Lior; Wallin, John

2013-01-01

290

Association between TCF7L2 Genotype and Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients Treated with Gliclazide  

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Previous studies showed associations between variants in TCF7L2 gene and the therapeutic response to sulfonylureas. All sulfonylureas stimulate insulin secretion by the closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel. The aim of the present study was to compare TCF7L2 genotype specific effect of g...

Javorský, Martin; Babjaková, Eva; Klim?áková, Lucia; Schroner, Zbynek; Židzik, Jozef; Štolfová, Mária; Šalagovi?, Ján

291

TCF7L2, dietary carbohydrate, and risk of type 2 diabetes in US women123  

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Background: TCF7L2 is the strongest type 2 diabetes (T2D) locus identified to date, and evidence suggests it plays an important role in insulin synthesis, processing, and secretion. Dietary factors that increase the insulin demand might enhance the risk of T2D associated with TCF7L2 variants.

Cornelis, Marilyn C; Qi, Lu; Kraft, Peter; Hu, Frank B

292

Reduction in Tcf7l2 Expression Decreases Diabetic Susceptibility in Mice  

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Objective: The WNT signaling pathway effector gene TCF7L2 has been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unclear how this gene affects diabetic pathogenesis. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of Tcf7l2 haploinsufficiency on metabolic phenotypes...

Yang, Hyekyung; Li, Qing; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Shu, Yan

293

German Pitches in English: Production and Perception of Cross-Varietal Differences in L2  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study examines the effect of cross-varietal prosodic characteristics of two German varieties, Northern Standard German (NG) and Swiss German (SG), on the production and perception of foreign accent in L2 Belfast English. The analysis of production data revealed differences in the realisation of nuclear pitch accents in L1 German and L2…

Ulbrich, Christiane

2013-01-01

294

The Interplay of Processing Task, Text Type, and Proficiency in L2 Reading  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was an investigation of how particular processing tasks influence L2 reading in relation to text type effects and L2 reading proficiency. Two groups of Japanese university EFL students (N = 103), varying in English reading proficiency, read a narrative passage and an expository passage in one of three task conditions: outlining,…

Yoshida, Mami

2012-01-01

295

The Critical Period of L2 Acquisition Studies: Implications for Researchers in Chinese EFL Context  

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This paper reviews the studies centring on the Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH), the major contributor to early L2 instruction in China. It firstly finds out that, in recent studies of CP in L2 acquisition settings (roughly after the year of 2000); a lot more variables besides the age factor have be...

Wuhan Zhu

296

L1 Use during L2 Writing: An Empirical Study of a Complex Phenomenon  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined writers' use of their first language (L1) while writing in their second language (L2). Twenty students each wrote four short argumentative essays in their L1 (Dutch) and four in their L2 (English) under think-aloud conditions. We analysed whether L1 use varied between writers and tasks, and whether it was related to general…

van Weijen, Daphne; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

2009-01-01

297

Vanshing of $L^2$-cohomology and property (T) for groups acting on simplicial complexes  

CERN Multimedia

We extend Ballmann and Swiatkowski's work on $L^2$-cohomology of groups acting on simplicial complexes and provide further vanishing results of $L^2$-cohomologies. In particular, we give a new criterion for property (T) for groups acting on an n-dimensional simplcial complex.

Oppenheim, Izhar

2011-01-01

298

The Status of the Auxiliary "Do" in L1 and L2 English Negative Clauses  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper addresses the issue of whether negative sentences containing auxiliary "do" in L1 and L2 English share the same underlying syntactic representation. To this end, I compare the negative sentences produced by 77 bilingual (Spanish/Basque) L2 learners of English with the corresponding data available for L1 acquirers reported on in Schutze…

Perales, Susana

2010-01-01

299

Contributions of Prior Knowledge, Motivation, and Strategies to Korean College Students' L2 Writing Development  

Science.gov (United States)

The current study examined Korean college students' L2 writing development and performance, motivation, and strategies while taking ESL writing classes. The present study expands the literature by examining the effects of various learner characteristics on L2 writing development. The selection and the expected effects of learner variables were…

Chae, Soo Eun

2011-01-01

300

Shared Features of L2 Writing: Intergroup Homogeneity and Text Classification  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates intergroup homogeneity within high intermediate and advanced L2 writers of English from Czech, Finnish, German, and Spanish first language backgrounds. A variety of linguistic features related to lexical sophistication, syntactic complexity, and cohesion were used to compare texts written by L1 speakers of English to L2…

Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Differences between L3 and L2 x-ray absorption spectra  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The L3 and L2 edges of transition metals show differences in their spectral shape. Also the ratio between the L3 and L2 edges is found to deviate from 2:1. The interactions responsible for these effects are: the multiplet effects and the 3d (4d) spin-orbit coupling. The electronic interactions and s...

Groot, F.M.F. de

302

L2 dimensions of spaces of braid-invariant harmonic forms  

CERN Multimedia

Let X be a Riemannian manifold endowed with a co-compact isometric action of an infinite discrete group. We consider L2 spaces of harmonic vector-valued forms on the product manifold X^N, which are invariant with respect to an action of the braid group B_N, and compute their von Neumann dimensions (the braided L2- Betti numbers)

Daletskii, Alexei

2011-01-01

303

Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

Lu, Yanbin

2010-01-01

304

Syntactic Analysis of L2 Learner Language : Looking closer at the Noun Phrase  

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This paper is a study of the noun phrase construction in L2 learner language and the base for the study are the tools for measuring syntactic maturity presented by Kellog W. Hunt (1966). Hunt and other scholars have used T-units, the smallest terminable unit in language, to analyze L2 learner langua...

Arodén Jonsson, Anders

305

Vibrational spectroscopic and theoretical study of 3,5-dimethyl-1-thiocarboxamide pyrazole (L) and the complexes Co 2L 2Cl 4, Cu 2L 2Cl 4 and Cu 2L 2Br 2  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present paper we report a joint experimental and theoretical study of 3,5-dimethyl-1-thiocarboxamide pyrazole (L) and its complexes Co 2L 2Cl 4, Cu 2L 2Cl 4 and Cu 2L 2Br 2. DFT computations were used to model the structural and bonding properties of the title compounds as well as to derive a reliable force field for the normal coordinate analysis of L. The computations indicated the importance of hydrogen bonding interactions in stabilising the global minimum structures on the potential energy surfaces. In contrast to the S-bridged binuclear Cu 2L 2Br 2 complex found in the crystal, our computations predicted the formation of (CuLBr) 2 dimers in the isolated state stabilized by very strong (53 kJ/mol) N-H⋯Br hydrogen bonding interactions. On the basis of FT-IR and FT-Raman experiments and the DFT-derived scaled quantum mechanical force field we carried out a complete normal coordinate analysis of L. The FT-IR spectra of the three complexes were interpreted using the present assignment of L, literature data and computed results.

Nemcsok, Dénes; Kovács, Attila; Szécsényi, Katalin Mészáros; Leovac, Vukadin M.

2006-09-01

306

Vibrational spectroscopic and theoretical study of 3,5-dimethyl-1-thiocarboxamide pyrazole (L) and the complexes Co2L2Cl4, Cu2L2Cl4 and Cu2L2Br2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the present paper we report a joint experimental and theoretical study of 3,5-dimethyl-1-thiocarboxamide pyrazole (L) and its complexes Co2L2Cl4, Cu2L2Cl4 and Cu2L2Br2. DFT computations were used to model the structural and bonding properties of the title compounds as well as to derive a reliable force field for the normal coordinate analysis of L. The computations indicated the importance of hydrogen bonding interactions in stabilising the global minimum structures on the potential energy surfaces. In contrast to the S-bridged binuclear Cu2L2Br2 complex found in the crystal, our computations predicted the formation of (CuLBr)2 dimers in the isolated state stabilized by very strong (53 kJ/mol) N-H...Br hydrogen bonding interactions. On the basis of FT-IR and FT-Raman experiments and the DFT-derived scaled quantum mechanical force field we carried out a complete normal coordinate analysis of L. The FT-IR spectra of the three complexes were interpreted using the present assignment of L, literature data and computed results

2006-09-29

307

Identification of novel L2HGDH gene mutations and update of the pathological spectrum.  

Science.gov (United States)

L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA, MIM 236792) is a neurometabolic disorder caused by the toxic accumulation of high concentration of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. Distinct mutations on the L2HGDH gene have been associated with the clinical and biochemical phenotype. Here we present three novel mutations (Gln197X, Gly211Val and c.540+1 G>A), which increase the present deleterious collection of L2HGDH gene up to 35 mutations that we have compiled in this study. In addition, we used the haplotypic information based on polymorphic markers to demonstrate the common origin of Gly57Arg harboring chromosomes. PMID:19911013

Vilarinho, Laura; Tafulo, Sandra; Sibilio, Michelina; Kok, Fernando; Fontana, Federica; Diogo, Luisa; Venâncio, Margarida; Ferreira, Mariana; Nogueira, Celia; Valongo, Carla; Parenti, Giancarlo; Amorim, António; Azevedo, Luisa

2009-11-13

308

Natural variants in the major neutralizing epitope of human papillomavirus minor capsid protein L2.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The amino terminus of the human papillomavirus minor capsid protein L2 contains a major cross-neutralizing epitope that provides the basis for the development of a broadly protective HPV vaccine. This attainable broad protection would eliminate one of the major drawbacks of the commercial L1-based prophylactic vaccines. In this study, we asked whether there are natural variants of the L2 cross-neutralizing epitope and if these variants provide means for immune escape from vaccine-induced anti-L2 antibodies. For this, we isolated in silico and in vitro, a total of 477 L2 sequences of HPV types 16, 18, 31, 45, 51, 52 and 58. We identified natural L2 epitope variants for HPV 18, 31, 45 and 51. To determine whether these variants escape L2-directed neutralization, we generated pseudovirions encompassing the natural variants and tested these in an in vitro neutralization assay using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. Our results indicate that natural variants of the L2 major neutralizing epitope are frequent among two different study populations from Germany and Mongolia and in the GenBank database. Of two identified HPV 31 L2 single amino acid variants, one could be neutralized well, while the other variant was neutralized very poorly. We also observed that single amino acid variants of HPV 18 and 45 are neutralized well while a HPV 18 double variant was neutralized at significantly lower rates, indicating that L2 variants have to be accounted for when developing HPV L2-based prophylactic vaccines.

Seitz H; Schmitt M; Böhmer G; Kopp-Schneider A; Müller M

2013-02-01

309

Relationship of C5L2 receptor to skeletal muscle substrate utilization.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP) receptor C5L2 in skeletal muscle fatty acid accumulation and metabolism as well as insulin sensitivity in both mice and human models of diet-induced insulin resistance. DESIGN AND METHODS: Male wildtype (WT) and C5L2 knockout (KO) mice were fed a low (LFD) or a high (HFD) fat diet for 10 weeks. Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation (by oil red O staining) and beta-oxidation HADH enzyme activity were determined in skeletal muscle. Mitochondria were isolated from hindleg muscles for high-resolution respirometry. Muscle C5L2 protein content was also determined in obese type 2 diabetics and age- and BMI matched men. RESULTS: IMCL levels were increased by six-fold in C5L2KO-HFD compared to WT-HFD mice (p<0.05) and plasma insulin levels were markedly increased in C5L2KO-HFD mice (twofold, p<0.05). Muscle HADH activity was elevated in C5L2KO-LFD mice (+75%, p<0.001 vs. WT-LFD) and C5L2KO-HFD displayed increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidative capacity compared to WT-HFD mice (+23%, p<0.05). In human subjects, C5L2 protein content was reduced (-48%, p<0.01) in type 2 diabetic patients when compared to obese controls. Further, exercise training increased C5L2 (+45%, p?=?0.0019) and ASP (+80%, p<0.001) in obese insulin-resistant men. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that insulin sensitivity may be permissive for coupling of C5L2 levels to lipid storage and utilization.

Roy C; Paglialunga S; Schaart G; Moonen-Kornips E; Meex RC; Phielix E; Hoeks J; Hesselink MK; Cianflone K; Schrauwen P

2013-01-01

310

Teaching Writing Skills Based on a Genre Approach to L2 Primary School Students: An Action Research  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article, based on research findings, examines the effect of implementing a genre approach to develop writing competency of Year 5 and 6 L2 primary school students. Using action research, the genre approach was implemented over a 10-week term with two lessons per week in a culturally and linguistically diverse ESL class in a South Australian public metropolitan primary school. Two specific genres, Report and Essay writing, were taught using a three-staged teaching and learning cycle (TLC), based on Vygotsky’s notion of scaffolding. Assessment was conducted by comparing students’ writing samples, before and after the teaching intervention. The results indicated that the teacher’s active scaffolding processes at the early stage of the cycle benefited students by making them aware of the different ways texts are organised for different communicative purposes. In addition, students’ confidence level increased and the approach encouraged a positive attitude towards writing.

Hyejeong Ahn

2012-01-01

311

Abnormal glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in pancreas-specific Tcf7l2-null mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Individuals carrying type 2 diabetes risk alleles in TCF7L2 display decreased beta cell levels of T cell factor 7 like-2 (TCF7L2) immunoreactivity, and impaired insulin secretion and beta cell sensitivity to glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Here, we sought to determine whether selective deletion of Tcf7l2 in mouse pancreas impairs insulin release and glucose homeostasis. METHODS: Pancreas-specific Tcf7l2-null (pTcf7l2) mice were generated by crossing mice carrying conditional knockout alleles of Tcf7l2 (Tcf7l2-flox) with mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the Pdx1 promoter (Pdx1.Cre). Gene expression was assessed by real-time quantitative PCR and beta cell mass by optical projection tomography. Glucose tolerance, insulin secretion from isolated islets, and plasma insulin, glucagon and GLP-1 content were assessed by standard protocols. RESULTS: From 12 weeks of age, pTcf7l2 mice displayed decreased oral glucose tolerance vs control littermates; from 20 weeks they had glucose intolerance upon administration of glucose by the intraperitoneal route. pTcf7l2 islets displayed impaired insulin secretion in response to 17 (vs 3.0) mmol/l glucose (54.6 ± 4.6%, p < 0.01) or to 17 mmol/l glucose plus 100 nmol/l GLP-1 (44.3 ± 4.9%, p < 0.01) compared with control islets. Glp1r (42 ± 0.08%, p < 0.01) and Ins2 (15.4 ± 4.6%, p < 0.01) expression was significantly lower in pTcf7l2 islets than in controls. Maintained on a high-fat (but not on a normal) diet, pTcf7l2 mice displayed decreased expansion of pancreatic beta cell volume vs control littermates. No differences were observed in plasma insulin, proinsulin, glucagon or GLP-1 concentrations. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Selective deletion of Tcf7l2 in the pancreas replicates key aspects of the altered glucose homeostasis in human carriers of TCF7L2 risk alleles, indicating the direct role of this factor in controlling beta cell function.

da Silva Xavier G; Mondragon A; Sun G; Chen L; McGinty JA; French PM; Rutter GA

2012-10-01

312

The exoribonuclease Dis3L2 defines a novel eukaryotic RNA degradation pathway.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The final step of cytoplasmic mRNA degradation proceeds in either a 5'-3' direction catalysed by Xrn1 or in a 3'-5' direction catalysed by the exosome. Dis3/Rrp44, an RNase II family protein, is the catalytic subunit of the exosome. In humans, there are three paralogues of this enzyme: DIS3, DIS3L, and DIS3L2. In this work, we identified a novel Schizosaccharomyces pombe exonuclease belonging to the conserved family of human DIS3L2 and plant SOV. Dis3L2 does not interact with the exosome components and localizes in the cytoplasm and in cytoplasmic foci, which are docked to P-bodies. Deletion of dis3l2(+) is synthetically lethal with xrn1?, while deletion of dis3l2(+) in an lsm1? background results in the accumulation of transcripts and slower mRNA degradation rates. Accumulated transcripts show enhanced uridylation and in vitro Dis3L2 displays a preference for uridylated substrates. Altogether, our results suggest that in S. pombe, and possibly in most other eukaryotes, Dis3L2 is an important factor in mRNA degradation. Therefore, this novel 3'-5' RNA decay pathway represents an alternative to degradation by Xrn1 and the exosome.

Malecki M; Viegas SC; Carneiro T; Golik P; Dressaire C; Ferreira MG; Arraiano CM

2013-07-01

313

The exoribonuclease Dis3L2 defines a novel eukaryotic RNA degradation pathway.  

Science.gov (United States)

The final step of cytoplasmic mRNA degradation proceeds in either a 5'-3' direction catalysed by Xrn1 or in a 3'-5' direction catalysed by the exosome. Dis3/Rrp44, an RNase II family protein, is the catalytic subunit of the exosome. In humans, there are three paralogues of this enzyme: DIS3, DIS3L, and DIS3L2. In this work, we identified a novel Schizosaccharomyces pombe exonuclease belonging to the conserved family of human DIS3L2 and plant SOV. Dis3L2 does not interact with the exosome components and localizes in the cytoplasm and in cytoplasmic foci, which are docked to P-bodies. Deletion of dis3l2(+) is synthetically lethal with xrn1?, while deletion of dis3l2(+) in an lsm1? background results in the accumulation of transcripts and slower mRNA degradation rates. Accumulated transcripts show enhanced uridylation and in vitro Dis3L2 displays a preference for uridylated substrates. Altogether, our results suggest that in S. pombe, and possibly in most other eukaryotes, Dis3L2 is an important factor in mRNA degradation. Therefore, this novel 3'-5' RNA decay pathway represents an alternative to degradation by Xrn1 and the exosome. PMID:23503588

Malecki, Michal; Viegas, Sandra C; Carneiro, Tiago; Golik, Pawel; Dressaire, Clémentine; Ferreira, Miguel G; Arraiano, Cecília M

2013-03-15

314

Nuclear import strategies of high-risk HPV18 L2 minor capsid protein  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We have investigated the nuclear import strategies of high-risk HPV18 L2 minor capsid protein. HPV18 L2 interacts with Kap ?2 adapter, and Kap ?2 and Kap ?3 nuclear import receptors. Moreover, binding of RanGTP to either Kap ?2 or Kap ?3 inhibits their interaction with L2, suggesting that these Kap ?/L2 complexes are import competent. Mapping studies show that HPV18 L2 contains two NLSs: in the N-terminus (nNLS) and in the C-terminus (cNLS), both of which can independently mediate nuclear import. Both nNLS and cNLS form a complex with Kap ?2?1 heterodimer and mediate nuclear import via a classical pathway. The nNLS is also essential for the interaction of HPV18 L2 with Kap ?2 and Kap ?3. Interestingly, both nNLS and cNLS interact with the viral DNA and this DNA binding occurs without nucleotide sequence specificity. Together, the data suggest that HPV18 L2 can interact via its NLSs with several Kaps and the viral DNA and may enter the nucleus via multiple import pathways mediated by Kap ?2?1 heterodimers, Kap ?2 and Kap ?3

2006-08-15

315

C5L2: a controversial receptor of complement anaphylatoxin, C5a.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

C5a is the paramount proinflammatory mediator of the complement cascade, and has been previously thought to act only through a single, G-protein-coupled, C5a receptor (C5aR; also termed CD88). In 2000, a second C5a receptor, C5L2 (previously known as GPR77), was discovered; yet, despite 12 yr of intensive research, its biological, or pathophysiological, function is both enigmatic and controversial. Unlike C5aR, this receptor does not couple to G proteins, and early studies promoted the hypothesis that C5L2 functions as a decoy receptor. However, recent data have provided other evidence for more complicated and conflicting interactions between C5L2 and other inflammatory mediators. C5L2 has been recently demonstrated to physically interact with both C5aR and ?-arrestin to negatively regulate C5aR signaling toward an anti-inflammatory manner, and to reduce pathology, in several disease models in vivo. In direct contrast, other groups have demonstrated that C5L2 stimulation caused release of HMGB1 both in vitro and in vivo, and enhanced pathology in sepsis models, suggesting a clear proinflammatory signaling role. These astoundingly contradictory data challenge our precepts and complicate the foundational bases for the possible targeting of C5L2 as a therapeutic option in inflammatory disease. C5L2 may be the great masquerader in complement biology; its function dependent on the cell type, species, and disease context. Because of these unusual and unforeseen complexities, we present the current state of knowledge on C5L2 structure, expression and, most controversially, its putative functions.-Li, R., Coulthard, L.G., Wu, M. C. L., Taylor, S. M., Woodruff, T. M. C5L2: a controversial receptor of complement anaphylatoxin, C5a.

Li R; Coulthard LG; Wu MC; Taylor SM; Woodruff TM

2013-03-01

316

$L^2$--eta--invariants and their approximation by unitary eta--invariants  

CERN Document Server

Cochran, Orr and Teichner introduced $L^2$--eta--invariants to detect highly non--trivial examples of non slice knots. Using a recent theorem by L\\"uck and Schick we show that their metabelian $L^2$--eta--invariants can be viewed as the limit of finite dimensional unitary representations. We recall a ribbon obstruction theorem proved by the author using finite dimensional unitary eta--invariants. We show that if for a knot $K$ this ribbon obstruction vanishes then the metabelian $L^2$--eta--invariant vanishes too. The converse has been shown by the author not to be true.

Friedl, S

2003-01-01

317

Immunohistochemical detection of human papillomavirus capsid proteins L1 and L2 in squamous intraepithelial lesions: potential utility in diagnosis and management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While cervical cancer screening relies on cervical cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) detection, the histologic diagnosis, and specifically lesion grade, is the main parameter that drives clinical management of screen-positive women. Morphologically diagnosed squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL/CIN) regress spontaneously in more than half of the cases, but identifying those likely to persist and progress is not currently possible based upon morphology. Lack of major capsid protein L1 expression has been suggested as a feature in progressive lesions, whereas expression of the minor capsid protein L2 has not been extensively evaluated. The goal of this study is to evaluate immunohistochemical expression of L1 and L2 in SILs in correlation with lesion grade. A total of 150 cervical specimens with SILs were selected based on HPV 16 or HPV 18 detection by Q-PCR. These included 89 low-grade SILs (LSIL/CIN 1) and 123 high-grade SILs (75 HSIL/CIN 2 and 48 HSIL/CIN 3). More than one lesion/grade was identified in 53 specimens. The presence and grade of SIL was determined by a panel of pathologists. Capsid protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry using MAB 837 for L1 and RG-1 for L2. Lesions of different grades in the same specimen were scored separately. Expression of capsid proteins was detected in 34/89 (40%) LSIL/CIN 1, 5/75 (6%) HSIL/CIN 2 and none of 48 HSIL/CIN 3. L1 and L2 were co-expressed in the same area of the lesion in 22 cases. In addition, L1 alone was expressed in 6 lesions and L2 alone in 11 lesions. Among the cases with multiple lesion grades in the same specimen, none with HSIL/CIN 3 expressed capsid proteins in any portion/grade of the lesion. HPV capsid proteins are expressed almost exclusively in LSIL/CIN 1 and rarely in HSIL/CIN 2. Additional studies are warranted to examine lack of L1 and L2 expression in LSIL/CIN 1 as a predictor of persistence or progression to HSIL/CIN 3, the precursor of cervical cancer.

Yemelyanova A; Gravitt PE; Ronnett BM; Rositch AF; Ogurtsova A; Seidman J; Roden RB

2013-02-01

318

Molecular Function of TCF7L2: Consequences of TCF7L2 Splicing for Molecular Function and Risk for Type 2 Diabetes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

TCF7L2 harbors the variant with the strongest effect on type 2 diabetes (T2D) identified to date, yet the molecular mechanism as to how variation in the gene increases the risk for developing T2D remains elusive. The phenotypic changes associated with the risk genotype suggest that T2D arises as a c...

Hansson, Ola; Zhou, Yuedan; Renström, Erik; Osmark, Peter

319

Bilingual Lexical Access during L1 Sentence Reading: The Effects of L2 Knowledge, Semantic Constraint, and L1-L2 Intermixing  

Science.gov (United States)

Libben and Titone (2009) recently observed that cognate facilitation and interlingual homograph interference were attenuated by increased semantic constraint during bilingual second language (L2) reading, using eye movement measures. We now investigate whether cross-language activation also occurs during first language (L1) reading as a function…

Titone, Debra; Libben, Maya; Mercier, Julie; Whitford, Veronica; Pivneva, Irina

2011-01-01

320

Transfer in a Connectionist Model of the Acquisition of Morphology  

CERN Multimedia

The morphological systems of natural languages are replete with examples of the same devices used for multiple purposes: (1) the same type of morphological process (for example, suffixation for both noun case and verb tense) and (2) identical morphemes (for example, the same suffix for English noun plural and possessive). These sorts of similarity would be expected to convey advantages on language learners in the form of transfer from one morphological category to another. Connectionist models of morphology acquisition have been faulted for their supposed inability to represent phonological similarity across morphological categories and hence to facilitate transfer. This paper describes a connectionist model of the acquisition of morphology which is shown to exhibit transfer of this type. The model treats the morphology acquisition problem as one of learning to map forms onto meanings and vice versa. As the network learns these mappings, it makes phonological generalizations which are embedded in connection w...

Gasser, M

1995-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

A leitura em língua estrangeira e os efeitos da frequência e da consistência do insumo lexical em L2/ L2 reading and the effects of frequency and consistency of the L2 lexical input  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho investiga o papel da consistência e da frequência do input lexical na leitura em L2 de forma a destacar duas importantes características do conexionismo dinamicista na leitura: a combinação não-linear de restrições probabilísticas e a divisão de trabalho. Essas características são complementares e, juntas, explicam a alta interação observada em investigações baseadas na premissa de que o input é uma combinação rica de diferentes tipos de i (more) nformação cujas tendências emergentes guiam a aquisição. Para ilustrar isso, são apresentadas evidências de dois estudos, que tratam: 1) da interação entre os efeitos da frequência e da consistência do input lexical na prevalência da assimilação vocálica durante uma tarefa de leitura de palavras com estudantes brasileiros de inglês; 2) do papel dos fonastemas na construção da compreensão textual em inglês (L2). Abstract in english This paper looks into the role of lexical input consistency and frequency in L2 reading to highlight two important features of dynamic connectionism in reading: nonlinear combination of probabilistic constraints and division of labour. Such features are complementary and together they account for the interaction observed in investigations grounded on the postulate that the input is a rich combination of different types of information whose emerging biases guide acquisitio (more) n. For that purpose, evidence is presented from two studies, which deal with: 1) the interaction between the effects of English lexical frequency and consistency in the prevalence of vowel assimilation during a word naming task among Brazilian students of English; 2) the role of phonastemes in building textual comprehension in English (L2).

Zimmer, Márcia C

2010-04-01

322

Evidence for Association between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and TCF7L2 and Glucose Intolerance in Women with PCOS and TCF7L2  

Science.gov (United States)

Context and Objective: Of the recently identified type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) susceptibility loci, transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) confers the greatest relative risk for T2D and significantly predicts conversion to T2D in persons with impaired glucose tolerance. TCF7L2 is, therefore, also a strong candidate gene for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine disorder characterized by androgen excess and menstrual irregularities and associated with insulin resistance and a 7-fold increased risk for T2D. Research Design and Methods: We tested for association between 58 single nucleotide polymorphisms mapping to TCF7L2 and PCOS in 624 index (PCOS) cases and 553 control women of European ancestry. Furthermore, in the women with PCOS, we tested for association with seven reproductive and metabolic quantitative traits. Results: Although we did not detect evidence for association between the previously described TCF7L2 T2D locus, the proinsulin:insulin molar ratio, a marker of pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction, was strongly associated with this locus (P = 2.1 × 10?4). We also observed evidence for association between PCOS and two single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs11196236 (P = 9.0 × 10?4) and rs11196229 (P = 0.0027) mapping more than 100 kb centromeric to the previously published T2D susceptibility loci. Conclusions: We have observed evidence of association with two independent TCF7L2 loci in a PCOS cohort: 1) association between the proinsulin:insulin molar ratio and the T2D locus; and 2) association with reproductive PCOS phenotype and a novel locus. This study suggests that variation in different regions of a susceptibility gene contributes to distinct phenotypes.

Biyasheva, Assel; Legro, Richard S.; Dunaif, Andrea; Urbanek, Margrit

2009-01-01

323

A study on L2-loss (squared hinge-loss) multiclass SVM.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Crammer and Singer's method is one of the most popular multiclass support vector machines (SVMs). It considers L1 loss (hinge loss) in a complicated optimization problem. In SVM, squared hinge loss (L2 loss) is a common alternative to L1 loss, but surprisingly we have not seen any paper studying the details of Crammer and Singer's method using L2 loss. In this letter, we conduct a thorough investigation. We show that the derivation is not trivial and has some subtle differences from the L1 case. Details provided in this work can be a useful reference for those who intend to use Crammer and Singer's method with L2 loss. They do not need a tedious process to derive everything by themselves. Furthermore, we present some new results on and discussion of both L1- and L2-loss formulations.

Lee CP; Lin CJ

2013-05-01

324

Amenable covers, minimal volume and L2-Betti numbers of aspherical manifolds  

CERN Multimedia

Using concepts from measurable group theory and measured equivalence relations, we prove versions of results of Gromov about the relation between minimal volume and simplicial volume resp. bounded cohomology for L2-Betti numbers of closed aspherical manifolds.

Sauer, R

2006-01-01

325

The Critical Period of L2 Acquisition Studies: Implications for Researchers in Chinese EFL Context  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper reviews the studies centring on the Critical Period Hypothesis (CPH), the major contributor to early L2 instruction in China. It firstly finds out that, in recent studies of CP in L2 acquisition settings (roughly after the year of 2000); a lot more variables besides the age factor have been integrated. The critical period studies in L2 settings has triggered diverse and even competing versions; while in Chinese EFL context, the critical period studies are still in its initial stage, i.e., concentrating on Ages of Onset (AOs) . The paper thus points out the implications of the CP studies in L2 settings for researches in Chinese EFL context.

Wuhan Zhu

2011-01-01

326

The processing and comprehension of wh-questions among L2 German speakers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Using the self-paced-reading paradigm, the present study examines whether highly proficient second language (L2) speakers of German (English L1) use case-marking information during the on-line comprehension of unambiguous wh-extractions, even when task demands do not draw explicit attention to this morphosyntactic feature in German. Results support previous findings, in that both the native and the L2 German speakers exhibited an immediate subject-preference in the matrix clause, suggesting they were sensitive to case-marking information. However, only among the native speakers did this subject-preference carry over to reading times in the complement clause. The results from the present study are discussed in light of current debates regarding the ability of L2 speakers to attain native-like processing strategies in their L2.

Jackson CN; Bobb SC

2009-10-01

327

Variation of Zr-L2,3 XANES in tetravalent zirconium oxides.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Zr-L2,3 XANESs of tetravalent zirconium oxides with different coordination numbers and local symmetries are systematically investigated by ab initio multiplet calculations using fully relativistic molecular spinors for model clusters. Experimental Zr-L2,3 XANESs are obtained for SrZrO3, m-ZrO2 (monoclinic) and t-ZrO2 (tetragonal). The theoretical spectra are in good agreement with the experimental data. The multiplet effects are found to play essential roles in determining the peak shape. The shapes of L3- and L2-edges are systematically different. The intensity ratios of the doublet peaks at both L3- and L2-edges are found to be sensitive to the coordination number of Zr. The ratio can therefore be used to estimate the coordination number of Zr in such oxides.

Ikeno H; Krause M; Höche T; Patzig C; Hu Y; Gawronski A; Tanaka I; Rüssel C

2013-04-01

328

Perlman syndrome: overgrowth, Wilms tumor predisposition and DIS3L2.  

Science.gov (United States)

Perlman syndrome is a rare autosomal recessively inherited congenital overgrowth syndrome characterized by polyhydramnios, macrosomia, characteristic facial dysmorphology, renal dysplasia and nephroblastomatosis and multiple congenital anomalies. Perlman syndrome is associated with high neonatal mortality and, survivors have developmental delay and a high risk of Wilms tumor. Recently a Perlman syndrome locus was mapped to chromosome 2q37 and homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations were characterized in DIS3L2. The DIS3L2 gene product has ribonuclease activity and homology to the DIS3 component of the RNA exosome. It has been postulated that the clinical features of Perlman syndrome result from disordered RNA metabolism and, though the precise targets of DIS3L2 have yet to be characterized, in cellular models DIS3L2 knockdown is associated with abnormalities of cell growth and division. PMID:23613427

Morris, Mark R; Astuti, Dewi; Maher, Eamonn R

2013-05-01

329

Perlman syndrome: overgrowth, Wilms tumor predisposition and DIS3L2.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Perlman syndrome is a rare autosomal recessively inherited congenital overgrowth syndrome characterized by polyhydramnios, macrosomia, characteristic facial dysmorphology, renal dysplasia and nephroblastomatosis and multiple congenital anomalies. Perlman syndrome is associated with high neonatal mortality and, survivors have developmental delay and a high risk of Wilms tumor. Recently a Perlman syndrome locus was mapped to chromosome 2q37 and homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations were characterized in DIS3L2. The DIS3L2 gene product has ribonuclease activity and homology to the DIS3 component of the RNA exosome. It has been postulated that the clinical features of Perlman syndrome result from disordered RNA metabolism and, though the precise targets of DIS3L2 have yet to be characterized, in cellular models DIS3L2 knockdown is associated with abnormalities of cell growth and division.

Morris MR; Astuti D; Maher ER

2013-05-01

330

Perlman Syndrome: Overgrowth, Wilms Tumor Predisposition and DIS3L2.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Perlman syndrome is a rare autosomal recessively inherited congenital overgrowth syndrome characterized by polyhydramnios, macrosomia, characteristic facial dysmorphology, renal dysplasia and nephroblastomatosis and multiple congenital anomalies. Perlman syndrome is associated with high neonatal mortality and, survivors have developmental delay and a high risk of Wilms tumor. Recently a Perlman syndrome locus was mapped to chromosome 2q37 and homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations were characterized in DIS3L2. The DIS3L2 gene product has ribonuclease activity and homology to the DIS3 component of the RNA exosome. It has been postulated that the clinical features of Perlman syndrome result from disordered RNA metabolism and, though the precise targets of DIS3L2 have yet to be characterized, in cellular models DIS3L2 knockdown is associated with abnormalities of cell growth and division. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Morris MR; Astuti D; Maher ER

2013-04-01

331

Variation of Zr-L2,3 XANES in tetravalent zirconium oxides.  

Science.gov (United States)

Zr-L2,3 XANESs of tetravalent zirconium oxides with different coordination numbers and local symmetries are systematically investigated by ab initio multiplet calculations using fully relativistic molecular spinors for model clusters. Experimental Zr-L2,3 XANESs are obtained for SrZrO3, m-ZrO2 (monoclinic) and t-ZrO2 (tetragonal). The theoretical spectra are in good agreement with the experimental data. The multiplet effects are found to play essential roles in determining the peak shape. The shapes of L3- and L2-edges are systematically different. The intensity ratios of the doublet peaks at both L3- and L2-edges are found to be sensitive to the coordination number of Zr. The ratio can therefore be used to estimate the coordination number of Zr in such oxides. PMID:23553581

Ikeno, Hidekazu; Krause, Michael; Höche, Thomas; Patzig, Christian; Hu, Yongfeng; Gawronski, Antje; Tanaka, Isao; Rüssel, Christian

2013-04-03

332

ARE THEY WATCHING? TEST-TAKER VIEWING BEHAVIOR DURING AN L2 VIDEO LISTENING TEST  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The accessibility of video technology has made it possible to utilize both the auditory and visual channels to present listening texts in the second language (L2) classroom and on L2 listening tests. However, there has been little research investigating the extent to which L2 listeners actually watch the video monitor when presented with a listening video text. The current study investigated test-taker behavior on an L2 video listening test. Thirty-six test-takers were videotaped while taking a listening test composed of six separate video texts, and the amount of time test-takers made eye contact with the video monitor was computed. An analysis of the data indicated that the group of participants oriented to the video monitor 69% of the time while the video text was played. In addition, the study yielded valuable information concerning the consistency of the test-takers’ viewing behavior.

Elvis Wagner

2007-01-01

333

The Riemannian L2 topology on the manifold of Riemannian metrics  

CERN Multimedia

We study the manifold of all Riemannian metrics over a closed, finite-dimensional manifold. In particular, we investigate the topology on the manifold of metrics induced by the distance function of the L^2 Riemannian metric--so called because it induces an L^2 topology on each tangent space. It turns out that this topology on the tangent spaces gives rise to an L^1-type topology on the manifold of metrics itself. We study this new topology and its completion, which agrees homeomorphically with the completion of the L^2 metric. We also give a user-friendly criterion for convergence (with respect to the L^2 metric) in the manifold of metrics.

Clarke, Brian

2010-01-01

334

The vanishing of L2 harmonic one-forms on based path spaces  

CERN Document Server

We prove the triviality of the first L2 cohomology class of based path spaces of Riemannian manifolds furnished with Brownian motion measure, and the consequent vanishing of L2 harmonic one-forms. We give explicit formulae for closed and co-closed one-forms expressed as differentials of functions and co-differentials of L2 two-forms, respectively; these are considered as extended Clark-Ocone formulae. A feature of the proof is the use of the temporal structure of these path spaces to relate a rough exterior derivative operator on one-forms to the exterior differentiation operator defined earlier by Elworthy and Li, the one used to construct the de Rham complex and the self-adjoint Laplacian on L2 one-forms. This Laplacian is shown to have a spectral gap.

Elworthy, K D

2012-01-01

335

Quick look report on LOFT nuclear experiment L2-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report presents a preliminary evaluation and summary of the results of the first LOFT nuclear loss-of-coolant experiment (LOCE), LOCE L2-2, which was successfully conducted on December 9, 1978. LOCE L2-2 is the first experiment in the power ascension series as defined in Volume I of the Experiment Operating Specification. LOCE L2-2 simulated a complete double-ended offset shear break of a large pressurized water reactor inlet pipe. Selected data are presented in the report to confirm that the objectives of LOCE L2-2, as defined in Volume 2 of the Experiment Operating Specification, were met. The experiment was successful in achieving all objectives

1978-01-01

336

On the L2 cohomology of a convex cocompact hyperbolic manifold  

CERN Multimedia

A vanishing theorem for a convex cocompact hyperbolic manifold is established, which relates the L2 cohomology to the Hausdorff dimension of the limit set. The borderline case is shown to characterize the manifold completely.

Wang, X

2002-01-01

337

Evaluation of PWR-LOCA under LOFT L2-3 condition  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Analysis of large break LOCA (loss-of-coolant accident) of a commercial PWR (pressurized water reactor) is made with the THYDE-P2 code under the LOFT (Loss-of-Fluid Test) L2-3 condition. Subcooled reflooding is calculated to occur, whereas in LOFT L2-3 saturated reflooding seems to have been observed. Except for this fact, despite the thermal and geometrical differences, the calculated results show that the LOFT system well simulates PWR-LOCA under the LOFT L2-3 condition. The existing safety criteria are satisfied by the commercial PWR's with a big margin in case of LOCA under the LOFT L2-3 condition. (author)

1987-01-01

338

A remark on the concentration phenomenon for the L^2-critical nonlinear Schrodinger equations  

CERN Multimedia

We observe a link between the window size of mass concentration and the rate of explosion of the Strichartz norm by revisiting Bourgain's mass concentration for the L^2-critical nonlinear Schrodinger equations.

Colliander, J; Colliander, James; Roudenko, Svetlana

2006-01-01

339

IL FENOMENO DELL’ALTERNANZA L1/L2 NELL’INSEGNAMENTO DELL’ITALIANO COME LINGUA STRANIERA. ANALISI DI UN CORPUS DI INTERAZIONI DIDATTICHE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La modalità plurilingue della comunicazione in classi di lingua straniera può rientrare tra le strategie pedagogiche a disposizione dell’insegnante per il raggiungimento di precisi scopi didattici e formativi. Partendo da una breve analisi sul significato di parlante plurilingue e plurilinguismo stesso, in questo articolo si è voluto esaminare come si attua una educazione al plurilinguismo in contesti formativi e, in particolare, se e come l’utilizzo della L1 può costituire uno strumento di supporto all’insegnamento e all’apprendimento di una lingua straniera. A questo scopo sono stati analizzati i dati raccolti presso l’Università di Coventry durante corsi di italiano L2 per studenti anglofoni. I fenomeni di contatto linguistico L1/L2 più frequenti e significativi sono stati suddivisi in base al parlante e alle loro funzioni.   The phenomena of l1/l2 alternation in the teaching of italian as a foreign language. analysis of a corpus of didactic interactions Multilingual communication in foreign language classrooms can be considered as one of the teacher’s pedagogical  strategies to achieve specific educational aims. Through a brief analysis of the meaning of multilingual speakers and multilingualism, this article examines how an education to multilingualism in teaching contexts is carried out and, in particular, if and how the use of the L1 can be a helpful tool for the foreign language teaching and learning. For this purpose the data collected at Coventry University during Italian (L2) classrooms for English students were examined. The more common and meaningful phenomena of linguistic contact between L1 and L2 were grouped according to the speaker and to their functions.

Paola Arrigoni

2012-01-01

340

Functional Connectivity Changes in Second Language Vocabulary Learning  

Science.gov (United States)

|Functional connectivity changes in the language network (Price, 2010), and in a control network involved in second language (L2) processing (Abutalebi & Green, 2007) were examined in a group of Persian (L1) speakers learning French (L2) words. Measures of network integration that characterize the global integrative state of a network (Marrelec,…

Saidi, Ladan Ghazi; Perlbarg, Vincent; Marrelec, Guillaume; Pelegrini-Issac, Melani; Benali, Habib; Ansaldo, Ana-Ines

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Unique splicing pattern of the TCF7L2 gene in human pancreatic islets  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Intronic variation in the TCF7L2 gene exhibits the strongest association to type 2 diabetes observed to date, but the mechanism whereby this genetic variation translates into altered biological function is largely unknown. A possible explanation is a genotype-dependent difference in the complex splicing pattern; however, this has not previously been characterised in pancreatic or insulin target tissues. Here, the detailed TCF7L2 splicing pattern in five human tissues is described and dependence on risk genotype explored.

Osmark, P; Hansson, O

2009-01-01

342

$L^2$-estimates for the $d$-operator acting on super forms  

CERN Multimedia

In the setting of super forms developed in a previous article by the author, we introduce the notion of $\\mathbb{R}$-K\\"ahler metrics on $\\mathbb{R}^{n}$. We consider existence theorems and $L^{2}-$estimates for the equation $d\\alpha=\\beta$, where $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ are super forms, in the spirit of H\\"ormander's $L^{2}-$estimates for the $\\bar{\\partial}-$equation on a complex K\\"ahler manifold.

Lagerberg, Aron

2011-01-01

343

Helically assisted low-q tokamak with l=2 helical winding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An l=2, m=5 short-pitch helical field has been applied to low safety factor (q(a)--2) discharges in the TORIUT-5 tokamak. The externally applied helical field increases the safety factor effectively to avoid the current driven instabilities. An l=2 helical winding has the advantage, in comparison with an l >= 3 system, of controlling the pitch near the magnetic axis and reducing the internal instability. The experimental results show a good agreement with theoretical estimates.

Hamaguchi, Satoshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Zensho; Kamada, Yutaka; Hattori, Ken-ichi; Inoue, Nobuyuki; Uchida, Taijiro

1984-07-01

344

L2 p-Forms and Ricci flow with bounded curvature on manifolds  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we study the evolution of L2 p-forms under Ricci flow with bounded curvature on a complete non-compact or a compact Riemannian manifold. We show that under curvature pinching conditions on such a manifold, the L2 norm of a smooth p-form is non-increasing along the Ricci flow. The L^{\\infty} norm is showed to have monotonicity property too.

Ma, L; Ma, Li; Liu, Baiyu

2007-01-01

345

Neuroprotective effects of MK-801 on L-2-chloropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

L-2-Chloropropionic acid is selectively toxic to the cerebellum in rats; the granule cell necrosis observed within 48 h can be prevented by prior administration of MK-801. Short-term treatment (2 h) with L-2-chloropropionic acid has also been shown to activate the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in fasted adult rats. This study aimed to investigate the effect of prior exposure to MK-801 on the biochemical and neurotoxicological effects of L-2-chloropropionic acid. Extracts were prepared from the forebrain and cerebellum of animals that had been treated with L-2-chloropropionic acid, with and without prior treatment with MK-801, and were analysed using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and amino acid analysis. Glucose metabolism was studied by monitoring the metabolism of [1-(13)C]-glucose using GC/MS. L-2-Chloropropionic acid caused increased glucose metabolism in both brain regions 6 h after administration, confirming activation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, which was not prevented by MK-801. After 48 h an increase in lactate and a decrease in N-acetylaspartate was observed only in the cerebellum, whereas phosphocreatine and ATP decreased in both tissues. MK-801 prevented the changes in lactate and N:-acetylaspartate, but not those on the energy state. These studies suggest that L-2-chloropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity is only partly mediated by the NMDA subtype of glutamate receptor.

Williams RE; Lock EA; Bachelard HS

2001-02-01

346

Neuroprotective effects of MK-801 on L-2-chloropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

L-2-Chloropropionic acid is selectively toxic to the cerebellum in rats; the granule cell necrosis observed within 48 h can be prevented by prior administration of MK-801. Short-term treatment (2 h) with L-2-chloropropionic acid has also been shown to activate the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in fasted adult rats. This study aimed to investigate the effect of prior exposure to MK-801 on the biochemical and neurotoxicological effects of L-2-chloropropionic acid. Extracts were prepared from the forebrain and cerebellum of animals that had been treated with L-2-chloropropionic acid, with and without prior treatment with MK-801, and were analysed using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and amino acid analysis. Glucose metabolism was studied by monitoring the metabolism of [1-(13)C]-glucose using GC/MS. L-2-Chloropropionic acid caused increased glucose metabolism in both brain regions 6 h after administration, confirming activation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, which was not prevented by MK-801. After 48 h an increase in lactate and a decrease in N-acetylaspartate was observed only in the cerebellum, whereas phosphocreatine and ATP decreased in both tissues. MK-801 prevented the changes in lactate and N:-acetylaspartate, but not those on the energy state. These studies suggest that L-2-chloropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity is only partly mediated by the NMDA subtype of glutamate receptor. PMID:11181825

Williams, R E; Lock, E A; Bachelard, H S

2001-02-01

347

Mutations in the mitochondrial protease gene AFG3L2 cause dominant hereditary ataxia SCA28.  

Science.gov (United States)

Autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are genetically heterogeneous neurological disorders characterized by cerebellar dysfunction mostly due to Purkinje cell degeneration. Here we show that AFG3L2 mutations cause SCA type 28. Along with paraplegin, which causes recessive spastic paraplegia, AFG3L2 is a component of the conserved m-AAA metalloprotease complex involved in the maintenance of the mitochondrial proteome. We identified heterozygous missense mutations in five unrelated SCA families and found that AFG3L2 is highly and selectively expressed in human cerebellar Purkinje cells. m-AAA-deficient yeast cells expressing human mutated AFG3L2 homocomplex show respiratory deficiency, proteolytic impairment and deficiency of respiratory chain complex IV. Structure homology modeling indicates that the mutations may affect AFG3L2 substrate handling. This work identifies AFG3L2 as a novel cause of dominant neurodegenerative disease and indicates a previously unknown role for this component of the mitochondrial protein quality control machinery in protecting the human cerebellum against neurodegeneration. PMID:20208537

Di Bella, Daniela; Lazzaro, Federico; Brusco, Alfredo; Plumari, Massimo; Battaglia, Giorgio; Pastore, Annalisa; Finardi, Adele; Cagnoli, Claudia; Tempia, Filippo; Frontali, Marina; Veneziano, Liana; Sacco, Tiziana; Boda, Enrica; Brussino, Alessandro; Bonn, Florian; Castellotti, Barbara; Baratta, Silvia; Mariotti, Caterina; Gellera, Cinzia; Fracasso, Valentina; Magri, Stefania; Langer, Thomas; Plevani, Paolo; Di Donato, Stefano; Muzi-Falconi, Marco; Taroni, Franco

2010-03-07

348

A Computational Investigation of Cohesion and Lexical Network Density in L2 Writing  

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Full Text Available This study used a new computational linguistics tool, the Coh-Metrix, to investigate and measure the differences in cohesion and lexical network density between native speaker and non-native speaker writing, as well as to investigate L2 proficiency level differences in cohesion and lexical network density. This study analyzed data from three corpora with the Coh-Metrix: the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE) as an L2 higher proficiency group, the Louvain Corpus of Native English Essays (LOCNESS) as a native speaker baseline, and a collected EFL corpus from Indonesia for the L2 lower proficiency data. Statistical investigation of the Coh-Metrix results revealed that five out of six Coh-Metrix variables used in this study did not detect proficiency level differences in L2 but the tool was consistently able to distinguish between L2 and native speaker writing. Differences included that L2 writing contains more argument overlap, more semantic overlap, more frequent content words, fewer abstract verb hyponyms and less causal content than native speaker writing.

Clarence Green

2012-01-01

349

A Novel Pair of Replacement Algorithms for L1 and L2 Cache for FFT  

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Full Text Available Processors speed is much faster than memory; to bridge this gap cache memory is used. This paper proposes a preeminent pair of replacement algorithms for Level 1 cache (L1) and Level 2 cache (L2) respectively for the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The access patterns of L1 and L2 are different, when CPU does not get the desired data in L1 then it refers to L2. Thus the replacement algorithm which works efficiently for L1 may not be efficient for L2. With the memory access pattern of FFT, the paper has simulated and analyzed the behavior of various existing replacement algorithms on L1 and L2 respectively. The replacement algorithms which are taken into consideration are: Least Recently Used (LRU), Least Frequently Used (LFU) and First In First Out (FIFO).This paper has also proposed new replacement algorithms for L1 (FFTNEW1) and for L2 (FFTNEW2) respectively for the same application. Simulation results shows that by applying the proposed pair of replacement algorithms miss rates are considerably reduced.

Ms. Richa Gupta; Dr. Sanjiv Tokekar

2010-01-01

350

Rozpuszczalny receptor interleukiny 2 (slL-2R) - nowy marker aktywno?ci choroby trzewnej?  

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Full Text Available Wprowadzenie: Celiakia jest wywo?ana przez uwarunkowan? genetycznie nieprawid?ow? odpowied? immunologiczn? na spo?ywany gluten, w wyniku której dochodzi do lokalnej aktywacji uk?adu immunologicznego w b?onie ?luzowej jelita cienkiego orazwzrostu ilo?ci komórek produkuj?cych cytokiny we krwi obwodowej. Cel pracy: Ocena st??enia slL-2R w surowicy pacjentów z chorob? trzewn? i okre?lenie korelacji pomi?dzy poziomem slL-2R a mianem przeciwcia? przeciwendomyzjalnych. Materia? i metody: Próbki krwi pobrano od 110 pacjentów z chorob? trzewn?. Badana grupa zosta?a podzielona na 2 podgrupy: I -EmA(+) (n=56) z aktywn? i II - EmA(-) (n=54) z nieaktywn? postaci? choroby trzewnej. Poziom przeciwcia? przeciwendomyzjalnych by? oznaczany po wykonaniu badania poziomu IgA w surowicy krwi przy u?yciu metody immunofluorescencji z u?yciem prze?yku ma?py jako antygenu. St??enia slL-2R w surowicy by?y oznaczane za pomoc? testów ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay). Uzyskane wyniki zosta?y poddane analizie statystycznej. Wyniki: ?rednie poziomy slL-2R by?y statystycznie wy?sze u pacjentów z aktywn? chorob? trzewn?. W tej grupie pacjentów stwierdzono dodatni? ko relacj? pomi?dzy poziomem slL-2R a mianem EmA, pod czas gdy w grupie pacjentów z nieaktywn? chorob? trzewn? warto?ci te mala?y wraz z d?ugo?ci? okresu przestrzegania diety bezglutenowej. Wnioski: Uzyskane wyniki wskazuj? na warto?? oznaczania slL-2R w surowicy jako markera aktywno?ci choroby trzewnej i sugeruj?, ?e okresowa ocena surowiczych poziomów slL-2R mo?e by? metod? pomocn? w monitorowaniu przestrzegania diety bezglutenowej.

Lucyna Miiller; Anna Szaflarska-Pop?awska; Gra?yna Odrow??-Sypniewska; Cezary Pop?awski

2006-01-01

351

Effectiveness of L2 spinal nerve infiltration for selective discogenic low back pain patients  

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It has been reported that rat L5/6 lumbar discs are innervated mainly by L2 dorsal root ganglion neurons. We previously reported that L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective for discogenic low back pain (DLBP) patients, although the diagnosis was based only on the results of physical examination, plain films, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate L2 spinal nerve block for DLBP patients retrospectively based on MRI findings and surgical results. A total of 62 patients with only LBP and no accompanying radicular pain were investigated. Patients had only one level of disc degeneration on MRI. When pain was provoked during discography, we performed surgery at the next stage (40 patients). In all, 22 patients were excluded owing to negative discography results. Of the 40 patients, we evaluated 25 strictly selected patients suffering from DLBP. DLBP was diagnosed when the patient experienced pain relief at least 2 years after anterior lumbar interbody fusion. Fifteen patients who did not show pain relief after surgery were used for the non-DLBP group. L2 spinal nerve infiltration using 1.5 ml of lidocaine was performed in all 40 patients before surgery. The visual analogue scale (VAS) score after L2 spinal nerve infiltration was recorded, and an association of L2 spinal nerve infiltration and DLBP was explored. Low back pain scores assessed using the VAS score, the Japanese Orthopedic Association score, and the Oswestry Disability Index score in the two groups were not significantly different. L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective for 27 patients but not effective for 13 patients; the VAS score after 15 min and 2 h improved in the DLBP group compared with that of the non-DLBP group (P

2010-01-01

352

A critical function of Mad2l2 in primordial germ cell development of mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of primordial germ cells (PGCs) involves several waves of epigenetic reprogramming. A major step is following specification and involves the transition from the stably suppressive histone modification H3K9me2 to the more flexible, still repressive H3K27me3, while PGCs are arrested in G2 phase of their cycle. The significance and underlying molecular mechanism of this transition were so far unknown. Here, we generated mutant mice for the Mad2l2 (Mad2B, Rev7) gene product, and found that they are infertile in both males and females. We demonstrated that Mad2l2 is essential for PGC, but not somatic development. PGCs were specified normally in Mad2l2(-/-) embryos, but became eliminated by apoptosis during the subsequent phase of epigenetic reprogramming. A majority of knockout PGCs failed to arrest in the G2 phase, and did not switch from a H3K9me2 to a H3K27me3 configuration. By the analysis of transfected fibroblasts we found that the interaction of Mad2l2 with the histone methyltransferases G9a and GLP lead to a downregulation of H3K9me2. The inhibitory binding of Mad2l2 to Cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) could arrest the cell cycle in the G2 phase, and also allowed another histone methyltransferase, Ezh2, to upregulate H3K27me3. Together, these results demonstrate the potential of Mad2l2 in the regulation of both cell cycle and the epigenetic status. The function of Mad2l2 is essential in PGCs, and thus of high relevance for fertility. PMID:24009519

Pirouz, Mehdi; Pilarski, Sven; Kessel, Michael

2013-08-29

353

A critical function of Mad2l2 in primordial germ cell development of mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The development of primordial germ cells (PGCs) involves several waves of epigenetic reprogramming. A major step is following specification and involves the transition from the stably suppressive histone modification H3K9me2 to the more flexible, still repressive H3K27me3, while PGCs are arrested in G2 phase of their cycle. The significance and underlying molecular mechanism of this transition were so far unknown. Here, we generated mutant mice for the Mad2l2 (Mad2B, Rev7) gene product, and found that they are infertile in both males and females. We demonstrated that Mad2l2 is essential for PGC, but not somatic development. PGCs were specified normally in Mad2l2(-/-) embryos, but became eliminated by apoptosis during the subsequent phase of epigenetic reprogramming. A majority of knockout PGCs failed to arrest in the G2 phase, and did not switch from a H3K9me2 to a H3K27me3 configuration. By the analysis of transfected fibroblasts we found that the interaction of Mad2l2 with the histone methyltransferases G9a and GLP lead to a downregulation of H3K9me2. The inhibitory binding of Mad2l2 to Cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) could arrest the cell cycle in the G2 phase, and also allowed another histone methyltransferase, Ezh2, to upregulate H3K27me3. Together, these results demonstrate the potential of Mad2l2 in the regulation of both cell cycle and the epigenetic status. The function of Mad2l2 is essential in PGCs, and thus of high relevance for fertility.

Pirouz M; Pilarski S; Kessel M

2013-08-01

354

A Critical Function of Mad2l2 in Primordial Germ Cell Development of Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of primordial germ cells (PGCs) involves several waves of epigenetic reprogramming. A major step is following specification and involves the transition from the stably suppressive histone modification H3K9me2 to the more flexible, still repressive H3K27me3, while PGCs are arrested in G2 phase of their cycle. The significance and underlying molecular mechanism of this transition were so far unknown. Here, we generated mutant mice for the Mad2l2 (Mad2B, Rev7) gene product, and found that they are infertile in both males and females. We demonstrated that Mad2l2 is essential for PGC, but not somatic development. PGCs were specified normally in Mad2l2?/? embryos, but became eliminated by apoptosis during the subsequent phase of epigenetic reprogramming. A majority of knockout PGCs failed to arrest in the G2 phase, and did not switch from a H3K9me2 to a H3K27me3 configuration. By the analysis of transfected fibroblasts we found that the interaction of Mad2l2 with the histone methyltransferases G9a and GLP lead to a downregulation of H3K9me2. The inhibitory binding of Mad2l2 to Cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) could arrest the cell cycle in the G2 phase, and also allowed another histone methyltransferase, Ezh2, to upregulate H3K27me3. Together, these results demonstrate the potential of Mad2l2 in the regulation of both cell cycle and the epigenetic status. The function of Mad2l2 is essential in PGCs, and thus of high relevance for fertility.

Pirouz, Mehdi; Pilarski, Sven; Kessel, Michael

2013-01-01

355

A transmembrane domain and GxxxG motifs within L2 are essential for papillomavirus infection.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

During cellular invasion, human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) must transfer its viral genome (vDNA) across the endosomal membrane prior to its accumulation at nuclear PML bodies for the establishment of infection. After cellular uptake, the capsid likely undergoes pH-dependent disassembly within the endo-/lysosomal compartment, thereby exposing hidden domains in L2 that facilitate membrane penetration of L2/vDNA complexes. In an effort to identify regions of L2 that might physically interact with membranes, we have subjected the L2 sequence to multiple transmembrane (TM) domain prediction algorithms. Here, we describe a conserved TM domain within L2 (residues 45 to 67) and investigate its role in HPV16 infection. In vitro, the predicted TM domain adopts an alpha-helical structure in lipid environments and can function as a real TM domain, although not as efficiently as the bona fide TM domain of PDGFR. An L2 double point mutant renders the TM domain nonfunctional and blocks HPV16 infection by preventing endosomal translocation of vDNA. The TM domain contains three highly conserved GxxxG motifs. These motifs can facilitate homotypic and heterotypic interactions between TM helices, activities that may be important for vDNA translocation. Disruption of some of these GxxxG motifs resulted in noninfectious viruses, indicating a critical role in infection. Using a ToxR-based homo-oligomerization assay, we show a propensity for this TM domain to self-associate in a GxxxG-dependent manner. These data suggest an important role for the self-associating L2 TM domain and the conserved GxxxG motifs in the transfer of vDNA across the endo-/lysosomal membrane.

Bronnimann MP; Chapman JA; Park CK; Campos SK

2013-01-01

356

The C57BL/6J Mouse Strain Background Modifies the Effect of a Mutation in Bcl2l2  

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Bcl2l2 encodes BCL-W, an antiapoptotic member of the BCL-2 family of proteins. Intercross of Bcl2l2 +/? mice on a mixed C57BL/6J, 129S5 background produces Bcl2l2 ?/? animals with the expected frequency. In contrast, intercross of Bcl2l2 +/? mice on a congenic C57BL/6J background produces relatively...

Navarro, Stefanie J.; Trinh, Tuyen; Lucas, Charlotte A.; Ross, Andrea J.; Waymire, Katrina G.; MacGregor, Grant R.

357

A Sequence Labeling Approach to Morphological Analyzer for Tamil Language  

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Full Text Available Morphological analysis is the basic process for any Natural Language Processing task. Morphology is the study of internal structure of the word. Morphological analysis retrieves the grammatical features and properties of a morphologically inflected word. Capturing the agglutinative structure of Tamil words by an automatic system is a challenging job. Generally rule based approaches are used for building morphological analyzer. In this paper we propose a novel approach to solve the morphological analyzer problem using machine learning methodology. Here morphological analyzer problem is redefinedas classification problem. This approach is based on sequence labeling and training by kernel methods that captures the non linear relationships of the morphological features from training data samples in a better and simpler way.

Anand Kumar M; Dhanalakshmi V; Soman K.P; Rajendran S

2010-01-01

358

TCF7L2 polymorphisms and inflammatory markers before and after treatment with fenofibrate  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation is implicated in causing diabetes. We tested whether transcription factor 7 like-2 (TCF7L2) gene polymorphisms (rs12255372 and rs7903146), consistently associated with type 2 diabetes, are associated with plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers before and after three weeks of daily treatment with fenofibrate. Methods Men and women in the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network study (n = 1025, age 49 ± 16 y) were included. All participants suspended use of lipid-lowering drugs for three weeks and were then given 160 mg/day of fenofibrate for three weeks. Inflammatory markers and lipids were measured before and after fenofibrate. ANOVA was used to test for differences across TCF7L2 genotypes. Results Under the additive or dominant model, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the concentrations of inflammatory markers (hsCRP, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-? and MCP-1) across TCF7L2 genotypes in the period before or after treatment. For both rs12255372 and rs7903146, homozygote T-allele carriers had significantly higher (P Conclusion Overall these data show no association between TCF7L2 polymorphisms and the inflammatory markers suggesting that the effects of TCF7L2 on diabetes may not be via inflammation.

Kabagambe Edmond K; Glasser Stephen P; Ordovas Jose M; Warodomwichit Daruneewan; Tsai Michael Y; Hopkins Paul N; Borecki Ingrid B; Wojczynski Mary; Arnett Donna K

2009-01-01

359

Plasticity of recurrent l2/3 inhibition and gamma oscillations by whisker experience.  

Science.gov (United States)

Local recurrent networks in neocortex are critical nodes for sensory processing, but their regulation by experience is much less understood than for long-distance (translaminar or cross-columnar) projections. We studied local L2/3 recurrent networks in rat somatosensory cortex during deprivation-induced whisker map plasticity, by expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in L2/3 pyramidal cells and measuring light-evoked synaptic currents in ex vivo S1 slices. In columns with intact whiskers, brief light impulses evoked recurrent excitation and supralinear inhibition. Deprived columns showed modestly reduced excitation and profoundly reduced inhibition, providing a circuit locus for disinhibition of whisker-evoked responses observed in L2/3 in vivo. Slower light ramps elicited sustained gamma frequency oscillations, which were nearly abolished in deprived columns. Reduction in gamma power was also observed in spontaneous LFP oscillations in L2/3 of deprived columns in vivo. Thus, L2/3 recurrent networks are a powerful site for homeostatic modulation of excitation-inhibition balance and regulation of gamma oscillations. PMID:24094112

Shao, Yu R; Isett, Brian R; Miyashita, Toshio; Chung, Jason; Pourzia, Olivia; Gasperini, Robert J; Feldman, Daniel E

2013-10-02

360

Plasticity of Recurrent L2/3 Inhibition and Gamma Oscillations by Whisker Experience.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Local recurrent networks in neocortex are critical nodes for sensory processing, but their regulation by experience is much less understood than for long-distance (translaminar or cross-columnar) projections. We studied local L2/3 recurrent networks in rat somatosensory cortex during deprivation-induced whisker map plasticity, by expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in L2/3 pyramidal cells and measuring light-evoked synaptic currents in ex vivo S1 slices. In columns with intact whiskers, brief light impulses evoked recurrent excitation and supralinear inhibition. Deprived columns showed modestly reduced excitation and profoundly reduced inhibition, providing a circuit locus for disinhibition of whisker-evoked responses observed in L2/3 in vivo. Slower light ramps elicited sustained gamma frequency oscillations, which were nearly abolished in deprived columns. Reduction in gamma power was also observed in spontaneous LFP oscillations in L2/3 of deprived columns in vivo. Thus, L2/3 recurrent networks are a powerful site for homeostatic modulation of excitation-inhibition balance and regulation of gamma oscillations.

Shao YR; Isett BR; Miyashita T; Chung J; Pourzia O; Gasperini RJ; Feldman DE

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
361

Protective Immunity to Rabbit Oral and Cutaneous Papillomaviruses by Immunization with Short Peptides of L2, the Minor Capsid Protein  

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The papillomavirus minor capsid protein, L2, has been shown to exhibit immunogenicity, whereby a variety of B-cell epitopes, predominantly in the amino terminus of L2, have been deduced. However, immunity to L2 in vivo has not been examined extensively. Notably, a common neutralization epitope for h...

Embers, Monica E.; Budgeon, Lynn R.; Pickel, Martin; Christensen, Neil D.

362

The Effects of Planned Instruction on Iranian L2 Learners' Interlanguage Pragmatic Development  

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Full Text Available The most compelling evidence that instruction in L2pragmatics is necessary comes from learners whoselanguage proficiency is advanced but their communicative actsfrequently contain pragmatic errors. The current studyevaluated the impact of explicit instruction on EFL learner'sawareness and production of three speech acts of request,apology, and complaint. It also probed whether learners’language proficiency plays any role in incorporatingpragmatic instruction into the L2 classroom. The instructionlasted for about 12 weeks. Achievement in L2 pragmaticswas assessed based on a pretest-posttest plan usingMultiple-Choice Discourse Comprehension Test (MDCT)and Written Discourse Completion Test (WDCT). Thesignificant gains made by the experimental groups receivinginstruction support the claim recently made by instructionalpragmatics that explicit instruction does facilitate thedevelopment of pragmatically appropriate use of language.Yet, learners’ level of language proficiency had no significantrole in the incorporation of the instruction. Furthertheoretical issues are also discussed.

Azizullah Mirzaei; Maryam Esmaeili

2013-01-01

363

Working memory capacity and L2 University Students comprehension of linear texts and hypertexts  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between working memory capacity and L2 reading comprehension of both linear texts and hypertexts. Three different instruments were used to measure comprehension (recall, comprehension questions and perception of contradictions) and the Reading Span Test (Daneman & Carpenter, 1980) was used as a measure of working memory capacity. Forty-two speakers of English as an L2 from two different L1 backgrounds (21 Brazilians and 21 Chinese) participated in the study. The results obtained signal to the fact that hypertexts might compromise comprehension, especially for low-span participants. The broad conclusion achieved in this study is that different variables including readers’ working memory capacity, their first language, and the mode of text presentation may interfere in L2 reading, and each one of these aspects might hamper, in different ways, the construction of a coherent mental representation of the text being read.

Ingrid Fontanini; Lêda Maria Braga Tomitch

2009-01-01

364

COMPLEXITY AND INTERACTION: COMPARING THE DEVELOPMENT OF L1 AND L2  

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Full Text Available In research into first and second language development,the focus has mainly been either on the formal features of learner language alone (both L1 and L2) or on the interaction between learners and their caretakers (L1) or native speaker peers (L2). These research traditions have been kept apart even though it has been widely acknowledged that both first and second languages are appropriated essentially in social interaction. This paper aims to strengthen the connection between social and formal approaches by combining interactional views with those focusing on the structural complexity of learner language.Some excerpts from L1 and L2 interaction data (in the Finnish language) are discussed. It is suggested that segmentation of linguistic material occurs in everyday situations and serves as a link between interaction and the growth of structural complexity in learner language. To situate this argument into a broader theoretical framework, various socially oriented research paradigms are briefly discussed.

Minna Suni; Lea Nieminen

2011-01-01

365

Differences in adult L2 grammars of Lithuanian: The case of gender agreement  

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Full Text Available This article presents results obtained from an empirical investigation into the acquisition of gender agreement in Lithuanian as a second language (L2). A total of 59 L2 learners of Lithuanian and 10 Lithuanian native speakers, as controls, took part in this study. The participants came from diverse ?rst language (L1) backgrounds (i.e., Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Latvian, and English). The data were collected using a written translation task. The results of the study showed some statistically significant differences between English speaking learners of Lithuanian and non-native English speaking learners of Lithuanian. The findings support the Full Transfer Full Access hypothesis (Schwartz, Sprouse 1994, 1996) which argues for the interaction of L1 transfer and Universal Grammar in the development of adult L2 grammars.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5128/ERYa4.06

Simona Ma?iukaité

2008-01-01

366

L2 norm performance index of synchronization and optimal control synthesis of complex networks  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, the synchronizability problem of dynamical networks is addressed, where better synchronizability means that the network synchronizes faster with lower-overshoot. The L2 norm of the error vector e is taken as a performance index to measure this kind of synchronizability. For the equilibrium synchronization case, it is shown that there is a close relationship between the L2 norm of the error vector e and the H2 norm of the transfer function G of the linearized network about the equilibrium point. Consequently, the effect of the network coupling topology on the H2 norm of the transfer function G is analyzed. Finally, an optimal controller is designed, according to the so-called LQR problem in modern control theory, which can drive the whole network to its equilibrium point and meanwhile minimize the L2 norm of the output of the linearized network.

Liu, Chao; Chen, Guanrong; Huang, Lin

2007-01-01

367

Association between TCF7L2 Genotype and Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients Treated with Gliclazide.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Previous studies showed associations between variants in TCF7L2 gene and the therapeutic response to sulfonylureas. All sulfonylureas stimulate insulin secretion by the closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel. The aim of the present study was to compare TCF7L2 genotype specific effect of gliclazide binding to KATP channel A-site (Group 1) with sulfonylureas binding to AB-site (Group 2). A total of 101 patients were treated with sulfonylureas for 6 months as an add-on therapy to the previous metformin treatment. TCF7L2 rs7903146 C/T genotype was identified by real-time PCR with subsequent melting curve analysis. Analyses using the dominant genetic model showed significantly higher effect of gliclazide in the CC genotype group in comparison with combined CT + TT genotype group (1.32 ± 0.15% versus 0.73 ± 0.11%, P (adj) = 0.005). No significant difference in ?HbA1c between the patients with CC genotype and the T-allele carriers was observed in Group 2. In the multivariate analysis, only the TCF7L2 genotype (P = 0.006) and the baseline HbA1c (P < 0.001) were significant predictors of ?HbA1c. After introducing an interaction term between the TCF7L2 genotype and the sulfonylurea type into multivariate model, the interaction became a significant predictor (P = 0.023) of ?HbA1c. The results indicate significantly higher difference in ?HbA1c among the TCF7L2 genotypes in patients treated with gliclazide than in patients treated with glimepiride, glibenclamide, or glipizide.

Javorský M; Babjaková E; Klim?áková L; Schroner Z; Zidzik J; Stolfová M; Salagovi? J; Tká? I

2013-01-01

368

Functional analysis of TCF7L2 genetic variants associated with type 2 diabetes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Common non-coding variations within the TCF7L2 locus have a strong influence on type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility through uncharacterised mechanisms. An islet-specific functional polymorphism has been identified, although this does not explain the association between genotype and gene expression in other cell types. This study sought to identify these other functional TCF7L2 variants. METHODS AND RESULTS: Alternative splicing and gene expression from TCF7L2 was examined from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 100 healthy Caucasians using two T2D-associated SNPs, rs7903146 and rs12255372. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and luciferase reporter assays were performed with these SNPs and those in strong LD to determine potential SNP functionality. Individuals homozygous for rs7903146 and rs12255372 T2D risk alleles (TT/TT) expressed 2.6-fold greater levels of TCF7L2 mRNA compared to individuals homozygous for the non-risk alleles (CC/GG, p = 0.006), although differentially spliced TCF7L2 transcripts did not differ by T2D risk-associated genotype. From SNPs identified to be in strong LD with the T2D-associated SNPs, rs7903146 and rs12255372, five (rs4132670, rs4506565, rs7903146, rs7901695, rs17747324) demonstrated allele-specific binding in electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA). In luciferase reporter assays, rs4132670 exhibited 1.3-fold higher levels of enhancer activity in the Huh7 cell line (p = 3.8 × 10(-5)) and 2-fold higher levels in a WiDr colon carcinoma cell line (p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that rs4132670, located in a region of chromatin accessibility, is a non-tissue-specific candidate functional SNP that has the potential to play a role in TCF7L2 gene expression and T2D risk.

Pang DX; Smith AJ; Humphries SE

2013-06-01

369

Association between TCF7L2 Genotype and Glycemic Control in Diabetic Patients Treated with Gliclazide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous studies showed associations between variants in TCF7L2 gene and the therapeutic response to sulfonylureas. All sulfonylureas stimulate insulin secretion by the closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel. The aim of the present study was to compare TCF7L2 genotype specific effect of gliclazide binding to KATP channel A-site (Group 1) with sulfonylureas binding to AB-site (Group 2). A total of 101 patients were treated with sulfonylureas for 6 months as an add-on therapy to the previous metformin treatment. TCF7L2 rs7903146 C/T genotype was identified by real-time PCR with subsequent melting curve analysis. Analyses using the dominant genetic model showed significantly higher effect of gliclazide in the CC genotype group in comparison with combined CT + TT genotype group (1.32 ± 0.15% versus 0.73 ± 0.11%, P (adj) = 0.005). No significant difference in ?HbA1c between the patients with CC genotype and the T-allele carriers was observed in Group 2. In the multivariate analysis, only the TCF7L2 genotype (P = 0.006) and the baseline HbA1c (P TCF7L2 genotype and the sulfonylurea type into multivariate model, the interaction became a significant predictor (P = 0.023) of ?HbA1c. The results indicate significantly higher difference in ?HbA1c among the TCF7L2 genotypes in patients treated with gliclazide than in patients treated with glimepiride, glibenclamide, or glipizide. PMID:23509454

Javorský, Martin; Babjaková, Eva; Klim?áková, Lucia; Schroner, Zbynek; Zidzik, Jozef; Stolfová, Mária; Salagovi?, Ján; Tká?, Ivan

2013-02-20

370

Drosophila screening model for metastasis: Semaphorin 5c is required for l(2)gl cancer phenotype.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cancer metastasis is a complex process involving many genes and pathways. This complexity hinders the identification of molecules functionally required for this process. We have developed and used a Drosophila screening system to identify genes that are functionally important for tumorigenicity and metastasis. Deletion of Drosophila lethal giant larvae (l(2)gl) leads to highly invasive and widely metastatic tumors on transplantation into adult flies. Random homozygous P element insertions were screened for the ability to modulate the l(2)gl phenotype. Analysis of metastasis patterns of the lines containing P element insertions and lacking wild-type l(2)gl expression identified three homozygous mutations that dramatically alter tumorigenesis and/or metastasis. Semaphorin 5c (Sema 5c) is required for tumorigenicity, apontic overexpression suppresses metastasis but not tumorigenicity, and pointed up-regulation accelerates lethality of l(2)gl tumors. Furthermore, class 5 semaphorins are shown to be expressed in cancer cells and localized to the membrane. Drosophila Sema-5c and the mammalian homologs are transmembrane proteins with extracellular thrombospondin type I (TspI) repeats. TspI repeats are known in some proteins to bind and activate transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta ligand. Phospho-Mad and the downstream target gene vestigial were elevated in l(2)gl tumors, thus linking Drosophila neoplasia to the Dpp (TGF-beta-like) signal pathway. The activation of the Dpp pathway in l(2)gl tumors occurred only in the presence of Sema-5c. This study demonstrates that the power of Drosophila genetics can be applied to screen, identify, and characterize molecules that are functionally required for invasion and metastasis.

Woodhouse EC; Fisher A; Bandle RW; Bryant-Greenwood B; Charboneau L; Petricoin EF 3rd; Liotta LA

2003-09-01

371

Drosophila screening model for metastasis: Semaphorin 5c is required for l(2)gl cancer phenotype.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer metastasis is a complex process involving many genes and pathways. This complexity hinders the identification of molecules functionally required for this process. We have developed and used a Drosophila screening system to identify genes that are functionally important for tumorigenicity and metastasis. Deletion of Drosophila lethal giant larvae (l(2)gl) leads to highly invasive and widely metastatic tumors on transplantation into adult flies. Random homozygous P element insertions were screened for the ability to modulate the l(2)gl phenotype. Analysis of metastasis patterns of the lines containing P element insertions and lacking wild-type l(2)gl expression identified three homozygous mutations that dramatically alter tumorigenesis and/or metastasis. Semaphorin 5c (Sema 5c) is required for tumorigenicity, apontic overexpression suppresses metastasis but not tumorigenicity, and pointed up-regulation accelerates lethality of l(2)gl tumors. Furthermore, class 5 semaphorins are shown to be expressed in cancer cells and localized to the membrane. Drosophila Sema-5c and the mammalian homologs are transmembrane proteins with extracellular thrombospondin type I (TspI) repeats. TspI repeats are known in some proteins to bind and activate transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta ligand. Phospho-Mad and the downstream target gene vestigial were elevated in l(2)gl tumors, thus linking Drosophila neoplasia to the Dpp (TGF-beta-like) signal pathway. The activation of the Dpp pathway in l(2)gl tumors occurred only in the presence of Sema-5c. This study demonstrates that the power of Drosophila genetics can be applied to screen, identify, and characterize molecules that are functionally required for invasion and metastasis. PMID:14500904

Woodhouse, Elisa C; Fisher, Amy; Bandle, Russell W; Bryant-Greenwood, Bianca; Charboneau, Lula; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Liotta, Lance A

2003-09-19

372

Preliminary posttest analysis of LOFT loss-of-coolant experiment L2-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A preliminary posttest analysis of Loss-of-Coolant Experiment (LOCE) L2-2, which was conducted in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility, was performed to gain an understanding of the cause of the disparity between predicted and measured fuel rod cladding temperature responses in the LOFT core. LOCE L2-2 is the first experiment in the LOFT Power Ascension Series L2 (first series of LOFT nuclear experiments), which was designed to investigate the response of the LOFT nuclear core to the blowdown, refill, and reflood transients during LOCEs conducted at gradually increasing power levels. LOCE L2-2 was conducted at 50% power (25 MW, 26.38 kW/m). Results show that a core-wide rewet occurred early in the transient (during blowdown starting at about 7 s after rupture) which was not calculated in the pretest prediction analysis. This early core-wide rewet resulted in the peak fuel rod cladding temperatures being lower (by a mean value of 1660K for 24 thermocouples) than had been calculated. This preliminary posttest analysis was concerned solely with determining why the early core-wide rewet was not predicted by the RELAP4/MOD6 pretest analysis and be no means is it a complete posttest analysis of LOCE L2-2 results. However, during this analysis, several errors made in the prettest analysis were found, and their impact on the predicted results is assessed. Three factors were postulated to have caused the disparity between predicted and measured fuel rod cladding temperatures for LOCE L2-2: (a) the initial fuel rod stored energy, (b) the heat transfer surface, and (c) the hydraulics calculation. These factors were examined and are discussed in this report. It was determined that core hydraulics, as influenced by the calculation of broken loop cold leg break flow, was the major factor causing the disparity

1979-01-01

373

Immunogenic assessment of plant-produced human papillomavirus type 16 L1/L2 chimaeras.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cervical cancer is caused by infection with human papillomaviruses (HPV) and is a global concern, particularly in developing countries, which have ~80% of the burden. HPV L1 virus-like particle (VLP) type-restricted vaccines prevent new infections and associated disease. However, their high cost has limited their application, and cytological screening programmes are still required to detect malignant lesions associated with the nonvaccine types. Thus, there is an urgent need for cheap second-generation HPV vaccines that protect against multiple types. The objective of this study was to express novel HPV-16 L1-based chimaeras, containing cross-protective epitopes from the L2 minor capsid protein, in tobacco plants. These L1/L2 chimaeras contained epitope sequences derived from HPV-16 L2 amino acid 108-120, 56-81 or 17-36 substituted into the C-terminal helix 4 (h4) region of L1 from amino acid 414. All chimaeras were expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana via an Agrobacterium-mediated transient system and targeted to chloroplasts. The chimaeras were highly expressed with yields of ~1.2 g/kg plant tissue; however, they assembled differently, indicating that the length and nature of the L2 epitope affect VLP assembly. The chimaera containing L2 amino acids 108-120 was the most successful candidate vaccine. It assembled into small VLPs and elicited anti-L1 and anti-L2 responses in mice, and antisera neutralized homologous HPV-16 and heterologous HPV-52 pseudovirions. The other chimaeras predominantly assembled into capsomeres and other aggregates and elicited weaker humoral immune responses, demonstrating the importance of VLP assembly for the immunogenicity of candidate vaccines. PMID:23924054

Pineo, Catherine B; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

2013-08-07

374

Comprensión auditiva en inglés como L2: Efecto de la instrucción explícita de estrategias metacognitivas para su desarrollo/ ESL listening comprehension: Effect of explicit metacognitive strategy training for its development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio cuasiexperimental fue determinar la importancia que tiene la instrucción explícita del uso de estrategias metacognitivas de planificación, monitoreo y evaluación en la comprensión auditiva de estudiantes universitarios de inglés como L2 en tres niveles de desarrollo de la lengua. Los resultados sugieren que la instrucción explícita de este tipo de estrategias contribuye a una comprensión auditiva más efectiva y, por lo tanto, debería ser integrada a los programas regulares de instrucción en L2. Abstract in english The purspose of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate the effect of explicit instruction in the use of metacognitive strategies of planning, monitoring and evaluation on the listening performance of university ESL students in three competence levels. The study suggests that explicit metacognitive strategy training results in more effective L2 listening comprehension and, thus, it should be an integral part of any ESL learning program.

GÓMEZ ÁLVAREZ, LILIAN; SANDOVAL ZÚÑIGA, MARÍA SOLEDAD; SÁEZ CARRILLO, KATIA

2012-01-01

375

Multilinear weighted convolution of $L^{2}$ functions, and applications to non-linear dispersive equations  

CERN Multimedia

The $X^{s,b}$ spaces, as used by Beals, Bourgain, Kenig-Ponce-Vega, Klainerman-Machedon and others, are fundamental tools to study the low-regularity behaviour of non-linear dispersive equations. It is of particular interest to obtain bilinear or multilinear estimates involving these spaces. By Plancherel's theorem and duality, these estimates reduce to estimating a weighted convolution integral in terms of the $L^2$ norms of the component functions. In this paper we systematically study weighted convolution estimates on $L^2$. As a consequence we obtain sharp bilinear estimates for the KdV, wave, and Schr\\"odinger $X^{s,b}$ spaces.

Tao, T

2000-01-01

376

On the asymptotic expansion of the curvature of perturbations of the $L_{2}$ connection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We establish that the Hitchin connection is a perturbation of the $L_{2}$-connection. We notice that such a formulation of the Hitchin connection does not necessarily require the manifold in question possessing a rigid family of Kähler structures. We then proceed to calculate the asymptotic expansion of general perturbations of the $L_{2}$-connection, and see when under certain assumptions such perturbations are flat and projectively flat. During the calculations we also found an asymptotic expansion of the projection operator $\\pi_{\\sigma}^{\\left(k\\right)}$ which projects onto the holomorphic sections of the k-th tensor of prequantum line bundle.

De, Amit

2013-01-01

377

Exact L^2-distance from the limit for QuickSort key comparisons (extended abstract)  

CERN Multimedia

Using a recursive approach, we obtain a simple exact expression for the L^2-distance from the limit in R\\'egnier's (1989) classical limit theorem for the number of key comparisons required by QuickSort. A previous study by Fill and Janson (2002) using a similar approach found that the d_2-distance is of order between n^{-1} log n and n^{-1/2}, and another by Neininger and Ruschendorf (2002) found that the Zolotarev zeta_3-distance is of exact order n^{-1} log n. Our expression reveals that the L^2-distance is asymptotically equivalent to (2 n^{-1} ln n)^{1/2}.

Bindjeme, Patrick

2012-01-01

378

Global Solutions to the L2--Critical Schroedinger--Poisson System  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main purpose of the present paper is to study the global behavior of solutions to the L2-critical Schroedinger-Poisson system i?t?(t,x)+??(t,x) = V(t,x)?(t,x), (t,x)(set-membership sign)R+xR3, ?V(t,x) = -4?|?(t,x)|(8/3), ?(0,x) = ?0(x). More precisely, we shall establish the local existence of solutions for initial data ?0 in L2(R3), as well as the existence of global solutions for small initial data. Finally, we shall prove the existence of scattering operator.

2008-10-30

379

An L2 theory for differential forms on path spaces I  

CERN Document Server

An L2 theory of differential forms is proposed for the Banach manifold of continuous paths on Riemannian manifolds M furnished with its Brownian motion measure. Differentiation must be restricted to certain Hilbert space directions, the H-tangent vectors. To obtain a closed exterior differential operator the relevant spaces of differential forms, the H-forms, are perturbed by the curvature of M. A Hodge decomposition is given for L2 H-one-forms, and the structure of H-two -forms is described. The dual operator d* is analysed in terms of a natural connection on the H-tangent spaces. Malliavin calculus is a basic tool.

Elworthy, K D; Li, Xue-Mei

2006-01-01

380

Set-up of proportional counter L2 for 14C measurements with improved precision  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Radiocarbon dating with improved precision denotes determination of conventional radiocarbon dates with accuracy equal to ca ± 25 yr. The paper presents some fundamental data concerning construction and design of the proportional counter L2, the results of calibration of the counter, including detailed information on changes of the background counting rate. The counter L2 enables dating of samples up to 50 000 yr. For samples younger than 3000 yr the error of dating is equal to ca ± 25 yr. 4 figs., 1 tab., 9 refs. (author)

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

L2 d-bar cohomology groups of some singular complex spaces  

CERN Document Server

Let X be an irreducible n-dimensional (n>1) complex analytic set in C^N with an isolated singularity at 0. In this paper we express the L2-(0,q)-d-bar-cohomology groups for all q with 0L2-(0,q)-d-bar-cohomology groups of the smooth points of X in terms of resolution data, when X is either compact or an open relatively compact complex analytic subset of a reduced complex space with finitely many isolated singularities.

Ovrelid, Nils

2011-01-01

382

The Very Slow Wind From the Pulsating Semiregular Red Giant L2 Pup  

CERN Multimedia

We have obtained 11.7 and 17.9 micron images at the Keck I telescope of the circumstellar dust emission from L2 Pup, one of the nearest (D = 61 pc) mass-losing, pulsating, red giants that has a substantial infrared excess. We propose that the wind may be driven by the stellar pulsations with radiation pressure on dust being relatively unimportant, as described in some recent calculations. L2 Pup may serve as the prototype of this phase of stellar evolution where it could lose about 15% of its initial main sequence mass.

Jura, M; Plavchan, P

2001-01-01

383

Concentration Properties of a Gaussian Field Given that its $L^2$-Norm is Large  

CERN Multimedia

The realizations of a Gaussian field are investigated in the limit where its $L^2$-norm is large. Concentration onto the eigenspace associated with the largest eigenvalue of the covariance of the field is proved. When the covariance is trace class, the concentration is in probability for the $L^2$-norm. A stronger concentration, in mean for the sup-norm, is proved for a smaller class of Gaussian fields, and an example of a field belonging to that class is given. A possible connection with Bose-Einstein condensation is briefly discussed.

Mounaix, Philippe

2010-01-01

384

Mass concentration for the $L^2$-critical Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations of higher orders  

CERN Multimedia

We consider the mass concentration phenomenon for the $L^2$-critical nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations of higher orders. We show that any solution $u$ to $iu_{t} + (-\\Delta)^{\\frac\\alpha 2} u =\\pm |u|^\\frac{2\\alpha}{d}u$, $u(0,\\cdot)\\in L^2$ for $\\alpha >2$, which blows up in a finite time, satisfies a mass concentration phenomenon near the blow-up time. We verify that as $\\alpha$ increases, the size of region capturing a mass concentration gets wider due to the stronger dispersive effect.

Chae, Myeongju; Lee, Sanghyuk

2009-01-01

385

TIC, tâches et nativisation : impact sur la production orale en L2 ICT, tasks and nativisation: impact on L2 oral production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cet article traite des effets de la participation à un projet intégrant les Technologies de l'Information et de la Communication (TIC), sur l'évolution de la production orale en Langue 2 (L2). Plus précisément, notre recherche trouve son ancrage dans un projet collectif de création multimédia, mené entre des stagiaires de l'IUFM de Paris et des étudiants du King's College de Londres.Le scénario de formation tel qu'il a été proposé est d'abord analysé d'un point de vue théorique, sous l'angle de la tâche. La seconde partie est consacrée à l'évaluation de la production orale des stagiaires, en amont et en aval de la formation. L'étude se centre ensuite sur l'impact du phénomène de nativisation au niveau phonologique, compte tenu du fait que les échanges entre les partenaires ont été limités au courriel, et donc à un input écrit. Les résultats obtenus sont susceptibles de servir d'autres dispositifs de formation reposant sur la communication médiée par ordinateur, qui auraient pour objectif d'améliorer la production orale des apprenants.This article focuses on the impact of an ICT project on the development of L2 oral production. The origin of our research lies in a project in which trainee teachers in Paris and PGCE students in London created a multimedia resource together. The various tasks this project implied are first analysed from a theoretical point of view. The second part of the paper centres around the evaluation of the trainee teachers' oral production. We then study the effects of nativisation on a phonological level, considering the fact that the interactions between the French and British partners were all email-based (the input was therefore exclusively written). The results we obtained could prove useful for the setting up of other computer mediated projects, if the objective is to improve learners' L2 oral production.

Muriel Grosbois

2009-01-01

386

Mathematical Morphology: Star/Galaxy Differentiation & Galaxy Morphology Classification  

CERN Multimedia

We present an application of Mathematical Morphology (MM) for the classification of astronomical objects, both for star/galaxy differentiation and galaxy morphology classification. We demonstrate that, for CCD images, 99.3 +/- 3.8 % of galaxies can be separated from stars using MM, with 19.4 +/- 7.9 % of the stars being misclassified. We demonstrate that, for photographic plate images, the number of galaxies correctly separated from the stars can be increased using our MM diffraction spike tool, which allows 51.0 +/- 6.0 % of the high-brightness galaxies that are inseparable in current techniques to be correctly classified, with only 1.4 +/- 0.5 % of the high-brightness stars contaminating the population. We demonstrate that elliptical (E) and late-type spiral (Sc-Sd) galaxies can be classified using MM at an accuracy of 91.4 +/- 7.8 %. It is a method involving less `free parameters' than current techniques, especially automated machine learning algorithms. The limitation of MM galaxy morphology based on seei...

Moore, J A; Drinkwater, M J; Moore, Jason A.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Drinkwater, Michael J.

2006-01-01

387

The L2:L3 intensity ratio in soft X-ray emission spectra of 3d-metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present L2,3 X-ray emission spectra of the 3d-metals Ti through Cu. It is found that the ratio of the integrated non-resonant emission intensities of L2 to L3 emission, I(L2)/I(L3), is approximately two times smaller than the ratio of the core hole state degeneracies (L2/L3 = 1/2). Our atomic calculations show that the L2L3M4,5 Coster-Kronig transition is responsible for the reduction of the I(L2)/I(L3) intensity ratio and explains its gradual decrease with increasing atomic number among the 3d transition metals. For the resonant case we find that accounting for the core-hole interaction and local field effects via TDDFT satisfactorily explains the changes in the I(L2)/I(L3) ratio.

2005-01-01

388

L-2,5-dihydrophenylalanine, an inducer of cathepsin-dependent apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

L-2,5-Dihydrophenylalanine (DHPA), a phenylalanine analogue, induced apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60). This apoptosis was demonstrated by morphological changes of the cells, such as fragmentation of nuclei and chromatin condensation, and by some evidence found in biochemical analysis, such as DNA ladder and activation of caspase 3. The DHPA-induced apoptosis was prevented by a pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-fmk, and a cysteine protease inhibitor, E-64d, which inhibits calpains and cathepsin B and L. A calpain inhibitor, Z-LL-H, did not affect this apoptosis. A cathepsin B specific inhibitor, CA074-Me, prevented only chromatin condensation. However, E-64d and a cathepsin L specific inhibitor, Z-FY(t-Bu)-dmk, protected the cells from both chromatin condensation and oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation. As proceeding to the apoptotic process, the activities of both cathepsin B and L increased gradually. These results indicated that DHPA was an inducer of cathepsin-dependent apoptosis in HL-60 cells.

Kiso T; Usuki Y; Ping X; Fujita K; Taniguchi M

2001-10-01

389

Abductive Reasoning and Second Language Learning  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although much work has been conducted on deductive and inductive approaches to second language learning, insufficient attention has been dedicated to abductive reasoning. This paper presents the results from an exploratory study on the processes that motivate initial hypothesis-making and their possible repercussions for L2 instruction. More specifically, the beginner foreign language learners’ ability to infer word meaning based on their overall linguistic knowledge (e.g., knowledge of the first language, knowledge of other foreign languages) was tested in order to draw conclusions about abductive reasoning in L2 learning.

Ana S. Jovanovic; Gorana G. Zecevic Krneta

2012-01-01

390

The "Promise" of Three Methods of Word Association Analysis to L2 Lexical Research  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study is an attempt to empirically test and compare the results of three methods of word association (WA) analysis. Two of the methods--namely, associative commonality and nativelikeness, and lexico-syntactic patterns of associative organization--have been traditionally used in both first language (L1) and second language (L2

Zareva, Alla; Wolter, Brent

2012-01-01

391

Partial Word Knowledge: Frontier Words in the L2 Mental Lexicon  

Science.gov (United States)

The study set out to examine the partial word knowledge of native speakers, L2 advanced, and intermediate learners of English with regard to four word features from Richards' (1976) taxonomy of aspects describing what knowing a word entails. To capture partial familiarity, the participants completed in writing a test containing low and mid…

Zareva, Alla

2012-01-01

392

The inclusion of the Schur algebra in B(l^2) is not inverse-closed  

CERN Multimedia

The Schur algebra is the algebra of operators which are bounded on l^1 and on l^{\\infty}. Q. Sun conjectured that the Schur algebra is inverse-closed. In this note, we disprove this conjecture. Precisely, we exhibit an operator in the Schur algebra, invertible in l^2, whose inverse is not bounded on l^1 nor on l^{\\infty}.

Tessera, Romain

2009-01-01

393

PSL(2;C) connections on 3-manifolds with L2 bounds on curvature  

CERN Document Server

Karen Uhlenbeck's compactness theorem for sequences of connections with L2 bounds on curvature applies only to connections on principal bundles with compact structure group. This article states and proves an extension of Uhlenbecks theorem that describes sequences of connections on principal PSL(2;C) bundles over compact three dimensional manifolds.

Taubes, Clifford Henry

2012-01-01

394

Prime suspect: the TCF7L2 gene and type 2 diabetes risk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transcription factor-7–like 2 (TCF7L2) is the most important type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene identified to date, with common intronic variants strongly associated with diabetes in all major racial groups. This ubiquitous transcription factor in the Wnt signaling pathway was not previously known ...

Hattersley, Andrew T.

395

T-cell factor 4 (Tcf7l2) maintains proliferative compartments in zebrafish intestine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Previous studies have shown that Wnt signals, relayed through ?-catenin and T-cell factor 4 (Tcf4), are essential for the induction and maintenance of crypts in mice. We have now generated a tcf4 (tcf7l2) mutant zebrafish by reverse genetics. We first observe a phenotypic defect at 4 weeks post-fert...

Muncan, Vanesa; Faro, Ana; Haramis, Anna-Pavlina G; Hurlstone, Adam F L; Wienholds, Erno; van Es, Johan; Korving, Jeroen

396

Effects of the diabetes linked TCF7L2 polymorphism in a representative older population  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background A polymorphism in the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene has been found to be associated with type 2 diabetes in case-control studies. We aimed to estimate associations of the marker rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism with fasting glucose, li...

Melzer David; Murray Anna; Hurst Alison J; Weedon Michael N; Bandinelli Stefania; Corsi Anna; Ferrucci Luigi; Paolisso Guiseppe

397

TCF7L2 polymorphisms and inflammatory markers before and after treatment with fenofibrate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Inflammation is implicated in causing diabetes. We tested whether transcription factor 7 like-2 (TCF7L2) gene polymorphisms (rs12255372 and rs7903146), consistently associated with type 2 diabetes, are associated with plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers...

Kabagambe Edmond K; Glasser Stephen P; Ordovas Jose M; Warodomwichit Daruneewan; Tsai Michael Y; Hopkins Paul N

398

TCF7L2 Polymorphism, Weight Loss and Proinsulin: Insulin Ratio in the Diabetes Prevention Program  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: TCF7L2 variants have been associated with type 2 diabetes, body mass index (BMI), and deficits in proinsulin processing and insulin secretion. Here we sought to test whether these effects were apparent in high-risk individuals and modify treatment responses. Methods: We examined the potential ...

McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Franks, Paul; Dagogo-Jack, Sam; Wing, Rena R.; Knowler, William C.

399

TCF7L2 and therapeutic response to sulfonylureas in patients with type 2 diabetes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Variants in the TCF7L2 have been shown to be associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Since the association with diabetes could be explained by effects on insulin secretion, we investigated whether patients with diabetes risk alleles ...

Holstein Andreas; Hahn Michael; Körner Antje; Stumvoll Michael; Kovacs Peter

400

TCF7L2 and diabetes: a tale of two tissues, and of two species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Human genetics is revealing ever more variants that influence propensity to common diseases, but progress in translating these discoveries into the biological mechanisms responsible for predisposition continues to lag behind. A recent paper in Cell (Boj et al., 2012) using rodent models to examine how diabetes-associated variants near TCF7L2 perturb metabolic regulation provides surprising results. PMID:23395164

McCarthy, Mark I; Rorsman, Patrik; Gloyn, Anna L

2013-02-01