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Sample records for l2 morphological learning

  1. Phonological Bases for L2 Morphological Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…

  2. Phonological Bases for L2 Morphological Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…

  3. Planning, Recasts, and Learning of L2 Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated two issues: (1) whether availability of planning time affects learners' ability to notice and learn from recasts in the input; and (2) whether pre-task or online planning is more effective. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups that formed the treatment conditions: a no planning group (N = 13), a pre-task…

  4. Embodied L2 Construction Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Søren W.; Wagner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This study uses conversation analysis (CA) to investigate the coupling of specific linguistic items with specific gestures in second language (L2) learning over time. In particular, we are interested in how gestures accompany learning of new vocabulary. CA-informed studies of gesture have previously shown the importance of embodiment in L2 use and…

  5. Embodied L2 Construction Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskildsen, Søren W.; Wagner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This study uses conversation analysis (CA) to investigate the coupling of specific linguistic items with specific gestures in second language (L2) learning over time. In particular, we are interested in how gestures accompany learning of new vocabulary. CA-informed studies of gesture have previously shown the importance of embodiment in L2 use and…

  6. From Seeing Adverbs to Seeing Verbal Morphology: Language Experience and Adult Acquisition of L2 Tense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarra, Nuria; Ellis, Nick C.

    2013-01-01

    Adult learners have persistent difficulty processing second language (L2) inflectional morphology. We investigate associative learning explanations that involve the blocking of later experienced cues by earlier learned ones in the first language (L1; i.e., transfer) and the L2 (i.e., proficiency). Sagarra (2008) and Ellis and Sagarra (2010b) found…

  7. Gaming as extramural English L2 learning and L2 proficiency among young learners

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin; Sundqvist, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Today, playing digital games is an important part of many young people’s everyday lives. Claims have been made that certain games, in particular massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) provide L2 English learners with a linguistically rich and cognitively challenging virtual environment that may be conducive to L2 learning, as learners get ample opportunities for L2 input and scaffolded interaction in the L2. In this paper, we present empirical evidence that L2 English profi...

  8. L2 Regularization for Learning Kernels

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    Cortes, Corinna; Rostamizadeh, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    The choice of the kernel is critical to the success of many learning algorithms but it is typically left to the user. Instead, the training data can be used to learn the kernel by selecting it out of a given family, such as that of non-negative linear combinations of p base kernels, constrained by a trace or L1 regularization. This paper studies the problem of learning kernels with the same family of kernels but with an L2 regularization instead, and for regression problems. We analyze the problem of learning kernels with ridge regression. We derive the form of the solution of the optimization problem and give an efficient iterative algorithm for computing that solution. We present a novel theoretical analysis of the problem based on stability and give learning bounds for orthogonal kernels that contain only an additive term O(pp/m) when compared to the standard kernel ridge regression stability bound. We also report the results of experiments indicating that L1 regularization can lead to modest improvements ...

  9. Input frequencies in processing of verbal morphology in L1 and L2: Evidence from Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Chernigovskaya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we take a usage-based perspective on the analysis of data from the acquisition of verbal morphology by Norwegian adult learners of L2 Russian, as compared to children acquiring Russian as an L1. According to the usage-based theories, language learning is input-driven and frequency of occurrence of grammatical structures and lexical items in the input plays a key role in this process. We have analysed to what extent the acquisition and processing of Russian verbal morphology by children and adult L2 learners is dependent on the input factors, in particular on type and token frequencies. Our analysis of the L2 input based on the written material used in the instruction shows a different distribution of frequencies as compared to the target language at large. The results of the tests that elicited present tense forms of verbs belonging to four different inflectional classes (-AJ-, -A-, -I-, and -OVA- have demonstrated that for both Russian children and L2 learners type frequency appears to be an important factor, influencing both correct stem recognition and generalisations. The results have also demonstrated token frequency effects. For L2 learners we observed also effects of formal instruction and greater reliance on morphological cues. In spite of the fact that L2 learners did not match completely any of the child groups, there are many similarities between L1 and L2 morphological processing, the main one being the role of frequency.

  10. Similarity and Difference in Learning L2 Word-Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Megumi; Koda, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    This study explored similarity and difference in L2 written word-form learning from a cross-linguistic perspective. This study investigated whether learners' L1 orthographic background, which influences L2 visual word recognition (e.g., Wang et al., 2003), also influences L2 word-form learning, in particular, the sensitivity to phonological and…

  11. Knowledge sources in L2 learning

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Ayliff

    2011-01-01

    Should one bother to teach grammar to second language (L2) learners of English? The purpose of this article is to examine the hypothesis that there is an interface between explicit and implicit knowledge sources. Three groups of learners at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University were asked to articulate, first without a prompt and then with a prompt, the grammatical rules they were applying to correct common errors.  The test results suggest that there is a high correlation between what ...

  12. Promoting L2 Vocabulary Learning through Narrow Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    Krashen (2004) has advocated that narrow reading, i.e., reading a series of texts addressing one specific topic, is an effective method to grow vocabulary. While narrow reading has been championed to have many advantages for L2 vocabulary learning, there remains a relative dearth of empirical studies that test the impact of narrow reading on L2…

  13. Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Anthony; Lopez, Miguel Garcia; Mesa, Raquel Esquiliche

    2011-01-01

    References to the term "incidental vocabulary learning" have become very commonplace not only in second language (L2) acquisition research, but also in empirical research into second and foreign language pedagogy, very often in contrast to "intentional language learning". The former term is associated with more natural language learning, that is,…

  14. Chinese L1 children's English L2 verb morphology over time: individual variation in long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Johanne; Tulpar, Yasemin; Arppe, Antti

    2016-05-01

    This study examined accuracy in production and grammaticality judgements of verb morphology by eighteen Chinese-speaking children learning English as a second language (L2) followed longitudinally from four to six years of exposure to English, and who began to learn English at age 4;2. Children's growth in accuracy with verb morphology reached a plateau by six years, where 11/18 children did not display native-speaker levels of accuracy for one or more morphemes. Variation in children's accuracy with verb morphology was predicted by their English vocabulary size and verbal short-term memories primarily, and quality and quantity of English input at home secondarily. This study shows that even very young L2 learners might not all catch up to native speakers in this time frame and that non-age factors play a role in determining individual variation in child L2 learners' long-term outcomes with English morphology. PMID:26915494

  15. Influence of Syllable Structure on L2 Auditory Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Megumi; Goya, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the role of syllable structure in L2 auditory word learning. Based on research on cross-linguistic variation of speech perception and lexical memory, it was hypothesized that Japanese L1 learners of English would learn English words with an open-syllable structure without consonant clusters better than words with a…

  16. Child L2 learning of English in a bilingual setting

    OpenAIRE

    Fleta Guillén, María Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Learning a second language (L2) in a bilingual school can be compared to first language acquisition (L1) in that both processes develop in a natural and unconscious manner. In this paper I investigate the nature of early grammars in second language acquisition. One of the main concerns is whether child learners show a developmental process in L2 acquisition and, if they do, whether there is transference from the children’s L1, and whether the L2 acquisition process resembles the L1 acquisitio...

  17. Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

  18. Grammar Teaching and Learning in L2: Necessary, but Boring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Gladys; Simard, Daphnee

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive inquiry-based study targeted second language (L2) high school students' (n = 2321) and teachers' (n = 45) beliefs and perceptions about grammar instruction, specifically about grammatical accuracy, corrective feedback, and diverse forms of grammar teaching and learning. Results showed only slight discrepancies between students'…

  19. Implicit Learning of L2 Word Stress Regularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ricky K. W.; Leung, Janny H. C.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports an experiment on the implicit learning of second language stress regularities, and presents a methodological innovation on awareness measurement. After practising two-syllable Spanish words, native Cantonese speakers with English as a second language (L2) completed a judgement task. Critical items differed only in placement of…

  20. Grammar Teaching and Learning in L2: Necessary, but Boring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Gladys; Simard, Daphnee

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive inquiry-based study targeted second language (L2) high school students' (n = 2321) and teachers' (n = 45) beliefs and perceptions about grammar instruction, specifically about grammatical accuracy, corrective feedback, and diverse forms of grammar teaching and learning. Results showed only slight discrepancies between students'…

  1. Age effects in L2 acquisition: ultimate attainment at the syntax-morphology interface

    OpenAIRE

    Komar, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a selective overview of studies that have examined age effects in second language (L2) acquisition. The focus was on adult second language learners and the L2 ultimate attainment at syntax-interface morphology, with particular attention given to the problematic case of inflectional morphology. We present different kinds of evidence including behavioural, descriptive and brain-based data. Although the main focus was on the syntax-morphology interface, other domains such as ...

  2. Individual Differences in L2 Learning and Long-Term L1-L2 Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I describe studies conducted over 25 years with secondary and post-secondary L2 learners in the United States. The evidence from these studies shows that there are important connections between students' early L1 skills and their L2 aptitude and L2 proficiency and that individual differences in students' L1 skills in elementary…

  3. Anonymity and Motivation in Asynchronous Discussions and L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Nihat; Mancilla, Rae; Mahalingappa, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates L2 attainment in asynchronous online environments, specifically possible relationships among anonymity, L2 motivation, participation in discussions, quality of L2 production, and success in L2 vocabulary learning. It examines, in asynchronous discussions, (a) if participation and (b) motivation contribute to L2 vocabulary…

  4. Effect of L2 phonetic learning on L1 vowels

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Haisheng

    2008-01-01

    This research examines the effect of L2 phonetic learning on L1 vowel production. Mandarin-English bilinguals differing in amount of L1 use produced Mandarin and English vowels. An acoustic analysis showed that both the Mandarin-English bilinguals of high L1 use and those of low L1 use deviated from the norm of Mandarin vowel /i/. The Mandarin-English bilinguals of low L1 use who successfully acquired English vowel /aj/ deviated from the norm of Mandarin vowel /aj/, indicating a carry-over ef...

  5. L1 and L2 Word Recognotion in Finnish. Examining L1 Effects on L2 Processing of Morphological Complexity and Morphophonological Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Seppo; Anneli, Pajunen; Hyona, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the first language (L1) on the visual word recognition of inflected nouns in second language (L2) Finnish by native Russian and Chinese speakers. Case inflection is common in Russian and in Finnish but nonexistent in Chinese. Several models have been posited to describe L2 morphological processing. The unified…

  6. L1 and L2 Word Recognotion in Finnish. Examining L1 Effects on L2 Processing of Morphological Complexity and Morphophonological Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Seppo; Anneli, Pajunen; Hyona, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the first language (L1) on the visual word recognition of inflected nouns in second language (L2) Finnish by native Russian and Chinese speakers. Case inflection is common in Russian and in Finnish but nonexistent in Chinese. Several models have been posited to describe L2 morphological processing. The unified…

  7. Enhancing L2 Students' Listening Transcription Ability through a Focus on Morphological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Nabi

    2013-01-01

    Morphological awareness (MA), defined as the ability to understand the morphemic structure of the words, has been reported to affect various aspects of second language performance including reading comprehension ability, spelling performance, etc. But the concept has been far less treated with reference to l2 listening. Against this background,…

  8. Enhancing L2 Students' Listening Transcription Ability through a Focus on Morphological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Nabi

    2013-01-01

    Morphological awareness (MA), defined as the ability to understand the morphemic structure of the words, has been reported to affect various aspects of second language performance including reading comprehension ability, spelling performance, etc. But the concept has been far less treated with reference to l2 listening. Against this background,…

  9. Investigating the Relationship between the Morphological Processing of Regular and Irregular Words and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Masrai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the relationship between the morphological processing of regular and irregular words and second language (L2 vocabulary acquisition. In considering that monolingual Arabic speakers derive a large number of new words from roots by leaning heavily on the regularity of rules in Arabic (Bar & Dershowitz, 2012; Habash, 2010, they are expected to experience difficulty when developing the lexicon of a language with less regular rules, such as English. To examine this assumption empirically, data were collected by administering an English receptive vocabulary knowledge test that included 100 regular and irregular inflected and derived words to 450 Arabic English as a foreign language (EFL learners from schools in Saudi Arabia. The test also included pesudowords (non-words to act as ‘gatekeepers’ against the possibility of guessing. The t-test results revealed a non-significant difference in learners’ uptake of L2 words, whether regular or irregular. However, the study indicates that word frequency plays a statistically significant role in learning L2 vocabulary that is irregularly inflected or derived. The frequency effect on irregular word morphology found in this study is in line with the approach of a dual-route mechanism. This approach suggests that irregular words are not rule-based, so are stored in the mental lexicon as full entries, whereas regular words are not. This article suggests that introducing rules for deriving new words from base forms to EFL learners in the early stages of learning would be very useful for L2 vocabulary development.Keywords: morphological processing, vocabulary acquisition, frequency, Arabic, mental lexicon

  10. Extracting Phonological Patterns for L2 Word Learning: The Effect of Poor Phonological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2014-01-01

    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of…

  11. Extracting Phonological Patterns for L2 Word Learning: The Effect of Poor Phonological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2014-01-01

    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of…

  12. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised

    OpenAIRE

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native languag...

  13. Motivation and Persistence of Learning among L2 Learners in Self-Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Chika

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between learners' motivation to learn a second language (L2) and persistence in their learning using self-instructional radio (SIR) materials with a sample of Japanese high school students learning English. L2 self-instruction remains under-researched, in spite of the importance of out-of-class learning…

  14. Effects of Input Enhancement and Visual Prompts in Children’s L2 Acquisition of Spanish Verbal Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas Mayén, Norma

    2013-01-01

    In the pedagogical arena of second language (L2) acquisition, much of the input enhancement research (Sharwood Smith, 1993) has focused on adult L2 acquisition. However, the impact of this pedagogi¬cal technique in child L2 acquisition is an area of investigation that still deserves more attention. The present study analyzes the effect of input enhancement techniques supported by visual prompts in the acquisition of Spanish verbal morphology by child L2 learners. Over a fourteen-week period, ...

  15. Learning L2 German Vocabulary through Reading: The Effect of Three Enhancement Techniques Compared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Elke; Hulstijn, Jan H.; Sercu, Lies; Lutjeharms, Madeline

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated three techniques designed to increase the chances that second language (L2) readers look up and learn unfamiliar words during and after reading an L2 text. Participants in the study, 137 college students in Belgium (L1 = Dutch, L2 = German), were randomly assigned to one of four conditions, forming combinations of two…

  16. Implicit learning of L2 word stress rules

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, RKW; Leung, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the past few decades, cognitive psychologists and linguists have shown increasing research interest in the phenomenon of implicit learning, a term generally defined as learning of regularities in the environment without intention and awareness. Some psychologists regard implicit learning as the primary mechanism for knowledge attainment and language acquisition (Reber, 1993), whereas others deny the possibility of learning even simple contingencies in an implicit manner (Lovibond and Shan...

  17. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1) along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners' awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general. PMID:26300792

  18. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1) along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners' awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general. PMID:26300792

  19. Should we correct our students errors in l2 learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Martínez, Susana

    2006-01-01

    In teaching and learning a foreign language, there is a general belief of not leaving an erroneous utterance in the air but correct it; however, this is a very complex issue which depends on many internal and external factors affecting the language acquisition and learning process. This article opens a debate about the topic in a thought-provoking way by analysing the most representative research done so far, the set of reasons to account for and against error correctio...

  20. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  1. Tense morphology and verb-second in Swedish L1 children, L2 children and children with SLI

    OpenAIRE

    HÅkansson, Gisela

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the development of tense morphology and verb-second in different learner populations. Three groups of Swedish pre-school children are investigated longitudinally; ten L1 children, ten L2 children and ten children diagnosed with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Data was collected twice, with an interval of six months. The results at Time I reveal a significant difference between normally developing L1 children on the one hand and L2 children and children with SLI on t...

  2. The acquisition of interlanguage morphology: a study into the role of morphology in the L2 learner's mental lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Lowie, Wander Marius

    1998-01-01

    Introduction 1.1 Morphology and second language learning If Dutch learners of English encounter a word like undoable, they may recognise it because they have seen it before and have remembered it. They may also fail to recognise it and guess the meaning of the word on the basis of the context. A third possibility is that they do not recognise the word and attempt to guess the meaning by decomposing the word into parts they do recognise and arrive at its meaning on the basis of these parts. In...

  3. The Impact of Blended e-Learning on Undergraduate Academic Essay Writing in English (L2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriman, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a quasi-experimental study into the impact of a blended e-learning environment on academic writing assignments in English (L2) at a Thai international college. An experimental group of 15 students used an on-line bulletin board, as well as face-to-face (F2F) communication in class, to share information for essay topics they…

  4. The Impact of Blended e-Learning on Undergraduate Academic Essay Writing in English (L2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriman, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a quasi-experimental study into the impact of a blended e-learning environment on academic writing assignments in English (L2) at a Thai international college. An experimental group of 15 students used an on-line bulletin board, as well as face-to-face (F2F) communication in class, to share information for essay topics they…

  5. Learning L2 Vocabulary with American TV Drama From the Learner’s Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Chia Wang

    2012-01-01

    Following the trend of computer assisted language learning (CALL), in Taiwan, most language classes now have equivalent media support for language teachers and learners. Implementing videos into classroom activities is one of the choices. The current study explores the process of implementing American TV drama in L2 vocabulary learning from learners’ perspectives. Twenty-eight Taiwanese EFL adult learners participate in the study. Authentic video clips from three different American dramas- “H...

  6. Task-based Language Learning in Bilingual Montessori Elementary Schools: Customizing Foreign Language Learning and Promoting L2 Speaking Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Winnefeld

    2012-01-01

    Foreign language learning has been a part of German elementary schools for several years now. Montessori schools focusing on individual learning, i.e. mostly independent from the teacher and based on auto-education, interest, and free choice, are also asked to teach an L2. The original lack of a concept of L2 learning for this environment has brought forth different approaches. Bilingual education seems to be feasible and applicable in Montessori education. The downside to this is that even i...

  7. The Effect of Learning English (L2) on Learning of Arabic Literacy (L1) in the Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussien, Abdelaziz M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of learning English (L2) on learning to read and spell connected texts accurately in Arabic (L1). The author selected a sample of 83 (38 males and 45 females; 45 bilinguals and 38 monolinguals) native Arabic-speaking fourth-graders in Egypt. Students completed the author-developed Oral Reading Accuracy Measure…

  8. L2 speakers decompose morphologically complex verbs: fMRI evidence from priming of transparent derived verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie De Grauwe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this fMRI long-lag priming study, we investigated the processing of Dutch semantically transparent, derived prefix verbs. In such words, the meaning of the word as a whole can be deduced from the meanings of its parts, e.g. wegleggen ‘put aside’. Many behavioral and some fMRI studies suggest that native (L1 speakers decompose transparent derived words. The brain region usually implicated in morphological decomposition is the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG. In non-native (L2 speakers, the processing of transparent derived words has hardly been investigated, especially in fMRI studies, and results are contradictory: Some studies find more reliance on holistic (i.e. non-decompositional processing by L2 speakers; some find no difference between L1 and L2 speakers. In this study, we wanted to find out whether Dutch transparent derived prefix verbs are decomposed or processed holistically by German L2 speakers of Dutch. Half of the derived verbs (e.g. omvallen ‘fall down’ were preceded by their stem (e.g. vallen ‘fall’ with a lag of 4 to 6 words (‘primed’; the other half (e.g. inslapen ‘fall asleep’ were not (‘unprimed’. L1 and L2 speakers of Dutch made lexical decisions on these visually presented verbs. Both ROI analyses and whole-brain analyses showed that there was a significant repetition suppression effect for primed compared to unprimed derived verbs in the LIFG. This was true both for the analyses over L2 speakers only and for the analyses over the two language groups together. The latter did not reveal any interaction with language group (L1 vs. L2 in the LIFG. Thus, L2 speakers show a clear priming effect in the LIFG, an area that has been associated with morphological decomposition. Our findings are consistent with the idea that L2 speakers engage in decomposition of transparent derived verbs rather than processing them holistically.

  9. Investigating the Relationship between the Morphological Processing of Regular and Irregular Words and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Masrai; James Milton

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between the morphological processing of regular and irregular words and second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition. In considering that monolingual Arabic speakers derive a large number of new words from roots by leaning heavily on the regularity of rules in Arabic (Bar & Dershowitz, 2012; Habash, 2010), they are expected to experience difficulty when developing the lexicon of a language with less regular rules, such as English. To examine ...

  10. The notion of entrenchment: A psycholinguistic experiment on L1 and L2 processing of morphologically complex words

    OpenAIRE

    Giraudo, Hélène; Dal Maso, Serena

    2014-01-01

    The research aims at investigating the degree of entrenchment of morphologically complex words in L1 and L2 users' competence and its effect on word processing. In usage-based models, an element is conceived as mentally entrenched when it is perceived as a unit which has cognitive precedence over its components (see Blumenthal-Dramé 2012, but also Bybee 2010 and Tomasello 2003). As far as morphologically complex words are concerned, entrenchment is determined by the strength of the lexical re...

  11. A Frequency-Based Approach to L2 Phonological Learning: Teacher Input and Student Output in an Intensive ESL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimovich, Pavel; Collins, Laura; Cardoso, Walcir; White, Joanna; Horst, Marlise

    2012-01-01

    Most second language (L2) researchers and teachers would agree that input, often defined as the language a learner hears or reads, plays an important role in L2 learning. There is a great deal of research investigating which types of input are most beneficial for learning, how learners process and internalize input (e.g., Schmidt, 2001), and how…

  12. The Relationship between Strategic Reading Instruction, Student Learning of L2-Based Reading Strategies and L2 Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkakoson, Songyut

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between strategic reading instruction, the process of learning second language-based reading strategies and English reading achievement for Thai university students of science and technology. In a course in reading general English texts for 16?weeks, 82 students were taught using a strategies-based approach…

  13. The Relationship between Strategic Reading Instruction, Student Learning of L2-Based Reading Strategies and L2 Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkakoson, Songyut

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between strategic reading instruction, the process of learning second language-based reading strategies and English reading achievement for Thai university students of science and technology. In a course in reading general English texts for 16?weeks, 82 students were taught using a strategies-based approach…

  14. Learning through L2--Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and English as Medium of Instruction (EMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannagat, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has been promoted by the European Union as a means to achieve multilingualism. While in Germany and other European countries the trend to use the L2 as a medium of instruction is increasing, in Hong Kong, however, we see a converse development. Many schools switched from English as a medium of…

  15. Learning through L2--Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and English as Medium of Instruction (EMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannagat, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has been promoted by the European Union as a means to achieve multilingualism. While in Germany and other European countries the trend to use the L2 as a medium of instruction is increasing, in Hong Kong, however, we see a converse development. Many schools switched from English as a medium of…

  16. Task-based Language Learning in Bilingual Montessori Elementary Schools: Customizing Foreign Language Learning and Promoting L2 Speaking Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Winnefeld

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language learning has been a part of German elementary schools for several years now. Montessori schools focusing on individual learning, i.e. mostly independent from the teacher and based on auto-education, interest, and free choice, are also asked to teach an L2. The original lack of a concept of L2 learning for this environment has brought forth different approaches. Bilingual education seems to be feasible and applicable in Montessori education. The downside to this is that even in a bilingual classroom the Montessori way of learning may not allow for very much oral production of the foreign language. The role of L2 production (cf. Swain 1985, 1995, 2005 for language acquisition has been theoretically claimed and empirically investigated. Output can have a positive influence on L2 learning (cf. e.g. Izumi 2002, Keck et al. 2006. This also applies to interaction (cf. Long 1996, where negotiation of meaning and modified output are factors supporting L2 development (cf. e.g. de la Fuente 2002, McDonough 2005. Task-based Language Learning (TBLL presents itself as one way to promote oral language production and to provide opportunities for meaning-negotiation. Especially tasks with required information exchange and a closed outcome have been shown to be beneficial for the elicitation of negotiation of meaning and modified output. This paper argues that TBLL is a promising approach for the facilitation of L2 production and thus the development of speaking skills in a Montessori context. It also hypothesizes that TBLL can be implemented in a bilingual Montessori environment while still making the Montessori way of learning possible. Different tasks on various topics, examples of which are presented in this article, can lay the foundation for this. Offering such tasks in a bilingual Montessori elementary classroom promises to foster language production and the use of communication strategies like negotiation of meaning, both being facilitative for L2 acquisition. This hypothesis remains to be tested in future research.

  17. L2 Grammatical Gender in a Complex Morphological System: The Case of German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Patti; Juffs, Alan

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the nature of naturalistic learners' difficulty with grammatical gender in a complex morphological system, the longitudinal production data of an early naturalistic L1-Italian and L1-Turkish learner who are acquiring German are examined in light of current theories of gender within Chomsky's (1995) Minimalist Program. After…

  18. L2 Grammatical Gender in a Complex Morphological System: The Case of German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Patti; Juffs, Alan

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the nature of naturalistic learners' difficulty with grammatical gender in a complex morphological system, the longitudinal production data of an early naturalistic L1-Italian and L1-Turkish learner who are acquiring German are examined in light of current theories of gender within Chomsky's (1995) Minimalist Program. After…

  19. The Role of Dynamic Contrasts in the L2 Acquisition of Spanish Past Tense Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Laura; Tracy-Ventura, Nicole; Arche, Maria J.; Mitchell, Rosamond; Myles, Florence

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the second language acquisition of Spanish past tense morphology by three groups of English speakers (beginners, intermediates and advanced). We adopt a novel methodological approach--combining oral corpus data with controlled experimental data--in order to provide new evidence on the validity of the Lexical Aspect Hypothesis…

  20. Phonological and orthographic cues enhance the processing of inflectional morphology. ERP evidence from L1 and L2 French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CherylFrenck-Mestre

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of two ERP experiments in which Spanish learners of French and native French controls show graded sensitivity to verbal inflectional errors as a function of the presence of orthographic and/or phonological cues when reading silently in French. In both experiments, verbal agreement was manipulated in sentential context such that subject verb agreement was either correct, ill-formed and orally-realized, involving both orthographic and phonological cues, or ill-formed and silent which involved only orthographic cues. The results of both experiments revealed more robust ERP responses to orally-realized than to silent inflectional errors. This was true for L2 learners as well as native controls, although the effect in the learner group was reduced in comparison to the native group. In addition, the combined influence of phonological and orthographic cues led to the largest differences between morphosyntactic conditions. Overall, the results suggest that the presence of phonological cues may enhance L2 readers’ sensitivity to morphology but that such may appear in L2 processing only when sufficient proficiency is attained. Moreover, both orthographic and phonological cues are used when available.

  1. The learner’s mother tongue in the l2 learning-teaching symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hitotuzi, Nilton

    2009-01-01

    This paper has a two-fold purpose. One is to review the stances of language-oriented theorists, who are practicing foreign/second-language teachers and learners from various parts of the world, regarding the long-standing controversy over whether or not the learner’s mother tongue plays a positive role in the foreign/second-language learning-teaching context. A second purpose is to offer, from a non-native-speaker L2-teacher standpoint, some suggestions on when and how learners’ native langua...

  2. Matching Vocabulary Learning Process with Learning Outcome in L2 Academic Writing: An Exploratory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qing

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory case study of two undergraduates links vocabulary learning approaches with lexical quality measured in academic writing. Employing an array of qualitative data, it is shown that in a "semi-language-rich" learning context, Chinese learners may dispense with rote learning and engage in a more natural learning approach in which…

  3. The Influence of L2 Teachers' Use of CALL Modes on Language Learners' Reactions to Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Kwang Hee; Samimy, Keiko K.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on blended learning (BL) implementation in L2 instructional settings considers L2 teachers' use of the incorporated CALL modes and learners' attitudes toward the CALL modes as critical factors, among other factors, for achieving successful BL implementation. In the literature, these two factors are suggested to be strongly…

  4. Assisting Your Child's Learning in L2 Is Like Teaching Them to Ride a Bike: A Study on Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Rigoberto; Camelo Gámez, Linda Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with parental involvement as a strategy to assist young learners in their efforts to learn an L2. It discusses an 18-month experience involving ten young learners, their parents, and teachers, in the development of another language (L2). The parents had expressed that they were unable to support their children's development in…

  5. Comments on Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Barry Lee

    2012-01-01

    Anthony Bruton, Miguel Garcia Lopez, and Raquel Esquiliche Mesa's "Incidental L2 Vocabulary Learning: An Impracticable Term?" (2011) offers some constructive criticism regarding the conventional terminology used in second language (L2) acquisition research and language pedagogy. Although the author finds much of their evidence reasonable and is…

  6. A Case Study on the Effects of an L2 Writing Instructional Model for Blended Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Lee; Lee, Chung Hyun

    2013-01-01

    This case study explores EFL (English as a foreign language) students' perceptions toward a prototype of an instructional model for second language (L2) writing in blended learning and the effects of the model on the development of L2 writing skills in higher education. This model is primarily founded on the process-oriented writing approach…

  7. Investigating the Efficacy of an Intensive English Program and the L2 Learners’ Learning Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lee Su Ping

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Past research has found that many pre-university L2 learners, having completed an Intensive English Program (IEP still have difficulty in undertaking various disciplines in English-speaking tertiary institutions and continue to exhibit numerous linguistic problems (Bialystok, 2001, Celce Murcia 2001. The purpose of this paper is to present the findings on the investigation of L2 learners’ English proficiency in reading, writing, grammar, listening and speaking upon their completion of an Intensive English (IE program using their IELTS (Academic, in-house exams and English Placement Tests (EPT scores, and the efficacy of IE program.  IELTS test is chosen for this study due to its increasing popularity in Malaysia and its internationally recognised value and quality.  The study was conducted in two parts. In Part One, all 72 Level 4 IE students were given an in-house EPT (English Placement Test pre-test on their entry and another EPT post-test on their exit, and then their pre-test and post-test results were compared.  In Part Two, 22 volunteers sat the IELTS test at the end of the program. The IELTS results of the 22 volunteers were compared with those who did not.  Data were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. This paper hopes to shed some light on (i whether or not L2 learners’ English language proficiency can be significantly enhanced and influenced by an intensive English program and (ii how leaners’ perception of their own learning strategies influence their learning progress. 

  8. Effect of CALL-based and Non-CALL Based Methods of Teaching on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Effat Bagheri; Ali Roohani; Dariush Nejad Ansari

    2012-01-01

    The use of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in the field of education has increased remarkably in recent years due to the swift and modern changes in language software. However, CALL is not widely employed in the field of second/foreign (L2) language learning in Iran. Interested in the application of CALL, this study examines two methods of vocabulary teaching/learning (CALL-based versus non-CALL based) in the short and long-term learning in the area of L2 vocabulary. It seeks to se...

  9. Joint Bayesian Morphology learning of Dravidian Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Arun; Padró, Lluís; Oliver González, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a methodology for learning the complex agglutinative morphology of some Indian languages using Adaptor Grammars and morphology rules is presented. Adaptor grammars are a compositional Bayesian framework for grammatical inference, where we define a morphological grammar for agglutinative languages and morphological boundaries are inferred from a plain text corpus. Once morphological segmentations are produce, regular expressions for sandhi rules and orthography are applied to ...

  10. Galaxy morphology - an unsupervised machine learning approach

    OpenAIRE

    Schutter, Andrew; Shamir, Lior

    2015-01-01

    Structural properties posses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement wi...

  11. The Effects of Giving and Receiving Marginal L1 Glosses on L2 Vocabulary Learning by Upper Secondary Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samian, Hosein Vafadar; Foo, Thomas Chow Voon; Mohebbi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study that investigated the effect of giving and receiving marginal L1 glosses on L2 vocabulary learning. To that end, forty nine Iranian learners of English were assigned to three different experimental conditions including marginal L1 glosses Giver (n = 17), marginal L1 glosses Receiver (n = 17), and no…

  12. L1 and L2 Distance Effects in Learning L3 Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepens, Job J.; der Slik, Frans; Hout, Roeland

    2016-01-01

    Many people speak more than two languages. How do languages acquired earlier affect the learnability of additional languages? We show that linguistic distances between speakers' first (L1) and second (L2) languages and their third (L3) language play a role. Larger distances from the L1 to the L3 and from the L2 to the L3 correlate with lower…

  13. Contribution of Morphological Awareness and Lexical Inferencing Ability to L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension among Advanced EFL Learners: Testing Direct and Indirect Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling)…

  14. Galaxy morphology - an unsupervised machine learning approach

    CERN Document Server

    Schutter, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Structural properties posses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being ...

  15. Investigating the Efficacy of an Intensive English Program and the L2 Learners’ Learning Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Lee Su Ping

    2014-01-01

    Past research has found that many pre-university L2 learners, having completed an Intensive English Program (IEP) still have difficulty in undertaking various disciplines in English-speaking tertiary institutions and continue to exhibit numerous linguistic problems (Bialystok, 2001, Celce Murcia 2001). The purpose of this paper is to present the findings on the investigation of L2 learners’ English proficiency in reading, writing, grammar, listening and speaking upon their completion of an In...

  16. Active Learning: Qualitative Inquiries into Vocabulary Instruction in Chinese L2 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Helen H.; Xu, Wenjing

    2015-01-01

    Active learning emerged as a new approach to learning in the 1980s. The core concept of active learning involves engaging students not only in actively exploring knowledge but also in reflecting on their own learning process in order to become more effective learners. Because the nonalphabetic nature of the Chinese writing system makes learning to…

  17. Learning More, Perceiving More? A Comparison of L1 Cantonese--L2 English--L3 French Speakers and L1 Cantonese--L2 English Speakers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Wai Lan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study examining the relationship between language learning and perceived language differences. Two groups of native Cantonese speakers in Hong Kong, L1 Cantonese--L2 English (CE) and L1 Cantonese--L2 English--L3 French (CEF), were asked to complete two tasks: a placement test in English (as well as in French for the CEF…

  18. An Investigation into the Modality Specificity of L2 Learners' STM Abilities in Learning Vocabulary via PDAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Khazaie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Parallel with the rapid growth of wireless technology and potentials of mobile learning for language teaching/learning, employing mobile devices in language learning seems indispensable. To this end, designing learning materials suitable for different types of mobile devices regarding dual coding (DCT and cognitive load (CLT theories seems inevitable. In this study, multimedia were employed for designing two types of learning materials. Since short-term memory plays an important role in language learning, learners’ visual and verbal short-term memories were taken into consideration, too. 161 L2 Learners aged 19 and 23 years old participated in the major phases of an experiment via personal digital assistant (PDA. Based on their scores on the English vocabulary recognition and recall (EVRR tests and the statistical analysis of the results, it was revealed that delivery of learning materials with pictorial and written annotations combined rather than delivery of learning materials without such annotations to learners with high-visual and high-verbal abilities, learners with high-visual but low-verbal ability, and learners with low-visual but high-verbal ability results in better vocabulary learning outcomes. However, this was not the case for learners with low-visual and low-verbal abilities. This study acknowledges the relation between STM and the relevant modalities of materials presentation.Keywords: Mobile learning, PDA, Verbal and visual ability, Vocabulary learning

  19. Machine Learning for Galaxy Morphology Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Gauci, Adam; Abela, John; Magro, Alessio

    2010-01-01

    In this work, decision tree learning algorithms and fuzzy inferencing systems are applied for galaxy morphology classification. In particular, the CART, the C4.5, the Random Forest and fuzzy logic algorithms are studied and reliable classifiers are developed to distinguish between spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies or star/unknown galactic objects. Morphology information for the training and testing datasets is obtained from the Galaxy Zoo project while the corresponding photometric and spectra parameters are downloaded from the SDSS DR7 catalogue.

  20. The Effects of Techniques of Vocabulary Portfolio on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Abbas Ali; Baftani, Fahimeh Nasiri

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different techniques of vocabulary portfolio including word map, word wizard, concept wheel, visual thesaurus, and word rose on L2 vocabulary comprehension and production, a sample of 75 female EFL learners of Kish Day Language Institute in Karaj, Iran were selected. They were in five groups and each group received…

  1. Morphologically Complex Words in L1 and L2 Processing: Evidence from Masked Priming Experiments in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Renita; Clahsen, Harald

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results from masked priming experiments investigating regular past-tense forms and deadjectival nominalizations with -ness and -ity in adult native (L1) speakers of English and in different groups of advanced adult second language (L2) learners of English. While the L1 group showed efficient priming for both inflected and…

  2. Study Abroad, Previous Language Experience, and Spanish L2 Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Pascual, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates second language (L2) development of Spanish verbal morphology, subject omissions, and subject-verb (SV) inversions by learners in two different proficiency levels and learning contexts. Oral narratives from 40 L2 learners at the intermediate and advanced levels, both at home and in a study abroad (SA) program, were examined…

  3. Learning and Retaining Specialized Vocabulary from Textbook Reading: Comparison of Learning Outcomes through L1 and L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gablasova, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acquisition of specialized vocabulary from L1 and L2 textbook reading by 64 Slovak high school students who were intermediate or advanced users of English. The students were divided into two groups: One group read the academic texts in their L1, the other group in their L2. In a posttest and a delayed posttest, they…

  4. Learning and Retaining Specialized Vocabulary from Textbook Reading: Comparison of Learning Outcomes through L1 and L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gablasova, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the acquisition of specialized vocabulary from L1 and L2 textbook reading by 64 Slovak high school students who were intermediate or advanced users of English. The students were divided into two groups: One group read the academic texts in their L1, the other group in their L2. In a posttest and a delayed posttest, they…

  5. Galaxy morphology - An unsupervised machine learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutter, A.; Shamir, L.

    2015-09-01

    Structural properties poses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being analyzed. The source code of the method is publicly available, and the protocol of the experiment is included in the paper so that the experiment can be replicated, and the method can be used to analyze user-defined datasets of galaxy images.

  6. The Impact of Choice on EFL Students' Motivation and Engagement with L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han-Chung; Huang, Hung-Tzu; Hsu, Chun-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates EFL college learners' motivation and engagement during English vocabulary learning tasks. By adopting self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000), the study looked into the impact of autonomy on college students' task motivation and engagement with vocabulary learning tasks and their general English…

  7. Investigating Reading Comprehension and Learning Styles in Relation to Reading Strategies in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürses, Meral Özkan; Bouvet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the extent to which reading comprehension and learning styles are related to perceived use of reading strategies among students studying French at an Australian university and a Turkish university. Ninety-one participants completed a background questionnaire, the Survey of Reading Strategies, the Kolb Learning Style…

  8. Exploring the Interface: Explicit Focus-on-Form Instruction and Learned Attentional Biases in L2 Latin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintrón-Valentín, Myrna; Ellis, Nick C.

    2015-01-01

    Eye-tracking was used to investigate the attentional processes whereby different types of focus on form (FonF) instruction assist learners in overcoming learned attention and blocking effects in their online processing of second language input. English native speakers viewed Latin utterances combining lexical and morphological cues to temporality…

  9. Online multilingual vocabulary system and its application in L2 learning

    OpenAIRE

    Haruko Miyakoda; Kei-ichi Kaneko; Masatoshi Ishikawa; Norihide Shinagawa

    2010-01-01

    In the field of second language teaching, vocabulary has been one of the most neglected areas in the classroom. Although language teachers/ instructors are well aware of the importance of vocabulary, there is not enough time in the classroom to actually “teach” vocabulary. Therefore, we need to find ways to promote autonomous vocabulary learning so that students can make good use of their time outside theclassrooms.In this study, we present an online vocabulary learning system that we have de...

  10. The Effects of L1 and L2 e-Glosses on Incidental Vocabulary Learning of Junior High-School English Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Si-Min; Vongpumivitch, Viphavee; Chang, Jason S.; Liou, Hsien-Chin

    2014-01-01

    While researchers have examined the effectiveness of various online gloss types on incidental L2 vocabulary learning, little research on online gloss languages has been conducted. Previous attempts which compared the effects of L1 and L2 glosses have reported mixed results. To fill the gaps, this study examined the effectiveness of Chinese and…

  11. The Effects of L1 and L2 e-Glosses on Incidental Vocabulary Learning of Junior High-School English Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Si-Min; Vongpumivitch, Viphavee; Chang, Jason S.; Liou, Hsien-Chin

    2014-01-01

    While researchers have examined the effectiveness of various online gloss types on incidental L2 vocabulary learning, little research on online gloss languages has been conducted. Previous attempts which compared the effects of L1 and L2 glosses have reported mixed results. To fill the gaps, this study examined the effectiveness of Chinese and…

  12. Learning minimally different words in a third language: L2 proficiency as a crucial predictor of accuracy in an L3 word learning task

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, E.; P. Escudero; Broersma, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of proficiency in the L2 (English) and L3 (Dutch) on word learning in the L3. Learners were 92 L1 Spanish speakers with differing proficiencies in L2 and L3, and 20 native speakers of Dutch. The learners were divided into basic and advanced English and Dutch proficiency groups according to their scores on general listening comprehension language tests. Participants were trained and subsequently tested on the mapping between pseudo-words and pictures of non-objec...

  13. Online multilingual vocabulary system and its application in L2 learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruko Miyakoda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the field of second language teaching, vocabulary has been one of the most neglected areas in the classroom. Although language teachers/ instructors are well aware of the importance of vocabulary, there is not enough time in the classroom to actually “teach” vocabulary. Therefore, we need to find ways to promote autonomous vocabulary learning so that students can make good use of their time outside theclassrooms.In this study, we present an online vocabulary learning system that we have developed. The results obtained from our evaluation experiment indicate that our system is more effective in retaining the meaning of the words compared to the traditional learning method.As an example of applying this system to language learning, we will give a demonstration of a Japanese onomatopoeia dictionary that we are compiling. Onomatopoeia are especially troublesome for learners of the Japanese language. Although they are frequently used in both written and spoken Japanese, they are very difficult to translate to other languages. We demonstrate that by employing our system, learners are better able to understand the meaning and the context of eachlexical item.

  14. Social and Individual Frame Factors in L2 Learning: Comparative Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Lars H.

    A large number of factors are considered in their role in second language learning. Individual factors include language aptitude, personality, attitudes and motivation, and the role of the speaker's native language. Teacher factors involve the method of instruction, the sex of the teacher, and a teacher's training and competence, while…

  15. An Observation Tool for Effective L2 Pedagogy in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, Rick; Koopman, Gerrit Jan; Anikina, Yulia; Westhoff, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is becoming a popular and widespread practice of immersion education. In the Netherlands, for example, over 90 secondary schools offer a CLIL strand. Most CLIL teachers, however, are nonnative speakers of the target language, and do not have a professional background in language pedagogy.…

  16. An Observation Tool for Effective L2 Pedagogy in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaff, Rick; Koopman, Gerrit Jan; Anikina, Yulia; Westhoff, Gerard

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is becoming a popular and widespread practice of immersion education. In the Netherlands, for example, over 90 secondary schools offer a CLIL strand. Most CLIL teachers, however, are nonnative speakers of the target language, and do not have a professional background in language pedagogy.…

  17. The Effect of L1 on Learning New L2 Vocabulary among Intermediate Proficiency Level Students

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Pakzadian

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades, the role of mother tongue in language teaching has been the subject of a host of research studies ;however, quite rarely have researchers addressed such issues as comparing the use of mother tongue and other teaching techniques like paraphrasing and translation effects on students' reading comprehension ability and their ability in learning new English vocabulary. This study aimed to explore whether paraphrases vs. translations of new words in general English passages...

  18. An Analysis of the Potential of a Computer-mediated learning Course for Vocabulary Learning in L2

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contributions a computer-mediated blended course can make for learning vocabulary in French as a Foreign Language (FFL). This course included class and on-line sessions, using Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) tools (forum and chat), for a written macro-task by French-learning Cypriot students accompanied in distance learning by FFL tutors. In the first part we present difficulties in vocabulary learning as well as in written production. We also tackle two centra...

  19. Estilos de pensamiento Cognitive styles: an approach to autonomous learning in L2 adult students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atehortúa Atehortúa José Nicolás

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo resume los resultados de una investigación descriptivo-cualitativa sobre estilos cognitivos o de pensamiento, llevado a cabo con miembros del programa de extensión académica en la UPB, con el objetivo de describir los estilos de pensamiento de los estudiantes que les permitan reconocer y utilizar estrategias meta cognitivas para desarrollar un nivel consciente de responsabilidad y autonomía en el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera. El marco teórico de este estudio se basa en conceptos tales como estilos cognitivos, estrategias meta cognitivas, aptitud, así como la autonomía y la responsabilidad en el aprendizaje. Los instrumentos diseñados para la recopilación de datos fueron un test sobre estilos cognitivos, en segundo lugar, un cuestionario semiestructurado con los siguientes ítems: proceso de toma de decisiones, la auto descripción como aprendices, las percepciones del estudiante sobre el papel del profesor, incluido el uso de estrategias meta cognitivas, tercero , una entrevista abierta con el objetivo de medir el impacto que tiene el concebir un proceso de aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera desde la perspectiva de los estilos de pensamiento. Los resultados mostraron la expectativa de los estudiantes para reconocer las capacidades humanas, la necesidad de adquirir la competencia estratégica, la necesidad real de participar abiertamente en la planificación de metas y objetivos, y en la auto-evaluación formativa del proceso de aprendizaje, así como el deseo de pasar de un proceso centrado en tareas, a un proceso centrado en la autonomía. The following article sums up the findings of a descriptive-qualitative research on cognitive styles carried out with members of the Academic Extension program at the UPB, aiming at describing the cognitive styles of students that enable them to recognize and use metacognitive strategies in order to develop a conscious level of autonomy and responsibility in learning a foreign language. This study was theoretically supported by concepts such as cognitive styles, metacognitive strategies, aptitude in learning, as well as autonomy and responsibility. The instruments used in the data collection procedures were first a test on cognitive styles, second, a semi structured questionnaire on decision making process, self description as learners, student´s perceptions on the teacher´s role, including the use of metacognitive strategies, third, an open interview aiming at measuring the impact of being aware of learning a foreign language from the perspective of cognitive styles. Results showed students’ inner expectations to recognize human abilities, the need to acquire strategic competence, the real need to openly participate in planning of goals and objectives, self assessment on formative learning process, as well as turning to be autonomous centered learners, rather that task oriented students.

  20. L2 Students’ Comments on Language Exchange Communities in Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Balç?kanl?

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: EFL learners are rarely given opportunities to interact with native speakers and “…to do something with a language”. In Turkish settings, language learners mostly complain that they do not have enough opportunities to interact with native speakers, and class hours are too limited to acquire a language and more importantly they are not taught expressions that help them express themselves in daily contexts.Purpose of Study: This study aimed at investigating EFL (English as a Foreign Language learners’ experiences in a Language Exchange Community, namely xLingo.Method: 16 students from a state university spent time on language exchange communities. The researcher met these students once a week to make sure that everything was going fine. The students used xLingo for almost six months. The researcher interviewed them through the five questions that were earlier developed and piloted by the researcher himself.Findings and Results: The findings mostly focused on four aspects namely language development, autonomy, culture and self-confidence. Conclusions and Recommendations: Given the challenges Turkish EFL learners have to face in the process of language learning, language exchange communities are believed to open up more possibilities for language learners to get more comprehensible input and to interact with more native speakers and more importantly to do something with a language. In order to make best use of these communities, it is a mandatory step that language teachers be introduced to the concept along with practical applications and that these communities should be integrated into language testing system.

  1. Transfer of reading-related cognitive skills in learning to read Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among Chinese elementary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Keung, YC; Ho, CSH

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated transfer of reading-related cognitive skills between learning to read Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among Chinese children in Hong Kong. Fifty-three Grade 2 students were tested on word reading, phonological, orthographic and rapid naming skills in Chinese (L1) and English (L2). The major findings were: (a) significant correlations between Chinese and English measures in phonological awareness and rapid naming, but not in orthographic skills; (b) significant unique con...

  2. Developing Critical L2 Digital Literacy through the Use of Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Learning Management Systems such as Moodle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Second Language (L2) Digital Literacy is of emerging importance within English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Korea, and will evolve to become regarded as the most critical component of overall L2 English Literacy. Computer-based Internet-hosted Learning Management Systems (LMS), such as the popular open-source Moodle, are rapidly being adopted worldwide for distance education, and are also being applied to blended (hybrid) education. In EFL Education, they have a special potential: by setting the LMS to force English to be used exclusively throughout a course website, the meta-language can be made the target L2 language. Of necessity, students develop the ability to use English to navigate the Internet, access and contribute to online resources, and engage in computer-mediated communication. Through such pragmatic engagement with English, students significantly develop their L2 Digital Literacy.

  3. Morphological Analysis as Classification an Inductive-Learning Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Van den Bosch, A; Weijters, T; Bosch, Antal van den; Daelemans, Walter; Weijters, Ton

    1996-01-01

    Morphological analysis is an important subtask in text-to-speech conversion, hyphenation, and other language engineering tasks. The traditional approach to performing morphological analysis is to combine a morpheme lexicon, sets of (linguistic) rules, and heuristics to find a most probable analysis. In contrast we present an inductive learning approach in which morphological analysis is reformulated as a segmentation task. We report on a number of experiments in which five inductive learning algorithms are applied to three variations of the task of morphological analysis. Results show (i) that the generalisation performance of the algorithms is good, and (ii) that the lazy learning algorithm IB1-IG performs best on all three tasks. We conclude that lazy learning of morphological analysis as a classification task is indeed a viable approach; moreover, it has the strong advantages over the traditional approach of avoiding the knowledge-acquisition bottleneck, being fast and deterministic in learning and process...

  4. Cantonese English as a Second Language Learners' Perceived Relations between "Similar" L1 and L2 Speech Sounds: A Test of the Speech Learning Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Y. W.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a research study that investigated Cantonese English as a second language (ESL) learners' perception of English speech sounds, their perceived relations between "similar" English and Cantonese sounds, as well as the applicability of the claims of the Speech Learning Model (SLM) to second language (L2)…

  5. Direct and Indirect Access to Corpora: An Exploratory Case Study Comparing Students' Error Correction and Learning Strategy Use in L2 Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyunsook; Jo, Jung Won

    2014-01-01

    Studies on students' use of corpora in L2 writing have demonstrated the benefits of corpora not only as a linguistic resource to improve their writing abilities but also as a cognitive tool to develop their learning skills and strategies. Most of the corpus studies, however, adopted either direct use or indirect use of corpora by students,…

  6. L2 Vocabulary Learning from Reading: Explicit and Tacit Lexical Knowledge and the Role of Learner and Item Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgort, Irina; Warren, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates acquisition of second language (L2) vocabulary from reading a connected authentic text. Advanced and upper-intermediate L2 (English) participants read a long expository text for general understanding, with embedded critical vocabulary items (pseudowords). Explicit knowledge of the critical items was examined using a meaning…

  7. L2 Vocabulary Learning from Reading: Explicit and Tacit Lexical Knowledge and the Role of Learner and Item Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgort, Irina; Warren, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates acquisition of second language (L2) vocabulary from reading a connected authentic text. Advanced and upper-intermediate L2 (English) participants read a long expository text for general understanding, with embedded critical vocabulary items (pseudowords). Explicit knowledge of the critical items was examined using a meaning…

  8. Developing bi-plurilingual skills in French as a schooling language : L2 learning in early bilingual education

    OpenAIRE

    COLIN, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    While the benefits of early bilingual education programs are widely praised and acknowledged, relatively little is known about the processes involved in child second language acquisition. The aim of this research is to investigate L2 development in young children while school is their only source of exposure to the L2. Relying on corpora collected in two French-American kindergarten and primary schools in California, this work focuses on how French is acquired by English-speaking children fro...

  9. Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: evidence from two learning methods in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

    2012-08-01

    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyse the effect of two learning methods (picture- vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and non-cognates) in early stages of children's L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age = 10.87 years; SD= 0.85), participated in the study. None of them had prior knowledge of Basque (the L2 in this study). After a learning phase in which L2 words were learned either by a picture- or a word-based method, children were tested in a backward-word translation recognition task at two times (immediately vs. one week later). Results showed that the participants made more errors when rejecting semantically related than semantically unrelated words as correct translations (semantic interference effect). The magnitude of this effect was higher in the delayed test condition regardless of the learning method. Moreover, the overall performance of participants from the word-based method was better than the performance of participants from the picture-word method. Results were discussed concerning the most significant bilingual lexical processing models. PMID:22804703

  10. Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Shaikh, Danish; Støy, Kasper

    Hand-coding locomotion controllers for modular robots is difficult due to their polymorphic nature. Instead, we propose to use a simple and distributed reinforcement learning strategy. ATRON modules with identical controllers can be assembled in any configuration. To optimize the robot’s locomotion...... speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy’s performance on different robot configurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast...

  11. Aptitude as Grammatical Sensitivity and the Initial Stages of Learning Japanese as a L2: Parametric Variation and Case Marking

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanPatten, Bill; Smith, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we challenge the notion that aptitude--operationalized as grammatical sensitivity as measured by the Words in Sentences section of the Modern Language Aptitude Test--is central to adult second language (L2) acquisition. We present the findings of a study on the acquisition of two properties of Japanese, head-final word order and…

  12. The Influence of Incidental and Intentional Vocabulary Acquisition and Vocabulary Strategy Use on Learning L2 Vocabularies

    OpenAIRE

    Minoo Alemi; Alireza Tayebi

    2011-01-01

    This study is an attempt to investigate the role of incidental and intentional vocabulary acquisition in addition to the influence of language learning strategy: namely, the use of vocabulary strategy by Iranian EFL learners in learning new vocabularies. Accordingly, this study is two-faceted. First, Part A examines the difference between different modes of presentation, incidental and intentional learning of new vocabularies (i.e., incidental, etymology-based intentional, and meaning-based i...

  13. Developing a Portfolio Assessment Model for the Teaching and Learning of English in Malaysian L2 Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Charanjit Kaur a/p Swaran Singh; Arshad Abdul Samad; Habsah Hussin; Tajularipin Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Standardized testing is viewed as particularly incompatible to the process of learning due to its summative nature as it measures what students are able to recall and produce. Because of the discrepancy between the process of learning and products of learning, educators today have come to recognize that an alternative form of assessment is required to complement the existing form of assessment. This study intends to determine the techniques ESL teachers use in implementing portfolio as an ass...

  14. Assessing Differences and Similarities between Instructed Heritage Language Learners and L2 Learners in Their Knowledge of Spanish Tense-Aspect and Mood (TAM) Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montrul, Silvina; Perpinan, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of the aspectual difference between the preterit and imperfect in the past tense and the acquisition of the contrast between subjunctive and indicative mood are classic problem areas in second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish by English-speaking learners (Collentine, 1995, 1998, 2003; Salaberry, 1999; Slabakova & Montrul, 2002;…

  15. Aussie! Aussie! Aussie! L2! L3! L4!: Inspiring Language Learning and Maintaining Our Common Wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, Robert C.; Elliot, Kerry; Liu, Mei Hui

    2003-01-01

    Provides ideas for inspiring language Learning and maintaining Australia's common wealth as a multicultural society. Focuses on hands-on activities that stimulate language learning communities to negotiate and promote excitement and enthusiasm for languages, while creating community support. (Author/VWL)

  16. Effects of Learning Strategies and Motivation on Implicit vs. Explicit Instructional Approaches for Spanish L2 Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervas, David

    2010-01-01

    Under the premise that vocabulary learning in a Spanish as a second language in-class environment may be affected by the instructional approach adopted by the instructors or the materials followed, this study explores the influence of rather distant teaching styles, such as implicit and explicit approaches, on the learning outcome of Spanish…

  17. Task-based incidental vocabulary learning in L2 Arabic: The role of proficiency and task performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman A. Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the claim that word learning in a second language are contingent upon a task’s involvement load (i.e. the amount of need, search, and evaluation it imposes), as proposed by Laufer and Hulstijn (2001). Fifty-three English-speaking learners of Arabic were assigned to one of three vocabulary learning tasks that varied in the degree of involvement: reading comprehension with glosses (low), fill-in-the-gap task (medium), and sentence writing (high). Ten words, selected based on a ...

  18. Tracking "Learning Behaviours" in the Incidental Acquisition of Two Dimensional Adjectives by Japanese Beginner Learners of L2 English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Natsuko; Ellis, Rod

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine both the process and product of vocabulary learning in a task-based instructional context. The article reports a study that investigated the acquisition of two dimensional adjectives ("big" and "small") by six-year-old Japanese children who were complete beginners. It tracked the…

  19. Enhancement of Automatization through Vocabulary Learning Using CALL: Can Prompt Language Processing Lead to Better Comprehension in L2 Reading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takeshi; Matsunuma, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Our study aims to optimize a multimedia application for vocabulary learning for English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Our study is based on the concept that difficulty in reading a text in a second language is due to the need for more working memory for word decoding skills, although the working memory must also be used for text comprehension…

  20. The Efficacy of Explicit Grammar Instruction and Its Impact on L2 Rule-Learning: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Raafat

    2009-01-01

    It is crucial that foreign language teachers know well what kinds of grammar teaching strategies best aid learning in the classroom in order to adjust their teaching toward a practical and successful approach. Much of the debate about how to help EFL learners achieve grammatical proficiency centers on the implicit versus explicit, or deductive…

  1. Task-based incidental vocabulary learning in L2 Arabic: The role of proficiency and task performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman A. Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tests the claim that word learning in a second language are contingent upon a task’s involvement load (i.e. the amount of need, search, and evaluation it imposes, as proposed by Laufer and Hulstijn (2001. Fifty-three English-speaking learners of Arabic were assigned to one of three vocabulary learning tasks that varied in the degree of involvement: reading comprehension with glosses (low, fill-in-the-gap task (medium, and sentence writing (high. Ten words, selected based on a pretest, were targeted in the tasks. Results showed a main effect of task, with the sentence writing task yielding the highest rates of vocabulary learning, followed by the gap-fill task, and finally the reading comprehension task. A significant correlation was found between accuracy of performance across participants and their subsequent vocabulary acquisition in the immediate posttest. Within groups, only the performance of the writing group correlated significantly with their posttest scores. Results of the present study validate the hypothesis and point to multiple factors at play in incidental vocabulary acquisition. The study provides further arguments to refine the hypothesis and implement pedagogical practices that accommodate incidental learning in foreign language settings.

  2. Becoming an L2 Learner (Again): How a Brief Language Learning Experience Sparked Connections with SLA Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Ross

    2015-01-01

    A brief "language learning experience" (LLE) in Thai was integrated into a second language development course as part of postgraduate TESOL study at an Australian university. Sixty primary and secondary teachers from a range of schools evaluated the impact of the LLE by means of a questionnaire; the teachers proved highly affirming of…

  3. On the Relationship between Self-regulated Learning Components and L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Ali Zarei; Gamar Hatami

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, self-regulation has been the center of heated debate in educational psychology. The present study attempted to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners' self-regulated learning components and vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension .To fulfill this objective, a 60-item vocabulary and reading comprehension TOEFL test was administered to a sample of 250 male and female college students majoring in English Teaching, English Language Translation, a...

  4. Unsupervised Machine Learning to Track Galaxy Morphological Evolution in CANDELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peth, Michael; Lotz, J. M.; Freeman, P. E.; McPartland, C.; CANDELS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We use unsupervised machine learning techniques to study the evolution of galaxy morphology at 0 Gini coefficient (G), Asymmetry (A), the second-order moment of brightest 20% light (M_20), and three new statistics, Multi mode (M), Intensity (I) and Deviation (D). We measure these morphology statistics in 4 different HST wavebands: F160W (H), F125W, F814W and F606W. This allows us to consistently measure a single rest-frame passband across the redshift range. We discuss the implications for the evolution of the Hubble sequence and galaxy mergers over the last 10 billion years.

  5. Effects of acoustic and semantic contexts when learning to identify L2 phonemes in words and sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikuma, Yuko; Akahane-Yamada, Reiko

    2001-05-01

    Laboratory training experiment was conducted in order to examine the effect of acoustic and semantic contexts when learning second language phoneme perception. Fifty minimal pairs of English words contrasting in /r/ and /l/ were produced by native speakers of American English in three conditions; in isolation (WD), within semantically neutral carrier sentences (NS), and within semantically contextual carrier sentences (CS). Participants were native speakers of Japanese, and were divided into three groups; each was trained to identify /r/ and /l/ in one of above three conditions. In pretest, identification accuracy varied by condition in the order, NSlanguage education will be discussed. [Work supported by TAO, Japan.

  6. L2 listening at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øhrstrøm, Charlotte

    This dissertation on adult second language (L2) learning investigates individual learners’ experiences with listening in Danish as an L2 in everyday situations at work. More specifically, the study explores when international employees, who work at international companies in Denmark with English as...... a corporate language, listen in Danish at work, how they handle these situations, what problems they experience, and why some situations are more difficult to listen in than others. The study makes use of qualitative research methods and theoretical aspects from psycholinguistic approaches as well...

  7. Galaxy Zoo: Reproducing Galaxy Morphologies Via Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Banerji, Manda; Lintott, Chris J; Abdalla, Filipe B; Schawinski, Kevin; Andreescu, Dan; Bamford, Steven; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alex; Thomas, Daniel; Vandenberg, Jan

    2009-01-01

    We present morphological classifications obtained using machine learning for objects in SDSS DR7 that have been classified by Galaxy Zoo into three classes namely spirals, ellipticals and stars/unique objects. An artificial neural network is trained on a subset of objects classified by the human eye and we test whether the machine learning algorithm can reproduce the human classifications for the rest of the sample. We find that the success of the neural network in matching the human classifications depends crucially on the set of input parameters chosen for the machine-learning algorithm. The colours, concentrations and parameters associated with profile-fitting are reasonable in seperating the stars and galaxies into three classes. However, these results are considerably improved when adding adaptive shape parameters as well as texture. The adaptive moments and texture parameters alone cannot distinguish between stars and elliptical galaxies. Using a set of thirteen distance-independant parameters, the neur...

  8. Development of Relative Clause Constructions in English L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Yamaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how relative clause (RC constructions develop in the acquisition of English as a second language (L2. The acquisition of RC constructions has been the focus of much research in the field of language acquisition, but a majority of L2 studies in this area is experimental based on the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy (NPAH (Keenan & Comrie, 1977. In this study, the spontaneous speech production by a Japanese primary school child, learning English in a naturalistic environment, was audio-recorded regularly over two years, and the development of RC constructions was compared with the acquisition of other English morphological and syntactic structures as represented within Processability Theory (PT (Pienemann, 1998; Pienemann, Di Biase, & Kawaguchi, 2005; Pienemann & Keßler, 2011. Although PT predicts that subordinate clauses are acquired at the highest stage in processability hierarchy, the results in this longitudinal study show that some types of RC constructions emerge at earlier stages in L2 English acquisition. The results also show that RC constructions in the Japanese child’s English L2 develop in the similar way to those reported in L1 studies (e.g., Diessel, 2004.Keywords: relative clause constructions, English L2, Processability Theory, the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy, Japanese child

  9. ?????????? ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? L_2. I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???????? ?. ?.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available ? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? [0,+? ? ??????? L 2 ? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????????????? ????. ???????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????. ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? - ?????? ? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????????.Some problems of aproximations of functions on half-interval [0,+? in the L 2-metric with certain weight by entire functions of exponential growth are studied. Modules of continuity which used in problems are constructed with help of generalized translations of Bessel. Direct theorems of Jacson type are proved. Nikolskii - Besov type function spaces are defined and their description are obtained in terms of the best approximations.

  10. ?????????? ?????? ??????? ? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ? ??????? L_2.II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ???????? ?. ?.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available ? ?????? ??????????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??????????? ??????? ?? ?????????? [0, +?? ? ??????? L 2 ? ????????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????????????? ????. ???????????? ? ??????? ?????? ????????????? ???????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??????????? ?????? ???????. ???????? ?????? ??????? ?????????????? ????. ??????? ?????????????? ???????????? ???? ??????????? - ?????? ? ???????? ?? ???????? ? ???????? ????????? ???????????. ????????? ?????? ???????????? ????? ????????? ?????? [17], ?????????????? ? ?????????? ??????? "????? ??????. ???. ??????????". ?????? ???????? ????????? §3, ? ????? §4 ? §5. ????????? ?????? ?????????? ????????? ?????? ?????? [17].Some problems of aproximations of functions on half-interval [0,+oo in the L2-metric with certain weight by entire functions of exponential growth are studied. Modules of continuity which used in problems are constructed with help of generalized translations of Bessel. Direct theorems of Jacson type are proved. Nikolskii-Besov type function spaces are defined and their description are obtained in terms of the best approximations.

  11. Reading Aloud Activity in L2 and Cerebral Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Osamu; Ikeda, Maiko; Mizumoto, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the cerebral mechanism of reading aloud activities in L2 learners. These activities have been widely used in L2 learning and teaching, and its effect has been reported in various Asian L2 learning contexts. However, the reasons for its effectiveness have not been examined. In order to fill in this gap, two studies using a…

  12. Learning agglutinative morphology of indian languages with linguistically motivated adaptor grammars

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Arun; Padró, Lluís; Oliver González, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    In this paper an automatic morphology learning system for complex and agglutinative languages is presented. We process complex agglutinative morphology of Indian languages using Adaptor Grammars and linguistic rules of morphology. Adaptor Grammars are a compositional Bayesian framework for grammatical inference, where we define a morphological boundaries are inferred from a corpora of plain text. Once it produces morphological segmentation, regular expressions for orthography rules are applie...

  13. ZPD-Activated Languaging and Collaborative L2 Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Azizullah; Eslami, Zohreh R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent second/foreign language (L2) research has witnessed the application of sociocultural tenets to L2 classrooms. This study aimed to probe whether Iranian L2 learners' engagement in ZPD-activated collaborative dialogue, or "languaging", mediates their learning process and, specifically, their appropriate use of metadiscourse to…

  14. Combining Hand-crafted Rules and Unsupervised Learning in Constraint-based Morphological Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Oflazer, K; Oflazer, Kemal; Tur, Gokhan

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a constraint-based morphological disambiguation approach that is applicable languages with complex morphology--specifically agglutinative languages with productive inflectional and derivational morphological phenomena. In certain respects, our approach has been motivated by Brill's recent work, but with the observation that his transformational approach is not directly applicable to languages like Turkish. Our system combines corpus independent hand-crafted constraint rules, constraint rules that are learned via unsupervised learning from a training corpus, and additional statistical information from the corpus to be morphologically disambiguated. The hand-crafted rules are linguistically motivated and tuned to improve precision without sacrificing recall. The unsupervised learning process produces two sets of rules: (i) choose rules which choose morphological parses of a lexical item satisfying constraint effectively discarding other parses, and (ii) delete rules, which delete parses sati...

  15. Learning morphological phenomena of modern Greek an exploratory approach

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Kotsanis; A. Kokkinos Dimitrios; A.G. Manousopoulou; Papakonstantinou, G.

    1996-01-01

    Educational technology is influenced by and closely related to the fields of generative epistemology, Artificial Intelligence, and the learning sciences. Relevant research literature refers to the term constructionism (Papert, 1993) and exploratory learning (diSessa et al, 1995). Constructionism and exploratory learning are a synthesis of the constructivist theory of Piaget and the opportunities offered by technology to education on thinking concretely, on learning while constructing intellig...

  16. Morphological Awareness and Bilingual Word Learning: A Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko; Leong, Che Kan

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay-English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first…

  17. Variability in L2 acquisition of formulaic sequences: A study of linguistic factors in the use and learning of phrasal verbs by non-native speakers

    OpenAIRE

    Alejo González, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the acquisition of phrasal verbs (PVs) by L2 learners is explored from the perspective provided by a usage-based approach to language. This involves looking at low scope or item-specific schemas, which in this article are identified as the actual particles, prepositions and PVs used by the learners, together with the more abstract syntactic or semantic schemas that emerge from their use. Given the labour intensive work required by this type of analysis, the focus is placed o...

  18. HABILIDADES COMUNICATIVAS EN L2 MEDIATIZADAS POR LA TECNOLOGIA EN EL CONTEXTO DE LOS ENFOQUES POR TAREAS Y COOPERATIVO Habilidades comunicativas em L2 mediatizadas pela tecnologia no contexto dos enfoques por tarefas e cooperativo Communicative abilities in L2 mediated by technology in the context of task based teaching and cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie Quintanilla Espinoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este artículo es determinar cómo los principios metodológicos del enfoque basado en tareas, el aprendizaje cooperativo y la metodología CALL pueden ser utilizados de manera combinada en el diseño de actividades para el desarrollo de las habilidades lingüísticas. Con este objetivo, se explora evidencia empírica acerca de la efectividad de esta metodología en el aprendizaje de inglés como lengua extranjera en un estudio cuasiexperimental pre- y post- test grupo control. Los resultados obtenidos revelan un mayor incremento en el aprendizaje del grupo experimental que utilizó la metodología integrada en comparación con el grupo control que trabajó con una metodología tradicional. Esto sugiere que el uso combinado del enfoque basado en tareas, el aprendizaje cooperativo y la metodología CALL sería beneficioso para el desarrollo de las habilidades lingüísticas.O objetivo principal deste artigo é determinar como os princípios teóricos do enfoque baseado em tarefas, a aprendizagem cooperativa e a metodologia CALL podem ser utilizados de maneira combinada no desenho de atividades para a melhora das habilidades lingüísticas. Com este objetivo, explora-se a evidência empírica a respeito da efetividade desta metodologia na aprendizagem do inglês como língua estrangeira num estudo cuasi-experimental com um pré- e pós-teste e um grupo controle. Os resultados obtidos revelam um maior incremento na aprendizagem do grupo experimental que utilizou a metodologia integrada em comparação com o grupo controle que trabalhou com uma metodologia tradicional. Isto sugere que o uso combinado do enfoque baseado em tarefas, a aprendizagem cooperativa e a metodologia CALL seria benéfico para o desenvolvimento das habilidades lingüísticas.The main objective of this article is to portray how the theoretical principles of task-based teaching, cooperative learning and CALL can be used together in the design of activities for the improvement of linguistic abilities. To achieve this, empirical evidence was examined in order to determine the efficiency of this integrated methodology vs. The traditional one commonly used for teaching English as a foreign language. Both methods were contrasted and tested in an experimental pre/post test control group research design. the results show that the experimental group, which used the integrated methodology, had a considerable language improvement compared to the control group that used a traditional one. This suggests that an integrated methodology using the approach of the task-based teaching, the cooperative learning and CALL would be beneficial for the improvement of linguistic abilities.

  19. The Learner´s Mother Tongue in the L2 Learning-Teaching Symbiosis La lengua materna del estudiante en la simbiosis entre enseñanza y aprendizaje de una segunda lengua

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton Hitotuzi

    2006-01-01

    This paper has a two-fold purpose. One is to review the stances of language-oriented theorists, who are practicing foreign/second-language teachers and learners from various parts of the world, regarding the long-standing controversy over whether or not the learner´s mother tongue plays a positive role in the foreign/second-language learning-teaching context. A second purpose is to offer, from a non-native-speaker L2-teacher standpoint, some suggestions on when and how learners´ native langua...

  20. Analysis of LOFT Tests L2-2, L2-3 and L3-0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes LOFT Tests L2-2, L2-3, and L3-0 and presents conclusions reached from analysis of these tests. The LOFT L2 series of tests, called the power ascension series, originally consisted of six tests. The first four tests, L2-1 through L2-4, were identical except for step-wise increases in core power for each test. Comparison of these tests, and the nonnuclear Test L1-5, was planned to evaluate the effect of core power on system and ECC behavior during large cold leg break LOCA's. Tests L2-5 and L2-6 were to provide parametric investigations of the effect of loss of offsite power and prepressurized fuel. Prior to the start of the L2 series, it was decided Test L2-1 was not necessary due to the information learned from the LOFT nonnuclear tests and PBF lead rod tests. Tests L2-2 and L2-3 are described. The posttest analysis of Tests L2-2 and L2-3 is discussed, and conclusions reached from the comparisons of the experimental data to computer calculations presented. In addition, the results and implications of computer calculations on a commercial size PWR with the same model used for LOFT are presented. Finally, Test L3-0 is described and conclusions reached from it introduced

  1. Learning morphological phenomena of modern Greek an exploratory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kotsanis

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Educational technology is influenced by and closely related to the fields of generative epistemology, Artificial Intelligence, and the learning sciences. Relevant research literature refers to the term constructionism (Papert, 1993 and exploratory learning (diSessa et al, 1995. Constructionism and exploratory learning are a synthesis of the constructivist theory of Piaget and the opportunities offered by technology to education on thinking concretely, on learning while constructing intelligible entities, and on interacting with multimedia objects, rather than the direct acquisition of knowledge and facts. These views are based on the approach that learners can take substantial control of their own learning in an appropriately designed physical and cultural environment (Harel, 1991. In parallel, most of the studies of the Vygotskian framework focus on the role of language in the learning procedure, considering conceptual thought to be impossible outside an articulated verbal thinking. Moreover, the specific use of words is considered to be the most relevant cause for childhood and adolescent differentiation (Vygotsky, 1962.

  2. Teaching and Learning Morphology: A Reflection on Generative Vocabulary Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Shane

    2012-01-01

    Students' knowledge of morphology can play a critical role in vocabulary development, and by extension, reading comprehension and writing. This reflection describes the nature of this knowledge and how it may be developed through the examination of generative vocabulary knowledge and the role of the spelling system in developing this knowledge. In…

  3. Lexical representation of novel L2 contrasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Masuda, Kyoko

    2005-04-01

    There is much interest among psychologists and linguists in the influence of the native language sound system on the acquisition of second languages (Best, 1995; Flege, 1995). Most studies of second language (L2) speech focus on how learners perceive and produce L2 sounds, but we know of only two that have considered how novel sound contrasts are encoded in learners' lexical representations of L2 words (Pallier et al., 2001; Ota et al., 2002). In this study we investigated how native speakers of English encode Japanese consonant quantity contrasts in their developing Japanese lexicons at different stages of acquisition (Japanese contrasts singleton versus geminate consonants but English does not). Monolingual English speakers, native English speakers learning Japanese for one year, and native speakers of Japanese were taught a set of Japanese nonwords containing singleton and geminate consonants. Subjects then performed memory tasks eliciting perception and production data to determine whether they encoded the Japanese consonant quantity contrast lexically. Overall accuracy in these tasks was a function of Japanese language experience, and acoustic analysis of the production data revealed non-native-like patterns of differentiation of singleton and geminate consonants among the L2 learners of Japanese. Implications for theories of L2 speech are discussed.

  4. Discrepancies between L2 Teacher and L2 Learner Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabillon, Zehra

    2012-01-01

    This state of the art article overviews the literature on discrepancies between foreign language teacher and learner beliefs. In the first section, the author draws the reader's attention to the significance of discrepancies between the L2 teacher and L2 learner perceptions and provides a synopsis of both practical-anecdotal and empirical evidence…

  5. The ideal L2 selves of Japanese learners of English

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This thesis attempts to reinterpret language learning motivation through a consideration of the possibilities of applying theories of the self to L2 motivation theory. There were two overriding aims guiding my research; firstly to empirically test theoretical proposals suggesting that the concept of an ideal L2 self may represent a more effective base for understanding L2 motivation, and secondly to explore the possibilities suggested by this approach within the context of the Japanese Englis...

  6. Similarity in L2 Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Shannon L.

    2013-01-01

    Adult second language (L2) learners often experience difficulty producing and perceiving non-native phonological contrasts. Even highly proficient bilinguals, who have been exposed to an L2 for long periods of time, struggle with difficult contrasts, such as /r/-/l/ for Japanese learners of English. To account for the relative ease or difficulty…

  7. Similarity in L2 Phonology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Shannon L.

    2013-01-01

    Adult second language (L2) learners often experience difficulty producing and perceiving non-native phonological contrasts. Even highly proficient bilinguals, who have been exposed to an L2 for long periods of time, struggle with difficult contrasts, such as /r/-/l/ for Japanese learners of English. To account for the relative ease or difficulty…

  8. On the Relationship between Iranian L2 Teachers' Pedagogical Beliefs and L2 Learners' Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharajabian, Maryam; Hashemian, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    The present study employed a descriptive survey design to investigate L2 learners' attitudes towards language learning, and the possible effects of teachers' beliefs on learners' attitudes. Participants were chosen from among 2 groups: Twenty EFL teachers were asked to take part in this study and 80 from a pool of 213 learners at 2 language…

  9. L2 Motivation and Personality as Predictors of the Second Language Proficiency: Role of the Big Five Traits and L2 Motivational Self System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zargham Ghapanchi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This study examined the predictability of the L2 proficiency by personality and L2 motivational self system variables among 141 Iranian EFL university students. Participants completed Transparent Bipolar Inventory (Goldberg, 1992 as a personality measure, L2 motivational self system (Papi, 2010, and a self-rated measure of second language proficiency. Regression analyses showed that extroversion and openness to experience accounted for 13% of the variance in L2 proficiency; and ideal L2 self and L2 learning experience accounted for 35% of the variance in L2 proficiency. Further, extroversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and openness explained 25% of the variance of in ideal L2 self; neuroticism and conscientiousness explained 24% of the variance in ought-to L2 self; and conscientiousness and extroversion explained 26% of the variance in L2 learning experience. Hierarchical regressions also showed that L2 motivation is a more powerful predictor of L2 proficiency.

    Key words: Second language proficiency; Big Five traits; Ideal L2 self; Ought to L2 self; L2 learning experience; Motivation

  10. Unsupervised Discovery of Phonological Categories through Supervised Learning of Morphological Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Daelemans, W; Gillis, S; Daelemans, Walter; Berck, Peter; Gillis, Steven

    1996-01-01

    We describe a case study in the application of {\\em symbolic machine learning} techniques for the discovery of linguistic rules and categories. A supervised rule induction algorithm is used to learn to predict the correct diminutive suffix given the phonological representation of Dutch nouns. The system produces rules which are comparable to rules proposed by linguists. Furthermore, in the process of learning this morphological task, the phonemes used are grouped into phonologically relevant categories. We discuss the relevance of our method for linguistics and language technology.

  11. Children benefit from morphological relatedness when they learn to spell new words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SebastienPacton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Use of morphologically related words often helps in selecting among spellings of sounds in French. For instance, final /wa/ may be spelled oi (e.g., envoi ‘sendoff’, oit (e.g., exploit ‘exploit’, ois (e.g., siamois, ‘siamese’, or oie (e.g., joie ‘joy’. The morphologically complex word exploiter ‘to exploit’, with a pronounced t, can be used to indicate that the stem exploit is spelled with a silent t. We asked whether 8-year-old children benefited from such cues to learn new spellings. Children read silently stories which included two target nonwords, one presented in an opaque condition and the other in a morphological condition. In the opaque condition, the sentence provided semantic information (e.g., a vensois is a musical instrument but no morphological information that could justify the spelling of the target word’s final sound. Such justification was available in the morphological condition (e.g., the vensoisist plays the vensois instrument, which justifies that vensois includes a final silent s. Thirty minutes after having read the stories, children’s orthographic learning was assessed by asking them to choose the correct spelling of each nonword from among three phonologically plausible alternatives (e.g., vensois, vensoit, vensoie. Children chose correct spellings more often in the morphological condition than the opaque condition, even though the root (vensois had been presented equally often in both conditions. That is, children benefited from information about the spelling of the morphologically complex word to learn the spelling of the stem.

  12. Fault-tolerant gait learning and morphology optimization of a polymorphic walking robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Stoy, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    optimize eight open parameters of a central pattern generator based gait implementation. We observe that the strategy converges in roughly ten minutes to gaits of similar or higher velocity than a manually designed gait and that the strategy readapts in the event of failed actuators. We also optimize......This paper presents experiments with a morphology-independent, life-long strategy for online learning of locomotion gaits. The experimental platform is a quadruped robot assembled from the LocoKit modular robotic construction kit. The learning strategy applies a stochastic optimization algorithm to...... offline the reachable space of a foot based on a reference design but finds that the reality gap hardens the successfully transference to the physical robot. To address this limitation, in future work we plan to study co-learning of morphological and control parameters directly on physical robots....

  13. Variations autour de la tâche dans l'enseignement / apprentissage des langues aujourd'hui What kind of tasks are used for L2 teaching and learning today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Nissen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se donne pour objectif d'identifier les types de tâches, et leurs dénominateurs communs, qui sont présentés aujourd'hui – où "l'approche par les tâches" est soutenue par le Conseil de l'Europe – aux apprenants. Il analyse pour cela les articles issus de deux numéros de revues et un ouvrage collectif récents. Il apparaît que la grande majorité des scénarios pédagogiques s'y inscrit dans la perspective actionnelle... du moins d'après la déclaration des auteurs, car leur définition de ce qu'est une tâche ne correspond pas toujours à celle du CECR. Pour le public visé, étudiants ou professionnels, on propose le plus souvent des mono-tâches, mais également des projets, ou encore des simulations avec un enchaînement de plusieurs tâches. Elles s'inscrivent généralement dans la (future réalité sociale des apprenants, mais certaines laissent également la place à des thèmes artistiques ou (interculturels. Contrairement à ce que l'on aurait pu attendre dans une démarche qui responsabilise l'apprenant, le recours à Internet n'est pas toujours systématique.At a time when action- and task-based learning is sustained by the European Council, this paper explores which types of tasks are given to second language learners today and what aspects these tasks have in common. The paper analyses two recent issues of scientific journals and one collective book. The analysis shows that the majority of pedagogical scenarios described in these texts claim to adopt an action- and task-based approach. However, in reality the way they define a task does not always correspond to the definition given by the European Framework of Reference for Languages. The described tasks are exclusively dedicated to higher and professional education; they are mostly single tasks, but they can also be projects and simulations including several successive tasks. They generally correspond to the learners' (future reality, with themes that are nevertheless sometimes a little bit less “pragmatic”, like artistic or (intercultural ones. Contrary to what one might have expected within an approach that gives responsibility to the learner and where public access to the learners' productions is valued, the pedagogical scenarios do not systematically integrate the use of the Internet.

  14. Brain morphology correlates of interindividual differences in conditioned fear acquisition and extinction learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Tobias; Grimm, Oliver; Pohlack, Sebastian T; Nees, Frauke; Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Dinu-Biringer, Ramona; Steiger, Frauke; Wicking, Manon; Ruttorf, Michaela; Schad, Lothar R; Flor, Herta

    2016-05-01

    The neural circuits underlying fear learning have been intensively investigated in pavlovian fear conditioning paradigms across species. These studies established a predominant role for the amygdala in fear acquisition, while the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been shown to be important in the extinction of conditioned fear. However, studies on morphological correlates of fear learning could not consistently confirm an association with these structures. The objective of the present study was to investigate if interindividual differences in morphology of the amygdala and the vmPFC are related to differences in fear acquisition and extinction learning in humans. We performed structural magnetic resonance imaging in 68 healthy participants who underwent a differential cued fear conditioning paradigm. Volumes of subcortical structures as well as cortical thickness were computed by the semi-automated segmentation software Freesurfer. Stronger acquisition of fear as indexed by skin conductance responses was associated with larger right amygdala volume, while the degree of extinction learning was positively correlated with cortical thickness of the right vmPFC. Both findings could be conceptually replicated in an independent sample of 53 subjects. The data complement our understanding of the role of human brain morphology in the mechanisms of the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear. PMID:25716297

  15. Negative evidence in L2 acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dahl

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the L2 acquisition of differences between Norwegian and English passives, and presents data to show that the acquisition of these differences by Norwegian L2 acquirers of English cannot be fully explained by positive evidence, cues, conservativism or economy. Rather, it is argued, it is natural to consider whether indirect negative evidence may facilitate acquisition by inferencing. The structures in focus are impersonal passive constructions with postverbal NPs and passive constructions with intransitive verbs. These sentences are ungrammatical in English. Chomsky (1981 proposes that this is a result of passive morphology absorbing objective case in English. There is no such case to be assigned to the postverbal NP in impersonal passives. In passive constructions with intransitive verbs, the verb does not assign objective case, so that there is no case for the passive morphology to absorb. Thus, impersonal passives have to be changed into personal passives, where the NP receives nominative case, and the objective case is free to go to the passive morphology. Intransitive verbs, however, cannot be used in the passive voice at all. Both the structures discussed in this article, i.e. are grammatical in Norwegian. However, the options available in English, viz. personal passives and active sentences, are equally possible. Åfarli (1992 therefore proposes that Norwegian has optional case absorption (passive morphology optionally absorbs case. On the basis on such observations, we may propose a parameter with the settings [+case absorption] for English, and [-case absorption], signifying optional case absorption, for Norwegian. This means that none of the structures that are grammatical in English can function as positive evidence for the [+case absorption] setting, since they are also grammatical in optional case absorption languages. The question is how this parameter is set.

  16. Comments on Stefka H. Marinova-Todd, D. Bradford Marshall, and Catherine E. Snow's "Three Misconceptions About Age and L2 Learning" [and] Age and L2 Learning: The Hazards of Matching Practical "Implications" with Theoretical "Facts" [and] Missing the Point: A Response to Hyltenstam and Abrahamsson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyltenstam, Kenneth; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Marshall, D. Bradford; Snow, Catherine E.

    2001-01-01

    Offers comments on an earlier article on age and second language learning, and questions the authors' of that article's interpretation of the research they reviewed. The authors of the original article respond to these comments and questions. (Author/VWL)

  17. Automatic Feedback for L2 Prosody Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bonneau, Anne; Colotte, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    We have designed automatic feedback for the realisation of the prosody of a foreign language. Besides classical F0 displays, two kinds of feedback are provided to learners, each of them based upon a comparison between a reference and the learner's production. The first feedback, a diagnosis, provided both in the form of a short text and visual displays such as arrows, comes from an acoustic evaluation of the learner's realisation; it deals with two prosodic cues: the melodic curve, and phonem...

  18. L2 and L3 integrated learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer; Wagner, Johannes

    This study offers an empirical account of the use of English in Danish-as-a-foreign-language classroom settings. We will refer to English as the lingua franca - which in itself is a second language for the majority of the participants in the data - and to Danish as the target language. We consider...

  19. Digital and traditional slides for teaching cellular morphology: a comparative analysis of learning outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, Brooke L

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in technology have brought forth an intriguing new tool for teaching hematopoietic cellular identification skills: the digital slide. Although digitized slides offer a number of appealing options for educators, little research has been done to examine how their utilization would impact learning outcomes. To fill that void, this study was designed to examine student performance, skill retention and transferability, and self-efficacy beliefs amongst undergraduate MLS students learning cellular morphology with digital versus traditional slides. Results showed that students learning with digital slides performed better on assessments containing only traditional slide specimens than students learning with traditional slides, both immediately following the learning activity and after a considerable duration of time. Students learning with digital slides also reported slightly higher levels of self-efficacy related to cellular identification. The findings of this study suggest that students learning cellular identification skills with digital slides are able to transfer that skill directly to traditional slides, and that their ability to identify cells is not negatively affected in present or future settings. PMID:23397880

  20. Authenticity in oral communication of instructed L2 learners

    OpenAIRE

    Nowicka, Agnieszka; Wilczyńska, Weronika

    2011-01-01

    The skill of producing oral discourse in L2 is commonly considered to be difficult to foster in instructional setting. However, the main problem appears to be ensuring an authenticity of speaking both in personal, internal sense and in the social, socio-linguistic dimension. The main claim of here-discussed person centered approach is that both of these dimensions, although distinct, do not need to be treated in L2 learning as systematically separate and incompatible ones. On the contrary,...

  1. Development of Relative Clause Constructions in English L2

    OpenAIRE

    Yumiko Yamaguchi; Satomi Kawaguchi

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how relative clause (RC) constructions develop in the acquisition of English as a second language (L2). The acquisition of RC constructions has been the focus of much research in the field of language acquisition, but a majority of L2 studies in this area is experimental based on the Noun Phrase Accessibility Hierarchy (NPAH) (Keenan & Comrie, 1977). In this study, the spontaneous speech production by a Japanese primary school child, learning English in a naturalistic ...

  2. Combining human and machine learning for morphological analysis of galaxy images

    CERN Document Server

    Kuminski, Evan; Wallin, John; Shamir, Lior

    2014-01-01

    The increasing importance of digital sky surveys collecting many millions of galaxy images has reinforced the need for robust methods that can perform morphological analysis of large galaxy image databases. Citizen science initiatives such as Galaxy Zoo showed that large datasets of galaxy images can be analyzed effectively by non-scientist volunteers, but since databases generated by robotic telescopes grow much faster than the processing power of any group of citizen scientists, it is clear that computer analysis is required. Here we propose to use citizen science data for training machine learning systems, and show experimental results demonstrating that machine learning systems can be trained with citizen science data. Our findings show that the performance of machine learning depends on the quality of the data, which can be improved by using samples that have a high degree of agreement between the citizen scientists. The source code of the method is publicly available.

  3. Combining Human and Machine Learning for Morphological Analysis of Galaxy Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuminski, Evan; George, Joe; Wallin, John; Shamir, Lior

    2014-10-01

    The increasing importance of digital sky surveys collecting many millions of galaxy images has reinforced the need for robust methods that can perform morphological analysis of large galaxy image databases. Citizen science initiatives such as Galaxy Zoo showed that large data sets of galaxy images can be analyzed effectively by nonscientist volunteers, but since databases generated by robotic telescopes grow much faster than the processing power of any group of citizen scientists, it is clear that computer analysis is required. Here, we propose to use citizen science data for training machine learning systems, and show experimental results demonstrating that machine learning systems can be trained with citizen science data. Our findings show that the performance of machine learning depends on the quality of the data, which can be improved by using samples that have a high degree of agreement between the citizen scientists. The source code of the method is publicly available.

  4. L2-proficiency-dependent laterality shift in structural connectivity of brain language pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, H.; Van Leeuwen, T; Dediu, D.; Roberts, L.; Norris, D.; Hagoort, P.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests and DTI scans were obtained from German students before and after they completed an intensive 6-week course of the Dutch language. In the initial learning stage, with increasing L2 proficiency, th...

  5. L1 and L2 Strategy Use in Reading Comprehension of Chinese EFL Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yea-Ru; Ernst, Cheryl; Talley, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    This study revealed the relationship between L1 (Mandarin Chinese) and L2 (English) strategy use in L2 reading comprehension by focusing on the correlation of L1 reading ability, L2 proficiency and employed reading strategies. The participants, 222 undergraduates learning English as a foreign language (EFL), were classified into skilled and…

  6. CALL--Enhanced L2 Listening Skills--Aiming for Automatization in a Multimedia Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Maria Jesus Blasco

    2009-01-01

    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening…

  7. Distinct morphological processing of recently learned compound words: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczer, Laura; Timmer, Kalinka; Bavassi, Luz; Schiller, Niels O

    2015-12-10

    Our vocabulary is, at least in principle, infinite. We can create new words combining existing ones in meaningful ways to form new linguistic expressions. The present study investigated the morphological processing of novel compound words in overt speech production. Native speakers of Dutch learned a series of new compounds (e.g. appelgezicht, 'apple-face') that were later used as primes in a morphological priming task. In this protocol, primes were compound words morphologically related to a target's picture name (e.g. appelgezicht was used for a picture of an apple, Dutch appel). The novel primes were compared with corresponding familiar compounds sharing a free morpheme (e.g. appelmoes, 'applesauce') and with unrelated compounds. Participants were required to read aloud words and to name pictures in a long-lag design. Behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) data were collected in two sessions, separated by 48h. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological related words. Notably, our results show that novel compounds have a stronger priming effect than familiar compounds in both sessions, which is expressed in a marked reduction in target naming latencies and a decrease in the N400 amplitude. These results suggest that participants focused more on the separate constituents when reading novel primes than in the case of existing compounds. PMID:26505918

  8. A Study of Age Influence in L2 Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Chao Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The study of the second language (L2) acquisition has drawn more and more attention since the 1960s. This paper tries to explore the influence of learners’ age factor as well as the other factors related to age in L2 acquisition. Considering the fact that most learners are adolescents and adults in the current foreign language education, we find it quite necessary to compare and analyze their advantages and disadvantages in foreign language learning and their learning styles, so as to improve...

  9. La création de pages Internet dans le cadre de parcours individualisé : la place de la méthodologie dans l'apprentissage des langues. Creating Internet Pages for L2 Self-learning : Where Methodology Fits In

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joline Boulon

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Les projets en ligne tracent un parcours utile pour un travail de compréhension globale, et c’est donc à partir du projet que nous cherchons à développer une méthodologie précise pour les tâches que nous demandons aux apprenants. Cependant, l’input compréhensible n’est pas suffisant pour un apprentissage de toutes les compétences d’une L2. Un travail qui ne demande jamais d’analyse au niveau de la structure de la langue ou des formes ne peut pas sensibiliser suffisamment les apprenants pour qu’ils aient une interlangue qui se développe. Il nous semble que le projet doit être inscrit dans un cadre qui trace un parcours méthodologique très précis tout en permettant à l’apprenant un travail autant de précision que de compréhension globale. Nous prenons un exemple pour illustrer ce que nous sommes en train de créer sur les pages Internet.On line language projects suggest worthwhile steps to take for overall comprehension work, which is why we have chosen to use projects to develop a specific methodology for tasks that we have our learners do. However, comprehensible input is insufficient for learning all of the language skills. Work that never demands an analysis of language structure or form cannot make learners sufficiently aware of the language in order to have their interlanguage develop. It seems to us that projects should include a very specific methodology that allows learners to work on precision as well as overall comprehension. We discuss an example of the pages we are in the process of creating on Internet.

  10. Teaching L2 Spanish Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, Anita K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of training on the perception of Spanish stress, an important feature in the Spanish verbal morphology system. Participants were two intact classes of native English speakers enrolled in a six-week session of second-semester Spanish, as well as native English and native Spanish control groups. During the…

  11. Teaching L2 Spanish Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, Anita K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of training on the perception of Spanish stress, an important feature in the Spanish verbal morphology system. Participants were two intact classes of native English speakers enrolled in a six-week session of second-semester Spanish, as well as native English and native Spanish control groups. During the…

  12. Personalized versus Normal Practice of L2 Speaking on Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Ayda Rahmani

    2015-01-01

    Personalized learning is a self-initiated, self-directed or self-prioritized pursuit which gives the learner a degree of choice about the process of learning i.e. what to learn, how to learn and when to learn. Of course personalized learning does not indicate unlimited choice; because, L2 learners will still have targets to be met. However, it provides learners with the opportunity to learn in ways that suit their individual learning styles. The L2 learner should have the opportunity to freel...

  13. A morphological perceptron with gradient-based learning for Brazilian stock market forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ricardo de A

    2012-04-01

    Several linear and non-linear techniques have been proposed to solve the stock market forecasting problem. However, a limitation arises from all these techniques and is known as the random walk dilemma (RWD). In this scenario, forecasts generated by arbitrary models have a characteristic one step ahead delay with respect to the time series values, so that, there is a time phase distortion in stock market phenomena reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a suitable model inspired by concepts in mathematical morphology (MM) and lattice theory (LT). This model is generically called the increasing morphological perceptron (IMP). Also, we present a gradient steepest descent method to design the proposed IMP based on ideas from the back-propagation (BP) algorithm and using a systematic approach to overcome the problem of non-differentiability of morphological operations. Into the learning process we have included a procedure to overcome the RWD, which is an automatic correction step that is geared toward eliminating time phase distortions that occur in stock market phenomena. Furthermore, an experimental analysis is conducted with the IMP using four complex non-linear problems of time series forecasting from the Brazilian stock market. Additionally, two natural phenomena time series are used to assess forecasting performance of the proposed IMP with other non financial time series. At the end, the obtained results are discussed and compared to results found using models recently proposed in the literature. PMID:22391234

  14. L2 Reading Perceptions of Learners of Japanese: The Influence of the Reading Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata-Sandom, Mitsue

    2015-01-01

    The nature of learning to read in a second and foreign language (L2) can be more challenging when compared to learning other subjects. Therefore, the influence of instruction given in L2 classrooms cannot be underestimated. A balanced instruction needs to be taken in order to develop learners' reading proficiency and their motivation to read. This…

  15. Translation and Short-Term L2 Vocabulary Retention: Hindrance or Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the role that active translation may have in second language (L2) vocabulary learning. Some research suggests that translation might be an effective cognitive strategy for L2 vocabulary learning. Participants were 191 native French-speaking students enrolled in a TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) program.The study…

  16. Review of Social Interaction and L2 Classroom Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    aus der Wieschen, Maria Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    insufficient knowledge (as previously described by Sert 2011) – and their resolutions. Sert defines “L2” as “an umbrella term that stands for a(n) second/foreign/additional language used in an instructed language learning setting” (p.1) – and throughout his book he uses a diverse dataset, ranging from language...

  17. Learner Negotiation of L2 Form in Transcription Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennim, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Negotiation of language form is thought to engage learning processes by helping learners to notice gaps in their developing L2 and find target-like ways of filling them. Self-transcription, where learners work together to find language errors in recordings of their own oral output, is an awareness raising exercise that encourages such negotiation.…

  18. Instructors' Attitudes towards CALL and MALL in L2 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, James W.; Lambacher, Stephen; Reedy, David W.

    2015-01-01

    As part of an ongoing study on learners' and instructors' attitudes toward the use of computers and mobile devices in second-language (L2) learning situations, our purpose here is to identify how language instructors value the use of computers and mobile devices in their teaching. We compare the responses of a survey administered during the past…

  19. Selective Listening in L2 Learners of French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Suzanne; Santos, Denise

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the issue raised in 2008 by Gillian Brown in her article "Selective listening" regarding whether nouns are "privileged" in memory over verbs during listening tasks, and whether attention to nouns, at least in the early stages of L2 learning, is a desirable strategy to be taught to learners, as Brown suggests it might be. The…

  20. L(2)-cohomology of arithmetic varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, L; Stern, M

    1987-08-01

    The L(2)-cohomology of arithmetic quotients of bounded symmetric domains is studied. We establish the conjecture of Zucker equating the L(2)-cohomology of these spaces to the intersection cohomology of their Baily-Borel compactifications. PMID:16593866

  1. L2-cohomology of arithmetic varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, Leslie; Stern, Mark

    1987-01-01

    The L2-cohomology of arithmetic quotients of bounded symmetric domains is studied. We establish the conjecture of Zucker equating the L2-cohomology of these spaces to the intersection cohomology of their Baily-Borel compactifications. PMID:16593866

  2. A interação e o processo de negociação em L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Eliana Bassi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma investigação sobre a interação e as negociações desencadeadas por atividades comunicativas em uma sala de aula de nível básico de francês como segunda língua (L2. A partir da teoria sociointeracionista (Vygotsky, 1998, os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o processo interacional incentiva a troca de informações entre os aprendizes, favorecendo a negociação, e, também, que os aprendizes utilizaram estratégias de mediação para realizar as suas negociações. Os aprendizes receberam input modificado e tiveram mais oportunidades para a produção de output compreensível. Este relato, portanto, mostra que, ao negociar para a compreensão e a produção de textos em L2, os aprendizes se comprometeram, tornando-se agentes responsáveis e, sobretudo, colaboradores do processo de ensino/aprendizagem da L2.This paper investigated the interaction and the negotiations generated by communicative activities proposed in a French as a second language (L2 basic class. Based on the socio-interactionist theory (Vygotsky, 1998, the results show that the interactional process encourages the exchange of information among learners, helping negotiation. Besides that, learners also use mediating strategies to do the negotiations. The learners receive modified input and have more opportunities to produce comprehensible output. This paper, therefore, shows that, to negotiate, to understand and to produce L2 texts, the learners committed themselves, becoming responsible agents, and, above all, collaborators in the L2 learning/teaching process.

  3. A interação e o processo de negociação em L2

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia Eliana, Bassi; Deise Prina, Dutra.

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma investigação sobre a interação e as negociações desencadeadas por atividades comunicativas em uma sala de aula de nível básico de francês como segunda língua (L2). A partir da teoria sociointeracionista (Vygotsky, 1998), os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o processo i [...] nteracional incentiva a troca de informações entre os aprendizes, favorecendo a negociação, e, também, que os aprendizes utilizaram estratégias de mediação para realizar as suas negociações. Os aprendizes receberam input modificado e tiveram mais oportunidades para a produção de output compreensível. Este relato, portanto, mostra que, ao negociar para a compreensão e a produção de textos em L2, os aprendizes se comprometeram, tornando-se agentes responsáveis e, sobretudo, colaboradores do processo de ensino/aprendizagem da L2. Abstract in english This paper investigated the interaction and the negotiations generated by communicative activities proposed in a French as a second language (L2) basic class. Based on the socio-interactionist theory (Vygotsky, 1998), the results show that the interactional process encourages the exchange of informa [...] tion among learners, helping negotiation. Besides that, learners also use mediating strategies to do the negotiations. The learners receive modified input and have more opportunities to produce comprehensible output. This paper, therefore, shows that, to negotiate, to understand and to produce L2 texts, the learners committed themselves, becoming responsible agents, and, above all, collaborators in the L2 learning/teaching process.

  4. Forming a Clearer Image of the Ideal L2 Self: The L2 Motivational Self System and Learner Autonomy in a Japanese EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Michiko; Takeuchi, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Research on the L2 Motivational Self System has drawn considerable attention in Second Language Acquisition. Previous studies have discussed the system itself, its basic concepts and their relationships to such affective variables as anxiety in various L2 learning contexts. The findings of these studies suggest that (1) having a clearer image of…

  5. Orthographic Learning Through Self-Teaching: Effects of Decoding Accuracy, Decoding Speed, Word Length, Morphology, and Individual Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, Maria Deborah

    2011-01-01

    AbstractOrthographic Learning Through Self-Teaching: Effects of Decoding Accuracy, Decoding Speed, Word Length, Morphology, and Individual DifferencesbyMaria Deborah CallahanDoctor of Philosophy in EducationUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Anne E. Cunningham, ChairThe self-teaching hypothesis (Share, 1995) posits that readers learn the orthography of new words incidentally through the process of phonological recoding. In the current study, the self-teaching hypothesis was tested b...

  6. Noun, Verb, or Adjective? L2 Learners' Sensitivity to Cues to Word Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyzik, Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates learners' knowledge of word classes (i.e. noun, verb, adjective) in their second language (L2). Although some L2 studies have examined the problem of word class indirectly through a focus on vocabulary and the teaching of derivational morphology (Morin, 2003, 2006; Schmitt & Zimmerman, 2002), little is known about learners'…

  7. Measurements of Development in L2 Written Production: The Case of L2 Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenying

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates measures for second language (L2) writing development. A T-unit, which has been found the most satisfactory unit of analysis for measuring L2 development in English, is extended to measure L2 Chinese writing development through a cross-sectional design in this study. Data were collected from three L2 Chinese learner groups…

  8. ASC Trilab L2 Codesign Milestone 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trott, Christian Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Simon David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dinge, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lin, Paul T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vaughan, Courtenay T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cook, Jeanine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Edwards, Harold C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rajan, Mahesh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoekstra, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    For the FY15 ASC L2 Trilab Codesign milestone Sandia National Laboratories performed two main studies. The first study investigated three topics (performance, cross-platform portability and programmer productivity) when using OpenMP directives and the RAJA and Kokkos programming models available from LLNL and SNL respectively. The focus of this first study was the LULESH mini-application developed and maintained by LLNL. In the coming sections of the report the reader will find performance comparisons (and a demonstration of portability) for a variety of mini-application implementations produced during this study with varying levels of optimization. Of note is that the implementations utilized including optimizations across a number of programming models to help ensure claims that Kokkos can provide native-class application performance are valid. The second study performed during FY15 is a performance assessment of the MiniAero mini-application developed by Sandia. This mini-application was developed by the SIERRA Thermal-Fluid team at Sandia for the purposes of learning the Kokkos programming model and so is available in only a single implementation. For this report we studied its performance and scaling on a number of machines with the intent of providing insight into potential performance issues that may be experienced when similar algorithms are deployed on the forthcoming Trinity ASC ATS platform.

  9. Peer Review Practices of L2 Doctoral Students in the Natural Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Sandström, Karyn

    2016-01-01

    Writing research articles in English is a common requirement in doctoral studies in the natural sciences; however, learning to write the research article genre is challenging, particularly in a foreign language (L2). A potential resource for learning the RA genre is giving and receiving peer review. L2 writers at the undergraduate level have been found to benefit from PR, but less  is known about the learning of L2 writers at the graduate level who are writing for specialized discourse commun...

  10. Identifying Correlation between Reading Strategies Instruction and L2 Text Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Sumaira Qanwal; Shahzad Karim

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims at exploring correlation between reading strategies instruction and proficiency in text comprehension. The task is carried out by investigating the current practices of teaching and learning of L2 reading comprehension skills of the higher level L2 learners of English in Pakistan. In this regard, initially, the extent to which teachers incorporate reading strategies instruction into their teaching of ESL reading skills is analyzed; and students’ proficiency in L2 ...

  11. CALL-enhanced L2 listening skills – aiming for automatization in a multimedia environment

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco Mayor, María Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening comprehension research, as they are the foundations of our methodological proposal. It also establishes a set of criteria for the design and pedagogical ex...

  12. Phantom Word Activation in L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broersma, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne

    2008-01-01

    L2 listening can involve the phantom activation of words which are not actually in the input. All spoken-word recognition involves multiple concurrent activation of word candidates, with selection of the correct words achieved by a process of competition between them. L2 listening involves more such activation than L1 listening, and we report two…

  13. L2 English Intonation: Relations between Form-Meaning Associations, Access to Meaning, and L1 Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Llebaria, Marta; Colantoni, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Although there is consistent evidence that higher levels of processing, such as learning the form-meaning associations specific to the second language (L2), are a source of difficulty in acquiring L2 speech, no study has addressed how these levels interact in shaping L2 perception and production of intonation. We examine the hypothesis of whether…

  14. L2 English Intonation: Relations between Form-Meaning Associations, Access to Meaning, and L1 Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Llebaria, Marta; Colantoni, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Although there is consistent evidence that higher levels of processing, such as learning the form-meaning associations specific to the second language (L2), are a source of difficulty in acquiring L2 speech, no study has addressed how these levels interact in shaping L2 perception and production of intonation. We examine the hypothesis of whether…

  15. Long-Term Crosslinguistic Transfer of Skills from L1 to L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of first language (L1) skills in elementary school and second language (L2) learning in high school. Students classified as high-, average-, and low-proficiency L2 learners were compared on L1 achievement measures of reading, spelling, vocabulary, phonological awareness, and listening comprehension…

  16. L2-Proficiency-Dependent Laterality Shift in Structural Connectivity of Brain Language Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Huadong; van Leeuwen, Tessa Marije; Dediu, Dan; Roberts, Leah; Norris, David G; Hagoort, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests and DTI scans were obtained from German students before and after they completed an intensive 6-week course of the Dutch language. In the initial learning stage, with increasing L2 proficiency, the hemispheric dominance of the Brodmann area (BA) 6-temporal pathway (mainly along the arcuate fasciculus) shifted from the left to the right hemisphere. With further increased proficiency, however, lateralization dominance was again found in the left BA6-temporal pathway. This result is consistent with reports in the literature that imply a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere in L2 processing especially for less proficient L2 speakers. This is the first time that an L2 proficiency-dependent laterality shift in the structural connectivity of language pathways during L2 acquisition has been observed to shift from left to right and back to left hemisphere dominance with increasing L2 proficiency. The authors additionally find that changes in fractional anisotropy values after the course are related to the time elapsed between the two scans. The results suggest that structural connectivity in (at least part of) the perisylvian language network may be subject to fast dynamic changes following language learning. PMID:25594261

  17. A Review of Multimedia Glosses and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in CALL Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, Mohammed Ali; Balakumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the literature of multimedia glosses in computer assisted language learning (CALL) and their effects on L2 vocabulary acquisition during the past seventeen years. Several studies have touched on this area to examine the potential of multimedia in a CALL environment in aiding L2 vocabulary acquisition. In this review, the…

  18. The Impact of CLIL on L2 Vocabulary Development and Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthou, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines whether students involved in CLIL are able to learn content through the medium of L2 and simultaneously exhibit significant gains in L2 vocabulary knowledge. Two experiments were set up in two public primary schools. Two groups of 6th grade students participated in each experiment. The first group was taught three 80-minute…

  19. L2 and L3 Ultimate Attainment: An Investigation of Two Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermas, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the upper limit of ultimate attainment in the L2 French and L3 English of trilingual learners. The learners are native speakers of Moroccan Arabic who started learning L2 French at eight and L3 English at 16. They are advanced in both languages. Four constructions representing the verb movement and null subject parameter were…

  20. L2 and L3 Ultimate Attainment: An Investigation of Two Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermas, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the upper limit of ultimate attainment in the L2 French and L3 English of trilingual learners. The learners are native speakers of Moroccan Arabic who started learning L2 French at eight and L3 English at 16. They are advanced in both languages. Four constructions representing the verb movement and null subject parameter were…

  1. The Ethnic Group Affiliation and L2 Proficiency Link: Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    With economic globalisation making second language (L2) learning inevitable throughout the world, understanding what factors facilitate success is a socioeconomic necessity. This paper examined the role of social factors, those related to ethnic group affiliation (EGA), in the development of L2 proficiency. Although numerous studies have…

  2. College Students' Possible L2 Self Development in an EFL Context during the Transition Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ying; Wan, Zhi Hong

    2016-01-01

    In the field of second language learning motivation, the studies on process-oriented nature of possible L2 selves are scarce. In order to address this research gap, this study explored how a group of five Chinese non-English-major undergraduates developed their possible L2 selves during the transition year from high school to university. The…

  3. Relations among L1 Reading, L2 Knowledge, and L2 Reading: Revisiting the Threshold Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gi-Pyo

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to test the threshold hypothesis in second/foreign language (L2) reading by investigating the relations among first language (L1) reading, L2 knowledge, and L2 reading comprehension in a sample of 2666 (1333 males and 1333 females) Korean EFL high school students. Three different methods of data analysis were utilized after…

  4. Does Measuring L2 Utterance Fluency Equal Measuring Overall L2 Proficiency? Evidence from Five Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Smemoe, Wendy; Dewey, Dan P.; Bown, Jennifer; Martinsen, Rob A.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between overall second language (L2) proficiency and utterance fluency measures for several L2s in order to determine whether utterance measures can be used to predict L2 proficiency. The study measured the speech rate, number of hesitations, number and length of pauses, number and length of runs, and…

  5. Missing Inflection in L2 French: Accidental Infinitives and Other Verbal Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschensohn, Julia

    2001-01-01

    Reexamines the morphology/functional category debate in light of empirical data drawn from a longitudinal study of two intermediate learners of French as a second language (L2). Argues that inflectional deficits--which appear as both nonfinite verbs and as other morphological errors in the interlanguage data--support neither a codependence of…

  6. EX1304L2 Dive Operations Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All information and available data about Dive Operations on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1304L2: Northeast U.S. Canyons Exploration between 20130731 and...

  7. L(2) Cohomology of the Bergman metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, H; Fefferman, C

    1983-05-01

    The L(2) cohomology of the Bergman metric is infinite dimensional in the middle degree and vanishes for all other degrees. Asymptotic expansions are given for the Schwartz kernels of the corresponding projections onto harmonic forms. PMID:16593319

  8. L2 Cohomology of the Bergman metric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Harold; Fefferman, Charles

    1983-01-01

    The L2 cohomology of the Bergman metric is infinite dimensional in the middle degree and vanishes for all other degrees. Asymptotic expansions are given for the Schwartz kernels of the corresponding projections onto harmonic forms. PMID:16593319

  9. EX1404L2 Dive Operations Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All information and available data about Dive Operations on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1404L2: Our Deepwater Backyard: Exploring the Atlantic Canyons and...

  10. EX1202L2 Dive Operations Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — All information and available data about Dive Operations on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer during EX1202L2: Gulf of Mexico Exploration between 20120319 and 20120407

  11. Negative evidence in L2 acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Dahl

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the L2 acquisition of differences between Norwegian and English passives, and presents data to show that the acquisition of these differences by Norwegian L2 acquirers of English cannot be fully explained by positive evidence, cues, conservativism or economy. Rather, it is argued, it is natural to consider whether indirect negative evidence may facilitate acquisition by inferencing. The structures in focus are impersonal passive constructions with postverbal NPs and pa...

  12. Language aptitude for pronunciation in advanced second language (L2) learners: behavioural predictors and neural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaochen; Ackermann, Hermann; Martin, Jason A; Erb, Michael; Winkler, Susanne; Reiterer, Susanne M

    2013-12-01

    Individual differences in second language (L2) aptitude have been assumed to depend upon a variety of cognitive and personality factors. Especially, the cognitive factor phonological working memory has been conceptualised as language learning device. However, strong associations between phonological working memory and L2 aptitude have been previously found in early-stage learners only, not in advanced learners. The current study aimed at investigating the behavioural and neurobiological predictors of advanced L2 learning. Our behavioural results showed that phonetic coding ability and empathy, but not phonological working memory, predict L2 pronunciation aptitude in advanced learners. Second, functional neuroimaging revealed this behavioural trait to be correlated with hemodynamic responses of the cerebral network of speech motor control and auditory-perceptual areas. We suggest that the acquisition of L2 pronunciation aptitude is a dynamic process, requiring a variety of neural resources at different processing stages over time. PMID:23273501

  13. Transfer of L1 Visual Word Recognition Strategies during Early Stages of L2 Learning: Evidence from Hebrew Learners Whose First Language Is Either Semitic or Indo-European

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Tal; Degani, Tamar; Peleg, Orna

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined visual word recognition processes in Hebrew (a Semitic language) among beginning learners whose first language (L1) was either Semitic (Arabic) or Indo-European (e.g. English). To examine if learners, like native Hebrew speakers, exhibit morphological sensitivity to root and word-pattern morphemes, learners made an…

  14. An Application of the L2 Motivational Self System to Motivate Elementary School English Learners in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    I will describe a program that I developed to motivate grade five elementary school learners of English in Singapore to put more time and effort into learning English by enhancing their vision of their Ideal second language (L2) self and making their goals for learning English more clear and specific. The Ideal L2 self is the representation of the…

  15. Digital Game-Based Learning (DGBL) in the L2 Classroom: The Impact of the UN's Off-the-Shelf Videogame, Food Force, on Learner Affect and Vocabulary Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Schmidt, Matthew; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-method study explored the impact of "Food Force (FF)", a UN-sponsored off-the-shelf videogame, on learner affect and vocabulary learning and retention in a Japanese as a second/foreign language classroom. The videogame was integrated into an existing curriculum and two studies were performed. In Study 1 (n = 9), new vocabulary…

  16. Personalized versus Normal Practice of L2 Speaking on Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Proficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayda Rahmani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Personalized learning is a self-initiated, self-directed or self-prioritized pursuit which gives the learner a degree of choice about the process of learning i.e. what to learn, how to learn and when to learn. Of course personalized learning does not indicate unlimited choice; because, L2 learners will still have targets to be met. However, it provides learners with the opportunity to learn in ways that suit their individual learning styles. The L2 learner should have the opportunity to freely choose a series of activities, already predisposed by the teacher, to improve and develop L2 proficiency. This is because human beings have different ways to learn and process information; and, these different ways of learning are independent of each other. In other words, learning styles and techniques differ across individuals; thus, personalized learning provides L2 learners to freely choose the activities they enjoy the most. So it is a student-centered learning method in which the interests and the preferences of the learner is taken into account.The present study is an investigation of a personalized versus normal practice of L2 proficiency. For this purpose an OPT (Oxford Placement Test was given to a total of 80 Iranian EFL learners. Then, 40 of them who were considered as intermediate learners were selected for the purpose of the study. The participants were randomly divided into two groups i.e. an experimental group and a control group. Both groups were pretested prior to the study. Then, the experimental group received the treatment in the form of personalized learning (games-based learning, songs, music, stories, English tongue twisters and the materials that the subjects were most interested in for ten sessions while the control group received a normal practice of speaking proficiency (based on New Interchange course books. After ten sessions, both groups were post tested. Then the results of the posttests were subjects of statistical analysis (independent-samples t-test. The results indicated that the experimental group did better than the control group and there is a significant difference between the mean scores of the experimental group who were exposed to a personalized learning and the control group who received a normal practice of oral proficiency i.e. a placebo. Based on the results of this study, L2 learner’ interests in carrying out joyful L2 activities can help to reach promising results.Keywords: Personalized learning, Oral proficiency, EFL learners, Communication

  17. The L2-cohomology of Discrete Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreve, Kevin

    Given a space with a proper, cocompact group action, the L2-cohomology groups are a particularly interesting invariant that incorporates the topology of the space and the geometry of the group action. We are interested in both the algebraic and geometric aspects of these invariants. From the algebraic side, the Strong Atiyah Conjecture claims that the L2-Betti numbers assume only rational values, with certain prescribed denominators related to the torsion subgroups of the group. We prove this conjecture for the class of virtually cocompact special groups. This implies the Zero Divisor Conjecture holds for such groups. On the geometric side, the Action Dimension Conjecture claims that a group with that acts properly on a contractible n-manifold has vanishing L2-Betti numbers above the middle dimension. We will prove this conjecture for many classes of right-angled Artin groups and Coxeter groups.

  18. Investigating L2 Refusals: A Case Study of Chinese Native Speakers’ L2 Pragmatic Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Xiufeng Tian

    2014-01-01

    The speech act the researcher studies in this paper is refusal which, according to Ellis (2008), involves high level of pragmatic competence of the speaker, especially when it is compared with other speech acts like apology and request. Refusal seems to be particularly high-demanding for L2 learners, for L2 linguistic proficiency might be the hindrance. The researcher studies on one Chinese L2 learner’s pragmatic competence by focusing on the pragmatic strategies adopted in his L2 refus...

  19. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Nebojša J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disease with a slowly progressive course and characterized by increased levels of hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. In this condition clinical features mainly consist of mental deterioration, ataxia and motor deficits. Case Outline. The patient is a 16-year-old girl, the first and only child of healthy, non-consanguineous parents of Serbian origin. At the age of 4 years her walk became unsteady and ataxic. Other signs of cerebellar involvement were soon observed. Head circumference was above two standard deviations (55 cm. Mild mental retardation was revealed by formal intelligence testing (IQ 60. MR examination of the brain showed confluent subcortical white matter lesions spread centripetally, and atrophy of the cerebellar vermis with involvement of dentate nuclei, without deep white matter abnormalities. Laboratory investigation revealed increased amounts and a very large peak of HGA in urine and plasma. Enantiomeric analysis confirmed the L-configuration (>90% establishing the diagnosis of L-2-HGA. The first epileptic seizure, partial with secondary generalization, occurred at age of 8 years. Favorable seizure control was achieved. A slow progression of neurological impairment was noted. Therapeutic trials with oral coenzyme Q10 and with oral riboflavin showed no biochemical and clinical effects. Recently, the diagnosis was proven by the presence of a mutation in the L-2-HGA gene. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of L-2-HGA in Serbia. L-2-HGA must be considered in the differential diagnosis based on specific findings in cranial MRI.

  20. LA ICLASSE – SMARTPHONE E ITALIANO L2/LS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Zanoli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mai come oggi le classi (di Italiano L2, ma non solo sono così fortemente colonizzate dal digitale. L’invasione si è palesata sotto forma di telefonini cellulari (smartphone e tablet dotati di connessione internet e infinite potenzialità sotto forma di applicazioni che possono sia aiutare il discente sia, se male impiegati, ostacolarlo dall’intraprendere un proficuo percorso di apprendimento. Compito dell’insegnante di lingua è circoscrivere l’influenza e l’uso di tali strumenti – che non sono mero techné, ma un modo di funzionare di una generazione – non  per vietarli ma per proporre un approccio e un loro utilizzo costruttivo quali mezzi dalle grandi potenzialità nell’apprendimento di una lingua straniera.     The 1st class – Smartphones and Italian L2/FL   Classrooms (for Italian L2, but not only have never before been so strongly digitally oriented. This invasion is made tangible by smartphones and tablets equipped with internet connections and infinite potential thanks to applications which can help students in their studies, or hinder them if used incorrectly. The language teacher’s task is to circumscribe the influence and use of these tools– which are not mere techné, but the way an entire generation functions – not to prohibit using them but to propose using them constructively, thanks to their great potential for foreign language learning.

  1. Literary Language in Development of L2 Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Lu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is believed that language in daily communication rather than literary language should be the target of learning in L2 education. This is mainly because literary language is said to be uncommon in life. This paper reports on a study in which some Hong Kong ESL learners’ English proficiency was re-examined through literary texts. These learners had reached intermediate or advanced levels of English prior to the study and were generally competent in daily English. However, many of them encountered difficulty in understanding literary language. Their proficiency in general English test could not match their performances in understanding literary works. The findings reveal that learners who are strong in general proficiency may not be good in understanding literary language. Lack of literary language in the curriculum results in a false and distorted picture about the learners’ proficiency. Literary language helps upgrade L2 learners’ real proficiency in the target language.Keywords: literature, literary language, L2 proficiency, reading competence

  2. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  3. Selective Teaching of L2 Pronunciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husby, Olaf; Koreman, Jacques; Martínez-Paricio, Violeta; Abrahamsen, Jardar E.; Albertsen, Egil; Hedayatfar, Keivan; Bech, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    The pronunciation of a second or foreign language is often very challenging for L2 learners. It is difficult to address this topic in the classroom, because learners with different native languages (L1s) can have very different challenges. We have therefore developed a Computer-Assisted Listening and Speaking Tutor (CALST), which selectively…

  4. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…

  5. Investigating L2 Performance in Text Chat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauro, Shannon; Smith, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the linguistic complexity and lexical diversity of both overt and covert L2 output produced during synchronous written computer-mediated communication, also referred to as chat. Video enhanced chatscripts produced by university learners of German (N = 23) engaged in dyadic task-based chat interaction were coded and analyzed for…

  6. Development and implementation of a novel assay for L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L-2-HGDH) in cell lysates: L-2-HGDH deficiency in 15 patients with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranendijk, M; Salomons, G S; Gibson, K M; Aktuglu-Zeybek, C; Bekri, S; Christensen, Ernst; Clarke, J; Hahn, A; Korman, S H; Mejaski-Bosnjak, V; Superti-Furga, A; Vianey-Saban, C; van der Knaap, M S; Jakobs, C; Struys, E A

    2009-01-01

    L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase. An assay to evaluate L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L-2-HGDH) activity in fibroblast, lymphoblast and/or lymphoc...

  7. Integrating Meaning and Structure in L1-L2 and L2-L1 Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung Hyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2013-01-01

    This article examined the integration of semantic and morphosyntactic information by Korean learners of English as a second language (L2). In Experiment 1, L2 learners listened to English active or passive sentences that were either plausible or implausible and translated them into Korean. A significant number of Korean translations maintained the…

  8. Processing Focus Structure in L1 and L2 French: L2 Proficiency Effects on ERPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Robert V.; Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by focus processing among first language (L1) speakers and second language (L2) learners of French. Participants read wh-questions containing explicit focus marking, followed by responses instantiating contrastive and informational focus. We hypothesized that L2 proficiency would…

  9. Processing Focus Structure in L1 and L2 French: L2 Proficiency Effects on ERPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Robert V.; Birdsong, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by focus processing among first language (L1) speakers and second language (L2) learners of French. Participants read wh-questions containing explicit focus marking, followed by responses instantiating contrastive and informational focus. We hypothesized that L2 proficiency would…

  10. Analytic semigroups generated by an operator matrix in L^2(Omega X L^2(Omega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Badraoui

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the generation of analytic semigroups by an operator matrix in the space $L^2(Omegaimes L^2(Omega$. We assume that one of the diagonal elements is strongly elliptic and the other is weakly elliptic, while the sum of the non-diagonal elements is weakly elliptic.

  11. MOTHER TONGUE (L1 Vis-A-Vis OTHER TONGUE (L2?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Behera

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning a language is always a difficult thing and more so when it comes to learning a second language (L2 for it reflects the complexity of learning a language which is the other tongue rather than the mother tongue of a person. The present paper proposes to focus on the prospects and benefits of the skill-based learning of the L2. All learners, as such pick up a language by two means: a acquisition of one's own language/mother tongue, and b learning another language. Acquisition is a subconscious and intuitive process, similar to that used by a child to pick up the first language (L1; and the second is conscious learning, in which a learner is aware of his/her own learning process.

  12. Using Multimedia Vocabulary Annotations in L2 Reading and Listening Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing Xu

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of multimedia vocabulary annotation (MVA) in facilitating second language (L2) reading and listening activities. It examines the multimedia learning and multimedia language learning theories that underlie the MVA research, synthesizes the findings on MVA in the last decade, and identifies three underresearched areas on…

  13. Experiência em sala de aula: evidência empírica da complexidade no ensino e aprendizagem de LE Classroom experience: empirical evidence of complexity in l2 teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Stella Miccoli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo argumenta pela compreensão do construto experiência, como um Sistema Adaptativo Complexo, tendo em vista que, para compreendê-la, toda experiência encapsula um processo, no qual outros eventos que a perpassam são trazidos à tona. Para tal, partimos da pesquisa sobre experiências, apresentando trechos de relatos de estudantes e professores sobre eventos vivenciados em salas de aula de língua estrangeira (LE, como evidência empírica de conceitos da complexidade, aplicados aos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE. Explicitamos, assim, a relação entre experiência, como construto, e caos / complexidade, como teoria, para compreender a natureza dos processos de ensino e aprendizagem de LE em salas de aula.This article argues for understanding the construct of experience as a complex adaptive system since experience, as a process, encapsulates other events that permeate it, bringing them to the fore. To this end, we briefly review research on experience and present excerpts from students’ and teachers’ report data of events experienced in the foreign language classrooms as empirical evidence of applying complexity theory concepts to understand the processes of foreign language teaching and learning. Thus, the explicit relationship between experience, as a construct, and chaos / complexity, as a theory, play a role for understanding the nature of classroom foreign language teaching and learning.

  14. What’s in a Bot? L2 Lexical Development Mediated through ICALL

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly Arispe

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) has made great strides to refocus its attention on the essential role that vocabulary plays in becoming a proficient L2 learner (Nation, 2001). Moreover, Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) has made advances in providing interactive online tools that help L2 learners strategically engage and work through their vocabulary development. This present study reports on how an Intelligent CALL tool (ICALL),...

  15. Earth Atmosphere Observatory Formation at L2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Edward; Acikmese, A. Behcet; Breckenridge, William G.; Mecenka, Steven A.; Tubbs, Eldred F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a product of research supported by NASA under RASC (the Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts) program. It presents an overall system architecture, and covers issues of deployment, navigation, and control related to a formation of two spacecraft in the neighborhood of the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point (on the Sun-Earth line), that serves as an observatory of Earth's atmosphere. The observatory concept definition study was a multi-center NASA effort conducted in 2003, and covered a much wider scope than is presented in this focused paper.The Earth observatory at L2 is a unique design concept that can improve the knowledge and understanding of dynamic, chemical and radiative mechanisms that cause changes in the atmosphere, and can lead to the development of models and techniques to predict short and long-term climate changes.

  16. Adaptive confidence sets in L^{2}

    CERN Document Server

    Bull, Adam D

    2011-01-01

    The problem of constructing nonparametric confidence sets that are adaptive in L^{2}-loss over a continuous scale of Sobolev classes is considered. Adaptation holds, where possible, with respect to both the radius of the Sobolev ball and its smoothness degree, and over maximal parameter spaces for which adaptation is possible. Two key regimes of parameter constellations are identified: one where full adaptation is possible, and one where adaptation requires critical regions be removed. The phase transition between these regimes is analysed separately. Key ideas needed to derive these results include a general nonparametric minimax test for infinite-dimensional null- and alternative hypotheses, and new lower bound techniques for L^{2}-adaptive confidence sets.

  17. L2 method for a soluble model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of describing scattering solutions of the Schroedinger equation by means of L2 functions is illustrated for a variable coupling constant in a simple separable potential model which admits an exact solution. The orthogonal polynomials generated by the L2 solution are shown to be positive definite only for a limited range of the coupling constant. Further, it is shown that the underlying Gaussian quadrature rule for the positive-definite region can be extended to the general case albeit with the consequence that the weights are no longer all positive. A simple expression for the weights in terms of the associated abscissas is derived for the model. To complete the analysis it is demonstrated that a renormalization procedure of the L2 functions to recover the scattering solutions is justified for arbitrary values of the coupling constant. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to test the Heller equivalent weight prescription and it is concluded that it works for all ranges of coupling strengths in the model

  18. Learning Novel Morphology: The Role of Meaning and Orientation of Attention at Initial Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Emma; Williams, John; Liu, Xierong

    2013-01-01

    A large body of research has shown that suffixes--both inflectional and derivational--can be primed with adult native speakers, which informs our understanding of storage and access to morphology in mature systems. However, this line of research has not yet been conducted from an acquisition perspective: Little is known about whether or not…

  19. Fehler, Fehleranalyse und Fehlerbenotung im Lichte des natuerlichen L2-Erwerbs. (Analysis and Grading of Errors in the Light of the L2 Acquisition Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wode, Henning

    1978-01-01

    Compares the error-grading system of Zydatiss (in 'Linguistik und Didaktik', No. 24, 1975) with examples from the "Natural L2 (Second Language) Acquisition" project, and raises the question of how far it is possible for a teacher to utilize the approach of a self-guided language-learning process. (IFS/WGA)

  20. Instability study for LOFT for L2-1, L2-2, and L2-3 pretest steady-state operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of a thermal-hydrodynamic flow instability study of the LOFT reactor for the L2-1, L2-2, and L2-3 pretest steady-state operating conditions. Comparison is made between the LOFT reactor and a typical PWR, and the effects on stability of differences in operating parameters and geometry are discussed. Results indicate that the LOFT reactor will be thermal-hydrodynamically stable for nominal and worst case operating conditions. The study supports the LOFT Experimental Safety Analyses for the L2-1, L2-2, and L2-3 tests

  1. L2 Learners’ Proficiency Development through Noticing Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saber Alavi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study investigated the relationship between noticing of corrective feedback and L2 development considering the learners’ perspective on error correction. Specifically, it aimed to uncover the noticeability and effectiveness of recasts, prompts, a combination of the two, to determine a relationship between noticing of CF and learning of the past tense. The participants were four groups of college ESL learners (n = 40. Each group was assigned to a treatment condition, but the researcher taught the control group. CF was provided to learners in response to their mistakes in forming the past tense. While noticing of CF was assessed through immediate recall and questionnaire responses, learning outcomes were measured through picture description administered via pre-test, post-test, and delayed post-test design. Learner beliefs about CF were probed by means of a 40-item questionnaire. The results indicated that the noticeability of CF is dependent on the grammatical target it addresses and that the feedback techniques that push learners to self-correct alone or in combination with target exemplars are more effective in. In relation to the learning outcomes, the overall past tense accuracy increased more than that for questions, but there were no significant differences between the groups. Finally, in relation to the beliefs about CF, the participants’ responses centered on the importance of oral CF, recasts as CF technique, prompts as CF technique, and affective consequences of CF, two of which mediated the noticeability of the supplied CF, but none impacted the learning outcomes.

  2. A Catalog of Visual-like Morphologies in the 5 CANDELS Fields Using Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas-Company, M.; Gravet, R.; Cabrera-Vives, G.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Barro, G.; Bernardi, M.; Mei, S.; Shankar, F.; Dimauro, P.; Bell, E. F.; Kocevski, D.; Koo, D. C.; Faber, S. M.; Mcintosh, D. H.

    2015-11-01

    We present a catalog of visual-like H-band morphologies of ˜50.000 galaxies (Hf160w ˜ 1.25. The algorithm is trained on GOODS-S, for which visual classifications are publicly available, and then applied to the other 4 fields. Following the CANDELS main morphology classification scheme, our model retrieves for each galaxy the probabilities of having a spheroid or a disk, presenting an irregularity, being compact or a point source, and being unclassifiable. ConvNets are able to predict the fractions of votes given to a galaxy image with zero bias and ˜10% scatter. The fraction of mis-classifications is less than 1%. Our classification scheme represents a major improvement with respect to Concentration-Asymmetry-Smoothness-based methods, which hit a 20%-30% contamination limit at high z. The catalog is released with the present paper via the Rainbow database (http://rainbowx.fis.ucm.es/Rainbow_navigator_public/).

  3. Combining human and machine learning for morphological analysis of galaxy images

    OpenAIRE

    Kuminski, Evan; George, Joe; Wallin, John; Shamir, Lior

    2014-01-01

    The increasing importance of digital sky surveys collecting many millions of galaxy images has reinforced the need for robust methods that can perform morphological analysis of large galaxy image databases. Citizen science initiatives such as Galaxy Zoo showed that large datasets of galaxy images can be analyzed effectively by non-scientist volunteers, but since databases generated by robotic telescopes grow much faster than the processing power of any group of citizen scientists, it is clear...

  4. English L2 Reading: Getting to the Bottom. 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Barbara M.

    2007-01-01

    This book remains a comprehensive, myth-debunking examination of how L1 features (orthographic system, phonology, morphology) can influence English L2 reading at the "bottom" of the reading process. It provides a thorough but very accessible linguistic/psycholinguistic examination of the lowest levels of the reading process. It is both theoretical…

  5. The Acquisition of Differential Object Marking in L2 Spanish Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoccio, Alyssa Marie

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation tests a grammatical structure, differential object marking (DOM), which is particularly difficult for L2 learners to acquire. DOM is a phenomenon in which some direct objects are morphologically marked to distinguish them from subjects (Comrie, 1979). In Spanish, animate and specific direct objects are marked with the preposition…

  6. Are Alphabetic Language-Derived Models of L2 Reading Relevant to L1 Logographic Background Readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, John Fitzgerald; Zhang, Lawrence Jun; Mu, Jon Congjun; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that second language (L2) reading research, which has been informed by studies involving first language (L1) alphabetic English reading, may be less relevant to L2 readers with non-alphabetic reading backgrounds, such as Chinese readers with an L1 logographic (Chinese character) learning history. We provide both…

  7. The Contribution of L1 Phonemic Awareness into L2 Reading: The Case of Arab EFL Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaboul, Yousef; Asassfeh, Sahail; Alshboul, Sabri; Alodwan, Talal

    2014-01-01

    Cross-language transfer is the extent, if any, to which phonological awareness in L1 facilitates learning to read in L2. This has been an area of investigation wherein researchers looked into the orthographic and phonological component processing skills L2 learners develop and utilize to facilitate word recognition. Given the difference between…

  8. Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two well-known texts that respectively describe learning and teaching, drawn from the work of Freud and Plato. These texts are considered in psychoanalytic terms using a methodology drawn from the philosophy of Luce Irigaray. In particular the article addresses Irigaray's approach to the analysis of speech and utterance as a…

  9. Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peers, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two well-known texts that respectively describe learning and teaching, drawn from the work of Freud and Plato. These texts are considered in psychoanalytic terms using a methodology drawn from the philosophy of Luce Irigaray. In particular the article addresses Irigaray's approach to the analysis of speech and utterance as a…

  10. Transfer and Semantic Universals in the L2 Acquisition of the English Article System by Child L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Reyes, Alexandra; Soler, Inmaculada Gómez

    2016-01-01

    L2 learners' problems with English articles have been linked to learners' L1 and their access to universal semantic features (e.g., definiteness and specificity). Studies suggest that L2 adults rely on their L1 knowledge, while child L2 learners rely more on their access to semantic universals. The present study investigates whether child L2…

  11. A catalog of visual-like morphologies in the 5 CANDELS fields using deep-learning

    CERN Document Server

    Huertas-Company, M; Cabrera-Vives, G; Pérez-González, P G; Kartaltepe, J S; Barro, G; Bernardi, M; Mei, S; Shankar, F; Dimauro, P; Bell, E F; Kocevski, D; Koo, D C; Faber, S M; Mcintosh, D H

    2015-01-01

    We present a catalog of visual like H-band morphologies of $\\sim50.000$ galaxies ($H_{f160w}\\sim1.25$. The algorithm is trained on GOODS-S for which visual classifications are publicly available and then applied to the other 4 fields. Following the CANDELS main morphology classification scheme, our model retrieves the probabilities for each galaxy of having a spheroid, a disk, presenting an irregularity, being compact or point source and being unclassifiable. ConvNets are able to predict the fractions of votes given a galaxy image with zero bias and $\\sim10\\%$ scatter. The fraction of miss-classifications is less than $1\\%$. Our classification scheme represents a major improvement with respect to CAS (Concentration-Asymmetry-Smoothness)-based methods, which hit a $20-30\\%$ contamination limit at high z. The catalog is released with the present paper via the $\\href{http://rainbowx.fis.ucm.es/Rainbow_navigator_public}{Rainbow\\,database}$

  12. Automatic approach to solve the morphological galaxy classification problem using the sparse representation technique and dictionary learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Hernandez, R.; Ortiz-Esquivel, A.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Altamirano-Robles, L.; Gonzalez-Bernal, J.

    2016-04-01

    The observation of celestial objects in the sky is a practice that helps astronomers to understand the way in which the Universe is structured. However, due to the large number of observed objects with modern telescopes, the analysis of these by hand is a difficult task. An important part in galaxy research is the morphological structure classification based on the Hubble sequence. In this research, we present an approach to solve the morphological galaxy classification problem in an automatic way by using the Sparse Representation technique and dictionary learning with K-SVD. For the tests in this work, we use a database of galaxies extracted from the Principal Galaxy Catalog (PGC) and the APM Equatorial Catalogue of Galaxies obtaining a total of 2403 useful galaxies. In order to represent each galaxy frame, we propose to calculate a set of 20 features such as Hu's invariant moments, galaxy nucleus eccentricity, gabor galaxy ratio and some other features commonly used in galaxy classification. A stage of feature relevance analysis was performed using Relief-f in order to determine which are the best parameters for the classification tests using 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 galaxy classes making signal vectors of different length values with the most important features. For the classification task, we use a 20-random cross-validation technique to evaluate classification accuracy with all signal sets achieving a score of 82.27 % for 2 galaxy classes and up to 44.27 % for 7 galaxy classes.

  13. The Role of Written Corrective Feedback in Developing Writing in L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrijela Petra Nagode

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Feedback plays an important role in developing L2 writing in young learners. The article provides a brief overview of the history of giving feedback and of some contemporary views within this field. Special attention is paid to cognitive perspectives, such as the influence of written corrective feedback on shortterm memory, the influence of focused and unfocused written corrective feedback on error correction, the influence of written corrective feedback on a particular category of error, the influence of direct and indirect written corrective feedback and combinations of various types of written corrective feedback, and the influence of educational background and L2 learning background on the effectiveness of written corrective feedback in terms of sociocultural perspectives. The main aim of the article is to present readers (especially teachers with the variety of aspects of giving written corrective feedback in developing L2 writing and thus in enabling young learners to develop their L2 writing skills more effectively.

  14. L2 Spelling Errors in Italian Children with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, Paola; Cismondo, Dhebora; Ferrari, Marcella; Ballagamba, Isabella; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate L2 spelling skills in Italian children by administering an English word dictation task to 13 children with dyslexia (CD), 13 control children (comparable in age, gender, schooling and IQ) and a group of 10 children with an English learning difficulty, but no L1 learning disorder. Patterns of difficulties were examined for accuracy and type of errors, in spelling dictated short and long words (i.e. disyllables and three syllables). Notably, CD were poor in spelling English words. Furthermore, their errors were mainly related with phonological representation of words, as they made more 'phonologically' implausible errors than controls. In addition, CD errors were more frequent for short than long words. Conversely, the three groups did not differ in the number of plausible ('non-phonological') errors, that is, words that were incorrectly written, but whose reading could correspond to the dictated word via either Italian or English rules. Error analysis also showed syllable position differences in the spelling patterns of CD, children with and English learning difficulty and control children. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26892314

  15. Three Misconceptions about Age and L2 Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Marshall, D. Bradford; Snow, Catherine E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the effects of age on second language acquisition, considering recent data and highlighting the misconceptions. Claims that proponents of the critical period hypothesis have misinterpreted research on speed of acquisition, misattributed age differences to neurobiological factors, and misemphasized poor language learners in research on…

  16. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ∼8 kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. - Highlights: • L2 is the minor antigen of the non-enveloped T=7d icosahedral Papillomavirus capsid. • L2 is a nuclear protein that can traffic to ND-10 and facilitate genome encapsidation. • L2 is critical for infection and must be cleaved by furin. • L2 is a broadly protective vaccine antigen recognized by neutralizing antibodies

  17. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Joshua W. [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Roden, Richard B.S., E-mail: roden@jhmi.edu [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ∼8 kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. - Highlights: • L2 is the minor antigen of the non-enveloped T=7d icosahedral Papillomavirus capsid. • L2 is a nuclear protein that can traffic to ND-10 and facilitate genome encapsidation. • L2 is critical for infection and must be cleaved by furin. • L2 is a broadly protective vaccine antigen recognized by neutralizing antibodies.

  18. A Review of Recent Research (2000-2008) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This review presents a broad picture of recent work on L2 Spanish in educational contexts. The thematic and geographic scope of the review is wide, in order to capture the diversity of learners and learning contexts of L2 Spanish, just two decades after teaching and learning the language gained impetus worldwide. Traditional second or foreign…

  19. Effects of Input Properties, Vocabulary Size, and L1 on the Development of Third Person Singular -"s" in Child L2 English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Elma; Paradis, Johanne; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the development of third-person singular (3SG) -"s" in children who learn English as a second language (L2). Adopting the usage-based perspective on the learning of inflection, we analyzed spontaneous speech samples collected from 15 English L2 children who were followed over a 2-year period. Assessing the…

  20. Does the Medium Really Matter in L2 Development? The Validity of Call Research Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Luis; Baralt, Melissa; Suh, Bo-Ram; Leow, Ronald P.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, an increasing number of educational institutions are redefining second/foreign language (L2) classrooms by enhancing--or even replacing--traditional face-to-face (FTF) instruction with computer-assisted language learning (CALL). However, are these curricular decisions supported by research? Overall, a cursory review of empirical studies…

  1. Orthographic Influence on the Phonological Development of L2 Learners of Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeon

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the influence of L2 orthographic representation on the phonological development of American English speakers learning Korean, addressing specifically the syllabification and resyllabification of Korean intervocalic obstruents and the intervocalic liquid phoneme. Although Korean and English both employ alphabetic writing…

  2. Reading Rate in L1 Mandarin Chinese and L2 English across Five Reading Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Carol A.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared first and second language (L1/L2) reading rate and task performance on five tasks (scanning, skimming, normal reading, learning, memorizing) in two groups of Mandarin speakers (Canada group, China group). A repeated measures ANOVA design was used with one between-subject factor (Group), two within-subject factors (Language,…

  3. Orthographic Influence on the Phonological Development of L2 Learners of Korean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sooyeon

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the influence of L2 orthographic representation on the phonological development of American English speakers learning Korean, addressing specifically the syllabification and resyllabification of Korean intervocalic obstruents and the intervocalic liquid phoneme. Although Korean and English both employ alphabetic writing…

  4. Training L2 Writers to Reference Corpora as a Self-Correction Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Corpora have the potential to support the L2 writing process at the discourse level in contrast to the isolated dictionary entries that many intermediate writers rely on. To take advantage of this resource, learners need to be trained, which involves practising corpus research and referencing skills as well as learning to make data-based…

  5. Exploring the Relationship between Reading Strategy Use and Multiple Intelligences among Successful L2 Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Azizullah; Rahimi Domakani, Masoud; Heidari, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, the multiple intelligences theory (MIT) proposed by Howard Gardner has renewed interest in learners' use of effective learning strategies and produced interesting results. This MIT-oriented study investigated the role of successful L2 readers' multiple intelligences in their effective use of reading strategies. To this…

  6. Character Reading Fluency, Word Segmentation Accuracy, and Reading Comprehension in L2 Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Helen H.; Jiang, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between lower-level processing and general reading comprehension among adult L2 (second-language) beginning learners of Chinese, in both target and non-target language learning environments. Lower-level processing in Chinese reading includes the factors of character-naming accuracy, character-naming speed,…

  7. The Sociocognitive Imperative of L2 Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Paul D.; Davin, Kristin J.

    2016-01-01

    As a new century begins for "The Modern Language Journal," we argue that highly effective pedagogy requires viewing language and language learning as both cognitive and social phenomena, and that teachers who seek to truly understand the nature of their responsibilities do not have the luxury of choosing one perspective over the other.…

  8. Cue Reliance in L2 Written Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechmann, Daniel; Kerz, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners reach expert levels in relative cue weighting only gradually. On the basis of ensemble machine learning models fit to naturalistic written productions of German advanced learners of English and expert writers, we set out to reverse engineer differences in the weighting of multiple cues in a clause linearization problem. We…

  9. Applications of the L_2-Transform to Partial Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Gaugler, Todd

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate the applicability of the L_2-integral transform to Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). Of special interest is section (6), which contains an application of the L_2-transform to a PDE of exponential squared order, but not of exponential order. Sections (1) and (2) aim to introduce the history and some elementary properties of the L_2-transform, (3) and (4) include some of the transform's simple applications, and section (5) introduces the L_2 convolution.

  10. Altered gene regulation and synaptic morphology in Drosophila learning and memory mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhuo; Buhl, Lauren K; Quinn, William G; Littleton, J Troy

    2011-01-01

    Genetic studies in Drosophila have revealed two separable long-term memory pathways defined as anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) and long-lasting long-term memory (LLTM). ARM is disrupted in radish (rsh) mutants, whereas LLTM requires CREB-dependent protein synthesis. Although the downstream effectors of ARM and LLTM are distinct, pathways leading to these forms of memory may share the cAMP cascade critical for associative learning. Dunce, which encodes a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, and rutabaga, which encodes an adenylyl cyclase, both disrupt short-term memory. Amnesiac encodes a pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide homolog and is required for middle-term memory. Here, we demonstrate that the Radish protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus and is a PKA phosphorylation target in vitro. To characterize how these plasticity pathways may manifest at the synaptic level, we assayed synaptic connectivity and performed an expression analysis to detect altered transcriptional networks in rutabaga, dunce, amnesiac, and radish mutants. All four mutants disrupt specific aspects of synaptic connectivity at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis revealed ∼375 transcripts that are altered in these mutants, suggesting defects in multiple neuronal signaling pathways. In particular, the transcriptional target Lapsyn, which encodes a leucine-rich repeat cell adhesion protein, localizes to synapses and regulates synaptic growth. This analysis provides insights into the Radish-dependent ARM pathway and novel transcriptional targets that may contribute to memory processing in Drosophila. PMID:21422168

  11. VIDEOGIOCHI E ITALIANO L2/LS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Zanoli

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L'articolo prende in considerazione alcune ipotesi sull'uso del videogioco nell'insegnamento/apprendimento della lingua straniera supportate dall'analisi di alcuni videogames per uso didattico. Pur non nascondendo le difficoltà che l'insegnante può incontrare nell'integrare il videogioco nel percorso di insegnamento/apprendimento di una lingua straniera in classe, diversi sono i motivi per i quali il videogioco può essere considerato un efficace strumento di apprendimento linguistico. Innanzitutto perché gli input linguistici possono essere numerosi e vari, in secondo luogo perché è vettore di lingua che coinvolge i diversi sensi e diverse operazioni cognitive e, in terzo luogo perché trasforma il processo dell'apprendimento da simbolico a esperienziale. Infine perché si tratta di un mezzo divertente capace di creare interesse ad apprendere offrendo opportunità straordinarie in quanto attiva negli apprendenti, soprattutto più giovani, due fattori chiave per un apprendimento solido e duraturo: l'esperienza e la motivazione, elementi che spesso le metodologie tradizionali trascurano. A conclusione dell'articolo viene proposta di attività didattica di italiano LS con una serie di suggerimenti per l'insegnante.   This article discusses the use of videogames in teaching/learning a foreign language and analyzes a few didactic videogames. While not underestimating the difficulties that teachers may have in integrating videogames in the teaching/learning process in a classroom, there are different reasons why videogames can be considered effective tools for language learning. First of all, the linguistic input is varied and rich, and secondly it is a way of engaging different senses and cognitive processes, and in the third place it transforms learning from something symbolic to something experiential. Finally, it is an amusing way to generate interest in learning by offering an extraordinary opportunity, since it activates two key aspects for solid and long-lasting learning, especially in younger students: experience and motivation.  These aspects are often overlooked in more traditional methods. The article concludes with examples of didactic activities for Italian FL teaching and a series of suggestions for the teacher.

  12. GLI ERRORI DI ITALIANO L1 ED L2: INTERFERENZA E APPRENDIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaria Solarino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Si può oggi affrontare il tema degli errori di italiano da una prospettiva che possa giovare contemporaneamente a docenti di italiano L1 ed L2? Noi pensiamo di sì: la ricerca glottodidattica sembra aver ormai apprestato un terreno comune alle due situazioni di apprendimento, sgombrando il campo da vecchi pregiudizi e distinzioni che appaiono ormai superate. Attraverso la contrapposizione di concetti quali “lingua parlata/lingua scritta”,  “errori di lingua / errori di linguaggio”, “apprendimento spontaneo/apprendimento guidato”, “italiano L1/italiano L2”, “errori di apprendimento/errori di interferenza, si indicano diversi criteri per la interpretazione degli errori e la loro valutazione in relazione alle cause, alle situazioni comunicative, ai contesti o allo stadio di evoluzione dell’apprendimento della lingua.     Errors in italian L1 and L2: interference and learning   Can errors in Italian be approached in a way that benefits both L1 and L2 Italian teachers? We believe so: glottodidactic research seems to have prepared a common terrain for these two learning situations, clearing the field of old prejudices and obsolete distinctions.  Through the juxtaposition of concepts like “spoken language/written language”, “language errors/speech errors”, “spontaneous learning/guided learning”, “L1 Italian/L2 Italian”, “learning errors/interference errors”, different criteria for interpreting errors and evaluating them in relation to their causes, to communicative situations, to contexts and the developmental state in learning a language are singled out.

  13. IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2 CON LE CANZONI. UN CONTRIBUTO DIDATTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Mauroni

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Il presente contributo si inserisce nel filone degli studi che hanno messo in evidenza la potenziale ricchezza della canzone come strumento di facilitazione dell’apprendimento della L2, e come mezzo per l’approccio al testo letterario per studenti di italiano L1, additandone il carattere di attività particolarmente efficace e ‘consonante’ con una prospettiva umanistico-affettiva, comunicativa, nonché socio-costruttivista. In queste pagine sono presentate alcune attività didattiche (pensate ora per gli apprendenti di italiano L2, ora per gli studenti di italiano L1 formulate a partire da alcuni testi del cantautore Claudio Baglioni (Io sono qui, Le vie dei Colori, Bolero, Fammi andar via tratti dall’album Io sono qui, 1995, edizioni CBS. I testi qui didattizzati sono utilizzabili in diverse prospettive: grammaticale, lessicale, retorica, socio-culturale, ecc.; e per diversi livelli di competenza linguistica (L2: A1-C1; L1.     Learning italian l2 through song.  A didactic contribution   This article is part of a series of studies which focus on the potential richness of songs as tools for facilitating L2 learning, as well as being a way to approach literary texts for L1 Italian students, being a particularly effective activity from a humanistic-affective, communicative and socio-constructivist point of view.  A few didactic activities are presented (designed for L2 Italian learners, or for L1 Italian learners based on songs by Claudio Baglioni (Io sono qui, Le vie dei Colori, Bolero, Fammi andar via from the album Io sono qui, 1995, edizioni CBS.  The texts were adapted for diverse didactic uses: grammatical, lexical, rhetorical, socio-cultural, etc and for different levels of linguistic competence (L2: A1-C1, L1

  14. An overview of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase gene (L2HGDH) variants: a genotype-phenotype study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenweg, Marjan E; Jakobs, Cornelis; Errami, Abdellatif; van Dooren, Silvy J M; Adeva Bartolomé, Maria T; Aerssens, Peter; Augoustides-Savvapoulou, Persephone; Baric, Ivo; Baumann, Matthias; Bonafé, Luisa; Chabrol, Brigitte; Clarke, Joe T R; Clayton, Peter; Coker, Mahmut; Cooper, Sarah; Falik-Zaccai, Tzipora; Gorman, Mark; Hahn, Andreas; Hasanoglu, Alev; King, Mary D; de Klerk, Hans B C; Korman, Stanley H; Lee, Céline; Meldgaard Lund, Allan; Mejaski-Bosnjak, Vlatka; Pascual-Castroviejo, Ignacio; Raadhyaksha, Aparna; Rootwelt, Terje; Roubertie, Agathe; Ruiz-Falco, Maria L; Scalais, Emmanuel; Schimmel, Ulf; Seijo-Martinez, Manuel; Suri, Mohnish; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Trefz, Friedrich K; Uziel, Graziella; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Vlaho, Stefan; Vodopiutz, Julia; Wajner, Moacir; Walter, John; Walter-Derbort, Claudia; Yapici, Zuhal; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; Celli, Jacopo; den Dunnen, Johan T; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Salomons, Gajja S

    2010-01-01

    L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is a rare, neurometabolic disorder with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Affected individuals only have neurological manifestations, including psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and more variably macrocephaly, or epilepsy. The diagnosis of ...

  15. L2TTMON Monitoring Program for L2 Topological Trigger in H1 Experiment - User's Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring software for the L2 Topological Trigger in H1 experiment consists of two parts working on two different computers. The hardware read-out and data processing is done on a fast FIC 8234 computer working with the OS9 real time operating system. The Macintosh Quadra is used as a Graphic User Interface for accessing the OS9 trigger monitoring software. The communication between both computers is based on the parallel connection between the Macintosh and the VME crate, where the FIC computer is placed. The special designed protocol (client-server) is used to communicate between both nodes. The general scheme of monitoring for the L2 Topological Trigger and detailed description of using of the monitoring software in both nodes are given in this guide. (author)

  16. Musical morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, M Mallar; Vuust, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Morphologic measures have long been used to determine the patho-anatomical signature of different neurologic disorders. However, these measures can also be used to determine effects of specific learning tasks and quantifiable human abilities on cerebral structure. Musicians provide interesting op...... analyses in the music and neuroscience literature and provide some results from our own analysis of rhythmic ability in a cohort of musicians....

  17. MANIPULATING L2 LEARNERS' ONLINE DICTIONARY USE AND ITS EFFECT ON L2 WORD RETENTION

    OpenAIRE

    Elke Peters

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the effect of two enhancement techniques on L2 learners' look-up behaviour during a reading task and word retention afterwards amongst Flemish learners of German: a Vocabulary Test Announcement and Task-induced Word Relevance. Eighty-four participants were recruited for this study. They were randomly assigned to one of two groups: 1) not forewarned of an upcoming vocabulary test (incidental condition) or 2) forewarned of a vocabulary test (intentional condition). Task-indu...

  18. The Role of L1 and L2 Working Memory in Literal and Inferential Comprehension in L2 Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Cem; Ercetin, Gulcan

    2010-01-01

    Reading span as a measure of L1 or L2 working memory capacity is shown to be related to L2 reading comprehension. Albeit limited, there is research on the relationship between both L1 and L2 reading spans and their roles in L2 reading comprehension, yet these studies take reading as a global construct rather than delving into its multi-level…

  19. The Role of L1 and L2 Working Memory in Literal and Inferential Comprehension in L2 Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Cem; Ercetin, Gulcan

    2010-01-01

    Reading span as a measure of L1 or L2 working memory capacity is shown to be related to L2 reading comprehension. Albeit limited, there is research on the relationship between both L1 and L2 reading spans and their roles in L2 reading comprehension, yet these studies take reading as a global construct rather than delving into its multi-level…

  20. Relationships among L1 Print Exposure and Early L1 Literacy Skills, L2 Aptitude, and L2 Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Richard L.; Patton, Jon; Ganschow, Leonore; Humbach, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Authors examined the relationship between individual differences in L1 print exposure and differences in early L1 skills and later L2 aptitude, L2 proficiency, and L2 classroom achievement. Participants were administered measures of L1 word decoding, spelling, phonemic awareness, reading comprehension, receptive vocabulary, and listening…

  1. An overview of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase gene (L2HGDH) variants: a genotype-phenotype study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenweg, Marjan E; Jakobs, Cornelis; Errami, Abdellatif; van Dooren, Silvy J M; Adeva Bartolomé, Maria T; Aerssens, Peter; Augoustides-Savvapoulou, Persephone; Baric, Ivo; Baumann, Matthias; Bonafé, Luisa; Chabrol, Brigitte; Clarke, Joe T R; Clayton, Peter; Coker, Mahmut; Cooper, Sarah; Falik-Zaccai, Tzipora; Gorman, Mark; Hahn, Andreas; Hasanoglu, Alev; King, Mary D; de Klerk, Hans B C; Korman, Stanley H; Lee, Céline; Meldgaard Lund, Allan; Mejaski-Bosnjak, Vlatka; Pascual-Castroviejo, Ignacio; Raadhyaksha, Aparna; Rootwelt, Terje; Roubertie, Agathe; Ruiz-Falco, Maria L; Scalais, Emmanuel; Schimmel, Ulf; Seijo-Martinez, Manuel; Suri, Mohnish; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Trefz, Friedrich K; Uziel, Graziella; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Vlaho, Stefan; Vodopiutz, Julia; Wajner, Moacir; Walter, John; Walter-Derbort, Claudia; Yapici, Zuhal; Zafeiriou, Dimitrios I; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; Celli, Jacopo; den Dunnen, Johan T; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Salomons, Gajja S

    2010-01-01

    L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is a rare, neurometabolic disorder with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Affected individuals only have neurological manifestations, including psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and more variably macrocephaly, or epilepsy. The diagnosis of L2...

  2. Representation and Embodiment of Meaning in L2 Communication: Motion Events in the Speech and Gesture of Advanced L2 Korean and L2 English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soojung; Lantolf, James P.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the interface between speech and gesture in second language (L2) narration within Slobin's (2003) thinking-for-speaking (TFS) framework as well as with respect to McNeill's (1992, 2005) growth point (GP) hypothesis. Specifically, our interest is in whether speakers shift from a first language (L1) to a L2 TFS pattern as…

  3. L2 Learners' Assessments of Accentedness, Fluency, and Comprehensibility of Native and Nonnative German Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Mary Grantham

    2014-01-01

    In early stages of classroom language learning, many adult second language (L2) learners communicate primarily with one another, yet we know little about which speech stream characteristics learners tune into or the extent to which they understand this lingua franca communication. In the current study, 25 native English speakers learning German as…

  4. FENÓMENOS DE REDUCCIÓN VOCÁLICA POR HABLANTES COLOMBIANOS DE INGLÉS COMO L2: UN ESTUDIO ACÚSTICO / VOWEL REDUCTION PHENOMENA BY COLOMBIAN SPANISH SPEAKERS OF L2 ENGLISH: AN ACOUSTIC STUDY / FENÔMENOS DE REDUÇÃO VOCÁLICA POR FALANTES COLOMBIANOS DE INGLÊS COMO L2: UM ESTUDO ACÚSTICO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kelly Johanna, Vera Diettes.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou as capacidades de um grupo de falantes de inglês como segunda língua (L2), quando percebiam e produzia a vogal inglesa Schwa. Avaliaram-se as hipóteses propostas pelo Modelo de Aprendizagem da Fala (Speech Learning Model [SML, por sua sigla em inglês]), as quais sugerem que os fa [...] lantes de L2 poderiam criar categorias fonéticas para novos sons. Tomou-se a ortografia como uma possível variável que afeta as habilidades dos falantes de L2. O estudo foi realizado em três etapas: a primeira avaliou as capacidades iniciais dos falantes de L2; a segunda consistiu num treinamento fonético em processos de redução vocálica e Schwa; finalmente, a terceira avaliou as mesmas instâncias depois do treinamento. Os resultados sugerem que os falantes tenham sido influenciados pela ortografia e tenham percebido e produzido Schwas que se assemelhavam a suas vogais nativas. Abstract in spanish Este estudio evaluó las capacidades de un grupo de hablantes de inglés como segunda lengua (L2), cuando percibían y producía la vocal inglesa Schwa. Se evaluaron las hipótesis propuestas por el Modelo de Aprendizaje del Habla (Speech Learning Model [SML, por sus siglas en inglés]), las cuales sugier [...] en que los hablantes de L2 podrían crear categorías fonéticas para sonidos nuevos. Se tomó la ortografía como una posible variable que afecta las habilidades de los hablantes de L2. El estudio se realizó en tres etapas: la primera evaluó las capacidades iniciales de los hablantes de L2; la segunda consistió en un entrenamiento fonético en procesos de reducción vocálica y Schwa, y, finalmente, la tercera evaluó las mismas instancias después del entrenamiento. Los resultados sugieren que los hablantes fueron influenciados por la ortografía y percibieron y produjeron Schwas que asemejaban sus vocales nativas. Abstract in english This study assessed the performances of a group of speakers of L2 English when perceiving and producing the English vowel Schwa. It evaluated the hypotheses proposed by the Speech Learning Model (SML), developed by Flege and colleagues (1988, 1992, 1999, and 2002), which suggest that L2 speakers are [...] capable of creating phonetic categories for new L2 sounds. The effect of orthography was chosen as a variable that could affect L2 speakers’ abilities. The study was carried out in three stages: the first one evaluated initial L2 speakers’ perceptual and productive abilities; stage two consisted of pronunciation training in vowel reduction processes; and stage three evaluated performances after training. Results suggest that Second Language (L2) speakers were influenced by the orthography; therefore, they perceived and produced Schwas as instances of their native vowels.

  5. Calibration of comprehension and performance in L2 reading

    OpenAIRE

    Seda SARAC; Betul TARHAN

    2009-01-01

    Comprehension monitoring is crucial for successful reading. Although the researchers appreciate the importance of comprehension monitoring in L2 reading, there are only a few studies done on the comprehension monitoring ability of L2 readers. The main aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension monitoring abilities of university students while reading expository texts in L2. The results showed that the students’ were not able to calibrate their comprehension at above chance level w...

  6. Sur la L2-cohomologie des varietes a courbure negative

    OpenAIRE

    Yeganefar, Nader

    2002-01-01

    We give a topological interpretation of the space of L2-harmonic forms on finite-volume manifolds with sufficiently pinched negative curvature. We give examples showing that this interpretation fails if the curvature is not sufficiently pinched and that our result is sharp with respect to the pinching constants. The method consists first in comparing L2-cohomology with weighted L2-cohomology thanks to previuos works done by T. Ohsawa, and then in identifying these weighted spaces.

  7. Blogging Identity: How L2 Learners Express Themselves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyomi FUJII

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses language learning and identity, particularly pertaining to intermediate-advanced-level Japanese-language learners, focusing on their target language and identity expression through their interactions with peers and Japanese college students. When learners of Japanese express their identities while interacting with others in their target language, they feel a gap between the self-image they want to present, and the image they are capable of presenting in Japanese (Siegal, 1994, 1995, 1996. Along with adjusting their L1 and L2 usage depending on their interlocutor (Kurata 2007, learners also use different sentence-ending styles depending on the role they want to assume (Cook 2008. By conducting a case study, the present inquiry attempts to address how learners of Japanese express their identities through blog conversations, focusing on their language choice and expressions. Results suggest that participants use the formal endings for self-presentation and projection of their student and classmate identity. However, when expressing emotion some students preferred informal endings, or sentence-final particles.

  8. Interactions between text chat and audio modalities for L2 communication in the synthetic world Second Life.

    OpenAIRE

    Ciara R. Wigham; Chanier, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    The interest in synthetic worlds for both language education (Cooke-Plagwitz, 2008; Molka-Danielson & Deutschmann, 2009) and architectural design (Gu. et al., 2009; Garner et al, 2011), coupled with the need of architects to develop adequate foreign language (L2) skills facilitating mobility and employability, led to the design of "Building Fragile Spaces." This hybrid Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) course was held in Spring 2011. It included distance French and English L2 ac...

  9. Effects of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition on L1 Performance: Evidence from Form-Meaning Mapping between Chinese and Japanese

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yu-Han

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates backward transfer (the influence of L2 knowledge on L1 performance) at the lexical level through the semantic gap between Chinese and Japanese words sharing the same orthographic presentation. The Chinese (L1) competence of 79 Taiwanese students with or without experience of Japanese (L2) learning was recruited for a form-meaning mapping task with an exclusively native language context. The task asked the participants to rate the degree of semantic appropr...

  10. Interactions between text chat and audio modalities for L2 communication and feedback in the synthetic world Second Life.

    OpenAIRE

    Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the interactions between text chat and audio modalities in L2 interaction in a synthetic (virtual) world and observes whether the text chat modality was used for corrective feedback and the characteristics of the latter. This is examined within the context of a hybrid Content and Language Integrated Learning design workshop. This course involved 17 students of architecture whose L2 was either French or English and for which the synthetic world environment Seco...

  11. Mental Lexicon, Working Memory and L2 (English Vocabulary in Polish Students with and without Dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Łockiewicz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between access to the mental lexicon, working memory and knowledge of English (L2 vocabulary. Analyses were undertaken amongst monolingual speakers of Polish (26 with dyslexia, 24 without who studied English as a second language as part of their compulsory educational programme at school. We assumed that students with dyslexia would manifest deficits in access to the mental lexicon and verbal working memory, and would have a limited L2 vocabulary. We also assumed that better access to the mental lexicon facilitates knowledge of English (L2 vocabulary, and that this relationship is present in both the criterion and the control group. All of the students participated in both parts of the assessment, the group part (i.e., questionnaire, IQ test, two vocabulary tasks and the individual part (i.e., psychological measures: verbal working memory, RAN, verbal fluency, and single word reading in L1 task. We found that students with dyslexia exhibited deficits in the speed of access to data from the mental lexicon. The predictive function of memory for vocabulary was more conspicuous in the control group; in the criterion group, the result might constitute a risk factor for L2 vocabulary acquisition in dyslexia, which may manifest with increased proficiency in word knowledge. Poor vocabulary knowledge renders the L2 learning experience difficult, as it impairs students’ reading comprehension, writing and conversational skills.

  12. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and L2 Reading Skill among Iranian EFL University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Khooei Oskooei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between multiple intelligences (MI and foreign language (L2 reading skill among Iranian EFL sophomores. Multiple intelligences and L2 reading measurements of participants – 29 males and 69 females who were selected from four intact classes – were obtained through McKenzie’s (1999 Multiple Intelligences Inventory and reading part of a Preliminary English Test PET, respectively, and then Pearson’s correlation analysis was run to determine the degree of the relationship between each component of multiple intelligences and L2 reading skill. Afterwards, through a multiple regression analysis those components of multiple intelligences which acted as the predictors of L2 reading skill were identified and the power of each predictor was calculated. The results of the correlation analyses revealed that linguistic-verbal, logical-mathematical, spatial, and interpersonal intelligences were significantly correlated with reading skill. In addition, the results showed that linguistic-verbal, interpersonal, and logical-mathematical intelligences were the best predictors of L2 reading skill scores of the participants. The results of the study can help coursebook designers, educational planners, foreign language institutes, teachers, learners and their parents to provide and use different methods of teaching and learning.Keywords: multiple intelligences, general intelligence, reading comprehension, university students, EFL

  13. L2-stability of the Landau equation near global Maxwellians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seung-Yeal; Xiao, Qinghua

    2015-08-01

    We present an L2-stability of the kinetic Landau equation for a single species charged plasma with an inverse power-law interaction force in the perturbative regime of global Maxwellians. Our result demonstrates that the L2-distance between two classical solutions to the Landau equation can be controlled by that between corresponding initial data in a Lipschitz manner. The Coulomb interaction is known to be the singular and marginal case of the theory of the Boltzmann equation where the grazing collisions are the dominant. For some class of classical solutions, we show that our L2-stability result can provide a uniform L2-stability.

  14. Learning to Characterize Submarine Lava Flow Morphology at Seamounts and Spreading Centers using High Definition Video and Photomosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundis, A. T.; Sautter, L. R.; Kelley, D. S.; Delaney, J. R.; Kerr-Riess, M.; Denny, A. R.; Elend, M.

    2010-12-01

    In August, 2010 the UW ENLIGHTEN ’10 expedition provided ~140 hours of seafloor HD video footage at Axial Seamount, the most magmatically robust submarine volcano on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. During this expedition, direct imagery from an Insite Pacific HD camera mounted on the ROV Jason 2 was used to classify broad expanses of seafloor where high power (8 kw) and high bandwidth (10 Gb/s) fiber optic cable will be laid as part of the Regional Scale Nodes (RSN) component of the NSF funded Ocean Observatories Initiative. The cable will provide power and two-way, real-time communication to an array of >20 sensors deployed at the summit of the volcano and at active sites of hydrothermal venting to investigate how active processes within the volcano and at seafloor hot springs within the caldera are connected. In addition to HD imagery, over 10,000 overlapping photographs from a down-looking still camera were merged and co-registered to create high resolution photomosaics of two areas within Axial’s caldera. Thousands of additional images were taken to characterize the seafloor along proposed cable routes, allowing optimal routes to be planned well in advance of deployment. Lowest risk areas included those free of large collapse basins, steep flow fronts and fissures. Characterizing the modes of lava distribution across the seafloor is crucial to understanding the construction history of the upper oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges. In part, reconstruction of crustal development and eruptive histories can be inferred from surface flow morphologies, which provide insights into lava emplacement dynamics and effusion rates of past eruptions. An online resource is under development that will educate students about lava flow morphologies through the use of HD video and still photographs. The objective of the LavaFlow exercise is to map out a proposed cable route across the Axial Seamount caldera. Students are first trained in appropriate terminology and background content to learn to recognize and identify various lava flow morphologies and volcanic features. They then conduct a virtual ROV Jason 2 dive using video and still photographs, and characterize the terrain. Their observations are supplemented by the integration of high resolution (1 m scale resolution) bathymetry collected with a RESON SeaBat 7125 sonar mounted on Jason 2 during ENLIGHTEN’10. Students visualize the bathymetry in 2D and 3D using CARIS HIPS 7.0 software. COVE (Collaborative Ocean Visualization Environment) geospatial software is then used to plan and map out an optimal cable route. The LavaFlow exercise allows students to employ the same technologies used by the RSN team for designing the Axial Seamount cabled observatory infrastructure. When completed in 2014, real-time HD imagery, geophysical, chemical and biological sensors will provide data in real-time from this site to educators throughout the US and globe via the Internet.

  15. Speaking L2 in EFL Classes: Performance, Identity and Alterity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Ross

    2014-01-01

    When teachers and students use L2 in Expanding Circle, Asian EFL classes, what kind of interpersonal roles do they perform, and what does this mean for the development of L2-mediated identity? The notion of alterity, or otherness, is used here to analyse the extent to which identity work occurs in EFL classes located in a Thai university context.…

  16. Weyl-Heisenberg frames for subspaces of L^2(R)

    OpenAIRE

    Casazza, Peter G.; Christensen, Ole

    1998-01-01

    We give sufficient conditions for translates and modulates of a function g in L^2(R) to be a frame for its closed linear span. Even in the case where this family spans all of L^2(R), wou conditions are significantly weaker than the previous known conditions.

  17. Processability Approach to Arabic L2 Teaching and Syllabus Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shatter, Ghassan

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to identify the relationship between the developmental hierarchy in the acquisition of Arabic as a second language (Arabic L2) and formal classroom instruction. It provides a general presentation of the current debate on the influence of formal instruction in the acquisition of L2. Special attention is given to the subset of…

  18. Proficiency and Sequential Organization of L2 Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Gahtani, Saad; Roever, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    L2 requests in developmental pragmatics research are commonly investigated using non-interactive data collection techniques or sidelining the larger discourse sequence in which the request proper is embedded. This study takes a different approach to the study of L2 requests. In a cross-sectional design, we collected role play data from learners at…

  19. L2 Requests: Preference Structure in Talk-in-Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleghani-Nikazm, Carmen; Huth, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an empirical examination of how American learners of German accomplish the social action of requesting in L2 conversation, demonstrating how L2 learners use their linguistic and interactional resources to orient to preference structure in their talk. The data illustrate the sequential contingencies surrounding requests and…

  20. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  1. Measuring L2 Lexical Growth Using Hypernymic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated second language (L2) lexical development in the spontaneous speech of six adult, L2 English learners in a 1-year longitudinal study. One important aspect of lexical development is lexical organization and depth of knowledge. Hypernymic relations, the hierarchical relationships among related words that vary in relation to…

  2. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  3. Prosodic and Lexical Marking of Contrast in L2 Italian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Giuseppina; Dimroth, Christine; Braun, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the second language (L2) acquisition of pragmatic categories that are not as consistently and frequently encoded in the L2 than in the first language (L1). Experiment 1 showed that Italian speakers linguistically highlighted affirmative polarity contrast (e.g. "The child ate the candies" following after "The child…

  4. The Motivation of L2 Learners: Does it decrease with age?

    OpenAIRE

    Pauline Ghenghesh

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the motivation of a heterogeneous group of students studying English as a foreign language at the International School in Tripoli area. The aim of the study was to find out the extent to which various factors affect students’ motivation and achievement in second/foreign language learning particularly as they enter the senior high school. The research also looked into the temporal dimension of L2 motivation to see if the students’ motivation changes as they enter the se...

  5. L2L European Project: a Serious Game for Leadership Training

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Ara, María Ángeles; Quero Castellano, Soledad; Botella Arbona, Cristina; Bretón-López, Juana; Baños Rivera, Rosa María

    2011-01-01

    Effective leaders manage the underlying group dynamics in ways that help the team meet its objectives. Leaders need people management skills, resource management and organization. Despite the offer of leadership skills training programs, effective and valid training in these areas is scarce and it is usually available only in master programs of high quality or large corporations. The Learn 2 Lead (L2L) Project consortium has designed and developed a leadership skills t...

  6. Peer Review Comments Provided by High- and Low-Proficiency L2 Learners: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hui-Chuan Liao; Ya-Fen Lo

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the variations in peer review comments provided by L2 writers of high and low proficiencies. Two sampling procedures were used. First, convenience sampling was used to locate a college essay composition course as the setting of the study. Second, purposeful sampling was used to identify high- and low-performing writers as the subjects, from whom the peer review comments were collected and analyzed. An instruction-learning cycle on argumentative essay writing was conducted ...

  7. Iranian efl and indian esl college students’ beliefs about reading strategies in l2

    OpenAIRE

    Karbalaei, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    The notion of “learner beliefs” has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners’ beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers’ beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading in Englis...

  8. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students’ Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2

    OpenAIRE

    Karbalaei Alireza

    2010-01-01

    The notion of “learner beliefs” has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners’ beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers’ beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading in Engl...

  9. Shrinkage degree in $L_2$-re-scale boosting for regression

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Lin; Lin, Shaobo; Wang, Yao; Xu, Zongben

    2015-01-01

    Re-scale boosting (RBoosting) is a variant of boosting which can essentially improve the generalization performance of boosting learning. The key feature of RBoosting lies in introducing a shrinkage degree to re-scale the ensemble estimate in each gradient-descent step. Thus, the shrinkage degree determines the performance of RBoosting. The aim of this paper is to develop a concrete analysis concerning how to determine the shrinkage degree in $L_2$-RBoosting. We propose two feasible ways to s...

  10. Use of reading comprehension strategies when reading academic texts in L1 or L2.

    OpenAIRE

    De Bruyne, Ellen; Valcke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In higher education, reading of academic texts is considered as an essential gateway to scientific knowledge. The use of reading strategies in the L2 literature has been recognized as an important solution to facilitate reading comprehension. In a previous study we determined a differential impact of reading comprehension strategy instruction (RCSI) on learning performance when studying academic texts with different difficulty levels. The research involved first year university students (n=18...

  11. Explicit Grammar Instruction and the Acquisition of Second Language Verbal Morphology: A Framework for Generalized Learning in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugher, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation outlines a framework for understanding variation in ultimate attainment and syntactic structure in second language acquisition by positing a distinction between competence-based and generalized learning processes. Within this framework, competence-based learning is theorized to employ inductive learning processes to acquire a…

  12. Toward Independent L2 Readers: Effects of Text Adjuncts, Subject Knowledge, L1 Reading, and L2 Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantmeier, Cindy; Hammadou Sullivan, JoAnn; Strube, Michael

    2014-01-01

    With 97 learners in an advanced Spanish course, the study examines the effects of textual enhancement adjuncts, prior subject knowledge, first language (L1) reading ability, and second language (L2) Spanish proficiency on L2 comprehension of scientific passages. Readings included two texts with two types of embedded questions: a pause or written…

  13. Effects of L2 Exposure on L1 Grammar

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, M

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the effects of prolonged L2 exposure on L1 grammar, and seeks to understand the extent to which mental representations of the L1 are modified under influence of the L2. The constructions under examination are overt and null subjects in Italian L1, Dutch L2 and how these forms are used to track reference in discourse. Since Italian and Dutch show the same degree of specificity at a discourse-pragmatics level--distinct interpretations are mapped to distinct forms--the repres...

  14. L2-Betti numbers of locally compact groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henrik Densing

    We introduce a notion of L2-Betti numbers for locally compact, second countable, unimodular groups. We study the relation to the standard notion of L2-Betti numbers of countable discrete groups for lattices. In this way, several new computations are obtained for countable groups, including lattic...... in algebraic groups over local elds, and Kac-Moody lattices. We also extend the vanishing of reduced L2-cohomology for countable amenable groups, a well known theorem due to Cheeger and Gromov, to cover all amenable, second countable, unimodular locally compact groups....

  15. The bilingual L2 advantage in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Strobach, E Natalia

    2013-12-01

    To better understand the mechanisms by which bilingual proficiency impacts memory processes, two recognition memory experiments were conducted with matched monolingual and bilingual samples. In Experiment 1, monolingual speakers of English and Spanish studied high- and low-frequency words under full attention or cognitive load conditions. In Experiment 2, Spanish-English bilingual participants studied high- and low-frequency words under full-attention conditions in each language. For both monolinguals and bilinguals, low-frequency words were better recognized than high-frequency words. The central new findings were that bilingual recognition was more accurate in the less fluent language (L2) than in the more fluent language (L1) and that bilingual L2 recognition was more accurate than monolingual recognition. The bilingual L2 advantage parallels word frequency effects in recognition and is attributed to the greater episodic distinctiveness of L2 words, relative to L1 words. PMID:23606134

  16. Okeanos Explorer (EX1503L2): Tropical Exploration (Mapping II)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During EX-15-03L2, multibeam data will be collected 24 hours a day and XBT casts will be conducted at an interval defined by prevailing oceanographic conditions,...

  17. L^2-Betti Numbers of Algebras and Equivalence Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Rustad, Simen

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, we consider the L^2-Betti numbers associated to algebras and equivalence relations. For algebras, we expand upon the motivation between Connes and Shlyakhtenko's definition of L^2-Betti numbers of tracial algebras, and give an alternative definition of these numbers through an excision-type theorem. For equivalence relations we consider the definitions given by Gaboriau and Sauer and show that they coincide, in the process proving a theorem of Gaboriau. The methods used are st...

  18. Empirical Comparison of Evaluation Methods for Unsupervised Learning of Morphology Comparaison empirique des méthodes d'évaluation de l'apprentissage non-supervisé de la morphologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Virpioja

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Unsupervised and semi-supervised learning of morphology provide practical solutions for processing morphologically rich languages with less human labor than the traditional rule-based analyzers. Direct evaluation of the learning methods using linguistic reference analyses is important for their development, as evaluation through the final applications is often time consuming. However, even linguistic evaluation is not straightforward for full morphological analysis, because the morpheme labels generated by the learning method can be arbitrary. We review the previous evaluation methods for the learning tasks and propose new variations. In order to compare the methods, we perform an extensive meta-evaluation using the large collection of results from the Morpho Challenge competitions.

  19. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students' Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2 (Creencias de estudiantes universitarios iraníes EFL e hindúes ESL acerca de las estrategias de lectura en L2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    The notion of "learner beliefs" has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners' beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers' beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study…

  20. The Role of L1 Transfer on L2 and Pedagogical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui YAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of L1 transfer on the acquisition of L2 has always been the subject of controversary in the field of L2 learning and bilingual education. This article intends to examine controversial views about the transfer of L1 on the acquisition of L2 from the theories of Contrastive Analysis (CA, Contrastive Rhetoric (CR and Creative Construction (CC and Constructive Underlying Proficiency (CUP, hopefully offering an extensive analysis of the L1 transfer.
    Keywords: Contrastive Analysis; Contrastive Rhetoric; Creative Construction; Constructive Underlying Proficiency

    Résumé: Le rôle du transfert de la L1 dans l'acquisition de la L2 a toujours fait l'objet de controverses dans le domaine de l'apprentissage d'une deuxième langue et de l'enseignement bilingue. Cet article vise à examiner les vues controversées au sujet du transfert de la L1 dans l'acquisition de L2 à partir des théories de l'analyse contrastive (CA, de la rhétorique contrastive (CR, de la construction créative (CC et de la compétence constructive sous-jacente (CUP, en espérant offrir une vaste analyse sur le transfert de la L1.
    Mots-clés: analyse contrastive; rhétorique contrastive; construction creative; compétence constructive sous-jacente

  1. A Video-Based CALL Program for Proficient and Less-Proficient L2 Learners' Comprehension Ability, Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates first whether news video in a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) program can foster second language (L2) comprehension and incidental acquisition of adjectives, nouns, and verbs. Second, this study examines the relationship between the participants' vocabulary acquisition and their video comprehension. The…

  2. "Even Though I Am Married, I Have a Dream": Constructing L2 Gendered Identities through Narratives of Departure and Arrival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroir, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a multiple case study to show how 3 women constructed meaning around the processes of L2 learning and migration and (re)constructed identities through their participation in new communities of practice (CoPs). Data sources include formal classroom observations, in-depth interviews, and the participants'…

  3. Vocabulary Teaching Strategies and Conceptual Representations of Words in L2 in Children: Evidence with Novice Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesana, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel; Pineiro, Ana; Fraga, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    A controversial issue in bilingual research is whether in the early stages of L2 learning, access to the conceptual system involves mediation of L1 lexical representations [Kroll, J. F., & Stewart, E. (1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations.…

  4. L1 and L2 Picture Naming in Mandarin-English Bilinguals: A Test of Bilingual Dual Coding Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Debra; Poh, Rebecca Pei Yun; Paivio, Allan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the nature of bilinguals' conceptual representations and the links from these representations to words in L1 and L2. Specifically, we tested an assumption of the Bilingual Dual Coding Theory that conceptual representations include image representations, and that learning two languages in separate contexts can result in…

  5. The Effects of Word Exposure Frequency and Elaboration of Word Processing on Incidental L2 Vocabulary Acquisition through Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerth, Johannes; Tavakoli, Parveneh

    2012-01-01

    Research on incidental second language (L2) vocabulary acquisition through reading has claimed that repeated encounters with unfamiliar words and the relative elaboration of processing these words facilitate word learning. However, so far both variables have been investigated in isolation. To help close this research gap, the current study…

  6. Interactions between Text Chat and Audio Modalities for L2 Communication and Feedback in the Synthetic World "Second Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigham, Ciara R.; Chanier, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the interactions between text chat and audio modalities in L2 communication in a synthetic (virtual) world and observes whether the text chat modality was used for corrective feedback and the characteristics of the latter. This is examined within the context of a hybrid content and language integrated learning…

  7. Vocabulary Teaching Strategies and Conceptual Representations of Words in L2 in Children: Evidence with Novice Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesana, Montserrat; Perea, Manuel; Pineiro, Ana; Fraga, Isabel

    2009-01-01

    A controversial issue in bilingual research is whether in the early stages of L2 learning, access to the conceptual system involves mediation of L1 lexical representations [Kroll, J. F., & Stewart, E. (1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations.…

  8. La nozione di Grammatica e l’insegnamento di L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ciliberti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Il tema del mio contributo riguarda la nozione di Grammatica ed il suo insegnamento in contesti di apprendimento non spontaneo di lingue2. Prima di affrontarlo prendo brevemente in considerazione il concetto di lingua ‒ sovraordinato a quello di Grammatica ‒ per indagare come esso sia stato più frequentemente inteso nelle scienze del linguaggio e nell’insegnamento di L2. Analizzo poi due modi di guardare alla Grammatica, rappresentativi di posizioni apparentemente distanti ma in realtà complementari: Grammatica nella comunicazione e Grammatica della comunicazione: vale a dire Grammatica intesa come sistema formale e strutturale e Grammatica vista invece come un importante strumento dell’agire sociale. Mi soffermo infine sulla rilevanza descrittiva ed applicativa che le due prospettive assumono nell’insegnamento/apprendimento di L2 in quanto atte a far acquisire consapevolezza metalinguistica attraverso la riflessione, da un lato, su tutte le regolarità presenti nel linguaggio e non soltanto su quelle di tipo formale e frasale, d’altro lato, attraverso la riflessione sull’intersezione ed i raccordi esistenti tra Grammatica ed interazione.  The notion of grammar and L2 teaching This paper studies the concept of teaching grammar in non-spontaneous L2 learning contexts. First we briefly consider the concept of language – that of the higher-level Grammar – to investigate how it has most frequently been understood in language sciences and L2 teaching. Then we analyze two ways of looking at grammar, which appear to be distant but are actually complementary: grammar in communication and the grammar of communication, namely grammar as a formal, structuralsystem and grammar as an important instrument for social action. We reflect on the descriptive and applicablerelevance that these two perspectives take on in L2 teaching/learning. Thisreflection, on the one hand, is aimed at the acquisition ofmetalinguistic awareness aboutall the regularities of language, not only the formal and phrasal ones, while on the other hand, we reflect onabout the intertwining and connection between grammar and interaction.

  9. Morphological Analysis as a Vocabulary Strategy for L1 and L2 College Preparatory Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Tom S.

    2009-01-01

    Students enrolled in a college preparatory reading class were categorized based on language origin. Native English speakers comprised one group and foreign students were dichotomized into Latin-based (for example, Spanish) and non Latin-based (for example, Japanese) language groups. A pretest assessment quantified existing knowledge of Latinate…

  10. Introduction. Beyond the Obvious: Do Second Language Learners Process Inflectional Morphology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor, Kira

    2010-01-01

    Given that this special issue is devoted to the acquisition and processing of inflectional morphology by second language (L2) learners, the question in the title may appear redundant. However, recent research on first language (L1) and L2 morphological processing has challenged basic assumptions about the status of inflectional morphology in…

  11. The Age Factor in L2 Acquisition : An empirical investigation into the choice of +/-- human relative pronouns by Spanish learners of English and the resetting of parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, Mª Ángeles

    2001-01-01

    A positive approach to Second Language (L2) acquisition is to follow Chomsky's (1981) Principles and Parameters theory. Following the latest approach of the Minimalist Program (Chomsky 1995), the question of whether language acquisition involves the acquisition of morphological features that define a particular language is discussed. We would also like to examine age-related effects (Birdsong 2000) and L2 development in the acquisition of one particular linguistic phenomenon, relative clauses...

  12. Spectral measurements with spatial resolution in the L-2 stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of experimental investigations into behaviour of light impurities in the l-2 stellarator plasma are given. Diagnostic apparatuses for chord measurements of luminescence intensity in ion lines and a technique of recalculation for local intensity are described. A value of electron temperature in the area of luminescence maximum of impurity ion was evaluated from results of measurements and numerical count. It constitutes half of a value of ion ionization potential. Electron temperature profile in periphery of plasma filament was constructed on the basis of spectral measurements. Its dynamics during several modes of the l-2 stellarator operation is investigated

  13. A L2HGDH initiator methionine codon mutation in a Yorkshire terrier with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farias Fabiana HG

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a metabolic repair deficiency characterized by elevated levels of L-2-hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Neurological signs associated with the disease in humans and dogs include seizures, ataxia and dementia. Case presentation Here we describe an 8?month old Yorkshire terrier that presented with episodes of hyperactivity and aggressive behavior. Between episodes, the dog’s behavior and neurologic examinations were normal. A T2 weighted MRI of the brain showed diffuse grey matter hyperintensity and a urine metabolite screen showed elevated 2-hydroxyglutaric acid. We sequenced all 10 exons and intron-exon borders of L2HGDH from the affected dog and identified a homozygous A to G transition in the initiator methionine codon. The first inframe methionine is at p.M183 which is past the mitochondrial targeting domain of the protein. Initiation of translation at p.M183 would encode an N-terminal truncated protein unlikely to be functional. Conclusions We have identified a mutation in the initiation codon of L2HGDH that is likely to result in a non-functional gene. The Yorkshire terrier could serve as an animal model to understand the pathogenesis of L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria and to evaluate potential therapies.

  14. L’apprendimento della lingua della medicina in L2: due manuali a confronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Insegnare la lingua speciale della medicina ad una classe di apprendenti L2 implica considerare diverse problematiche relative alle peculiarità del codice settoriale (variazioni diafasiche, particolarità del lessico, tecnicismi collaterali, ma anche relative al pubblico di apprendenti non italofono (tipologia, interessi, livello di apprendimento. Il panorama editoriale italiano offre pochi strumenti dedicati: tra questi Donatella Troncarelli, Dica 33. Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, 1994 e Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma edizioni, 2004. Questo studio intende mettere a confronto i due testi sottolineandone le caratteristiche e l’impostazione glottodidattica ed evidenziando come il contenuto linguistico sia proposto, quali siano le abilità favorite, quali gli obiettivi di apprendimento e quali gli strumenti forniti. Particolare attenzione viene prestata al lessico registrato nei glossari dei volumi.  Learning the language of medicine in l2: a comparison of two textbooks Teaching the special language of medicine to a class of L2 learners implies considering various issues related to the peculiarities of the sector-specific jargon (diphasic variations, peculiarities of vocabulary, collateral technicalities, also related to non-Italian-speaking learners (type, interests, level of learning. Italian publishers offer few dedicated tools: these include Donatella Troncarelli, Dica 33.Il linguaggio della medicina, Bonacci, 1994 and Daniela Forapani, Italiano per medici, Alma editions, 2004. This study aims to compare the two texts, highlighting their features and language teaching setting, showing how linguistic content is proposed, which skills are promoted, what the learning objectives are and what tools are provided. Particular attention is paid to the vocabulary in the glossaries.

  15. Transculturation and affect in the L2 classroom: teaching English and ethnography in the Yucatan

    OpenAIRE

    Logan, Joy

    2006-01-01

    By offering a transdisciplinary analysis of the development of an EFL/ethnography program in Mexico, this study proposes transculturation, as opposed to acculturation (a process commonly cited by applied linguists), as a more comprehensive conceptual tool for understanding the learning dynamics of the L2 classroom. SELT, School of Experimental Language Training, in the Maya community of Pisté, Yucatán, (Mexico) was a program that sought to teach English to local Pisteleños and to train U.S. u...

  16. L2 Reading Motivation among Sri Lankan University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Kusumi Vasantha; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of the motivational processes that facilitated the text comprehension among 406 Sri Lankan university students in Sri Lanka. Students' L2 text comprehension and reading motivation were assessed using a reading comprehension test and a reading motivation and attitude questionnaire. The Principal Componential…

  17. Phonetics Instruction Improves Learners' Perception of L2 Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Explicit phonetics instruction can help second language (L2) learners to moderately improve their pronunciation, but less is known about how the instruction affects learners' perception, even though there is evidence that perception and pronunciation are related. This study provided phonetics instruction to students (n = 46) studying Spanish as a…

  18. Raising Learners' Awareness through L1-L2 Teacher Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunning, Pamela; White, Joanna; Busque, Christine

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in teacher collaboration across mother tongue and second language curricula. However, cross-curricular collaboration in reading strategy instruction has seldom been investigated. We report a two-year study involving collaboration between the French first language (L1) and English second language (L2) teachers in an…

  19. Discourse Connectives in L1 and L2 Argumentative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Discourse connectives (DCs) are multi-functional devices used to connect discourse segments and fulfill interpersonal levels of discourse. This study investigates the use of selected 80 DCs within 11 categories in the argumentative essays produced by L1 and L2 university students. The analysis is based on the International Corpus Network of Asian…

  20. L2 Quality as a Competitive Edge - Project Presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Marianne Grove; Kastberg, Peter

    2000-01-01

    In our paper we would like to present an interdisciplinary project "L2 as a Competitive Edge". We'll be doing this by first giving you a project overview in section 0. The overview will then in the section 1 and 2 be followed by a presentation of two of the most interesting themes, serving as point...

  1. Hedging, Inflating, and Persuading in L2 Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, Eli

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzes the types and frequencies of hedges and intensifiers employed in NS and NNS academic essays included in a corpus of L1 and L2 student academic texts (745 essays/220,747 words). The overarching goal of this investigation is to focus on these lexical and syntactic features of written discourse because they effectively lend…

  2. Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hua; Baker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This paper adopts an automated frequency-driven approach to identify frequently-used word combinations (i.e., "lexical bundles") in academic writing. Lexical bundles retrieved from one corpus of published academic texts and two corpora of student academic writing (one L1, the other L2), were investigated both quantitatively and qualitatively.…

  3. L2 Reading Motivation among Sri Lankan University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Kusumi Vasantha; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of the motivational processes that facilitated the text comprehension among 406 Sri Lankan university students in Sri Lanka. Students' L2 text comprehension and reading motivation were assessed using a reading comprehension test and a reading motivation and attitude questionnaire. The Principal Componential…

  4. Generators with interior degeneracy on spaces of L^2 type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genni Fragnelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider operators in divergence and in nondivergence form with degeneracy at the interior of the space domain. Characterizing the domain of the operators, we prove that they generate positive analytic semigroups on spaces of L^2 type. Finally, some applications to linear and semilinear parabolic evolution problems and to linear hyperbolic ones are presented.

  5. Chinese L2 Literacy Practices: Material and Sociocultural Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo-Philip, Stephanie Wingyan

    2014-01-01

    Although there has been research on literacy as a sociocultural practice, L2 literacy researchers have yet to incorporate and consider how the material characteristics of a writing system interact with sociocultural factors in shaping literacy practices. Drawing on conceptions of literacy as a sociocultural practice, psycholinguistic and…

  6. Learner Perceptions of Instruction in L2 Pragmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanshan

    2009-01-01

    In Taiwan, pragmatic competence has often been a neglected area in English education. Learners may be linguistically competent, but do not know how to use L2 appropriately. Through the teaching of complaint behaviors, the author demonstrates how pragmatic components can be incorporated into a college-level language classroom. After the…

  7. Affective Variables and Japanese L2 Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo-Brown, Kimi

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates how 17 affective factors are related to Japanese second language (L2) reading comprehension and "kanji" knowledge test scores of 43 university students in advanced Japanese courses. Major findings are that: a) reading comprehension ability and "kanji" knowledge have direct associations with self-perception of Japanese…

  8. Working Memory Capacity and L2 Speech Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortkamp, Maike B. Mota

    This study examines whether working memory capacity, a construct of current information processing theory, correlates with fluent foreign language (L2) speech production. It is based on M. Daneman's study (1991), who found significant correlation between individuals' working memory capacity and the fluency with which they can speak their first…

  9. L2 Processing of Plural Inflection in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yoonsang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates (1) whether late second language (L2) learners can attain native-like knowledge of English plural inflection even when their first language (L1) lacks an equivalent and (2) whether they construct hierarchically structured representations during online sentence processing like native speakers. In a self-paced reading task,…

  10. On Written Corrective Feedback in L2 Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Truscott (1996) questions the practicability of grammar correction, and he believes that written corrective feedback (WCF) is not only a waste of time, but even harmful to the students as well. This has led to a great deal of discussion and research on WCF in second-language (L2) writing. Ferris (1999) is the representative opponent of Truscott's…

  11. Chinese L2 Literacy Practices: Material and Sociocultural Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo-Philip, Stephanie Wingyan

    2014-01-01

    Although there has been research on literacy as a sociocultural practice, L2 literacy researchers have yet to incorporate and consider how the material characteristics of a writing system interact with sociocultural factors in shaping literacy practices. Drawing on conceptions of literacy as a sociocultural practice, psycholinguistic and…

  12. Task-Induced Strategic Processing in L2 Text Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiba, Yukie

    2013-01-01

    Strategic text processing was investigated for English as a foreign language learners who processed and recalled a text when they read for expression, for image, and for critique. The results indicated that, although the amount of content recall (i.e., products of comprehension) was similar, the relative contributions of second language (L2

  13. L1-L2 Sentence Translation in Classroom Grammar Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ilana

    2012-01-01

    L1-L2 translation of separate sentences is one kind of task format used by mainstream EFL teachers to assess their learners' grammatical accuracy. Aimed at improving teacher-written translation items, this study analyses linguistic features potentially causing such decontextualized cues (and their target responses) to sound odd or untypical of…

  14. Awareness of L1/L2 Differences: Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Ahlem; Lightbown, Patsy M.; Spada, Nina

    2010-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the extent to which francophone learners of English as a second language (ESL) are aware of the differences between French and English question formation and how such awareness relates to their L2 performance. Three tasks were administered to 58 grades 5 and 6 francophone ESL learners. In a grammaticality…

  15. Phonetics Instruction Improves Learners' Perception of L2 Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Explicit phonetics instruction can help second language (L2) learners to moderately improve their pronunciation, but less is known about how the instruction affects learners' perception, even though there is evidence that perception and pronunciation are related. This study provided phonetics instruction to students (n = 46) studying Spanish as a…

  16. Epilogue: Exploring L2 Writing-SLA Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    In this closing commentary, I first briefly recognize areas that have made the dialogue between the fields of second language (L2) writing and second language acquisition (SLA) difficult in the past. I then offer some comments on the interfaces that are brought to the fore by the contributions gathered in the special issue. The themes explored are…

  17. Status of the T2L2/Jason2 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exertier, Pierre; Samain, Etienne; Bonnefond, Pascal; Guillemot, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    The T2L2 (Time Transfer by Laser Link) project, developed by CNES and OCA will permit the synchronization of remote ultra stable clocks and the determination of their performances over intercontinental distances. The principle of the experiment derives from Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) technology with dedicated space equipment. T2L2 was accepted in 2005 to be on board the Jason2 altimetry satellite. The payload consists of both event timer and photo detection modules. The system uses the ultra-stable quartz oscillator of DORIS as on-board reference clock on one hand, and the Laser Reflector Array, making T2L2 a real two-way time transfer system on the other hand. The expected time stability of the T2L2 instrument (detection and timing), referenced by the DORIS oscillator and including all internal error sources should be at the level of 10-12 ps at 1 s and budget and time stability of ground to space time transfers. The paper describes the space experiment and highlights the different steps of the data processing after a first year of operations (between July 2008 and June 2009). We show the time stability which can be reached when a laser station is equipped with an Hydrogen Maser or a Cesium clock as a time reference; thus, the first estimations give 7 ps over 30 s. We conclude by presenting the campaigns of ground to ground time transfers already planned between the Paris Observatory and different places in Europe.

  18. Rigidity and $L^2$ cohomology of hyperbolic manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Carron, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    When $X=\\Gamma\\backslash \\H^n$ is a real hyperbolic manifold, it is already known that if the critical exponent is small enough then some cohomology spaces and some spaces of $L^2$ harmonic forms vanish. In this paper, we show rigidity results in the borderline case of these vanishing results.

  19. Preparation of optically pure L-2-hydroxyaldehydes with yeast transketolase

    OpenAIRE

    Effenberger, Franz; Null, Volker; Ziegler, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    L-2-Hydroxyaldehydes L-3 with a great variety of substituents in 3-position are obtained in good chemical and excellent optical yields by kinetic resolution in the transketolase-catalyzed reaction of racemic 2-hydroxyaldehydes with lithium hydroxypyruvate 4 where only the enantiomer (R)-3 reacts to 5-deoxy-D-xyluloses 5.

  20. L’ACQUISIZIONE DEI SEGNALI DISCORSIVI IN ITALIANO L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Jafrancesco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo presenta i risultati di una ricerca sull’acquisizione dei segnali discorsivi (SD in italiano L2, condotta su un corpus di parlato di studenti universitari in mobilità accademica, presenti nell’università di Firenze e inseriti in percorsi formativi di italiano L2 presso il Centro Linguistico di Ateneo. Il principale obiettivo dello studio è indagare l’italiano di stranieri relativamente a questo tratto specifico al fine di individuare eventuali sequenze acquisizionali, contribuendo a delineare lo sviluppo della competenza sociopragmatica degli apprendenti nei livelli di competenza proposti nel Quadro comune europeo di riferimento per le lingue (QCER Si analizza, in particolare, l’uso dei SD nel parlato dialogico degli informanti nei Livelli basico, indipendente e competente del QCER – con riferimento al modello tassonomico dei SD proposto da Bazzanella nella Grande grammatica italiana di consultazione (1995, integrato, in relazione allo specifico contesto, con nuove funzioni – evidenziando i principali macrofenomeni emersi, con l’intento inoltre di riflettere su come i dati dell’acquisizione dell’italiano L2 possono rappresentare un punto di riferimento per la definizione di percorsi formativi coerenti con i processi naturali di sviluppo della competenza.Acquisition of discourse markers in Italian L2The paper presents the results of a study on the acquisition of discourse markers (SD in Italian L2 students, conducted on a corpus of spoken language by university students at the University of Florence who attended Italian L2 language course at the University Language Center. The main objective of the study was to investigate the Italian of foreigners in relation to this specific trait in order to identify possible acquisitional sequences, helping shape the development of learners' socio-pragmatic competence levels proposed in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR. In particular, we analyzed the use of SD in the spoken dialogue between students at the basic, independent and competent CEFR levels, with reference to the taxonomic SD model proposed by Bazzanella in the Grande grammatica italiana di consultazione (1995. In relation to the specific context, we integrated new features, focusing on key macro-phenomena that emerged, with the intention of considering how L2 data acquisition can be a reference point for the definition of training consistent with the natural processes of competence development.

  1. Consideraciones metodológicas sobre la evaluación de la competencia oral en L2 / Methodological Considerations Concerning the Assessment of Oral Competency in a Second Language (L2)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José, González-Such; Jesús Miguel, Jornet Meliá; Margarita, Bakieva.

    Full Text Available En este artículo se realiza una revisión acerca de las consideraciones metodológicas para la evaluación de la competencia oral en el aprendizaje de una segunda lengua (L2). Se analizan las características del constructo y su definición. En este caso, se refieren al ámbito competencial, que incluye l [...] a competencia en comprensión oral y la de expresión oral. Asimismo, se revisan conceptos referidos al modo en que diseñar instrumentos y/o técnicas evaluativas para la evaluación de las competencias que la integran y cuestiones respecto a fiabilidad, validez y establecimiento de puntos de corte. Abstract in english In this paper, methodological considerations are reviewed regarding the assessment of oral competence in the learning of a second language (L2). The characteristics of the construct and its definition are analyzed, including competence in listening comprehension and oral expression. Furthermore, con [...] cepts such as the design of instruments and/or evaluative techniques for the assessment of the competencies are examined as well as issues related to reliability, validity and cut off points.

  2. Grammatical Gender Processing in L2: Electrophysiological Evidence of the Effect of L1-L2 Syntactic Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, Alice; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of proficiency and similarity between the first and the second language on grammatical gender processing in L2. In three experiments, we manipulated gender agreement violations within the determiner phrase (DP), between the determiner and the noun (Experiment 1), the postposed adjective and the noun (Experiment 2)…

  3. Grammatical Gender Processing in L2: Electrophysiological Evidence of the Effect of L1-L2 Syntactic Similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, Alice; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effect of proficiency and similarity between the first and the second language on grammatical gender processing in L2. In three experiments, we manipulated gender agreement violations within the determiner phrase (DP), between the determiner and the noun (Experiment 1), the postposed adjective and the noun (Experiment 2)…

  4. Spatially resolved spectral measurements in the L-2 stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on the behavior of light impurities in the plasma of the L-2 stellarator are reported. The diagnostic apparatus used for chord measurements of the emission intensity in the ion lines is described. The method for converting the results of these measurements to the local intensity is also described. The experimental results are used along with numerical calculations to estimate the electron temperature in the region corresponding to the maximum emission of the impurity ions. This temperature is found to be half the ionization potential of the ion. The electron temperature profile at the periphery of the plasma column is constructed from the spectral measurements. The dynamics of this profile in several operating regimes of the L-2 is studied

  5. Spatially resolved spectral measurements in the L-2 stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voronov, G.S.; Larionova, N.F.

    1982-11-01

    Experiments on the behavior of light impurities in the plasma of the L-2 stellarator are reported. The diagnostic apparatus used for chord measurements of the emission intensity in the ion lines is described. The method for converting the results of these measurements to the local intensity is also described. The experimental results are used along with numerical calculations to estimate the electron temperature in the region corresponding to the maximum emission of the impurity ions. This temperature is found to be half the ionization potential of the ion. The electron temperature profile at the periphery of the plasma column is constructed from the spectral measurements. The dynamics of this profile in several operating regimes of the L-2 is studied.

  6. Acquiring native-like intonation in Dutch and Spanish:Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners

    OpenAIRE

    van Maastricht, L.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Krahmer, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    ACQUIRING NATIVE-LIKE INTONATION IN DUTCH AND SPANISH Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners Introduction Learning more about the interaction between the native language (L1) and the target language (L2) has been the aim of many studies on second language acquisition (SLA). Where the first studies mostly focussed on the influence of the L1 on the L2, later studies showed that the opposite is also possible, making linguistic transfer a bi-directional phenomenon...

  7. Acquiring native-like intonation in Dutch and Spanish: Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners

    OpenAIRE

    van Maastricht, L.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Krahmer, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    ACQUIRING NATIVE-LIKE INTONATION IN DUTCH AND SPANISH Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners Introduction Learning more about the interaction between the native language (L1) and the target language (L2) has been the aim of many studies on second language acquisition (SLA). Where the first studies mostly focussed on the influence of the L1 on the L2, later studies showed that the opposite is also possible, making linguistic transfer a bi-directional phenomenon...

  8. The sharp affine $L^2$ Sobolev trace inequality and variants

    OpenAIRE

    de Nápoli, Pablo Luis; Haddad, Julián; Jiménez, Carlos Hugo; Montenegro, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    We establish a sharp affine $L^p$ Sobolev trace inequality by using the $L_p$ Busemann-Petty centroid inequality. For $p = 2$, our affine version is stronger than the famous sharp $L^2$ Sobolev trace inequality proved independently by Escobar and Beckner. Our approach allows also to characterize all cases of equality in this case. For this new inequality, no Euclidean geometric structure is needed.

  9. The Laplace transform and polynomial approximation in L2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, Rodrigo

    This short note gives a sufficient condition for having the class of polynomials dense in the space of square integrable functions with respect to a finite measure dominated by the Lebesgue measure in the real line, here denoted by L2. It is shown that if the Laplace transform of the measure in p...... exponential decaying tails. The tools presented are of interest for constructing semiparametric extensions of classic parametric models....

  10. Feedback in L2 writing: the students' perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vokic, Gabriela

    2008-01-01

    Given the disparate views in L2 writing literature on what constitutes effective teacher feedback, this qualitative study approached this issue from the student???s perspective. In order to examine what constitutes effective teacher feedback from the student???s standpoint, fifty-four student responses to three drastically different feedback styles were analyzed. The results of this preliminary study are partially in line with Hyland (1998), since it was found that whethe...

  11. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh; Ms. Georgia Kakourou; Dr. Pamela Greenwell

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2) was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of othe...

  12. Teaching Requests to L2 Learners of Spanish

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley D. Langer

    2013-01-01

    In many language classrooms, the teaching of pragmatic forms is often ignored at all learner levels. This paper – part of a larger study that encompassed four speech acts – examines the benefits of explicit instruction of requests for beginning, intermediate, and advanced L2 learners of Spanish. The participants took a pre-test and post-test to measure the pragmatic gains over the course of an academic quarter, while the experimental groups from each level received specific lesson...

  13. The state complexity of L^2 and L^k

    OpenAIRE

    Rampersad, Narad

    2004-01-01

    We show that if M is a DFA with n states over an arbitrary alphabet and L = L(M), then the worst-case state complexity of L^2 is n*2^n - 2^{n-1}. If, however, M is a DFA over a unary alphabet, then the worst-case state complexity of L^k is kn-k+1 for all k >= 2.

  14. Influence of musical training on perception of L2 speech

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The current study reports specific cases in which a positive transfer of perceptual ability from the music domain to the language domain occurs. We tested whether musical training enhances discrimination and identification performance of L2 speech sounds (timing features, nasal consonants and vowels). Native Dutch and Japanese speakers with different musical training experience, matched for their estimated verbal IQ, participated in the experiments. Results indicated that musical training str...

  15. Negation in early L2: a window on language genesis

    OpenAIRE

    de Swart, Henriëtte

    2008-01-01

    Early second language has been defined as a restricted linguistic system that can offer a 'window' on language genesis. In this paper, I model the acquisition of negation by L2 (adult) learners as a sequence of constraint rankings in the framework of Optimality Theory. The rankings shift from pragmatics via conventionalization of negation as a focus operator to syntax. Early language is argued to follow the same path. The transition from protolanguage to language is located in the shift from ...

  16. Learner Perceptions of Instruction in L2 Pragmatics

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanshan Chen

    2009-01-01

    In Taiwan, pragmatic competence has often been a neglected area in English education. Learners may be linguistically competent, but do not know how to use L2 appropriately. Through the teaching of complaint behaviors, the author demonstrates how pragmatic components can be incorporated into a college-level language classroom. After the instruction, the self reports of the forty participants showed a positive attitude toward such instruction. They also reported that the teaching materials were...

  17. Acquiring Persian Object Marking : Balochi learners of L2 Persian

    OpenAIRE

    Bohnacker, Ute; Mohammadi, Somaye

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the second language acquisition of Persian object marking by 237 nativeBalochi-speaking children from age eight to eleven. The combination of Balochi and Persian has not beenstudied from an acquisitional perspective, although it widely occurs in southeastern Iran. This paperstudies the second language (L2) development of direct and indirect object marking after two and threeyears of exposure to Persian at school, vs. a control group of 133 monolingual native Persian ch...

  18. Heat wave modulation experiments in the L-2M stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akulina, D.; Batanov, G.; Berezhetskii, M.; Gladkov, G.; Grebenshchikov, S.; Estrada, T.; Fedyanin, O.; Kharchev, N.; Kholnov, Yu.; Kolik, L.; Larionova, N.; Likin, K.; Luna, Elena de la; Meshcheryakov, A.; Sanchez, J.; Sarksyan, K.; Sbitnikova, I

    2001-01-01

    The heat wave modulation was used in ECRH experiments in the L-2M stellarator to determine the absorption region and the thermal diffusion coefficient. The temperature response of the plasma was followed by ECE and SXR diagnostics. It is shown that the absorption region has a nonlocal character, and its size is dependent on the magnetic field. The estimated value of the electron thermal diffusivity coefficient turns out to be higher than expected.

  19. Investigation of peripheral plasma on the L-2 stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the L-2 stellarator periphery plasma is investigated. A good correlation for the radial distribution of the electron temperature Tc near the scrape-off region measured by laser scattering, optical and probe techniques is demonstrated. Probe measurements of Tc are higher than optical measurements near the chamber wall. The radial plasma density distribution outside the scrape-off region is measured

  20. Differences in L1 and L2 Academic Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Yingli Wang

    2012-01-01

    Since the first contrastive rhetoric study by Kaplan in 1966, many studies have been produced, and over several decades of development, there have been many contributions gained from previous contrastive rhetoric studies. In this article, many kinds of differences existing in L1 and L2 academic writing have been discussed. I will categorize the differences in three major parts as following: differences in the level of lexicon, differences in the level of sentence, and differences in the level...

  1. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of L2 Puppis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhuo; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations of the L2 Puppis system suggest that the Mira-like variable may be in the early stages of forming a bipolar planetary nebula (PN). As one of nearest and brightest AGB stars, and due to its status as a binary, L2 Puppis serves as a benchmark object for studying the late-stages of stellar evolution. We perform global, three-dimensional, adaptive-mesh-refinement hydrodynamic simulations of the L2 Puppis system with AstroBEAR. The broad-band spectral-energy-distribution (SED) and synthetic observational images are post-processed from our simulations using the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D. Given the reported binary parameters, we are able to reproduce the current observational data if a short pulse of dense material is released from the AGB star with a velocity sufficient to escape the primary but not the binary. Such a situation could emanate from a thermal pulse, be induced by a periastron passage of the secondary, or could be launched if the primary ingests a planet.

  2. Integration of moral values during L2 sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucart, Alice; Moreno, Eva; Martin, Clara D; Costa, Albert

    2015-11-01

    This study reports an event-related potential (ERP) experiment examining whether valuation (i.e., one's own values) is integrated incrementally and whether it affects L2 speakers' online interpretation of the sentence. We presented Spanish native speakers and French-Spanish mid-proficiency late L2 speakers with visual sentences containing value-consistent and value-inconsistent statements (e.g., 'Nowadays, paedophilia should be prohibited/tolerated across the world.'). Participants' brain activity was recorded as they were reading the sentences and indicating whether they agreed with the statements or not. Behaviourally, the two groups revealed identical valuation. The ERP analyses showed both a semantic (N400) and an affect-related response (LPP) to value-inconsistent statements in the native group, but only an LPP in the non-native group. These results suggest that valuation is integrated online (presence of LPP) during L2 sentence comprehension but that it does not interfere with semantic processing (absence of N400). PMID:26431751

  3. COMPUTING THE VOCABULARY DEMANDS OF L2 READING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Cobb

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic computing can make two important contributions to second language (L2 reading instruction. One is to resolve longstanding research issues that are based on an insufficiency of data for the researcher, and the other is to resolve related pedagogical problems based on insufficiency of input for the learner. The research section of the paper addresses the question of whether reading alone can give learners enough vocabulary to read. When the computer’s ability to process large amounts of both learner and linguistic data is applied to this question, it becomes clear that, for the vast majority of L2 learners, free or wide reading alone is not a sufficient source of vocabulary knowledge for reading. But computer processing also points to solutions to this problem. Through its ability to reorganize and link documents, the networked computer can increase the supply of vocabulary input that is available to the learner. The development section of the paper elaborates a principled role for computing in L2 reading pedagogy, with examples, in two broad areas, computer-based text design and computational enrichment of undesigned texts.

  4. Iranian EFL and Indian ESL College Students' Beliefs about Reading Strategies in L2 Creencias de estudiantes universitarios iraníes EFL e hindúes ESL acerca de las estrategias de lectura en L2

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Karbalaei

    2010-01-01

    The notion of "learner beliefs" has garnered much attention in the field of second language acquisition. Although different studies have been conducted to study learners' beliefs about language learning, little research has looked into the issue of L2 readers' beliefs and their relations to reading strategies. This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between efl and ESL readers in reading awareness of metacognitive strategies use when they are reading in E...

  5. L2 Motivation and Personality as Predictors of the Second Language Proficiency: Role of the Big Five Traits and L2 Motivational Self System

    OpenAIRE

    Zargham Ghapanchi; Gholam Hassan Khajavy; Seyyedeh Fatemeh Asadpour

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the predictability of the L2 proficiency by personality and L2 motivational self system variables among 141 Iranian EFL university students. Participants completed Transparent Bipolar Inventory (Goldberg, 1992) as a personality measure, L2 motivational self system (Papi, 2010), and a self-rated measure of second language proficiency. Regression analyses showed that extroversion and openness to experience accounted for 13% of the variance in L2 proficiency; and ide...

  6. How much collocation knowledge do L2 learners have?: the effects of frequency and amount of exposure

    OpenAIRE

    González Fernández, Beatriz; Schmitt, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars believe that collocations are difficult to learn and use by L2 learners. However, some research suggests that learners often know more collocations than commonly thought. This study tested 108 Spanish learners of English to measure their productive knowledge of 50 collocations, which varied according to corpus frequency, t-score, and MI score. The participants produced a mean score of 56.6% correct, suggesting that our learners knew a substantial number of collocations. Knowledg...

  7. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Iranian EFL Learners’ Level of L2 Lexical Knowledge: The Case of Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Biria; Abbas Mehrabi Boshrabadi; Elham Nikbakht

    2014-01-01

    Human cognitive competence represents individuals’ subconscious knowledge of abilities, talents, and mental skills collectively called “multiple intelligences (MIs)”, which play a pivotal role in facilitating human learning. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to determine the magnitude of the relationship existing between multiple intelligences and Iranian EFL learners’ level of second language (L2) lexical knowledge on one hand and the partializing impact of gender on the othe...

  8. ICT for L2 Acquisition by Adult Migrants: results from a Comparative Study in the Netherlands and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Spotti, Massimiliano; KLUZER Stefano; Ferrari, Anusca

    2010-01-01

    This paper, part of a larger comparative study jointly developed by IPTS (Seville) and DG INFSO (Brussels), deals with ICT and L2 learning as enablers of integration and the everyday engagement of adult migrants in both in the Netherlands and Sweden. More specifically, the paper provides a qualitative snapshot of the current situation in these two countries where migrant integration is regimented by opposite policy regimes with sharp differences in their ICT provision (a highly developed priv...

  9. ICT and L2 Acquisition by Adult Migrants: Results from a Comparative Study in the Netherlands and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Spotti, Massimiliano; KLUZER Stefano; Ferrari, Anusca

    2010-01-01

    This paper, part of a larger comparative study jointly developed by IPTS (Seville) and DG INFSO (Brussels), deals with ICT and L2 learning as enablers of integration and the everyday engagement of adult migrants in both in the Netherlands and Sweden. More specifically, the paper provides a qualitative snapshot of the current situation in these two countries where migrant integration is regimented by opposite policy regimes with sharp differences in their ICT provision (a highly developed priv...

  10. Sitio Web interactivo para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología del sistema muscular / Interactive Website to learn the morphology of the muscular system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Orliany, Alboniga Álvarez; Iraida, Hidalgo Gato Castillo; Niurka, Cabrera Vázquez; Rafael, Capote Martínez; Dariel, Díaz Díaz.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Debido al desarrollo científico técnico alcanzado, se han insertado las tecnologías de la informática y las comunicaciones al proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de la disciplina Morfofisiología Humana. Se realizó una investigación de innovación tecnológica, en el área de pregrado de la Educación Médica, [...] en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río; con el objetivo de elaborar un sistema de medios de enseñanza para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular. Se utilizaron los métodos empíricos, las encuestas a estudiantes, entrevistas a profesores de la asignatura y a los profesores asesores, criterio de expertos para validar el producto. Los métodos teóricos: histórico, lógico y sistémico, fueron utilizados en la revisión bibliográfica y el análisis documental que sustenta el estudio. Las guías de estudio se elaboraron por el modelo "WebQuest" y los ejercicios interactivos con el programa "exelearning". El sistema de medios de enseñanza se ubicó en el sitio Web "MioloWeb", elaborado con "Joomla 1.7". El contenido está estructurado en subtemas y en cada uno de ellos, se facilita al estudiante una variedad de materiales educativos computarizados, que permitirán el aprendizaje activo, consciente y desarrollador de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular, propiciando la interacción del estudiante de forma activa con los contenidos, la vinculación con las estrategias curriculares, la autoevaluación en la guía de estudio y en los ejercicios interactivos. Abstract in english Communicative and information technologies have been introduced in the teaching-learning process of Human Morphology Subject. A research paper of technological innovation was carried out in the pre-graduate area of Medical Education belonging to the University of Medical Sciences in Pinar del Rio, w [...] ith the purpose of creating a system of teaching aids to learn the human morphology of the muscular system. Empirical methods used were: surveys to students and interviews to professors and consultants of the subject, in addition to the criteria of the experts to validate the product; using also the theoretical methods: historical-logic and systemic to conduct the literature review and documentary analysis to support the study. Study guides were created following “WebQuest” model and interactive exercises using “exelearning” program. The system of teaching aids was built-in to “MioloWeb” Website, created with “Joomla 1.7”. The content is structured into subtopics and in every one of them, a variety of educational computerized materials is facilitated to the students, allowing this way an active, conscious and expanded learning of the human morphology of the muscular system, favoring at the same time a dynamic interaction of the student with the contents, the connection with the curricular strategies, and self-evaluation which was included in the guide of study plus interactive exercises.

  11. Sitio Web interactivo para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología del sistema muscular Interactive Website to learn the morphology of the muscular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orliany Alboniga Álvarez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Debido al desarrollo científico técnico alcanzado, se han insertado las tecnologías de la informática y las comunicaciones al proceso enseñanza aprendizaje de la disciplina Morfofisiología Humana. Se realizó una investigación de innovación tecnológica, en el área de pregrado de la Educación Médica, en la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Pinar del Río; con el objetivo de elaborar un sistema de medios de enseñanza para el aprendizaje de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular. Se utilizaron los métodos empíricos, las encuestas a estudiantes, entrevistas a profesores de la asignatura y a los profesores asesores, criterio de expertos para validar el producto. Los métodos teóricos: histórico, lógico y sistémico, fueron utilizados en la revisión bibliográfica y el análisis documental que sustenta el estudio. Las guías de estudio se elaboraron por el modelo "WebQuest" y los ejercicios interactivos con el programa "exelearning". El sistema de medios de enseñanza se ubicó en el sitio Web "MioloWeb", elaborado con "Joomla 1.7". El contenido está estructurado en subtemas y en cada uno de ellos, se facilita al estudiante una variedad de materiales educativos computarizados, que permitirán el aprendizaje activo, consciente y desarrollador de la morfofisiología humana del sistema muscular, propiciando la interacción del estudiante de forma activa con los contenidos, la vinculación con las estrategias curriculares, la autoevaluación en la guía de estudio y en los ejercicios interactivos.Communicative and information technologies have been introduced in the teaching-learning process of Human Morphology Subject. A research paper of technological innovation was carried out in the pre-graduate area of Medical Education belonging to the University of Medical Sciences in Pinar del Rio, with the purpose of creating a system of teaching aids to learn the human morphology of the muscular system. Empirical methods used were: surveys to students and interviews to professors and consultants of the subject, in addition to the criteria of the experts to validate the product; using also the theoretical methods: historical-logic and systemic to conduct the literature review and documentary analysis to support the study. Study guides were created following “WebQuest” model and interactive exercises using “exelearning” program. The system of teaching aids was built-in to “MioloWeb” Website, created with “Joomla 1.7”. The content is structured into subtopics and in every one of them, a variety of educational computerized materials is facilitated to the students, allowing this way an active, conscious and expanded learning of the human morphology of the muscular system, favoring at the same time a dynamic interaction of the student with the contents, the connection with the curricular strategies, and self-evaluation which was included in the guide of study plus interactive exercises.

  12. Review of L-2M Stellarator Recent Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest experimental results of L-2M are presented and discussed. Solitary edge localized transport events (SELEs) that drastically differ from edge localized modes (ELMs) normally observed at other devices are presented here. Mirnov signals are inert to SELE. After SELE plasma energy slowly monotonically increase up to the end of the discharge(as well as the average plasma density n). SELEs are indicated only at sufficiently high plasma densities, and for the given value of average density they appear only at higher heating powers. Mirnov signals are inert to SELE. We can say with a fair degree of confidence that SELE indicate the transition to the regime with better confinement.We discuss also in passing whether high frequency components of electromagnetic oscillations can play role in plasma transport. Plasma confinement in non-standard L-2M configurations that are obtained by the decrease of current in the helical windings with four equal steps to the half of initial value was investigated. It is shown that the decrease of the total energy with the rotational transform value is significantly more pessimistic than that following from the International Stellarator Scaling ISS95. Another possibility to change the configuration is the use of co/contra ohmic current within the standard configuration of L-2M. With the value of co injected current confinement initially slightly improves. Higher positive currents lead to definite degradation of the confinement connected with strong MHD activity. Contra injected (negative) currents lead to moderate decrease of electron temperature at given average density and heating power. MHD activity in this case is much smaller than that of co injected current. (Author)

  13. Review of L-2M Stellarator Recent Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchepetov, S. V.; Akulina, D. K.; Batanov, G. M.; Berezhetskii, M. S.; Fedyanin, O. I.; Gladkov, G. A.; Grebenshchikov, S. E.; Kharchev, N. K.; Khol, Y. V.; Kovrizhnykh, L. M.; Kuznetsov, A. B.; Larionova, N. F.; Letunov, A. A.; Logvinenko, V. P.; Malykh, N. I.; Meshcheryakov, A. I.; Pshenichnikov, A. A.; Sarksyan, K. A.; Skvortsova, N. N.; Vasilkov, D. G.; Voronova, E. V.; Voronov, G. S.

    2005-07-01

    The latest experimental results of L-2M are presented and discussed. Solitary edge localized transport events (SELEs) that drastically differ from edge localized modes (ELMs) normally observed at other devices are presented here. Mirnov signals are inert to SELE. After SELE plasma energy slowly monotonically increase up to the end of the discharge(as well as the average plasma density n). SELEs are indicated only at sufficiently high plasma densities, and for the given value of average density they appear only at higher heating powers. Mirnov signals are inert to SELE. We can say with a fair degree of confidence that SELE indicate the transition to the regime with better confinement.We discuss also in passing whether high frequency components of electromagnetic oscillations can play role in plasma transport. Plasma confinement in non-standard L-2M configurations that are obtained by the decrease of current in the helical windings with four equal steps to the half of initial value was investigated. It is shown that the decrease of the total energy with the rotational transform value is significantly more pessimistic than that following from the International Stellarator Scaling ISS95. Another possibility to change the configuration is the use of co/contra ohmic current within the standard configuration of L-2M. With the value of co injected current confinement initially slightly improves. Higher positive currents lead to definite degradation of the confinement connected with strong MHD activity. Contra injected (negative) currents lead to moderate decrease of electron temperature at given average density and heating power. MHD activity in this case is much smaller than that of co injected current. (Author)

  14. Data-driven methods for L2-gain estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Barenthin, Märta; Wahlberg, Bo; Hjalmarsson, Håkan; Barkhagen, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss some data-driven methods for estimation of the L2-gain of dynamical systems. Partial results on convergence and statistical properties are provided. The methods are based on multiple experiments on the system. The main idea is to directly estimate the maximizing input signal by using iterative experiments on the true system. We study such a data-driven method based on a stochastic gradient method. We show that this method is very closely related to the so-...

  15. English L2 reading getting to the bottom

    CERN Document Server

    Birch, Barbara M

    2014-01-01

    English L2 Reading, Third Edition offers teachers research-based insights into bottom-up skills in reading English as a second language and a solid foundation on which to build reading instruction. Core linguistic and psycholinguistic concepts are presented within the context of their application to teaching. The goal is to balance or supplement (not replace) top-down approaches and methodologies with effective low-level options for teaching English reading. The text's pedagogical features- Questions, Study Guide Questions. Discussion Questions, Spotlight on Teaching sections- engage readers o

  16. Design of dialogic eLearning-to-learn: metalearning as pedagogical methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Elsebeth Korsgaard

    2008-01-01

    networked e Learning based on Learning-to-Learn (L2L), it makes a plea for L2L in a dialogic global learning context, offering a vision of global democratic citizens able to engage in critical dialogue with fellow learners. http://www.inderscience.com/search/index.php?action=record&rec_id=17675&prev...

  17. Teaching learners to communicate effectively in the L2: Integrating body language in the students’ syllabus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia Busà

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract –In communication a great deal of meaning is exchanged through body language, including gaze, posture, hand gestures and body movements. Body language is largely culture-specific, and rests, for its comprehension, on people’s sharing socio-cultural and linguistic norms. In cross-cultural communication, L2 speakers’ use of body language may convey meaning that is not understood or misinterpreted by the interlocutors, affecting the pragmatics of communication. In spite of its importance for cross-cultural communication, body language is neglected in ESL/EFL teaching. This paper argues that the study of body language should be integrated in the syllabus of ESL/EFL teaching and learning. This is done by: 1 reviewing literature showing the tight connection between language, speech and gestures and the problems that might arise in cross-cultural communication when speakers use and interpret body language according to different conventions; 2 reporting the data from two pilot studies showing that L2 learners transfer L1 gestures to the L2 and that these are not understood by native L2 speakers; 3 reporting an experience teaching body language in an ESL/EFL classroom. The paper suggests that in multicultural ESL/EFL classes teaching body language should be aimed primarily at raising the students’ awareness of the differences existing across cultures.   Keywords: ESL/EFL teaching; body language; cross-cultural communication; speech; gestures.     Abstract –Nella comunicazione una buona parte del significato viene trasmetto attraverso il linguaggio del corpo, che include lo sguardo, la postura, i gesti delle mani e i movimenti del corpo. Il linguaggio del corpo è per lo più specifico di ciascuna cultura e si affida, per la sua comprensione, sulla condivisione di norme socio-culturali e linguistiche. Nella comunicazione interculturale l’uso del linguaggio del corpo da parte dei parlanti di L2 può trasmettere significati che non vengono compresi o vengono malinterpretati dagli interlocutori, con effetti sulla pragmatica della comunicazione. Nonostante la sua indiscussa importanza per la comunicazione interculturale il linguaggio del corpo è trascurato nell’insegnamento di ESL/EFL. Questo lavoro sostiene che lo studio del linguaggio del corpo dovrebbe essere integrato nel curriculum dell’insegnamento e dell’apprendimento di ESL/EFL. A tale scopo, questo studio: 1 fa una rassegna della letteratura che mostra lo stretto collegamento tra lingua, parlato e gesti e dei problem che potrebbero sorgere quando, nella comunicazione interculturale, i parlanti usano e interpretano il linguaggio del corpo secondo convenzioni diverse; 2 riporta dati da 2 studi pilota che mostrano il transfer dei gesti dalla L1 alla L2 e come i gesti trasferiti nella L2 non vengano compresi dai parlanti native della lingua target; 3 riporta una esperienza di insegnamento di linguaggio del corpo in un corso di ESL/EFL. Il saggio suggerisce che nelle classi multicultural di ESL/EFL l’insegnamento del linguaggio del corpo dovrebbe essere mirato in primo luogo a fare crescere la consapevolezza degli studenti delle differenze esistenti tra culture diverse.   Keywords: insegnamento ESL/EFL; linguaggio del corpo; comunicazione interculturale; parlato; gesti.  

  18. The Effect of Using Print Media on Children’s L2 Literacy Development: A Longitudinal Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoor Tavakoli; Saeedeh Esmae’li

    2013-01-01

    This paper tries to examine the effect of using print media in the classroom on the children’s L2 literacy development in an EFL context. Since reading is regarded as a chief goal, in many second/foreign language teaching situations, it receives a special focus. Media as a tool for language learning/teaching, can help both instructed and non-instructed learners to overcome the difficult task of language learning. In order to determine the effects of print media usage on the development ...

  19. Dissipative trapped electron modes in l=2 torsatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapped electron modes could play an important role in enhancing losses in a toroidal confinement device. However, no direct evidence of these instabilities has been found in such devices. The dissipative trapped electron modes [Sov. Phys. Dokl. 14, 470 (1969)] in l=2 torsatrons using the high-n ballooning formalism and considering the full three-dimensional geometry are studied. Using a perturbative analysis, it is found that there are toroidally localized as well as helically localized eigenfunctions in the ballooning space for these nonaxisymmetric devices. The helically localized eigenfunctions give the largest growth rates. It is shown that the helical symmetric limit gives a very good description of the helically induced modes for stellarators such as the Advanced Toroidal Facility [Fusion Technol. 10, 179 (1986)]. In this limit, the criteria for the density gradient and the temperature gradient for the existence of the dissipative trapped electron modes in l=2 stellarators are found. Also, it is found that the radial width of the unstable modes can be very broad, and therefore their effects could possibly be detected in future experimental studies with density control

  20. SYNCHRONOUS CMC, WORKING MEMORY, AND L2 ORAL PROFICIENCY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scott Payne

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently a number of quasi-experimental studies have investigated the potential of a cross-modality transfer of second language competency between real-time, conversational exchange via text and speech (Abrams, 2003; Beauvious, 1998; Kost, 2004; Payne & Whitney, 2002. Payne and Whitney employed Levelt's (1989 model of language production and concepts from working memory as a rationale for a hypothesized connection between synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC and second language (L2 speech and as a basis for predicting the differential contributions of SCMC to the L2 oral proficiency development.This study extends the psycholinguistic framework reported in Payne and Whitney (2002 with discourse and corpus analytic techniques to explore how individual differences in working memory capacity may affect the frequency of repetition and other patterns of language use in chatroom discourse. Working memory capacity was measured by a reading span and nonword repetition test. Oral proficiency was measured with a speaking task that solicited a 5-minute speech sample and was scored based on a holistic scale. The data collected from 20 chat sessions were analyzed for occurrences of repetition and relexicalization, as well as language output measures. Findings suggest a connection between working memory and language output as measured in this study.

  1. Effects of task repetition on L2 oral performance Efeitos da repetição de tarefas na produção oral em L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyria Rebeca Finardi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study departs from the assumption that speaking an L2 is a complex cognitive ability (FORTKAMP, 2000 whose execution seems to involve tradeoff effects among the different goals of speech production, mainly among fluency, accuracy and complexity (BYGATE, 1998, 1999, 2001b; FOSTER e SKEHAN, 1996; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998. Bygate (2001b studied the effects of task familiarity on L2 speech performance. He found that in repeating a narrative task there were gains in terms of complexity of speech and these gains were achieved at the cost of a loss especially in accuracy. The present study investigated whether the results reported in Bygate (2001b would be similar in the case of a repetition of a picture description task. According to Robinson (2001, a description is less complex than a narrative task. Four measures of speech performance were calculated following Fortkamp (2000: fluency, accuracy, complexity and lexical density. Results indicate gains in complexity and these gains seem to have been paid, especially by gains in accuracy, thus corroborating Bygate´s (2001b findings for this task condition.Este estudo parte do pressuposto de que falar um segundo idioma (L2 é uma habilidade cognitiva complexa (FORTKAMP, 2000 cuja execução parece envolver uma compensação entre os diferentes objetivos da fala, principalmente entre a fluência, a acurácia e a complexidade (BYGATE, 1996, 1999, 2001b; FOSTER e SKEHAN, 1996; SKEHAN e FOSTER, 1995, 2001; SKEHAN, 1998. Bygate (2001b estudou os efeitos da familiaridade com a tarefa na produção oral em L2. Ele mostrou que na repetição de uma narrativa há ganhos, principalmente em termos de complexidade da fala, mas esse ganhos ocorrem em detrimento de outros aspectos, principalmente da perda na acurácia da fala. Este estudo investigou se os resultados reportados por Bygate (2001b seriam similares no caso da repetição de uma tarefa de descrição. Segundo Robinson (2001, a descrição é uma tarefa menos complexa do que uma narrativa. Quatro medidas de produção oral foram calculadas seguindo Fortkamp (2000: fluência, acurácia, complexidade e densidade lexical. Os resultados deste estudo indicam ganhos em termos de complexidade de fala e esses ganhos parecem ter sido alcançados, principalmente, às custas da acurácia, portanto, corroborando resultados de Bygate (2001b para essa condição de tarefa.

  2. The transformative potential of action research and ICT in the Second Language (L2 classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farren Margaret

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the transformative potential of action research and information and communications technology (ICT in the second language (L2 classroom. Two enquiries from teacher-researchers are detailed in the article. Their engagement in a collaborative professional development Masters programme was pivotal in designing and implementing ICT creatively in their classroom. Gee (2008 advocates the use of the preferred media of our classroom students in order to address their learning. Prensky (2001 urges us to feel the fear and do it anyway with our digital native classes. A post-primary teacher and a primary teacher show us how they felt the fear, did it and transformed aspects of their own teaching in the process. The Masters programme required the teachers to engage with innovative practices, informed by their own values, and integrate technologies that were new to them into their repertoire of classroom strategies. Peer validation meetings with colleagues enabled meaningful insights to emerge from the research. The teachers improve and transform their second language (L2 practice in collaboration and validation with others.

  3. James Webb Space Telescope - L2 Communications for Science Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Alan; Seaton, Bonita; Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Jones, Ronald; Fatig, Curtis; Wasiak, Francis

    2008-01-01

    JWST is the first NASA mission at the second Lagrange point (L2) to identify the need for data rates higher than 10 megabits per second (Mbps). JWST will produce approximately 235 Gigabits of science data every day that will be downlinked to the Deep Space Network (DSN). To get the data rates desired required moving away from X-band frequencies to Ka-band frequencies. To accomplish this transition, the DSN is upgrading its infrastructure. This new range of frequencies are becoming the new standard for high data rate science missions at L2. With the new frequency range, the issues of alternatives antenna deployment, off nominal scenarios, NASA implementation of the Ka-band 26 GHz, and navigation requirements will be discussed in this paper. JWST is also using Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) standard process for reliable file transfer using CCSDS File Delivery Protocol (CFDP). For JWST the use of the CFDP protocol provides level zero processing at the DSN site. This paper will address NASA implementations of Ground Stations in support of Ka-band 26 GHz and lesson learned from implementing a file base (CFDP) protocol operational system.

  4. The Effect of Focus on Form and Task Complexity on L2 Learners’ Oral Task Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Salimi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Second Language learners’ oral task performance has been one of interesting and research generating areas of investigations in the field of second language acquisition specially, task-based language teaching and learning. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of focus on form and task complexity on L2 learners’ oral task accuracy. To this end, sixty intermediate learners of English as a foreign language attending an English institute were chosen as the participant of the study and were divided into three groups control and two experimental groups with and without focus on form strategy. ANOVA and Independent Sample T-test were employed as the statistical means of analysis. The results a of analysis revealed significant differences among the performance of the groups. The study carries significant implications for syllabus and task designers, curriculum developers and language teachers.Keywords: Accuracy, Focus on form, Task, Task-based language teaching, Task complexity  

  5. Going Blended: New Challenges for Second Generation L2 Tutors

    OpenAIRE

    Nissen, Elke; Tea, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second generation tutors within blended learning courses link the face-to-face and online course modalities - in their representations as well as through their pedagogical activities - and which aspects help them to feel involved in the course. The methodology used is a qualitative analysis of interviews with seven tutors of three different blended learning courses. The results show that most tutors indeed had difficulties gaining a deeper insight into the course desig...

  6. The Use of Newspapers for L2 Reading: Practical Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Luque-Agulló; Lucas Gonz��lez-Fernández

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays the acquisition of literacy skills in the foreign language is a highly demanding task cognitively speaking. To improve this learning process, this paper presents a three-fold approach using print and virtual newspapers: first, a brief theoretical revision of the issues involved in learning how to read in a foreign language or transfer L1 reading skills to the foreign language, second, a wide selection of activities to be used when working with newspapers, and third, two sessions that...

  7. Initiating round robins in the L2 classroom - preliminary observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    Complementing recent interactional research on the contingent operation of online task accomplishment, this paper deals with a specific way of organizing and managing tasks in plenary L2 classrooms – namely the round robin. This may seem like a “traditional” and rigid form of classroom organization...... that reduces students’ contributions to responses to the teacher’s elicitations. This paper shows that although the round robin puts certain interactional features out of play, it is nonetheless done in and through participants’ mutual orientation to the ongoing activity. The paper describes the...... sequential position in which round robins are initiated and how this is talked and embodied into being by the participants as well as the design of the turn that initiates the round robin activity. Relevant to the initiation and further development of the round robin are the physical arrangement of the...

  8. Plasma energy balance in the L-2M stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from studies of the effect of the discharge parameters (in particular, plasma density and heating power) and the characteristics of the magnetic configuration (e.g., rotational transform) on the confinement of a low-pressure plasma during electron-cyclotron resonance heating in the L-2M stellarator. An analysis shows that the plasma energy in the steady-state phase of a discharge is fairly well described by the product of power functions of the plasma density, heating power, and rotational transform: W = W0 ne?nP?p???. The energy scalings constructed in terms of the parameters in the initial stage of free plasma decay and those in the steady-state phase are close to one another. The dynamic analysis of the plasma energy decay is now under way

  9. Telescope Formation at L2 for Observing Earth's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Edward; Acikmese, Behcet; Breckenridge, William; Macenka, Steven; Hein, Randall; Tubbs, Eldred

    2007-01-01

    Two documents describe a proposed Earth-atmosphere observatory to orbit the Sun at the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point -- a point of unstable equilibrium in the shadow of the Earth, about 1.5 million km from the Earth along an outward projection of the Earth-Sun axis. The observatory would comprise two spacecraft flying in precision formation: (1) a primary-aperture spacecraft, from which would be deployed a 25-m diameter membrane primary mirror aimed at the Earth, and (2) a secondary-telescope spacecraft at the focal plane of the primary mirror, 125-m distant along the axis towards the Earth. The secondary telescope would be aimed at the primary mirror and slowly rotated to scan the focused annular image of the visible illuminated portion of the Earth's atmosphere during continuous occultation of the Sun.

  10. Global magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in the L-2M stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, M. I.; Shchepetov, S. V.; Nührenberg, C.; Nührenberg, J.

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in the L-2M stellarator (Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences) is presented. The properties of free-boundary equilibria states are outlined, the stability conditions for small-scale modes are briefly discussed, and the number of trapped particles is estimated. All the magnetic configurations under study are stable against ballooning modes. It is shown that global ideal internal MHD modes can be found reliably only in Mercier unstable plasmas. In plasma that is stable with respect to the Mercier criterion, global unstable modes that are localized in the vicinity of the free plasma boundary and are not associated with any rational magnetic surface inside the plasma (the so-called peeling modes) can be found. The radial structure of all perturbations under study is almost entirely determined by the poloidal coupling of harmonics. The results of calculations are compared with the available experimental data.

  11. New Physics in ΔL = 2 neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a general framework to constrain ΔL = 2 processes by measuring observables associated with neutrino-antineutrino oscillations in π± decays. First, we use this formalism as a new strategy for detecting the CP-violating phases and the effective mass of muon Majorana neutrinos. Within the generic framework of quantum field theory, we compute the non-factorizable probability for producing a pair of same-charged muons in π± decays as a distinctive signature of νμ-ν*μ. Using the neutrino-antineutrino oscillation probability reported by MINOS collaboration, a new stringent bound on the effective muon-neutrino mass is derived. Secondly, we interpret the production of the pair of same-charged muons as a result of lepton number violating (LNV) interactions at the neutrino source, which allow us to constrain New Physics.

  12. IMPARARE L’ITALIANO L2/LS CON TESTI TEATRALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminia Ardissino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio tratta dell'impiego di testi teatrali come fonti di esercizi per l'apprendimento dell'italiano L2/LS. Dopo alcune riflessioni teoriche, si presentano sei proposte di lavoro, con relative soluzioni, adatte a studenti del livello B2-C2 del quadro di riferimento. Si tratta di esercizi ricavati da drammi in un unico atto di Pirandello (La morsa e Lumìe di Sicilia, da Verga (un confronto fra Cavalleria rusticana nella forma drammatica e novellistica, e da Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre. Ogni proposta sfrutta una peculiarità del testo teatrale che si costituisce nell'incontro di dialoghi con didascalie. Anzitutto si tratta di comprendere come si costruiscono i personaggi, quindi di vedere la funzione delle didascalie in relazione al testo, infine di riflettere sulle diverse modalità in cui avvengono i dialoghi, includendo le forme di silenzio. Il testo teatrale appare così molto adatto ad esercizi di lingua, perché mette in gioco le capacità interpretative e immaginative degli studenti, li fa discutere e parlare sulla base delle loro intuizioni.   This paper investigates the use of play scripts as inspiration for Italian L2/FL exercises. After a brief discussion on theory, six project proposals and their solutions, suitable for B2-C2 level students, are presented.  These exercises are based on one-act plays by Pirandello (La Morsa and Lumìe di Sicilia, Verga (a comparison between Cavalleria Rusticana in drama and narrative forms and Tommaso Landolfi (Ombre.  Each project focuses on a specific aspect of the script  and is made up of dialogues with captions. After the way the characters are constructed is investigated, then the function of the captions in relation to the texts is considered, and finally students reflect on the different ways the dialogues are presented, including the pauses. Play scripts lend themselves to language exercises, because they encourage students to use their interpretation skills and imaginations to talk about their intuitions and ideas.

  13. Inference with formal analogical proportions: application to the automatic learning of morphology Du quatrième de proportion comme principe inductif : une proposition et son application à l'apprentissage de la morphologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Stroppa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We present an analogical learning model which exploits the notion of formal analogical proportions; this approach requires the ability to define these proportions and to implement them efficiently. We propose an algebraic definition of this notion, which applies to a large range of structured objects: words, attribute-value structures, labeled trees. We test this inference model by applying it to the task of learning morphological analyses of unknown forms. We can assess the validity of the approach thanks to experimental results that are given for several lexicons.

  14. The Relations among L1 (Spanish) Literacy Skills, L2 (English) Language, L2 Text Reading Fluency, and L2 Reading Comprehension for Spanish-Speaking ELL First Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relations of L2 (i.e., English) oral reading fluency, silent reading fluency, word reading automaticity, oral language skills, and L1 literacy skills (i.e., Spanish) to L2 reading comprehension for Spanish-speaking English language learners in the first grade (N = 150). An analysis was conducted for the entire sample as well as…

  15. Morphological knowledge and literacy acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, William E; Carlisle, Joanne F; Goodwin, Amanda P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities is to bring to the attention of researchers and educators studies on morphology and literacy that either involve students with learning difficulties or have educational implications for teaching such students. In our introduction, we first provide background information about morphological knowledge and consider the role of morphology in literacy, focusing on findings that are relevant for instruction of students who struggle with reading and writing. Next we present an overview of the studies included in this issue, organized by current issues concerning the role of morphological knowledge in literacy. Collectively, the articles in this issue suggest that students with weaker literacy skills tend to lag behind their peers in morphological knowledge but that all students are likely to benefit from morphological instruction. Morphological interventions hold promise, especially for students who face challenges in language learning and literacy, but additional research is needed to provide a basis for informed decisions about the design of effective morphological interventions. PMID:24219917

  16. A Study of the Relationship between Korean Non-Native English Speaking Teachers' Prior Teaching Experience and Their L2 Pragmatic Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Ku

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to explore five Korean NNESTs' L2 pragmatic competence and its relationship with their teaching experiences using DCT questionnaires of English request. This study in particular examined (1) five Korean NNESTs pragmatic competencies in English requests, (2) the relationship between their English teaching and learning…

  17. Sensitivity analysis of LOFT L2-5 test calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uncertainty quantification of best-estimate code predictions is typically accompanied by a sensitivity analysis, in which the influence of the individual contributors to uncertainty is determined. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the improved fast Fourier transform based method by signal mirroring (FFTBM-SM) for the sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity study was performed for the LOFT L2-5 test, which simulates the large break loss of coolant accident. There were 14 participants in the BEMUSE (Best Estimate Methods-Uncertainty and Sensitivity Evaluation) programme, each performing a reference calculation and 15 sensitivity runs of the LOFT L2-5 test. The important input parameters varied were break area, gap conductivity, fuel conductivity, decay power etc. For the influence of input parameters on the calculated results the FFTBM-SM was used. The only difference between FFTBM-SM and original FFTBM is that in the FFTBM-SM the signals are symmetrized to eliminate the edge effect (the so called edge is the difference between the first and last data point of one period of the signal) in calculating average amplitude. It is very important to eliminate unphysical contribution to the average amplitude, which is used as a figure of merit for input parameter influence on output parameters. The idea is to use reference calculation as 'experimental signal', 'sensitivity run' as 'calculated signal', and average amplitude as figure of merit for sensitivity instead for code accuracy. The larger is the average amplitude the larger is the influence of varied input parameter. The results show that with FFTBM-SM the analyst can get good picture of the contribution of the parameter variation to the results. They show when the input parameters are influential and how big is this influence. FFTBM-SM could be also used to quantify the influence of several parameter variations on the results. However, the influential parameters could not be identified nor the direction of influence. The results suggest that FFTBM is especially appropriate for a quick quantitative sensitivity analysis in which several calculations and/or influence of sensitive parameters need to be compared. (author)

  18. Mathematical morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Najman, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoretical foun

  19. Going Blended: New Challenges for Second Generation L2 Tutors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Elke; Tea, Elena

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how second generation tutors within blended learning courses link the face-to-face and online course modalities--in their representations as well as through their pedagogical activities--and which aspects help them to feel involved in the course. The methodology used is a qualitative analysis of interviews with seven tutors of…

  20. Task Design for L2 Oral Practice in Audioblogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Christine; Borges, Federico

    2012-01-01

    The development of oral skills poses a challenge in language teaching whether this takes place face-to-face, through distance education or in blended learning contexts. Two main problems arise: first of all students don't have enough opportunity to use their target language orally, and secondly, students oral performance is mostly unrecorded and…

  1. Induction of L1 and L2 β-Lactamases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia▿

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Rouh-Mei; Huang, Kuang-Jay; Wu, Lii-Tzu; Hsiao, Ying-Ju; Yang, Tsuey-Ching

    2007-01-01

    Isogenic L1 and L2 gene knockout mutants of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KJ (KJΔL1 and KJΔL2, respectively) were constructed by xylE gene replacement. Induction kinetics of the L1 and L2 genes were evaluated by testing catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity in the mutants. The results suggested that the induction of the L1 and L2 genes was differentially regulated.

  2. Analysis of glycosidases activity in Chlamydia trachomatis L2 serotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanjiv Rughooputh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydiae are prokaryotic, gram negative, intracellular parasites, causing a number of human diseases with serious sequelae. The exact mechanism of chlamydial attachment and entry into the host cell is still unclear. Chlamydia trachomatis, SA2F (L2 was tested for the activity of glycosidases. Glycosidases are involved in the synthesis and breakdown of cell-wall polysaccharides, and have a pivotal role in attachment to the surface of host cells as well as in the invasion process of other infective agents. For these reasons, glycosidases are likely to provide important information regarding the general behaviour of this bacterium. Ten different glycosides bound to p-nitrophenol (pNP substrate were tested. Assays were performed on lysed and unlysed chlamydial extracts.Our results provided strong evidence for the existence of glycosidase activity in C.trachomatis, strain SA2F peaking at pH 5.0 and pH 7.5-8.0 There was a high enzymatic activity against p-NPa mannopyranoside and p-NP b-N acetylglucosamine with a recovery of 88% suggesting that the enzymes were present on the bacterial surface. Activity against these sugars, which form part of either the extracellular filler or in endoplasmic reticulum may suggest of a possible mechanism of cellular invasion.

  3. The perceptual magnet effect (PME) in L2 consonants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Kota

    2005-09-01

    The perceptual magnet effect (PME) has been investigated in conjunction with L1 vowels and consonants. However, there has been a paucity of examinations of the effect in L2 speech perception. The present study used the methodology of Iverson and Kuhl [P. Iverson and P. K. Kuhl, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 1130-1140 (1996)] to examine whether Japanese speakers who have had exposure to English-speaking environments for more than 1 year exhibit the PME for /r/ and /l/. Eighteen synthetic stimuli were generated. Ten Japanese speakers and 12 American English speakers participated in an identification and rating task. Each participant engaged in ten experimental sessions (ten sessions of each of the 18 stimuli). They chose either /ra/ or /la/ and gave a rating with a 1-7 scale. They also underwent a similarity scaling task to determine the similarity of 306 pairs of the 18 stimuli with a 1-7 scale. The results indicated that, while the English speakers demonstrated the PME, some native speakers of Japanese did exhibit the PME and prefer some exemplars of English /r/ and /l/ over others. The results also revealed that other Japanese speakers exhibited reorganized perceptual space without the PME.

  4. Wavelet Decomposition Method for $L_2/$/TV-Image Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Fornasier, M.

    2012-07-17

    In this paper, we show additional properties of the limit of a sequence produced by the subspace correction algorithm proposed by Fornasier and Schönlieb [SIAM J. Numer. Anal., 47 (2009), pp. 3397-3428 for L 2/TV-minimization problems. An important but missing property of such a limiting sequence in that paper is the convergence to a minimizer of the original minimization problem, which was obtained in [M. Fornasier, A. Langer, and C.-B. Schönlieb, Numer. Math., 116 (2010), pp. 645-685 with an additional condition of overlapping subdomains. We can now determine when the limit is indeed a minimizer of the original problem. Inspired by the work of Vonesch and Unser [IEEE Trans. Image Process., 18 (2009), pp. 509-523], we adapt and specify this algorithm to the case of an orthogonal wavelet space decomposition for deblurring problems and provide an equivalence condition to the convergence of such a limiting sequence to a minimizer. We also provide a counterexample of a limiting sequence by the algorithm that does not converge to a minimizer, which shows the necessity of our analysis of the minimizing algorithm. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  5. Recent results of ECRH experiments on L-2M stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are reported from experimental study of ECH heated plasma in the L-2M stellarator with special emphasis on studying the turbulent processes. It is shown that the total plasma energy at fixed total heating power is strongly dependent on the plasma position. Visible degradation of plasma confinement is observed for the inward shifted magnetic configurations where the stability conditions of ideal interchange MHD modes are violated. However, even in this case the situation can be improved by decreasing the average radius of the plasma boundary with the help of graphite limiter resulting in the increase of the Shafranov shift of magnetic surfaces and deepening of the magnetic well due to the effect of self-stabilization. This in turn causes stabilization of ideal MHD interchange modes and visible increase in plasma energy and volume average value of beta. Statistical properties of turbulence was studied both for the central part of the plasma column and for the plasma edge. It is shown that one of the critical factors determining the coherent structures and turbulent fluxes in the edge plasma is the radial electric field. (author)

  6. Phonological Memory and the Acquisition of Grammar in Child L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul; Messer, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show that second language (L2) learners with large phonological memory spans outperform learners with smaller memory spans on tests of L2 grammar. The current study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and L2 grammar in more detail than has been done earlier. Specifically, we asked how phonological memory…

  7. L2 Reading Research and Pedagogical Considerations in the Teaching of French and Francophone Theater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Carole; Taylor, Alan M.

    2012-01-01

    Little research on improving second language (L2) reading comprehension of French and francophone theater has been conducted. This study provides insight into enhancing L2 comprehension of drama by combining L2 research with examples from L'accent grave by Jacques Prevert, Ton beau capitaine by Simone Schwarz-Bart (1987), Un Touareg s'est marie a…

  8. Perceptual Filtering in L2 Lexical Memory: A Neural Network Approach to Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    A number of asymmetries in lexical memory emerge when monolinguals and early bilinguals are compared to (relatively) late second language (L2) learners. Their study promises to provide insight into the internal processes that both support and ultimately limit L2 learner achievement. Generally, theory building in L2 and bilingual lexical memory has…

  9. SLA Research and L2 Pedagogy: Misapplications and Questions of Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Nina

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about the relevance and applicability of SLA theory and research for L2 pedagogy. There are those who maintain that SLA must be applicable to L2 pedagogy: a view based on the argument that because SLA is a subfield of applied linguistics, it should have direct relevance to L2 teaching. Others take the view that…

  10. Factors influencing subcellular localization of the human papillomavirus L2 minor structural protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two structural proteins form the capsids of papillomaviruses. The major structural protein L1 is the structural determinant of the capsids and is present in 360 copies arranged in 72 pentamers. The minor structural protein L2 is estimated to be present in twelve copies per capsid. Possible roles for L2 in interaction with cell surface receptors and in virion uptake have been suggested. As previously reported, L2 localizes in subnuclear domains identified as nuclear domain 10 (ND10). As it was demonstrated that L2 is able to recruit viral and cellular proteins to ND10, a possible role for L2 as a mediator in viral assembly has been proposed. In this study, we determined factors influencing the localization of L2 at ND10. Under conditions of moderate L2 expression level and in the absence of heterologous viral components, we observed that, in contrast to previous reports, L2 is mainly distributed homogeneously throughout the nucleus. L2, however, is recruited to ND10 at a higher expression level or in the presence of viral components derived from vaccinia virus or from Semliki Forest virus. We observed that translocation of L2 to ND10 is not a concentration-dependent accumulation but rather seems to be triggered by yet unidentified cellular factors. In contrast to HPV 11 and 16 L2, the HPV 18 L2 protein seems to require L1 for efficient nuclear accumulation

  11. Semantic Categorization of Placement Verbs in L1 and L2 Danish and Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadierno, Teresa; Ibarretxe-Antuñano, Iraide; Hijazo-Gascón, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates semantic categorization of the meaning of placement verbs by Danish and Spanish native speakers and two groups of intermediate second language (L2) learners (Danish learners of L2 Spanish and Spanish learners of L2 Danish). Participants described 31 video clips picturing different types of placement events. Cluster analyses…

  12. Inner Speech as Mental Rehearsal: The Case of Advanced L2 Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guerrero, Maria C. M.

    1999-01-01

    This study follows up on a study of the issue of second-language (L2) inner speech as it manifests in mental rehearsal among advanced L2 learners. The purpose of the study was to find out to what extent advanced L2 learners experience inner speech as mental rehearsal and to identify characteristics and functions of such inner speech. (Author/VWL)

  13. Pragmatic and Grammatical Competence, Length of Residence, and Overall L2 Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Case, Rod E.; Wang, Yu

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the influence of length of residence in the target language community and overall L2 proficiency on L2 pragmatic competence with a reference to L2 grammatical competence. Participants were 126 international students in the US with two academic levels of English proficiency from 17 countries, speaking 20 languages. A…

  14. The Relationship between L1 Fluency and L2 Fluency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.; Thomson, Ronald I.; Rossiter, Marian J.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental question in the study of second language (L2) fluency is the extent to which temporal characteristics of speakers' first language (L1) productions predict the same characteristics in the L2. A close relationship between a speaker's L1 and L2 temporal characteristics would suggest that fluency is governed by an underlying trait. This…

  15. A Prerequisite to L1 Homophone Effects in L2 Spoken-Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Satsuki; Lindsay, Shane; Ota, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    When both members of a phonemic contrast in L2 (second language) are perceptually mapped to a single phoneme in one's L1 (first language), L2 words containing a member of that contrast can spuriously activate L2 words in spoken-word recognition. For example, upon hearing cattle, Dutch speakers of English are reported to experience activation…

  16. Phonological Memory and the Acquisition of Grammar in Child L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Josje; Leseman, Paul; Messer, Marielle

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies show that second language (L2) learners with large phonological memory spans outperform learners with smaller memory spans on tests of L2 grammar. The current study investigated the relationship between phonological memory and L2 grammar in more detail than has been done earlier. Specifically, we asked how phonological memory…

  17. Individual Variation in L2 Study-Abroad Outcomes: A Case Study from Indonesian Pragmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassall, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    This is a study of two Australian learners of Indonesian during a short stay abroad. It examines their contrasting success in acquiring L2 address terms, in tandem with their contrasting experiences of the L2 culture setting. It thereby helps explain the persistent finding of great individual variation in L2 gains--and in particular pragmatic…

  18. Alternative Models of Self-regulation and Implications for L2 Strategy Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Ranalli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I discuss the proposal of Dörnyei and colleagues (Dörnyei, 2005; Tseng, Dörnyei, & Schmitt, 2006 to replace the construct of learning strategy with that of self-regulation and thus shift the research focus from specific strategic behaviors to a trait that is seen to underlie them. I argue that before doing so, we need a fuller understanding of what self-regulation entails and how it might intersect with traditional concerns of second language strategy research. To contribute to this understanding, I highlight alternative conceptualizations of self-regulation and then use data from my doctoral research to illustrate one in particular, the COPES model of self-regulated learning (Winne & Hadwin, 1998. This model’s explanatory power is contrasted with that of Dörnyei and colleagues’ conceptualization to show that, depending on the model one adopts, self-regulation is not only compatible with the study of specific strategies but useful for shedding new light on strategy research and integrating it with research in other related areas, such as L2 motivation.

  19. Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Assessment of L2 Literacy: Computerizing and Administering of the Oxford Quick Placement Test in ExamView and Moodle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Sorting of Korean English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) university students by Second Language (L2) aptitude allocates students to classes of compatible ability level, and was here used to screen candidates for interview. Paper-and-pen versions of the Oxford Quick Placement Test were adapted to computer-based testing via online hosting using FSCreations ExamView. Problems with their online hosting site led to conversion to the popular computer-based learning management system Moodle, hosted on www.ninehub.com. 317 sophomores were tested online to encourage L2 digital literacy. Strategies for effective hybrid implementation of Learning Management Systems in L2 tertiary education include computer-based Internet-hosted L2 aptitude tests. These potentially provide a convenient measure of student progress in developing L2 fluency, and offer a more objective and relevant means of teacher- and course-assessment than student evaluations, which tend to confuse entertainment value and teacher popularity with academic credibility and pedagogical effectiveness.

  20. Exploring Motivational Profiles through Language Learning Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Amy S.; Vásquez, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the language learning narratives of 3 NNS foreign language teachers. It uses as a theoretical framework the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) (Dörnyei, 2009) but adds the dimension of psychological reactance (Brehm, 1966). Our findings indicate that the L2MSS underestimates the relationship between "I" and…

  1. Using Gamification to Enhance Second Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa Flores, Jorge Francisco

    2015-01-01

    One major competence for learners in the 21st century is acquiring a second language (L2). Based on this, L2 instruction has integrated new concepts to motivate learners in their pursue of achieving fluency. A concept that is adaptable to digital natives and digital immigrants that are learning a L2 is Gamification. As a pedagogical strategy,…

  2. Quantifying the Quality Difference between L1 and L2 Essays: A Rating Procedure with Bilingual Raters and L1 and L2 Benchmark Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillema, Marion; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

    2013-01-01

    It is the consensus that, as a result of the extra constraints placed on working memory, texts written in a second language (L2) are usually of lower quality than texts written in the first language (L1) by the same writer. However, no method is currently available for quantifying the quality difference between L1 and L2 texts. In the present…

  3. Quantifying the Quality Difference between L1 and L2 Essays: A Rating Procedure with Bilingual Raters and L1 and L2 Benchmark Essays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillema, Marion; van den Bergh, Huub; Rijlaarsdam, Gert; Sanders, Ted

    2013-01-01

    It is the consensus that, as a result of the extra constraints placed on working memory, texts written in a second language (L2) are usually of lower quality than texts written in the first language (L1) by the same writer. However, no method is currently available for quantifying the quality difference between L1 and L2 texts. In the present…

  4. How Strategic Use of L1 in an L2-Medium Mathematics Classroom Facilitates L2 Interaction and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Nicole Judith

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in and hence a growing number of research studies on content and language integrated learning (CLIL) over the past two decades. One of the on-going debates in CLIL is on bilingualism versus monolingualism, or the role of the first language (L1) in subject teaching. So far, very few research projects have been…

  5. How Strategic Use of L1 in an L2-Medium Mathematics Classroom Facilitates L2 Interaction and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Nicole Judith

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in and hence a growing number of research studies on content and language integrated learning (CLIL) over the past two decades. One of the on-going debates in CLIL is on bilingualism versus monolingualism, or the role of the first language (L1) in subject teaching. So far, very few research projects have been…

  6. Impact of English Orthography on L2 Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Aslam Sipra

    2013-01-01

    English language has become unavoidable being a global language in the present era. Whether it is a field of business, technology or education, its significance can’t be denied. Thus, majority of the world is learning and speaking English owing to its dire need. Unfortunately, despite staining through different reforms, the orthography of English language failed to become learners’ friendly as it seems to be a queer language for the beginners. The present study describes the ways how English ...

  7. Blogging identity: how L2 learners express themselves:

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Kiyomi

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses language learning and identity, particularly pertaining to intermediate-advanced-level Japanese-language learners, focusing on their target language and identity expression through their interactions with peers and Japanese college students. When learners of Japanese express their identities while interacting with others in their target language, they feel a gap between the self-image they want to present, and the image they are capable of presenting in Japanese (Siegal, ...

  8. Ajustes Conversacionales para el Aprendizaje de Contenidos en L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta de Dios

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende describir las interacciones conversacionales entre el alumnado en las aulas AICLE. Nos preguntamos si hay un vínculo entre las características de las interacciones y el aprendizaje de contenidos no lingüísticos y, si es así, qué tipo de ajustes fomentan dicho aprendizaje. Las aulas AICLE son los entornos ideales para estudiar el vínculo entre ajustes conversacionales y aprendizaje de contenidos porque, al no ser en la lengua materna del alumnado, se dan más ajustes conversacionales que en las clases en lengua materna.---------------------------------------------This article pursues to describe conversational adjustments among students in CLIL classes. We wonder if there is a link between the characteristics of the interactions and the learning of non-linguistic contents and, if there is, what kind of adjustments promote such learning. CLIL classes are the ideal environments to study the link between conversational adjustments and the learning of contents because, since they are not in the students’ mother tongue, conversational adjustments occur more frequently than in classes in mother tongue.

  9. Working memory capacity across L2 speech proficiency levels / Capacidade de memória de trabalho através de níveis de proficiência oral em L2

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gicele Vergine Vieira, Prebianca; Kyria Rebeca, Finardi; Janaina, Weissheimer.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investiga se a capacidade de memória de trabalho (CMT) varia entre idiomas e níveis de proficiência na fala em L2. Seguindo sugestões em Finardi e Weissheimer (2009) e Prebianca (2010) que demonstraram que a CMT varia em função do nível de proficiência da fala em L2, o presente trabalho [...] analisou três níveis de proficiência (elementar, intermediário e avançado) e dois idiomas (L1-português e L2-inglês). Dois testes de MT foram usados, um em L1 e outro em L2, ambos na modalidade oral. Sessenta estudantes adultos de inglês como língua estrangeira participaram no estudo: 19 elementares, 19 intermediários e 22 avançados. Resultados dos testes Kruskal-Wallis e Mann-Whitney corroboraram Finardi e Weissheimer (2009) e Prebianca (2010) sugerindo que a CMT medida com um teste de amplitude da fala em L2 parece confundir a relação entre níveis de proficiência oral e CMT. Abstract in english This study investigates whether working memory capacity (WMC) varies across languages and in the course of L2 speech proficiency levels. Following suggestions in Finardi and Weissheimer (2009) and Prebianca (2010), who found that WMC varied as a function of L2 speech proficiency, the present study a [...] ssessed three proficiency levels (elementary, intermediate and advanced) and two languages (L1-Portuguese and L2-English). Two WM tests were used, one in the L1 and another in the L2, both in the speaking mode. Sixty adult learners of English as a foreign language participated in the study: 19 elementary, 19 intermediate and 22 advanced learners. Results of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests corroborate Finardi and Weissheimer (2009) and Prebianca (2010) suggesting that WMC measured with a speaking span test in L2 seems to conflate the relationship between speech proficiency levels and WMC.

  10. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning. PMID:26094128

  11. Inner Speech as Mental Rehearsal: The Case of Advanced L2 Learners

    OpenAIRE

    de Guerrero, María C. M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a follow-up study on the issue of L2 inner speech as it manifests in mental rehearsal among advanced L2 learners. The purpose of the study was to find out to what extent advanced L2 learners experience inner speech as mental rehearsal and to identify some of the characteristics and functions of such inner speech. Results show that advanced L2 learners experience inner speech in the second language to a great extent and that the frequency of L2 inner speech increases with profici...

  12. Do the Four Clades of the mtDNA Haplogroup L2 Evolve at Different Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torroni, Antonio; Rengo, Chiara; Guida, Valentina; Cruciani, Fulvio; Sellitto, Daniele; Coppa, Alfredo; Calderon, Fernando Luna; Simionati, Barbara; Valle, Giorgio; Richards, Martin; Macaulay, Vincent; Scozzari, Rosaria

    2001-01-01

    Forty-seven mtDNAs collected in the Dominican Republic and belonging to the African-specific haplogroup L2 were studied by high-resolution RFLP and control-region sequence analyses. Four sets of diagnostic markers that subdivide L2 into four clades (L2L2d) were identified, and a survey of published African data sets appears to indicate that these clades encompass all L2 mtDNAs and harbor very different geographic/ethnic distributions. One mtDNA from each of the four clades was completely sequenced by means of a new sequencing protocol that minimizes time and expense. The phylogeny of the L2 complete sequences showed that the two mtDNAs from L2b and L2d seem disproportionately derived, compared with those from L2a and L2c. This result is not consistent with a simple model of neutral evolution with a uniform molecular clock. The pattern of nonsynonymous versus synonymous substitutions hints at a role for selection in the evolution of human mtDNA. Regardless of whether selection is shaping the evolution of modern human mtDNAs, the population screening of L2 mtDNAs for the mutations identified by our complete sequence study should allow the identification of marker motifs of younger age with more restricted geographic distributions, thus providing new clues about African prehistory and the origin and relationships of African ethnic groups. PMID:11595973

  13. Automatic quantitative morphological analysis of interacting galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Shamir, Lior; Holincheck, Anthony; Wallin, John

    2013-01-01

    The large number of galaxies imaged by digital sky surveys reinforces the need for computational methods for analyzing galaxy morphology. While the morphology of most galaxies can be associated with a stage on the Hubble sequence, morphology of galaxy mergers is far more complex due to the combination of two or more galaxies with different morphologies and the interaction between them. Here we propose a computational method based on unsupervised machine learning that can quantitatively analyz...

  14. A comparative assessment of the L1 and L2 reading performance of Grade 7 learners in English

    OpenAIRE

    Tintswalo V Manyike; Eleanor Lemmer

    2011-01-01

    The role of English and the indigenous languages in South African schooling is highly contested. Research endorses the mother tongue (L1) as the most appropriate language of learning and teaching (LoLT) and the basis for the addition of a second language (L2). However, in South Africa English is the preferred LoLT and English proficiency is integral to academic achievement. This article reports on an investigation of Grade 7 Xitsonga-speaking learners’ reading performance in English and in Xi...

  15. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and Iranian EFL Learners’ Level of L2 Lexical Knowledge: The Case of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Biria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human cognitive competence represents individuals’ subconscious knowledge of abilities, talents, and mental skills collectively called “multiple intelligences (MIs”, which play a pivotal role in facilitating human learning. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to determine the magnitude of the relationship existing between multiple intelligences and Iranian EFL learners’ level of second language (L2 lexical knowledge on one hand and the partializing impact of gender on the other. For this purpose, from the population of the senior undergraduate students majoring in translation at Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan (Isfahan Branch, Isfahan, Iran, a sample of 88 students, 24 males and 64 females, were randomly selected. First, Mckenzie’s (1999 MIs Inventory was administered to specify the size of individual types of intelligences in each learner’s MIs composite. Then, the learners were provided with Nation’s (2001 receptive level test a week later to gauge their level of L2 lexical knowledge. The findings revealed that the scores on MIs inventory correlated positively with those of L2 lexical knowledge. Alternatively, different types of intelligences served as useful predictors for estimating the quality of learners’ vocabulary knowledge. Finally, it was found out that gender did indeed have a different effect regarding the learners’ vocabulary knowledge.

  16. Working Memory Capacity, Inhibitory Control and the Role of L2 Proficiency in Aging L1 Dutch Speakers of Near-Native L2 English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merel Keijzer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the intricate relationship between working memory (WM capacity and inhibitory control as a function of both L2 proficiency and age. In both its design and research questions, this study closely follows Gass & Lee’s work, where both L1 and L2 Reading Span Tasks (as measures of WM capacity and L1 and L2 Stroop interference tasks (to measure inhibitory control were administered. In this study, the test battery is augmented by both an L1 and L2 C-test of overall language proficiency. Participants were 63 L1 Dutch speakers of L2 English, who had been immersed in an L2 environment for a considerable amount of time. Their data were set off against those of 54 monolingual Dutch speakers and 56 monolingual English speakers. At the time of testing, all the bilingual participants had a near-native command of English and their L1 and L2 WM scores were not found to be significantly different. However, discrepancies did occur in Stroop test scores of inhibition, where the bilinguals performed better in their L2 English than L1 Dutch. These main effects often contradicted the results found in Gass & Lee’s study, who examined less proficient L2 learners. An aging effect was furthermore found: older subjects consistently performed more poorly on WM and inhibition tasks than their younger peers. These results can shed light on how individual factors like WM capacity and inhibitory control interact in successful late bilinguals and how these dynamics shift with advanced age.

  17. L’AUTOBIOGRAFIA LINGUISTICA NELL’INSEGNAMENTO-APPRENDIMENTO DELL’ITALIANO L2/LS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Groppaldi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available L'autobiografia linguistica è una attività particolarmente utile nell'insegnamento-apprendimento di una lingua straniera. L'apprendente immigrato è invitato a narrare in prima persona le esperienze linguistico-comunicative nella propria L1, nella L2 /LS che sta apprendendo e/o nella lingua seconda che ha acquisito come lingua di comunicazione e di studio nel suo paese di origine, le relazioni umane ed emotive che accompagnano  o hanno accompagnato queste esperienze, le situazioni che ne hanno favorito o ostacolato l'apprendimento. Con l'autobiografia linguistica l'apprendente straniero costruisce, attraverso la scrittura e quindi attraverso un processo di esplicitazione e di riflessione consapevole,  un ponte tra "là" e "qui", tra paese d'origine e il paese di arrivo, tra la vita "prima" e la vita "dopo" lo strappo della migrazione. Ricompone e dà senso alla propria storia, nelle due lingue, esprime affetti ed emozioni, rinomina il mondo e se ne riappropria ricostruendo insieme la propria identità, esplora se stesso e si fa conoscere ai suoi pari e all'insegnante in un rapporto di condivisione e di comprensione reciproca: si crea un contesto non di integrazione, ma di inclusione. A sua volta il docente può meglio comprendere le strategie di apprendimento dell'apprendente, la sua personalità, le sue difficoltà e progettare strategie didattiche più efficaci, perché più individuali e orientate al successo nella comunicazione e nell'apprendimento.   Linguistic autobiography is especially useful in the teaching and learning of a foreign language. The foreign learner is asked to narrate, in the first person, his/her linguistic-communicative experiences in their L1 and in the L2/FL which they are learning and/or in the second language they have acquired for communication or study in their home country, focusing on the emotional and human relationships which accompanied this experience and the situations which encouraged or blocked the learning. Through writing, speaking and thoughtful reflection, linguistic autobiography helps the foreign learner to construct a bridge between "there" and "here", between the home and the host country, between life "before" and "after" the shock of migration. This practice reorganizes and gives meaning to one's own history in both languages, through the expression of feelings and emotions, by defining and reclaiming the world as well as reconstructing identity, exploring oneself and showning oneself to peers and teachers in an environment of mutual sharing and understanding.  It creates a context for inclusion, not just integration. The teacher, in turn, can better understand the student's learning strategies, his/her personality and difficulties and thus plan more effective didactic interventions, since they are individualized and aimed at success in communication and learning.

  18. NON SOLO LINGUA. I CORSI DI ITALIANO L2 PER DONNE MIGRANTI TRA BISOGNI LINGUISTICI E DESIDERIO DI INTEGRAZIONE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Solcia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Come si organizza un corso di italiano L2 per donne migranti? Perché questi corsi si differenziano dalle altre proposte formative rivolte ad adulti immigrati? Basandosi sulle indicazioni del vademecum Tutte le mamme a scuola, il presente contributo cerca di rispondere a queste domande analizzando i bisogni linguistici delle donne migranti, interrogandosi su quale italiano insegnare, su quale metodo didattico adottare con particolare attenzione all’approccio autobiografico e all’“imparare facendo” e presentando i libri di testo rivolti a questa tipologia di apprendenti. Le tre interviste in appendice, raccolte in tre diversi centri che si occupano di corsi di italiano L2 per donne immigrate, raccontano come tutte queste indicazioni possano essere messe in pratica per cercare di soddisfare quel desiderio di integrazione e promozione sociale di cui le allieve si fanno portatrici,  che rende la classe di lingua non solo il luogo in cui si impara a parlare italiano, ma anche un laboratorio sociale in cui sperimentare modi diversi di approcciarsi e di considerare la diversità.     Not only language. Italian L2 for migrant women between linguistic needs and the desire for integration.   How is an Italian L2 course organized for migrant women? Why are these courses different from other classes designed for adult immigrants? Based on the indications in the handbook Tutte le mamme a scuola, this article tries to answer these questions analyzing the linguistic needs of migrant women, considering what Italian should be taught, what teaching method should be used with special attention placed on the autobiographical approach and “learning by doing”. The three interviews in the appendix, from three different centers which offer Italian L2 courses to immigrant women, tell about how these indications can be put into practice to satisfy the desire for the integration and social inclusion of these students, making the language class more than a place where Italian is learned, but it becomes a social laboratory where different approaches can be tried out and diversities can be made evident.

  19. Non-academic L2 Users: A Neglected Research Pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebinezhad, Mohammad Reza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available English Language Teaching (ELT articles are published and their results are relied on without delving into their methodological credibility. A research study cannot be considered valid unless its population is precisely determined and defined. This article shows the considerable size of non-academic English learners in Iran and argues that the population in ELT research should not be limited only to university and school students who are easily accessible but it should also include the sizeable non-academic sector. To do this, 170 PhD dissertations and MA theses in TEFL were randomly selected. The result showed that only less than 9% of the participants belonged to non-academic sector. The article also argues that there is wrong overgeneralization of even the existing ELT academic researches to non-academic situation. Finally it compares academic and non-academic English learners to show how the latter are highly motivated to learn.

  20. Una estrategia para favorecer la comprensión y el aprendizaje en las Ciencias Morfológicas: Presentaciones en PowerPoint. [ A strategy to improve the comprehension and learning in morphological science: powerpoint presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carranza, Miriam L. y Celaya, Gabriela

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hypertext to the Morphological Sciences in biological area was developed and evaluated. The application with format of digital atlas approaches Anatomical, Histological and Functional concepts about the man and animals in integrated form. PowerPoint presentation was developed to operators which experience in the handling of software are limited. This digital resource was qualified as a good complement of other didactic materials. In this knowledge area offers opportunity to develop significant knowledge to improve the understanding and learning through an interactive methodology

  1. Teaching to suppress L1 processes in L2. PTLC 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Dziubalska-Ko?aczyk, Katarzyna; Balas, Anna; Rojczyk, Arkadiusz; Schwartz, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Advanced second language learners in a formal setting can suppress many L1) processes in L2 pronunciation when provided with sufficient exposure to L2 and metacompetence. This paper shows how imitation in L2 teaching can be enhanced on the basis of current phonetic research and how complex allophonic processes such as nasal vocali zation and glottal stop insertion can be suppressed using “repair” – a method of providing learners with adequ...

  2. The Effect of Lengthened Writing Approach on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Liu

    2009-01-01

    Based on empirical research and qualitative analysis, this paper aims to explore the effects of Lengthened Writing Approach on L2 vocabulary acquisition. The results show that, during L2 vocabulary teaching process, the proper application of Lengthened Writing Approach can effectively facilitate the memorization of new words, and this teaching approach is welcomed by most subjects. This study highlights the role of Lengthened Writing Approach in L2 vocabulary acquisition, and sheds light on t...

  3. On recognition of simple group L2(r by the number of Sylow subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khalili Asboei

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Let G be a finite group and n_{p}(G be the number of Sylow p- subgroup of G. In this work it is proved if G is a centerless group and n_{p}(G=n_{p}(L_{2}(r, for every prime p in pi (G, where r is prime number, r^2 does not divide |G| and r is not Mersenne prime, then L_{2}(r<=G<=Aut(L_{2}(r.

  4. Adult ESL Korean Readers' Responses about Their Reading in L1 Korean and L2 English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Misun

    2010-01-01

    In this research study I explore: (a) beliefs Korean ESL readers have about reading in L1 and L2 prior to the Retrospective Miscue Analysis (RMA) sessions, (b) how their beliefs about reading affect the way they read in L1 and L2 and their evaluation of themselves as readers in L1 and L2 reading, and (c) change of their beliefs about reading and…

  5. “Deconstructing” comprehensibility: Identifying the linguistic influences on listeners’ L2 comprehensibility ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacs, T; Trofimovich, P.

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensibility, a major concept in second language (L2) pronunciation research that denotes listeners’ perceptions of how easily they understand L2 speech, is central to interlocutors’ communicative success in real-world contexts. Although comprehensibility has been modeled in several L2 oral proficiency scales—for example, the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) or the International English Language Testing System (IELTS)—shortcomings of existing scales (e.g., vague descriptors)...

  6. The language awareness of the L2 teacher: its impact upon pedagogical practice

    OpenAIRE

    Andrews, SJ

    2001-01-01

    The paper sets out to examine the ways in which a teacher's language awareness affects their pedagogical practice. It begins by considering the relationship between teacher language awareness and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), arguing that there is something unique about the PCK of the L2 teacher, because the content and medium of L2 instruction are so closely interrelated. A model is proposed, in which the L2 teacher's language awareness (TLA) is seen as a sub-component of PCK, forming...

  7. L 2 Stability Estimates for Shock Solutions of Scalar Conservation Laws Using the Relative Entropy Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Nicholas

    2011-03-01

    We consider scalar nonviscous conservation laws with strictly convex flux in one spatial dimension, and we investigate the behavior of bounded L 2 perturbations of shock wave solutions to the Riemann problem using the relative entropy method. We show that up to a time-dependent translation of the shock, the L 2 norm of a perturbed solution relative to the shock wave is bounded above by the L 2 norm of the initial perturbation.

  8. L^2 stability estimates for shock solutions of scalar conservation laws using the relative entropy method

    OpenAIRE

    Leger, Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    We consider scalar nonviscous conservation laws with strictly convex flux in one spatial dimension, and we investigate the behavior of bounded L^2 perturbations of shock wave solutions to the Riemann problem using the relative entropy method. We show that up to a time-dependent translation of the shock, the L^2 norm of a perturbed solution relative to the shock wave is bounded above by the L^2 norm of the initial perturbation.

  9. Computer-Mediated Corrective Feedback and the Development of L2 Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Sauro

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study that investigated the impact of two types of computer-mediated corrective feedback on the development of adult learners’ L2 knowledge: (1 corrective feedback that reformulates the error in the form of recasts, and (2 corrective feedback that supplies the learner with metalinguistic information about the nature of the error. High intermediate and advanced adult learners of English (n=23 from an intact class at a Swedish university were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (two feedback conditions and one control and were randomly paired with English native speakers. During task-based interaction via text-chat, the learners received focused corrective feedback on omission of the zero article with abstract noncount nouns (e.g., employment, global warming, culture. Computer-delivered pretests, posttests and delayed posttests of knowledge (acceptability judgments measured learning outcomes. Results showed no significant advantage for either feedback type on immediate or sustained gains in target form knowledge, although the metalinguistic group showed significant immediate gains relative to the control condition.

  10. Galaxy Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Buta, Ronald J

    2013-01-01

    Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or between a perturbation and the basic state of a stellar disk, can also drive secular transformations. In this series of lectures, I review many aspects of galaxy morphology with a view to delineating some of the possible evolutionary pathways between different galaxy types.

  11. Galaxy Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Buta, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or...

  12. Working memory capacity and speech production in L2: evidences from a picture description task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyria Finardi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is an experimental study which aimed at investigating theralationsship between working memory capacity and measuresof L2 speech performance in a picture description task. The mainassumption underlying the present study was that L2 speaking isa complex cognitive task which is carried out within theconstraints of a limited-capacity system, namely, working memory.In this system, there are trade-off effects between the storage andprocessing functions of working memory just as in L2 speakingthere are trade-off effects among fluency, accuracy and complexitywhen L2 learners perform under processing pressure.

  13. L2 Students’ Comments on Language Exchange Communities in Language Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Cem Balçıkanlı

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: EFL learners are rarely given opportunities to interact with native speakers and “…to do something with a language”. In Turkish settings, language learners mostly complain that they do not have enough opportunities to interact with native speakers, and class hours are too limited to acquire a language and more importantly they are not taught expressions that help them express themselves in daily contexts.Purpose of Study: This study aimed at investigating EFL (English as a ...

  14. THE EFFECTS OF L1 OVERUSE IN L2 LEARNING: EVIDENCE FROM THREE CASE STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, Rafael Filiberto Forteza

    2015-01-01

    Foreign language teaching based on the mother tongue has been the traditional vehicle of instruction in Russian classrooms from the primary to high school levels, at language schools as well in teacher-formation at pedagogical institutes as is evidenced by the results of information obtained through interviews to teachers, observation of the students’ in-class behavior and revision of textbooks produced by national authors. Grounded on data (transcripts, essays, and real class examples) gathe...

  15. A Vocabulary Learning Tool for L2 Undergraduates Reading Science and Technology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chihcheng; Ou Yang, Fang-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Students of English as a second language who major in science and technology use English-language textbooks to ensure that they can read English materials upon graduation. Research indicates that teachers spend little time helping these students on the linguistic complexity of such textbooks. Vocabulary, grammar, and article structure are elements…

  16. Cybertext Redux: Using Digital Game-Based Learning to Teach L2 Vocabulary, Reading, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, David O.; Shelton, Brett E.; McInnis, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The essay reports on a mixed-methods study using an interactive fiction (IF) game to teach German vocabulary, reading, and culture to university students. The study measured knowledge retention and transfer, and evaluated the attitudes of students toward the game. The results tentatively indicate that contextualized, immersive role play may have…

  17. The effects of using L1 Translation on young learners’ L2 Vocabulary Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Codina Camó, Aïda

    2014-01-01

    The present study explores the role the L1 plays in young learners' retention of and access to English vocabulary. Two groups of 10-11 year-old children in an EFL school context were recruited for the study. Exposing one group to the L1 translation of the items and giving the English input to the other group was the practice used to analyse exposure to translation in terms of lexical access and retention. Results of the study show that providing students with the L1 results in learners retain...

  18. l-2-Haloacid dehalogenase from Ancylobacter aquaticus UV5: Sequence determination and structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajit; Pillay, Balakrishna; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2016-02-01

    A novel 25kDa l-2-haloacid dehalogenase (l-2-DhlB) from a recently isolated Ancylobacter aquaticus strain UV5 indigenous to contaminated site in South Africa is reported here with its gene sequence. The enzyme was purified to 22.1-fold increase in specific activity of 72.9U/mg protein when the organism was grown in medium supplemented with 5mM 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA). l-2-DhlB was optimally active at pH 9.0 and 37°C with poor stability at 50°C, retaining 50% of its activity after 30min, but inactivated rapidly at 60°C. l-2-DhlB catalyzed monochloroacetate (MCA) with Km and Vmax values of 0.47mM and 2.4?M/min, respectively. l-2-DhlB exhibited the kcat value of 4.8/min. Expression of about 100% relative activity of l-2-DhlB on the substrate l-2-monochloropropionate (l-2-MCPA) as compared to 5% on d-2-monochloropropionate (d-2-MCPA) suggested that l-2-DhlB belongs to the family of l-2-haloacid dehalogenases. ES-mass spectroscopy and bioinformatics tools resulted in 693bp ORF sequence corresponding to 230 amino acid protein. NCBI-BLAST of l-2-DhlB resulted in the detection of a putative conserved domain of hypothetical haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like superfamily and subfamily IA. PMID:26645146

  19. COMPETENZA PRAGMATICA IN ITALIANO L2: L’USO DEI SEGNALI DISCORSIVI DA PARTE DEGLI APPRENDENTI CROATI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Nigoević

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Questo contributo esplora la produzione dialogica in italiano da parte degli apprendenti di lingua materna croata con l’obiettivo di determinare la loro competenza interazionale e pragmatica in italiano L2. Particolare attenzione si è rivolta ad un aspetto caratteristico della produzione dialogica, ai segnali discorsivi ‒ espedienti dialogici per eccellenza. I parlanti nativi usano segnali discorsivi con una vasta gamma di funzioni dialogiche, mentre l’acquisizione dei segnali discorsivi italiani è un territorio relativamente inesplorato e i segnali discorsivi vengono raramente insegnati. in maniera esplicita. La capacità di riconoscere e utilizzare i segnali discorsivi italiani adeguatamente, vale a dire secondo le loro funzioni pragmatiche, rivela il livello della competenza pragmatica dell’apprendente di una lingua straniera. Ai fini dello studio presente, gli apprendenti di italiano sono stati classificati in diversi gruppi in base alla durata dell’ istruzione (principianti, intermedi, avanzati e/o al tipo di ambiente di apprendimento (studenti universitari, corsi di lingua straniera, “full immersion”. L’analisi si è concentrata maggiormente sulla frequenza d’uso e su alcune funzioni dei segnali discorsivi italiani adoperati. Lo scopo di questo studio era quello di esaminare la differenza tra l’uso dei segnali discorsivi relativo ai diversi livelli e ambienti educativi della lingua italiana da parte degli apprendenti croati di italiano L2 e di osservare le caratteristiche di una possibile influenza derivata dal L1.     Pragmatic competence in Italian L2: the use of discourse signals in Croatian-speaking learners This contribution explores the dialogue production of Croatian-speaking learners of Italian as a second language (L2 with the objective to determine their competence in L2 interactions. Special attention is paid to one particular aspect of dialogue production, discourse markers -dialogical expedients par excellence. Native speakers use discourse markers for a wide variety of dialogue functions, while the acquisition of (Italian discourse markers is a relatively unexplored area and discourse markers are hardly ever explicitly taught. The ability to recognize and use Italian discourse markers correctly, in terms of their pragmatic functions, reveals the learners’ pragmatic competence. For this particular study, the learners of Italian were classified in different groups according to length of instruction (basic, elementary, advanced and/or type of learning environment (university students, foreign language courses, “full immersion”. The analysis focused on the frequency of use and some functions of Italian discourse markers. The purpose of this study was to examine the difference between the Italian learners’ use of discourse markers and to observe the instances of a possible L1 influence.

  20. River morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs

  1. Lepton flavour violating decays of $\\mu$ and $\\tau$ lepton in a gauge group $SU_L(2)\\times SU_R(2)\\times SU_l(2)$

    CERN Document Server

    Fayyazuddin,

    2016-01-01

    A model for electroweak unification based on gauge group $ SU_L(2)\\times SU_R(2)\\times SU_l(2) $ for leptons is formulated. The group $SU_l(2)$ is in the lepton space.The left handed leptons and anti-leptons are assigned to the fundamental representation $(2,2,\\bar{2})$ of the group.The left- right symmetric gauge group $ SU_L(2)\\times SU_R(2)\\times U_{Y_1}(1) $ is contained in the above group for leptons. Out of three vector bossons $ Y_\\mu^\\pm $,$Y_{3\\mu}$ of $SU_l(2)$,the charged vector bosons $Y_\\mu^\\pm$ mediate the lepton number violating $ \\mu$ and $\\tau$ decays. The neutral vector bosson $ Y_{3\\mu}$ with coupling constant $ g_{Y}$ plays the same role as the vector bosson $B_{1\\mu}$ with coupling constant $g_1$ associated with Abelian part $ U_{Y_1}(1)$ with $Y_1=\\mp1$ for leptons and anti leptons. The left handed quarks and anti quarks are assigned to representations (2,1) and (1,2) with $Y_1=\\pm \\frac{1}{3}$ of the left-right symmetric gauge group. The lepton number violating $\\mu~and~\\tau$ decays sim...

  2. Extensive Reading and Development of Different Aspects of L2 Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Junko

    2008-01-01

    Extensive reading has been drawing increasing attention from L2 educators as a potentially effective form of L2 reading instruction. However, some researchers argue that it is not easy to observe the benefits of extensive reading in the short term. The present study was motivated by the need to elucidate the differential effects of extensive…

  3. Estimativos L^2 para una clase de operadores pseudodiferenciales definidos en el toro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duván Cardona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se establecen estimativos L 2 para operadores pseudodiferenciales definidos en el toro. Los operadores considerados surgen del estudio de operadores entre grupos abelianos localmente compactos. Abstract. In this work we establish L 2 estimates from pseudo-differential operators defined on the torus. Such operators arise from the study of operators on locally compact abelian groups.

  4. L2 Reading Comprehension and Its Correlates: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Hee; Yamashita, Junko

    2014-01-01

    The present meta-analysis examined the overall average correlation (weighted for sample size and corrected for measurement error) between passage-level second language (L2) reading comprehension and 10 key reading component variables investigated in the research domain. Four high-evidence correlates (with 18 or more accumulated effect sizes: L2…

  5. English L1 and L2 Speakers' Knowledge of Lexical Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, Tatiana M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the ongoing debate about the use of lexical bundles by first (L1) and second language (L2) speakers of English. The study consists of two experiments that examined whether L1 and L2 English speakers displayed any knowledge of lexical bundles as holistic units and whether their knowledge was…

  6. Concatenative and Nonconcatenative Plural Formation in L1, L2, and Heritage Speakers of Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albirini, Abdulkafi; Benmamoun, Elabbas

    2014-01-01

    This study compares Arabic L1, L2, and heritage speakers' (HS) knowledge of plural formation, which involves concatenative and nonconcatenative modes of derivation. Ninety participants (divided equally among L1, L2, and heritage speakers) completed two oral tasks: a picture naming task (to measure proficiency) and a plural formation task. The…

  7. The Status of the Auxiliary "Do" in L1 and L2 English Negative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Susana

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of whether negative sentences containing auxiliary "do" in L1 and L2 English share the same underlying syntactic representation. To this end, I compare the negative sentences produced by 77 bilingual (Spanish/Basque) L2 learners of English with the corresponding data available for L1 acquirers reported on in Schutze…

  8. The Amount, Purpose, and Reasons for Using L1 in L2 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Campa, Juliane C.; Nassaji, Hossein

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the amount, the purposes, and the reasons why L1 is used in L2 classrooms. Data consist of video and audio recording of samples of two instructors' L2 classes over the course of a 12-week semester in two second-year German conversation university courses, instructor interviews, and stimulated recall sessions. Results revealed…

  9. English L1 and L2 Speakers' Knowledge of Lexical Bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, Tatiana M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to contribute to the ongoing debate about the use of lexical bundles by first (L1) and second language (L2) speakers of English. The study consists of two experiments that examined whether L1 and L2 English speakers displayed any knowledge of lexical bundles as holistic units and whether their knowledge was…

  10. The Influence of Schema and Cultural Difference on L1 and L2 Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shi-sheng

    2010-01-01

    Reading in L1 shares numerous basic elements with reading in L2, and the processes also differ greatly. Intriguing questions involve whether there are two parallel cognitive processes at work, or whether there are processing strategies that accommodate both L1 and L2. This paper examines how reading in L1 is different from and similar to reading…

  11. Sidestepping Our "Scare Words": Genre as a Possible Bridge between L1 and L2 Compositionists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costino, Kimberly A.; Hyon, Sunny

    2011-01-01

    In light of the increasing student diversity in U.S. university composition classrooms, there is a strong need for collaboration between L1 and L2 writing specialists. Differences in the lexicons of our two fields, however, as well as the philosophical differences embedded in our word choices, can hinder productive L1-L2 communication. The purpose…

  12. A Study of Relationships between L1 Pragmatic Transfer and L2 Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Jiemin

    2012-01-01

    Studies in interlanguage pragmatics have shown that L2 learners' proficiency has an influence on the occurrences of L1 pragmatic transfer. However, questions remain whether the relationship between L1 pragmatic transfer and L2 proficiency is positive or negative. This paper is designed to study L1 pragmatic transfer in requests made by Chinese…

  13. Task Response and Text Construction across L1 and L2 Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study, undertaken from a socio-cognitive perspective, aims to investigate the effects of intensive preparatory high school training in L1 and/or L2 essay writing for university entrance exams. The analysis focuses on the task response and structural features in L1 (Japanese) and L2 (English) essays written by first-year Japanese…

  14. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Chinese EFL Learners' L2 Writing Performance in Timed Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive factors that might influence Chinese EFL learners' argumentative essay writing in English. The factors that were explored included English (L2) language proficiency, Chinese (L1) writing ability, genre knowledge, use of writing strategies, and working memory capacity in L1 and L2. Data were collected from 136…

  15. 26 CFR 1.401(l)-2 - Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Permitted disparity for defined contribution plans. 1.401(l)-2 Section 1.401(l)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans,...

  16. Listening in a Multilingual World: The Challenges of Second Language (L2) Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Research into language acquisition and oral language use was examined in order to identify key factors that contribute to the successful acquisition of second language (L2) listening ability. The factors were grouped into three major domains: affective, cognitive, and interpersonal. It is claimed that in each domain, proficient L2 listeners have…

  17. Resolving Referential Conflicts in L2 Interaction: The Effect of Proficiency and Interactive Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, George; Macdonald, Doris

    1990-01-01

    Examines resolution of referential conflicts in second-language (L2) interaction in two different pairings of L2 learners. Pairs where the higher proficiency member was in the dominant role engaged in little interactive behavior, whereas pairs where the less proficient member was dominant engaged in substantial negotiation and interaction and were…

  18. Shared Features of L2 Writing: Intergroup Homogeneity and Text Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Scott A.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates intergroup homogeneity within high intermediate and advanced L2 writers of English from Czech, Finnish, German, and Spanish first language backgrounds. A variety of linguistic features related to lexical sophistication, syntactic complexity, and cohesion were used to compare texts written by L1 speakers of English to L2…

  19. Resolving Referential Conflicts in L2 Interaction: The Effect of Proficiency and Interactive Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, George; Macdonald, Doris

    1990-01-01

    Examines resolution of referential conflicts in second-language (L2) interaction in two different pairings of L2 learners. Pairs where the higher proficiency member was in the dominant role engaged in little interactive behavior, whereas pairs where the less proficient member was dominant engaged in substantial negotiation and interaction and were…

  20. The Roles of First Language and Proficiency in L2 Processing of Spanish Clitics: Global Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert Hanson, Aroline E.; Carlson, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the roles of first language (L1) and second language (L2) proficiency in the processing of preverbal clitics in L2 Spanish by considering the predictions of four processing theories--the Input Processing Theory, the Unified Competition Model, the Amalgamation Model, and the Associative-Cognitive CREED. We compared the performance of L1…