Sample records for l2 morphological learning

  1. Phonological Bases for L2 Morphological Learning

    Hu, Chieh-Fang


    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g.,…

  2. Planning, Recasts, and Learning of L2 Morphology

    Romanova, Natalia


    This study investigated two issues: (1) whether availability of planning time affects learners' ability to notice and learn from recasts in the input; and (2) whether pre-task or online planning is more effective. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups that formed the treatment conditions: a no planning group (N = 13), a pre-task…

  3. From Seeing Adverbs to Seeing Verbal Morphology: Language Experience and Adult Acquisition of L2 Tense

    Sagarra, Nuria; Ellis, Nick C.


    Adult learners have persistent difficulty processing second language (L2) inflectional morphology. We investigate associative learning explanations that involve the blocking of later experienced cues by earlier learned ones in the first language (L1; i.e., transfer) and the L2 (i.e., proficiency). Sagarra (2008) and Ellis and Sagarra (2010b) found…

  4. Chinese L1 Children's English L2 Verb Morphology over Time: Individual Variation in Longterm Outcomes

    Paradis, Joanne; Tulpar, Yasemin; Arppe, Antti


    This study examined accuracy in production and grammaticality judgements of verb morphology by eighteen Chinese-speaking children learning English as a second language (L2) followed longitudinally from four to six years of exposure to English, and who began to learn English at age 4;2. Children's growth in accuracy with verb morphology reached a…

  5. Gaming as extramural English L2 learning and L2 proficiency among young learners

    Sylvén, Liss Kerstin; Sundqvist, Pia


    Today, playing digital games is an important part of many young people’s everyday lives. Claims have been made that certain games, in particular massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) provide L2 English learners with a linguistically rich and cognitively challenging virtual environment that may be conducive to L2 learning, as learners get ample opportunities for L2 input and scaffolded interaction in the L2. In this paper, we present empirical evidence that L2 English profi...

  6. Input frequencies in processing of verbal morphology in L1 and L2: Evidence from Russian

    Tatiana Chernigovskaya


    Full Text Available In this study we take a usage-based perspective on the analysis of data from the acquisition of verbal morphology by Norwegian adult learners of L2 Russian, as compared to children acquiring Russian as an L1. According to the usage-based theories, language learning is input-driven and frequency of occurrence of grammatical structures and lexical items in the input plays a key role in this process. We have analysed to what extent the acquisition and processing of Russian verbal morphology by children and adult L2 learners is dependent on the input factors, in particular on type and token frequencies. Our analysis of the L2 input based on the written material used in the instruction shows a different distribution of frequencies as compared to the target language at large. The results of the tests that elicited present tense forms of verbs belonging to four different inflectional classes (-AJ-, -A-, -I-, and -OVA- have demonstrated that for both Russian children and L2 learners type frequency appears to be an important factor, influencing both correct stem recognition and generalisations. The results have also demonstrated token frequency effects. For L2 learners we observed also effects of formal instruction and greater reliance on morphological cues. In spite of the fact that L2 learners did not match completely any of the child groups, there are many similarities between L1 and L2 morphological processing, the main one being the role of frequency.

  7. Similarity and Difference in Learning L2 Word-Form

    Hamada, Megumi; Koda, Keiko


    This study explored similarity and difference in L2 written word-form learning from a cross-linguistic perspective. This study investigated whether learners' L1 orthographic background, which influences L2 visual word recognition (e.g., Wang et al., 2003), also influences L2 word-form learning, in particular, the sensitivity to phonological and…

  8. L2 Teaching and Learning in the Classroom Space

    REN Xi-ping


    L2 teaching and learning is a way of using language, but it happens in a particular space -the classroom space, which, to some extent, has a restriction to language using. This paper provides a valuable sight into L 2 teaching and learning in the class-room space, and discusses the viewpoint of how to make an actual learning of L2 under the way of teaching.

  9. Knowledge sources in L2 learning

    Diana Ayliff


    Should one bother to teach grammar to second language (L2) learners of English? The purpose of this article is to examine the hypothesis that there is an interface between explicit and implicit knowledge sources. Three groups of learners at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University were asked to articulate, first without a prompt and then with a prompt, the grammatical rules they were applying to correct common errors.  The test results suggest that there is a high correlation between what ...

  10. Promoting L2 Vocabulary Learning through Narrow Reading

    Kang, Eun Young


    Krashen (2004) has advocated that narrow reading, i.e., reading a series of texts addressing one specific topic, is an effective method to grow vocabulary. While narrow reading has been championed to have many advantages for L2 vocabulary learning, there remains a relative dearth of empirical studies that test the impact of narrow reading on L2

  11. Chinese L1 children's English L2 verb morphology over time: individual variation in long-term outcomes.

    Paradis, Johanne; Tulpar, Yasemin; Arppe, Antti


    This study examined accuracy in production and grammaticality judgements of verb morphology by eighteen Chinese-speaking children learning English as a second language (L2) followed longitudinally from four to six years of exposure to English, and who began to learn English at age 4;2. Children's growth in accuracy with verb morphology reached a plateau by six years, where 11/18 children did not display native-speaker levels of accuracy for one or more morphemes. Variation in children's accuracy with verb morphology was predicted by their English vocabulary size and verbal short-term memories primarily, and quality and quantity of English input at home secondarily. This study shows that even very young L2 learners might not all catch up to native speakers in this time frame and that non-age factors play a role in determining individual variation in child L2 learners' long-term outcomes with English morphology. PMID:26915494

  12. Influence of Syllable Structure on L2 Auditory Word Learning

    Hamada, Megumi; Goya, Hideki


    This study investigated the role of syllable structure in L2 auditory word learning. Based on research on cross-linguistic variation of speech perception and lexical memory, it was hypothesized that Japanese L1 learners of English would learn English words with an open-syllable structure without consonant clusters better than words with a…

  13. Merits and Demerits of CMC in L2 Language Learning



    In the digital era,with the rapid development of the computer technology,the possibility and interest of utilizing Internet in L2 language classrooms has gradually increased.In particular,as a useful tool for enhancing language learning and teaching the computer-mediated communication(CMC)through the Internet has become extremely popular over the last five years.Based on the previous literatures,this essay aims not only to discuss a string of actual merits of CMC in terms of L2 teaching and learning but also some demerits belong to it.Furthermore,in order to achieve the most appropriate way to implement CMC into the L2 classroom,some possible solutions for dealing with those disadvantages will also be suggested.

  14. Appraisal Systems in L2 vs. L3 Learning Experiences

    Gabrys-Barker, Danuta


    This article offers a comment on the ways multilingual language users perceive their L2 and L3 learning experiences at the level of appraisals, that is, variables that "assign value to current stimuli based on past experience". In the theoretical part of the article the concept of appraisals is introduced and briefly outlined from the different…

  15. Posters, Self-Directed Learning, and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Cetin, Yakup; Flamand, Lee


    Posters, either as promotions by various ELT publishing houses or prepared by ELT teachers and students, are widely used on the walls of many foreign language classrooms. Many of them consist of colourful pictures along with L2 vocabulary, grammar, and texts in order to contribute to the foreign language learning process. However, many ELT…

  16. The Influence of Positive Attitudes and Motivation on Successful L2 learning



    As the development of the second language learning(L2),it becomes more significant to study the factors that influence the success in L2 learning.Positive attitudes and motivation definitely play vital role in L2 learning process.This paper briefly analyses how these two factors influence L2learning.

  17. The Influence of Positive Attitudes and Motivation on Successful L2 learning



    As the development of the second language learning(L2),it becomes more significant to study the factors that influence the success in L2 learning.Positive attitudes and motivation definitely play vital role in L2 learning process. This paper briefly analyses how these two factors influence L2 learning.

  18. Event-related brain potentials and second language learning: syntactic processing in late L2 learners at different L2 proficiency levels

    Hell, J.G. van; Tokowicz, N.


    There are several major questions in the literature on late second language (L2) learning and processing. Some of these questions include: Can late L2 learners process an L2 in a native-like way? What is the nature of the differences in L2 processing among L2 learners at different levels of L2 profi

  19. Studies on L2 Learning Motivation of Primary and Middle School Stu-dents from the Perspective of L2 Motivational Self System



    An empirical survey among 219 school students in the framework of L2 Motivational Self System found that Ideal L2 Self, Ought-to L2 Self and L2 Learning Experience in the System make different contributions to L2 motivation respectively and L2 Learning Experience is the largest contributor to L2 motivation for primary and middle school students. The pedagogical im⁃plications are also suggested.

  20. Anonymity and Motivation in Asynchronous Discussions and L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Polat, Nihat; Mancilla, Rae; Mahalingappa, Laura


    This study investigates L2 attainment in asynchronous online environments, specifically possible relationships among anonymity, L2 motivation, participation in discussions, quality of L2 production, and success in L2 vocabulary learning. It examines, in asynchronous discussions, (a) if participation and (b) motivation contribute to L2 vocabulary…

  1. Possible effect of explicit knowledge on L2 learning



    Ellis (2004) had given a specific working definition of explicit knowledge in the definition and measure-ment of L2 explicit knowledge. He said this kind of knowledge is“the conscious awareness of what a lan-guage or language in general consists of and / or of the roles that it plays in human life.” To be more specific, explicit knowledge is part of declarative memory, and it is stored in the limbic system of the brain. Besides, it is always presented in consciousness and can be verbalized. For example, a L2 learner can point out that in this sentence“The boy plays basketball”.“-S”should be put after the predicate“play”, because the subject of the sentence is the third person singular pronoun. Also, the process of learning explicit knowledge is controlled or monitored. In general, experts test explicit knowledge mainly by grammar. But there are also some other aspects of explicit knowledge that need to be considered, such as the pronunciation, vocabulary, pragmatic features and so on. This essay considers what effect of the as-pects I have mentioned above might have on second language learning.

  2. The Role of Morphological and Contextual Information in L2 Lexical Inference

    Hamada, Megumi


    This study investigated the role of morphological and contextual information in inferring the meaning of unknown L2 words during reading. Four groups of college-level ESL students, beginning (n?=?34), intermediate (n?=?27), high-intermediate (n?=?21), and advanced (n?=?25), chose the inferred meanings of 20 pseudo compounds (e.g.,…

  3. Extracting Phonological Patterns for L2 Word Learning: The Effect of Poor Phonological Awareness

    Hu, Chieh-Fang


    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of…

  4. Investigating the Relationship between the Morphological Processing of Regular and Irregular Words and L2 Vocabulary Acquisition

    Ahmed Masrai


    Full Text Available The present study investigates the relationship between the morphological processing of regular and irregular words and second language (L2 vocabulary acquisition. In considering that monolingual Arabic speakers derive a large number of new words from roots by leaning heavily on the regularity of rules in Arabic (Bar & Dershowitz, 2012; Habash, 2010, they are expected to experience difficulty when developing the lexicon of a language with less regular rules, such as English. To examine this assumption empirically, data were collected by administering an English receptive vocabulary knowledge test that included 100 regular and irregular inflected and derived words to 450 Arabic English as a foreign language (EFL learners from schools in Saudi Arabia. The test also included pesudowords (non-words to act as ‘gatekeepers’ against the possibility of guessing. The t-test results revealed a non-significant difference in learners’ uptake of L2 words, whether regular or irregular. However, the study indicates that word frequency plays a statistically significant role in learning L2 vocabulary that is irregularly inflected or derived. The frequency effect on irregular word morphology found in this study is in line with the approach of a dual-route mechanism. This approach suggests that irregular words are not rule-based, so are stored in the mental lexicon as full entries, whereas regular words are not. This article suggests that introducing rules for deriving new words from base forms to EFL learners in the early stages of learning would be very useful for L2 vocabulary development.Keywords: morphological processing, vocabulary acquisition, frequency, Arabic, mental lexicon

  5. The Role of L1 Literacy on L2 Literacy Learning



    A native language can be learned effortlessly, while a second language is always difficult for people to learn. L1 literacy may impede or promote L2 literacy learning. This paper discusses the role L1 Literacy on L2 Literacy Learning.

  6. Effects of Synonym Generation on Incidental and Intentional L2 Vocabulary Learning during Reading

    Barcroft, Joe


    This study examined effects of synonym generation on second language (L2) vocabulary learning during reading in both incidental and intentional vocabulary learning contexts. Spanish-speaking adult learners of L2 English (N = 114) at low- and high-intermediate proficiency levels read an English passage containing 10 target words translated in the…

  7. Learning English with "The Sims": Exploiting Authentic Computer Simulation Games for L2 Learning

    Ranalli, Jim


    With their realistic animation, complex scenarios and impressive interactivity, computer simulation games might be able to provide context-rich, cognitively engaging virtual environments for language learning. However, simulation games designed for L2 learners are in short supply. As an alternative, could games designed for the mass-market be…

  8. The acquisition of interlanguage morphology : a study into the role of morphology in the L2 learner's mental lexicon

    Lowie, Wander Marius


    Introduction 1.1 Morphology and second language learning If Dutch learners of English encounter a word like undoable, they may recognise it because they have seen it before and have remembered it. They may also fail to recognise it and guess the meaning of the word on the basis of the context. A thi

  9. Learning to perceive and recognize a second language: the L2LP model revised.

    van Leussen, Jan-Willem; Escudero, Paola


    We present a test of a revised version of the Second Language Linguistic Perception (L2LP) model, a computational model of the acquisition of second language (L2) speech perception and recognition. The model draws on phonetic, phonological, and psycholinguistic constructs to explain a number of L2 learning scenarios. However, a recent computational implementation failed to validate a theoretical proposal for a learning scenario where the L2 has less phonemic categories than the native language (L1) along a given acoustic continuum. According to the L2LP, learners faced with this learning scenario must not only shift their old L1 phoneme boundaries but also reduce the number of categories employed in perception. Our proposed revision to L2LP successfully accounts for this updating in the number of perceptual categories as a process driven by the meaning of lexical items, rather than by the learners' awareness of the number and type of phonemes that are relevant in their new language, as the previous version of L2LP assumed. Results of our simulations show that meaning-driven learning correctly predicts the developmental path of L2 phoneme perception seen in empirical studies. Additionally, and to contribute to a long-standing debate in psycholinguistics, we test two versions of the model, with the stages of phonemic perception and lexical recognition being either sequential or interactive. Both versions succeed in learning to recognize minimal pairs in the new L2, but make diverging predictions on learners' resulting phonological representations. In sum, the proposed revision to the L2LP model contributes to our understanding of L2 acquisition, with implications for speech processing in general. PMID:26300792

  10. L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children: Effects of Learning Method and Cognate Status

    Tonzar, Claudio; Lotto, Lorella; Job, Remo


    In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or word-mediated learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German. We examined children from fourth and eighth grades in a school setting. After a learning phase during which L2 words were…

  11. Self-regulation from Educational Psychology to L2 Pedagogy: an Alternative to Language Learning Strategies

    Maryam Banisaeid


    Full Text Available Language learning strategy was the focus of many studies during the last two decades. Because of definitional fuzziness and unreliable instrument, the concept of language learning strategy was replaced by self-regulation in educational psychology. Subsequently, this shift affected L2 research. The notion of self-regulation is used in some L2 studies today (Tseng, Dörnyei & Schmitt, 2006; Rose, 2011b, Banisaeid, 2013a, 2013b. Self-regulation is more process-oriented while language learning strategy is more product-oriented. Although it only encompasses the metacognitive strategy, the general domain of it is meaningfully wider than the strategic framework. It covers some aspects in the learning process as motivation, goals and self-efficacy.Keywords: self-regulation, language learning strategy, L2 studies, educational psychology

  12. A Review of Current Foreign Literature on the Notion of“Investment”in L2 Learning

    ZHANG Xiao-wen


    Motivation has a profound effect on L2 learning and thus has attracted great attention from relevant researchers. Tradi⁃tional studies focus on instrumental and integrative motivation. However, a new concept“investment”is now drawing increasing attention in the schorlars studying SLA motivation. The concept“investment”mainly involves concepts of identity and imagined communities. Many empirical studies have been conducted on“investment”in different groups of L2 learners.

  13. L2-norm multiple kernel learning and its application to biomedical data fusion

    De Moor Bart


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper introduces the notion of optimizing different norms in the dual problem of support vector machines with multiple kernels. The selection of norms yields different extensions of multiple kernel learning (MKL such as L∞, L1, and L2 MKL. In particular, L2 MKL is a novel method that leads to non-sparse optimal kernel coefficients, which is different from the sparse kernel coefficients optimized by the existing L∞ MKL method. In real biomedical applications, L2 MKL may have more advantages over sparse integration method for thoroughly combining complementary information in heterogeneous data sources. Results We provide a theoretical analysis of the relationship between the L2 optimization of kernels in the dual problem with the L2 coefficient regularization in the primal problem. Understanding the dual L2 problem grants a unified view on MKL and enables us to extend the L2 method to a wide range of machine learning problems. We implement L2 MKL for ranking and classification problems and compare its performance with the sparse L∞ and the averaging L1 MKL methods. The experiments are carried out on six real biomedical data sets and two large scale UCI data sets. L2 MKL yields better performance on most of the benchmark data sets. In particular, we propose a novel L2 MKL least squares support vector machine (LSSVM algorithm, which is shown to be an efficient and promising classifier for large scale data sets processing. Conclusions This paper extends the statistical framework of genomic data fusion based on MKL. Allowing non-sparse weights on the data sources is an attractive option in settings where we believe most data sources to be relevant to the problem at hand and want to avoid a "winner-takes-all" effect seen in L∞ MKL, which can be detrimental to the performance in prospective studies. The notion of optimizing L2 kernels can be straightforwardly extended to ranking, classification, regression, and

  14. Using Learning Strategies:A Review in L2 Listening Research



    This paper briefly reviews some significant learning strategies in L2 listening research. By pointing out both the feasibil⁃ities and difficulties in implementing those strategies in Chinese EFL classrooms, it attempts to raise English language practitio⁃ners’awareness of reforming the listening instruction and of utilizing strategic teaching approaches so as to enhance students’lis⁃tening proficiency.

  15. The Impact of Blended e-Learning on Undergraduate Academic Essay Writing in English (L2)

    Ferriman, Nicholas


    This paper describes a quasi-experimental study into the impact of a blended e-learning environment on academic writing assignments in English (L2) at a Thai international college. An experimental group of 15 students used an on-line bulletin board, as well as face-to-face (F2F) communication in class, to share information for essay topics they…

  16. Enhancing Autonomous L2 Vocabulary Learning Focusing on the Development of Word-Level Processing Skills

    Toyoda, Etsuko


    The paper reviewed studies in word-level processing skills and related areas, and profiled how the development of L2 word recognition and integration skills would contribute to autonomous "kango" (Chinese originated words or words created from Chinese originated words) vocabulary learning. Despite the fact that the acquisition of a…

  17. Learning Exponents of Number on First Exposure to an L2

    Carroll, Susanne E.; Widjaja, Elizabeth


    Number lends itself to the study of how input interacts with transferred first language (L1) knowledge to facilitate or impede second language (L2) learning. We present data from adult English speakers exposed for the first time to Indonesian, a language that expresses number through bare noun phrases, reduplication and numeral + classifier…

  18. The Effect of Learning English (L2) on Learning of Arabic Literacy (L1) in the Primary School

    Hussien, Abdelaziz M.


    This study investigated the effect of learning English (L2) on learning to read and spell connected texts accurately in Arabic (L1). The author selected a sample of 83 (38 males and 45 females; 45 bilinguals and 38 monolinguals) native Arabic-speaking fourth-graders in Egypt. Students completed the author-developed Oral Reading Accuracy Measure…

  19. Active Learning through Materials Development: A Project for the Advanced L2 Classroom

    Katrina Daly Thompson


    Full Text Available Building on the notion of active learning, the assumption that students learn more when given opportunities to practice using their skills and to receive feedback on their performance, this article de-scribes a project undertaken in an Advanced (third-year Swahili course in which students were given the opportunity to develop L2 materials for computer-mediated peer instruction. The article exam-ines the goals, design and results of the project in light of the litera-ture on active learning and learner autonomy, and suggests how the project might be improved in order to serve as a model for other Ad-vanced L2 courses.

  20. A Frequency-Based Approach to L2 Phonological Learning: Teacher Input and Student Output in an Intensive ESL Context

    Trofimovich, Pavel; Collins, Laura; Cardoso, Walcir; White, Joanna; Horst, Marlise


    Most second language (L2) researchers and teachers would agree that input, often defined as the language a learner hears or reads, plays an important role in L2 learning. There is a great deal of research investigating which types of input are most beneficial for learning, how learners process and internalize input (e.g., Schmidt, 2001), and how…

  1. Learning through L2--Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and English as Medium of Instruction (EMI)

    Wannagat, Ulrich


    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) has been promoted by the European Union as a means to achieve multilingualism. While in Germany and other European countries the trend to use the L2 as a medium of instruction is increasing, in Hong Kong, however, we see a converse development. Many schools switched from English as a medium of…

  2. Task-based Language Learning in Bilingual Montessori Elementary Schools: Customizing Foreign Language Learning and Promoting L2 Speaking Skills

    Jana Winnefeld


    Full Text Available Foreign language learning has been a part of German elementary schools for several years now. Montessori schools focusing on individual learning, i.e. mostly independent from the teacher and based on auto-education, interest, and free choice, are also asked to teach an L2. The original lack of a concept of L2 learning for this environment has brought forth different approaches. Bilingual education seems to be feasible and applicable in Montessori education. The downside to this is that even in a bilingual classroom the Montessori way of learning may not allow for very much oral production of the foreign language. The role of L2 production (cf. Swain 1985, 1995, 2005 for language acquisition has been theoretically claimed and empirically investigated. Output can have a positive influence on L2 learning (cf. e.g. Izumi 2002, Keck et al. 2006. This also applies to interaction (cf. Long 1996, where negotiation of meaning and modified output are factors supporting L2 development (cf. e.g. de la Fuente 2002, McDonough 2005. Task-based Language Learning (TBLL presents itself as one way to promote oral language production and to provide opportunities for meaning-negotiation. Especially tasks with required information exchange and a closed outcome have been shown to be beneficial for the elicitation of negotiation of meaning and modified output. This paper argues that TBLL is a promising approach for the facilitation of L2 production and thus the development of speaking skills in a Montessori context. It also hypothesizes that TBLL can be implemented in a bilingual Montessori environment while still making the Montessori way of learning possible. Different tasks on various topics, examples of which are presented in this article, can lay the foundation for this. Offering such tasks in a bilingual Montessori elementary classroom promises to foster language production and the use of communication strategies like negotiation of meaning, both being

  3. The Role of Dynamic Contrasts in the L2 Acquisition of Spanish Past Tense Morphology

    Dominguez, Laura; Tracy-Ventura, Nicole; Arche, Maria J.; Mitchell, Rosamond; Myles, Florence


    This study examines the second language acquisition of Spanish past tense morphology by three groups of English speakers (beginners, intermediates and advanced). We adopt a novel methodological approach--combining oral corpus data with controlled experimental data--in order to provide new evidence on the validity of the Lexical Aspect Hypothesis…

  4. Matching Vocabulary Learning Process with Learning Outcome in L2 Academic Writing: An Exploratory Case Study

    Ma, Qing


    This exploratory case study of two undergraduates links vocabulary learning approaches with lexical quality measured in academic writing. Employing an array of qualitative data, it is shown that in a "semi-language-rich" learning context, Chinese learners may dispense with rote learning and engage in a more natural learning approach in which…

  5. Phonological and orthographic cues enhance the processing of inflectional morphology. ERP evidence from L1 and L2 French

    Haydee eCarrasco-Ortiz


    Full Text Available We report the results of two ERP experiments in which Spanish learners of French and native French controls show graded sensitivity to verbal inflectional errors as a function of the presence of orthographic and/or phonological cues when reading silently in French. In both experiments, verbal agreement was manipulated in sentential context such that subject verb agreement was either correct, ill-formed and orally-realized, involving both orthographic and phonological cues, or ill-formed and silent which involved only orthographic cues. The results of both experiments revealed more robust ERP responses to orally-realized than to silent inflectional errors. This was true for L2 learners as well as native controls, although the effect in the learner group was reduced in comparison to the native group. In addition, the combined influence of phonological and orthographic cues led to the largest differences between morphosyntactic conditions. Overall, the results suggest that the presence of phonological cues may enhance L2 readers’ sensitivity to morphology but that such may appear in L2 processing only when sufficient proficiency is attained. Moreover, both orthographic and phonological cues are used when available.

  6. Assisting Your Child's Learning in L2 Is Like Teaching Them to Ride a Bike: A Study on Parental Involvement

    Castillo, Rigoberto; Camelo Gámez, Linda Catherine


    This article deals with parental involvement as a strategy to assist young learners in their efforts to learn an L2. It discusses an 18-month experience involving ten young learners, their parents, and teachers, in the development of another language (L2). The parents had expressed that they were unable to support their children's development in…

  7. The Influence of L2 Teachers' Use of CALL Modes on Language Learners' Reactions to Blended Learning

    Hong, Kwang Hee; Samimy, Keiko K.


    Previous research on blended learning (BL) implementation in L2 instructional settings considers L2 teachers' use of the incorporated CALL modes and learners' attitudes toward the CALL modes as critical factors, among other factors, for achieving successful BL implementation. In the literature, these two factors are suggested to be strongly…

  8. A Case Study on the Effects of an L2 Writing Instructional Model for Blended Learning in Higher Education

    So, Lee; Lee, Chung Hyun


    This case study explores EFL (English as a foreign language) students' perceptions toward a prototype of an instructional model for second language (L2) writing in blended learning and the effects of the model on the development of L2 writing skills in higher education. This model is primarily founded on the process-oriented writing approach…

  9. Extending the Distributional Bias Hypothesis to the Acquisition of Honorific Morphology in L2 Korean



    Korean verbs can be marked with both referent and addressee honorific morphology . An analysis of a teledrama corpus and a phone call corpus shows that these two morphological classes co‐occur in a biased distribution indicating an association between the two classes . An experiment was conducted to determine whether Korean heritage speakers�acquisition of Korean was affected by this association as would be predicted by the distributional bias hypothesis . Twenty heritage learners of Korean performed a teledrama oral translation task which elicited two addressee honorific styles with and without referent honorific marking . A repeated measures ANOVA on the four possible addressee‐referent honorific combination showed differences in performance . A post hoc analysis of pairwise contrasts indicated that performance was superior on the referent honorific (RH) plus hayyo addressee honorific (AH) combination relative to the RH plus hay AH combination . This result is incompatible with an account that explains acquisition in terms of the cumulative frequencies of the forms in input . It is also incompatible with accounts claiming that learners do not associate the forms during the acquisitional process . It is argued that the distributional bias hypothesis best accounts for the pattern of results and the frequency‐driven conflation of semantically related concatenated affixes may have special significance for agglutinative languages such as Korean .

  10. Investigating the Efficacy of an Intensive English Program and the L2 Learners’ Learning Styles

    Rebecca Lee Su Ping


    Full Text Available Past research has found that many pre-university L2 learners, having completed an Intensive English Program (IEP still have difficulty in undertaking various disciplines in English-speaking tertiary institutions and continue to exhibit numerous linguistic problems (Bialystok, 2001, Celce Murcia 2001. The purpose of this paper is to present the findings on the investigation of L2 learners’ English proficiency in reading, writing, grammar, listening and speaking upon their completion of an Intensive English (IE program using their IELTS (Academic, in-house exams and English Placement Tests (EPT scores, and the efficacy of IE program.  IELTS test is chosen for this study due to its increasing popularity in Malaysia and its internationally recognised value and quality.  The study was conducted in two parts. In Part One, all 72 Level 4 IE students were given an in-house EPT (English Placement Test pre-test on their entry and another EPT post-test on their exit, and then their pre-test and post-test results were compared.  In Part Two, 22 volunteers sat the IELTS test at the end of the program. The IELTS results of the 22 volunteers were compared with those who did not.  Data were analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. This paper hopes to shed some light on (i whether or not L2 learners’ English language proficiency can be significantly enhanced and influenced by an intensive English program and (ii how leaners’ perception of their own learning strategies influence their learning progress. 

  11. Motivations for Learning Japanese and Additional Languages: A Study of L2 Self-Image across Multiple Languages

    Toshiyuki Nakamura


    Full Text Available This qualitative study aims to identify language learners’ motivations for studying Japanese by comparing these with motivations for learning or using additional languages. Thirteen students from an Australian university participated in the study, all of whom were learning Japanese as a second language (L2 and were also learners or users of additional languages. Utilising Dörnyei’s (2005 L2 Motivational Self System and the concept of ‘domains of possible selves’ (Unemori et al. 2004, this study investigates the language self- images (L2 selves associated with Japanese, and contrasts them with the L2 selves associated with participants’ additional languages. Further, it explores the formation of L2 selves and the relationships between different L2 selves within a learner. Previous studies in this area have emphasised the negative impacts of the ideal English L2 self on motivations for learning subsequent languages. However, this study indicates that multiple ideal L2 selves can coexist without competition if each language has a firm link to a different domain (i.e., Interpersonal, Extracurricular, Career, Education in a learner’s future self-image. The results of this study can be used to inform the practice of Japanese language teachers in multilingual contexts.

  12. Effect of CALL-based and Non-CALL Based Methods of Teaching on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Effat Bagheri; Ali Roohani; Dariush Nejad Ansari


    The use of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in the field of education has increased remarkably in recent years due to the swift and modern changes in language software. However, CALL is not widely employed in the field of second/foreign (L2) language learning in Iran. Interested in the application of CALL, this study examines two methods of vocabulary teaching/learning (CALL-based versus non-CALL based) in the short and long-term learning in the area of L2 vocabulary. It seeks to se...

  13. Galaxy morphology - an unsupervised machine learning approach

    Schutter, Andrew; Shamir, Lior


    Structural properties posses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement wi...

  14. Exploring Language Learning Strategy Transfer between Greek L2 and English FL in Case of Early Adolescent Multilinguals

    Mitits, Lydia; Gavriilidou, Zoe


    This study compares language learning strategy (LLS) use between Greek L2 and English FL and a possible variation in the frequency and type of LLSs employed in the two languages in order to depict the strategic profiles of the multilingual learners aged 12-15 (n = 307). It also observes the effect of gender in relation to a second vs. foreign…

  15. Language Interference and Language Learning Techniques Transfer in L2 and L3 Immersion Programs.

    Aronin, Larissa; Toubkin, Lynne


    Examines the relationships between the first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) language in immersion programs for Russian-speaking students in Israel. Two parallel and similar immersion programs, which were carried out for the same population, but with different target languages (L2 Hebrew and L3 English), are described. Presents tentative…

  16. Contribution of Morphological Awareness and Lexical Inferencing Ability to L2 Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension among Advanced EFL Learners: Testing Direct and Indirect Effects

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko


    Within the Structural Equation Modeling framework, this study tested the direct and indirect effects of morphological awareness and lexical inferencing ability on L2 vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension among advanced Chinese EFL readers in a university in China. Using both regular z-test and the bootstrapping (data-based resampling)…

  17. Galaxy morphology - an unsupervised machine learning approach

    Schutter, Andrew


    Structural properties posses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being ...

  18. Active Learning: Qualitative Inquiries into Vocabulary Instruction in Chinese L2 Classrooms

    Shen, Helen H.; Xu, Wenjing


    Active learning emerged as a new approach to learning in the 1980s. The core concept of active learning involves engaging students not only in actively exploring knowledge but also in reflecting on their own learning process in order to become more effective learners. Because the nonalphabetic nature of the Chinese writing system makes learning to…

  19. Machine Learning for Galaxy Morphology Classification

    Gauci, Adam; Abela, John; Magro, Alessio


    In this work, decision tree learning algorithms and fuzzy inferencing systems are applied for galaxy morphology classification. In particular, the CART, the C4.5, the Random Forest and fuzzy logic algorithms are studied and reliable classifiers are developed to distinguish between spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies or star/unknown galactic objects. Morphology information for the training and testing datasets is obtained from the Galaxy Zoo project while the corresponding photometric and spectra parameters are downloaded from the SDSS DR7 catalogue.

  20. An Investigation into the Modality Specificity of L2 Learners' STM Abilities in Learning Vocabulary via PDAs

    Saeed Khazaie


    Full Text Available Parallel with the rapid growth of wireless technology and potentials of mobile learning for language teaching/learning, employing mobile devices in language learning seems indispensable. To this end, designing learning materials suitable for different types of mobile devices regarding dual coding (DCT and cognitive load (CLT theories seems inevitable. In this study, multimedia were employed for designing two types of learning materials. Since short-term memory plays an important role in language learning, learners’ visual and verbal short-term memories were taken into consideration, too. 161 L2 Learners aged 19 and 23 years old participated in the major phases of an experiment via personal digital assistant (PDA. Based on their scores on the English vocabulary recognition and recall (EVRR tests and the statistical analysis of the results, it was revealed that delivery of learning materials with pictorial and written annotations combined rather than delivery of learning materials without such annotations to learners with high-visual and high-verbal abilities, learners with high-visual but low-verbal ability, and learners with low-visual but high-verbal ability results in better vocabulary learning outcomes. However, this was not the case for learners with low-visual and low-verbal abilities. This study acknowledges the relation between STM and the relevant modalities of materials presentation.Keywords: Mobile learning, PDA, Verbal and visual ability, Vocabulary learning


    Mohammad Hadi Mahmoodi


    Full Text Available Oral skills are important components of language competence. To have good and acceptable listening and speaking, one must have good pronunciation, which encompasses segmental and suprasegmental features. Despite extensive studies on the role of segmental features and related issues in listening and speaking, there is paucity of research on the role of suprasegmental features in the same domain. Conducting studies which aim at shedding light on the issues related to learning suprasegmental features can help language teachers and learners in the process of teaching/learning English as a foreign language. To this end, this study was designed to investigate the relationship among brain hemispheric dominance, gender, attitudes towards L1 and L2, and learning suprasegmental features in Iranian EFL learners. First, 200 Intermediate EFL learners were selected from different English language teaching institutes in Hamedan and Isfahan, two provinces in Iran, as the sample. Prior to the main stage of the study, Oxford Placement Test (OPT was used to homogenize the proficiency level of all the participants. Then, the participants were asked to complete the Edinburgh Handedness Questionnaire to determine their dominant hemisphere. They were also required to answer two questionnaires regarding their attitudes towards L1 and L2. Finally, the participants took suprasegmental features test. The results of the independent samples t-tests indicated left-brained language learners’ superiority in observing and learning suprasegmental features. It was also found that females are better than males in producing suprasegmental features. Furthermore, the results of Pearson Product Moment Correlations indicated that there is significant relationship between attitude towards L2 and learning suprasegmental features. However, no significant relationship was found between attitude towards L1 and learning English suprasegmental features. The findings of this study can

  2. Teaching, Learning, and Developing L2 French Sociolinguistic Competence: A Sociocultural Perspective

    van Compernolle, Remi A.; Williams, Lawrence


    The study reported in this article investigates the development of sociolinguistic competence among second-year (US university-level) L2 learners of French who were given systematic instruction on sociolinguistic variation as part of their normal coursework. We focus on the variable use of the negative morpheme "ne" in verbal negation. Drawing…

  3. Morphologically Complex Words in L1 and L2 Processing: Evidence from Masked Priming Experiments in English

    Silva, Renita; Clahsen, Harald


    This paper reports results from masked priming experiments investigating regular past-tense forms and deadjectival nominalizations with -ness and -ity in adult native (L1) speakers of English and in different groups of advanced adult second language (L2) learners of English. While the L1 group showed efficient priming for both inflected and…

  4. Galaxy morphology - An unsupervised machine learning approach

    Schutter, A.; Shamir, L.


    Structural properties poses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being analyzed. The source code of the method is publicly available, and the protocol of the experiment is included in the paper so that the experiment can be replicated, and the method can be used to analyze user-defined datasets of galaxy images.

  5. Investigating Reading Comprehension and Learning Styles in Relation to Reading Strategies in L2

    Gürses, Meral Özkan; Bouvet, Eric


    This study aims to investigate the extent to which reading comprehension and learning styles are related to perceived use of reading strategies among students studying French at an Australian university and a Turkish university. Ninety-one participants completed a background questionnaire, the Survey of Reading Strategies, the Kolb Learning Style…

  6. The Role of Formal L2 Learning Experience in L3 Acquisition among Early Bilinguals

    Park, Mihi; Starr, Rebecca L.


    Early bilingualism is thought to facilitate language learning [Klein, E. C. (1995). "Second versus third language acquisition: Is there a difference?" "Language Learning", 45(3), 419-466; Cromdal, J. (1999). "Childhood bilingualism and metalinguistic skills: Analysis and control in young Swedish-English bilinguals."…

  7. The Impact of Choice on EFL Students' Motivation and Engagement with L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Wang, Han-Chung; Huang, Hung-Tzu; Hsu, Chun-Chieh


    The current study investigates EFL college learners' motivation and engagement during English vocabulary learning tasks. By adopting self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000), the study looked into the impact of autonomy on college students' task motivation and engagement with vocabulary learning tasks and their general English…

  8. Unstructured Object Recognition using Morphological Learning

    S. Kar; Chandran, S.


    A technique of object recognition which can detect absence or presence of objects of interest without making explicit use of their underlying geometric structure is deemed suitable for many practical applications. In this work, a method of recognising unstructured objects has been presented, wherein several gray patterns are input as examples to a morphological rule-based learning algorithm. The output of the algorithm are the corresponding gray structuring elements capable of recogni...

  9. The Apocalypse of L2 Normative Ideology: Current Sociolinguistic Research in Relation to Foreign Language Learning.

    Loveday, Leo


    Discusses how current applied and sociolinguistic research and theory, which reveals the naturalness of language variation and productive aspects of error-making, seriously challenges traditional second language learning practices and postulates. (EKN)

  10. Constructing the L2-Graph for Robust Subspace Learning and Subspace Clustering

    Peng, Xi; Yu, Zhiding; Tang, Huajin; Yi, Zhang


    Under the framework of graph-based learning, the key to robust subspace clustering and subspace learning is to obtain a good similarity graph that eliminates the effects of errors and retains only connections between the data points from the same subspace (i.e., intra-subspace data points). Recent works achieve good performance by modeling errors into their objective functions to remove the errors from the inputs. However, these approaches face the limitations that the structure of errors sho...

  11. A Vocabulary Learning Tool for L2 Undergraduates Reading Science and Technology Textbooks

    Hsu, Chihcheng; Yang, Fang-Chuan Ou


    Students of English as a second language who major in science and technology use English-language textbooks to ensure that they can read English materials upon graduation. Research indicates that teachers spend little time helping these students on the linguistic complexity of such textbooks. Vocabulary, grammar, and article structure are elements of this complexity, but to many students, these elements can be akin to locked doors. This study presents MyVLS-Reader, which focuses on unlocking the first of these doors-vocabulary-while assisting in reading. With explicit vocabulary learning, students learn and memorize individual vocabulary, but the context is lost if the depth of learning discards context. In implicit vocabulary learning, students acquire vocabulary through repeated exposure to contexts, but repeated encounters with new words are required. Few e-learning systems combine both vocabulary-learning approaches. MyVLS-Reader achieves such synergy by (1) using a keyword setting to provide context-matched vocabulary explanation while reading and (2) embedding multiple learning choices, such as keyword setting, the review and memorization of explicit vocabulary, and the option to ask instructors. This study includes two rounds of evaluations: (1) an evaluation of the learning achievements of control and treatment groups and (2) a quantitative and qualitative investigation of perceptions regarding the use of MyVLS-Reader. The evaluation results indicate that the treatment group developed a better vocabulary than the control group in significantly less time. The use of MyVLS-Reader also slightly improved higher-order thinking skills. This result suggests that MyVLS-Reader can effective assist students in building their vocabulary while reading.

  12. CMC-Based Projects and L2 Learning: Confirming the Importance of Nativisation

    Grosbois, Muriel


    Despite the spread of reliable desktop audio and videoconferencing facilities, some CMC-based projects still rely on asynchronous written environments, if only because of the temporal constraints of synchronicity (Guichon, 2009; Develotte, Guichon & Vincent, 2010). Yet speaking is usually the skill students most need to improve when learning a…

  13. Social and Individual Frame Factors in L2 Learning: Comparative Aspects.

    Ekstrand, Lars H.

    A large number of factors are considered in their role in second language learning. Individual factors include language aptitude, personality, attitudes and motivation, and the role of the speaker's native language. Teacher factors involve the method of instruction, the sex of the teacher, and a teacher's training and competence, while…

  14. An Observation Tool for Effective L2 Pedagogy in Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL)

    de Graaff, Rick; Koopman, Gerrit Jan; Anikina, Yulia; Westhoff, Gerard


    In Europe, Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is becoming a popular and widespread practice of immersion education. In the Netherlands, for example, over 90 secondary schools offer a CLIL strand. Most CLIL teachers, however, are nonnative speakers of the target language, and do not have a professional background in language pedagogy.…

  15. Online multilingual vocabulary system and its application in L2 learning

    Haruko Miyakoda


    Full Text Available In the field of second language teaching, vocabulary has been one of the most neglected areas in the classroom. Although language teachers/ instructors are well aware of the importance of vocabulary, there is not enough time in the classroom to actually “teach” vocabulary. Therefore, we need to find ways to promote autonomous vocabulary learning so that students can make good use of their time outside theclassrooms.In this study, we present an online vocabulary learning system that we have developed. The results obtained from our evaluation experiment indicate that our system is more effective in retaining the meaning of the words compared to the traditional learning method.As an example of applying this system to language learning, we will give a demonstration of a Japanese onomatopoeia dictionary that we are compiling. Onomatopoeia are especially troublesome for learners of the Japanese language. Although they are frequently used in both written and spoken Japanese, they are very difficult to translate to other languages. We demonstrate that by employing our system, learners are better able to understand the meaning and the context of eachlexical item.

  16. The Effect of L1 on Learning New L2 Vocabulary among Intermediate Proficiency Level Students

    Maryam Pakzadian


    During the last decades, the role of mother tongue in language teaching has been the subject of a host of research studies ;however, quite rarely have researchers addressed such issues as comparing the use of mother tongue and other teaching techniques like paraphrasing and translation effects on students' reading comprehension ability and their ability in learning new English vocabulary. This study aimed to explore whether paraphrases vs. translations of new words in general English passages...

  17. A Survey on the Use of Metacognition in L2 Learning and Teaching

    ZHANG Yibin


    The author tries to verify that there are differences between the usages of the metacongintive strategies through a survey. He also discusses the role of the language teacher, since more and more people believe that teachers are not only language instructors but also learner trainers. So if they are interested in improving learners'use of strategies for learning and using the language, their roles may be changing.

  18. Peer interaction and learning opportunities in cohesive and less cohesive L2 classrooms

    Leslie, Carolyn Elizabeth


    The present study investigates peer to peer oral interaction in two task based language teaching classrooms, one of which was a self-declared cohesive group, and the other a self- declared less cohesive group, both at B1 level. It studies how learners talk cohesion into being and considers how this talk leads to learning opportunities in these groups. The study was classroom-based and was carried out over the period of an academic year. Research was conducted in the classrooms and the task...

  19. Unstructured Object Recognition using Morphological Learning

    S. Kar


    Full Text Available A technique of object recognition which can detect absence or presence of objects of interest without making explicit use of their underlying geometric structure is deemed suitable for many practical applications. In this work, a method of recognising unstructured objects has been presented, wherein several gray patterns are input as examples to a morphological rule-based learning algorithm. The output of the algorithm are the corresponding gray structuring elements capable of recognising patterns in query images. The learning is carried out offline before recognition of the queries. The technique has been tested to identify fuel pellet surface imperfections. Robustness wrt intensity, orientation, and shape variations of the query patterns is built into the method. Moreover, simplicity of the recognition process leading to reduced computational time makes the method attractive to solve many practical problems.

  20. Estilos de pensamiento Cognitive styles: an approach to autonomous learning in L2 adult students

    Atehortúa Atehortúa José Nicolás


    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo resume los resultados de una investigación descriptivo-cualitativa sobre estilos cognitivos o de pensamiento, llevado a cabo con miembros del programa de extensión académica en la UPB, con el objetivo de describir los estilos de pensamiento de los estudiantes que les permitan reconocer y utilizar estrategias meta cognitivas para desarrollar un nivel consciente de responsabilidad y autonomía en el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera. El marco teórico de este estudio se basa en conceptos tales como estilos cognitivos, estrategias meta cognitivas, aptitud, así como la autonomía y la responsabilidad en el aprendizaje. Los instrumentos diseñados para la recopilación de datos fueron un test sobre estilos cognitivos, en segundo lugar, un cuestionario semiestructurado con los siguientes ítems: proceso de toma de decisiones, la auto descripción como aprendices, las percepciones del estudiante sobre el papel del profesor, incluido el uso de estrategias meta cognitivas, tercero , una entrevista abierta con el objetivo de medir el impacto que tiene el concebir un proceso de aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera desde la perspectiva de los estilos de pensamiento. Los resultados mostraron la expectativa de los estudiantes para reconocer las capacidades humanas, la necesidad de adquirir la competencia estratégica, la necesidad real de participar abiertamente en la planificación de metas y objetivos, y en la auto-evaluación formativa del proceso de aprendizaje, así como el deseo de pasar de un proceso centrado en tareas, a un proceso centrado en la autonomía. The following article sums up the findings of a descriptive-qualitative research on cognitive styles carried out with members of the Academic Extension program at the UPB, aiming at describing the cognitive styles of students that enable them to recognize and use metacognitive strategies in order to develop a conscious level of autonomy and responsibility in learning

  1. Learning Spike Time Codes Through Morphological Learning With Binary Synapses.

    Roy, Subhrajit; San, Phyo Phyo; Hussain, Shaista; Wei, Lee Wang; Basu, Arindam


    In this brief, a neuron with nonlinear dendrites (NNLDs) and binary synapses that is able to learn temporal features of spike input patterns is considered. Since binary synapses are considered, learning happens through formation and elimination of connections between the inputs and the dendritic branches to modify the structure or morphology of the NNLD. A morphological learning algorithm inspired by the tempotron, i.e., a recently proposed temporal learning algorithm is presented in this brief. Unlike tempotron, the proposed learning rule uses a technique to automatically adapt the NNLD threshold during training. Experimental results indicate that our NNLD with 1-bit synapses can obtain accuracy similar to that of a traditional tempotron with 4-bit synapses in classifying single spike random latency and pairwise synchrony patterns. Hence, the proposed method is better suited for robust hardware implementation in the presence of statistical variations. We also present results of applying this rule to real-life spike classification problems from the field of tactile sensing. PMID:26173221

  2. Transfer of reading-related cognitive skills in learning to read Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among Chinese elementary school children

    Keung, YC; Ho, CSH


    This study investigated transfer of reading-related cognitive skills between learning to read Chinese (L1) and English (L2) among Chinese children in Hong Kong. Fifty-three Grade 2 students were tested on word reading, phonological, orthographic and rapid naming skills in Chinese (L1) and English (L2). The major findings were: (a) significant correlations between Chinese and English measures in phonological awareness and rapid naming, but not in orthographic skills; (b) significant unique con...

  3. Developing Critical L2 Digital Literacy through the Use of Computer-Based Internet-Hosted Learning Management Systems such as Moodle

    Meurant, Robert C.

    Second Language (L2) Digital Literacy is of emerging importance within English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Korea, and will evolve to become regarded as the most critical component of overall L2 English Literacy. Computer-based Internet-hosted Learning Management Systems (LMS), such as the popular open-source Moodle, are rapidly being adopted worldwide for distance education, and are also being applied to blended (hybrid) education. In EFL Education, they have a special potential: by setting the LMS to force English to be used exclusively throughout a course website, the meta-language can be made the target L2 language. Of necessity, students develop the ability to use English to navigate the Internet, access and contribute to online resources, and engage in computer-mediated communication. Through such pragmatic engagement with English, students significantly develop their L2 Digital Literacy.

  4. Direct and Indirect Access to Corpora: An Exploratory Case Study Comparing Students' Error Correction and Learning Strategy Use in L2 Writing

    Yoon, Hyunsook; Jo, Jung Won


    Studies on students' use of corpora in L2 writing have demonstrated the benefits of corpora not only as a linguistic resource to improve their writing abilities but also as a cognitive tool to develop their learning skills and strategies. Most of the corpus studies, however, adopted either direct use or indirect use of corpora by students,…

  5. Cantonese English as a Second Language Learners' Perceived Relations between "Similar" L1 and L2 Speech Sounds: A Test of the Speech Learning Model

    Chan, Alice Y. W.


    This article reports on the results of a research study that investigated Cantonese English as a second language (ESL) learners' perception of English speech sounds, their perceived relations between "similar" English and Cantonese sounds, as well as the applicability of the claims of the Speech Learning Model (SLM) to second language (L2)…

  6. L2 Vocabulary Learning from Reading: Explicit and Tacit Lexical Knowledge and the Role of Learner and Item Variables

    Elgort, Irina; Warren, Paul


    This study investigates acquisition of second language (L2) vocabulary from reading a connected authentic text. Advanced and upper-intermediate L2 (English) participants read a long expository text for general understanding, with embedded critical vocabulary items (pseudowords). Explicit knowledge of the critical items was examined using a meaning…

  7. Developing bi-plurilingual skills in French as a schooling language : L2 learning in early bilingual education

    COLIN, Catherine


    While the benefits of early bilingual education programs are widely praised and acknowledged, relatively little is known about the processes involved in child second language acquisition. The aim of this research is to investigate L2 development in young children while school is their only source of exposure to the L2. Relying on corpora collected in two French-American kindergarten and primary schools in California, this work focuses on how French is acquired by English-speaking children fro...

  8. Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: evidence from two learning methods in children.

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia


    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyse the effect of two learning methods (picture- vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and non-cognates) in early stages of children's L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age = 10.87 years; SD= 0.85), participated in the study. None of them had prior knowledge of Basque (the L2 in this study). After a learning phase in which L2 words were learned either by a picture- or a word-based method, children were tested in a backward-word translation recognition task at two times (immediately vs. one week later). Results showed that the participants made more errors when rejecting semantically related than semantically unrelated words as correct translations (semantic interference effect). The magnitude of this effect was higher in the delayed test condition regardless of the learning method. Moreover, the overall performance of participants from the word-based method was better than the performance of participants from the picture-word method. Results were discussed concerning the most significant bilingual lexical processing models. PMID:22804703

  9. Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots

    Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh;


    Hand-coding locomotion controllers for modular robots is difficult due to their polymorphic nature. Instead, we propose to use a simple and distributed reinforcement learning strategy. ATRON modules with identical controllers can be assembled in any configuration. To optimize the robot’s locomotion...... speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy’s performance on different robot configurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast...... as possible. We conclude that the learning strategy is effective and may be a practical approach to design gaits....

  10. Aptitude as Grammatical Sensitivity and the Initial Stages of Learning Japanese as a L2: Parametric Variation and Case Marking

    VanPatten, Bill; Smith, Megan


    In this article, we challenge the notion that aptitude--operationalized as grammatical sensitivity as measured by the Words in Sentences section of the Modern Language Aptitude Test--is central to adult second language (L2) acquisition. We present the findings of a study on the acquisition of two properties of Japanese, head-final word order and…

  11. Language Learning Motivation within the Context of Globalisation: An L2 Self within an Imagined Global Community

    Ryan, Stephen


    This is a theoretical paper that attempts to re-conceptualize language learning motivation by taking into consideration the effects of globalisation on learners' sense of identity and how this impacts on the motivation to learn the unquestioned language of globalisation, English. I will argue that in EFL contexts it is learners' sense of…

  12. Assessing Differences and Similarities between Instructed Heritage Language Learners and L2 Learners in Their Knowledge of Spanish Tense-Aspect and Mood (TAM) Morphology

    Montrul, Silvina; Perpinan, Silvia


    The acquisition of the aspectual difference between the preterit and imperfect in the past tense and the acquisition of the contrast between subjunctive and indicative mood are classic problem areas in second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish by English-speaking learners (Collentine, 1995, 1998, 2003; Salaberry, 1999; Slabakova & Montrul, 2002;…

  13. Tracking "Learning Behaviours" in the Incidental Acquisition of Two Dimensional Adjectives by Japanese Beginner Learners of L2 English

    Shintani, Natsuko; Ellis, Rod


    The purpose of this article is to examine both the process and product of vocabulary learning in a task-based instructional context. The article reports a study that investigated the acquisition of two dimensional adjectives ("big" and "small") by six-year-old Japanese children who were complete beginners. It tracked the…

  14. Enhancement of Automatization through Vocabulary Learning Using CALL: Can Prompt Language Processing Lead to Better Comprehension in L2 Reading?

    Sato, Takeshi; Matsunuma, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Akio


    Our study aims to optimize a multimedia application for vocabulary learning for English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Our study is based on the concept that difficulty in reading a text in a second language is due to the need for more working memory for word decoding skills, although the working memory must also be used for text comprehension…

  15. Task-based incidental vocabulary learning in L2 Arabic: The role of proficiency and task performance

    Ayman A. Mohamed


    Full Text Available This study tests the claim that word learning in a second language are contingent upon a task’s involvement load (i.e. the amount of need, search, and evaluation it imposes, as proposed by Laufer and Hulstijn (2001. Fifty-three English-speaking learners of Arabic were assigned to one of three vocabulary learning tasks that varied in the degree of involvement: reading comprehension with glosses (low, fill-in-the-gap task (medium, and sentence writing (high. Ten words, selected based on a pretest, were targeted in the tasks. Results showed a main effect of task, with the sentence writing task yielding the highest rates of vocabulary learning, followed by the gap-fill task, and finally the reading comprehension task. A significant correlation was found between accuracy of performance across participants and their subsequent vocabulary acquisition in the immediate posttest. Within groups, only the performance of the writing group correlated significantly with their posttest scores. Results of the present study validate the hypothesis and point to multiple factors at play in incidental vocabulary acquisition. The study provides further arguments to refine the hypothesis and implement pedagogical practices that accommodate incidental learning in foreign language settings.

  16. Effects of Interactive versus Simultaneous Display of Multimedia Glosses on L2 Reading Comprehension and Incidental Vocabulary Learning

    Türk, Emine; Erçetin, Gülcan


    This study examines the effects of interactive versus simultaneous display of visual and verbal multimedia information on incidental vocabulary learning and reading comprehension of learners of English with lower proficiency levels. In the interactive display condition, learners were allowed to select the type of multimedia information whereas the…

  17. L2 listening at work

    Øhrstrøm, Charlotte

    as a corporate language, listen in Danish at work, how they handle these situations, what problems they experience, and why some situations are more difficult to listen in than others. The study makes use of qualitative research methods and theoretical aspects from psycholinguistic approaches as well as socially......This dissertation on adult second language (L2) learning investigates individual learners’ experiences with listening in Danish as an L2 in everyday situations at work. More specifically, the study explores when international employees, who work at international companies in Denmark with English...

  18. Modelling “Constructional transfer”: A comparative corpus study of morphological and syntactic intensifiers in L1 French, L1 Dutch and L2 Dutch

    Hendrikx, Isa; Van Goethem, Kristel; Meunier, Fanny; Morphology Days 2015


    In this contribution we will present a corpus-based comparison of the use of intensifying constructions in (written) native Dutch (Corpus Hedendaags Nederlands), Dutch by French-speaking learners (Leerdercorpus Nederlands) and native French (Frantext). The central focus will be on the competition between morphological and syntactic means to intensify adjectives. The analysis will take a constructional perspective on language acquisition and multilingualism (cf. Tomasello 2003; Goldberg 2010; ...

  19. Automatic programming of binary morphological machines by PAC learning

    Barrera, Junior; Tomita, Nina S.; Correa da Silva, Flavio S.; Terada, Routo


    Binary image analysis problems can be solved by set operators implemented as programs for a binary morphological machine (BMM). This is a very general and powerful approach to solve this type of problem. However, the design of these programs is not a task manageable by nonexperts on mathematical morphology. In order to overcome this difficulty we have worked on tools that help users describe their goals at higher levels of abstraction and to translate them into BMM programs. Some of these tools are based on the representation of the goals of the user as a collection of input-output pairs of images and the estimation of the target operator from these data. PAC learning is a well suited methodology for this task, since in this theory 'concepts' are represented as Boolean functions that are equivalent to set operators. In order to apply this technique in practice we must have efficient learning algorithms. In this paper we introduce two PAC learning algorithms, both are based on the minimal representation of Boolean functions, which has a straightforward translation to the canonical decomposition of set operators. The first algorithm is based on the classical Quine-McCluskey algorithm for the simplification of Boolean functions, and the second one is based on a new idea for the construction of Boolean functions: the incremental splitting of intervals. We also present a comparative complexity analysis of the two algorithms. Finally, we give some application examples.

  20. Galaxy Image Processing and Morphological Classification Using Machine Learning

    Kates-Harbeck, Julian


    This work uses data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Galaxy Zoo Project for classification of galaxy morphologies via machine learning. SDSS imaging data together with reliable human classifications from Galaxy Zoo provide the training set and test set for the machine learning architectures. Classification is performed with hand-picked, pre-computed features from SDSS as well as with the raw imaging data from SDSS that was available to humans in the Galaxy Zoo project. With the hand-picked features and a logistic regression classifier, 95.21% classification accuracy and an area under the ROC curve of 0.986 are attained. In the case of the raw imaging data, the images are first processed to remove background noise, image artifacts, and celestial objects other than the galaxy of interest. They are then rotated onto their principle axis of variance to guarantee rotational invariance. The processed images are used to compute color information, up to 4^th order central normalized moments, and radial intensity profiles. These features are used to train a support vector machine with a 3^rd degree polynomial kernel, which achieves a classification accuracy of 95.89% with an ROC area of 0.943.

  1. MIMO transmit scheme based on morphological perceptron with competitive learning.

    Valente, Raul Ambrozio; Abrão, Taufik


    This paper proposes a new multi-input multi-output (MIMO) transmit scheme aided by artificial neural network (ANN). The morphological perceptron with competitive learning (MP/CL) concept is deployed as a decision rule in the MIMO detection stage. The proposed MIMO transmission scheme is able to achieve double spectral efficiency; hence, in each time-slot the receiver decodes two symbols at a time instead one as Alamouti scheme. Other advantage of the proposed transmit scheme with MP/CL-aided detector is its polynomial complexity according to modulation order, while it becomes linear when the data stream length is greater than modulation order. The performance of the proposed scheme is compared to the traditional MIMO schemes, namely Alamouti scheme and maximum-likelihood MIMO (ML-MIMO) detector. Also, the proposed scheme is evaluated in a scenario with variable channel information along the frame. Numerical results have shown that the diversity gain under space-time coding Alamouti scheme is partially lost, which slightly reduces the bit-error rate (BER) performance of the proposed MP/CL-NN MIMO scheme. PMID:27135805

  2. The VVT Project: A Web-Based Platform for Strategy Instruction and Research into Self-Regulated Learning of L2 Vocabulary

    Ranalli, James M.


    The focus of this dissertation is a web-based, second language (L2) instructional resource called VVT (Virtual Vocabulary Trainer) designed to teach integrated vocabulary depth of knowledge and dictionary referencing skills to tertiary-level learners of English as a Second Language (ESL). In addition to evaluating the potential of online resources…

  3. Effects of age of learning on voice onset time: categorical perception of Swedish stops by near-native L2 speakers.

    Stölten, Katrin; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Hyltenstam, Kenneth


    This study examined the effects of age of onset (AO) of L2 acquisition on the categorical perception of the voicing contrast in Swedish word-initial stops varying in voice onset time (VOT). Three voicing continua created on the basis of natural Swedish word pairs with /p-b/, /t-d/, /k-/ in initial position were presented to 41 Spanish early (AO 12) near-native speakers of L2 Swedish. Fifteen native speakers of Swedish served as controls. Categorizations were influenced by AO and listener status as L1/L2 speaker, in that the late learners deviated the most from native-speaker perception. In addition, only a small minority of the late learners perceived the voicing contrast in a way comparable to native-speaker categorization, while most early L2 learners demonstrated nativelike categorization patterns. However, when the results were combined with the L2 learners' production of Swedish voiceless stops (Stölten, 2005; Stölten, Abrahamsson & Hyltenstam, in press), nativelike production and perception was never found among the late learners, while a majority of the early learners still exhibited nativelike production and perception. It is concluded that, despite their being perceived as mother-tongue speakers of Swedish by native listeners, the late learners do not, after detailed phonetic scrutiny, exhibit a fully nativelike command of Swedish VOT. Consequently, being near-native rather than nativelike speakers of their second language, these individuals do not constitute the evidence necessary to reject the hypothesis of one or several critical (or sensitive) periods for language acquisition. PMID:25536842

  4. Combining Hand-crafted Rules and Unsupervised Learning in Constraint-based Morphological Disambiguation

    Oflazer, K; Oflazer, Kemal; Tur, Gokhan


    This paper presents a constraint-based morphological disambiguation approach that is applicable languages with complex morphology--specifically agglutinative languages with productive inflectional and derivational morphological phenomena. In certain respects, our approach has been motivated by Brill's recent work, but with the observation that his transformational approach is not directly applicable to languages like Turkish. Our system combines corpus independent hand-crafted constraint rules, constraint rules that are learned via unsupervised learning from a training corpus, and additional statistical information from the corpus to be morphologically disambiguated. The hand-crafted rules are linguistically motivated and tuned to improve precision without sacrificing recall. The unsupervised learning process produces two sets of rules: (i) choose rules which choose morphological parses of a lexical item satisfying constraint effectively discarding other parses, and (ii) delete rules, which delete parses sati...

  5. Morphological Awareness and Bilingual Word Learning: A Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling Study

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko; Leong, Che Kan


    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay-English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first…

  6. The L2Acquisition of English Passive%The L2 Acquisition of English Passive



    Passive voice is an important grammatical category in language learning while it varies in different languages.In order to diminish the negative impact on L1 transfer and maintain the originality of passive voice in L2 learning,this essay centers on the grammatical differences of passive voice both in English and Chinese and propose practical teaching strategies.

  7. Relations of Learning Style of College Students and L2Acquisition%大学生学习风格与二语习得的关系及启示



    This paper has done a questionnaire on 476 college students about their learning style and has verified the Learning Style Inventory. The study shows that the inventory has good reliability and validity. The inventory describes the major types of learning styles among the college students as well as the difference tests and regression analysis of demographic variables. It has also surveyed Pearson correlation between different learning styles and English learning scores. The statistical analysis shows that the learning styles of auditory type, extravert type, overall type, induction type and field dependence are in significant positive correlation with English learning scores, which show the college students of these learning styles are better in L2 learning.%通过对476名大学生进行了有关学习风格的问卷调查,对学习风格量表进行了验证,表明其具有良好的信度和效度。利用该量表对大学生的主要学习类型进行了描述和人口统计学变量上的差异检验和回归分析,并考察了大学生不同学习风格与英语学习成绩之间的皮尔逊相关关系。统计分析结果表明听觉型、外向型、纵观全局型、归纳型和场依赖型的学习风格与其英语学习成绩呈显著正相关,说明具有这些学习风格的大学生其二语成绩更好。

  8. Learning morphological phenomena of modern Greek an exploratory approach

    Y. Kotsanis


    Full Text Available Educational technology is influenced by and closely related to the fields of generative epistemology, Artificial Intelligence, and the learning sciences. Relevant research literature refers to the term constructionism (Papert, 1993 and exploratory learning (diSessa et al, 1995. Constructionism and exploratory learning are a synthesis of the constructivist theory of Piaget and the opportunities offered by technology to education on thinking concretely, on learning while constructing intelligible entities, and on interacting with multimedia objects, rather than the direct acquisition of knowledge and facts. These views are based on the approach that learners can take substantial control of their own learning in an appropriately designed physical and cultural environment (Harel, 1991. In parallel, most of the studies of the Vygotskian framework focus on the role of language in the learning procedure, considering conceptual thought to be impossible outside an articulated verbal thinking. Moreover, the specific use of words is considered to be the most relevant cause for childhood and adolescent differentiation (Vygotsky, 1962.

  9. Teaching and Learning Morphology: A Reflection on Generative Vocabulary Instruction

    Templeton, Shane


    Students' knowledge of morphology can play a critical role in vocabulary development, and by extension, reading comprehension and writing. This reflection describes the nature of this knowledge and how it may be developed through the examination of generative vocabulary knowledge and the role of the spelling system in developing this knowledge. In…

  10. Suggestions of keeping L2 motivation



    How will we keep the motivation during the second language as long as we can, which confuses us, though what the L2 motivation is and how it is developed have been discussed by the psychologists, educators, etc. The aim of this passage is to clarify the basic content of motivation, including the definition, classification, importance, etc. how the current situation is in se-nior high students’English learning motivation, what should be done to keep such motivation. In the following part, it will be read that the introduction, the chapter stating the content and classification of (L 2) motivation, the chapter analyzing the necessity and state of L2 motivation at senor high, the chapter offering approach to keep that motivation, and the conclusion. All of them use the comparison, explanation and cites.

  11. Lexical representation of novel L2 contrasts

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Masuda, Kyoko


    There is much interest among psychologists and linguists in the influence of the native language sound system on the acquisition of second languages (Best, 1995; Flege, 1995). Most studies of second language (L2) speech focus on how learners perceive and produce L2 sounds, but we know of only two that have considered how novel sound contrasts are encoded in learners' lexical representations of L2 words (Pallier et al., 2001; Ota et al., 2002). In this study we investigated how native speakers of English encode Japanese consonant quantity contrasts in their developing Japanese lexicons at different stages of acquisition (Japanese contrasts singleton versus geminate consonants but English does not). Monolingual English speakers, native English speakers learning Japanese for one year, and native speakers of Japanese were taught a set of Japanese nonwords containing singleton and geminate consonants. Subjects then performed memory tasks eliciting perception and production data to determine whether they encoded the Japanese consonant quantity contrast lexically. Overall accuracy in these tasks was a function of Japanese language experience, and acoustic analysis of the production data revealed non-native-like patterns of differentiation of singleton and geminate consonants among the L2 learners of Japanese. Implications for theories of L2 speech are discussed.

  12. Similarity in L2 Phonology

    Barrios, Shannon L.


    Adult second language (L2) learners often experience difficulty producing and perceiving non-native phonological contrasts. Even highly proficient bilinguals, who have been exposed to an L2 for long periods of time, struggle with difficult contrasts, such as /r/-/l/ for Japanese learners of English. To account for the relative ease or difficulty…

  13. On Positive Evidence and Ultimate Attainment in L2 Phonology.

    Young-Scholten, Martha


    Reviews research on the acquisition of second-language (L2) phonology, focusing on whether adult learners have access to the principles and parameters of Universal Grammar (UG). It argues that UG is still accessible in L2 phonological acquisition, and parameters can be reset but that the Subset Principle can impede learning success. (51…

  14. Unsupervised Discovery of Phonological Categories through Supervised Learning of Morphological Rules

    Daelemans, W; Gillis, S; Daelemans, Walter; Berck, Peter; Gillis, Steven


    We describe a case study in the application of {\\em symbolic machine learning} techniques for the discovery of linguistic rules and categories. A supervised rule induction algorithm is used to learn to predict the correct diminutive suffix given the phonological representation of Dutch nouns. The system produces rules which are comparable to rules proposed by linguists. Furthermore, in the process of learning this morphological task, the phonemes used are grouped into phonologically relevant categories. We discuss the relevance of our method for linguistics and language technology.

  15. Severely impaired learning and altered neuronal morphology in mice lacking NMDA receptors in medium spiny neurons.

    Lisa R Beutler

    Full Text Available The striatum is composed predominantly of medium spiny neurons (MSNs that integrate excitatory, glutamatergic inputs from the cortex and thalamus, and modulatory dopaminergic inputs from the ventral midbrain to influence behavior. Glutamatergic activation of AMPA, NMDA, and metabotropic receptors on MSNs is important for striatal development and function, but the roles of each of these receptor classes remain incompletely understood. Signaling through NMDA-type glutamate receptors (NMDARs in the striatum has been implicated in various motor and appetitive learning paradigms. In addition, signaling through NMDARs influences neuronal morphology, which could underlie their role in mediating learned behaviors. To study the role of NMDARs on MSNs in learning and in morphological development, we generated mice lacking the essential NR1 subunit, encoded by the Grin1 gene, selectively in MSNs. Although these knockout mice appear normal and display normal 24-hour locomotion, they have severe deficits in motor learning, operant conditioning and active avoidance. In addition, the MSNs from these knockout mice have smaller cell bodies and decreased dendritic length compared to littermate controls. We conclude that NMDAR signaling in MSNs is critical for normal MSN morphology and many forms of learning.

  16. Children benefit from morphological relatedness when they learn to spell new words



    Full Text Available Use of morphologically related words often helps in selecting among spellings of sounds in French. For instance, final /wa/ may be spelled oi (e.g., envoi ‘sendoff’, oit (e.g., exploit ‘exploit’, ois (e.g., siamois, ‘siamese’, or oie (e.g., joie ‘joy’. The morphologically complex word exploiter ‘to exploit’, with a pronounced t, can be used to indicate that the stem exploit is spelled with a silent t. We asked whether 8-year-old children benefited from such cues to learn new spellings. Children read silently stories which included two target nonwords, one presented in an opaque condition and the other in a morphological condition. In the opaque condition, the sentence provided semantic information (e.g., a vensois is a musical instrument but no morphological information that could justify the spelling of the target word’s final sound. Such justification was available in the morphological condition (e.g., the vensoisist plays the vensois instrument, which justifies that vensois includes a final silent s. Thirty minutes after having read the stories, children’s orthographic learning was assessed by asking them to choose the correct spelling of each nonword from among three phonologically plausible alternatives (e.g., vensois, vensoit, vensoie. Children chose correct spellings more often in the morphological condition than the opaque condition, even though the root (vensois had been presented equally often in both conditions. That is, children benefited from information about the spelling of the morphologically complex word to learn the spelling of the stem.

  17. Fault-tolerant gait learning and morphology optimization of a polymorphic walking robot

    Christensen, David Johan; Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Stoy, Kasper


    optimize eight open parameters of a central pattern generator based gait implementation. We observe that the strategy converges in roughly ten minutes to gaits of similar or higher velocity than a manually designed gait and that the strategy readapts in the event of failed actuators. We also optimize......This paper presents experiments with a morphology-independent, life-long strategy for online learning of locomotion gaits. The experimental platform is a quadruped robot assembled from the LocoKit modular robotic construction kit. The learning strategy applies a stochastic optimization algorithm to...... offline the reachable space of a foot based on a reference design but finds that the reality gap hardens the successfully transference to the physical robot. To address this limitation, in future work we plan to study co-learning of morphological and control parameters directly on physical robots....

  18. Comments on Stefka H. Marinova-Todd, D. Bradford Marshall, and Catherine E. Snow's "Three Misconceptions About Age and L2 Learning" [and] Age and L2 Learning: The Hazards of Matching Practical "Implications" with Theoretical "Facts" [and] Missing the Point: A Response to Hyltenstam and Abrahamsson.

    Hyltenstam, Kenneth; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Marshall, D. Bradford; Snow, Catherine E.


    Offers comments on an earlier article on age and second language learning, and questions the authors' of that article's interpretation of the research they reviewed. The authors of the original article respond to these comments and questions. (Author/VWL)

  19. Negative evidence in L2 acquisition

    Anne Dahl


    Full Text Available This article deals with the L2 acquisition of differences between Norwegian and English passives, and presents data to show that the acquisition of these differences by Norwegian L2 acquirers of English cannot be fully explained by positive evidence, cues, conservativism or economy. Rather, it is argued, it is natural to consider whether indirect negative evidence may facilitate acquisition by inferencing. The structures in focus are impersonal passive constructions with postverbal NPs and passive constructions with intransitive verbs. These sentences are ungrammatical in English. Chomsky (1981 proposes that this is a result of passive morphology absorbing objective case in English. There is no such case to be assigned to the postverbal NP in impersonal passives. In passive constructions with intransitive verbs, the verb does not assign objective case, so that there is no case for the passive morphology to absorb. Thus, impersonal passives have to be changed into personal passives, where the NP receives nominative case, and the objective case is free to go to the passive morphology. Intransitive verbs, however, cannot be used in the passive voice at all. Both the structures discussed in this article, i.e. are grammatical in Norwegian. However, the options available in English, viz. personal passives and active sentences, are equally possible. Åfarli (1992 therefore proposes that Norwegian has optional case absorption (passive morphology optionally absorbs case. On the basis on such observations, we may propose a parameter with the settings [+case absorption] for English, and [-case absorption], signifying optional case absorption, for Norwegian. This means that none of the structures that are grammatical in English can function as positive evidence for the [+case absorption] setting, since they are also grammatical in optional case absorption languages. The question is how this parameter is set.

  20. Extreme Networksin L2-tietoturvaominaisuudet

    Piispanen, Juha


    Opinnäytetyö toteutettiin Jyväskylän ammattikorkeakoulun SpiderNet-laboratorioympäristössä. SpiderNet-laboratorio ympäristöä käytetään Jyväskylän ammattikorkeakoulun tietotekniikka-koulutusohjelman opetuksessa, sekä tutkimus- ja kehityshankkeissa. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli toteuttaa SpiderNet-laboratorioympäristöön L2-kytkinympäristö Extreme Networksin laitteilla, jossa testattiin ja todennettiin Extreme Networksin kytkinten tukemia L2-tason tietoturvatekniikoita. Työssä käytössä oli E...

  1. Morphological neural networks for automatic target detection by simulated annealing learning algorithm

    余农; 吴昊; 吴常泳; 李范鸣; 吴立德


    A practical neural network model for morphological filtering and a simulated annealing optimal algorithm for the network parameters training are proposed in this paper. It is pointed out that the optimal designing process of the morphological filtering network in fact is the optimal learning process of adjusting network parameters (structuring element, or SE for short) to accommodate image environment. Then the network structure may possess the characteristics ofimage targets, and so give specific infor- mation to the SE. Morphological filters formed in this way become certainly intelligent and can provide good filtering results and robust adaptability to complex changing image. For application tomotional image target detection, dynamic training algorithm is applied to the designing process using asymptotic shrinking error and appropriate network weights adjusting. Experimental results show that the algorithm has invariant propertywith respect to shift, scale and rotation of moving target in continuing detection of moving targets.

  2. L2 and L3 integrated learning

    Hazel, Spencer; Wagner, Johannes


    This study offers an empirical account of the use of English in Danish-as-a-foreign-language classroom settings. We will refer to English as the lingua franca - which in itself is a second language for the majority of the participants in the data - and to Danish as the target language. We consider...... implications of lingua franca interaction in target language classroom interactions, and show how in sequences where participants orient to linguistic issues in the target language, for example grammatical forms or lexical items, they often do this with reference to the lingua franca....

  3. Combining human and machine learning for morphological analysis of galaxy images

    Kuminski, Evan; Wallin, John; Shamir, Lior


    The increasing importance of digital sky surveys collecting many millions of galaxy images has reinforced the need for robust methods that can perform morphological analysis of large galaxy image databases. Citizen science initiatives such as Galaxy Zoo showed that large datasets of galaxy images can be analyzed effectively by non-scientist volunteers, but since databases generated by robotic telescopes grow much faster than the processing power of any group of citizen scientists, it is clear that computer analysis is required. Here we propose to use citizen science data for training machine learning systems, and show experimental results demonstrating that machine learning systems can be trained with citizen science data. Our findings show that the performance of machine learning depends on the quality of the data, which can be improved by using samples that have a high degree of agreement between the citizen scientists. The source code of the method is publicly available.

  4. Combining Human and Machine Learning for Morphological Analysis of Galaxy Images

    Kuminski, Evan; George, Joe; Wallin, John; Shamir, Lior


    The increasing importance of digital sky surveys collecting many millions of galaxy images has reinforced the need for robust methods that can perform morphological analysis of large galaxy image databases. Citizen science initiatives such as Galaxy Zoo showed that large data sets of galaxy images can be analyzed effectively by nonscientist volunteers, but since databases generated by robotic telescopes grow much faster than the processing power of any group of citizen scientists, it is clear that computer analysis is required. Here, we propose to use citizen science data for training machine learning systems, and show experimental results demonstrating that machine learning systems can be trained with citizen science data. Our findings show that the performance of machine learning depends on the quality of the data, which can be improved by using samples that have a high degree of agreement between the citizen scientists. The source code of the method is publicly available.

  5. Authenticity in oral communication of instructed L2 learners

    Nowicka, Agnieszka; Wilczyńska, Weronika


    The skill of producing oral discourse in L2 is commonly considered to be difficult to foster in instructional setting. However, the main problem appears to be ensuring an authenticity of speaking both in personal, internal sense and in the social, socio-linguistic dimension. The main claim of here-discussed person centered approach is that both of these dimensions, although distinct, do not need to be treated in L2 learning as systematically separate and incompatible ones. On the contrary,...

  6. Task Complexity and L2 Narrative Oral Production

    Gilabert Guerrero, Roger


    This study explores the impact of manipulating Task Complexity simultaneously along both pre-task planning time and the degree of displaced, past time reference on L2 narrative oral production. By drawing on consolidated psycholinguistic models of language production, the study first explores the similarities and differences between L1 and L2 oral production and examines how language processing for comprehension, production, and learning are mediated by the cognitive processes of attention an...

  7. Distinct morphological processing of recently learned compound words: An ERP study.

    Kaczer, Laura; Timmer, Kalinka; Bavassi, Luz; Schiller, Niels O


    Our vocabulary is, at least in principle, infinite. We can create new words combining existing ones in meaningful ways to form new linguistic expressions. The present study investigated the morphological processing of novel compound words in overt speech production. Native speakers of Dutch learned a series of new compounds (e.g. appelgezicht, 'apple-face') that were later used as primes in a morphological priming task. In this protocol, primes were compound words morphologically related to a target's picture name (e.g. appelgezicht was used for a picture of an apple, Dutch appel). The novel primes were compared with corresponding familiar compounds sharing a free morpheme (e.g. appelmoes, 'applesauce') and with unrelated compounds. Participants were required to read aloud words and to name pictures in a long-lag design. Behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) data were collected in two sessions, separated by 48h. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological related words. Notably, our results show that novel compounds have a stronger priming effect than familiar compounds in both sessions, which is expressed in a marked reduction in target naming latencies and a decrease in the N400 amplitude. These results suggest that participants focused more on the separate constituents when reading novel primes than in the case of existing compounds. PMID:26505918

  8. CALL--Enhanced L2 Listening Skills--Aiming for Automatization in a Multimedia Environment

    Mayor, Maria Jesus Blasco


    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening…

  9. A morphological perceptron with gradient-based learning for Brazilian stock market forecasting.

    Araújo, Ricardo de A


    Several linear and non-linear techniques have been proposed to solve the stock market forecasting problem. However, a limitation arises from all these techniques and is known as the random walk dilemma (RWD). In this scenario, forecasts generated by arbitrary models have a characteristic one step ahead delay with respect to the time series values, so that, there is a time phase distortion in stock market phenomena reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a suitable model inspired by concepts in mathematical morphology (MM) and lattice theory (LT). This model is generically called the increasing morphological perceptron (IMP). Also, we present a gradient steepest descent method to design the proposed IMP based on ideas from the back-propagation (BP) algorithm and using a systematic approach to overcome the problem of non-differentiability of morphological operations. Into the learning process we have included a procedure to overcome the RWD, which is an automatic correction step that is geared toward eliminating time phase distortions that occur in stock market phenomena. Furthermore, an experimental analysis is conducted with the IMP using four complex non-linear problems of time series forecasting from the Brazilian stock market. Additionally, two natural phenomena time series are used to assess forecasting performance of the proposed IMP with other non financial time series. At the end, the obtained results are discussed and compared to results found using models recently proposed in the literature. PMID:22391234

  10. Teaching L2 Spanish Stress

    Saalfeld, Anita K.


    The present study investigated the effects of training on the perception of Spanish stress, an important feature in the Spanish verbal morphology system. Participants were two intact classes of native English speakers enrolled in a six-week session of second-semester Spanish, as well as native English and native Spanish control groups. During the…

  11. Translation and Short-Term L2 Vocabulary Retention: Hindrance or Help?

    Hummel, Kirsten M.


    This study addresses the role that active translation may have in second language (L2) vocabulary learning. Some research suggests that translation might be an effective cognitive strategy for L2 vocabulary learning. Participants were 191 native French-speaking students enrolled in a TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) program.The study…

  12. Instructors' Attitudes towards CALL and MALL in L2 Classrooms

    Pagel, James W.; Lambacher, Stephen; Reedy, David W.


    As part of an ongoing study on learners' and instructors' attitudes toward the use of computers and mobile devices in second-language (L2) learning situations, our purpose here is to identify how language instructors value the use of computers and mobile devices in their teaching. We compare the responses of a survey administered during the past…

  13. The L1=L2 Hypotheses: A Reconsideration

    Ellis, Rod


    Discusses the L1=L2 hypothesis which states that, all other things except knowledge of language being equal, first language acquisition is the same as second language acquisition. Reviews the evidence for and against the hypothesis, looks at current research and considers the general distinction between formal and informal learning. (SED)

  14. Learner Negotiation of L2 Form in Transcription Exercises

    Mennim, Paul


    Negotiation of language form is thought to engage learning processes by helping learners to notice gaps in their developing L2 and find target-like ways of filling them. Self-transcription, where learners work together to find language errors in recordings of their own oral output, is an awareness raising exercise that encourages such negotiation.…

  15. Selective Listening in L2 Learners of French

    Graham, Suzanne; Santos, Denise


    This paper considers the issue raised in 2008 by Gillian Brown in her article "Selective listening" regarding whether nouns are "privileged" in memory over verbs during listening tasks, and whether attention to nouns, at least in the early stages of L2 learning, is a desirable strategy to be taught to learners, as Brown suggests it might be. The…

  16. L(2)-cohomology of arithmetic varieties.

    Saper, L; Stern, M


    The L(2)-cohomology of arithmetic quotients of bounded symmetric domains is studied. We establish the conjecture of Zucker equating the L(2)-cohomology of these spaces to the intersection cohomology of their Baily-Borel compactifications. PMID:16593866

  17. L2-cohomology of arithmetic varieties

    Saper, Leslie; Stern, Mark


    The L2-cohomology of arithmetic quotients of bounded symmetric domains is studied. We establish the conjecture of Zucker equating the L2-cohomology of these spaces to the intersection cohomology of their Baily-Borel compactifications. PMID:16593866

  18. The Analysis of L2 Learners'Fossilization in Interlanguage



    The author designed a questionnaire,emailed and interviewed thirty advanced L2 learners who work as L2 lecturers in a university to get a survey on the processing of fossilization in their foreign language learning and teaching from the causes of purpose of learning.teaching tasks and other factors involved.AU of the subjects thought that their coinlnand of the target language was not as good as a native speaker's of target language in many aspects.That is.there existed fossilization among them.However,most of them agreed that their command of the target language was adequate for their professional and communication needs.Results also suggest that fossilization Can be conscious to this group of L2 learners;it is deeply related with the L2 learners'motivations;it can be affected by personal famres such as ages,learning styles and teaching tasks;it is changeable and unpredictable;and jt is diffcult to eradicate.

  19. ASC Trilab L2 Codesign Milestone 2015

    Trott, Christian Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hammond, Simon David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dinge, Dennis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lin, Paul T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vaughan, Courtenay T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cook, Jeanine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Edwards, Harold C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rajan, Mahesh [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoekstra, Robert J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    For the FY15 ASC L2 Trilab Codesign milestone Sandia National Laboratories performed two main studies. The first study investigated three topics (performance, cross-platform portability and programmer productivity) when using OpenMP directives and the RAJA and Kokkos programming models available from LLNL and SNL respectively. The focus of this first study was the LULESH mini-application developed and maintained by LLNL. In the coming sections of the report the reader will find performance comparisons (and a demonstration of portability) for a variety of mini-application implementations produced during this study with varying levels of optimization. Of note is that the implementations utilized including optimizations across a number of programming models to help ensure claims that Kokkos can provide native-class application performance are valid. The second study performed during FY15 is a performance assessment of the MiniAero mini-application developed by Sandia. This mini-application was developed by the SIERRA Thermal-Fluid team at Sandia for the purposes of learning the Kokkos programming model and so is available in only a single implementation. For this report we studied its performance and scaling on a number of machines with the intent of providing insight into potential performance issues that may be experienced when similar algorithms are deployed on the forthcoming Trinity ASC ATS platform.

  20. CALL-enhanced L2 listening skills – aiming for automatization in a multimedia environment

    Blasco Mayor, María Jesús


    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening comprehension research, as they are the foundations of our methodological proposal. It also establishes a set of criteria for the design and pedagogical ex...

  1. The Application of Bottom-up and Top-down Processing in L2 Listening Comprehension



    Listening comprehension is one of the four basic skills for language learning and is also one of the most difficult tasks L2 learners ever experienced.L2 listening comprehemion is a cognitvive process,in which listeners use both bottom-up andtop-downprocessing to comprehend the auraltext.Thepaper focmes on the applicationof the two approaches in L2 lis-tening comprehemiom

  2. The UG Paradox in L2 Acquisition.

    Clahsen, Harald; Muysken, Pieter


    Suggests that differences between first- and second-language learners are due to principles of universal grammar (UG) that guide first language (L1), but not second language (L2) acquisition. This view can be reconciled with the idea that L2 learners can use UG principles to some extent in evaluating target sentences. (49 references) (Author/VWL)

  3. Phantom Word Activation in L2

    Broersma, Mirjam; Cutler, Anne


    L2 listening can involve the phantom activation of words which are not actually in the input. All spoken-word recognition involves multiple concurrent activation of word candidates, with selection of the correct words achieved by a process of competition between them. L2 listening involves more such activation than L1 listening, and we report two…

  4. Defining and Operationalising L2 Complexity

    Bulte, Bram; Housen, Alex


    This chapter takes a critical look at complexity in L2 research. We demonstrate several problems in the L2 literature in terms of how complexity has been defined and operationalised as a construct. In the first part of the chapter we try to unravel its highly complex, multidimensional nature by presenting a taxonomic model that identifies major…

  5. L2 English Intonation: Relations between Form-Meaning Associations, Access to Meaning, and L1 Transfer

    Ortega-Llebaria, Marta; Colantoni, Laura


    Although there is consistent evidence that higher levels of processing, such as learning the form-meaning associations specific to the second language (L2), are a source of difficulty in acquiring L2 speech, no study has addressed how these levels interact in shaping L2 perception and production of intonation. We examine the hypothesis of whether…

  6. The Ethnic Group Affiliation and L2 Proficiency Link: Empirical Evidence

    Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Trofimovich, Pavel


    With economic globalisation making second language (L2) learning inevitable throughout the world, understanding what factors facilitate success is a socioeconomic necessity. This paper examined the role of social factors, those related to ethnic group affiliation (EGA), in the development of L2 proficiency. Although numerous studies have…

  7. Isolated and Integrated Form-Focused Instruction: Effects on Different Types of L2 Knowledge

    Spada, Nina; Jessop, Lorena; Tomita, Yasuyo; Suzuki, Wataru; Valeo, Antonella


    In this study we compared the effects of two types of form-focused instruction (FFI) on second language (L2) learning and their potential contributions to the development of different types of L2 knowledge. Both types of instruction were pre-emptive in nature, that is planned and teacher generated. In Integrated FFI attention to form was embedded…

  8. College Students' Possible L2 Self Development in an EFL Context during the Transition Year

    Zhan, Ying; Wan, Zhi Hong


    In the field of second language learning motivation, the studies on process-oriented nature of possible L2 selves are scarce. In order to address this research gap, this study explored how a group of five Chinese non-English-major undergraduates developed their possible L2 selves during the transition year from high school to university. The…

  9. L2-Proficiency-Dependent Laterality Shift in Structural Connectivity of Brain Language Pathways.

    Xiang, Huadong; van Leeuwen, Tessa Marije; Dediu, Dan; Roberts, Leah; Norris, David G; Hagoort, Peter


    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and a longitudinal language learning approach were applied to investigate the relationship between the achieved second language (L2) proficiency during L2 learning and the reorganization of structural connectivity between core language areas. Language proficiency tests and DTI scans were obtained from German students before and after they completed an intensive 6-week course of the Dutch language. In the initial learning stage, with increasing L2 proficiency, the hemispheric dominance of the Brodmann area (BA) 6-temporal pathway (mainly along the arcuate fasciculus) shifted from the left to the right hemisphere. With further increased proficiency, however, lateralization dominance was again found in the left BA6-temporal pathway. This result is consistent with reports in the literature that imply a stronger involvement of the right hemisphere in L2 processing especially for less proficient L2 speakers. This is the first time that an L2 proficiency-dependent laterality shift in the structural connectivity of language pathways during L2 acquisition has been observed to shift from left to right and back to left hemisphere dominance with increasing L2 proficiency. The authors additionally find that changes in fractional anisotropy values after the course are related to the time elapsed between the two scans. The results suggest that structural connectivity in (at least part of) the perisylvian language network may be subject to fast dynamic changes following language learning. PMID:25594261

  10. The production and processing of determiner-noun agreement in child L2 Dutch

    E. Blom; N. Vasić


    Recent research has shown that children who learn Dutch as their second language (L2) have difficulties with Dutch grammatical gender. This study shows that six to nine year old L2 Dutch children whose first language (L1) is Turkish noticed incorrect gender agreement between determiner and noun only

  11. A Review of Multimedia Glosses and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in CALL Literature

    Mohsen, Mohammed Ali; Balakumar, M.


    This article reviews the literature of multimedia glosses in computer assisted language learning (CALL) and their effects on L2 vocabulary acquisition during the past seventeen years. Several studies have touched on this area to examine the potential of multimedia in a CALL environment in aiding L2 vocabulary acquisition. In this review, the…

  12. A Key Factor Affecting L2 (English) Vocabulary Acquisition:L2 (English) Proficiency



    There are some certain factors affecting L2 ( English) vocabulary acquisition such as L2 ( English) proficiency, readers’ purpose and the habit of reading, and the difficulty of target words and context, among which the first plays a key role. The paper, through a review of the relevant experimental researches, reaches a conclusion that L2 ( English) proficiency does influence much upon L2 vocabulary acquisition.

  13. Using Eye-Tracking to Investigate Topics in L2 Acquisition and L2 Processing

    Roberts, Leah; Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna


    Second language (L2) researchers are becoming more interested in both L2 learners' knowledge of the target language and how that knowledge is put to use during real-time language processing. Researchers are therefore beginning to see the importance of combining traditional L2 research methods with those that capture the moment-by-moment…

  14. L^2-homology for compact quantum groups

    Kyed, David


    A notion of L^2-homology for compact quantum groups is introduced, generalizing the classical notion for countable, discrete groups. If the compact quantum group in question has tracial Haar state, it is possible to define its L^2-Betti numbers and Novikov-Shubin invariants/capacities. It is proved that these L^2-Betti numbers vanish for the Gelfand dual of a compact Lie group and that the zeroth Novikov-Shubin invariant equals the dimension of the underlying Lie group. Finally, we relate our...

  15. L(2) Cohomology of the Bergman metric.

    Donnelly, H; Fefferman, C


    The L(2) cohomology of the Bergman metric is infinite dimensional in the middle degree and vanishes for all other degrees. Asymptotic expansions are given for the Schwartz kernels of the corresponding projections onto harmonic forms. PMID:16593319

  16. L2 Cohomology of the Bergman metric

    Donnelly, Harold; Fefferman, Charles


    The L2 cohomology of the Bergman metric is infinite dimensional in the middle degree and vanishes for all other degrees. Asymptotic expansions are given for the Schwartz kernels of the corresponding projections onto harmonic forms. PMID:16593319

  17. Transfer of L1 Visual Word Recognition Strategies during Early Stages of L2 Learning: Evidence from Hebrew Learners Whose First Language Is Either Semitic or Indo-European

    Norman, Tal; Degani, Tamar; Peleg, Orna


    The present study examined visual word recognition processes in Hebrew (a Semitic language) among beginning learners whose first language (L1) was either Semitic (Arabic) or Indo-European (e.g. English). To examine if learners, like native Hebrew speakers, exhibit morphological sensitivity to root and word-pattern morphemes, learners made an…

  18. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies



    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed.Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  19. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies



    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed .Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  20. Learning to Read Chinese: The Relative Roles of Phonological Awareness and Morphological Awareness

    Chan, Yi-Chih


    Phonological awareness and morphological awareness have been shown to affect Chinese children's reading development. Previous studies conducted in Hong Kong, which required children to read two-character words only or a mixture of single-character and two-character words in a Chinese reading test, exclusively found that morphological awareness was…

  1. Digital Game-Based Learning (DGBL) in the L2 Classroom: The Impact of the UN's Off-the-Shelf Videogame, Food Force, on Learner Affect and Vocabulary Retention

    Hitosugi, Claire Ikumi; Schmidt, Matthew; Hayashi, Kentaro


    This mixed-method study explored the impact of "Food Force (FF)", a UN-sponsored off-the-shelf videogame, on learner affect and vocabulary learning and retention in a Japanese as a second/foreign language classroom. The videogame was integrated into an existing curriculum and two studies were performed. In Study 1 (n = 9), new vocabulary…

  2. Personalized versus Normal Practice of L2 Speaking on Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Proficiency

    Ayda Rahmani


    Full Text Available Personalized learning is a self-initiated, self-directed or self-prioritized pursuit which gives the learner a degree of choice about the process of learning i.e. what to learn, how to learn and when to learn. Of course personalized learning does not indicate unlimited choice; because, L2 learners will still have targets to be met. However, it provides learners with the opportunity to learn in ways that suit their individual learning styles. The L2 learner should have the opportunity to freely choose a series of activities, already predisposed by the teacher, to improve and develop L2 proficiency. This is because human beings have different ways to learn and process information; and, these different ways of learning are independent of each other. In other words, learning styles and techniques differ across individuals; thus, personalized learning provides L2 learners to freely choose the activities they enjoy the most. So it is a student-centered learning method in which the interests and the preferences of the learner is taken into account.The present study is an investigation of a personalized versus normal practice of L2 proficiency. For this purpose an OPT (Oxford Placement Test was given to a total of 80 Iranian EFL learners. Then, 40 of them who were considered as intermediate learners were selected for the purpose of the study. The participants were randomly divided into two groups i.e. an experimental group and a control group. Both groups were pretested prior to the study. Then, the experimental group received the treatment in the form of personalized learning (games-based learning, songs, music, stories, English tongue twisters and the materials that the subjects were most interested in for ten sessions while the control group received a normal practice of speaking proficiency (based on New Interchange course books. After ten sessions, both groups were post tested. Then the results of the posttests were subjects of statistical analysis

  3. The L2-cohomology of Discrete Groups

    Schreve, Kevin

    Given a space with a proper, cocompact group action, the L2-cohomology groups are a particularly interesting invariant that incorporates the topology of the space and the geometry of the group action. We are interested in both the algebraic and geometric aspects of these invariants. From the algebraic side, the Strong Atiyah Conjecture claims that the L2-Betti numbers assume only rational values, with certain prescribed denominators related to the torsion subgroups of the group. We prove this conjecture for the class of virtually cocompact special groups. This implies the Zero Divisor Conjecture holds for such groups. On the geometric side, the Action Dimension Conjecture claims that a group with that acts properly on a contractible n-manifold has vanishing L2-Betti numbers above the middle dimension. We will prove this conjecture for many classes of right-angled Artin groups and Coxeter groups.

  4. L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria: A case report

    Jović Nebojša J.


    Full Text Available Introduction. L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA is an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disease with a slowly progressive course and characterized by increased levels of hydroxyglutaric acid in urine, cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. In this condition clinical features mainly consist of mental deterioration, ataxia and motor deficits. Case Outline. The patient is a 16-year-old girl, the first and only child of healthy, non-consanguineous parents of Serbian origin. At the age of 4 years her walk became unsteady and ataxic. Other signs of cerebellar involvement were soon observed. Head circumference was above two standard deviations (55 cm. Mild mental retardation was revealed by formal intelligence testing (IQ 60. MR examination of the brain showed confluent subcortical white matter lesions spread centripetally, and atrophy of the cerebellar vermis with involvement of dentate nuclei, without deep white matter abnormalities. Laboratory investigation revealed increased amounts and a very large peak of HGA in urine and plasma. Enantiomeric analysis confirmed the L-configuration (>90% establishing the diagnosis of L-2-HGA. The first epileptic seizure, partial with secondary generalization, occurred at age of 8 years. Favorable seizure control was achieved. A slow progression of neurological impairment was noted. Therapeutic trials with oral coenzyme Q10 and with oral riboflavin showed no biochemical and clinical effects. Recently, the diagnosis was proven by the presence of a mutation in the L-2-HGA gene. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report of L-2-HGA in Serbia. L-2-HGA must be considered in the differential diagnosis based on specific findings in cranial MRI.

  5. A new approach to the learning of dental morphology, function, and esthetics: the "2D-3D-4D" concept.

    Magne, Pascal


    A concept is proposed for an approach to the learning of dental morphology and occlusion. Dental morphology, function, and esthetics should reflect a fundamental driving force, that is, the faithful emulation of the natural dentition's structural (functional, mechanical) and esthetic properties. The innovative part of the proposed approach is the emphasis on visual arts and the 2D-3D-4D aspect that starts with drawing (2D/3D) and continues with partial wax-up exercises that are followed by labial waxups and, finally, full wax-ups using innovative technical aids (electric waxers, prefabricated wax patterns, etc). Finally, the concept of layers (4D) and the histoanatomy of enamel/dentin and optical depth are taught through the realization of layering exercises (advanced acrylic mock-ups and composite resin restorations). All these techniques and materials are not only used to teach morphology and occlusion, but also constitute essential tools that will be of significant use for the student dentists and dental technologists in their future daily practice. The clinical significance of the presented methodology should allow not only students but also practicing dentists and dental technologists to help their youngest collaborators to develop a deep sense of morphology, function, and esthetics. PMID:25625126

  6. The Bounded L2 Curvature Conjecture

    Klainerman, Sergiu; Rodnianski, Igor; Szeftel, Jeremie


    This is the main paper in a sequence in which we give a complete proof of the bounded $L^2$ curvature conjecture. More precisely we show that the time of existence of a classical solution to the Einstein-vacuum equations depends only on the $L^2$-norm of the curvature and a lower bound on the volume radius of the corresponding initial data set. We note that though the result is not optimal with respect to the standard scaling of the Einstein equations, it is nevertheless critical with respect...

  7. Exponential spectra in $L^2(\\mu)$

    He, Xing-Gang; Lau, Ka-Sing


    Let $\\mu$ be a Borel probability measure with compact support. We consider exponential type orthonormal bases, Riesz bases and frames in $L^2(\\mu)$. We show that if $L^2(\\mu)$ admits an exponential frame, then $\\mu$ must be of pure type. We also classify various $\\mu$ that admits either kind of exponential bases, in particular, the discrete measures and their connection with integer tiles. By using this and convolution, we construct a class of singularly continuous measures that has an exponential Riesz basis but no exponential orthonormal basis. It is the first of such kind of examples.

  8. Literary Language in Development of L2 Competence

    Dan Lu


    Full Text Available Nowadays it is believed that language in daily communication rather than literary language should be the target of learning in L2 education. This is mainly because literary language is said to be uncommon in life. This paper reports on a study in which some Hong Kong ESL learners’ English proficiency was re-examined through literary texts. These learners had reached intermediate or advanced levels of English prior to the study and were generally competent in daily English. However, many of them encountered difficulty in understanding literary language. Their proficiency in general English test could not match their performances in understanding literary works. The findings reveal that learners who are strong in general proficiency may not be good in understanding literary language. Lack of literary language in the curriculum results in a false and distorted picture about the learners’ proficiency. Literary language helps upgrade L2 learners’ real proficiency in the target language.Keywords: literature, literary language, L2 proficiency, reading competence


    Filippo Zanoli


    Full Text Available Mai come oggi le classi (di Italiano L2, ma non solo sono così fortemente colonizzate dal digitale. L’invasione si è palesata sotto forma di telefonini cellulari (smartphone e tablet dotati di connessione internet e infinite potenzialità sotto forma di applicazioni che possono sia aiutare il discente sia, se male impiegati, ostacolarlo dall’intraprendere un proficuo percorso di apprendimento. Compito dell’insegnante di lingua è circoscrivere l’influenza e l’uso di tali strumenti – che non sono mero techné, ma un modo di funzionare di una generazione – non  per vietarli ma per proporre un approccio e un loro utilizzo costruttivo quali mezzi dalle grandi potenzialità nell’apprendimento di una lingua straniera.     The 1st class – Smartphones and Italian L2/FL   Classrooms (for Italian L2, but not only have never before been so strongly digitally oriented. This invasion is made tangible by smartphones and tablets equipped with internet connections and infinite potential thanks to applications which can help students in their studies, or hinder them if used incorrectly. The language teacher’s task is to circumscribe the influence and use of these tools– which are not mere techné, but the way an entire generation functions – not to prohibit using them but to propose using them constructively, thanks to their great potential for foreign language learning.

  10. L2 Chinese: Grammatical Development and Processing

    Mai, Ziyin


    Two recent books (Jiang, 2014, "Advances in Chinese as a second language"; Wang, 2013, "Grammatical development of Chinese among non-native speakers") provide new resources for exploring the role of processing in acquiring Chinese as a second language (L2). This review article summarizes, assesses and compares some of the…


    Arun Behera


    Full Text Available Learning a language is always a difficult thing and more so when it comes to learning a second language (L2 for it reflects the complexity of learning a language which is the other tongue rather than the mother tongue of a person. The present paper proposes to focus on the prospects and benefits of the skill-based learning of the L2. All learners, as such pick up a language by two means: a acquisition of one's own language/mother tongue, and b learning another language. Acquisition is a subconscious and intuitive process, similar to that used by a child to pick up the first language (L1; and the second is conscious learning, in which a learner is aware of his/her own learning process.

  12. Processing Focus Structure in L1 and L2 French: L2 Proficiency Effects on ERPs

    Reichle, Robert V.; Birdsong, David


    This study examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by focus processing among first language (L1) speakers and second language (L2) learners of French. Participants read wh-questions containing explicit focus marking, followed by responses instantiating contrastive and informational focus. We hypothesized that L2 proficiency would…

  13. Using Multimedia Vocabulary Annotations in L2 Reading and Listening Activities

    Jing Xu


    This paper reviews the role of multimedia vocabulary annotation (MVA) in facilitating second language (L2) reading and listening activities. It examines the multimedia learning and multimedia language learning theories that underlie the MVA research, synthesizes the findings on MVA in the last decade, and identifies three underresearched areas on…

  14. Fast Single Image Super-Resolution Using a New Analytical Solution for l2 - l2 Problems.

    Zhao, Ningning; Wei, Qi; Basarab, Adrian; Dobigeon, Nicolas; Kouame, Denis; Tourneret, Jean-Yves


    This paper addresses the problem of single image super-resolution (SR), which consists of recovering a high-resolution image from its blurred, decimated, and noisy version. The existing algorithms for single image SR use different strategies to handle the decimation and blurring operators. In addition to the traditional first-order gradient methods, recent techniques investigate splitting-based methods dividing the SR problem into up-sampling and deconvolution steps that can be easily solved. Instead of following this splitting strategy, we propose to deal with the decimation and blurring operators simultaneously by taking advantage of their particular properties in the frequency domain, leading to a new fast SR approach. Specifically, an analytical solution is derived and implemented efficiently for the Gaussian prior or any other regularization that can be formulated into an l2 -regularized quadratic model, i.e., an l2 - l2 optimization problem. The flexibility of the proposed SR scheme is shown through the use of various priors/regularizations, ranging from generic image priors to learning-based approaches. In the case of non-Gaussian priors, we show how the analytical solution derived from the Gaussian case can be embedded into traditional splitting frameworks, allowing the computation cost of existing algorithms to be decreased significantly. Simulation results conducted on several images with different priors illustrate the effectiveness of our fast SR approach compared with existing techniques. PMID:27187960

  15. Learning Novel Morphology: The Role of Meaning and Orientation of Attention at Initial Exposure

    Marsden, Emma; Williams, John; Liu, Xierong


    A large body of research has shown that suffixes--both inflectional and derivational--can be primed with adult native speakers, which informs our understanding of storage and access to morphology in mature systems. However, this line of research has not yet been conducted from an acquisition perspective: Little is known about whether or not…

  16. Acquiring L2 sentence comprehension: A longitudinal study of word monitoring in noise

    Oliver, Georgina; Gullberg, Marianne; Hellwig, Frauke; Mitterer, Holger; Indefrey, Peter


    This study investigated the development of second language online auditory processing with ab initio German learners of Dutch. We assessed the influence of different levels of background noise and different levels of semantic and syntactic target word predictability on word-monitoring latencies. There was evidence of syntactic, but not lexical-semantic, transfer from the L1 to the L2 from the onset of L2 learning. An initial stronger adverse effect of noise on syntactic compared to phonologic...

  17. Development and implementation of a novel assay for L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L-2-HGDH) in cell lysates: L-2-HGDH deficiency in 15 patients with L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria

    Kranendijk, M; Salomons, G S; Gibson, K M;


    L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase. An assay to evaluate L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (L-2-HGDH) activity in fibroblast, lymphoblast and/or lymphoc...... relationship between molecular and biochemical observations. Residual activity was detected in cells derived from one L-2-HGA patient. The L-2-HGDH assay will be valuable for examining in vitro riboflavin/FAD therapy to rescue L-2-HGDH activity....

  18. Deadbeat Response is l_2 Optimal

    Kučera, Vladimír

    New York: IEEE, 2008, s. 154-157 ISBN 978-1-4244-1687-5; ISBN 978-1-4244-1688-2. [The 3rd International Symposium on Communications, Control and Signal Processing. St. Julians (ML), 12.03.2008-14.03.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear systems * finite impulse response * L_2 norm minimization Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  19. Assessing Pragmatic Competence Of L2 Learners

    Kusevska, Marija; Ulanska, Tatjana; Ivanovska, Biljana; Daskalovska, Nina; Mitkovska, Liljana


    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the components of pragmatic competence for L2 learners. Developing pragmatic competence in a second/foreign language has been addressed in many articles and publications on cross-cultural and interlanguage pragmatics (Bardovi-Harlig, 1999; Barron, 2003; Blum-Kulka, House, & Kasper, 1989; Cohen & Ishihara, 2005; Ishihara & Cohen, 2010; Kasper & Blum-Kulka, 1993; McConachy & Hata, 2013; Trosborg, 2010; Wigglesworth & Y...

  20. Difficulties in Portuguese Verbal Morphology Learning by Spanish Speakers: Present Indicative Tense

    Rocío Alonso Rey


    Full Text Available In Portuguese for Spanish Speakers the negative L1 influence is seen as the main problem in language learning. This influence is reflected by several production errors formally related to L1.This paper presents the results of an error analysis of the inflected forms of present indicative tense produced by beginning level learners in a transformation activity. The analysis shows that quantification may vary depending on the transfer identification judgment used and the importance of intralinguistic phenomena in the learning process and use.

  1. Freud, Plato and Irigaray: A Morpho-Logic of Teaching and Learning

    Peers, Chris


    This article discusses two well-known texts that respectively describe learning and teaching, drawn from the work of Freud and Plato. These texts are considered in psychoanalytic terms using a methodology drawn from the philosophy of Luce Irigaray. In particular the article addresses Irigaray's approach to the analysis of speech and utterance as a…




    Based on research carried out on four pilot classes,this paper makes surveys how intercultural factors can lead to fossilization in second language learning and foreign language (L2/FL) learning process, so as to highlight the magnificent value of deep-structure cultural transfer in L2/FL teaching and learning procedure. Furthermore. the paper goes deeper into the significance of rhythmic and contrastive cultural input in L2/FL class via analysis on results of sampled items. The paper reaches a conclusion that contrastive deep-structure cultural transfer is basically “I+I” approach in cultural instruction in nature, but the point is how it goes is in accordance with human knowledge/skill acquisition principle.

  3. L2 Learners’ Proficiency Development through Noticing Feedback

    Seyed Saber Alavi


    Full Text Available This experimental study investigated the relationship between noticing of corrective feedback and L2 development considering the learners’ perspective on error correction. Specifically, it aimed to uncover the noticeability and effectiveness of recasts, prompts, a combination of the two, to determine a relationship between noticing of CF and learning of the past tense. The participants were four groups of college ESL learners (n = 40. Each group was assigned to a treatment condition, but the researcher taught the control group. CF was provided to learners in response to their mistakes in forming the past tense. While noticing of CF was assessed through immediate recall and questionnaire responses, learning outcomes were measured through picture description administered via pre-test, post-test, and delayed post-test design. Learner beliefs about CF were probed by means of a 40-item questionnaire. The results indicated that the noticeability of CF is dependent on the grammatical target it addresses and that the feedback techniques that push learners to self-correct alone or in combination with target exemplars are more effective in. In relation to the learning outcomes, the overall past tense accuracy increased more than that for questions, but there were no significant differences between the groups. Finally, in relation to the beliefs about CF, the participants’ responses centered on the importance of oral CF, recasts as CF technique, prompts as CF technique, and affective consequences of CF, two of which mediated the noticeability of the supplied CF, but none impacted the learning outcomes.

  4. The Definition and Measurement of L2 Explicit Knowledge

    Ellis, Rod


    A number of theories of second language L2 acquisition acknowledge a role for explicit L2 knowledge. However, the testing of these theories remains problematic because of the lack of a widely accepted means for measuring L2 explicit knowledge. This article seeks to address this lacuna by examining L2 explicit knowledge from two perspectives.…

  5. Are Alphabetic Language-Derived Models of L2 Reading Relevant to L1 Logographic Background Readers?

    Ehrich, John Fitzgerald; Zhang, Lawrence Jun; Mu, Jon Congjun; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine


    In this paper, we argue that second language (L2) reading research, which has been informed by studies involving first language (L1) alphabetic English reading, may be less relevant to L2 readers with non-alphabetic reading backgrounds, such as Chinese readers with an L1 logographic (Chinese character) learning history. We provide both…

  6. Dynamic Assessment of Elicited Imitation: A Case Analysis of an Advanced L2 English Speaker

    van Compernolle, Rémi A.; Zhang, Haomin


    The focus of this paper is on the design, administration, and scoring of a dynamically administered elicited imitation test of L2 English morphology. Drawing on Vygotskian sociocultural psychology, particularly the concepts of zone of proximal development and dynamic assessment, we argue that support provided during the elicited imitation test…

  7. KNET: A General Framework for Learning Word Embedding using Morphological Knowledge

    Cui, Qing; Gao, Bin; Bian, Jiang; Qiu, Siyu; Liu, Tie-Yan


    Neural network techniques are widely applied to obtain high-quality distributed representations of words, i.e., word embeddings, to address text mining, information retrieval, and natural language processing tasks. Recently, efficient methods have been proposed to learn word embeddings from context that captures both semantic and syntactic relationships between words. However, it is challenging to handle unseen words or rare words with insufficient context. In this paper, inspired by the stud...

  8. A catalog of visual-like morphologies in the 5 CANDELS fields using deep-learning

    Huertas-Company, M; Cabrera-Vives, G; Pérez-González, P G; Kartaltepe, J S; Barro, G; Bernardi, M; Mei, S; Shankar, F; Dimauro, P; Bell, E F; Kocevski, D; Koo, D C; Faber, S M; Mcintosh, D H


    We present a catalog of visual like H-band morphologies of $\\sim50.000$ galaxies ($H_{f160w}\\sim1.25$. The algorithm is trained on GOODS-S for which visual classifications are publicly available and then applied to the other 4 fields. Following the CANDELS main morphology classification scheme, our model retrieves the probabilities for each galaxy of having a spheroid, a disk, presenting an irregularity, being compact or point source and being unclassifiable. ConvNets are able to predict the fractions of votes given a galaxy image with zero bias and $\\sim10\\%$ scatter. The fraction of miss-classifications is less than $1\\%$. Our classification scheme represents a major improvement with respect to CAS (Concentration-Asymmetry-Smoothness)-based methods, which hit a $20-30\\%$ contamination limit at high z. The catalog is released with the present paper via the $\\href{}{Rainbow\\,database}$

  9. Automatic approach to solve the morphological galaxy classification problem using the sparse representation technique and dictionary learning

    Diaz-Hernandez, R.; Ortiz-Esquivel, A.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Altamirano-Robles, L.; Gonzalez-Bernal, J.


    The observation of celestial objects in the sky is a practice that helps astronomers to understand the way in which the Universe is structured. However, due to the large number of observed objects with modern telescopes, the analysis of these by hand is a difficult task. An important part in galaxy research is the morphological structure classification based on the Hubble sequence. In this research, we present an approach to solve the morphological galaxy classification problem in an automatic way by using the Sparse Representation technique and dictionary learning with K-SVD. For the tests in this work, we use a database of galaxies extracted from the Principal Galaxy Catalog (PGC) and the APM Equatorial Catalogue of Galaxies obtaining a total of 2403 useful galaxies. In order to represent each galaxy frame, we propose to calculate a set of 20 features such as Hu's invariant moments, galaxy nucleus eccentricity, gabor galaxy ratio and some other features commonly used in galaxy classification. A stage of feature relevance analysis was performed using Relief-f in order to determine which are the best parameters for the classification tests using 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 galaxy classes making signal vectors of different length values with the most important features. For the classification task, we use a 20-random cross-validation technique to evaluate classification accuracy with all signal sets achieving a score of 82.27 % for 2 galaxy classes and up to 44.27 % for 7 galaxy classes.

  10. Automatic approach to solve the morphological galaxy classification problem using the sparse representation technique and dictionary learning

    Diaz-Hernandez, R.; Ortiz-Esquivel, A.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Altamirano-Robles, L.; Gonzalez-Bernal, J.


    The observation of celestial objects in the sky is a practice that helps astronomers to understand the way in which the Universe is structured. However, due to the large number of observed objects with modern telescopes, the analysis of these by hand is a difficult task. An important part in galaxy research is the morphological structure classification based on the Hubble sequence. In this research, we present an approach to solve the morphological galaxy classification problem in an automatic way by using the Sparse Representation technique and dictionary learning with K-SVD. For the tests in this work, we use a database of galaxies extracted from the Principal Galaxy Catalog (PGC) and the APM Equatorial Catalogue of Galaxies obtaining a total of 2403 useful galaxies. In order to represent each galaxy frame, we propose to calculate a set of 20 features such as Hu's invariant moments, galaxy nucleus eccentricity, gabor galaxy ratio and some other features commonly used in galaxy classification. A stage of feature relevance analysis was performed using Relief-f in order to determine which are the best parameters for the classification tests using 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 galaxy classes making signal vectors of different length values with the most important features. For the classification task, we use a 20-random cross-validation technique to evaluate classification accuracy with all signal sets achieving a score of 82.27 % for 2 galaxy classes and up to 44.27 % for 7 galaxy classes.

  11. Transfer and Semantic Universals in the L2 Acquisition of the English Article System by Child L2 Learners

    Morales-Reyes, Alexandra; Soler, Inmaculada Gómez


    L2 learners' problems with English articles have been linked to learners' L1 and their access to universal semantic features (e.g., definiteness and specificity). Studies suggest that L2 adults rely on their L1 knowledge, while child L2 learners rely more on their access to semantic universals. The present study investigates whether child L2

  12. Modulation ofTcf7l2 expression alters behavior in mice.

    Daniel Savic

    Full Text Available The comorbidity of type 2 diabetes (T2D with several psychiatric diseases is well established. While environmental factors may partially account for these co-occurrences, common genetic susceptibilities could also be implicated in the confluence of these diseases. In support of shared genetic burdens, TCF7L2, the strongest genetic determinant for T2D risk in the human population, has been recently implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ risk, suggesting that this may be one of many loci that pleiotropically influence both diseases. To investigate whether Tcf7l2 is involved in behavioral phenotypes in addition to its roles in glucose metabolism, we conducted several behavioral tests in mice with null alleles of Tcf7l2 or overexpressing Tcf7l2. We identified a role for Tcf7l2 in anxiety-like behavior and a dose-dependent effect of Tcf7l2 alleles on fear learning. None of the mutant mice showed differences in prepulse inhibition (PPI, which is a well-established endophenotype for SCZ. These results show that Tcf7l2 alters behavior in mice. Importantly, these differences are observed prior to the onset of detectable glucose metabolism abnormalities. Whether these differences are related to human anxiety-disorders or schizophrenia remains to be determined. These animal models have the potential to elucidate the molecular basis of psychiatric comorbidities in diabetes and should therefore be studied further.

  13. The Role of Written Corrective Feedback in Developing Writing in L2

    Gabrijela Petra Nagode


    Full Text Available Feedback plays an important role in developing L2 writing in young learners. The article provides a brief overview of the history of giving feedback and of some contemporary views within this field. Special attention is paid to cognitive perspectives, such as the influence of written corrective feedback on shortterm memory, the influence of focused and unfocused written corrective feedback on error correction, the influence of written corrective feedback on a particular category of error, the influence of direct and indirect written corrective feedback and combinations of various types of written corrective feedback, and the influence of educational background and L2 learning background on the effectiveness of written corrective feedback in terms of sociocultural perspectives. The main aim of the article is to present readers (especially teachers with the variety of aspects of giving written corrective feedback in developing L2 writing and thus in enabling young learners to develop their L2 writing skills more effectively.

  14. L2 Spelling Errors in Italian Children with Dyslexia.

    Palladino, Paola; Cismondo, Dhebora; Ferrari, Marcella; Ballagamba, Isabella; Cornoldi, Cesare


    The present study aimed to investigate L2 spelling skills in Italian children by administering an English word dictation task to 13 children with dyslexia (CD), 13 control children (comparable in age, gender, schooling and IQ) and a group of 10 children with an English learning difficulty, but no L1 learning disorder. Patterns of difficulties were examined for accuracy and type of errors, in spelling dictated short and long words (i.e. disyllables and three syllables). Notably, CD were poor in spelling English words. Furthermore, their errors were mainly related with phonological representation of words, as they made more 'phonologically' implausible errors than controls. In addition, CD errors were more frequent for short than long words. Conversely, the three groups did not differ in the number of plausible ('non-phonological') errors, that is, words that were incorrectly written, but whose reading could correspond to the dictated word via either Italian or English rules. Error analysis also showed syllable position differences in the spelling patterns of CD, children with and English learning difficulty and control children. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26892314

  15. L2 Rhythm Acquisition : The question of learning direction

    van Maastricht, Lieke; Krahmer, Emiel; Swerts, Marc


    Dutch and Spanish are distinguishable from each other based solely on rhythmic cues (Ramus, Dupoux & Mehler, 2003) due to typological contrasts between both languages: Dutch has relatively complex syllable structure and uses extensive final (FL) and accentual lengthening (AL), while Spanish has less

  16. Three Misconceptions about Age and L2 Learning.

    Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Marshall, D. Bradford; Snow, Catherine E.


    Discusses the effects of age on second language acquisition, considering recent data and highlighting the misconceptions. Claims that proponents of the critical period hypothesis have misinterpreted research on speed of acquisition, misattributed age differences to neurobiological factors, and misemphasized poor language learners in research on…

  17. Effects of Input Properties, Vocabulary Size, and L1 on the Development of Third Person Singular -"s" in Child L2 English

    Blom, Elma; Paradis, Johanne; Duncan, Tamara Sorenson


    This study was designed to investigate the development of third-person singular (3SG) -"s" in children who learn English as a second language (L2). Adopting the usage-based perspective on the learning of inflection, we analyzed spontaneous speech samples collected from 15 English L2 children who were followed over a 2-year period. Assessing the…

  18. A Review of Recent Research (2000-2008) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 Spanish

    Anton, Marta


    This review presents a broad picture of recent work on L2 Spanish in educational contexts. The thematic and geographic scope of the review is wide, in order to capture the diversity of learners and learning contexts of L2 Spanish, just two decades after teaching and learning the language gained impetus worldwide. Traditional second or foreign…

  19. Effects of input properties, vocabulary size, and L1 on the development of third person singular –s in child L2 English

    Blom, W.B.T.; Paradis, J.; Sorenson Duncan, T.


    This study was designed to investigate the development of third-person singular (3SG) –s in children who learn English as a second language (L2). Adopting the usage-based perspective on the learning of inflection, we analyzed spontaneous speech samples collected from 15 English L2 children who were

  20. Effects of input properties, vocabulary size, and L1 on the development of third person singular -s in child L2 English

    E. Blom; J. Paradis; T. Sorenson Duncan


    This study was designed to investigate the development of third-person singular (3SG) -s in children who learn English as a second language (L2). Adopting the usage-based perspective on the learning of inflection, we analyzed spontaneous speech samples collected from 15 English L2 children who were

  1. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    Wang, Joshua W. [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Roden, Richard B.S., E-mail: [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)


    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ∼8 kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. - Highlights: • L2 is the minor antigen of the non-enveloped T=7d icosahedral Papillomavirus capsid. • L2 is a nuclear protein that can traffic to ND-10 and facilitate genome encapsidation. • L2 is critical for infection and must be cleaved by furin. • L2 is a broadly protective vaccine antigen recognized by neutralizing antibodies.

  2. Gender Differences in Identity and Acculturation Patterns and L2 Accent Attainment

    Polat, Nihat; Mahalingappa, Laura J.


    Addressing the influence of sociocultural theory, current views of second language acquisition situate language learning in a much broader context than the isolated box of the classroom. There is need to consider second language (L2) acquisition practices more broadly. This study addresses differences between girls and boys of Kurdish ethnic…

  3. Character Reading Fluency, Word Segmentation Accuracy, and Reading Comprehension in L2 Chinese

    Shen, Helen H.; Jiang, Xin


    This study investigated the relationships between lower-level processing and general reading comprehension among adult L2 (second-language) beginning learners of Chinese, in both target and non-target language learning environments. Lower-level processing in Chinese reading includes the factors of character-naming accuracy, character-naming speed,…

  4. ICALL for Improving Korean L2 Writers' Ability to Edit Grammatical Errors

    Cowan, Ron; Choo, Jinhee; Lee, Gabseon Sunny


    This study illustrates how a synergy of two technologies--Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) and corpus linguistic analysis--can produce a lasting improvement in L2 learners' ability to edit persistent grammatical errors from their writing. A large written English corpus produced by Korean undergraduate and graduate…

  5. Orthographic Influence on the Phonological Development of L2 Learners of Korean

    Lee, Sooyeon


    This dissertation examines the influence of L2 orthographic representation on the phonological development of American English speakers learning Korean, addressing specifically the syllabification and resyllabification of Korean intervocalic obstruents and the intervocalic liquid phoneme. Although Korean and English both employ alphabetic writing…

  6. Training L2 Writers to Reference Corpora as a Self-Correction Tool

    Quinn, Cynthia


    Corpora have the potential to support the L2 writing process at the discourse level in contrast to the isolated dictionary entries that many intermediate writers rely on. To take advantage of this resource, learners need to be trained, which involves practising corpus research and referencing skills as well as learning to make data-based…

  7. Roles of Position, Stress, and Proficiency in L2 Children's Spelling: A Developmental Perspective

    Hong, Su Chin; Chen, Shu Hui


    This study investigated the roles of phoneme position, stress, and proficiency in L2 spelling development by Taiwanese students learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL), an alphabetic writing system typologically different from the learners' L1 logographic system. Structured nonword spelling tests were administered to EFL sixth-graders with…

  8. Exploring the Relationship between Reading Strategy Use and Multiple Intelligences among Successful L2 Readers

    Mirzaei, Azizullah; Rahimi Domakani, Masoud; Heidari, Najmeh


    Over the years, the multiple intelligences theory (MIT) proposed by Howard Gardner has renewed interest in learners' use of effective learning strategies and produced interesting results. This MIT-oriented study investigated the role of successful L2 readers' multiple intelligences in their effective use of reading strategies. To this…

  9. The multi-feature hypothesis: Connectionist guidelines for L2 task design

    Moonen, M.L.I.; de Graaff, H.C.J.; Westhoff, G.J.; Brekelmans, J.M.G.


    This study focuses on the effects of task type on the retention and ease of activation of second language (L2) vocabulary, based on the multi-feature hypothesis (Moonen, De Graaff, & Westhoff, 2006). Two tasks were compared: a writing task and a list-learning task. It was hypothesized that performin

  10. Altered gene regulation and synaptic morphology in Drosophila learning and memory mutants.

    Guan, Zhuo; Buhl, Lauren K; Quinn, William G; Littleton, J Troy


    Genetic studies in Drosophila have revealed two separable long-term memory pathways defined as anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) and long-lasting long-term memory (LLTM). ARM is disrupted in radish (rsh) mutants, whereas LLTM requires CREB-dependent protein synthesis. Although the downstream effectors of ARM and LLTM are distinct, pathways leading to these forms of memory may share the cAMP cascade critical for associative learning. Dunce, which encodes a cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, and rutabaga, which encodes an adenylyl cyclase, both disrupt short-term memory. Amnesiac encodes a pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating peptide homolog and is required for middle-term memory. Here, we demonstrate that the Radish protein localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus and is a PKA phosphorylation target in vitro. To characterize how these plasticity pathways may manifest at the synaptic level, we assayed synaptic connectivity and performed an expression analysis to detect altered transcriptional networks in rutabaga, dunce, amnesiac, and radish mutants. All four mutants disrupt specific aspects of synaptic connectivity at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). Genome-wide DNA microarray analysis revealed ∼375 transcripts that are altered in these mutants, suggesting defects in multiple neuronal signaling pathways. In particular, the transcriptional target Lapsyn, which encodes a leucine-rich repeat cell adhesion protein, localizes to synapses and regulates synaptic growth. This analysis provides insights into the Radish-dependent ARM pathway and novel transcriptional targets that may contribute to memory processing in Drosophila. PMID:21422168

  11. Lead Exposure Impairs Hippocampus Related Learning and Memory by Altering Synaptic Plasticity and Morphology During Juvenile Period.

    Wang, Tao; Guan, Rui-Li; Liu, Ming-Chao; Shen, Xue-Feng; Chen, Jing Yuan; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Luo, Wen-Jing


    Lead (Pb) is an environmental neurotoxic metal. Pb exposure may cause neurobehavioral changes, such as learning and memory impairment, and adolescence violence among children. Previous animal models have largely focused on the effects of Pb exposure during early development (from gestation to lactation period) on neurobehavior. In this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats during the juvenile stage (from juvenile period to adult period). We investigated the synaptic function and structural changes and the relationship of these changes to neurobehavioral deficits in adult rats. Our results showed that juvenile Pb exposure caused fear-conditioned memory impairment and anxiety-like behavior, but locomotion and pain behavior were indistinguishable from the controls. Electrophysiological studies showed that long-term potentiation induction was affected in Pb-exposed rats, and this was probably due to excitatory synaptic transmission impairment in Pb-exposed rats. We found that NMDA and AMPA receptor-mediated current was inhibited, whereas the GABA synaptic transmission was normal in Pb-exposed rats. NR2A and phosphorylated GluR1 expression decreased. Moreover, morphological studies showed that density of dendritic spines declined by about 20 % in the Pb-treated group. The spine showed an immature form in Pb-exposed rats, as indicated by spine size measurements. However, the length and arborization of dendrites were unchanged. Our results suggested that juvenile Pb exposure in rats is associated with alterations in the glutamate receptor, which caused synaptic functional and morphological changes in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, thereby leading to behavioral changes. PMID:26141123

  12. The Sociocognitive Imperative of L2 Pedagogy

    Toth, Paul D.; Davin, Kristin J.


    As a new century begins for "The Modern Language Journal," we argue that highly effective pedagogy requires viewing language and language learning as both cognitive and social phenomena, and that teachers who seek to truly understand the nature of their responsibilities do not have the luxury of choosing one perspective over the other.…

  13. Applications of the L_2-Transform to Partial Differential Equations

    Gaugler, Todd


    This paper aims to demonstrate the applicability of the L_2-integral transform to Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). Of special interest is section (6), which contains an application of the L_2-transform to a PDE of exponential squared order, but not of exponential order. Sections (1) and (2) aim to introduce the history and some elementary properties of the L_2-transform, (3) and (4) include some of the transform's simple applications, and section (5) introduces the L_2 convolution.

  14. Peer Response to L2 Student Writing: Patterns and Expectations

    Abdalla Salih, Abdel Rahman


    This paper reports the corrective feedback patterns in L2 writing and the student writers' preferences for peer feedback. The study examines the actual focus of peer review and the types of corrective feedback provided in L2 composing process. Sixteen L2 matriculation students at a Malaysian university took part in five peer review sessions,…


    Rosaria Solarino


    Full Text Available Si può oggi affrontare il tema degli errori di italiano da una prospettiva che possa giovare contemporaneamente a docenti di italiano L1 ed L2? Noi pensiamo di sì: la ricerca glottodidattica sembra aver ormai apprestato un terreno comune alle due situazioni di apprendimento, sgombrando il campo da vecchi pregiudizi e distinzioni che appaiono ormai superate. Attraverso la contrapposizione di concetti quali “lingua parlata/lingua scritta”,  “errori di lingua / errori di linguaggio”, “apprendimento spontaneo/apprendimento guidato”, “italiano L1/italiano L2”, “errori di apprendimento/errori di interferenza, si indicano diversi criteri per la interpretazione degli errori e la loro valutazione in relazione alle cause, alle situazioni comunicative, ai contesti o allo stadio di evoluzione dell’apprendimento della lingua.     Errors in italian L1 and L2: interference and learning   Can errors in Italian be approached in a way that benefits both L1 and L2 Italian teachers? We believe so: glottodidactic research seems to have prepared a common terrain for these two learning situations, clearing the field of old prejudices and obsolete distinctions.  Through the juxtaposition of concepts like “spoken language/written language”, “language errors/speech errors”, “spontaneous learning/guided learning”, “L1 Italian/L2 Italian”, “learning errors/interference errors”, different criteria for interpreting errors and evaluating them in relation to their causes, to communicative situations, to contexts and the developmental state in learning a language are singled out.

  16. L2TTMON Monitoring Program for L2 Topological Trigger in H1 Experiment - User's Guide

    Monitoring software for the L2 Topological Trigger in H1 experiment consists of two parts working on two different computers. The hardware read-out and data processing is done on a fast FIC 8234 computer working with the OS9 real time operating system. The Macintosh Quadra is used as a Graphic User Interface for accessing the OS9 trigger monitoring software. The communication between both computers is based on the parallel connection between the Macintosh and the VME crate, where the FIC computer is placed. The special designed protocol (client-server) is used to communicate between both nodes. The general scheme of monitoring for the L2 Topological Trigger and detailed description of using of the monitoring software in both nodes are given in this guide. (author)

  17. VDES J2325-5229 a z=2.7 gravitationally lensed quasar discovered using morphology independent supervised machine learning

    Ostrovski, Fernanda; Connolly, Andrew J; Lemon, Cameron A; Auger, Matthew W; Banerji, Manda; Hung, Johnathan M; Koposov, Sergey E; Lidman, Christopher E; Reed, Sophie L; Allam, Sahar; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Bertin, Emmanuel; Brooks, David; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; Rosell, Aurelio Carnero; Kind, Matias Carrasco; Carretero, Jorge; Cunha, Carlos E; da Costa, Luiz N; Desai, Shantanu; Diehl, H Thomas; Dietrich, Jörg P; Evrard, August E; Finley, David A; Flaugher, Brenna; Fosalba, Pablo; Frieman, Josh; Gerdes, David W; Goldstein, Daniel A; Gruen, Daniel; Gruendl, Robert A; Gutierrez, Gaston; Honscheid, Klaus; James, David J; Kuehn, Kyler; Kuropatkin, Nikolay; Lima, Marcos; Lin, Huan; Maia, Marcio A G; Marshall, Jennifer L; Martini, Paul; Melchior, Peter; Miquel, Ramon; Ogando, Ricardo; Malagón, Andrés Plazas; Reil, Kevin; Romer, Kathy; Sanchez, Eusebio; Santiago, Basilio; Scarpine, Vic; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Sobreira, Flavia; Suchyta, Eric; Tarle, Gregory; Thomas, Daniel; Tucker, Douglas L; Walker, Alistair R


    We present the discovery and preliminary characterization of a gravitationally lensed quasar with a source redshift $z_{s}=2.74$ and image separation of $2.9"$ lensed by a foreground $z_{l}=0.40$ elliptical galaxy. Since the images of gravitationally lensed quasars are the superposition of multiple point sources and a foreground lensing galaxy, we have developed a morphology independent multi-wavelength approach to the photometric selection of lensed quasar candidates based on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM) supervised machine learning. Using this technique and $gi$ multicolour photometric observations from the Dark Energy Survey (DES), near IR $JK$ photometry from the VISTA Hemisphere Survey (VHS) and WISE mid IR photometry, we have identified a candidate system with two catalogue components with $i_{AB}=18.61$ and $i_{AB}=20.44$ comprised of an elliptical galaxy and two blue point sources. Spectroscopic follow-up with NTT and the use of an archival AAT spectrum show that the point sources can be identified as...

  18. The Role of L1 and L2 Working Memory in Literal and Inferential Comprehension in L2 Reading

    Alptekin, Cem; Ercetin, Gulcan


    Reading span as a measure of L1 or L2 working memory capacity is shown to be related to L2 reading comprehension. Albeit limited, there is research on the relationship between both L1 and L2 reading spans and their roles in L2 reading comprehension, yet these studies take reading as a global construct rather than delving into its multi-level…

  19. An overview of L-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase gene (L2HGDH) variants: a genotype-phenotype study

    Steenweg, Marjan E; Jakobs, Cornelis; Errami, Abdellatif;


    L-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L2HGA) is a rare, neurometabolic disorder with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Affected individuals only have neurological manifestations, including psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and more variably macrocephaly, or epilepsy. The diagnosis of L2...

  20. The L2 Passionate Interactional Imperative (for short “The L2 Pie”: It’s Hot or It’s Not!

    Tim Murphey


    Full Text Available At the American Association of Applied Linguistics (AAAL 2011 conference, John Schumann described how Lee, Dina, Joaquin, Mates & Schumann’s (2010 interactional instinct unfolds between infants and caregivers such that learning an L1 is assured in normal development through emotional bonding between infants and caregivers which is substantiated by motivation, proficiency, and opportunities (all co-constructing concepts. In subsequent second language learning at an older age, these three characteristics are not environmentally and contextually assured, and this seems to account for a great part of the shortcomings of much of the late-L2 instruction in the world (Lee, Dina, Joaquin, Mates & Schumann, 2010.

  1. The effect of computer-assisted translation on L2 learners’ mastery of writing

    Ahmad Ali Kazemzadeh


    Full Text Available Computer-Assisted Translation (CAT is an alternative approach to computer translation that integrates human expertise into the automatic translation process. In this realm, the few studies that deal with Computer Assisted Translation (CAT as a language learning tool focus on its use by advanced learners, not by beginners. Yet, freely available CAT engines (i.e. Google Translate position themselves to cater precisely to the needs of learners with a limited command of a second language (L2. Anecdotal classroom evidence points to beginners availing themselves of CAT help, even against the advice of teachers. In order to find out whether CAT could help develop learners’ writing skills in L2, some tests were run asking participants to write directly into L2 in one instance and into L1 in another, while pre-editing the L1 and post-editing the L2 within the CAT’s interface. The analysis of the output shows that CAT helps beginners to communicate more, particularly when they have a lesser mastery of the language. The less their mastery of the L2, the greater the difference between the number of words composed with the help of CAT and the number of those written directly into L2. It also helps them to communicate better, with blind marking indicating higher quality when writing with CAT mediation. Looking at the screen recordings, on the other hand, we found that writing directly into L2 requires more effort, as measured by number of pauses, and involves more engagement with the task, as measured by the number of editing interventions.

  2. Blogging Identity: How L2 Learners Express Themselves

    Kiyomi FUJII


    Full Text Available This study discusses language learning and identity, particularly pertaining to intermediate-advanced-level Japanese-language learners, focusing on their target language and identity expression through their interactions with peers and Japanese college students. When learners of Japanese express their identities while interacting with others in their target language, they feel a gap between the self-image they want to present, and the image they are capable of presenting in Japanese (Siegal, 1994, 1995, 1996. Along with adjusting their L1 and L2 usage depending on their interlocutor (Kurata 2007, learners also use different sentence-ending styles depending on the role they want to assume (Cook 2008. By conducting a case study, the present inquiry attempts to address how learners of Japanese express their identities through blog conversations, focusing on their language choice and expressions. Results suggest that participants use the formal endings for self-presentation and projection of their student and classmate identity. However, when expressing emotion some students preferred informal endings, or sentence-final particles.

  3. A preliminary Analysis of Dörnyei and Otto’s Process Model of L2 Motivation



    In the past few decades, motivation has already become a recurring topic in SLA field, where motivational theories have placed great influence on language teaching. Different from previous motivation theories, Dörnyei and Otto’s process model of L2 motivation focuses on the dynamicity of motivation.This paper aims at analyzing the process model of L2 motivation and proposing stimulation strategies for each phase to attain learning effect.

  4. A preliminary Analysis of Drnyei and Otto’s Process Model of L2 Motivation



    In the past few decades, motivation has already become a recurring topic in SLA field, where motivational theories have placed great influence on language teaching.Different from previous motivation theories, Drnyei and Otto’s process model of L2 motivation focuses on the dynamicity of motivation.This paper aims at analyzing the process model of L2 motivation and proposing stimulation strategies for each phase to attain learning effect.

  5. Mental Lexicon, Working Memory and L2 (English Vocabulary in Polish Students with and without Dyslexia

    Marta Łockiewicz


    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between access to the mental lexicon, working memory and knowledge of English (L2 vocabulary. Analyses were undertaken amongst monolingual speakers of Polish (26 with dyslexia, 24 without who studied English as a second language as part of their compulsory educational programme at school. We assumed that students with dyslexia would manifest deficits in access to the mental lexicon and verbal working memory, and would have a limited L2 vocabulary. We also assumed that better access to the mental lexicon facilitates knowledge of English (L2 vocabulary, and that this relationship is present in both the criterion and the control group. All of the students participated in both parts of the assessment, the group part (i.e., questionnaire, IQ test, two vocabulary tasks and the individual part (i.e., psychological measures: verbal working memory, RAN, verbal fluency, and single word reading in L1 task. We found that students with dyslexia exhibited deficits in the speed of access to data from the mental lexicon. The predictive function of memory for vocabulary was more conspicuous in the control group; in the criterion group, the result might constitute a risk factor for L2 vocabulary acquisition in dyslexia, which may manifest with increased proficiency in word knowledge. Poor vocabulary knowledge renders the L2 learning experience difficult, as it impairs students’ reading comprehension, writing and conversational skills.

  6. The Relationship between Multiple Intelligences and L2 Reading Skill among Iranian EFL University Students

    Saber Khooei Oskooei


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between multiple intelligences (MI and foreign language (L2 reading skill among Iranian EFL sophomores. Multiple intelligences and L2 reading measurements of participants – 29 males and 69 females who were selected from four intact classes – were obtained through McKenzie’s (1999 Multiple Intelligences Inventory and reading part of a Preliminary English Test PET, respectively, and then Pearson’s correlation analysis was run to determine the degree of the relationship between each component of multiple intelligences and L2 reading skill. Afterwards, through a multiple regression analysis those components of multiple intelligences which acted as the predictors of L2 reading skill were identified and the power of each predictor was calculated. The results of the correlation analyses revealed that linguistic-verbal, logical-mathematical, spatial, and interpersonal intelligences were significantly correlated with reading skill. In addition, the results showed that linguistic-verbal, interpersonal, and logical-mathematical intelligences were the best predictors of L2 reading skill scores of the participants. The results of the study can help coursebook designers, educational planners, foreign language institutes, teachers, learners and their parents to provide and use different methods of teaching and learning.Keywords: multiple intelligences, general intelligence, reading comprehension, university students, EFL

  7. External factors and the interference of L1 Estonian on L2 English pronunciation: An apparent-time study

    Kristiina Ader; Merilin Miljan


    This study focusses on external factors of second language learning (L2) and their effect on L2 sound production. The aim was to find out whether young adults whose first language (L1) is Estonian speak L2 English with less accent than older speakers of L1 Estonian. Prior studies have claimed that more exposure to the target language lessens the effect of L1 interference (internal factors) (e.g. Piske et al. 2001, Muñoz, Llanes 2014). An apparent-time study was imple- mented in order to test ...

  8. Explicit Grammar Instruction and the Acquisition of Second Language Verbal Morphology: A Framework for Generalized Learning in Second Language Acquisition

    Baugher, Mark W.


    The dissertation outlines a framework for understanding variation in ultimate attainment and syntactic structure in second language acquisition by positing a distinction between competence-based and generalized learning processes. Within this framework, competence-based learning is theorized to employ inductive learning processes to acquire a…

  9. Ansiedad situacional en la enseñanza de L2: ejemplo en el caso de un estudiante virtual

    Franca Plastina, Anna


    Besides motivation and attitude, anxiety proves to strongly affect L2 learning. Synchronous text-based environments offer an opportunity to investigate situational anxiety in a learning environment which differs from the traditional classroom. In catering differently to factors such as personality trait, acceptance, orientation, communication, performance and evaluation, virtual learning spaces may alter users’ behaviour and situational anxiety.This paper reports on a small-scale case study c...

  10. Explicit Grammar Instruction in L2 Learners’Writing Development:Effective or Ineffective?



      It has long been in dispute about whether explicit grammar teaching is more effective in second language learning or implicit grammar teaching is. However, there are more than one factor to take into consideration while discussing which way is better for L2 learners. This short essay aims at depicting three respects concerning grammar teaching, namely learning context, language learners’beliefs and needs, and grammar instruction. When educators and practitioners try to adopt grammar instruction either implicitly or explicitly in L2 learners’writing development, they probably need to consider the above three factors and to find out the best way to produce more effective teaching results among their students

  11. Calibration of Comprehension and Performance in L2 Reading

    Sarac, Seda; Tarhan, Betul


    Comprehension monitoring is crucial for successful reading. Although the researchers appreciate the importance of comprehension monitoring in L2 reading, there are only a few studies done on the comprehension monitoring ability of L2 readers. The main aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension monitoring abilities of university…

  12. Weyl-Heisenberg frames for subspaces of L^2(R)

    Casazza, Peter G.; Christensen, Ole


    We give sufficient conditions for translates and modulates of a function g in L^2(R) to be a frame for its closed linear span. Even in the case where this family spans all of L^2(R), wou conditions are significantly weaker than the previous known conditions.

  13. Development of L2 Word-Meaning Inference while Reading

    Hamada, Megumi


    Ability to infer the meaning of unknown words encountered while reading plays an important role in learners' L2 word-knowledge development. Despite numerous findings reported on word-meaning inference, how learners develop this ability is still unclear. In order to provide a developmental inquiry into L2 word-meaning inference while reading, this…

  14. Processability Approach to Arabic L2 Teaching and Syllabus Design

    Al Shatter, Ghassan


    This study aims to identify the relationship between the developmental hierarchy in the acquisition of Arabic as a second language (Arabic L2) and formal classroom instruction. It provides a general presentation of the current debate on the influence of formal instruction in the acquisition of L2. Special attention is given to the subset of…

  15. Measuring L2 Lexical Growth Using Hypernymic Relationships

    Crossley, Scott; Salsbury, Tom; McNamara, Danielle


    This study investigated second language (L2) lexical development in the spontaneous speech of six adult, L2 English learners in a 1-year longitudinal study. One important aspect of lexical development is lexical organization and depth of knowledge. Hypernymic relations, the hierarchical relationships among related words that vary in relation to…

  16. On the zeroth L^2-homology of a quantum group

    Kyed, David


    We prove that the zeroth L^2-Betti number of a compact quantum group vanishes unless the underlying C*-algebra is finite dimensional and that the zeroth L^2-homology itself is non-trivial exactly when the quantum group is coamenable.

  17. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena


    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  18. Use of reading comprehension strategies when reading academic texts in L1 or L2.

    De Bruyne, Ellen; Valcke, Martin


    In higher education, reading of academic texts is considered as an essential gateway to scientific knowledge. The use of reading strategies in the L2 literature has been recognized as an important solution to facilitate reading comprehension. In a previous study we determined a differential impact of reading comprehension strategy instruction (RCSI) on learning performance when studying academic texts with different difficulty levels. The research involved first year university students (n=18...

  19. Shrinkage degree in $L_2$-re-scale boosting for regression

    Xu, Lin; Lin, Shaobo; Wang, Yao; Xu, Zongben


    Re-scale boosting (RBoosting) is a variant of boosting which can essentially improve the generalization performance of boosting learning. The key feature of RBoosting lies in introducing a shrinkage degree to re-scale the ensemble estimate in each gradient-descent step. Thus, the shrinkage degree determines the performance of RBoosting. The aim of this paper is to develop a concrete analysis concerning how to determine the shrinkage degree in $L_2$-RBoosting. We propose two feasible ways to s...

  20. On the effects of L2 perception and of individual differences in L1 production on L2 pronunciation

    Natalia eKartushina


    Full Text Available The speech of late second language (L2 learners is generally marked by an accent. The dominant theoretical perspective attributes accents to deficient L2 perception arising from a transfer of L1 phonology, which is thought to influence L2 perception and production. In this study we evaluate the explanatory role of L2 perception in L2 production and explore alternative explanations arising from the L1 phonological system, such as for example, the role of L1 production. Specifically we examine the role of an individual’s L1 productions in the production of L2 vowel contrasts. Fourteen Spanish adolescents studying French at school were assessed on their perception and production of the mid-close/mid-open contrasts, /ø-œ/ and /e-ε/, which are, respectively, acoustically distinct from Spanish sounds, or similar to them. The participants’ native productions were explored to assess 1 the variability in the production of native vowels (i.e., the compactness of vowel categories in F1/F2 acoustic space, and 2 the position of the vowels in the acoustic space. The results revealed that although poorly perceived contrasts were generally produced poorly, there was no correlation between individual performance in perception and production, and no effect of L2 perception on L2 production in mixed-effects regression analyses. This result is consistent with a growing body of psycholinguistic and neuroimaging research that suggest partial dissociations between L2 perception and production. In contrast, individual differences in the compactness and position of native vowels predicted L2 production accuracy. These results point to existence of surface transfer of individual L1 phonetic realisations to L2 space and demonstrate that pre-existing features of the native space in production partly determine how new sounds can be accommodated in that space.

  1. Acquiring native-like intonation in Dutch and Spanish : Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners

    van Maastricht, L.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.; Krahmer, E.J.


    ACQUIRING NATIVE-LIKE INTONATION IN DUTCH AND SPANISH Comparing the L1 and L2 of native speakers and second language learners Introduction Learning more about the interaction between the native language (L1) and the target language (L2) has been the aim of many studies on second language acquisition

  2. L2 Teachers' Experience of CALL Technology Education and the Use of Computer Technology in the Classroom: The Case of Franklin County, Ohio

    Hong, Kwang Hee


    Primary issues concerned with CALL (Computer-Assisted Language Learning) teacher education are twofold: Integration of CALL technology into foreign and second language (L2) teacher education programs and L2 teachers' integration of CALL technology into their classroom. While increased attention has been paid to the former, only a small body of…

  3. About a boy : A gamer and L2 English speaker coming into being by use of self-access

    Sundqvist, Pia


    This is an interview study of Eldin, a 14-year-old Bosnian boy living in Sweden since the age of six. The aim is to investigate how Eldin became a gamer and how he, strongly motivated, learned foreign/second (L2) English mainly through self-access gameplay. Using language learning motivation theories, Dörnyei’s (2005, 2009) L2 Motivational Self System and Dweck’s (2006) concept of mindsets, the questions are: (i) By whom and at what age was the learner introduced to video games?, (ii) What wa...

  4. How to Make L2 Easier to Process ?The Role of L2 Proficiency and Semantic Category in Translation Priming



    The current study reports four masked translation priming experiments and demonstrates that L2 proficiency plays a role in translation priming but it is not the only factor determining translation priming patterns . Instead , language dominance might be more accurate in predicting priming patterns . Given the asymmetrical representations of L 1 and L2 as described by most bilingual models , the conditions to produce L2‐L1 priming not only depends on the task , but also the category size in semantic categorization . Relevant results will be discussed in relation to bilingual models . One implication of the current results is that processing L2 in a specific semantic context can be optimal to L2 lexical access .

  5. Tcf7l2 is Tightly Controlled During Myelin Formation

    Fu, Hui; Kesari, Santosh; Cai, Jun


    Recent, studies have shown that Tcf7l2, an important transcription factor in Wnt pathway, plays critical roles in oligodendrocyte development. In this article we report a study showing that Tcf7l2 is under tight regulation during myelin formation. We have found that during early development, Tcf7l2 mRNA appears much earlier than the protein, suggesting a regulation at the translational level. We induced demyelination in a mouse model by a dietary toxin, where remyelination followed after a fe...

  6. L2-Betti numbers of locally compact groups

    Petersen, Henrik Densing

    We introduce a notion of L2-Betti numbers for locally compact, second countable, unimodular groups. We study the relation to the standard notion of L2-Betti numbers of countable discrete groups for lattices. In this way, several new computations are obtained for countable groups, including lattic...... in algebraic groups over local elds, and Kac-Moody lattices. We also extend the vanishing of reduced L2-cohomology for countable amenable groups, a well known theorem due to Cheeger and Gromov, to cover all amenable, second countable, unimodular locally compact groups....


    Michela Albizzati


    L2? “Movies during Italian L2 Lessons: exams at the cinema” tries to answer these questions regarding the use of films in class and proposes an activity using clips from Italian films. Movies are social documents, vehicles for experiencing living, “situated” language and multi-sensory learning. The article sheds light on how L2 classes can benefit from the use of authentic audio-visual materials such as movies if properly selected and didacticized. From reflection to practice: after identifying objectives, target groups and their linguistic and communicative needs, an activity based on the using three didacticized clips centered on university oral exams is presented. Putting the linguistic-communicative needs of learners at the center shows that, if properly didacticized, a film or a clip constitutes extremely useful educational material for L2 learning, as well as an inexhaustible source of ideas from which the teacher can create original and stimulating educational activities which are not only linguistic but also intercultural.

  8. Empirical Comparison of Evaluation Methods for Unsupervised Learning of Morphology Comparaison empirique des méthodes d'évaluation de l'apprentissage non-supervisé de la morphologie

    Sami Virpioja


    Full Text Available Unsupervised and semi-supervised learning of morphology provide practical solutions for processing morphologically rich languages with less human labor than the traditional rule-based analyzers. Direct evaluation of the learning methods using linguistic reference analyses is important for their development, as evaluation through the final applications is often time consuming. However, even linguistic evaluation is not straightforward for full morphological analysis, because the morpheme labels generated by the learning method can be arbitrary. We review the previous evaluation methods for the learning tasks and propose new variations. In order to compare the methods, we perform an extensive meta-evaluation using the large collection of results from the Morpho Challenge competitions.

  9. L^2-Betti numbers, isomorphism conjectures and noncommutative localization

    Reich, Holger


    In this paper we discuss how the question about the rationality of L^2-Betti numbers is related to the Isomorphism Conjecture in algebraic K-theory and why in this context noncommutative localization appears as an important tool.

  10. Okeanos Explorer (EX1503L2): Tropical Exploration (Mapping II)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During EX-15-03L2, multibeam data will be collected 24 hours a day and XBT casts will be conducted at an interval defined by prevailing oceanographic conditions,...