Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of people about malaria in a semiurban area near Rawalpindi and Islamabad. DESIGN: Descriptive Cross Sectional Study.SETTING: A cross sectional survey was conducted in a semi urban area of model village Humaknear Rawalpindi and Islamabad. METHOD: Universal questionnaire was used to assess theknowledge, attitude and practices about malaria. The head of family (Male or Female) was interviewed bystructured Questionnaire. RESULTS: In 85% of respondents opinion malaria is a dangerous disease and97% were in favor of protective measures against malaria. Regarding the protective measures 56% were infavor of mosquito net. By the use of mosquito net or repellent 98% of respondents attitude was preventionagainst the mosquito bite. 93% respondents answered that they would like to know about details of malariaproblem. Regarding the practices 72% of respondents, family members suffered from malaria during thepast. 70% of respondents, recognized the malaria on their own by recognizing signs and symptoms ofmalaria, and doctor diagnosed 5%. 70% were planning protection from mosquito bite and 5% were doingself-medication. During malaria season 32% were taking Chemoprophylaxis. 66% were planning tosafeguard their family from mosquito bite and 40% were using mosquito nets. 30% of respondents wereusing mosquito repellents when they were going out of home. Those who were using chemical mat 68%were using regularly and 32% were occasional user. CONCLUSION: The study explores that there is needfor more accurate knowledge transmission from media and health workers and effective health educationprograms and energetic malaria control and eradication steps.
Full Text Available Background: Present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers towards infant feeding practices. Materials and methods: The mothers of infants, coming to a tertiary care centre, Ahmedabad, on outpatient basis were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Total 150 mothers were interviewed. Results: Out of the total, 18% mothers were illiterate.58.67% mothers have been counselled by doctor about feeding. Regarding breast feeding, 96% knew about exclusive breast feeding up to 6months. 90.67% think that colostrum is good for baby.34.67% mothers have given pre-lacteal feeds, tea and jaggery was most common.84.67% mothers knew that they should take extra food during lactation. Father (36%) most commonly help in feeding while 31.33% don?t get any domestic help.78.67% women consult doctor for feeding problems. Most common reason of stopping breast feeding was inadequate milk secretion(54.67%).18% think that feeding should be stopped during illness. 75.33% women were completely satisfied with their feeding practices. Conclusion-Mothers had good knowledge about infant feeding practices. Inspite of good knowledge there are lacunae in the practices of mothers due to social and economic reasons. Level of education has positive impact on infant feeding practices. Counselling by doctors had a better impact on the attitude and practices of mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000): 147-150
Sushma Sriram; Priyanka Soni; Rashmi Thanvi; Nisha Prajapati; K M Mehariya
Background This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbachs alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001). Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.
Poorolajal, J; Cheraghi, P; Irani, A Doosti; Cheraghi, Z; Mirfakhraei, M
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism. METHODS: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.
Poorolajal J; Cheraghi P; Irani AD; Cheraghi Z; Mirfakhraei M
Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism.Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%). The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a) general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b) nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9); (c) nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27); and (d) eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8). A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035). The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66), 24.12 (SD=2.99), and 0.66 (SD=1.15) respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005) and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001).Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.
J Poorolajal; P Cheraghi; A Doosti Irani; Z Cheraghi; M Mirfakhraei
BACKGROUND: Baby walkers are a commonly used item of nursery equipment. Between 12% and 50% of parents whose infant uses a walker report that their child has suffered a walker-related injury. Health visitors' knowledge, attitudes and practice with regard to walkers and related health education has not been explored so far. AIM: The aim of the study was to describe health visitors' knowledge of walkers and walker-related injuries, their attitudes towards walkers and current practice with regard to walker health education, and to examine the relationship between knowledge and attitudes and knowledge and practice. METHOD: A survey was carried out with 64 health visitors prior to participation in a randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of an educational package in reducing baby walker use. RESULTS: The response rate was 95%. Half of the health visitors always discussed walkers postnatally, most frequently at the 6-9 month check. Most did not usually discuss the frequency of walker-related injuries. Most had negative attitudes towards walkers, but believed that parents hold positive attitudes to them and that it is hard to persuade parents not to use them. Health visitors had a limited knowledge of walker use and walker-related injuries. Those giving advice on walkers most often had higher knowledge scores than those giving advice less often (P = 0.03). Those with higher knowledge scores held more negative attitudes towards walkers (rs = 0.29, P = 0.023) and believed parents to have more positive attitudes towards walkers (rs = -0.49, P < 0.001). Few health visitors had resources to discuss walkers. CONCLUSIONS: Health visitor advice regarding walkers needs to be given earlier in the postnatal period than is currently common practice, and they need more knowledge about walker use and related injuries. Education about baby walkers needs to be incorporated into undergraduate and in-service education, which may need to include the development of skills in exploring reasons why parents use walkers and in negotiating alternatives to their use. The provision of audio-visual aids for discussing walkers might also be helpful.
Kendrick D; Illingworth R; Hapgood R; Woods AJ; Collier J
1. Because health care providers are the key professionals in advising patients about prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, the degree to which spread can be prevented is at least partially a function of preventive and education measures taken by health care professionals. 2. Nurses surveyed believe that they do not have the right to refuse treatment to patients infected with HIV. 3. Twenty percent of health care professionals indicated they did not have adequate information concerning HIV, with the largest group being nurse executives in long-term care facilities. 4. The survey indicated that more efficient and effective educational methods should be used to increase health care practitioners' knowledge about AIDS.
Lewis J; Doyle K; Roemer L
Full Text Available Introduction: Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with ?high morbidity and mortality among patients. The data from NHMS III has reported that the ?present prevalence of DM in Malaysia has exceeded the projected prevalence for the year 2025 as ?estimated by the International Diabetes Federation.1 Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and ?practices (KAP) is a crucial element of DM control.2 However, very few studies have focused on ?this area and there is paucity of KAP data among Malaysian diabetic patients. ?Objective: This cross-sectional study aims to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices ??(KAP) towards DM and the association between the patients KAP and control of DM among ?patients with type II DM (T2DM).?Method: Diabetic patients were recruited using the convenient sampling method from an urban ?diabetes care centre managed by a non-government, non-profit organisation. KAP were assessed ?using a 25 item structured KAP questionnaire and control of DM was evaluated from the ?HbA1C and fasting blood glucose levels respectively.?Result: Seventy five patients with T2DM participated in this study. There was a strong ?association between knowledge and attitude as well as knowledge and practice (P7mmol/l.?Conclusion: Our data suggests that factors beyond knowledge and attitude contribute to disease ?management. The plausible factors could be poor self-management, lack of motivation, ?inadequate social support or lack of resources that are necessary for sustained life style ?modification behaviour. A patient/self-empowerment approach to diabetes care may enhance the ?efficiency of DM prevention and control programs in countries experiencing DM as a major ?public health problem.?
?1Shu Hui Ng; Kheng Hooi Chan; Zi Yang Lian; Yee Hooi Chuah; Aishath Noora ?Waseem; Amudha Kadirvelu
Abstract. Meningitis has a significant impact in the Sahel, but the mechanisms for transmission and factors determining a person's vulnerability are not well understood. Our survey examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in a meningitis-endemic area in the Upper East region of northern Ghana to identify social, economic, and behavioral factors that may contribute to disease transmission and possible interventions that might improve health outcomes. Key results suggest potential interventions in response to the risk posed by migration, especially seasonal migration, a lack of knowledge about early symptoms causing delayed treatment, and a need for further education about the protective benefits of vaccination.
Hayden MH; Dalaba M; Awine T; Akweongo P; Nyaaba G; Anaseba D; Pelzman J; Hodgson A; Pandya R
Meningitis has a significant impact in the Sahel, but the mechanisms for transmission and factors determining a person's vulnerability are not well understood. Our survey examined the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of people in a meningitis-endemic area in the Upper East region of northern Ghana to identify social, economic, and behavioral factors that may contribute to disease transmission and possible interventions that might improve health outcomes. Key results suggest potential interventions in response to the risk posed by migration, especially seasonal migration, a lack of knowledge about early symptoms causing delayed treatment, and a need for further education about the protective benefits of vaccination. PMID:23775016
Hayden, Mary H; Dalaba, Maxwell; Awine, Timothy; Akweongo, Patricia; Nyaaba, Gertrude; Anaseba, Dominic; Pelzman, Jamie; Hodgson, Abraham; Pandya, Rajul
OBJECTIVE: to determine community midwives' knowledge, attitudes and practice with regard to baby walkers. DESIGN: survey, using questionnaires. SETTING: primary care, East Midlands, UK. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-five community midwives participating in a cluster randomised controlled trial to reduce baby walker use. FINDINGS: there was a 94% response. Seventy per cent of the midwives, felt that it was part of their role to discuss baby walkers, and 62% felt that giving advice about walkers before birth acceptable. The midwives had a limited knowledge of baby walker injury risk and only one midwife had any baby walker-related health education material. Three attitude scales were computed and indicated that the midwives held a negative view of baby walkers and were positive about baby walker health education, believing that parents hold a positive attitude to baby walkers. Those midwives who had used a walker with their own children were more positive about baby walkers and less positive about baby walker health education. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: midwives are willing to be involved in baby walker health education during pregnancy. However, they require evidence-based knowledge and materials rather than relying on personal experience.
Woods AJ; Hapgood R; Colier J; Kendrick D; Watts K; Illinworth R
Full Text Available Introduction. In a time that economic classification of nations is largely dependant on their scientific output, our country "Iran" in comparison to it"s facilities, has fewer scienilfic producilon than accepted. For programming to increase quantity and quality of research, at first, should carefully recognise the present condition. This study was done to survay attitiude, knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (IUMSHS) about research. Methods. Questionnaires were distribiuted among interns (n=234) who their names and sites had extracted. Students enterance year to university was between 1992 to 1994. So, they were at the end of their staying in university. Results. Average grade of knowledge was 2.92±2 (from whole grade= 10). This grade did not depend on stage of preparing thesis. The most true answer was in writing of purpose and the least was in sampling, medline and role of variables in study. Attitude in 78.2 percent, indicate agreement with necessity of learning research concept. 54.2 percent agree with necessity of participailon in at least one research project in educational period in university, but 41.8 percent believe that research activity in present condition is wasting the time. The answerers who at least had parilcipated in one research project were 11.9 percent and the highest knowledg"s grade was in these students. Discussion. Despite the positive attitude of interns to learn the research concept, their knowledge level in comparison with other Iranian univercities and other univercities" students in the world, was very low. Although more than half of them have positive attitude to participation in research project, their practice was insignificant. Radical changes in education system and management seems to be necessary.
M TALAEI; S ROOHI; B SABET; A.M BAGHAEI; P BAHMAN ZIARI
Background: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is one of the main professional competencies for health care professionals and a priority for medicine and nursing curriculum as well. EBP leads to improve effective and efficient care and patient outcomes. Nurse educators have responsibility to teach the future nurses, and an opportunity to promote patient outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe nurse educators knowledge and attitude on EBP. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted in nursing faculties of two major universities of medical sciences affiliated to Ministry of Health and Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Data were gathered using a three-section questionnaire. Content and face validity was further enhanced by submitting it to nursing research and education experts. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11 software. Results: According the results, nursing faculties knowledge of EBP was mainly moderate (47.1%). Significant statistical relationship was found between the level of knowledge with education and teaching experience in different nursing programs. Nurses generally held positive attitudes toward EBP (88.6%) and there was no statistical significant relationship with demographic variables. Conclusion: Nursing educators are in a position to influence nursing research in clinical practice in the future. Therefore, it is critical to achieve implementation of EBP and be a change agent for a paradigm shift toward EBP.
Mehrdad, Neda; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Joulaee, Azadeh; Bahrani, Naser
Full Text Available Organic farming is gaining popularity all over the world as it can diversify agricultural production system toward attaining improved productivity, farm income as well as food safety. The rise of organic farming was driven partly by consumers' concern with food quality and safety, as well as the protection of the environment. Organic Farming produces safe and nutritious food as it helps prevent soil pollution by stopping risky chemical reactions in the soil and avoiding produce contamination, as well as soil erosion, by wind and rain. One of the important parties that can enable the country to produce more organic products through organic farming is the growers or farmers. The final decision of farmers to use a new practice like organic farming system is usually the result of their knowledge of the practices as well as their perception. Therefore, the main purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the knowledge, perception or attitude, and practices of vegetable growers towards organic farming. A survey method through face-to-face interview by using structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a total of 31 vegetable growers in Kundasang, Sabah which was selected by using simple random sampling method. The findings of the study show that the knowledge of the respondents on organic farming especially pertaining to the use of chemical insecticides, herbicides and fertilizers is still need to be improved, their attitude is also still negative, and they are still dependent on conventional practices (i.e. chemical) especially to control pests and diseases.
Assis, K.; Mohd Ismail, H.A
Full Text Available Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview . Results: The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (?10.7). When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s), all the workers agreed that dye(s) will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE) such as rubber hand gloves during work. Conclusion: The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.
Paramasivam Parimalam; Raghavan Premalatha; Srinivasan Padmini; Kumar Ganguli
INTRODUCTION: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1) to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2) to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinic. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. RESULTS: A generally poor level of knowledge (59%) and a neutral attitude (76%) toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%), black magic (67.5%), intrauterine devices (71.3%), and contraceptive pills (42.9%). The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001) or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001), if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003) and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001). Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6%) and fertile outpatients (71.5%). Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%), using alternative medicine (42%), engaging in physical exercise (39%), eating certain foods (22%), and quitting smoking (12%). CONCLUSION: These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive.
Abolfotouh MA; Alabdrabalnabi AA; Albacker RB; Al-Jughaiman UA; Hassan SN
Purpose: To study the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards computer vision syndrome prevalent in Indian ophthalmologists and to assess whether ?computer use by practitioners? had any bearing on the knowledge and practices in computer vision syndrome (CVS). Mater...
Bali Jatinder; Navin Neeraj; Thakur Bali
Full Text Available Introduction: Intensive care unit ICU syndrome is a disorder, in which patients in an ICU or a similar setting experience anxiety, hallucination and become paranoid, severely disoriented in time and place, very agitated, or even violent, etc. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of nurses with regards to prevention of ICU syndrome (Delirium). Methods: Subjects of this research were 56 nurses with including criteria of registration in nursing, university degree and at least one month experience of working in open heart surgery ICUs. The data was gathered from 3 clusters in university hospitals equipped with open heart surgery ICUs in Tehran. All subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Moreover all subjects were observed in all shifts. During observation, two researchers observed each subject simultaneously to achieve higher accuracy of observations. Descriptive and analytic statistics were applied to analysis the data. Results: The finding of the study showed that more than 53% of the subjects had passed a continuing education course, but less than 46% of them never passed a training course on ICU. According to this research, subjects, work experience in ICUs had significant relation on their knowledge with regard to prevention of ICU psychosis. However, it has not significant relation to their attitude and skill. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, subjects have little chance to be familiar with the concepts and elements of ICU syndrome in their university program. The finding also indicated that many subjects in this study were not familiar with the important concepts such as sleep deprivation, sensory overload and sensory deprivation, etc. Ongoing progression in high-tech ICUs brings about continuing nursing education programs for all nurses. The results also showed that stress factor in ICU, such as high mortality, isolation, high workload etc. Gradually influences nurses,attitude in ICU. So, it is strongly recommended to consider rotation of nurses in order not to impose high stress to ICU nurses.
Ali Dadgari; Farede Yaghmaie; Jasman Shahnazarian; Leyla Dadvar
Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, pharmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance in Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH), a tertiary care teaching hospital attached to the regional pharmacovigilance center in western Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using a pretested (Cronbach alpha=0.72) questionnaire having 25 questions (15 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitude and 5 on practice). The correct/positive responses were given a score of 2 and the wrong/negative responses 1, maximum possible score of 50. Results: A total of 131 responses were obtained among which 42 were incomplete and remaining 89 [females 49 (55.1%)] were analyzed. Of the 89 professionals, 29 (32.6%) were doctors, 46 (51.8) nurses and 14 (15.7%) pharmacists. The mean age was 28.32 (SD=8.46) years and the median (interquartile range) of duration of the service 14.5 (6-36) months. The total KAP scores was 40.06 (SD=3.51) for doctors, 38.92 (SD=4.83) for pharmacists, and 35.82 (SD=3.75) for nurses. Among the 89 professionals, 59 (62.3%) had not reported even a single ADR to the pharmacovigilance center. Conclusion: The healthcare professionals at the MTH had a poor KAP towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance and there is a need for educational and awareness intervention for these professionals.
Palaian S; Ibrahim MI; Mishra P
A questionnaire study was conducted among 245 dental students from Bhopal city, Central India, to determine their level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding infection control measures and if any correlation exists among the knowledge, attitudes, and practice scores. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of three parts: knowledge, attitudes, and practice. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare mean of knowledge, attitudes, and practice scores and Kendall's test to compute the correlation between knowledge, attitudes, and practice scores. A p value of ?0.05 was considered significant for all statistical analyses. We found that 61.2 percent of the dental students had not been vaccinated with hepatitis B. Use of face mask, gloves, eyewear, and protective clothing as standard infection control measures was practiced only by two students. Mean knowledge, attitude, and practice scores were 3.75 (1.01), 3.40 (0.75), and 3.35 (1.04), respectively. Significant linear correlation was seen between attitude and practice scores (r=0.20, p?0.01). The level of knowledge and practice of infection control measures was poor among dental students. The attitude towards infection control measures was positive, but a greater compliance was needed. We recommend rigorous training on infection control measures prior to graduation and mandatory hepatitis B immunization of students before exposure to clinical practice.
Singh A; Purohit BM; Bhambal A; Saxena S; Singh A; Gupta A
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-medication is the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat selfrecognised illnesses or symptoms and an important initial response to illnesses if successfully used. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of self medication among Medical Sciences Faculty students of Jimma University.METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Medical sciences Faculty students in 2009.The faculty and the three schools were selected by lottery method .Then, within the faculty respective number of students for each School was determined by proportion from the total sample size. Data was collected randomly from each School using self administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0RESULTS: From a total of 403 (100%) participants,95 (45.89%) students practiced self medication in the past two months for commonly perceived illnesses such as headache 35 (36.85%), abdominal pain 29 (30.55%) and cough 33 (23.16%) using mainly analgesics 40(49.38%) and antibiotics 29 (35.80%) mostly from drug retail outlets 88(92.63). Fifty seven (60.00%) respondents can recall the dose, frequency and duration of the medicine while 38 (40%) did not know. Sixty five (68.42%) students agreed to practice self medication irrespective of the seriousness of illnesses.CONCLUSION: Self mediation was widely practiced for minor symptoms with both OTC and prescription only drugs. Most of respondents use self medication irrespective of the seriousness of the illnesses. Lack of proper information and the ease of access from drug outlets were the most important problems.
Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo et al.
Nurses have important roles in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment and educational programs. Chinese senior nursing students completed a survey on HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practice intentions. A weak positive relationship between attitudes and practice intentions (r = .140, P = .036) was noted. No significant associations between knowledge levels, attitudes, and practice intentions were found. Although the majority exhibited adequate knowledge of basic HIV transmission mechanisms, many disconcerting misconceptions were evident. Although most were empathetic to people with HIV/AIDS, stigmatization of high-risk groups persisted. Improved patient care will require intensified educational efforts and more positive attitudes toward persons with HIV/AIDS.
Li Y; Scott CS; Li L
OBJECTIVE: Injuries are among the 10 leading causes of death for all ages in Vietnam, and road traffic fatalities account for approximately half of those deaths. Despite having what is considered to be one of the most stringent alcohol legislations in the region, alcohol involvement in road traffic crashes remains high. This study aims to illustrate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices around alcohol use and drinking and driving by age and sex in 3 provinces in Vietnam. METHODS: This study was conducted between January and February 2011, surveying randomly selected road users over the age of 17 years at gas stations in 3 provinces: Ha Nam, Ninh Binh, and Bac Giang, Vietnam. Data were collected for one week at each gas station. A knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) survey was administered in 7 time blocks of 90 min throughout the day, from 07:30 am to 9:30 pm. RESULTS: There were a total of 633 respondents almost evenly divided among the 3 provinces. Males accounted for 69.1 percent of respondents; the majority were 36 years of age or younger. Despite the belief that drinking and driving will increase the risk of a crash, a significant proportion of respondents (44.9%) reported drinking and driving; 56.7 percent admitted to drinking and driving within the last month. Drinking and driving was more common among males, with approximately 60.2 percent indicating a history of drinking and driving. This proportion was particularly high among males aged 17 to 26 (71.4%). It was found that preferred alternatives to drinking and driving when available were leaving with a nondrinker (42%), resting until "feeling conscious" (23%), and drinking less (20%). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that, in general, alcohol use and drinking and driving remain a problem in Vietnam, a major concern given that the country is rapidly motorizing and likewise increasing the likelihood of road traffic crashes in the absence of effective interventions. To target drinking and driving in Vietnam we call for a multifaceted approach, including social marketing and public education campaigns, enhanced enforcement, and programs that either limit the number of drinks to drivers or young individuals or those that provide alternatives to drinking and driving.
Tran NT; Bachani AM; Pham VC; Lunnen JC; Jo Y; Passmore J; Nguyen PN; Hyder AA
This article consists of a KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practice) survey to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of phototherapy among nursing professionals from two teaching hospitals at the city of Recife, Brazil, through semi-structured questionnaire applied to 111 professionals. It was used the T Student test to compare means of correct answers. Thus, there were higher means for practice, followed by those related to attitude and a lower percentage of correct answers for knowledge. When comparing the means between knowledge and practice the differences were statistically significant for all variables (p<0.05). The results of the study highlight the need to implement activities that will allow a balance among knowledge, attitude and practice of nursing professionals about phototherapy.
Machado SP; Samico IC; Braga TD
Dentists are usually the first group who can examine patients for oral cancer and the early diagnosis highly depends on their knowledge. In this study, we aim to survey the Iranian dentists' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors regarding oral cancer. A valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire was designed and sent to 150 dentists. Responses to the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Just one fifth of the dentists reported to perform oral cancer examination for all of their patients in age of 40 and above and about 34 % of them were knowledgeable. They mostly claimed that the lack of knowledge is the main barriers to the provision of routine oral cancer examinations. The opinion of dentists about the effectiveness of continuing education courses supports the development of these courses on oral cancer. Besides, more emphasis should be placed on oral cancer prevention in dental schools.
Razavi SM; Zolfaghari B; Foroohandeh M; Doost ME; Tahani B
[en] Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of the breast cancer in medical community. The study was carried out in the Department of Oncology, Service Hospital, Lahore and completed in one month. Subjects and Methods: About 200 female doctors and nurses of the Hospital were involved. Each subject was asked to fill up a pro forma designed to assess knowledge, risk factors and preventive practices of the breast cancer. Using non-probability convenience sampling technique, breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography was performed as screening of breast cancer. Results: A majority had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening method for the early detection of breast cancer. Majority had the consensus on the benefit of mammography. Conclusions: The study shows that although medical professionals had fairly good knowledge about screening methods and risk factors of breast cancer. Their preventive practices were scanty in high risk population and, therefore, physicians and nurses need proper training. (author)
Abstract Background To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. Methods Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analy...
Saleem Taimur; Ishaque Sidra; Habib Nida; Hussain Syedda; Jawed Areeba; Khan Aamir; Ahmad Muhammad; Iftikhar Mian; Mughal Hamza
Using current guidelines, we surveyed physicians at our hospital to ascertain knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding Clostridium difficile infection. The survey identified significant gaps in knowledge and practice. Infection control professionals should include physician education on Clostridium difficile infection diagnosis, isolation precautions, and treatment as part of a comprehensive control program.
Fayerberg E; Bouchard J; Kellie SM
The proper handling and disposal of biomedical waste (BMW) is very imperative. There is a defined set of rules for handling BMW worldwide. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate training and awareness in the execution of these rules leads to staid health and environment apprehension. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of hospital staff to BMW management. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 healthcare workers from 9 hospitals, which were randomized from 32 hospitals. The most important finding was a significant (P BMW management. Twenty-nine (19.9%) members of government hospital staff and 37 (32.2%) members of staff from the private sector agreed that BMW management is not just the government's responsibility, but one that every member of personnel should share. This finding will help to address the issue more appropriately, and plan for better training programs and monitoring of BMW management systems in hospitals. PMID:23585502
Lakbala, Parvin; Lakbala, Mahboobeh
Full Text Available Introduction.With respect to the importance of nutritional counselling during pregnancy, the improtance of knowledge, attitude and practice of health care providers is undisputable. In this study the knowledge, attitude and practice of the health care providers in the city of shiraz with respect to the nutritional counseling in pregnancy was investigated. Methods. The survey was done upon all who practicing in MCH unit of heath care centers in the city of shiraz. The intended information was gathered using a checklist and questionnaire from 75 heath care providers. Results. Knowledge is in middle level in 60 percent, attitude is positive in 98.7 percent and practice is poor in 90.67 percent of samples. Midwifery school graduations have more knowledge than other (P < 0.05). Discussion. Education of nutritional sciences for health care providers has an important role in health promotion. During special situations such as pregnancy, this matter is more important.
G BROMAND-FAR; A YOUSEFI; M TABATABAIE
A review of the research literature over the last five years reveals that nurses' knowledge of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has improved dramatically. However, attitudes and fears about HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have not changed commensurately with nurses' knowledge. Also, there is evidence that nurses' clinical practice is not always safe. This paper summarizes the research literature and proposes a three-tiered psychoeducational model for changing knowledge and clinical skills, knowledge and attitudes, and attitudes alone. These approaches include information and demonstration, expression of attitudes and fears, role-playing, group discussions, practice in designing policies, and exposure to various sociocultural groups, to persons with HIV, and to religious, legal, and ethical spokespersons.
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes self-management education is a cornerstone of diabetes care. However, many diabetics in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) lack sufficient knowledge about their disease due to illiteracy. Thus, before considering any possible intervention it was imperative to assess present knowledge, attitudes, and practices of patients towards the management of diabetes. METHODS: A random sample of 575 DM patients was selected from diabetes outpatient's clinics of Tawam and Al-Ain hospitals in Al-Ain city (UAE) during 2006-2007, and their knowledge attitude and practice assessed using a questionnaire modified from the Michigan Diabetes Research Training Center instrument. RESULTS: Thirty-one percent of patients had poor knowledge of diabetes. Seventy-two had negative attitudes towards having the disease and 57% had HbA(1c) levels reflecting poor glycemic control. Only seventeen percent reported having adequate blood sugar control, while 10% admitted non-compliance with their medications. Knowledge, practice and attitude scores were all statistically significantly positively, but rather weakly, associated, but none of these scores was significantly correlated with HbA(1c). CONCLUSIONS: The study showed low levels of diabetes awareness but positive attitudes towards the importance of DM care and satisfactory diabetes practices in the UAE. Programs to increase patients' awareness about DM are essential for all diabetics in the UAE in order to improve their understanding, compliance and management and, thereby, their ability to cope with the disease.
Al-Maskari F; El-Sadig M; Al-Kaabi JM; Afandi B; Nagelkerke N; Yeatts KB
Full Text Available In this study, knowledge, attitude and practice about mercury hygiene of dentist who have private offices in Isfahan were evaluated. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2001-2002. One hundred and sixteen of dentists were selected by random sampling. Data were collected using a standard questionnaire. T-student test, Chi-square test, Fisher"s exact test and Spearman correlation test have been used to analyse data. It was shown that dentists knowledge about mercury hygiene was not acceptable. However the mean of their attitude score was more than scale mean and most of them had a positive attitude toward improvement of mercury hygiene in their offices. According to the results, dent ist"s practice, in this regard proved weak. There was no significant correlation between knowledge and practice and between attitude and practice (P > 0.05). In order to improve dentists" knowledge, training them is supposed. Because of no significant correlation between their knowledge and practice, surveillance seems necessary.
V MORTAZAVI; B ZOLFAGHARY; M SHOKRANI
OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to determine knowledge, attitudes, and practices of intern nurses who completed the nursing internship program on the use of physical restraints. DESIGN: This research was conducted using descriptive and cross-sectional research design. METHODS: The study sample comprises 91 fourth-grade students who took an integrated curriculum and completed the nursing internship program. The data were collected with the Demographic Characteristics Questionnaire and the Levels of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Staff Regarding Physical Restraints Questionnaire. For the assessment of the data, percentages, the arithmetic mean, and t test were used. RESULTS: The findings indicated that, of the intern nurses, 95.6% observed the use of physical restraints during their education, and 69.2% applied physical restraints. The mean knowledge, attitude, and practice scores of the nurses for physical restraint were 9.38 ± 1.19 (0-11 points), 34.70 ± 5.62 (12-48 points), and 37.95 ± 2.32 (14-42 points), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Intern nurses' knowledge about how to use physical restraints was at a very good level; they displayed positive attitudes, and they used their knowledge and attitudes in their practices to a great extent. IMPLICATIONS: Although there are studies on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of nurses working in the fields of elderly care, rehabilitation, and psychiatry in acute care units, there are no studies investigating intern nurses and other nursing students. However, intern nurses about to begin their careers should make accurate decisions regarding the use of physical restrains if they are to ensure patient safety and to fulfill this application effectively in their professional lives.
Karagozoglu S; Ozden D; Yildiz FT
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the knowledge, attitudes and practices about TB in a prison and in public health services (PHS). METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out and KAP (knowledge, attitudes and practices) questionnaire was applied to 141 prisoners, 115 prison's employees and 158 PHS workers. Epi-Info version 6.04 was used for comparison of proportions with statistic significance at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Mistaken concepts on TB were observed among the three searched groups. PHS also showed basic errors on TB knowledge thus pointing out imperfections on training. CONCLUSION: KAP revealed efficient for data collection of general knowledge items but was limited on practices and attitudes and so its use as the only tool for data collection about knowledge, attitudes and practices on TB is not advisable. It is suggested its regular use to aid educational activities and considering the high prevalence of TB among prisoners, it is noted the need to involve the Departments of Health in the supervision of educational activities in the prison system.
Ferreira Júnior S; Oliveira HB; Marin-Léon L
To examine differences in knowledge, attitudes, and related practices among adopters and nonadopters of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the researchers conducted 83 in-depth interviews with 18- to 26-year-old women. The study identified knowledge-attitude-practice gaps in the context of the HPV vaccine to explain why diffusion of a preventive innovation (such as the HPV vaccine) requires targeted risk communication strategies in order to increase demand. Salient findings included similarities between vaccinated and unvaccinated women's lack of knowledge and uncertainties about HPV and cervical cancer. Vaccinated women who had no knowledge of HPV or no-risk/low-risk perceptions of HPV reported receiving vaccination, indicating HPV risk protection behavior could precede knowledge acquisition for vaccinated women. These vaccinated women identified an interpersonal network supportive of vaccination and reported supportive social influences. Among unvaccinated women, unsupportive vaccination attitudes included low perceived personal risk of HPV. In contrast, unvaccinated women often cited erroneous beliefs that HPV could be avoided by abstinence, monogamy, and knowledge of their partners' sexual history as reasons that the vaccine was not personally relevant. Unvaccinated women cited interpersonal influences that activated short- and long-term vaccination safety and efficacy concerns. Different levels of fear regarding the HPV vaccine may underlie (a) attitudinal differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women in perceived vaccination value and (b) attitude-practice gaps. PMID:23767775
Cohen, Elisia L; Head, Katharine J
To examine differences in knowledge, attitudes, and related practices among adopters and nonadopters of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the researchers conducted 83 in-depth interviews with 18- to 26-year-old women. The study identified knowledge-attitude-practice gaps in the context of the HPV vaccine to explain why diffusion of a preventive innovation (such as the HPV vaccine) requires targeted risk communication strategies in order to increase demand. Salient findings included similarities between vaccinated and unvaccinated women's lack of knowledge and uncertainties about HPV and cervical cancer. Vaccinated women who had no knowledge of HPV or no-risk/low-risk perceptions of HPV reported receiving vaccination, indicating HPV risk protection behavior could precede knowledge acquisition for vaccinated women. These vaccinated women identified an interpersonal network supportive of vaccination and reported supportive social influences. Among unvaccinated women, unsupportive vaccination attitudes included low perceived personal risk of HPV. In contrast, unvaccinated women often cited erroneous beliefs that HPV could be avoided by abstinence, monogamy, and knowledge of their partners' sexual history as reasons that the vaccine was not personally relevant. Unvaccinated women cited interpersonal influences that activated short- and long-term vaccination safety and efficacy concerns. Different levels of fear regarding the HPV vaccine may underlie (a) attitudinal differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women in perceived vaccination value and (b) attitude-practice gaps.
Cohen EL; Head KJ
Full Text Available Introduction: Nutritional concepts learned by young girls as would-be mothers will play an important part in childrens and family's health. This study aimed at evaluating nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice of female junior high school students in two regions of Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study, 587 female students within the age range of 11 to 16 years old were selected through random sampling in cities of Malayer and Shahrood in 2009. To evaluate the nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP), questionnaires containing items on demographic, KAP and food behaviors were used. Based on the yielded results analyzed by SPSS software Pack, those who scored 75%, within the range of 75%- 50% and lower than 50% of the highest score were considered as desirable, moderate and low, respectively. Results: On the Whole, the majority of subjects in the two cities, had moderate knowledge (59.5%), had good attitude (55.2%) and had moderate practice (55.53%). Conclusions: The results showed that the subjects had moderate knowledge and practice, but since nutritional practice does not accord with their attitude, constant nutritional intervention seems necessary.
mehhi delvarianzadeh; Ahmad Khosravi; Nasrin Razavianzade; Nahid Bolbolhaghighi; Maryam Abbasian; Nozahatossadat Taghavi
This descriptive study investigated the nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in India. Data relating to nutritional KAP and sociodemographic profile were gathered from a sample of 400 PLHIV from New Delhi, India, using preset multiple-choice questionnaire. The knowledge on HIV/AIDS was low; nutritional knowledge was moderate as 80% of respondents could answer 4 out of 7 questions correctly. The attitude toward disease and food was positive but the application of nutritional knowledge was lacking as indicated by the moderate practice score of 8.1 +/- 2.3 out of a total score of 15. There were no significant differences in scores between genders. The PLHIV had knowledge about importance of nutrition during infection, had positive attitude toward the disease and the importance of nutrition during the course of the disease but translation of this knowledge into practice was low. Thus, there is a need for continuous interventions primarily aiming at behaviour change to convert knowledge into healthy dietary practices.
Anand D; Puri S
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the attitudes, knowledge and practice on the use of physical restraints by nursing staff working with the elderly, as well as the relationship existing between these variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive and correlational study was conducted among professionals from eight nursing homes. Three questionnaires asking about the mentioned variables were used. RESULTS: A total of 378 questionnaires were finally included (94 nurses and 284 auxiliary nurses). The professionals' attitude was generally against the use of restraints, although they were in favour of using them to avoid falls. With regard to knowledge, they obtained 66% of the correct answers; only 32% believed that there were alternatives to restraints, and 69.1% were unaware that these procedures could cause the death of patients. A total of 69.8% said that their training regarding restraint was limited. The practice could be considered acceptable, although the 61.9% thought it was not necessary to get informed consent from the family, and only 47.1% of the nurses always recorded its use in the patient's history. Differences between attitudes, knowledge and practice were found among the two groups. A relationship between the variables was confirmed; less knowledge and more favourable attitude towards physical restraints correlate with a worst practice. CONCLUSIONS: The attitude of the staff to physical restraints is ambiguous, and erroneous concepts have been detected in their knowledge and practice. Given the influence of knowledge on the rest of the variables, the training of the professionals needs to be improved.
Fariña-López E; Estévez-Guerra GJ; Núñez González E; Pérez Hernández Dde G; Gandoy Crego M
Purpose: To (a) identify Chinese nurses' tobacco-related knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP), including perception of competency in smoking-cessation interventions; (b) identify barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation interventions to patients; and (c) assess the learning needs and smokin...
Chan, SSC; Sarna, L; Wong, DCN; Lam, TH
Abstract Background The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among healthcare professionals in Barbados in relation to healthcare ethics and law in an attempt to assist in guiding their professional conduct and aid in curriculum development. Me...
Hariharan Seetharaman; Jonnalagadda Ramesh; Walrond Errol; Moseley Harley
A survey was undertaken between December 1991 and February 1992 to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices with respect to malaria of 300 women from six randomly selected rural communities in central Ethiopia. A total of 85% were able to recognize one or more of the common symptoms of the dis...
Yeneneh, H.; Gyorkos, T. W.; Joseph, L.; Pickering, J.; Tedla, S.
Full Text Available Background: Fighting against cancers includes management in prevention, early treatment, and rehabilitation. This research is a descriptive study that was done to determine the women's knowledge attitude and practice about prevention of breast cancer. Methods: The sample of this research included 630 women in Kerman city, more than 15 years old, that selected in several stages (cluster, randomized, systematic) . For data gathering a questionnaire was used and for data analysis ANOVA, kruskal-walis, Tukey Ï2 and regression (Pearson) were used. Results: Results showed most of women had weak to moderate knowledge. Women who were employed with diploma and higher educational level had more awareness than others. Also most of women had positive or impartial attitude, and positive attitude in employed women and those with higher educational level was more than others. In practice no body had proper practice (P ). Results showed no relationship among knowledge, attitude and practice. Conclusion: Results indicated that health services members have an important role in increasing knowledge and improving health behavior in prevention of cancers.
Sakineh Sabzevari; Sakineh Mohammadalizadeh; Fariba Borhanii; Shahnaz Zohreh Kermani
In this study, knowledge, attitude and practice about mercury hygiene of dentist who have private offices in Isfahan were evaluated. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2001-2002. One hundred and sixteen of dentists were selected by random sampling. Data were collected using a standar...
V MORTAZAVI; B ZOLFAGHARY; M SHOKRANI
Issues concerning sex and sexuality are relevant to nursing practice. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between knowledge of and attitude towards sexuality, and nursing practice. Nursing practice in this case was defined as the discussion of sexuality with the patient, with particular reference to taking a sexual history on admission to the ward. A multi-choice questionnaire with sections establishing demographic details and nursing practice, and including the Sex, Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT), was administered to 357 registered general nurses (RGNs). Results show a relationship between knowledge and attitude but no relationship between either of these and the nursing practice scale. However, a slight but significant correlation between receiving teaching about sexual history taking and questioning patients about sexuality on admission suggests that nursing practice and knowledge are weakly related. There is evidence that factors other than those within the scope of this study influence all three independent variables, and these are discussed. The implications of the study suggest the need for an improvement in nurse education regarding sexuality at all stages of training. PMID:7930142
Lewis, S; Bor, R
Issues concerning sex and sexuality are relevant to nursing practice. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between knowledge of and attitude towards sexuality, and nursing practice. Nursing practice in this case was defined as the discussion of sexuality with the patient, with particular reference to taking a sexual history on admission to the ward. A multi-choice questionnaire with sections establishing demographic details and nursing practice, and including the Sex, Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT), was administered to 357 registered general nurses (RGNs). Results show a relationship between knowledge and attitude but no relationship between either of these and the nursing practice scale. However, a slight but significant correlation between receiving teaching about sexual history taking and questioning patients about sexuality on admission suggests that nursing practice and knowledge are weakly related. There is evidence that factors other than those within the scope of this study influence all three independent variables, and these are discussed. The implications of the study suggest the need for an improvement in nurse education regarding sexuality at all stages of training.
Lewis S; Bor R
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study regarding knowledge, attitude & practices of family planning was conducted in an immunization center of Indore district. All the females coming to immunization center for vaccinating their infants were interviewed using a pretested, semi structured Performa during a fixed study period. The performa included details like socio demographic features, questions related to knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding contraceptive use. Results showed poor contraceptive knowledge amongst females. 18% KAP Gap was found in total subjects. Maximum KAP Gap was found in the 19-21year age group. The KAP Gap was not significantly more in Muslim women as compare to Hindu women. The KAP Gap was more in Housewives than other occupations. Knowledge of various family planning methods should be provided to all the females coming to health center.
Priyanka Mahawar, Shweta Anand, Deepa Raghunath, Sanjay Dixit
We explored knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with the menopause transition particular to women in the multi-ethnic cultural context of Singapore. Fifty-eight Chinese, Malay, and Indian Singaporean women participated in interviews that were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Women from all three ethnicities described an attitude of acceptance surrounding menopause and the changes associated with it. While they thought it was important to be informed, they did not seek out information about menopause and did not view health professionals as useful sources of information. Management practices were diverse and rarely involved accessing health professionals.
Mackey S; Teo SS; Dramusic V; Lee HK; Boughton M
Full Text Available The number of women participating in softball at the collegiate level continues to rise, yet little is known about collegiate softball players' knowledge about sport nutrition. The purpose of this study was to collect information from Mid-American Conference softball players to determine their current knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to sport nutrition and to identify their preferred sources for obtaining sport nutrition information.
Grete R. Hornstrom; Carol A. Friesen; Jane E. Ellery; Kimberli Pike
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of herbal remedies (HRs) in infertile patients. This was a cross sectional study in a referral infertility care center. Three hundred and six outpatients, both women and men, presenting for the first time with complaint of infertility at Arash hospital, were recruited. Verbal consent for participation was received. A self administered questionnaire was used. Main outcome measure was knowledge, attitude and practice of patients toward herbal medications. 47.3% of participants were knowledgeable of HRs with female gender and lower educational background being the associated factors in knowledge. 43.4% of patients with significant female dominancy had positive attitude toward HRs. 31% of participants were using HRs. Only 3.2% of those using HRs informed their physician. The most common health condition promoting herbal use was psychological (33.3%) and gastrointestinal (30.8%) disorders. 3.5% of participants used HRs as fertility treatment which was significantly observed in women and those with lower levels of formal education. A considerable proportion of our population had used HRs without sufficient knowledge and had positive attitude toward HRs. More importantly, patients did not disclose their use of HRs to physicians. Therefore, physicians should inquire about the use of alternative remedies and provide patients with appropriate information
Ladan Kashani; Elmira Hassanzadeh; Arefeh Mirzabeighi; Shahin Akhondzadeh
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the primary public health problems in developing countries. HIV/AIDS, poverty, undernutrition, over-crowded living conditions and lack of knowledge about the disease have been known to increase the risk of spreading the bacteria and the risk of developing the disease. The objective of this study was to assess the level of TB knowledge, attitudes and practices of rural communities of Itang Special District of the Gambella Regional State of Ethiopia. METHODS: Between November 2011 and January 2012, a community-based cross sectional study was carried out in a randomly selected rural kebeles (i.e. the smallest administrative units) of Itang communities. The study participants were interviewed using pre-tested questionnaire. The overall knowledge, attitudes and practices of the study participants were assessed using the mean score of each outcome as a cut-off value. Having a score above the mean on each of the three target outcomes was equated with having a good level of knowledge, or having favorable attitude and good practices towards TB. RESULTS: Out of 422 study participants (58.5% males and 41.5% females) only 3.3% mentioned bacteria/germ as a cause of pulmonary TB (PTB) and 9.9% mentioned cough for at least two weeks as the sign of TB. Taking the mean knowledge score as the cut-off value, 57.6% (95% CI: 52.7% to 62.3%) of the study participants had good level of knowledge about TB, 40.8% (95% CI: 36.0% to 45.6%) had favorable attitude towards TB and 45.9% (95% CI: 41.1% to 50.9%) had good practices. Female participants were less likely to have good level of knowledge [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)?=?0.33, 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.51, p?0.001], less likely to have favorable attitude (AOR?=?0.23, 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.37) and less likely to have good practices (AOR?=?0.37, 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.57, p?0.001) compared to male participants. CONCLUSION: Majority of the study participants had no correct information about the causative agent of TB and the main symptom of PTB. Moreover, low level of overall knowledge, attitudes and practices about TB was associated with female participants. Hence, TB control strategy in the present study area should include community awareness raising component.
Bati J; Legesse M; Medhin G
Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been realized as a primary cause of death in women for almost a century. However, the relationship between womens knowledge, their wish and action on practicing heart healthy lifestyle is still vague. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the association between knowledge and attitude, knowledge and practice and attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women in Kelantan. Methods/ Study Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of 448 women attended primary care facilities in Kelantan were included in this study. Twostage sampling process was used to select clinics in all districts in Kelantan followed by female participants from selected clinics attendance lists. Recruited were non illiterate young adult women up to 65 years of age and without psychotic symptoms. Consented participants were given a set of validated KAP questionnaire that should be completed within 15 minutes. Findings: The respondents mean age was about 40 years with majority of them having secondary educational level and coming from low socio-economic group. Among them, 56.8% involved in tobacco products and 41.3% reported as having CVD related medical illnesses, especially obesity (23.7%) and hypertension (17.6%). About 56.2% had family history of CVD risk. Only 26.8% of them obtained the CVD information from health care workers. The good knowledge, attitude and practice score were 55.6%, 55.1 % and 51.1% accordingly. There were significant association between attitude and knowledge, practice and knowledge and practice and attitude which were found to be strong (0.10, 0.20), (0.10, 0.18) and (0.26, 0.40) 95% CI, respectively and is independent with socio-demographic and personal disease characteristic. Conclusion: Positive relationship between knowledge, attitude and practice will encourage primary care doctors to take this challenge to educate, motivate community and provide full support to those who wish to modify their lifestyle.
Ranimah Yahya; Rosediani Muhamad; Harmy Mohamed Yusoff
Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are ranked as some of the major causes of patient morbidity and mortality. Spontaneous reporting of ADRs has remained the cornerstone of pharmacovigilance and is important in maintaining patient safety. This study was conducted to assess the nurses knowledge and attitude towards pharmacovigilance, reasons for not reporting ADRs, and their pharmacovigilance practice. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of nurses regarding ADR reporting. In November 2009, the questionnaires were given to 500 nurses of a teaching hospital in Tehran. Findings: Knowledge and practice of participants were not satisfying; however, their attitude towards pharmacovigilance was at a high level. About 91% of the nurses had never reported an ADR. Most nurses liked to report the ADRs to the physicians (87.1%) and pharmacists in hospital's ADR center (1.8%) rather than the ADR National Center. The main cause of under-reporting of the suspected ADRs was unawareness about the existence of such a national center. Among nurses who had reported ADR for at least once, the majority preferred using phone (10 out of 50) or Yellow Cards (7 out of 50). Only 1 person out of 50 preferred using internet for submitting the reports Conclusions: Since the nurses in this study had little knowledge and poor practice regarding the pharmacovigilance and spontaneous reporting system, interventions such as holding pharmacovigilance workshops in the hospitals focusing on the aims of pharmacovigilance, completing the Yellow Card and clarifying the reporting criteria are strongly recommended.
Hanafi, Somayeh; Torkamandi, Hassan; Hayatshahi, Alireza; Gholami, Kheirollah; Javadi, Mohammadreza
Full Text Available Improper practices and lack of knowledge by food handlers are contributing factors for the spread of foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice of food handlers in military hospitals in Jordan. A Self completed questionnaire was answered by 200 employees; 150 military employees and 50 civilian employees in 7 Jordanian military hospitals selected randomly one from the capital Amman and two from the three provinces. The results showed that the means of the percentage scores for the knowledge, attitude, practice, were 84.82, 88.88, 89.43, respectively and the overall knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP) mean percentage score was 87.88. A significant difference (P 0.05) in these values was observed between the military and civilian employee. The mean percentage scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 88.5, 93.2, and 91.4, respectively for military employee compared to those for civilian employee of 73.7, 75.8, and 83.5, respectively. A significant difference for the overall (KAP) mean percentage score was also observed between gender, education and specific occupation of the food handler. Female KAP percentage mean score was 90.0 and that for males was 86.6; The college or university educations employee had a mean score of 91.6 while the elementary school education employee had a mean score of 79.7; The nutritionists and cooks had statistically similar means of 91.6 but these occupations significantly differ from the waiters 84.4 and cleaners 80.2.
Labib Sharif; Mohammad M. Obaidat; Mohammad-Raed Al-Dalalah
Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health problem. In Tunisia, it is considered to be the primary women's cancer and causes high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate female knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast cancer screening in the region of Monastir (Tunisia). We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional design exploring knowledge, attitudes and practices of women in the region of Monastir on breast cancer screening. The study was conducted in health centres of this region from 1 March 2009 to 30 June 2009. Data were collected via a structured questionnaire containing 15 items on demographic status, knowledge of risk factors and screening methods and attitudes towards the relevance and effectiveness of breast cancer screening. A scoring scheme was used to score women's responses. A total of 900 women agreed to take part in the study. Their mean age was 41.6±12.4 years and 64% did not exceed the primary level of education. According to the constructed scores, 92% of participants had poor knowledge of the specific risk factors for breast cancer and 63.2% had poor knowledge of the screening methods. Proper practice of breast cancer screening was observed in 14.3% of cases. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that good knowledge of risk factors and screening methods, higher level of education and positive family history of breast cancer were independently correlated with breast cancer screening practice. This study revealed poor knowledge of breast cancer and the screening methods as well as low levels of practice of breast cancer screening among women in the region of Monastir. Results justify educational programs to raise women's adherence to breast cancer screening programs in Tunisia. PMID:22951080
El Mhamdi, Sana; Bouanene, Ines; Mhirsi, Amel; Sriha, Asma; Ben Salem, Kamel; Soltani, Mohamed Soussi
Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health problem. In Tunisia, it is considered to be the primary women's cancer and causes high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate female knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast cancer screening in the region of Monastir (Tunisia). We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional design exploring knowledge, attitudes and practices of women in the region of Monastir on breast cancer screening. The study was conducted in health centres of this region from 1 March 2009 to 30 June 2009. Data were collected via a structured questionnaire containing 15 items on demographic status, knowledge of risk factors and screening methods and attitudes towards the relevance and effectiveness of breast cancer screening. A scoring scheme was used to score women's responses. A total of 900 women agreed to take part in the study. Their mean age was 41.6±12.4 years and 64% did not exceed the primary level of education. According to the constructed scores, 92% of participants had poor knowledge of the specific risk factors for breast cancer and 63.2% had poor knowledge of the screening methods. Proper practice of breast cancer screening was observed in 14.3% of cases. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that good knowledge of risk factors and screening methods, higher level of education and positive family history of breast cancer were independently correlated with breast cancer screening practice. This study revealed poor knowledge of breast cancer and the screening methods as well as low levels of practice of breast cancer screening among women in the region of Monastir. Results justify educational programs to raise women's adherence to breast cancer screening programs in Tunisia.
El Mhamdi S; Bouanene I; Mhirsi A; Sriha A; Ben Salem K; Soltani MS
This study investigated the association of religiosity with sexuality and AIDS knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of 1,817 black first-year students in South Africa. On a structured questionnaire, consenting students rated themselves on scales of religiosity, attitudes toward homosexuality, intrafamilial communication about contraception, AIDS attitudes, and AIDS knowledge. Negative attitudes toward homosexuality were significantly associated with negative attitudes towards AIDS, high knowledge of AIDS, and high religiosity. Religious commitment diminished propensity to engage in sexual intercourse and delayed age for onset of sexual intercourse.
Nicholas L; Durrheim K
OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of obstetric care providers (OCPs) in Bugesera District, Rwanda, crucial to the delivery of safe motherhood services. METHODS: A quantitative descriptive survey in Kinyarwanda targeting all OCPs in the district was implemented in November 2010 to determine demographic characteristics, safe motherhood knowledge, obstetric practices, and attitudes toward additional training. RESULTS: The study captured 87% of OCPs, of whom 137 of 168 (82%) were A2 level nurses. Most expressed a need to improve their knowledge (60.6%) and skills confidence (72.2%) in safe motherhood. The mean percentage of correct answers of 50 questions assessing overall knowledge was 46.4%; sections on normal labor (39.3% correct) and obstetric complications (37.1% correct) were the weakest. Fundal pressure during vaginal delivery was practiced by 60.8%, and only 15.9% of providers practiced active management of the third stage of labor for all deliveries. Providers supported additional training, and 89.3% expressed willingness to participate in a 2-day workshop even if it were their day off. CONCLUSION: The study has identified a need to improve safe motherhood knowledge and practices of OCPs in the Bugesera District of Rwanda. OCPs support additional training as an intervention to reduce maternal mortality.
Puri R; Rulisa S; Joharifard S; Wilkinson J; Kyamanywa P; Thielman N
Tennessee has a high incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), the most severe tick-borne rickettsial illness in the United States. Some regions in Tennessee have reported increased illness severity and death. Healthcare providers in all regions of Tennessee were surveyed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions regarding RMSF. Providers were sent a questionnaire regarding knowledge of treatment, diagnosis, and public health reporting awareness. Responses were compared by region of practice within the state, specialty, and degree. A high proportion of respondents were unaware that doxycycline is the treatment of choice in children ? 8 years of age. Physicians practicing in emergency medicine, internal medicine, and family medicine; and nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and providers practicing for < 20 years demonstrated less knowledge regarding RMSF. The gaps in knowledge identified between specialties, designations, and years of experience can help target education regarding RMSF.
Mosites E; Carpenter LR; McElroy K; Lancaster MJ; Ngo TH; McQuiston J; Wiedeman C; Dunn JR
Tennessee has a high incidence of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), the most severe tick-borne rickettsial illness in the United States. Some regions in Tennessee have reported increased illness severity and death. Healthcare providers in all regions of Tennessee were surveyed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions regarding RMSF. Providers were sent a questionnaire regarding knowledge of treatment, diagnosis, and public health reporting awareness. Responses were compared by region of practice within the state, specialty, and degree. A high proportion of respondents were unaware that doxycycline is the treatment of choice in children ? 8 years of age. Physicians practicing in emergency medicine, internal medicine, and family medicine; and nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and providers practicing for < 20 years demonstrated less knowledge regarding RMSF. The gaps in knowledge identified between specialties, designations, and years of experience can help target education regarding RMSF. PMID:23243110
Mosites, Emily; Carpenter, L Rand; McElroy, Kristina; Lancaster, Mary J; Ngo, Tue H; McQuiston, Jennifer; Wiedeman, Caleb; Dunn, John R
An evaluation was performed on the influence of different variables on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices that mothers of children under the age of 5 have concerning acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Two groups of mothers were interviewed: 1) mothers of children seen in a polyclinic in the province of Havana (n = 221) and 2) mothers whose children were hospitalized in the respiratory unit of a pediatric hospital in the city of Havana (n = 200). The five variables analyzed were the educational level of the mother, her age, place of residence, number of children, and whether or not she was employed in the health service sector, as well as the interactions between the first variable and the other four variables. A questionnaire was used to measure the ARI knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of the mothers. Two levels of KAP sufficiency were taken into account, "Adequate I" for obtaining 70% or more of the maximum possible score and "Adequate II" for achieving at least a 50% score. For both levels of adequacy, the KAP of the mothers working in the health sector was significantly higher than that of the mothers interviewed in the secondary health care center. This suggests that the poorer knowledge, attitudes, and practices of mothers with hospitalized children may have contributed to the children's hospitalization. The most important variable associated with sufficient knowledge was educational level, which highlights the fundamental and positive influence education exerts on the preventive and curative care that mothers provide their children with ARI.
Valdés Roque AI; Martínez Canalejo H
OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices about Carrión's disease (bartonellosis) in rural communities with a history of epidemic outbreaks. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in the communities of Huaripampa, Orcosh, and Opayaco (Ancash, Peru) in July 2010, to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices about Carrión's disease. Interviewees were aged >18 years and had resided in the community for at least one year. RESULTS: A total of 276 residents were surveyed; 36.6% were men, and 72.5% had not heard of Carrión's disease. Of those familiar with it, most (38.7%) said that it spreads through bites, and 26% did not know how it spreads. Regarding actions to take if Carrión's disease develops, 69.3% of respondents said they would go to a health center and over half reported having recommended preventive practices to relatives or acquaintances in the past. CONCLUSIONS: Even though these three communities have a history of Carrión's disease, their inhabitants did not demonstrate adequate knowledge, attitudes, or practices for preventing it. In view of this, and given that this illness has cyclical outbreaks, it is imperative to design and implement a program to educate residents of these communities-focusing on the role of habits and customs-about how to prevent Carrión's disease, as well as the region's other main endemic diseases.
Llerena Luna C; Schweig Groisman M; Ugarte-Gil CA
Full Text Available The social work profession has been undergoing a period of change and has been encouraged to prove the effectiveness of clinical interventions by scientific evidence. This study was therefore designed to describe the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of a sample of Romanian social work professionals to evidence-based practice (EBP). 62 social workers were required to complete a 37-item closed ended questionnaire, which collected information on demographic data, practice settings, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding EBP. Respondents agreed that the use of EBP was necessary and that the quality of patient care was better when evidence was used, with the younger physiotherapists at the fore front. About 50% of the respondents had access to online information; the majority of these respondents only had time to access the internet more at home rather than at work place. The primary barrier to implementing EBP was insufficient time. The respondents had a positive attitude towards EBP and were interested in improving the skills necessary to implement EBP. There was a need to increase the use of EBP in clinical practice and decision making among social workers. The respondents who were recently licensed and those with post-graduate education expressed more positive attitudes toward EBP than those who were not. Results also point out the issue of appreciative inquiry (AI) as a key-component in successful implementation of EBP in social work clinical settings.
Mihai-Bogdan IOVU; Patricia RUNCAN
The purpose of this study was to assess the basic knowledge, attitudes and practices about viral hepatitis B and hepatitis C among young healthy adults. A total of 2038 young healthy adults belonging to central Punjab were included in the study. A closed structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the individuals. A total of 602(30.74%) of respondents knew that hepatitis B and C are viral diseases. Contaminated needles/syringes, blood transfusion and used blades were identified as a mode of transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses by 84.38%, 69.58%, 25.63 individuals. About 80% replied that even if they were found positive for HBsAg and anti-HCV, they would not have further investigations/ treatment. TV was the leading source of information about these diseases. The attitudes and practices regarding exposure to risk factors were significantly poor from knowledge among young adults. A high level of public awareness, especially among the young, is critical to decrease the burden of these diseases in Pakistan in future. (author)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the third commonest cancer in Ugandan women. Women present late for breast cancer management which leads to high mortality rates. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Ugandan women concerning breast cancer and mammography.METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study where 100 women reporting to the Radiology department were interviewed. We used consecutive sampling. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect opinions of the participants. For data analysis, answers were described as knowledge, attitude, practice and they were correlated with control variables through the chi-square. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were also used. RESULTS: Most of the women (71%) had no idea about mammography. More than 50% did not know about risk factors for breast cancer. The attitude towards mammography was generally negative. Regarding seeking for mammography; level of literacy, occupation and marital status were significant on bivariate analysis, however only level of literacy and employment remained the significant independent variables on logistic regression analysis. The main barrier to mammography was mainly lack of information. CONCLUSION: Women in this study had inadequate knowledge and inappropriate practice related to mammography as a procedure for breast cancer investigation.
Kiguli-Malwadde Elsie; Mubuuke A. Gonzaga; Businge Francis; Kawooya G. Michael; Nakatudde Rebecca; Byanyima K.Rosemary; Muyinda Zeridah
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM:Many pediatric oral diseases are preventable if physicians recognize and encourage preventivecare and refer patients to dentists whenever necessary. Parents usually visit pediatricians for routine care during the firstfew years of a childs life. Therefore, pediatricians have can assist dental professionals by educating parents to maintaintheir children's oral health.The main objective of this study was to determine knowledge, attitude, and practices ofpediatricians about the oral disease prevention.METHODS:A piloted questionnaire was completed by volunteer pediatricians and pediatric residents in Kerman, Iran. Itcomprised a series of questions including sociodemographic and practice characteristics, knowledge about the riskfactors for oral diseases, attitude toward oral disease prevention, practicing preventive care for oral diseases, andinformation about oral diseases.RESULTS:Overall, 60 subjects participated in the study. Less thanhalf of the respondents knewall the main risk factorsof dental caries, gingivitis, and malocclusion. There was also a positive attitude that caries can be prevented (100%).Less than 10% of the participants prescribeddietary fluoride supplements for their patients.CONCLUSIONS:Although we found inadequate knowledge about oral and dental diseases among pediatricians, themajority of our subjects believed that they had animportant responsibility in preventing oral diseases
Elham Bozorgmehr DDS; Tayebeh Malek Mohammadi DMD, PhD; Abolghasem Hajizamani DMD, PhD; Aliasghar Vahidi MD; Fatemeh Khajoee DDS
BACKGROUND: Contraceptive prevalence in remote districts of Nepal like Khotang is still low despite a high unmet need in the population. The study aims to estimate the contraceptive prevalence, knowledge, attitude and practice on contraception among women in Khotang. METHODS: A cross sectional study designed to find the contraceptive prevalence, knowledge, attitude and practice of contraceptive use, conducted at four health facilities at Khotang district during reproductive health camp in January 2011 by interviewing using a predesigned questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean age of 112 women who participated in the study was 25.3±6.1 and most were predominantly Mongolians and multipara. The knowledge of family planning was wide spread with clients listing 5±1 methods on average. Depo povera was the most commonly listed. Total 87 (77.7%) women had positive attitude towards family planning were positive in using contraceptives if needed. Other 22 (19.6%) were indecisive and wanted to consult husband and a very few did not want any contraception. Implant was preferred by most followed by Depo Provera. Seventy eight (69.6%) had ever used modern temporary method contraceptive devices and 41 (31.6%) were currently using them. Depo povera was the most common method ever used or currently in use. Commonest cause of discontinuation for past users was husband working abroad, followed by side effects. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of contraceptive is high in Nepal even in remote area, however use of contraception is low; male participation in family planning may reduce the unmet need.
Bhattarai D; Panta OB
AIM: This paper is a report of a study exploring HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, practices and perceptions of nurses in the largely black and rural Limpopo Province of South Africa. BACKGROUND: Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among healthcare workers in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion, coupled with ambivalent attitudes in caring for patients with HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of a random sample of primary health care (PHC) (n = 71) and hospital nurses (n = 69) was carried out in 2005, using a questionnaire, focus groups and in-depth interviews. FINDINGS: Hospital nurses reported a higher frequency of care for patients with HIV/AIDS (P < 0.05), but less HIV/AIDS training when compared to PHC nurses (P < 0.001). HIV/AIDS knowledge was moderately adequate and associated with professional rank, frequency of care and training (P < 0.001). Attitudes towards patients with HIV/AIDS were mainly positive and were statistically significantly correlated with HIV/AIDS knowledge (P < 0.01) and training (P < 0.05). Three out of four nurses reported that they practised universal precautions (76.1%), but fear of occupational HIV transmission and lack of injection safety was found. Seven in 10 nurses reported previous needlestick injuries, but postexposure prophylaxis was not available in all healthcare facilities. Participants reported a higher workload because of HIV/AIDS, lack of training impacting negatively on their work, and stigma and shared confidentiality affecting them emotionally. CONCLUSION: There is a need for accelerated HIV/AIDS training of rural nurses and for wider implementation of universal precautions and postexposure prophylaxis availability in public health facilities in southern Africa.
Delobelle P; Rawlinson JL; Ntuli S; Malatsi I; Decock R; Depoorter AM
OBJECTIVES: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is well established worldwide. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM by the people of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive household survey study of the people living in Riyadh city, as well as the surrounding governorates. A multistage random sample was taken from 1(st) January to the end of March 2010, with a total number of 518 participants. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire through direct interview. The data was collected based on socio-demography, as well as knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM. RESULTS: Participants were nearly sex-matched, consisting of approximately 70% Saudi and 30% non-Saudis. About 89% of the participants had some knowledge of CAM. Mass media e.g. (T.V., newspapers and radio) and family, relatives and friends represented the main sources of CAM knowledge, (46.5% and 46.3% respectively). Nearly 85% of participants or one of their family members has used some form of CAM before, and the most common users of CAM practices were females, housewives, and illiterate subjects (or those who could just read and write), as well as participants aged 60 years and above. Medical herbs (58.89%), prayer (54%), honey and bee products (54%), hijama (35.71%) and cauterization or medical massage therapy (22%) were the commonly used CAM practices. Most participants agreed that there are needs for; CAM practices (93.8%), regulations for CAM (94.9%), health education (96.6%), specialized centers (94.8%) and CAM clinics (92.7%). While only 8.3% of participants usually discussed CAM with their physicians. CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence and increased public interest in CAM use in the Riyadh region. There is a positive attitude towards CAM, yet most participants are reluctant to share and discuss CAM information with their physicians.
Elolemy AT; Albedah AM
OBJECTIVE: To determine if chefs' and student chefs' attitudes, knowledge, and practices regarding healthful food preparation are consistent with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. DESIGN: An analytical survey questionnaire was distributed to 4 chef groups. Sections 1 and 2 of the survey measured chefs' food science knowledge (13 questions) and likelihood of using food preparation practices (15 questions) necessary to meet the 1990 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Section 3 (22 questions) measured chefs' attitudes toward nutrition in general, toward the importance of healthful food preparation practices, and toward the US Dietary Guidelines. SAMPLE: Of 512 surveys distributed by mail, at culinary meetings, and in classes at 2 culinary schools, 447 (86%) were returned (158 from practicing chefs and 289 from student chefs). Practicing chefs included chef educators, foodservice chefs from a national corporation, and independent chef members of the American Culinary Federation of New York City. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Descriptive statistics included frequencies, means, and standard deviations of survey items and of individual survey sections. Reliability and validity were determined using alpha coefficients and principal components analysis. Analysis of variance was used to examine differences in practice, attitudes, and knowledge among chef groups. RESULTS: Both practicing chefs and student chefs answered more than 70% of the food science questions correctly; independent chefs scored significantly lower than educator and corporate chefs. More than two thirds of the chefs and student chefs correctly responded to questions about the nutrient composition of food and how cooking affects the nutrient content of food. All chef groups were confused about fat and cholesterol in food and in the body. Few healthful food preparation practices were likely to be used by any chef group more than two thirds of the time, although the subscale of the attitude toward the importance of these practices was very positive. The majority of practicing chefs thought that customers do not care about the US Dietary Guidelines and nutrition; student chefs thought that customers do care. Both groups strongly agreed that, as chefs, they are responsible for the nutritional content of the food they prepared. APPLICATION: Both chefs and student chefs are willing to learn about food science and recipe modification principles as they apply to healthful cooking practices. The opportunities are clear: Dietitians have the expertise to teach chefs healthful food preparation techniques, recipe modification, and food composition information.
Reichler G; Dalton S
AIM: The aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding breast self-examination (BSE) in a cohort of Indian female dental students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire study was conducted on dental students at Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 12). Chi-square test was used for analysis of categorical variables. Correlation was analyzed using Karl Pearson's correlation coefficient. The total scores for KAP were categorized into good and poor scores based on 70% cut-off point out of the total expected score for each. P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: This study involved a cohort of 203 female dental students. Overall, the total mean knowledge score was 14.22 ± 8.04 with the fourth year students having the maximum mean score (19.98 ± 3.68). The mean attitude score was 26.45 ± 5.97. For the practice score, the overall mean score was 12.64 ± 5.92 with the highest mean score noted for third year 13.94 ± 5.31 students. KAP scores upon correlation revealed a significant correlation between knowledge and attitude scores only (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The study highlights the need for educational programs to create awareness regarding regular breast cancer screening behavior.
Doshi D; Reddy BS; Kulkarni S; Karunakar P
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine current knowledge, attitudes, and management of urinary incontinence among family physicians in Canada. DESIGN: Cross-sectional mailed survey. SETTING: Family physicians in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of 1500 members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-assessed knowledge, self-reported attitudes, and rating of various tests and treatments in the investigation and management of incontinence. RESULTS: The overall unadjusted response rate was 43.3% (650/1500). Although most respondents reported that urinary incontinence was common in their practices, less than half (46.0%, 284/617) indicated that they clearly understood incontinence and just 37.9% (232/612) had an organized plan for incontinence problems. Only 35.0% (214/612) of respondents felt very comfortable dealing with incontinence. Physical examination, urodynamic studies, urinalysis, and testing blood sugar levels were all considered important investigations by more than 90% of respondents. CONCLUSION: There are wide variations in knowledge, attitudes, practices, and comfort level among family physicians dealing with urinary incontinence.
Swanson JG; Skelly J; Hutchison B; Kaczorowski J
Full Text Available Background: ICT competencies are now essential for nurses in optimizing their care services and their training. Objective: To analyze knowledge, attitudes and practices related to ICT, in de population of public hospital and ISPs nurses of Alto Paraná, Paraguay. Methods: A quantitative, descriptive and transversal study was conducted. Data were collected from 130 professionals, during June and July of the year 2011, through interviews and by application of a questionnaire of open and closed questions and a Likert scale.Results: The dimensions of knowledge and use shows elementary levels, but the attitude toward ICT is favorable. Discussion: This last fact and the finding of a predominantly young population suggest that interventions aimed at training have a high probability of success.
Carmen Noelia Espínola López; Carlos César Ojeda Delgado; Ana Laura Ramos Ramírez; María Inmaculada Robertti Pereira; Arnaldo Martínez Mercado; Dina Paniagua Cristaldo
Within preliminary works to the Consensus Conference Informing women about hormone replacement therapy a survey to point out womens knowledge, attitude and practice about menopause and hormone therapy has been implemented. The survey involved representati...
A. Liberati C. Colombo P. Mosconi R. Cotichini R. Satolli S. Donati
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis-B is a life threatening infection resulting in 0.6 million deaths annually. The prevalence of Hepatitis-B is rising in Pakistan and furthermore, there is paucity of information about Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Hepatitis-B patients. Better disease related knowledge is important to have positive attitude and that will bring the good practices which will prevent the further spread of infection. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of Hepatitis-B Patients in Quetta city, Pakistan. METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was undertaken with 390 Hepatitis-B patients attending two public hospitals in Quetta city, Pakistan. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding Hepatitis-B were assessed using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 20, 7 and 8 questions for knowledge, attitude and practice, respectively. Descriptive statistics were used for elaborating patients' demographic characteristics and mean scores for knowledge, attitude and practice of Hepatitis-B patients. Inferential statistics (Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis tests, p?0.05) were used to establish association between study variables. Spearman's rho correlation was used to identify the association between the knowledge, attitude and practice scores. RESULTS: Out of 390 patients, 223 (57.2%) were males, with the majority (136, 34.9%) in the age group of 38-47 years. Mean age of the study cohort was 32.6?±?9.5 years. One hundred and four (26.7%) had primary level education, with 110 (28.2%) working in the private sector. The mean scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 8.48?±?2.7, 3.87?±?1.2 and 2.37?±?1.0, respectively. Education, locality and occupation were significantly associated with knowledge, attitude and practice scores. Significant positive linear correlations between knowledge-attitude (r?=?0.466, p?0.01) knowledge-practice (r?=?0.221, p?0.01) and attitude-practice (r?=?0.224, p?0.01) were also observed from the study results. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study indicate that Hepatitis-B patients lack a basic understanding of infection control and management. This can result in the further spread of Hepatitis-B infection. Extensive health education campaigns should be provided to the patients in the hospital as well as in community settings for rational control and management of the disease.
ul Haq N; Hassali MA; Shafie AA; Saleem F; Farooqui M; Haseeb A; Aljadhey H
BACKGROUND: Physiotherapists as primary health care practitioners are well placed in promoting physically active lifestyles, but their role and practice towards its promotion among patients in Nigeria has not been fully investigated. This study was therefore aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian physiotherapists towards promotion of non-treatment physical activity among patients. METHODS: Three hundred and eight practicing physiotherapists from various public and private hospitals in 14 states of Nigeria completed an adopted 20-item questionnaire, which collected information on physical activity promotion in physiotherapy practice. RESULT: Respondents with good knowledge and attitude towards physical activity promotion in patient management were 196(63.6%) and 292(94.8%) respectively. Only 111 (36%) of the respondents counselled more than 10 patients in the past one month on the benefits of adopting a more physically active lifestyle. Chi-square analysis showed a significant association between low practice of physical activity promotion in patient management with inadequate consultation time (?2=3.36, p=0.043), years of working experience of physiotherapists (?2=11.37, p=0.023) and relative physical activity levels of physiotherapists (?2=11.82, p=0.037). The need for Physical activity recommendation guideline was supported by 287 (97%) respondents. CONCLUSION: Nigerian physiotherapists have good knowledge and attitude towards promotion of physically active lifestyle in their patients but do not counsel many of them, due to insufficient consultation time. Integrating brief counselling into usual treatment sessions is perceived as the most feasible form of physical activity promotion in patient management.
Aweto HA; Oligbo CN; Fapojuwo OA; Olawale OA
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiotherapists as primary health care practitioners are well placed in promoting physically active lifestyles, but their role and practice towards its promotion among patients in Nigeria has not been fully investigated. This study was therefore aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian physiotherapists towards promotion of non-treatment physical activity among patients. Methods Three hundred and eight practicing physiotherapists from various public and private hospitals in 14 states of Nigeria completed an adopted 20-item questionnaire, which collected information on physical activity promotion in physiotherapy practice. Result Respondents with good knowledge and attitude towards physical activity promotion in patient management were 196(63.6%) and 292(94.8%) respectively. Only 111 (36%) of the respondents counselled more than 10 patients in the past one month on the benefits of adopting a more physically active lifestyle. Chi-square analysis showed a significant association between low practice of physical activity promotion in patient management with inadequate consultation time (?2?=?3.36, p?=?0.043), years of working experience of physiotherapists (?2?=?11.37, p =0.023) and relative physical activity levels of physiotherapists (?2?=?11.82, p?=?0.037). The need for Physical activity recommendation guideline was supported by 287 (97%) respondents. Conclusion Nigerian physiotherapists have good knowledge and attitude towards promotion of physically active lifestyle in their patients but do not counsel many of them, due to insufficient consultation time. Integrating brief counselling into usual treatment sessions is perceived as the most feasible form of physical activity promotion in patient management.
Aweto Happiness A; Oligbo Cynthia N; Fapojuwo Oluseun A; Olawale Olajide A
Purpose This paper reports the validation of an assessment instrument designed to measure the outcomes of training in evidence-based practice (EBP) within the context of dentistry. Four EBP dimensions are measured by this instrument: (1) understanding of EBP concepts, (2) attitudes about EBP, (3) evidence accessing methods, and, (4) confidence in critical appraisal. The instrument is the Evidence Based Practice Knowledge, Attitudes, Access, and Confidence Evaluation (KACE) that has four scales, totaling 35 items: EBP knowledge (10), EBP attitudes (10), accessing evidence (9) and confidence in critical appraisal (6). Methods Four elements of validity were assessed: consistency of items within the KACE scales (extent to which items within a scale measure the same dimension), discrimination (capacity to detect differences between individuals with different training or experience), responsiveness (capacity to detect the effects of education on trainees) and test-retest reliability. Internal consistency of scales was assessed by analyzing responses from KACEs completed by second year dental students, dental residents and dental school faculty using Cronbach alpha. Discriminative validity was assessed by comparing KACE scores for students, residents and faculty members. Responsiveness was assessed by comparing pre - and post - training responses for dental students and residents. To measure test-retest reliability, the KACE was completed twice by a class of freshmen dental students 17 days apart and the knowledge scale was completed twice by 16 dental faculty 14 days apart. Results Item - to - scale consistency ranged from 0.21 to 0.78 for knowledge, 0.57 to 0.83 for attitude, 0.70 to 0.84 for accessing evidence and 0.87 to 0.94 for confidence. For discrimination, ANOVA and post-hoc testing by the Tukey-Kramer method revealed significant score differences among students, residents and faculty consistent with education and experience levels. For responsiveness to training, dental students and residents demonstrated statistically significant changes, in desired directions, from pre - to post - test. For the student test-retest, Pearson correlations for KACE scales were: knowledge (0.66), attitudes (0.66), evidence accessing (0.74) and confidence (0.76). For the knowledge scale test-retest by faculty, the Pearson correlation was 0.79. Conclusion The construct validity of the KACE is equivalent to that of instruments that assess similar EBP dimensions in medicine. Item consistency for the knowledge scale was more variable than for other KACE scales, a finding also reported for medically-oriented EBP instruments. The KACE has good discriminative validity, responsiveness to training effects, and test-retest reliability.
Hendricson, William D.; Rugh, John D.; Hatch, John P.; Stark, Debra L.; Deahl, Thomas; Wallmann, Elizabeth R.
Mongolia has a high and increasing burden of hypertension and related disease, with cardiovascular diseases among the leading causes of death. Yet little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian population with regards to blood pressure. With this in mind, a national Non-Communicable Diseases knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on blood pressure was implemented in late 2010. This paper reports on the findings of this research.
Demaio, Alessandro R; Otgontuya, Dugee
Full Text Available Introduction: The harmful effects of cigarette smoking on oral health are well established. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and attitude of dental patients about the effects of smoking on oral health and their cessation efforts.Methods and materials: In this descriptive analysis-cross sectional study, 905 patients from dental clinics in Kerman were selected. They were asked to complete a self- administered structured questionnaire on the effects of smoking on oral health. The questionnaire consisted of questions about demographic data, smoking status, patients' knowledge and attitude about the effects of smoking and cessation efforts of them. Finally, data was analyzed with SPSS program, t test and x2 test.Result: A total 905 patients (53% men and 47% women) were studied. The mean age was 32.76 ± 9.509. The prevalence of smoking was 20.5%. The relationship between sex and education and smoking was significant (p value = 0.0001). Mean Knowledge score was 53.95%. Smoking patients and men were significantly less aware of the effects of smoking on oral health. In this study, 54.9% of smoking patients had tried to quit smoking. Only 12.2% had taken counselling. The attitude toward cigarettes was passive.Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the knowledge about effects of smoking on oral health, especially oral cancer, was low. Therefore dentists have a key role for awarding their patients of such effects and are placed to be have a key role in tobacco prevention and cessation.Keywords: Cigarette, Oral manifestations, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Dental patients
M Rad; SH Kakoei; M Fatahi Tabasi
OBJECTIVE: To determine knowledge, attitudes and practices on intermittent presumptive therapy among pregnant women. DESIGN: A descriptive survey design. SETTING: A rural district in Zimbabwe in a Malaria endemic area lying in the Zambezi valley. SUBJECTS: A convenience sample of forty pregnant women living in Guruve District and on the intermittent presumptive therapy (IPI) programme. There were no drop outs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Selected indicators of knowledge, attitudes and practices were analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: The principal results were that the majority of the respondents (67) had knowledge about the intermittent presumptive therapy (IPT) but (67%) lacked awareness of the benefits of the programme activities. Seventy respondents (43%) said that information about the programme was not readily available. Eleven (27.5%) believed that drugs used in IPI programme could cause fatal congenital abnormalities. All the respondents (100%) believed that malaria could be prevented. Twenty-nine (72.5%) took drugs for IPI accurately under supervision by the nurse and eleven (27.5%) took drugs incorrectly. CONCLUSION: Drug compliance improves if drugs are taken under direct supervision. The results revealed that the majority was knowledgeable of the existence of the IPT, but were not aware of the benefits. There was also a problem of information dissemination leading to ignorance, and myths and misconceptions. Therefore, health education and promotion has to be intensified to give accurate information and motivation.
Mahaka H; Chisango PL
Concern has been raised about inadequate pharmacology teaching in medical schools and the high incidence of prescribing errors by doctors in training. Modifications in pharmacology teaching have been carried out in many countries. The present study was carried out using a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain students' perceptions of their knowledge, attitudes, and skills with regard to different subject areas related to rational prescribing at the end of two-year activity-based pharmacology practical learning sessions in a private medical school in Nepal. The effectiveness of the sessions and strengths and suggestions to further improve the sessions were also obtained. The median total knowledge, attitude, skills and overall scores were calculated and compared among different subgroups of respondents. The median effectiveness score was also calculated. Eighty of the 100 students participated; 37 were male and 43 female. The median knowledge, attitude, and skills scores were 24, 39, and 23, respectively (maximum scores being 27, 45, and 36). The median total score was 86 (maximum score being 108). The effectiveness score for most subject areas was 3 (maximum 4). The strengths were the activity-based nature of the session, use of videos and role-plays, and repeated practice. Students wanted more sessions and practice in certain areas. They also wanted more resources and an internet connection in the practical room. The skills scores were relatively low. The immediate impact of the sessions was positive. Studies may be needed to assess the long term impact. Similar programs should be considered in other medical schools in Nepal and other developing countries.
Shankar PR; Jha N; Bajracharya O; Gurung SB; Singh KK
Full Text Available Introduction: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading killer not only in men but also in women worldwide and primary target for prevention. However, majority initial researchers believed it was mainly a mens disease that resulted in fewer women being informed regarding the disease.Aim and Objectives: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women attended outpatient clinics with Family Medicine Specialists in Kelantan from June to December 2010.Methods/ Study Design: A total of 448 women from 7 out of 14 clinics run by Specialist with age ranged between 25 and 65 years were selected via systematic random sampling in the ratio of 1:2 based on clinic attendance lists. Excluded were those who illiterate and having psychotic symptoms. All of consented participants were given a set of validated KAP questionnaire to be completed within 15 minutes.Findings: Majority of respondents were Malays with mean age of 39.9 years. Among them, 3.1% were smokers and 41.1% claimed having medical illness, the commonest was obesity (23.6%). About 87% of women knew that smoking is a risk factor. However, less than 20% knew about menopause. More than 80% knew typical symptoms whereas less than half realised atypical symptoms. Less than 20% of them knew the cholesterol risk target. Only 13% of women practiced exercise as required. The mean (SD) for knowledge and practice score were 70.6 (13.76) and 63.7(13.59) accordingly. The median (IQR) for attitude score was 88.2 (14.71). Thus the good knowledge, attitude and practice score were 55.6%, 55.1 % and 51.1% respectively.Conclusion: A structured educational programme and utilization of available CVD guidelines should be reinforced as a better preventive strategy to overcome this problem.
Rosediani Muhamad; Ranimah Yahya; Harmy Mohamed Yusoff
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: ? Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) surveys have been used in many countries to understand factors that influence blood donation and as the basis for communication and donor mobilization strategies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ? A search was conducted of publically available databases, and studies with the following characteristics were selected: (1) the study was a knowledge, attitude and practice or KAP plus behaviour survey; (2) the subject of the survey was blood donation; (3) the survey was performed between 1995 and 2011; and (4) the survey was performed in countries classified as emerging and developing by the International Monetary Fund. RESULTS: ? Eighteen KAP studies conducted in seventeen developing countries were identified. There was considerable difference in the structure, population surveyed and conduct of the KAP studies. The common following themes emerged: misinformation about blood donation, fear of blood donation, willingness to donate for family and friends, concern about selling blood and a failure to transfer positive attitudes into actual blood donation. CONCLUSION: ? Despite considerable differences in the culture and demographics of developing countries, several common themes emerged from different KAP surveys.
Lownik E; Riley E; Konstenius T; Riley W; McCullough J
Full Text Available All patients if given proper guidance and education regarding diabetes care would be able to make significant improvement in their life-style which is helpful for good glycemic control. Education to diabetic patients would be more effective if we know the level of knowledge, attitude and practices of our patients. Thus a study was conducted to assess the general characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices of type 2 diabetic patients attending the Out-Patient Department (OPD) of Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology (Karachi, Pakistan). Fifty-seven percent of the patients were overweight or obese. Only 10.7% had good glycemic control. Sixty seven percent did not do exercise of any kind. The overall awareness about the risk of complications was satisfactory but the misconceptions regarding diet, insulin and diabetes were quite common. This study highlights the need for better health information to the patient through large scale awareness programmes so as to change the attitude of our public regarding diabetes.
Naeema Badruddin; Abdul Basit; M.Zafar Iqbal Hydrie; Rubina Hakeem
BACKGROUND: Most pregnant women in Denmark say they have not talked to their midwives about alcohol in pregnancy, and they have mostly been advised that some alcohol intake is all right. From 1999 to 2007, the Danish National Board of Health advised pregnant women that some alcohol intake was acceptable. Since 2007, the recommendation has been alcohol abstinence. The aim of this study was to describe the attitudes toward, knowledge about, and information practice concerning alcohol drinking in pregnancy among midwives in Denmark in 2000 and 2009 and how their answers related to the 2 different official recommendations at the time. METHODS: In 2000, we invited all midwives in the antenatal care center at Aarhus University Hospital. Ninety-four percent were interviewed about their attitudes toward and beliefs and knowledge about alcohol during pregnancy. Questions were also asked about information on alcohol provided to pregnant women. Identical questions were asked to all midwives (100%) in the antenatal care center in 2009. RESULTS: In 2000, most midwives (69%) considered some alcohol intake in pregnancy acceptable, mostly on a weekly level, and only 28% advised abstinence. Binge drinking, on the other hand, was considered harmful by most. There was considerable inter-person variation in the participants' attitudes and what they recommended to pregnant women. In 2009, substantially more midwives (48%) considered abstinence to be best, and significantly, more midwives (61%) gave this advice to pregnant women. Participants had received information on alcohol mostly in a professional context. Their knowledge about the official recommendations about alcohol was good, but many did not inform about the official recommendation. CONCLUSIONS: The attitudes toward and beliefs and knowledge about drinking in pregnancy among midwives have changed along with a change in official policy. The change was mostly independent of personal characteristics of the midwives, including age, gender, and place of work.
Kesmodel US; Kesmodel PS
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to assess the level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and its risk factors, attitude towards HIV/AIDS and AIDS patients and its transmission and to identify high risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS among university students in Xinjiang. Methodology: A crosssectional survey was conducted among students enrolled in two universities, the Xingjiang University (XU) and Xinjiang Medical University (XMU). Data was collected using self-administered standardized questionnaire on attitude and practice regarding HIV/AIDS among 200 students randomly selected students from XU and 200 students from XMU Result: Among the 400 students who participated in the study Overall, the mean knowledge score was 19.3 +5.5. Their knowledge score ranges from 2 to 30. Mean knowledge scores is significantly different by ethnicity, sex, subject major, and year of study in university. Only 33.3% of the respondents had positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS patient. With regards high risk behavior associated with HIV transmission, 15.8% had at least 1 risk behavior related to unprotected sexual exposure Conclusion: HIV/AIDS health education efforts should be intensified in non-medical universities, among female students, first year students and Uyghur and other minorities. About two-thirds of the university students in Xinjiang had negative attitude towards HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS patients. At the same time about 15% of these students reported having at least 1 high risk behavior related to sex and unprotected sex.
Namaitijiang Maimaiti; Khadijah Shamsuddin; Anwar Abdurahim & Nurungul Tohti; Rena Memet
Introduction: An integrated strategy for blood safety is required for the provision of safe and adequate blood. Recruiting a sufficient number of safe blood donors is an emerging challenge. The shortage of blood in India is due to an increase in the demand, with fewer voluntary blood donors. A study on the knowledge, attitude and the practice of donors may prove to be useful in the successful implementation of the blood donation programme. Our aim was to find the level of the knowledge, attitude and practice of blood donation among voluntary blood donors. Material and Methods: A structured questionnaire was given to 530 voluntary blood donors to assess their knowledge, attitude and practice with respect to blood donations. The statistical analyses were done by using the SPSS software. The associations between the demographic factors were analysed by using the Chi square test. Results: Among the 530 donors, 436 (93%) were males and 36 (7%) were female donors. 273 (51.2%) donors knew about the interval of the donation and 421 (79.4%) donors knew about the age limit for the donation. 305 (57%) donors felt that creating an opportunity for the donation was an important factor for motivating the blood donation and 292 (55%) donors felt that the fear of pain was the main reason for the hesitation of the donors in coming forward to donate blood. Conclusion: A majority of the donors were willing to be regular donors. The donors showed positive effects like a sense of satisfaction after the donation. Creating an opportunity for blood donation by conducting many blood donation camps may increase the voluntary blood donations.
S., Uma; R., Arun; P., Arumugam
OBJECTIVE: The medical community has called upon pediatricians to be knowledgeable about an individualized education program (IEP). We sought to: 1) evaluate pediatricians' knowledge and attitudes regarding special education; 2) examine the relationship between perceived responsibilities and practice patterns; and 3) identify barriers that impact pediatricians' ability to provide comprehensive care to children with educational difficulties. METHODS: Surveys were mailed to a national sample of 1000 randomly selected general pediatricians and pediatric residents from October 2010 to February 2011. RESULTS: The response rate was 47%. Of the knowledge items, respondents answered an average of 59% correctly. The majority of respondents thought pediatricians should be responsible for identifying children who may benefit from special education services and assist families in obtaining services, but less than 50% thought they should assist in the development of an IEP. The majority of pediatricians inquired whether a child is having difficulty at school, but far fewer conducted screening tests or asked parents if they needed assistance obtaining services. Overall, the prevalence of considering a practice a pediatrician's responsibility is significantly higher than examples of such a practice pattern being reported. Financial reimbursement and insufficient training were among the most significant barriers affecting a pediatrician's ability to provide care to children with educational difficulties. CONCLUSIONS: In order to provide a comprehensive medical home, pediatricians must be informed about the special education process. This study demonstrates that there are gaps in pediatricians' knowledge and practice patterns regarding special education that must be addressed.
Shah RP; Kunnavakkam R; Msall ME
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead is a highly toxic and pervasive metal. Chronic exposure to low levels is responsible for significant health effects, particularly in children. Prevention remains the best option for reducing childhood lead exposure, however the knowledge, attitudes and practices to lead exposure in many developing countries is not known. Methods: We conducted four focus group discussions (FGD) to evaluate knowledge attitudes and practices to lead exposure in Nigeria. An FGD guide was developed from the literature and preliminary discussion with members of the public. Participants in the FGD were randomly selected from adults living in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria in 2004. Results We found that there was limited awareness of the sources of lead exposure in the domestic environment and participants had little knowledge of the health effects of chronic low-dose lead exposure. Conclusion We conclude that the findings of this study should be used, in conjunction with others, to develop appropriate health education intervention for lead exposure in the domestic environment.
Adebamowo Eugenious O; Agbede Oluwole A; Sridhar Mynepalli KC; Adebamowo Clement A
Full Text Available The study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards tuberculosis (TB) among the residents living in the urban and rural areas. The study was carried out in ten districts across Pakistan. The 1000 respondents aged 15 years and above, including 392 urban and 608 rural respondents, were randomly selected using multistage sampling. An in-depth interview was taken from the respondents. The chi-square test was used to test the association between the variables. The differences in knowledge, attitudes, practices and information sources between the urban and rural respondents were highlighted through multivariate analysis. Thestudy reported poor knowledge and awareness among people regarding thesymptoms, treatment and prevention of TB. The overall health seeking behavior of respondents was found unsatisfactory. Widespread stigmas and myths were prevalent among people obstructing the intended treatment of TB. People have strong faith on the treatment of TB by traditional and spiritual healers. This inclination was foundmore in the rural areas. Television was the main sources for getting TB related information in both the urban as well as the rural areas. The urban-rural inequalities suggests that the area of residence must be kept in view designing future interventions for TB prevention and control, resulting in successful implementation of the programs and policies. The study provides guidelines to conduct advocacy,communication and social mobilization (ACSM) activities as part of the broader TB control strategy.
This study deals with knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HIV/AIDS amongst disabled youth (motor disabilities, visually or hearing impaired) aged 15 to 29 years in Maputo (Mozambique) where the prevalence rate of HIV is 20.7%. The study is the first of its kind in Mozambique on this subject. The NGO Handicap International would like to improve and adapt the activities carried out under its project "HIV and Disability" that targets this vulnerable group within the population. Data collection was done using an interview guide. The study sought to present a comparison of knowledge, attitudes and practices among the disabled youth who participated in the study and with non-disabled youth in Maputo, and a comparison between the three kinds of disability among the disabled youth who participated in the study. The results showed that the level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS in the group of disabled youth is lower than that of youth without disabilities. The comparison between the three types of disabilities showed that those who are hearing-impaired are not reached by the usual HIV/AIDS awareness-raising or prevention campaigns, as they are not a part of these communication networks. The study analyzed reasons for these differences and showed that there is a need to improve access to HIV/AIDS information, counseling and screening for young people with disabilities. A series of recommendations have been proposed based on our results.
The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey.
Demaio, Alessandro R; Dugee, Otgontuya
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are now the leading causes of mortality in Mongolia, and diabetes, in particular, is a growing public health threat. Mongolia is a nation undergoing rapid and widespread epidemiological transition and urbanisation: a process that is expected to continue in coming decades and is likely to increase the diabetes burden. To better inform policy and public-health responses to the impact of the growth in NCDs, a national NCD Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was implemented in Mongolia in 2010; a section of which focused on diabetes.
Demaio, Alessandro R; Otgontuya, Dugee
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the Knowledge, attitude and practice of the prevention of cancer of the cervix among members of the Okada community. The 384 respondents were picked by simple random sampling technique after obtaining consent and a comprehensive list of the major streets from the Local government council. Using Epi info version 3.5 (June 9th 2008), the results were collated and analyzed. Ninety one point one percent had never heard about cervical cancer. Of the 8.9% that have heard, 3.2% have heard of pap smear; 6.5% who felt at risk were also the largest number that were willing to do a pap smear and take the vaccine if it is available, as compared to those who just felt they were at risk of the disease. Of 384 respondents, none have been screened for cervical cancer. Furthermore, it was found that the practice of safe sex dwindles with increasing multiple sexual partners. These come to show the reason why most women in a developing country like ours, present with advanced form of cervical cancer. Despite the poor knowledge of the disease and its prevention, attitudes and practices towards its prevention were worse
A.I. Igwilo; U.U. Igwilo; F. Hassan; M. Idanwekhai; O. Igbinomwanhia; A.O. Popoola
BACKGROUND: Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs) improve patient compliance and decrease pill burden. However, irrational prescribing of FDCs is a major health concern. As resident doctors are primarily involved in patient management at tertiary care hospitals, knowledge about prescribing FDCs is of paramount importance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice, regarding use of FDCs by resident doctors at a tertiary care teaching hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out among resident doctors working at Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, a tertiary care teaching hospital. One hundred resident doctors from the departments of medicine, obstetrics and gynaecology, surgery, paediatrics, skin and psychiatry, who gave their informed consent, were enrolled. A prevalidated questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitude and prescribing practice of fixed dose combinations was filled up. Data was analyzed with suitable statistical tests. RESULTS: Out of the 100 residents recruited for the study, 34, 33 and 33 residents were selected from the 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) year respectively. The resident doctors were not aware about all of the advantages and disadvantages of FDCs. On an average, only 31% of the residents (lowest 16% among 1(st) year residents) had knowledge about the Essential Medicine List (EML). Knowledge about rationality of given FDCs was lacking in 81% of the residents. Only 47% could name a single banned FDC in India. Common sources of information about FDCs were medical representatives, colleagues/peers, the Monthly Index of Medical Specialities (MIMS) and Continuous Medical Education (CMEs). A majority of residents (96%) agreed that FDCs should be allowed to be marketed. The residents opined that most commonly prescribed FDCs were of antimicrobial drugs, amongst which amoxicillin + clavulanic acid was the most frequent. CONCLUSION: There is need to improve knowledge about rationality, EML, usage and banned FDCs in post graduate medical students to promote the rational use of drugs.
Goswami N; Gandhi A; Patel P; Dikshit R
Good oral health is important to overall health. Oral and pharyngeal cancers account for 2% of all cancers, yet no significant improvement in mortality has been demonstrated over the past 30 years. Nurses are in a unique position to integrate and conduct oral health assessments across a wide range of practice settings. Although nursing programs include health assessment and promotion in their curricula, there is poor integration of oral health as a focus. This study aimed to identify the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of baccalaureate nursing students about oral health assessment. A convenience sample of 163 students in two undergraduate courses within a baccalaureate nursing education program was surveyed. Findings indicated that these nursing students felt that oral health was essential to their nursing practice; however, they did not have a full understanding of the key components of an oral health examination or about effective smoking cessation strategies.
Clemmens D; Rodriguez K; Leef B
Good oral health is important to overall health. Oral and pharyngeal cancers account for 2% of all cancers, yet no significant improvement in mortality has been demonstrated over the past 30 years. Nurses are in a unique position to integrate and conduct oral health assessments across a wide range of practice settings. Although nursing programs include health assessment and promotion in their curricula, there is poor integration of oral health as a focus. This study aimed to identify the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of baccalaureate nursing students about oral health assessment. A convenience sample of 163 students in two undergraduate courses within a baccalaureate nursing education program was surveyed. Findings indicated that these nursing students felt that oral health was essential to their nursing practice; however, they did not have a full understanding of the key components of an oral health examination or about effective smoking cessation strategies. PMID:22909038
Clemmens, Donna; Rodriguez, Karla; Leef, Betty
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Jordan, as in neighboring countries in the Middle East, higher education and higher employment rates in recent years among women have had an impact on traditionally based infant feeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate practice, knowledge and attitude to breastfeeding and to assess factors associated with breastfeeding among women in the north of Jordan. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out between 15 July 2003 and 15 August 2003. A total of 344 women with children aged between 6 months and 3 years from five different villages in the north of Jordan were randomly selected and interviewed. Information regarding participants' demographics, infant feeding in first six months of life, knowledge and attitude towards breastfeeding was collected. Results Full breastfeeding was reported by 58.3%, mixed feeding was reported by 30.3% and infant formula feeding was reported by 11.4%. Almost one third of the full breastfeeding group did so for 612 months, and almost two thirds did continue breastfeeding for more than one year. Employed women were more likely not to practice full breastfeeding compared to unemployed women (odds ratio 3.34, 95% CI 1.60, 6.98), and women who had caesarian delivery were more likely not to practice full breastfeeding compared to those who had vaginal delivery (odds ratio 2.36, 95% CI 1.17, 4.78). Jordanian women had a positive attitude but work place and short maternity leaves had a negative impact on breastfeeding. Conclusion This study showed that a high proportion of Jordanian women did breastfeed for more than one year. However, working women and those who deliver by caesarean section were less likely to breastfeed. It is speculated that adopting facilitatory measures at hospitals and work place could increase the rate of full breastfeeding.
Khassawneh Mohammad; Khader Yousef; Amarin Zouhair; Alkafajei Ahmad
Full Text Available The food nutrition label provides the nutrition information that helps consumers on food choices and used to give us information so that customer can choose between foods. This study was aimed to determine the association between knowledge, attitude and practices on food label use and to determine the factors that influence the use of food labels during making food purchasing decision among university students. A cross-sectional study of undergraduate students at UiTM Puncak Alam in the Kuala Selangor district of Malaysia was conducted in June until July 2011. Three hundred twenty nine students (n = 329) volunteered to complete a Food Label Use Questionnaire (FLUQ) which included question about sociodemographics, level of knowledge about food and nutrition, attitude and practices related to using food labels and factors affecting the use of food labelling. Hypothesis testing was completed using Independent t-test, Pearson chi-square and descriptive analysis in which the statistical significant level was set at a = 0.05. The results show that, only 21.6% of the students often use the food label during food purchasing decision. These study shows that the practices by read the nutrition information were significantly associated with the use of food label (p<0.05). The important aspect during buying food product was expiry date (98.5%), taste (95.7%), price (92.4%) and nutrient content (90.5%) were significantly associated with the use of food label. The students attitude which is do not know how to use nutritional information label (p = 0.028) and label was not attractive (p = 0.037) were significantly associated on food label use.
G. Nurliyana; M.N. Norazmir; M.I. Khairil Anuar
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the principal cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide. African women in comparison with their low incidence of cancer, disproportionately bear a high cancer mortality rate. AIM: The study was aimed at investigating level of breast cancer awareness, attitudes and practices towards early detection strategies. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in Oredo municipal council of Benin city and adopted a descriptive cross sectional design. Purposive, stratified and simple random sampling were used to select 365 women from 9 health facilities in 6 wards of the municipality. Self-administered questionnaires were used. Analysis was done using Social Science Statistical Package, version 16 (United States, 2007) (country of make and if). Test of associations employed chi square statistical tool with level of significance generally taken at 0.05. RESULTS: About 90.5% (314/347) knew about breast cancer, but only about 49.71% (172/347) knew up to 3 breast cancer risk factors. A total of 65.2% (226/347) could identify up to two breast cancer signs and symptoms. While about 56.5% (195/347) knew at least one early detection strategy, it was however only about 17.73% (61/347) that practiced regularly at least one of the early detective procedures. Practice of early detection strategies was significantly associated with knowledge (P = 0.01 respectively). CONCLUSION: The result shows that while substantial number still remains ignorant of breast cancer issues, a good number of those who have knowledge were yet to translate knowledge and attitudes into practice.
Azubuike S; Okwuokei S
BACKGROUND: The study aimed to determine current status of knowledge, practices, and attitudes towards adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting among private practitioners in Klang region of Malaysia. METHODS: A total of 238 private practitioners in Klang valley were distributed a questionnaire consisting of seven questions, two knowledge-related, two practice-related and three attitude-related. Each favourable and unfavourable response was given a score of 1 and 0 respectively. Total score of 70% or more for each domain was considered "satisfactory" whereas less than 70% as "unsatisfactory". RESULTS: One hundred forty-five participants completed questionnaire. Knowledge assessment showed 83.4% responses stating that ADR reporting helps to identify safe drugs and 91.7% responded that it measures ADR incidence. Regarding practices, 76.6% respondents were willing to report only if confident that reaction is an ADR. Regarding attitudes, 81.9%, 66.9% and 23.5% participants showed complacency, ignorance, and indifference respectively. Unsatisfactory knowledge, practices, and attitudes were observed in 57.2%, 56.6%, and 73.1% respondents respectively. Satisfactory knowledge was significantly higher in respondent with higher qualification with odds ratio of 2.96 with 95% confidence interval of 1.48-5.93. CONCLUSION: The study showed unsatisfactory level of knowledge, practices, and attitudes towards ADR reporting among high proportion of private practitioners in Klang valley, Malaysia.
Agarwal R; Daher AM; Mohd Ismail N
Full Text Available Background: Adrenal insufficiency is a common occurrence in the critically ill and it is essential that intensivists and endocrinologists involved in the care of these patients have a good understanding of the concepts related to this condition. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices about adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill among the endocrinologists and intensivists practicing in the city of Chennai. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires containing ten questions pertaining to adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill were sent to a total of six endocrinologists and 52 intensivists practicing in Chennai. Results: About 77% of all the respondents agreed to the fact that adrenal insufficiency is a frequent occurrence in critical illness. But 57% of them felt that there is no need for routine evaluation of critically ill patients for adrenal insufficiency. Random serum cortisol was selected by 62% of the responders as the method for evaluating adrenal function in the critically ill. There is clearly no agreement among the endocrinologists or the intensivists on the various cut off levels for diagnosis. Neither is there a clear consensus on the method followed for treatment of patients with adrenal insufficiency in the critical care unit. Conclusion: There is no concordance in the knowledge, attitudes or practices on adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill among the endocrinologists and intensivists in Chennai. There is a need for developing standard diagnostic and treatment guidelines and making it available for all the practicing endocrinologists and intensivists.
Sathya A; Srinivasan B; Parasuraman G; Ravikumar L; Mahadevan S; Sriram U; Gopichandran V
Full Text Available Objective: to identify the knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with the exams used for early prostate cancer screening among men living in two suburbs in Medellín. Methodology: a cross-sectional study conducted using a stratified probability sampling and a guided survey with 38 questions. Percentages were used for the descriptive analysis. Likewise, the prevalence ratio and the confidence interval at 95% with a significance value of p < 0.05 were calculated in the bivariate analysis. Results: eighty-three surveys were conducted in 14 life clubs (social organizations of elderly people) in suburbs 2 and 4 of Medellín. The results showed that 68.7% of participants had adequate knowledge, 43.4 % n appropriate attitude, and 38.6 % adequate practices. It was observed that men with the adequate knowledge were 1.9 times (IC 95 % = 1.4-2.7) likely to also have an adequate attitude compared to those with inadequate knowledge. Similarly, men with adequate attitude were 1.8 times (IC 95 % = 1.2-2.7) likely to also have adequate practices compared to men with an inadequate attitude. Discussion: It is necessary to strengthen the interventions aiming to prevent prostate cancer among the poorest and most vulnerable men, since they are less likely to have adequate knowledge, attitude, and practices
Juan D. Arbeláez R; Nora A. Montealegre H
Full Text Available Background: Child adoption is a recommended alternative form of infertility management. Infertility is of public health importance in Nigeria and many other developing nations. This is a result of its high prevalence and especially because of its serious social implications as the African society places a passionate premium on procreation in any family setting. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of child adoption amongst women attending infertility clinics in teaching hospitals in Lagos State and to determine the factors that influence their attitude and practice towards it.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire which was interviewer-administered. The study was conducted in the two teaching hospitals in Lagos State (LUTH [Lagos University Teaching Hospital] and LASUTH [Lagos State University Teaching Hospital]) from amongst 350 women attending the gynaecological clinics. All the patients under management for infertility at the gynaecology clinics during the period of the study were interviewed.Results: Many respondents (85.7%) had heard of child adoption and 59.3% of them knew the correct meaning of the term. More than half of the respondents (68.3%) said that they could love an adopted child but less than half of them (33.7%) were willing to consider adoption. Only 13.9% has ever adopted a child. The major reason given for their unwillingness to adopt was their desire to have their own biological child. Factors that were favourable towards child adoption were Igbo tribe identity, an age above 40 years, duration of infertility above 15 years, and knowing the correct meaning of child adoption.Conclusion: There is a poor attitude to adoption even amongst infertile couples. Interventions need to be implemented to educate the public on child adoption, to improve their attitude towards adoption and to make it more acceptable.How to cite this article: Omosun AO, Kofoworola O. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards child adoption amongst women attending infertility clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2011;3(1), Art. #259, 8 pages. doi:10.4102/phcfm.v3i1.259
Adenike O. Omosun; Odeyemi Kofoworola
This study aimed to determine knowledge about, attitudes to and practices associated with AIDS among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic attenders in the Cape Peninsula. A questionnaire containing open and closed questions in the appropriate language (English, Afrikaans or Xhosa) was administered by trained clinic staff to 306 patients in 9 of the 29 STD clinics in the region. The median age of attenders was 25 years. The median period of residence in the peninsula was 7 years. There was inadequate awareness of the asymptomatic carrier state, the incurability of AIDS and ways to prevent AIDS. Sexual practice was a high risk: 70.4% of male attenders reported 2 or more partners since the beginning of the year (average 9 months); 39.5% of men reported more than one episode of STD in the previous 2 years. Prostitution was perceived to be common in attenders' communities. There was a low perception of risk to self, and intention to change behaviour was low. More information about AIDS was requested by 98% of patients. These findings are discussed with reference to the health belief model, Fischbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action and Catania et al.'s AIDS risk reduction model. This study supports the urgent need for AIDS education and counselling programmes for patients with STDs in the region. Recommendations include the need to address the beliefs and attitudes that affect behaviour, as well as to convey knowledge.
Blecher MS; Steinberg M; Pick W; Hennink M; Durcan N
PURPOSE: The study aims to assess healthcare workers' needle-stick injury (NSI) knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP). DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a 600-bedded hospital throughout six months. The data were collected using an anonymous, self-reporting questionnaire. Participants were various healthcare workers (HCW) drawn through stratified random sampling and their knowledge, attitude and practice regarding NSI were assessed. FINDINGS: There is significant difference in the mean knowledge, attitude and practice scores among healthcare workers. Even though scores are better for doctors and nurses, practice scores were better for technical staff. Healthcare workers, who had better practice scores, had suffered fewer NSIs. Since this study is a cross-sectional, the population's NSI incidence could not be calculated. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: This study emphasizes that applying knowledge to practice is required to prevent NSIs. Various recommendations to help prevent and deal with NSIs are made. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This study analyses healthcare workers' NSI knowledge, attitude and practices, and also assesses their correlation with NSI incidence, which has not been done previously.
Bhargava A; Mishra B; Thakur A; Dogra V; Loomba P; Gupta S
Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a field survey of supposedly educated young Malaysians regarding their knowledge of landslide as an environmental hazard and their attitudes and practice regarding landslide issues. The respondents were undergraduate students of Penangs Universiti Sains Malaysia whose RST (Restu, Saujana, Tekun) residential hostels were chosen for the study due to their location on a mountainous terrain. A total of 343 students participated in the survey. The results indicated that most of the students did have the general knowledge on landslides. They understood the nature of landslide hazards and how they occur. Nevertheless many had not attended any seminars on landslide issues and some were still in the dark about this hazard.
Habibah Lateh; Jamilah Ahmad
Injuries to children arising from home accidents are an increasing community health concern. The aim of this cross-sectional study in Qalubeya governorate, Egypt was to measure the incidence and types of home injuries affecting rural children aged up to 12 years and to assess their mothers' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about first aid and its associated factors. An interview questionnaire was completed by 1450 rural mothers. The incidence of home injuries in the previous 4 weeks was 38.3% (57.5% were boys). Cut wounds, falls and fractures, burns, poisoning and foreign body aspiration were the common forms of home injuries. Mothers answered an average of 11.0 (SD 5.3) out of 29 KAP questions correctly. Younger age of mother, higher level of education, higher socioeconomic status, being in paid employment, source of knowledge about first aid and having attended a training course on first aid were significant predictors of better KAP among mothers.
Full Text Available An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1) associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure.
Alyson N. Lorenz; Tippawan Prapamontol; Warangkana Narksen; Niphan Srinual; Dana B. Barr; Anne M. Riederer
Full Text Available Abstract Background Late presentation of patients at advanced stages when little or no benefit can be derived from any form of therapy is the hallmark of breast cancer in Nigerian women. Recent global cancer statistics indicate rising global incidence of breast cancer and the increase is occurring at a faster rate in populations of the developing countries that hitherto enjoyed low incidence of the disease. Worried by this prevailing situation and with recent data suggesting that health behavior may be influenced by level of awareness about breast cancer, a cross-sectional study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of community-dwelling women in Nigeria towards breast cancer. Methods One thousand community-dwelling women from a semi-urban neighborhood in Nigeria were recruited for the study in January and February 2000 using interviewer-administered questionnaires designed to elicit sociodemographic information and knowledge, attitude and practices of these women towards breast cancer. Data analysis was carried out using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) version 8.2. Results Study participants had poor knowledge of breast cancer. Mean knowledge score was 42.3% and only 214 participants (21.4%) knew that breast cancer presents commonly as a painless breast lump. Practice of breast self examination (BSE) was low; only 432 participants (43.2%) admitted to carrying out the procedure in the past year. Only 91 study participants (9.1%) had clinical breast examination (CBE) in the past year. Women with higher level of education (X2 = 80.66, p 2 = 47.11, p Conclusion The results of this study suggest that community-dwelling women in Nigeria have poor knowledge of breast cancer and minority practice BSE and CBE. In addition, education appears to be the major determinant of level of knowledge and health behavior among the study participants. We recommend the establishment and sustenance of institutional framework and policy guidelines that will enhance adequate and urgent dissemination of information about breast cancer to all women in Nigeria.
Okobia Michael N; Bunker Clareann H; Okonofua Friday E; Osime Usifo
A knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABP) survey was performed among Barbadian secondary schoolchildren 11-16 years old in January 1990. The survey sought to assess the children's knowledge of AIDS and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission; their attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS; their sexual practices; and changes needed in education programs seeking to reduce childhood HIV transmission. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used. The survey sample was derived by selecting every eleventh student on the rosters of all the secondary schools in Barbados. All of the survey respondents completed the questionnaire on the same day, having been assembled examination-style for that purpose. The results showed high levels of correct knowledge about the principal routes of HIV transmission. However, a considerable proportion of the respondents harbored incorrect beliefs regarding mosquito transmission and dangers to blood donors, and many showed uncertainty or incorrect knowledge regarding possible HIV transmission by biting, spitting, or use of public toilets. About a third of the children (51.4% of the boys and 18.7% of the girls) said they had experienced sexual intercourse, though only 20% reported being sexually active in the year preceding the survey. Three-quarters of the sexually experienced group said they knew how to use condoms, but only a third said there was any time when they had used protection during sexual intercourse. Overall, the results indicate that education efforts prior to the survey had been effective, but that reinforcement of such efforts as well as their extension into the primary schools is warranted. Further research directed at helping these efforts to encourage more meaningful changes in sexual behavior is also needed.
Walrond E; Jones F; Hoyos M; Souder M; Ellis H; Roach T
Full Text Available Background: Sleep disorders represent an under-recognised public health problem and are reported to be underdiagnosed in general practices.Aims: To examine general practitioners (GPs) attitude, knowledge and practice behaviour and identify barriers to detection,diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders encountered in the Australian primary care setting.Method: Using mixed methods, quantitative data from the Dartmouth Sleep Knowledge Questionnaire (DSKQ) were analysedusing MS Excel 2007. Qualitative data were obtained from one focus group and eight interviews. Data were thematicallyanalysed.Results: 15 GPs participated; seven in a focus group and eight in interviews. Scores from DSKQ suggest gaps in GPsknowledge. Qualitative analysis revealed that patients frequently presented with sleep disorders underpinned by mentalhealth disorders. GPs agreed that prescribing pharmacological interventions was undesirable and behavioural interventionswere preferred. Barriers included limited training for GPs, lack of resources, patient expectations and willingness to engagein lifestyle changes, and consultation time constraints.Discussion: Greater flexibility to investigate sleep related problems within the standard consultation and improved accessto educational activities could assist GPs. Patient factors, such as adherence to management strategies, are paramount tosuccessful management of sleep disorders; however, these obstacles to clinical practice may be difficult to overcome.Conclusion: Providing education for GPs about sleep disorders, greater flexibility within consultations may improve patientcare and patient engagement in management strategies may assist, yet a critical success factor in disease managementincludes patient engagement in management strategies.
C Hassed; J Antoniades; KM Jones; S Rajaratnam; L Kiropolous; M Naughton; L Piterman
Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy, one of the most common serious chronic brain disorders, is poorly understood by the public and has been associated with numerous misconceptions and beliefs. This, coupled with its sometimes dramatic clinical manifestations, has often resulted in a strong social stigma.Objective: This study was conducted to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices toward epilepsy among preparatory school students in Mekelle, North Ethiopia.Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire used previously by various authors was self-administered to 391 students studying in four preparatory schools in Mekelle, North Ethiopia.Results: About 85.7% had heard about epilepsy, 19.23% had read on the subject, 67.03% had known someone with epilepsy and 57.14% had witnessed a seizure. Those who would offer equal employment opportunities to people with epilepsy (PWE), refuse to associate with, or refuse to marry PWE represented 64%, 16.8%, and 44.8%, respectively. Negative attitudes seemed to be reinforced by beliefs that epilepsy is evil spirit (33.24%), contagious (28.6%) or a kind of insanity (51.6%). Majority of respondents (70.33%) opted for Holy water, followed by physicians (64.01%), traditional healer (44.78%) and prayers (32.14%).Conclusions: The study revealed practices and knowledge toward epilepsy were limited, especially with respect to epilepsys cause, manifestation, and management. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences between respondents attitude with respect to epilepsy based on age, gender, level of education, religion and school category.
Mulat Gedefa; Tesfaye Wolde; Gebremedhin Solomon
Efforts to formalise the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in maternal and neonatal health programmes have had limited success. TBAs' continued attendance at home deliveries suggests the potential to influence maternal and neonatal outcomes. The objective of this qualitative study was to identify and understand the knowledge, attitudes and practices of TBAs in rural Nepal. Twenty-one trained and untrained TBAs participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews about antenatal care, delivery practices, maternal complications and newborn care. Antenatal care included advice about nutrition and tetanus toxoid (TT) immunisation, but did not include planning ahead for transport in cases of complications. Clean delivery practices were observed by most TBAs, though hand-washing practices differed by training status. There was no standard practice to identify maternal complications, such as excessive bleeding, prolonged labour, or retained placenta, and most referred outside in the event of such complications. Newborn care practices included breastfeeding with supplemental feeds, thermal care after bathing, and mustard seed oil massage. TBAs reported high job satisfaction and desire to improve their skills. Despite uncertainty regarding the role of TBAs to manage maternal complications, TBAs may be strategically placed to make potential contributions to newborn survival.
Thatte N; Mullany LC; Khatry SK; Katz J; Tielsch JM; Darmstadt GL
Students at the University of Botswana, an at-risk group, have previously been shown to have high levels of risky sexual behavior despite widespread knowledge that these behaviors might lead to HIV-1 infection. As there have recently been considerable efforts focused on HIV-1 prevention in Botswana through nationwide media education campaigns and the opening of voluntary counselling and testing centers, re-evaluation of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among students is needed. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 393 students chosen via a random cluster method. Respondents were 50% junior and 50% senior students with 42% males. Half (52%) were "single", 44% were "in a relationship", and 4% were "married". The mean percentage of knowledge questions answered correctly was 96%. 98% agreed that all sexually active adults should know their status and that condom use is important, but only 56% believed getting tested was common and 66% believed that it was common for students to always use a condom. As with the previous survey, we again found that students had excellent knowledge yet perceived use of testing services and condoms remain lower than might be predicted based on knowledge scores.
Stephens LL; Bachhuber MA; Seloilwe E; Gungqisa N; Mmelesi M; Bussmann H; Marlink RG; Wester CW
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of rabies management and control of a sample population. The secondary objective was to compare the KAP with respect to rabies management and control between urban and rural areas and between pet and non-pet owners. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out by conducting face-to-face interviews using structured questionnaires among 1570 respondents from selected households in the Kandy District, Sri Landa. RESULTS: Approximately 58% of the sample population was pet owners. Among all the respondents, there was a high level of awareness (90%) that dogs are the most common rabies reservoir, that the disease is fatal (79%), and that rabies can be prevented by vaccination (88%). Most of the subjects (96%) would seek treatment from a doctor or a hospital after being bitten by a dog. Although 76% of the respondents said that their pet dogs were vaccinated, only one-half were able to present a vaccination certificate upon request. The subjects from the urban areas would submit the head of an animal for rabies evaluation (69%) compared with those from the rural areas (57%). Pet owners (93%) are more aware that dog rabies vaccines are available from authorized offices than non-pet owners (87%). CONCLUSIONS: The level of awareness of rabies and the level of receptiveness to rabies control measures are high. There is a difference in the attitudes and pet care practices relevant to rabies control between urban and rural areas. Pet owners tend to be more cooperative to rabies control activities. The attitudes and practices of the respondents may reflect the inaccessibility of facilities and the lack of services that would enable community participation in rabies control.
Matibag GC; Kamigaki T; Kumarasiri PV; Wijewardana TG; Kalupahana AW; Dissanayake DR; De Silva DD; Gunawardena GS; Obayashi Y; Kanda K; Tamashiro H
Full Text Available Objectives: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) iswell established world wide. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM by the people of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive household survey studyof the people living in Riyadh city, as well as the surrounding governorates. A multistage random sample was taken from1st January to the end of March 2010, with a total number of 518 participants. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire through direct interview. The data was collected based on socio-demography, as well as knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM.Results: Participants were nearly sex-matched, consisting of approximately 70?0Saudi and 30?0non-Saudis. About 89?0ofthe participants had some knowledge of CAM. Mass media e.g.(T.V., newspapers and radio) and family, relatives and friends represented the main sources of CAM knowledge, (46.5?0and46.3?0respectively). Nearly 85?0of participants or one of their family members has used some form of CAM before, and the most common users of CAM practices were females, housewives, and illiterate subjects (or those who could just read and write), as well as participants aged 60 years and above. Medical herbs (58.89? prayer (54? honey and bee products (54? hijama (35.71?nd cauterization or medical massage therapy (22?20were thecommonly used CAM practices. Most participants agreed that there are needs for; CAM practices (93.8? regulations for CAM(94.9? health education (96.6? specialized centers (94.8?20and CAM clinics (92.7? While only 8.3?0of participants usually discussed CAM with their physicians.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence and increased public interest in CAM use in the Riyadh region. There is a positiv eattitude towards CAM, yet most participants are reluctant to share and discuss CAM information with their physicians.
Ahmed Tawfik Elolemy; Abdullah M.N. AlBedah
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) for dietary sodium intake among adult residents of Shandong Province, China. METHODS: In 2011, we conducted a cross sectional survey among a representative sample of 15,350 adults aged 18 to 69 years using a standardized questionnaire to assess their KAP for sodium. Variation in the KAPs by gender, and residence location were compared using the Chi-square tests. Predictors for the 'intention to' and 'currently taking action to' reduce sodium intake were determined by multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for confounding factors. RESULTS: KAPs for dietary sodium intake among urban residents was generally more favorable than among rural residents. Women were likely to have more favorable KAPs than men. About four fifth of subjects reported that they favored a low sodium diets. However, 31% reported that consumption of less sodium results in less physical strength. Overall, 70% indicated their intention to reduce sodium intake, although only 39 % reported that they had taken action to reduce sodium. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that favorable actions to dietary sodium reduction were more likely to occur among those who were aware of the link between sodium and hypertension, and less likely among those who had unfavorable attitudes towards dietary sodium reduction. CONCLUSION: Increasing knowledge levels about the benefits of sodium reduction will be a key success factor for effective sodium reduction initiatives and is linked to favorable behavioral change. Emphasis should be placed on the rural area.
Zhang J; Xu AQ; Ma JX; Shi XM; Guo XL; Engelgau M; Yan LX; Li Y; Li YC; Wang HC; Lu ZL; Zhang JY; Liang XF
AIMS: To report a descriptive study of fertility-awareness knowledge, attitudes, and practice of infertile women seeking fertility assistance. BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that poor fertility-awareness may be a contributing cause of infertility among women seeking fertility assistance at assisted reproductive technology clinics. The actual practices and attitudes towards fertility-awareness in this particular group of women are unknown. DESIGN: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. METHODS: The study was conducted over 6 months, from 2007-2008, of women on admission to two assisted reproductive technology clinics in a major city in Australia. RESULTS: Two hundred and four of 282 distributed questionnaires were completed (response rate = 72·3%). Eighty-three per cent had attempted conception for 1 year or more, 86·8% actively tried to improve their fertility-awareness from one or more sources of the information, 68·2% believed they had timed intercourse mainly within the fertile window of the menstrual cycle in their attempts at conception, but only 12·7% could accurately identify this window. Ninety-four per cent believe that a woman should receive fertility-awareness education when she first reports trouble conceiving to her doctor. CONCLUSIONS: Most women seeking assistance at assisted reproductive technology clinics attempt timed intercourse within the fertile window of the menstrual cycle. However, few accurately identify this window, suggesting that poor fertility-awareness may be a contributing cause of infertility.
Hampton KD; Mazza D; Newton JM
INTRODUCTION: In spite of a better understanding of the physiopathology of asthma and the existence of effective molecules, morbidity and mortality of asthma across the world are constantly increasing. International guidelines are not apparently applied. This study intended to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of general practitioners on asthma in Ouagadougou. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional anonymous self-administered questionnaire involving 93 General Practitioners practicing in Ouagadougou. RESULTS: The participation rate was 63.4% or 59 respondents. The majority of General Practitioners (88%).know the chronic nature of asthma and 61% of them had good knowledge of severe asthma signs. The post-exercise asthma and medication asthma were known respectively by 22% and 15% of General Practitioners. Knowledge of the technique of using pressurized metered dose inhalers was bad in 54% of General Practitioners. In intermittent asthma, 52.5% of General Practitioners prescribed steroids including 27% in oral form. Inhaled corticosteroids were associated with ?2-agonists by 34% of General Practitioners in persistent asthma. After initial treatment, 44% of study physicians routinely referred their patients to pulmonologists. Drug costs, lack of in-service training and lack of national guidelines were perceived as barriers by 56%, 66% and 44% of General Practitioners. CONCLUSION: The management of asthma is not optimal. The training of General Practitioners on the management of asthma is essential.
Badoum G; Ouédraogo SM; Lankoande H; Ouédraogo G; Boncoungou K; Bambara M; Ouédraogo M
Full Text Available Each year, more than 20 million people are injured and 1.17 million are killed due to road traffic accidents. Developing countries account for over 85% of the deaths, and close to 90% of the disabilitycaused by road traffic crashes worldwide. The objectives of this study were to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice and the factors influencing university students in Malaysia concerning road traffic accident. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among the students of Management and Science University, Malaysia. The questionnaire was distributed randomly to the students of the Faculty of Health and Life Sciences. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 13, T-test and ANOVA. Results: The total number of 109 students with the mean age of 20.94±1.89 years participated in this study. Approximately 39 (35.7%) of the participant had been involved in one or more than one road traffic accident. About 93.6% of them were very strongly/strongly convinced of seat belts importance. Multivariate analysis using the multiple linear regression method showed that age and attitude were significantly associated with the exposure to the accident. Conclusion: The study participants had moderate knowledge about road traffic regulations and most of them mentioned that high speed, drivers lack of awareness about traffic regulation and laws, and drivers non-compliance with traffic rules and regulation were the most important cause of road traffic accidents. Almost all students were very strongly/strongly convinced of seatbelts importance. Age and attitude were significantly associated with the exposure to the accident.
Redhwan, AA; Karim, AJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background Examination of consultation data in a variety of primary care settings in Tanzania shows that, while psychoses are routinely diagnosed and treated at primary care level, depression is rarely recorded as a reason for consultation. Since, epidemiological studies elswhere show that depression is a much more common disorder than psychosis, a series of studies were undertaken to elucidate this apparent paradox in Tanzania and inform mental health policy; firstly, a household prevalence study to ascertain the prevalence of common mental disorders at community level in Tanzania; secondly, a study to ascertain the prevalence of common mental disorders in primary care attenders; and thirdly, a study to ascertain the current status of the knowledge, attitude and practice pertaining to depression among primary health care workers. This paper reports the findings of the latter study. Methods All the primary health care workers (N = 14) in four primary health care centres in Tanzania were asked to complete the Depression Attitude Questionnaire, which assesses the health worker's knowledge and attitude towards the causes, consequences and treatment of depression. Results The majority of respondents felt that rates of depression had increased in recent years, believed that life events were important in the aetiology of depression, and generally held positive views about pharmacological and psychological treatments of depression, prognosis and their own involvement in the treatment of depressed patients. However, the majority of respondents felt that becoming depressed is a way that people with poor stamina deal with life difficulties. Conclusion The findings suggest a need to strengthen the training of primary health care workers in Tanzania about the detection of depression, pharmacological and psychological treatments, and psychosocial interventions.
Mbatia Joseph; Shah Ajit; Jenkins Rachel
Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. Methods Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.15 and associations were tested using the Pearson's Chi square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of knowledge status and motivation of organ donation. Results Knowledge about organ donation was significantly associated with education (p = 0.000) and socioeconomic status (p = 0.038). 70/198 (35.3%) people expressed a high motivation to donate. Allowance of organ donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate (p = 0.000). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant (p Conclusion Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures should be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars.
Saleem Taimur; Ishaque Sidra; Habib Nida; Hussain Syedda; Jawed Areeba; Khan Aamir; Ahmad Muhammad; Iftikhar Mian; Mughal Hamza; Jehan Imtiaz
Background A major destructive earthquake is predicted to shake the Tehran city in the near future. To mitigate the damage from such earthquakes, it is necessary to assess the preparedness of people and find the related risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran city among people aged 15 years or older in 2009. 1195 of Tehran's residents were interviewed using a questionnaire. Pearson chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used in order to evaluate the factors associated with preparedness against an earthquake. Results The analysis showed that 1076 (90.0%), 1160 (97.1%), and 490 (41.0%) of the participants achieved half of the possible scores for the knowledge, attitude, and practice components, respectively. Furthermore, in multivariate analysis low knowledge (p<0.001), having a high-school (p=0.033) or lower education (p<0.001) and living in Northern high-risk regions (p<0.001) of the Tehran were identified as risk factors for taking precautionary measures against earthquake. For low knowledge, lack of previous experience (p<0.001), and working as labor, businessman, employee (p=0.001) or being housewife (p=0.002) were related risk factors. In addition, people in the Southern high risk regions were significantly more knowledgeable (OR=0.618 compared to people in low risk regions) about earthquakes. Conclusions It is suggested that preparedness programs should target people with lower educational level and people in high risk regions especially the Northern districts of the city and aim at increasing public knowledge about earthquakes. Address for correspondence: Ali Ardalan, No. 78, Italia Ave, Department of Disaster Public Health, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com Citation: Ostad Taghizadeh A, Hosseini M, Navidi I, Mahaki AA, Ammari H, Ardalan A. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Tehran's Inhabitants for an Earthquake and Related Determinants. PLOS Currents Disasters. 2012 Aug 6.
Ostad Taghizadeh A; Hosseini M; Navidi I; Mahaki AA; Ammari H; Ardalan A
OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding rabies preexposure prophylaxis among veterinary facility owners in West Virginia and to compare facilities in counties where raccoon rabies virus variant (RRVV) is or is not enzootic. DESIGN: Cross-sectional telephone survey. SAMPLE: 124 owners of facilities licensed by the West Virginia Board of Veterinary Medicine. PROCEDURES: In 2011, an owner of each licensed facility in West Virginia was contacted by telephone to complete a questionnaire regarding practice demographics, knowledge of rabies epidemiology, and preexposure prophylaxis policies. Data from facilities in counties where RRVV is enzootic were compared with data from facilities in counties where RRVV is not enzootic. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to quantify the strength of associations. RESULTS: Owners of 124 of the 162 (77%) veterinary facilities participated in the survey. West Virginia veterinarians were knowledgeable of rabies epidemiology in the state. Respondents agreed that veterinarians (122/124 [98%]) and technicians and assistants (111/124 [90%]) should receive preexposure prophylaxis. Fifty-six (45%) respondents required that veterinarians receive preexposure prophylaxis, whereas 19 (15%) respondents required that technicians and assistants receive preexposure prophylaxis. A preexposure prophylaxis policy was in effect at 20 of 64 (31%) facilities in counties where RRVV is enzootic and 6 of 60 (10%) facilities in counties where RRVV is not enzootic. Concerns related to cost of preexposure prophylaxis were reported. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Except for veterinarians, veterinary staff in West Virginia did not commonly receive preexposure prophylaxis or regular assessments of serum rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers. All veterinary practices are encouraged to consider revising or implementing a preexposure prophylaxis policy based on the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices' recommendations.
Taylor TK; Radcliffe RA; Bixler D
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding tuberculosis among Nigerian senior secondary school students. DESIGN: Questionnaire. SETTING: Ilorin Grammar School, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. PARTICIPANTS: Seven hundred and ninety one senior secondary students. INTERVENTION: Questionnaire explained in English to whole class by author. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Responses were streamlined and analysed based on responders, knowledge of, attitudes towards, and practices as regards tuberculosis. RESULTS: KNOWLEDGE: The response "Yes", "No", or "I don't know" was given to each of the following questions and their respective percentages are indicated: Have you ever heard of tuberculosis?: 81.4%, 13.9%, 4.7%. Have you ever been affected by it?: 8.3%, 86.3%, 5.3%. Can tuberculosis of the lung be contracted through drinking unclean water or eating unhygienic food?: 72.3%, 17.2%, 10.5%. Can it spread through air droplets?: 70.9%, 17.8%, 11.3%. Can it spread through overcrowding?: 71.6%, 18.1%, 10.4%. Is it caused by spirits, demons or evil doers?: 16.2%, 67.5%, 16.3%. Is it the only cause of long-standing cough?: 43.6%, 40.2%, 16.2%. Can it cause persistent fever?: 64.6%, 19.8%, 15.5%. Can it cause loss of weight?: 79.6%, 11.9%, 8.5%. Tuberculosis only affects the lungs?: 46.3%, 39.1%, 14.7%. Can it be cured at all?: 76.7%, 12.1%, 11.1%. Should the patient always be admitted to the hospital to receive treatment?: 69.7%, 9.7%, 20.6%. Can the disease be prevented?: 89.2%, 0.9%, 11.9%. Heaf or Mantoux test is dangerous?: 15.8%, 13.3%, 71.6%. Patients who are already on effective treatment (drugs) can still spread the disease?: 50.2%, 25.3%, 24.5%. Patients who have been cured can still spread the disease?: 33.5%, 49.6%, 16.9%. Should patients with tuberculosis be regarded as outcasts?: 40.1%, 38.9%, 21%. Can BCG vaccination prevent tuberculosis?: 57.6%, 18.6%, 23.8%. Can cigarette smoking predispose to tuberculosis of the lungs?: 66%, 15.8%, 18.1%. ATTITUDES: The responses on how tuberculosis can be cured are as follows: By making sacrifice to appease the angry spirits or demons 3%; by begging the evil doers 2.3%; by taking drugs prescribed by doctors 69.7%; by taking traditional medicines 4.8%; by a combination of all the above 20.1%. PRACTICES: On prevention of tuberculosis, 51 different methods are volunteered of which 41.2% are correct, 19.6% are controversial while 39.2% are definitely incorrect. CONCLUSIONS: A high level of ignorance, wrong knowledge, wrong attitudes and wrong practices is demonstrated among senior secondary students. Inclusion of health education in school syllabi is advocated.
Leptospirosis disproportionately affects residents of urban slums. To understand the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding leptospirosis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among residents of an urban slum community in Salvador, Brazil. Of the 257 residents who were interviewed, 225 (90%) were aware of leptospirosis and more than two-thirds of respondents correctly identified the modes of disease transmission and ways to reduce exposure. However, study participants who performed risk activities such as cleaning open sewers had limited access to protective clothing such as boots (33%) or gloves (35%). Almost all respondents performed at least one activity to prevent household rat infestation, which often included use of an illegal poison. Our findings support the need for interventions targeted at the individual and household levels to reduce risk of leptospirosis until large-scale structural interventions are available to residents of urban slum communities.
Navegantes de Araújo W; Finkmoore B; Ribeiro GS; Reis RB; Felzemburgh RD; Hagan JE; Reis MG; Ko AI; Costa F
Lung cancer is the most common cancer in the world since 1988, both in terms of incidence and mortality among both men and women. Approximately half of the cases of lung cancer now occur in developing countries compared to 1980. Tobacco smoking is by far the predominant risk factor for lung cancer. A knowledge, attitude and practice of smoking among 132 cases of lung cancer in this study was undertaken. Amongst 113 ever smokers, out of 132 cases, 91.18% of males and 36.36% of female subjects continued smoking despite knowing the harmful effects of tobacco, displayed over the cigarette or bidi packets. In these group squamous cell carcinoma was the most common type followed by adenocarcinoma. Among the never smokers adenocarcinoma was the commonest type, females accounting for 75% of the cases, though a good number was observed among male ever smokers, signifying the changing histological types of lung cancer today. PMID:23936950
Dey, Subir Kumar; Jha, Sumanta; Ghosh, Indranath; Bhattacharya, Sujit Kumar; Das, Abhradip; Gangopadhyay, Subir
Full Text Available High salt intake is important risk factor for hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice regarding salt intake in rural population in continental Croatia. Data were obtained by standardized questionnaire in 928 adult subjects (586 women and 342 men). Results have shown low level of awareness (~60%) of salt risk. Women were more aware about the harmful effects of salt and could identify some food with higher concentration of salt. Participants were not aware through which food is the highest salt intake. Our results urge the need for national projects and public health campaigns that would raise the awareness of salt intake, need for health education particularly for rural population. Food industry and nutritionists should become partners in this initiative.
Ksenija Vitale; Slavica Paradinovi?; Jovana ?uri?; ivka Dika; Dragana Juri?; Patricija Luketi?; Bojan Jelakovi?
BACKGROUND: One of the most difficult issues physicians must address when caring for persons with dementia is fitness to drive. The purpose of this project was to investigate the attitudes, knowledge, and practices of physicians toward drivers with dementia. METHODS: A questionnaire that obtained perspectives about and experiences with drivers' with dementia was mailed to physicians from North Carolina and South Carolina. RESULTS: The sample was comprised of 239 physicians who worked with persons with dementia. Respondents who were aware of the Physician's Guide to Assessing and Counseling Older Drivers, had a strong perceived role regarding driving, were older, and believed it was important to address driving were more likely to engage in driving discussions. CONCLUSIONS: Concerns associated with the driver with dementia have implications for not only patient care but also public safety. We recommend that all physicians be encouraged to address the issue and utilize existing educational materials.
Adler G; Rottunda SJ
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Breast cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and the cause of about 18% of all malignancies in females. By breast self-examination (BSE) it is possible to diagnose a breast tumor in the preliminary stages and treat it. Basic changes in the knowledge, attitude and practice of women as regards regular BES and follow-up will lead to considerable success in campaigns against breast cancer. Considering the role and responsibilities of community health workers (CHWs) in the health services delivery system in the Islamic Republic of Iran, this study aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of female CHWs as regards BSE in 2006. "nMethods and Materials: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 89 female CHWs in the Iranian Mako township health houses. The data was collected through interviews using a questionnaire consisting of 4 sections, the first section containing 10 demographic questions, and the second to fourth sections containing 33 questions on knowledge, attitude, and practice. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed using the repeat testing with r=85%. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software (version 11)."nResults: The data showed that the BSE knowledge of 50.6% and 49.4% of the subjects was good and moderate, respectively; 76.4% of them had a positive attitude towards BSE. The reasons for not self-examination were as follows: inability to do it alone (12.4%); fear of a positive result, i.e., existence of a tumor (1.1%); having no time (2.2%); fear of increased anxiety (5.6%); not believing in BSE, even if it was likely to have a tumor (11.2%). Further analysis of the data showed the practice of the subjects to be good, moderate, and weak in 9%, 61.8%, and 29.2% of the cases, respectively. "nThere were significant associations between knowledge and a positive attitude (p=0.038), between attitude of the unmarried subjects towards performing BSE as compared to the married subjects (p=0.00), and between attitude and practice (p=0.045)."nConclusion: This study showed a moderate to good knowledge, a relatively good attitude, and a moderate practice among female CHWs in the Makoo Township, Iran, with regard to BSE. Considering the role of CHWs, improving their knowledge, attitude , and practice of BSE is essential.
Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) is a crucial element of hypertension control, but little information is available from developing countries where hypertension has lately been recognized as a major health problem. Therefore, we examined KAP on hypertension in a random sample of 1067 adults aged 25 to 64 years from the Seychelles Islands (Indian Ocean). KAP were assessed from an administered structured questionnaire. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension (screening blood pressure [BP] > or = 160/95 mm Hg or taking antihypertensive medication) was 36% in men and 25% in women aged 25 to 64 years. Among hypertensive persons, 50% were aware of the condition, 34% were treated, and 10% had controlled BP (ie, BP <160/95 mm Hg). Most persons, whether nonhypertensive, unaware hypertensive, or aware hypertensive, had good basic knowledge related to hypertension determinants and consequences, possibly an effect of a nationwide cardiovascular disease prevention program over the last years. However, favorable outcome expectation, positive attitudes, and appropriate practices for hypertension and relevant healthy lifestyles were found in smaller proportions of participants, with little difference between aware hypertensives, unaware hypertensives, and nonhypertensives. Furthermore, hypertensive persons with other concurrent cardiovascular risk factors affecting the overall heart risk knew well the detrimental effects of these other factors but reported making little actual change to control them (particularly regarding overweight and sedentary habits). These data point to the need to maximize the efficiency of hypertension prevention and control programs so that delay in achieving effective hypertension control is minimized in countries experiencing recent emergence of hypertension as a major public health problem.
Aubert L; Bovet P; Gervasoni JP; Rwebogora A; Waeber B; Paccaud F
OBJECTIVE: Identifying knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding dengue control for guiding prevention and control measures. METHODS: A community survey was carried out using house inspection visits during May 2007 in two neighbourhoods in Bucaramanga having a high incidence of dengue. Mosquito breeding places were identified and education concerning dengue prevention and control measures was provided. EPI-INFO was used for analysing the information so collected. RESULTS: 643 of the 780 households (82.4%) responded to the survey. Most people responding (518) were female (80.6%), average age being 39.6 (16.8 standard deviation (SD)), average schooling lasted 6.2 years (3.5 SD) and average household size was 5 people per house. Regarding dengue, 433 people (67.3%) described it as being a very serious disease; 545 (84.8%) stated that it was transmitted by a mosquito vector and 242 (37.6%) said that it was produced by a virus 59 (9.2%). The symptoms recognised were: fever by 570 people (88.6%), vomiting by 352 (54.7%), diarrhoea by 275 (43.0%), headache by 243 (37.8%), bone pain by 196 (30.5%) and muscle pain by 109 (17.0%). For prevention, 288 (44.7%) avoided stagnant water, 174 (27.2%) washed out their water tanks, 91 (14.2%) fumigated and 101 (15.8%) cleaned their houses. When anybody had dengue, 410 of them (63.8%) would go to a doctor, 129 (20.1%) would go to a hospital and 78 (12.0%) would treat themselves. Larval rate was 26.6% and there had been cases of dengue in 8.4% of the households during the last month. DISCUSSION: Knowledge about dengue was sketchy. Attitudes were favourable regarding dengue control but preventative practice was inadequate. The community must be educated and empowered to ensure their active participation in prevention and control programmes.
Cáceres-Manrique Fde M; Vesga-Gómez C; Perea-Florez X; Ruitort M; Talbot Y
BACKGROUND: Antenatal corticosteroids administered to women at risk of preterm birth is an intervention which has been proved to reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, and neonatal mortality. There is a significant gap in the literature regarding the prevalence of the use of antenatal corticosteroids in Latin American countries and the attitudes and opinions of providers regarding this practice. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care providers regarding the use of antenatal corticosteroids in women at risk of preterm birth in Latin America. METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective, descriptive study conducted in maternity hospitals in Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay. Physicians and midwives who provide prenatal care or intrapartum care for women delivering in the selected hospitals were approached using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used. RESULTS: The percentage of use of ACT in threatened preterm labour (TPL) reported by providers varies from 70% in Mexico to 97% in Ecuador. However, 60% to 20% of the providers mentioned that they would not use this medication in women at risk and would limit its use when there was a threatened preterm labour. In only one country recommended regimens of antenatal corticosteroids are followed by around 90% of providers whereas in the other three countries recommended regimens are followed by only 21%, 61%, 69% of providers. Around 40% of providers mentioned that they would administer a new dose of corticosteroids again, regardless the patient already receiving an entire regimen. Between 11% and 35% of providers, according to the countries, mentioned that they do not have adequate information on the correct use of this medication. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the use of this intervention could be improved by increasing the knowledge of Latin American providers on its indications, benefits, and regimens.
Aleman A; Cafferata ML; Gibbons L; Althabe F; Ortiz J; Sandoval X; Padilla-Raygoza N; Belizán JM
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain knowledge, attitude and practices of medical students regarding needle stick injuries. METHODS: A cross sectional survey was conducted among the consenting medical students of 3rd, 4th and 5th years at a teaching hospital of Karachi, Pakistan. Convenience sampling was used. Pre-tested questionnaires were administered to approximately 70% of each class. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Associations were assessed using chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: The response rate of the survey was 85.7%. Sixty one students (33.9%) were from 3rd and 4th year each while 58 students (32.2%) were from 5th year. More than 85% students from each class were aware of the possibility of acquisition of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV from needle stick injuries. Only 16.4% 3rd year students, 29.5% 4th year students and 36.2% final year students knew the full details of needle stick injury prevention protocols. Curriculum was cited as an important source of information regarding needle stick injuries. Forty seven (26.1%) students had received a needle stick injury in the past; however, only 14 students (29.7%) had reported the incident either to their consultant or the Infection Control Office. CONCLUSION: Overall knowledge of medical students regarding various aspects of needle stick injuries improved with seniority in medical college. However, the domains of attitude and practices need to be improved as the frequency of needle stick injuries was also observed to increase with the increasing year of medical education.
Saleem T; Khalid U; Ishaque S; Zafar A
BACKGROUND: Malaria is still prevalent in Southeast Asia where large numbers of backpackers visit each year. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices among foreign backpackers toward malaria risk in Southeast Asia. METHODS: Questionnaires were administered to foreign backpackers in Bangkok, Thailand. They were asked about their general background, their attitude to malaria risk, and their preventive measures against malaria. Their knowledge about malaria was assessed by 10 true-false questions in the questionnaires. RESULTS: In total, 434 questionnaires were evaluated. Fifty-five percent of travelers were male and the median age was 28 years. The main reason for travel was tourism (91%). Almost all travelers (94%) were aware of the risk of malaria. Twenty-two percent of them would take antimalarial prophylaxis and 33% would use measures against mosquito bite, but nearly 40% had "no prevention" at all. Mean knowledge score was only 5.52 of 10. Most backpackers (92%) knew that malaria is a serious disease and sometime fatal and 74% knew that some travelers could develop malaria after they return. However, up to 35% believed that eating contaminated food could lead to malaria infection. And 49% believed that malaria could be 100% prevented by chemoprophylaxis. In backpackers, who had traveled in the forest (n = 65), only 54% used insect repellent regularly. Among those who had taken antimalarial prophylaxis, nearly 30% had stopped the medication prematurely. CONCLUSIONS: Although most backpackers perceive the risk of malaria in Southeast Asia, they have some misunderstandings about malaria and tend to comply poorly with mosquito bite prevention and chemoprophylactic strategies.
Piyaphanee W; Wattanagoon Y; Silachamroon U; Mansanguan C; Wichianprasat P; Walker E
OBJECTIVE: Breastfeeding offers numerous health advantages to children, mothers, and society. From obstetrics to pediatrics, breastfeeding dyads come in contact with a wide range of healthcare providers. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) calls for pediatricians to support breastfeeding enthusiastically and for all children to have a medical home. We studied an inner-city healthcare system with a Dyson Community Pediatrics Training Initiative Model Medical Home clinic, to explore how a breastfeeding/baby-friendly medical home might be built upon this framework. We describe breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, and practices among a full range of providers and healthcare system-level barriers to effective and coordinated breastfeeding services. METHODS: We conducted eight focus groups using semistructured interviews: (1) pediatricians; (2) obstetricians; (3) pediatric nurses and allied health professionals; (4) obstetric nurses and allied health professionals; (5) 24-hour telephone triage answering service nurses; (6) public health nurses; (7) Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) personnel; and (8) lactation consultants and peer counselors. RESULTS: We identified gaps in providers' breastfeeding knowledge, counseling skills, and professional education and training. Providers' cultures and attitudes affect breastfeeding promotion and support. Providers used their own breastfeeding experiences to replace evidence-based knowledge and AAP policy statement recommendations for breastfeeding dyads. There were communication disconnects between provider groups. Providers underestimated their own, and overestimated others', influence on breastfeeding. The system lacked a coordinated breastfeeding mission. CONCLUSIONS: This study illuminated key disconnectedness challenges (and, hence, opportunities) for a model medical home in fostering continuous, comprehensive, coordinated, culturally effective, and evidence-based breastfeeding promotion and support.
Szucs KA; Miracle DJ; Rosenman MB
BACKGROUND: To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. METHODS: Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.15 and associations were tested using the Pearson's Chi square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of knowledge status and motivation of organ donation. RESULTS: Knowledge about organ donation was significantly associated with education (p = 0.000) and socioeconomic status (p = 0.038). 70/198 (35.3%) people expressed a high motivation to donate. Allowance of organ donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate (p = 0.000). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant (p < 0.05) independent predictors of knowledge status of organ donation. For motivation, multiple logistic regression revealed that higher socioeconomic status, adequate knowledge score and belief that organ donation is allowed in religion were significant (p < 0.05) independent predictors. Television emerged as the major source of information. Only 3.5% had themselves donated an organ; with only one person being an actual kidney donor. CONCLUSION: Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures should be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars.
Saleem T; Ishaque S; Habib N; Hussain SS; Jawed A; Khan AA; Ahmad MI; Iftikhar MO; Mughal HP; Jehan I
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic resistance (ABR) particularly hits resource poor countries, and is fuelled by irrational antibiotic (AB) prescribing. We surveyed knowledge, attitudes and practices of AB prescribing among medical students and doctors in Kisangani, DR Congo. METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 184 questionnaires were completed (response rate 94.4%). Knowledge about AB was low (mean score 4.9/8 points), as was the estimation of local resistance rates of S. Typhi and Klebsiella spp.(correct by 42.5% and 6.9% of respondents respectively). ABR was recognized as a problem though less in their own practice (67.4%) than nation- or worldwide (92.9% and 85.5%, p<.0001). Confidence in AB prescribing was high (88.6%) and students consulted more frequently colleagues than medical doctors when prescribing (25.4% versus 11.6%, p=?0.19). Sources of AB prescribing included pharmaceutical companies (73.9%), antibiotic guidelines (66.3%), university courses (63.6%), internet-sites (45.7%) and WHO guidelines (26.6%). Only 30.4% and 16.3% respondents perceived AB procured through the central procurement and local pharmacies as of good quality. Local AB guidelines and courses about AB prescribing are welcomed (73.4% and 98.8% respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This data shows the need for interventions that support rational AB prescribing.
Thriemer K; Katuala Y; Batoko B; Alworonga JP; Devlieger H; Van Geet C; Ngbonda D; Jacobs J
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) due to Leishmania (V.) braziliensis are endemic in Paraguay. We performed a series of knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) surveys simultaneously with individuals in endemic communities in San Pedro department (n = 463), health professionals (n = 25), and patients (n = 25). Results showed that communities were exposed to high risk factors for transmission of L. braziliensis. In logistic regression analysis, age was the only factor independently associated with having seen a CL/MCL lesion (P = 0.002). The pervasive attitude in communities was that CL was not a problem. Treatment seeking was often delayed, partly due to secondary costs, and inappropriate remedies were applied. Several important cost-effective measures are indicated that may improve control of CL. Community awareness could be enhanced through existing community structures. Free supply of specific drugs should continue but ancillary support could be considered. Health professionals require routine and standardised provision of diagnosis and treatment algorithms for CL and MCL. During treatment, all patients could be given simple information to increase awareness in the community.
Ruoti, Monica; Oddone, Rolando; Lampert, Nathalie; Orue, Elizabeth; Miles, Michael A.; Alexander, Neal; Rehman, Andrea M.; Njord, Rebecca; Shu, Stephanie; Brice, Susannah; Krentel, Alison
BACKGROUND: Understanding why people do not use family planning is critical to address unmet needs and to increase contraceptive use. According to the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011, most women and men had knowledge on some family planning methods but only about 29% of married women were using contraceptives. 20% women had an unmet need for family planning. We examined knowledge, attitudes and contraceptive practice as well as factors related to contraceptive use in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were collected from March to May 2010 among 854 married couples using a multi-stage sampling design. Quantitative data based on semi-structured questionnaires was triangulated with qualitative data collected during focus group discussions. We compared proportions and performed logistic regression analysis. RESULT: The concept of family planning was well known in the studied population. Sex-stratified analysis showed pills and injectables were commonly known by both sexes, while long-term contraceptive methods were better known by women, and traditional methods as well as emergency contraception by men. Formal education was the most important factor associated with better knowledge about contraceptive methods (aOR = 2.07, p<0.001), in particular among women (aOR(women )= 2.77 vs. aOR(men) = 1.49; p<0.001). In general only 4 out of 811 men ever used contraception, while 64% and 43% females ever used and were currently using contraception respectively. CONCLUSION: The high knowledge on contraceptives did not match with the high contraceptive practice in the study area. The study demonstrates that mere physical access (proximity to clinics for family planning) and awareness of contraceptives are not sufficient to ensure that contraceptive needs are met. Thus, projects aiming at increasing contraceptive use should contemplate and establish better counseling about contraceptive side effects and method switch. Furthermore in all family planning activities both wives' and husbands' participation should be considered.
Tilahun T; Coene G; Luchters S; Kassahun W; Leye E; Temmerman M; Degomme O
Full Text Available Introduction: Rabies in humans is highly fatal and ends in an extremely painful and tortuous death. Unfortunately we still have highest number of deaths due to rabies, ironically a disease preventable by modern prophylactic measures. The post-exposure prophylaxis is a life saving treatment in a definite rabid animal bite. General Practitioners (GPs) act as first line care-givers for the treatment of dog bite and they are also easily approachable by the victim for the treatment to prevent rabies. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding rabies among general practitioners. Methodology: This cross sectional survey was carried out from July August 2011 in Belgaum city among 100 general practitioners using a pre tested questionnaire. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS 18 trial version. Frequencies were tabulated for demographic variables and association between variables was tested using Chi-square test. Results: Out of the total 100 general practitioners interviewed, 93 were males and 7 were females. The mean age of GPs was 42.89 years. The mean duration of practice for MBBS doctors was 19 years and for other doctors (BAMS, BHMS, RMPs) was 11 years. Knowledge about various aspects of rabies was comparatively better among MBBS doctors. The knowledge regarding vaccine was very poor among the general practitioners. Conclusion: The major issue was lack of hands on training or updating the knowledge of general practitioners regarding the newer vaccines and their administration. We recommend continued medical education for general practitioners, both (MBBS and non MBBS) on prevention of Rabies.
R.K. Nayak; P.R. Walvekar; M.D. Mallapur
OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge,attitudes and practices of urban women regarding breast cancer and its available screening modalities. METHODS: The cross-sectional, questionnaire-based, descriptive study was conducted in the urban population of Karachi in November 2010. Female attendants (n=373) visiting a tertiary care centre and four of its urban outreach centres during the study period were administered a questionnaire. The answers were then scored with regard to their knowledge. Frequencies and percentages were computed through SPSS 17, and analysis of variance was used to confirm significance. RESULTS: Of the 373 participants with a mean age of 32.4+/-10.9 years, 293 (78.6%) were married, and 257 (69%) were housewives. The education level was considerably high; with 214 (57.4%) graduates. The mean score for knowledge of risk factors was 2.84 out of a total of 13; which was significantly associated with marital status and income. Age > 40 years, education level, income and employment status were also significantly associated with higher mean screening awareness scores. Nearly 182 (48.8%) had heard about Breast Self Examination and 142 (38%) knew how to perform one. However, only 97 (25.9%) regularly performed such an exam. Almost all 3621 (97%) women wanted more media awareness campaigns regarding the issue. CONCLUSION: There is a real need for comprehensive health education programmes focusing on breast cancer awareness in Pakistan.
Sobani ZU; Saeed Z; Baloch HN; Majeed A; Chaudry S; Sheikh A; Umar J; Waseem H; Mirza M; Qadir I; Khan SM; Kadir M
A survey was undertaken between December 1991 and February 1992 to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices with respect to malaria of 300 women from six randomly selected rural communities in central Ethiopia. A total of 85% were able to recognize one or more of the common symptoms of the disease; however, the modes of transmission were generally misunderstood and only 23% believed that transmission could be prevented. More women preferred to obtain antimalarials from government clinics rather than from private drug shops, mission clinics, unofficial suppliers of injections, open markets, or from leftover sources. Under-5-year-olds were identified as the most malaria-vulnerable group and given priority for treatment; severity of illness was the principal determinant in seeking treatment. Decisions about treatment were generally made jointly by both parents. Knowledge about the transmissibility of malaria decreased with increasing distance from a health unit (odds ratio: 0.48; 95% confidence interval: 0.27, 0.86). A logistic regression analysis indicated that literacy and village were the most important variables associated with knowledge about preventing malaria. PMID:8313494
Yeneneh, H; Gyorkos, T W; Joseph, L; Pickering, J; Tedla, S
A survey was undertaken between December 1991 and February 1992 to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices with respect to malaria of 300 women from six randomly selected rural communities in central Ethiopia. A total of 85% were able to recognize one or more of the common symptoms of the disease; however, the modes of transmission were generally misunderstood and only 23% believed that transmission could be prevented. More women preferred to obtain antimalarials from government clinics rather than from private drug shops, mission clinics, unofficial suppliers of injections, open markets, or from leftover sources. Under-5-year-olds were identified as the most malaria-vulnerable group and given priority for treatment; severity of illness was the principal determinant in seeking treatment. Decisions about treatment were generally made jointly by both parents. Knowledge about the transmissibility of malaria decreased with increasing distance from a health unit (odds ratio: 0.48; 95% confidence interval: 0.27, 0.86). A logistic regression analysis indicated that literacy and village were the most important variables associated with knowledge about preventing malaria.
Yeneneh H; Gyorkos TW; Joseph L; Pickering J; Tedla S
Little information is known regarding the level of knowledge among Burmese migrant workers along the Thai/Burma border concerning risk factors, prevention or transmission of HIV. The Burma Medical Association (BMA) and National Health and Education Committee (NHEC) collected data on knowledge, attitudes and practices among 725 factory workers in Tak Province, Thailand during July 2000. We present results from a secondary analysis of these data. Responses were grouped into prevention, transmission and risk categories, and percentages answered correctly were recorded. Men consistently scored higher than women, with significant gender differences in the prevention and transmission questions. Forty-one per cent of the women understood that contraceptive pills do not prevent infection and 15% of females reported ever seeing a condom. Twelve per cent of men and 1.4% of women reported ever using a condom (OR = 8.57, p < 0.0001). Previously, virtually no access has been extended to persons trying to document health status among Burmese migrant workers in factories. The survey reveals a significant lack of knowledge about HIV among factory workers and indicates that a sub-population of Burmese people appears to lack the most basic information about the epidemic.
Mullany LC; Maung C; Beyrer C
OBJECTIVE: To determine the current HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes and Sexual Practices (KASP) indicators amonguniversity students that would facilitate development and implementation of a peer education programme and the subsequent monitoring and evaluation of other HIV/AIDS activities. DESIGN: An institutional based cross-sectional study. SETTING: Maseno University, Kenya. SUBJECTS: Five hundred students composed of 60% males and 40% females as dictated by the university's male to female ratio. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Levels of HIV and AIDS awareness, knowledge and attitudes and the current related behavioural trends and tendencies, among the students at the University. RESULTS: Of the five hundred respondents included in the study, 68.5% of them reported having ever had sexual intercourse, with males being the majority at 78.2%, while the females were 54.7%. A large majority (77%) of females were in current sexual relationships compared to 66.7% of males. A significant proportion (54.8%) of first year students reported having had their first sexual intercourse at the university. Sexual activity was seen to increase from 56.9 to 71.2% among the first year students when they got to second year of study at the university. Peer pressure emerged as an important factor in students' sexual behaviour (P=0.001). Of the students, 32% reported having undergone HIV tests, 70.8% were willing to go for a test while 74.3% perceived they had a chance of being infected with the virus based on their previous risky sexual experiences. A significant 77.7% of the respondents affirmed having ever used condoms but only 15.8% reported consistent use. CONCLUSION: High proportions of students are sexually active with peaks in first and second years of study. This is coupled with an equal inconsistent use of condoms. Peer influence emerged as an important feature in accelerating risky sexual behaviour hence the need for advancing peer education programmes in universities.
Othero DM; Aduma P; Opil CO
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among healthcare professionals in Barbados in relation to healthcare ethics and law in an attempt to assist in guiding their professional conduct and aid in curriculum development. Methods A self-administered structured questionnaire about knowledge of healthcare ethics, law and the role of an Ethics Committee in the healthcare system was devised, tested and distributed to all levels of staff at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Barbados (a tertiary care teaching hospital) during April and May 2003. Results The paper analyses 159 responses from doctors and nurses comprising junior doctors, consultants, staff nurses and sisters-in-charge. The frequency with which the respondents encountered ethical or legal problems varied widely from 'daily' to 'yearly'. 52% of senior medical staff and 20% of senior nursing staff knew little of the law pertinent to their work. 11% of the doctors did not know the contents of the Hippocratic Oath whilst a quarter of nurses did not know the Nurses Code. Nuremberg Code and Helsinki Code were known only to a few individuals. 29% of doctors and 37% of nurses had no knowledge of an existing hospital ethics committee. Physicians had a stronger opinion than nurses regarding practice of ethics such as adherence to patients' wishes, confidentiality, paternalism, consent for procedures and treating violent/non-compliant patients (p = 0.01) Conclusion The study highlights the need to identify professionals in the workforce who appear to be indifferent to ethical and legal issues, to devise means to sensitize them to these issues and appropriately training them.
Hariharan Seetharaman; Jonnalagadda Ramesh; Walrond Errol; Moseley Harley
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the current status of knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with diabetes relating to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in an Indian community, and to determine perceptions about the use of CAM and factors influencing knowledge and usage. SETTING: Endocrine clinic of Swaroop Rani, Nehru Hospital, Allahabad, India. STUDY DESIGN: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with diabetes attending the clinic for the first time. SAMPLE SIZE: A sample of 493 study participants selected by systematic sampling from a population of 6094 patients with diabetes. STUDY VARIABLES: Age, socio-economic status, educational status, religion, family history of disease, knowledge and practice of CAM, reasons for using CAM, method of use and perceived relief. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Normal test of proportions, chi(2) test, Kolomogorov-Smirnov test. RESULTS: Awareness of CAM among patients was high (71%). High prevalence of CAM use was found (67.7%) among all participants, and 95% among participants aware of CAM, mostly using 'naturopathy' (97.3% among users). No significant gap (P>0.10) between knowledge and practice in different categories was observed. Desire for quick and additional relief was the most common perceived reason for using CAM (86.8%). Higher levels of education and socio-economic status were significant positive correlates of CAM use. Knowledge of CAM was gained mainly from friends and neighbours. About 30% of users adopted CAM without allopathic treatment earlier. Only 42.2% of users perceived some relief by using CAM. Lowering of blood sugar was the most common perceived relief. CAM, along with diet control and exercise, resulted in maximum degree of satisfaction (61.9%) experienced by users. No relief was experienced by 53.6% of users of 'naturopathy'. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS: Use of CAM in diabetes is highly prevalent despite high levels of disappointment after its use. In this study, we suggest the need for health education relating to CAM and self-care in diabetes. Use of CAM should be explored with patients before clinical decisions are made.
Kumar D; Bajaj S; Mehrotra R
Prevention and management of obesity largely depends on patient motivation and education and these, in turn, can be greatly facilitated by adequate baseline data on the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of patients. The aim of this study is to assess KAP on obesity among Bangladeshi type 2 diab...
Farzana Saleh; Shirin Jahan Mumu; Ferdous Ara; Liaquat Ali; Sharmin Hossain; Kazi Rumana Ahmed
Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.
Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca
Full Text Available Purpose: A lot of accidents occur in the laboratory due to lack of proper knowledge regarding laboratory safety measures, indifferent attitude & improper implementation of safe laboratory practices. In view of this, the present study on knowledge, Attitude & Practice (KAP) of laboratory safety measures was carried out among paramedical staff of laboratory services of tertiary care teaching hospital, western India. Method: This was a comparative study which used a standardized, structured self-administered questionnaire to survey knowledge, attitude and practice of paramedical staff. The KAP study enrolled 81 respondents. Results: Regarding knowledge- the majority knew the very important issues related with laboratory safety like Post Exposure Prophylaxis (96.55%) & discarding of blood samples (93.10%) etc. In regard to attitude towards the scientific process, all are very much aware about importance of protective devices (i.e. Wearing Gloves) and Biomedical waste management. In regard to the practice in laboratory, the entire study subject group (100%) replied âYESâ in each question that shows the good quality work of the laboratory. Conclusion: The induction training on Laboratory safety is very important and motivating exercise for improving the laboratory safety measures.
Hansa M Goswami, Sumeeta T Soni, Sachin M Patel, Mitesh K Patel
The knowledge attitude and practice in use of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) and food Grade Bullion Cubes (FGBCs) by 240 respondents randomly selected from the rural and urban areas of Enugu and Nsukka in Enugu state were investigated. Information was obtained by means of questionnaires feeding regime a...
Purpose : We present the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) among diabetic patients regarding eye complications and their care. Materials and Methods : A cross sectional study was conducted in 2008 at seven regions of Oman. Arabic speaking nurses interviewed diabetics at ...
Khandekar Rajiv; Al Harby Saleh; Al Harthy Harith; Al Lawatti Jawad
The purpose of this study was to determine the sawmill workers knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in relation to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 83 workers from 3 factories in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Questionnaires were distributed to obtain the ...
Rus, Razman Mohd; Daud, Aziah; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Naing, Lin
|Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.
Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The epidemic of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa varies significantly across countries in the region with high prevalence in Southern Africa and Nigeria. Cancer is increasingly identified as a complication of HIV infection with higher incidence and mortality in this group than in the general population. Without cancer prevention strategies, improved cancer treatment alone would be an insufficient response to this increasing burden among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Although previous studies have noted low levels of awareness of cancers in sub-Saharan Africa none has examined the knowledge and perceptions of cancer among people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods Focus group discussions (FGD) and Key Informant Interviews (KII) were carried out in 4 high volume tertiary care institutions that offer HIV care and treatment in Nigeria. FGD and KII assessed participants knowledge of cancer, attitudes towards cancer risk and cancer screening practices. Results The mean age (SD) of the FGD participants was 38 (2.8) years. Most participants had heard about cancer and considered it a fatal disease but displayed poor knowledge of the causes of cancer in general and of AIDs associated cancers in particular. PLHIV in Nigeria expressed fear, denial and disbelief about their perceived cancer risk. Some of the participants had heard about cancer screening but very few participants had ever been screened. Conclusion Our findings of poor knowledge of cancer among PLHIV in Nigeria indicate the need for health care providers and the government to intervene by developing primary cancer prevention strategies for this population.
Jedy-Agba Elima; Adebamowo Clement
Full Text Available Unplanned teenage pregnancy constitutes an important health problem, whilst contraceptive services are free throughout South Africa and the number of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP) services is increasing. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of secondary school girls towards contraception in Thulamela Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls, the sample consisting of 273 girls in Grades 1012. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data and analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Findings showed that respondents were aware of different contraceptive methods that can prevent pregnancy. However, most did not have knowledge of the emergency contraceptive, intra-uterine device and female condom. Pressure from male partners, fear of parental reaction to the use of contraceptives, reluctance to use contraceptives, poor contraceptive education and lack of counselling were seen as the main causes of ineffective contraceptive use and non-utilisation. Possible modalities of intervention deal with providing contraceptive counselling and care to empower these school girls to make informed choices on reproductive health.
Dorah U. Ramathuba; Lunic B. Khoza; Mutshinyalo L. Netshikweta
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses), including household pets. Although pet ownership is common in most countries and non-pet owners may have frequent contact with pets, there is limited knowledge of the publics pet contact practices and awareness of zoonotic disease risks from pets. The objective of this study was to characterize the general publics knowledge, attitudes and risks related to pet ownership and animal contact in southern Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. A single adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Seventy five percent (641/853) of individuals approached completed the questionnaire. Pet ownership and contact were common; 64% of participants had a pet in their household and 37% of non-pet owning households had a member with at least weekly animal contact outside the home. Pet ownership was high (55%) for households with individuals at higher risk for infections (i.e., Conclusions These results suggest that there is a need for accessible zoonotic disease information for both pet and non-owning households, with additional efforts made by veterinary, human and public health personnel. Immediate educational efforts directed toward households with individuals at higher risk to infections are especially needed.
Stull Jason W; Peregrine Andrew S; Sargeant Jan M; Weese J
Full Text Available Background /Objective: Sixty percent of all smokers in the United States (U.S.) try smoking cigarettes before they are 18 years old. Family and peer behavior (subjective norm), and attitude may influence young people to initiate smoking. The aims of this study were to 1) determine if attitude, subjective norm, and knowledge could predict smoking behaviors; 2) identify reasons for smoking; 3) determine if there were differences in attitudes toward smoking between smokers and non-smokers; and 4) determine smokers intent to quit. Methods: The population of interest included individuals age 30 or younger. The instrument, in the form of an online Tobacco Survey, was distributed via email, Facebook®, and other social media. The survey was created on Survey Monkey.com®. Data were collected for nine months and analyzed using SPSS® version 17 for Windows®. Results: Cronbachs alpha for the primary factors were high to adequate, attitude a = .89, knowledge a = .71, and subjective norm a = .67. Results suggested subjective norm and attitude may predict smoking but knowledge was not a predictor. Over 70% of the smokers tried their first cigarette before the age of 18 years. Most reported reasons for smoking were alcohol consumption, smoking with friends in social settings, stress relief, and relaxation. Seventy-five percent of the smokers agreed that smoking was addictive and knowledge was high regarding the hazards of smoking. Less than 50% of the smokers planned to quit within the next year. Conclusions: Tobacco use among adolescents and young adults may be directly influenced by overall attitude and peer and family smoking behaviors. Knowledge of the hazards of smoking does not appear to influence smoking behaviors; therefore it is recommended health care providers, and others in a position to influence young people, focus on changing attitudes about smoking.
Barbara J. Ganley; Dianne I. Rosario
Full Text Available This study reports an investigation about knowledge and attitude of urban pregnant women on nutrition and delivery place and an attempt has also been made to identify factors that are closely related to these behaviors based on primary data. The analysis shows that educational status of pregnant women, their occupation, their husband`s occupation, monthly family income have significant influence on knowledge and attitude of pregnant women toward nutrition and health care practice. The result also shows that opinion about place of delivery depends on educational status and occupation of pregnant women and monthly family income.
M.N. Islam; M.O. Ullah
SUMMARY Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding rabies in Bohol, Philippines were assessed following introduction of the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Programme. A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 460 households chosen utilizing the WHO's Expanded Programme on Immunization coverage cluster survey technique with population proportionate to size. Scores for KAP were evaluated using linear regression. The majority of households had heard of rabies (94%); however, specific knowledge of rabies was limited. Only 18% knew to report a suspected rabid dog to the authorities. In multivariate analyses, having known someone with rabies had the greatest effect on knowledge scores. Employment (professional or non-professional) had the greatest effect on attitudes scores, and only the knowledge score was significantly associated with higher practices scores. Several factors, notably, personal experience with rabies, affect KAP in Bohol. The programme should continue to focus on education and include personal accounts to underscore why rabies prevention and control is so important.
Davlin SL; Lapiz SM; Miranda ME; Murray KO
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the nutritional knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of male and female bodybuilding trainers in Ahwaz, one of the 7 major cities of Iran. KAP questionnaires which contained information about nutrients, food groups, using of supplements and ergogenic aids, were completed by trainers. Sixty three certified male bodybuilding trainers (37.9 ? 2.7 y) and 30 certified female trainers (37.3 ? 8.1 y) were recruited from all clubs of the city. All of the male and 47% of the female trainers have prescribed diet program for their trainees (P<0.001) and it showed that there was a significant (P<0.001) relationship between their diet prescription and their educational degrees. None of the female trainers neither use nor advise anabolic hormones such as Nandrolon; however 62% of the male trainers have advised hormones to their trainees while only 50% of them use hormones themselves. 96.8% of the trainers did not know that minerals and 88.2% did not know water are essential nutrients; and more than 90% did not realize that fat and sugars are as food groups. The training courses and educational levels of trainers are positively related to their practices. All of the trainers need more theoretical and applied nutritional education.
Seyed Mohamad Hosein Mosavi Jazayeri; Reza Amani
This study was conducted on prison inmates in Sindh to determine whether HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and beliefs can predict their practices which risk HIV infection. A pre-designed questionnaire was administered in this cross-sectional study to collect the data on HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, practices and demographic variables in a systematic sample of 3,395 prison inmates during July 1994. The data on responses of inmates to HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs were analyzed and a clear interpretable factor structure emerged for each set of questions labeled as knowledge, attitude and beliefs. Similarly based on responses of inmates to practice questions, three factors emerged and were labeled as heterosexuality, homosexuality and drugs. The standardized factor scores of inmates for each of these six factors were computed and used in further analyses. Multiple linear regression analyses were carried out separately using heterosexuality, homosexuality and drugs factors score as dependent variables to identify if any of the independent variables (demographic variables, knowledge beliefs and attitude) predict these practice factors. The model for heterosexuality explained 23% of the variance and included HIV/AIDS related knowledge, beliefs, age, ethnicity and marital status and duration of imprisonment (F = 84.33, p < 0.001; R2= 23.0). The predictors in the model for homosexuality together explained 10% of the variance and included significant contribution by belief, martial status, ethnicity, education, age and duration of imprisonment (F = 24.76, p < 0.001; R2= 0.10). The model for drugs had significant contributions from HIV/AIDS related beliefs, marital status and ethnicity (F = 20.10, p < 0.001; R2= 0.03). Implications of prevention program based on these results are considered.
Akhtar S; Luby SP; Rahbar MH; Azam I
UNLABELLED: The relationship between contraceptive awareness and use in an environment of both high levels of unplanned pregnancies and prevalence of HIV/AIDS continues to be a major challenge. The objective of this study is to ascertain the knowledge of contraception and methods chosen in women of 18-45 years old attending primary care facilities in North Central Trinidad. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional study design with a knowledge, attitude, and practices type survey design. Five primary care facilities were selected using cluster sampling. All participants eligible for entry into the study were administered a structured, pretested questionnaire. RESULTS: 269 participants were enrolled in the study. The majority (88%) had good knowledge of contraceptive methods, yet this knowledge was not translated into the prevention of pregnancies as 64.3% had had an unplanned pregnancy. The male condom is now the predominant method of contraception. CONCLUSION: The study provides evidence on the level of knowledge of contraception methods and their use, as well as attitudes and practices among women who are pregnant or who recently completed a pregnancy. Although the knowledge of contraception methods was relatively high, attitudes and practice remain unacceptable and the male condom is now the predominant method of choice.
Saroop A; Dipchan D; Hill M; Manswell S; Ragbir K; Raghunanan B; Toolsie O; Mungrue K
BACKGROUND: In 2003, the Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Foundation in the United States published evidence-based infection control guidelines and distributed these to CF care centers. However, it is unclear how well the guidelines have been disseminated to patients and families, how well patients and families understand the principles of infection control, and what barriers they experience implementing the guidelines. METHODS: We assessed infection control knowledge, attitudes, and practices among CF patients and their families at 17 randomly selected CF centers. Anonymous surveys were completed by CF patients (?16 years old) or their family members (patients <16 years old). To adjust for similarities of patients within each center, generalized estimating equations regression was used. RESULTS: From January 2007 to May 2009, 1,399 respondents completed surveys of whom 38% were patients and 62% were family members (overall mean age of patients?=?14 years). Overall, 65% of respondents were aware of the CF infection control guidelines, but only 30% had discussed them more than once with their CF care team. More than one discussion was associated with increased knowledge of infection control, including routes of pathogen transmission; the importance of avoiding close contact with other CF patients; increased confidence in practicing infection control; and increased belief in the health benefits of infection control. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that many CF patients and families are aware of the infection control guidelines, but that few had discussed them more than once with their CF teams. These findings underscore the importance of engaging patients and their families in regular discussions about infection control that address questions and concerns including the potential impact of infection control on health and well-being. Further strategies are needed to overcome barriers to implementing these guidelines.
Miroballi Y; Garber E; Jia H; Zhou JJ; Alba L; Quittell LM; Angst D; Cabana M; Saiman L
PURPOSE: To study the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards computer vision syndrome prevalent in Indian ophthalmologists and to assess whether 'computer use by practitioners' had any bearing on the knowledge and practices in computer vision syndrome (CVS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A random KAP survey was carried out on 300 Indian ophthalmologists using a 34-point spot-questionnaire in January 2005. RESULTS: All the doctors who responded were aware of CVS. The chief presenting symptoms were eyestrain (97.8%), headache (82.1%), tiredness and burning sensation (79.1%), watering (66.4%) and redness (61.2%). Ophthalmologists using computers reported that focusing from distance to near and vice versa (P =0.006, chi2 test), blurred vision at a distance (P =0.016, chi2 test) and blepharospasm (P =0.026, chi2 test) formed part of the syndrome. The main mode of treatment used was tear substitutes. Half of ophthalmologists (50.7%) were not prescribing any spectacles. They did not have any preference for any special type of glasses (68.7%) or spectral filters. Computer-users were more likely to prescribe sedatives/anxiolytics (P = 0.04, chi2 test), spectacles (P = 0.02, chi2 test) and conscious frequent blinking (P = 0.003, chi2 test) than the non-computer-users. CONCLUSIONS: All respondents were aware of CVS. Confusion regarding treatment guidelines was observed in both groups. Computer-using ophthalmologists were more informed of symptoms and diagnostic signs but were misinformed about treatment modalities.
Bali J; Navin N; Thakur BR
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students? attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19%) indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001) and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001). About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20%) thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.
Al-Haqwi Ali; Tamim Hani; Asery Ali
Full Text Available Purpose: To study the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) towards computer vision syndrome prevalent in Indian ophthalmologists and to assess whether ?computer use by practitioners? had any bearing on the knowledge and practices in computer vision syndrome (CVS). Materials and Methods: A random KAP survey was carried out on 300 Indian ophthalmologists using a 34-point spot-questionnaire in January 2005. Results: All the doctors who responded were aware of CVS. The chief presenting symptoms were eyestrain (97.8%), headache (82.1%), tiredness and burning sensation (79.1%), watering (66.4%) and redness (61.2%). Ophthalmologists using computers reported that focusing from distance to near and vice versa ( P =0.006, ?2 test), blurred vision at a distance ( P =0.016, ?2 test) and blepharospasm ( P =0.026, ?2 test) formed part of the syndrome. The main mode of treatment used was tear substitutes. Half of ophthalmologists (50.7%) were not prescribing any spectacles. They did not have any preference for any special type of glasses (68.7%) or spectral filters. Computer-users were more likely to prescribe sedatives/ anxiolytics ( P = 0.04, ?2 test), spectacles ( P = 0.02, ?2 test) and conscious frequent blinking ( P = 0.003, ?2 test) than the non-computer-users. Conclusions: All respondents were aware of CVS. Confusion regarding treatment guidelines was observed in both groups. Computer-using ophthalmologists were more informed of symptoms and diagnostic signs but were misinformed about treatment modalities.
Bali Jatinder; Navin Neeraj; Thakur Bali
INTRODUCTION: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in Malaysian women, irrespective of age group and ethnicity. The observed low survival rates are related to late stage at presentation despite the availability of breast self examination (BSE) as a reliable screening method for early detection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice towards BSE amongst women aged 15 years old and above. Systemic random sampling was applied and information gathered through guided interview by using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 86 respondents were recruited, with a mean age of 40.5 years (SD: 15.51), more than 80% having a secondary or tertiary level of education. The total score was 16.9 (total mean percent: 60.4%) for knowledge, 37.1 (77.3%) for attitude and 9.56 (34.1%) for practice. The proportions of respondents with good score for knowledge, attitude and practice were 38.4%, 73.3% and 7.0%, respectively. Not knowing the correct method of BSE, lack of knowledge on cancer signs and lack of motivational support from parents, spouse or friends appeared to be related with the poor practices. CONCLUSION: Enhancement of breast cancer awareness and focusing on recognized barriers by health care professionals with the involvement of spouses, family and community would have a substantial beneficial impact on BSE practice.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To assess the awareness and attitude towards AIDS and PLHA in slum dwellers of Chennai, an Indian metropolis by KAP (Knowledge, Attitude, Practice) study. METHODS : A cross sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of 650 subjects (400 females and 250 females), aged 15-45 years, by means of a questionnaire in the local dialect Tamil. RESULTS : The overall literacy rate was 64%, with males being 70% and females being 60% literate. 20% of males and 11% of females do not know about a disease called AIDS. Only 67% of males and 55% of females are aware of the sexual mode of transmission. 34% of males and 50% females opine that AIDS is also a hereditary disease. Also 45% of males and 62% of females feel that AIDS also spreads by air, fomites, or mosquito-bite. Only 30% of males and 22% females know about the possible symptoms of AIDS. 30% of males and 45% of females never ask for a new syringe if not provided, as they are totally unaware of its significance. 43% of males and 78% of females do not know about the risk of a barber?s blade. 56% of males and 71% of females feel that AIDS can be treated at least by a traditional medicine. Lastly, 48% of males and 60% females prefer outcasting an AIDS patient from the slum. CONCLUSIONS : AIDS awareness in the slum dwellers of Chennai is very poor. Corresponding awareness in suburbs and rural areas will be much worse. Conventional IEC methods targeting general population via mass media are not reaching the slum dwellers, even in a metropolitan city. A specially designed targeted intervention is needed.
Kalasagar M; Sivapathasundharam B; Einstein T
Full Text Available Objective. To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of caregivers in Kingston, Jamaica, regarding childhood diarrhea and dehydration in order to determine if limited caregiver knowledge about the prevention and treatment of diarrhea and dehydration puts children at increased risk of presenting at the hospital for these concerns. Methods. The study was an observational case-control study conducted between February 1997 and May 1997 at Bustamante Hospital for Children in Kingston. Convenience sampling was used and data were collected by face-to-face interviews with two groups of caregivers of children under 5 years of age. One group (n = 117) presented with children with acute gastroenteritis, and the other group (n = 98) presented with acute concerns unrelated to gastroenteritis. While 197 of the 215 caregivers interviewed were the mother of a child, there were also 9 guardians, 5 fathers, and 4 grandmothers in the sample. Results. The mean caregiver age, level of education, and socioeconomic status were similar for the two groups. The caregivers in the gastroenteritis group were more likely to present with younger children and to have less convenient access to running water or a refrigerator. Children of caregivers who had never heard of oral rehydration therapy were at increased risk of presenting with gastroenteritis and dehydration (odds ratio [OR], 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-11.7), as were children of caregivers with low knowledge scores about the prevention and treatment of diarrhea and dehydration (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.8). Another independent risk factor was a caregiver's poor sense of self-reliance in managing a child's diarrhea (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.9). Conclusions. These findings highlight a need to enhance educational efforts that will empower caregivers to protect their children from diarrhea-associated morbidity and mortality.
Bachrach Lela Rose; Gardner Julie Meeks
Objective? To assess the effect of the integration of evidence-based medicine (EBM) in a medical curriculum using small-group discussions with case scenario and problem-based learning on the knowledge, attitudes and skills of medical students. Method? A quasi-experimental study was conducted in a medical school in southern Thailand during 2008-2009. EBM practice was begun before the completion of the fourth year using case scenario and continued through the fifth year using learner-centred, problem-based self-practice. Knowledge improvement was measured by summative assessment using pre- and post-tests after small-group discussions with a case scenario. Attitudes and skills were measured by self-rating assessments: before initiation of the course (T0) and after the course at week 1, 5, 13, 25 and 37 (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5), respectively. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and linear mixed-effects model fitted by maximum likelihood. Results? One hundred fourteen students took the course, with a mean age of 22.1?years. Before and after knowledge scores showed a significant improvement (4.93 versus 7.43). The proportion of students who achieved the highest knowledge scores was higher (4% at pre-test versus 54% at post-test). Both self-rated attitudes and skills after EBM practice increased dramatically from the initiation of the course (T0; P?0.001). Compared with T1, significantly lower scores of attitudes and skills were observed at T2 and T3, but both were higher at T4 assessment. Conclusions? Continuous EBM education through small-group discussion and learner-centred, problem-based self-practice can be a useful way to improve a medical student's knowledge, attitudes and skills.
Liabsuetrakul T; Sirirak T; Boonyapipat S; Pornsawat P
Background: Residents' shift length reduction and communication errors in transitions of care necessitate educating residents on handoff communication. Purpose: We examined the change in knowledge, attitudes, and practices of 1st-year residents after implementing a curriculum using deliberate practice to teach handoff communication. Methods: First-year residents completed a needs assessment survey and a video assessment of handoff practices. They participated in a brief curriculum using lecture and deliberate practice with feedback to teach a standardized approach to handoff communication. Change in knowledge, attitudes, and practices were measured with survey and video assessments. Results: Eleven 1st-year residents completed the course and final assessments. Residents' comfort with performing handoffs and their perceived efficiency indicated improvement. Practices improved, with increased inclusion of important features of handoffs (6.31 to 7.64, p < .001). Conclusions: A brief curriculum utilizing deliberate practice is an effective way to improve handoff practices of 1st-year residents.
Sawatsky AP; Mikhael JR; Punatar AD; Nassar AA; Agrwal N
Full Text Available Introduction: There is concerned in Latin America due to the little or no impact that have had prevention programs in the reduction of cases of uterine cervical neoplasm. Different aspects should be looked at and analyzed.Objective: To determine the knowledge, practice and attitude of women from themunicipality of Pinillos, Colombia, relating to the use of uterine cervical cytology asdiagnostic techniques of early lesions of uterine cervix that entail uterine cervicalneoplasm.Methods: Descriptive study carried out in Pinillos, Bolívar, Colombia. A survey was filledout by 260 women who had had sexual life.Results: 85.4% of the polled patients know what an uterine cervical cytology is.Practically all the polled women know what the usefulness of cytology is. 99.6%recognizes that cytology is important. 88.5% has done the cytology during her life, witha median of 4 done cytologies.Conclusions: The ignorance, the lack of practice and the bad attitude towards therealization of the cytology are not the main causes of that uterine cervical neoplasm hadnot diminished. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2013;4(1):54-59RESUMENIntroducción: existe preocupación en América Latina por el poco o ningún impacto enreducción de casos, que han tenido los programas de prevención del cáncer del cuellouterino. Diferentes aspectos se deben analizar.Objetivo: determinar el conocimiento, práctica y actitud de las mujeres del municipiode Pinillos, Colombia, sobre el uso de la citología cérvico-uterina como método dediagnóstico de las lesiones tempranas del cuello uterino, que conlleven al cáncer decérvix.Metodología: estudio descriptivo realizado en el municipio de Pinillos, Bolívar, Colombia.Se realizó una encuesta a 260 mujeres que habían tenido vida sexual.Resultados: el 85.4% de las pacientes encuestadas saben que es la citología cérvicouterina.Prácticamente todas las mujeres encuestadas saben para qué sirve la citología.El 99.6% reconoce que realizarse la citología es importante. El 88.5% si se ha realizadola citología durante su vida, con una mediana de 4 citologías realizadas.Conclusiones: el desconocimiento, la falta de práctica y la mala actitud hacia larealización de la citología no es la principal causa que el cáncer de cérvix no hayadisminuido. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2013;4(1):54-59
Barrios-García Lía; Benedetti-Padrón Inés; Alvis-Estrada Luis; Salamanca-Manjarrez Mirlelly
Full Text Available AIM: Adverse drug reaction is noxious and unwanted reaction to drugs at dose used in humans for diagnosis, treatment or prophylaxis. Adverse drug reaction monitoring is an area of drug information that has been given little attention yet. Spontaneous reporting is currently the major back bone for the detection of adverse drug reactions. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of adverse drug reaction reporting among health professionals in selected health facilities in southwest Ethiopia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study design was used among health professionals in selected health facilities in January 2010. Prescribers other than physicians, junior pharmacy technicians and also health assistants were excluded. Data was collected using self administered questionnaires from volunteered physicians (Medical interns and above), nurses (Diploma and above) and Pharmacy professionals (Diploma and above) and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. RESULTS: A total of 82 health professionals were participated in the study. From those 82 participants, only 19 (23.17%) and 21 (25.61%) knew the existence of national reporting system and a yellow card of adverse drug reaction reporting form. Thirteen (15.85%) participants encountered adverse drug reaction in the past 12 months in their clinical activities, but none of them reported to responsible body. Even though the participants knowledge and practice were inadequate, most of the respondents 47 (57.31%) agreed that adverse drug reaction reporting is part of duty of them and important to the public in general and to the patient in particular. CONCLUSION: There was no documentation and reporting of adverse drug reaction, which might partly be explained by lack of knowledge and misconceptions about spontaneous reporting. Our study strongly suggests that there is a great need to create awareness and to promote the reporting of adverse drug reaction amongst health professionals, which will lay a solid foundation for healthcare professionals to be diligently involved in quality pharmacovigilance and spontaneous reporting in their future practices. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000): 397-406
Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo; Nasir Tajure Wabe
The present study aims to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of dentists practicing in the Turin Province (north-western Italy) regarding oral cancer prevention and early detection, to weigh the impact of academic and continuing education and to compare actual and perceived knowledge/practice. A survey was prospectively carried out using an anonymous 23-item questionnaire. Bivariate analyses, multivariate logistic regression analyses and Spearman's correlation analyses examined the overall effect of demographic/background characteristics of responders, with particular emphasis on academic and continuing education. The responder group was formed by 450 dentists representative of the Turin Province Council of Dentists. Both academic and continuing education have a significant impact on knowledge, with a significant association between the time elapsed from continuing education and the degree of knowledge. Knowledge acquired during graduation is seen to significantly weaken in the absence of continuing education. The present study highlights the need of both thorough academic curricula and compulsory current continuing education.
Pentenero M; Chiecchio A; Gandolfo S
INTRODUCTION: An estimated 300 to 500 million clinical cases of malaria occur each year worldwide, 90% in Africa, mostly among young children. In Côte d'Ivoire, malaria is 46.03% of disease states and 62.44% of hospital admissions. In children under 5 years, it is 42.67% of the reasons for consultation and 59.68% of hospital admissions. In pregnant women, it represents 22.91% of disease states and 36.07% of hospital admissions. Africa, traditional medicine is the first resort for the vast majority of people, because of its accessibility both geographically, economically and culturally. However, some modern practitioners show an attitude of distrust of traditional medicine and its players, calling them irrational. This work had set out to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of traditional healers in the uncomplicated and complicated in the context of collaboration between traditional and modern medicine for the optimal management of critical cases. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The study focused on traditional healers practicing in the city of Abidjan. The study was conducted using individual interviews over a period of 30 days. The interviews were conducted in local languages, with the assistance, if necessary, translators. For data collection, we used a questionnaire containing four items: the socio-demographic characteristics of traditional healers, their knowledge on malaria, diagnostic practices and traditional therapies. RESULTS: Of the 60 healers and included in the study, only six were women (10%), a sex-ratio of a woman to 9 men. 66.7% of respondents traditional healers are herbalists and 25% of naturopaths. Only 8.3% were spiritualists. The etiology of malaria most commonly cited by the traditional healers were mosquito bites (16.7%), food (1.7%), solar (1.7%) and fatigue (1.7%) . 25% of traditional healers are associated with mosquitoes, sun and fatigue. Symptomatology most cited were fever (100%), dark urine (86%), the yellow or pale conjunctiva (80%), vomiting (71.7%), nausea (58.3%) and abdominal pain (48.3%). Traditional healers recognized three types of malaria: the white shape, form yellow / red and the black form. Traditional healers malarious patients surveyed were receiving both first (58.3%) than second-line (41.7%). 78.3% of them practiced an interview and physical examination of their patients before the diagnosis. In 13.3% of cases they were divinatory consultation. Medications used to treat malaria were herbal in 95% of cases. The main sign of healing was the lack of fever (58.3%). 90% of traditional healers interviewed referring cases of malaria black (severe malaria). This reference is made to modern health facilities (90.2%). 68.3% of respondents practiced traditional healers of malaria prophylaxis among pregnant women and children under 5 years. CONCLUSION: A description of clinical malaria by traditional practitioners in health is not very far from that of modern medicine. Nevertheless, the logics of our respondents are etiological more complex and linked to their cultural context. The management of cases is made from medicinal plants in treatment failure patients are usually referred to modern health facilities. The involvement of traditional healers in the detection and quick reference risk cases can contribute to reducing child mortality due to severe malaria.
Diaby B; Kroa E; Niaré A; Coulibaly D; Traoré Y; Giani S; Coulibaly A; Niaré B; Guindo A; Keita M; Sylla A; Sanogo R; Doumbo O
Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed at determining the knowledge attitude and nutritional practice of female middle school students in district 4 of Isfahan. Methods: This deh1ive study was performed on 120 female students. The data were collected through a three-part self-reported questionnaire (Demographic factors knowledge BASNEF Model). To investigate the nutritional performance the participants were interviewed to recall their previous 24-hour nutrition for three days. Results: The results indicated that 37.5% of students had poor nutritional knowledge and 90% of the students had a poor nutritional practice. The results of the BASNEF part indicated that mean of belief and evaluation of behavioral outcomes was 74.6 attitude toward the behavior was 64.64 normative belief was 72.8 subjective norms was 58.9 enabling factors was 54.2 and behavioral intention was 68.9. Conclusion: A low percentage of students had good nutritional practices and in majority of cases their nutritional practice does not accord with their nutritional knowledge and attitude. These results indicate the necessity of nutritional intervention in female students.
Mohammad-Mahdi Hazavehei; Asiyeh Pirzadeh; Mohammad-Hasan Entezari; Akbar Hasan-Zadeh; Nimah Bahraynian
The objectives of the present study were to (i) estimate noise levels at major traffic junctions in Bengaluru City, and (ii) assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of traffic policemen deputed at those junctions towards the auditory effects caused by noise pollution. The present questionnaire based study was carried among 60 traffic policemen. Road traffic noise was measured at different places in Bengaluru city using Sound level meter and it ranged from 71.2 to 91 dB. The questionnaire included the questions regarding the self assessment of the policemen about their hearing ability, past and present exposure to loud sound and the use of personal protective devices such as ear plugs and ear muffs. The questionnaire was filled by the subjects and the data was analyzed. The mean age was 42.2 +/- 7.4 years and the mean year of exposure was 10.82 +/- 8.53 yrs. Only 3.33% of the subjects felt that their hearing ability was below average. Thirteen subjects reported that they usually missed some conversation over phone while 25% reported similar condition while talking to someone in crowd. 16.66% had work related tinnitus (> once a day) and experienced it more during working hours. None of them used ear plugs/ear muffs and the reason for non-usage was nonavailability (100%). The self assessment of hearing by traffic policemen suggests that most of the traffic policemen have normal hearing. However, a systematic study with Audiometry of these subjects is recommended.
Venkatappa KG; Shankar V; Annamalai N
ABSTRACT Objectives To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices of Portuguese gynaecologists regarding combined hormonal contraceptives. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 303 gynaecologists. Results Ninety percent of the gynaecologists considered that deciding on contraceptive methods is a process wherein the woman has her say. Efficacy, safety and the woman's preference were the major factors influencing gynaecologists, while efficacy, tolerability and ease of use were the major factors perceived by the specialists to influence the women's choice. Gynaecologists believed that only 2% of women taking the pill were 100% compliant compared to 48% of those using the patch and 75% of those using the ring. The lower risk of omission was the strong point for the latter methods. Side effects were the main reason to change to another method. Vaginal manipulation was the most difficult topic to discuss. Conclusions Most gynaecologists decided with the woman on the contraceptive method. The main reasons for the gynaecologist's recommendation of a given contraceptive method and the women's choice were different. Counselling implies an open discussion and topics related to sexuality were considered difficult to discuss. Improving communication skills and understanding women's requirements are critical for contraceptive counselling.
Bombas T; Costa AR; Palma F; Vicente L; Sá JL; Nogueira AM; Andrade S
Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) is a crucial element of hypertension control, but little information is available from developing countries where hypertension has lately been recognized as a major health problem. Therefore, we examined KAP on hypertension in a random sample of 1067 adults aged 25 to 64 years from the Seychelles Islands (Indian Ocean). KAP were assessed from an administered structured questionnaire. The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension (screening blood pressure [BP] > or = 160/95 mm Hg or taking antihypertensive medication) was 36% in men and 25% in women aged 25 to 64 years. Among hypertensive persons, 50% were aware of the condition, 34% were treated, and 10% had controlled BP (ie, BP heart risk knew well the detrimental effects of these other factors but reported making little actual change to control them (particularly regarding overweight and sedentary habits). These data point to the need to maximize the efficiency of hypertension prevention and control programs so that delay in achieving effective hypertension control is minimized in countries experiencing recent emergence of hypertension as a major public health problem. PMID:9576126
Aubert, L; Bovet, P; Gervasoni, J P; Rwebogora, A; Waeber, B; Paccaud, F
Full Text Available Organic nitrates are commonly used in angina pectoris and ischemic cardiomyopathy. In order to optimize their effectiveness and patient convenience, several aspects must be observed. Adequate doses, suitable dosage forms and asymmetric pattern of usage to prevent the nitrate tolerance are some factors that a physician must be familiar with. The objective of the present study was to define the pattern of organic nitrates administration by Iranian physicians. To investigate the pattern of organic nitrates prescription, 42000 written prescriptions by physicians were reviewed and 345 of those which had at least one nitrate drug in, were considered. Also, a questionnaire was designed and the responses of 54 physicians were collected. Results showed that nitroglycerine 6.4 mg was the most and isosorbide dinitrate 40 mg was the least prescribed oral forms. No spray and topical forms had been prescribed. The most written dosing frequency was three times a day. Asymmetric pattern of usage had not been observed in prescriptions. Results of questionnaires showed that about 80% of physicians were familiar with nitrate tolerance phenomenon but only about 20% of them knew the appropriate way to prevent it. More than half of the respondents believed that the appropriate dose for ischemic heart disease was higher than that in congestive heart failure while it was claimed that the opposite was right. These findings suggest that more efforts must be carried out to increase the knowledge, attitude and practice of Iranian physicians regarding the appropriate dosing and administration of organic nitrates.
H. Mirkhani; P. Fadakar
Full Text Available Introduction: the sexual and reproductive health (SSR) is a general state of physical-mental and social well being. Understanding the sexual risk factors that lead to sexually transmitted diseases (ETS), allows the intervention of such factors, in order to improve this state. Methods: study of Knowledge, attitude and practices (CAP) with a probabilistic sampling by stratified and multiphase conglomerates in 2812 people between the ages of 10 - 69, located in urban and rural areas; an informed consent and approval was requested, according to the norm. Results: 2241 of the urban population (84%) and 426 of the rural population (16%) filled out the survey. The first sexual relation among men was at the age of 15 (range 10 - 25) and in women at the age of 17 (range 10 - 38). 92% of the survey is informed in regards to ETS; Only 47 (1.7%) received treatment. Conclusion: weaknesses were found in the sexual CAP that fall into a risky sexual experience and increase the risk factor for ETS. It was recommended to expand the action to strengthen the forces and promote the SSR, as well as complete sexual education according the Colombian norms.
Porras-Castaneda Oneida; Ortega Nestor; Reyes Yolima; Segura Omar; Moron-Duarte Lina
Full Text Available In Kenya, HIV/AIDS is acquired almost entirely through sexual intercourse, with 20% of youth aged between 15 and 19 being infected. Correct and consistent use of condoms during sexual intercourse can greatly reduce the risk of acquiring or transmitting Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), including HIV. The purpose of this study is to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of sexual health with regard to condom use and HIV/AIDS among adolescents attending secondary schools in Kisumu District. This was a cross sectional study and targeted adolescents from randomly selected secondary schools in Kisumu District. Primary data was collected from 384 respondents using self administered pre-tested questionnaires. The results were cross tabulated by gender to facilitate comparison within the study group. Out of 384 respondents, 205 (53.4%) reported that they had sex while the rest had not. The respondents reported early onset of sexual activity, multiple sexual partners and a low and erratic use of condoms. HIV prevention intervention programmes should target both sexually active adolescents and those who have not initiated sexual intercourse.
Mary Aswan Ochieng; Rose Kakai and Kisia Abok
Cervical cancer remains a major reproductive health problem among women especially in developing countries where about 190,000 women die from this disease annually. Despite efforts to reduce the burden of this disease, most attempts in low-resourced countries have not been successful partly from lack of awareness by women of this common cancer, as well as the role the human papilloma virus (HPV) plays in its aetiology and pathogenesis. To determine knowledge, attitudes and practice of women in Trinidad (a developing country) on HPV, cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 426 women in the reproductive age. A majority (58.4%) of participants had attained secondary level education. Whereas 326 (76.5%) women knew of cervical cancer, only 108 (25.4%) were aware of HPV and 68 (15.9%) knew of the association between HPV and cervical cancer. This study highlights the limited awareness of Trinidadian women with respect to HPV and its implication in cervical cancer aetiology. If the scourge of cervical cancer is to be adequately addressed, especially in low-resourced countries, then mass educational programmes on HPV, cervical cancer prevention, including screening and early detection and treatment of pre-cancerous lesions of the cervix, must be given high priority.
Chekuri A; Bassaw B; Affan AM; Habet G; Mungrue K
BACKGROUND: The European Travel Health Advisory Board conducted a cross-sectional pilot survey to evaluate current travel health knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) and to determine where travelers going to developing countries obtain travel health information, what information they receive, and what preventive travel health measures they employ. METHOD: Trained interviewers invited passengers at the departure gates of three international airports: London Heathrow, Paris Charles de Gaulle, and Munich to respond to a self-completion questionnaire. A total of 609 responses were collected. RESULTS: The study showed that more than one-third of travelers questioned had not sought pretravel health advice and of those who did, over 20% sought advice 14 days or less prior to travel. One-third of the respondents were aged 50 or more, and 20% had planned their trip less than 2 weeks before leaving. Only a minority were able to demonstrate that they had been immunised as per the World Health Organization or national recommendations. Respondents often misperceived both the risk of malaria at the destination and recommended preventive measures. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this pilot survey provided a valuable insight into the KAP of travelers and highlighted an important educational need among those traveling to risk destinations. Strategies are needed for raising awareness of preventable travel health issues and for raising compliance with existing recommendations.
Van Herck K; Zuckerman J; Castelli F; Van Damme P; Walker E; Steffen R
[en] To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers regarding immunization of one year old child at Mawatch Goth, Kemari town, Karachi, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted among mothers having one year old child at Mawatch Goth, Kemari town, Karachi in February 2007. All mothers having less than one year old child were interviewed through a semi structured questionnaire regarding immunization knowledge attitude and practices. The data collected through a questionnaire entered and analyzed by using SPSS program version 15. Majority of the mothers were illiterate, belonging to low-income group and not aware about the name of diseases in EPI Program. Majority (70%) of women started routine immunization of the child. The reasons for missing vaccination schedule were lack of understanding of next appointment, non availability of health staff, mild flu and others reasons like household work. About thirty one percent mothers quit immunization after missing one dose. Health care staff was the main source of information. A positive attitude was reflected from both the parents towards immunization. A significant number stated that vaccination is contraindicated in mild illness of child. The knowledge of our mothers about vaccination was found inadequate with strong positive attitude and limited practices. (author)
Dengue fever is a major public health problem in Malaysia. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever among a selected population in Malaysia. A descriptive, community-based, cross sectional study was conducted with 300 participants from three different geographical settings in urban, semi-urban, and rural areas within the states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever. Mean age of respondents was 34.4 (+/- 5.7) years, and the age ranged from 18 to 65 years. The majority of respondents were married (54.7%), Malays (72.7%) and heard about dengue fever (89.7%). Television was the common source of information about dengue fever (97.0%). Participants answered 4 out of 15 items of knowledge incorrectly. There was no significant association between knowledge score and socio-demographic factors. About one-fifth of the respondents (24%) believed that immediate treatment is not necessary for dengue fever, and the majority of them were not afraid of the disease (96.0%). Attitudes toward dengue fever were significantly associated with the level of education and employment status (p < 0.05). Practice was associated significantly with age, marital status, and geographic area (p < 0.05) and knowledge on dengue fever (p = 0.030). There is a need to increase health promotion activities through campaigns and social mobilization to increase knowledge regarding dengue fever. This would help to mold positive attitudes and cultivate better preventive practices among the public to eliminate dengue in the country.
Al-Dubai SA; Ganasegeran K; Mohanad Rahman A; Alshagga MA; Saif-Ali R
UNLABELLED: The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the general knowledge bases demonstrated by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the area of genetics, (b) the confidence levels of SLPs in providing services to children and their families with genetic disorders/syndromes, (c) the attitudes of SLPs regarding genetics and communication disorders, (d) the primary sources used by SLPs to learn about genetic disorders/syndromes, and (e) the association between general knowledge, confidence, attitudes, the number of years of experience working as an SLP, and the number of children currently provided services with genetic disorders/syndromes on SLPs' caseloads. Survey data from a nationwide sample of 533 SLPs was analyzed. Results showed SLPs earned a median knowledge score about genetics of 66% correct responses. Their mean confidence and attitude ratings were in the "unsure" categories while they reported they learned about genetics from three main sources, (a) self-study via web and internet-based searches, (b) on-the-job training and (c) popular press magazines and newspapers. Analyses revealed that Confidence summary scores, Attitude Summary scores, the number of children with genetic disorders/syndromes on SLPs' caseloads are positively associated with the ratings of participants with the highest Knowledge scores. LEARNING OUTCOMES: Readers will be able to (a) explain the important links between developmental and communication disabilities and genetics, (b) describe the associations between knowledge about genetics and confidence, attitudes, and the number of children with genetic disorders/syndromes on their caseloads, and (c) outline the clinical and theoretical implications of the results from this study.
Tramontana GM; Blood IM; Blood GW
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Parental anxiety and apprehension is related to inadequate knowledge of fever and febrile convulsion. AIMS: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the parents of children with febrile convulsions. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire based study in a tertiary care centre carried over a period of one year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 140 parents of consecutive children presenting with febrile convulsion were enrolled. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square test. RESULTS: 83 parents (59.3%) could not recognise the convulsion; 90.7% (127) did not carry out any intervention prior to getting the child to the hospital. The commonest immediate effect of the convulsion on the parents was fear of death (n= 126, 90%) followed by insomnia (n= 48, 34.3%), anorexia (n= 46, 32.9%), crying (n= 28, 20%) and fear of epilepsy (n= 28, 20%). Fear of brain damage, fear of recurrence and dyspepsia were voiced by the fathers alone (n= 20, cumulative incidence 14.3%). 109 (77.9%) parents did not know the fact that the convulsion can occur due to fever. The long-term concerns included fear of epilepsy (n= 64, 45.7%) and future recurrence (n= 27, 19.3%) in the affected child. For 56 (40%) of the parents every subsequent episode of fever was like a nightmare. Only 21 parents (15%) had thermometer at home and 28 (20%) knew the normal range of body temperature. Correct preventive measures were known only to 41 (29.2%). Awareness of febrile convulsion and the preventive measures was higher in socio-economic grade (P< 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The parental fear of fever and febrile convulsion is a major problem with serious negative consequences affecting daily familial life.
Parmar R; Sahu D; Bavdekar S
PURPOSE: One of the main constraints in the prevention of blindness is the lack of awareness of people regarding eye diseases. This study was undertaken to determine the level of knowledge, the attitudes and practices regarding glaucoma in the population of Lomé. METHODS: An interview using a questionnaire was conducted among an opportunistic sample of 767 people living in the capital city of Lomé and in some of its suburbs. The interview targeted people aged 20 to 65 years; the questions were either closed or open. The interviews were conducted either in French or in the local languages where needed and in the latter case with the help of a translator. Variables measured included education status, e.g., schooling years, economic status and professional situation. RESULTS: The knowledge of eye diseases accounted for 84% among the population studied; the most well-known being myopia, cataract, presbyopia, and glaucoma in decreasing order. Glaucoma was known by 228 people (29.7%) among whom 25% were aware of glaucoma blindness cases; 61.5% declared that glaucoma was a serious condition; 4.4% admitted the use of traditional eye-healers; 56.1% were not confident in the local doctors for the treatment of glaucoma. CONCLUSION: The high proportion of people who are not confident in the capabilities of national doctors to efficiently treat glaucoma is worrying. This situation requires the set up of a rational national strategic action plan (e.g., health education) aimed at reducing the burden of glaucoma blindness in the country.
Balo PK; Serouis G; Banla M; Agla K; Djagnikpo PA; Gué KB
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Oyo is an urban community in Oyo state of south-western Nigeria andit is holoendemic for malaria. Information was collected on the knowledge, attitudes and practices(KAP) of inhabitants of Oyo town in relation to malaria.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 192 households with the aid of self- or researcher-administeredquestionnaires was carried out to identify factors associated with the disease in the area.Results: About 93.2% (n=192) of respondents recognized mosquito bites as the cause of malaria. Asmall proportion of children (13.7%) and adults (5.3%) received prompt treatment; however, moreadults (65.8%) got correct dosage of antimalarials than children (38.7%). About 90% of suspectedmalaria cases in children and adults were first treated at home with local herbs or drugs, purchasedfrom medicine stores. The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) was scarce as only 16.7% ofhouseholds used them for their children. Other reported malaria prevention methods include theuse of insecticides (79.7%) and herbs (44.3%). In all, 17 (8.9%) of households did not have screeningnets on their windows and 6.3% of 175 households with screening nets on their windows had rustyand torn nets. The level of education of heads of households was a strong predictor of positivemalaria-related KAP. Window types and environmental hygiene were associated with prevalenceof malaria in households.Interpretation & conclusion: The control of malaria cannot be achieved without full involvementof the affected communities; the available tools for control can only be effective and sustainable ifthe local communities are mobilized and empowered with knowledge. It is suggested that healtheducation campaigns be intensified; chemist shop-keepers and mothers being important targetgroups
A.A. Adedotun, O.A. Morenikeji , A.B. Odaibo
A representative sample of 611 French pediatricians was interviewed on their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs towards and practices regarding childhood obesity through a 39-item Likert format questionnaire. A vast majority of the respondents regarded obesity as an illness (86.4%), 70.2% were aware that without any treatment an obese child has a high risk to remain obese in adulthood, 84% reported that managing obesity is part of their responsibility in the routine practice and 89.3% affirmed to systematically inform parents of obese children on health risks associated with obesity. At the same time, 82.4% were convinced that managing obesity is bound to fail and only 46.5% that it is professionally gratifying. However, doctors who followed a vocational training dedicated to obesity felt themselves more efficient in managing childhood obesity (p<0.01), those who knew the national recommendations were also less likely to report that the management of childhood obesity leads to a failure (p<0.05). Probably one of the main result of our study concerns doctors' perception of the relative impact of the different etiologic factors of obesity. Beside sedentary life, poor eating behavior, lack of parental concern and heredity which are cited by more than three-fourth of the pediatricians, an economic situation more and more insecure and a food industry increasingly more powerful are reported for the first time by doctors themselves, respectively by 59.9% and 60.8% of them, to kill the goodwill of health professionals. These findings reinforce the idea that the solution to the obesity problem does not lie just within the doctor's office and stress the need for prompt regulatory actions to curb obesity.
Franc C; Van Gerwen M; Le Vaillant M; Rosman S; Pelletier-Fleury N
BACKGROUND: and context. Uncontrolled and exponentially increasing population is one of the biggest obstacles in the socioeconomic progress and prosperity of a nation. AIMS: and objectives. The present study was undertaken to evaluate contraceptive practices among eligible couples living in the rural areas of Punjab and their perception, knowledge, attitude, and behavior toward various family planning methods. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional descriptive study was done by the interview method to evaluate the various individual determinants toward contraceptive practices among 1123 married women and their husbands aged between 15 and 49 years. Eligible couples (5477) from in and around the hospital were registered at the rural health center of our institute. Statistical analysis was carried out using nonparametric tests such as percentand ?(2) test. RESULTS: . Contraceptive prevalence was found to be 78.1% and the most commonly used method was surgical sterilization (42.3%). Among the spacing methods, condoms, oral contraceptive pills, and intrauterine contraceptive devices (Cu-T) were used by 36.4%, 7.4%, and 5.5% of the couples, respectively while traditional methods were preferred by 8.3% of the women. Weakness, menstrual dis infertility, weight gain, etc were few of the side effects that were perceived by women as the main hurdle in the use of contraceptives. Irrespective of the method of contraception used, 33.3% of the women reported unwanted pregnancy, most commonly among the users of condoms (79.1%). Sixpercent of the women were not satisfied with the gender composition of their family and desired a male child. CONCLUSIONS: . Increased use of modern contraceptives requires community-wide and multifaceted interventions that aim at countering negative perceptions about modern methods.
Bajwa SK; Bajwa SJ; Ghai GK; Singh K; Singh N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have revealed that visiting poultry markets and direct contact with sick or dead poultry are significant risk factors for H5N1 infection, the practices of which could possibly be influenced by people's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) associated with avian influenza (AI). To determine the KAPs associated with AI among the Chinese general population, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in China. Methods We used standardized, structured questionnaires distributed in both an urban area (Shenzhen, Guangdong Province; n = 1,826) and a rural area (Xiuning, Anhui Province; n = 2,572) using the probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling technique. Results Approximately three-quarters of participants in both groups requested more information about AI. The preferred source of information for both groups was television. Almost three-quarters of all participants were aware of AI as an infectious disease; the urban group was more aware that it could be transmitted through poultry, that it could be prevented, and was more familiar with the relationship between AI and human infection. The villagers in Xiuning were more concerned than Shenzhen residents about human AI viral infection. Regarding preventative measures, a higher percentage of the urban group used soap for hand washing whereas the rural group preferred water only. Almost half of the participants in both groups had continued to eat poultry after being informed about the disease. Conclusions Our study shows a high degree of awareness of human AI in both urban and rural populations, and could provide scientific support to assist the Chinese government in developing strategies and health-education campaigns to prevent AI infection among the general population.
Xiang Nijuan; Shi Ying; Wu Jiabing; Zhang Shunxiang; Ye Min; Peng Zhibin; Zhou Lei; Zhou Hang; Liao Qiaohong; Huai Yang; Li Leilei; Yu Zhangda; Cheng Xiaowen; Su Weike; Wu Xiaomin; Ma Hanwu; Lu Jianhua; McFarland Jeffrey; Yu Hongjie
Introduction: Blood transfusions form a crucial and irreplaceable part in the medical management of many diseases. The collection of blood from voluntary, non-remunerated blood donors from low risk populations is an important measure for ensuring the availability and safety of blood transfusion. In a state like Uttarakhand which is visited by lakhs of visitors during pilgrimage season and where natural calamities and accidents are very common, the availability of blood is of utmost importance. Aim: To find out knowledge, attitude and practices of people towards voluntary blood donation to comprehend the situation and find ways to enhance voluntary blood donation in the state of Uttarakhand. Materials and Methods: Multi stage methodology was designed to target population including general population, influencers (doctors) and supporting organizations (camp organizers, State AIDS Control Society Officials) who were subjected to in-depth interview using pre-structured questionnaires to assess knowledge/awareness about voluntary blood donation, factors preventing and source of knowledge about voluntary blood donation. Result: The sample population consisted of mostly men (67%) in the age-group of 26-35 years. Requirement of blood and the measures to promote voluntary blood donation have a direct relationship with the total population and literacy level of the population. Awareness about blood donation, source of knowledge about blood donation, reasons for not donating blood are particularly stressed. With increase in educational level, the awareness level was also found to increase. While among illiterates 81 percent of the respondents knew about blood donation, among the post graduates the same ratio was found to be almost cent-percent. Among various reasons cited for not donating blood, lack of awareness being the most common reason. People gathered information about blood donation from several different sources with electronic media being the most prominent. Conclusion: This study illustrates how increasing awareness and marketing Voluntary blood donation can enhance adequacy of blood needs of a state or for that matter the entire country. This study also underlines how different media, especially electronic media, can be used to propagate altruistic blood donation.
Agrawal, Amit; Tiwari, Aseem K.; Ahuja, Alok; Kalra, Rakesh
The spread of diseases through food is still a common problem which results in appreciable morbidity and occasional mortality. Food handlers play an important role in ensuring food safety throughout the chain of production, processing, storage and preparation. This study was designed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of food handlers towards food-borne diseases and food safety. A total of 430 food handlers were randomly selected from Owerri Metropolis of Imo State Nigeria and interviewed using structured pretested questionnaire. Almost half (48.4%) of the respondents had poor knowledge of food sanitation. Multiple logistic regression showed type of premise [Odd Ratio (OR) = 4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8 - 7.5, P = 0.0004], educational level (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 1.8 -7.4, P = 0.0003) and job status of food handlers (OR = 0.5, 95%, CI = 0.3 - 0.8, P = 0.0031) significantly influenced the score level of knowledge. There was no significant difference in attitude and practice between trained and untrained food handlers. Findings of this study may be important in planning health education intervention programs for food handlers in order to improve their knowledge, attitude and practice towards food borne diseases and food safety. This will help in reducing morbidity and mortality due to food-borne diseases.
Chukwuocha UM; Dozie IN; Amadi AN; Nwankwo BO; Ukaga CN; Aguwa OC; Abanobi OC; Nwoke EA
Full Text Available Introduction: Today, breast cancer is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidty and also the leading health concern of the world. Methods: This research was a descriptive study entitled; Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding prevention of breast cancer in working women of Chaloos city. The sample size of study included 612 women working in governmental centers. The instrument for data collection was a researcher made questionnaire. For data analysis, central and coefficient index chi square ,t-test ,one way analysis of variation, Kruscal Wallis, Pearson,s correlation coefficient and Fisher test were used. Results: The findings showed that the most of samples were in the 30-39 years age group,(39.7%) with an educational job(83/5%) and without history of breast cancer history in the family.(94/9%) Results also revealed that there was a weak positive relationship between knowledge and attitude (r=0.33) .The findings showed there was a significant statistical relation between knowledge and practice (p<0.05). Also, there was a significant statistical relation between knowledge level and breast self examination (BSE), time interval and also the time of performing BSE (p<0.0001) Similarly, the highest levels of knowledge were present in women with medical education and those with a bachelors or higher degree. The results showed that attitude scores were significantly different in various age, job and educational groups, (p<0.001, p<0.05,p<0.05) respectively Conclusion: The results showed that most of the population under study had a positive attitude but didnt have good knowledge or practice.
Z Ghazanfari; S Mohammad alizadeh; F Azattalab
BACKGROUND: House flies are of major public health concerns in areas with poor sanitation and hygienic conditions. Unfortunately, sanitation and hygiene have always been ignored in dairy farms particularly in the developing or low-income countries. Management of these flies mostly depends on the awareness regarding associated hazards and protective measures taken by the people to minimize risks associated with flies. The present study therefore explores the knowledge, attitude and practices taken by dairy farmers in Punjab, Pakistan against house flies. METHODS: The present study was based on a cross sectional self administered survey to a convenience sample of 173 small scale dairy farmers in four localities - Multan, Lahore, Shorkot and Faisalabad - of Pakistan. The relationships between socio-demographics, knowledge and preventive practices were investigated through logistic regression analysis and chi-square test of association. RESULTS: Considerable number of dairy farmers 71/173 (41.04%) had no idea about the problems associated with house flies. Although 77/173 (44.51%) dairy farmers reported house flies as disease transmitters, only 23 (29.87%) farmers were familiar with diseases and 22 (28.57%) had somewhat idea of the mode of disease transmission. We found a positive association between dairy farmer's education level and overall knowledge of house flies in multivariate analysis. Farmer's education level and knowledge of the house flies breeding sites had a positive association with the adoption of house fly prevention practices by the respondents. However, knowledge of the problems associated with house flies and preventive measures had no association with house fly prevention practices. CONCLUSION: The present ethnoentomological survey provides information about knowledge, attitude and practices of dairy farmers related to house flies in Punjab, Pakistan. We conclude that the farmers' education level and knowledge of the breeding sites had a positive association with the adoption of prevention practices against house flies. The study also highlights the need of targeting the lack of knowledge of dairy farmers for the successful management of house flies.
Khan HA; Akram W; Shad SA; Razaq M; Naeem-Ullah U; Zia K
Objectives: To assess knowledge, attitude and practices about needle stick Injuries in health care workers. Study type, settings and duration: Hospital based study carried out at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, from August 2010 to November 2010. Subjects and Methods: A self administered 19 items questionnaire was prepared which contained information about needle stick injuries, its awareness, frequency of injury and the protocols that were followed after an injury had occurred. These questionnaires were given to 500 health care workers working in different wards and theaters of the hospital after obtaining their informed written consent. The health care workers included doctors, nurses and paramedical staff of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 15. Results: A total of 500 health care workers filled the questionnaire and returned it. Out of these 416(83.2%) reported ever experiencing needle stick injuries in their professional life. Health care workers working in Emergency department were most frequently affected (65%) followed by those working in different wards (27%) and operation theatre (8%). Most (93.6%) workers had knowledge about needle stick injuries and only 6.4% were not aware of it. Needle stick injury occurred from a brand new (unused) syringe in 51.2% cases, while in 32.8% cases, the needle caused an injury after it had been used for an injection. In 5% cases, injury occurred with blood stained needles. The commonest reasons for needle injury in stick injuries were heavy work load (36.8%) followed by hasty work (33.6%) and needle recapping (18.6%). About 66% health care workers were already vaccinated against hepatitis B. Only 13% workers followed universal guidelines of needle stick injuries and no case was reported to hospital authorities. Conclusions: Health care workers had inadequate knowledge about the risk associated with needle stick injuries and do not follow standard preventive measures. Policy message: A standard protocol regarding the training and compliance to follow preventive measures should be followed in all health care institutions. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in low-and-middle income countries. Young and unmarried women constitute a high risk group for unsafe abortions. It has been estimated that widespread use of emergency contraception may significantly reduce the number of abortion-related morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and experiences on emergency contraceptive pills by the university students in Cameroon in order to develop and refine a national health programme for reducing unwanted pregnancies and their associated morbidity and mortality. Methods A convenient sample of 700 students of the University of Buea (Cameroon) was selected for the study. Data was collected by a self-administered, anonymous and pre-tested questionnaire. Results The response rate was 94.9% (664/700). General level of awareness of emergency contraceptive pills was 63.0% (418/664). However, knowledge of the general features of emergency contraceptive pills was low and misinformation was high among these students. Knowledge differed according to the source of information: informal source was associated with misinformation, while medical and informational sources were associated with better knowledge. Although the students generally had positive attitudes regarding emergency contraceptive pills, up to 65.0% (465/664) believed that emergency contraceptive pills were unsafe. Those with adequate knowledge generally showed favourable attitudes with regards to emergency contraceptive pills (Mann-Whitney U = 2592.5, p = 0.000). Forty-nine students (7.4%) had used emergency contraceptive pills themselves or had a partner who had used them. Conclusion Awareness of emergency contraception pills by Cameroonian students is low and the method is still underused. Strategies to promote use of emergency contraception should be focused on spreading accurate information through medical and informational sources, which have been found to be reliable and associated with good knowledge on emergency contraceptive pills.
Kongnyuy Eugene J; Ngassa Pius; Fomulu Nelson; Wiysonge Charles; Kouam Luc; Doh Anderson S
Full Text Available Purpose : We present the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) among diabetic patients regarding eye complications and their care. Materials and Methods : A cross sectional study was conducted in 2008 at seven regions of Oman. Arabic speaking nurses interviewed diabetics at clinics. They used a closed ended questionnaire with 15 questions. The responses were analyzed and the KAP were grouped into excellent (>80%), good (60 to 79%), average (40 to 59%), poor (20 to 39%) and very poor (< 20%). They were also compared among epidemiologic variants. Result : Of the 750 participants, ?Excellent?, grade of knowledge about diagnosis and eye care was present in 547 (72.9%) and 135 (18%) persons respectively. The ?excellent? grade of attitude about eye involvement and eye care was found in 135 (18%) and 224 (29.9%) participants. The practice for undergoing eye check up and accepting treatment was of ?excellent? grade in 390 (52%) and 594 (79.2%) respectively. Age (OR = 0.98), Sharqiya region (OR = 25) and ?5 to 9? duration of DM (OR = 2.1) were associated with the knowledge. ?< 1 year? duration (OR = 0.3) and Dhakhiliya region (OR = 39) were associated with the attitude while ?5 to 9 year? duration (OR = 3.4) was associated with better practices. Conclusions : Knowledge about eye complications and care is satisfactory among persons with diabetes. However, levels of attitude and practice were less than desired and should be improved. This could strengthen program approach for early detection and care of eye complications of diabetes in Oman.
Khandekar Rajiv; Al Harby Saleh; Al Harthy Harith; Al Lawatti Jawad
OBJECTIVE: To explore physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to sexual and mood side effects of hormonal contraceptives, and to compare residents with practising doctors. DESIGN: A mixed-method study with faxed or e-mailed surveys and semistructured telephone interviews. SETTING: British Columbia. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of family doctors, all gynecologists, and all residents in family medicine and gynecology in the College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia registry. A subsample was interviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Estimates of rates of mood and sexual side effects of contraceptives in the practice population and how the physicians informed and advised patients about these side effects. RESULTS: There were 79 residents and 76 practising doctors who completed the questionnaires (response rates of 42.0% and 54.7% of eligible residents and physicians, respectively). The reference sources most physicians reported using gave the rates of sexual and mood side effects of hormonal contraceptives as less than 1%, and yet only 1 (0.6%) respondent estimated similar rates for mood side effects, and 12 (7.8%) for sexual effects among their patients. The most common answers were rates of 5% to 10%, with residents reporting similar rates to practising doctors. Practising doctors were more likely to ask about sexual and mood side effects than residents were (81.1% vs. 24.1% and 86.3% vs. 40.5%, respectively; P < .001). Practising doctors were also more likely to recommend switching to barrier methods (37.3% vs. 16.5%; P = .003) or intrauterine devices (54.7% vs. 38.0%; P = .038) than residents were and more likely to give more responses to the question about how they managed sexual and mood side effects (mean of 1.7 vs. 1.1 responses, P = .001). In 14 of the 15 interviews, practising doctors discussed how they had learned about side effects mainly from their patients and how this had changed their practices. CONCLUSION: Physicians' perceived rates of mood and sexual side effects from hormonal contraception in the general population were higher than the rate of less than 1% quoted in the product monographs. Practising doctors reported that they learned about the type, frequency, and severity of side effects from their patients.
Wiebe E; Kaczorowski J; Mackay J
Full Text Available In this study, the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pesticide use and the levels of exposure of farmers and residents to organophosphorous and/or carbamates pesticides were evaluated in two rural settings in Brazil. A questionnaire was completed by 112 farm workers aged ?18 years. Almost all farmers acknowledged that pesticides were potentially harmful to their health (87.5%); however, over half rarely (48.2%) or never (7.2%) used personal protective devices (PPDs). An association was found (p = 0.001) between the work regimen and the use of PPDs, with more frequent equipment use among hired laborers than those involved in family agriculture. A significant correlation (p = 0.027) was found between the reporting of adverse symptoms and the use of backpack sprayers. Mean AChE activities of farmers (n = 64) and residents (n = 18) during the exposure and non-exposure periods were significantly lower than their control groups. Mean BChE activities of farmers and residents were significantly lower than their controls during the exposure period. Among the 60 farmers that had blood samples collected in both the exposure and non-exposure (baseline) periods, 10 (16.7%) had AChE depletion of over 30% during the exposure period compared with the baseline level. Six residents living on the same farms also presented this depletion. AChE was over 30% higher than the baseline level for 19 farmers (31.7%), indicating a reboot effect. Special education programs are needed in these regions to promote the safe use of pesticides in the field to decrease the risks from exposure to pesticides for farmers, and from secondary exposure to these compounds for their families.
Juliana Oliveira Pasiani; Priscila Torres; Juciê Roniery Silva; Bruno Zago Diniz; Eloisa Dutra Caldas
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study sought to establish the level of knowledge of diabetes among community members in rural and urban setups in Kenya and determine how this impacts on their attitude and practices towards diabetes. METHODS: A face-to-face interview was done for selected respondents using a structured questionnaire for data collection. RESULTS: 1982 respondents, 1151 (58.1%) female and 831 (41.9%) males aged between 13 and 65 years were interviewed. 539 (27.2%) of all the respondents had good knowledge of diabetes; of these 52% had tertiary education; 25% had secondary education while 14% and 9% had primary and no education, respectively. Only 971(49%) of the respondents had a positive attitude towards diabetes while 813 (41%) demonstrated good practices towards diabetes. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the level of knowledge of diabetes in all regions in the country is very poor. It also indicates very poor attitudes and practices of the community towards diabetes. A comprehensive nationwide diabetes education programme is necessary to improve this situation.
William Kiberenge Maina; Zachary Muriuki Ndegwa; Eva Wangechi Njenga; Eva Wangui Muchemi
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ultrasound has become a routine part of care for pregnant women in Uganda, being one of a range of techniques used in screening. However, it differs from most others because it allows women to view their babies. Routine obstetric sonography is now globally recognized as one of the ways through which maternal mortality can be reduced. This study aimed at finding out the knowledge, attitudes and practices of pregnant women towards prenatal sonography at Naguru Health Centre, Uganda. METHODS: Exploratory -descriptive study using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Thematic analysis was employed for qualitative data and bivariate, multivariate and logistic regression analysis was used for quantitative data. RESULTS: Three themes emerged; Knowledge, Attitude and Practices. Womens knowledge, attitude and practices of obstetric sonography were influenced mainly by their biosocial factors like gravidity, education level and occupation. All women expressed concern that obstetric sonography could lead to cancer. CONCLUSION: Obstetric sonography is highly appreciated as being vital for antenatal care. However, there is need for mothers and health care providers to be well informed about the safety and specific purposes of obstetric sonography and what it can and cannot achieve.
Mubuuke Aloysius Gonzaga; Elsie Kiguli-Malwadde; Businge Francis; Byanyima Rosemary
OBJECTIVE: 17 cases of dengue were reported from the town of El Playón (7°28'15"-N/73°12'00"-W/altitude 510 masl) during epidemiological study weeks 5-6 and 12-13/2010. The Santander Department's Health Secretariat sought outbreak investigation and community knowledge-attitudes-practice (KAP) assessment on 16-4-2010 concerning a dengue fever outbreak in the town after an epidemiological surveillance committee had met; this was to strengthen local action regarding Aedes aegypti vector promotion-prevention-control. METHODS: This was a descriptive outbreak investigation study using an active search for cases having clinical manifestations of dengue according to protocol definitions, an entomological survey and a KAP survey of 47 people selected by simple-random-sampling. Data was systematised and analysed using Epi-INFO (3.5.1) with measures of central tendency-male ratio, in-house Aegypti (IA), water-storage (WI) and Breatau (BI) indexes. RESULTS: 4,774 clinical records were examined. There were 67 records compatible with dengue, 24 cases were notified (75 % town-25 % department), 15 (63 %) being women and 9 (38 %) men. 20 (83 %) cases occurred in the urban area and 4 (17 %) in rural areas. Attack rate/cumulated incidence: initial=0.3 % (17/6 303), final=0.4 % (24/6 303), male ratio=1.5. 47 houses and 142 water-storage items proved positive: low water-stores=8.7 %(4/46), rubber tyres=8.3 %(1/12), others=4.4 %(2/45), plants=2.9 %(1/34). IA=5 %, WI=6%, BI=17%, taxonomy confirmed=15 %(7/47). 47 KAP, 36 (77 %) women, 11 (23 %) men; knowledge on disease, symptoms and signs 44 (94 %), eliminating larvae deposits 32(68 %), asked about dengue 3(6 %), informed about responsibilities related to control 25(53 %). CONCLUSIONS: The local community knows about risk factors and is aware of its responsibility regarding vector control. Community participation should be promoted using the ecosystem as a strategy for mosquito and dengue transmission control.
Castañeda O; Segura O; Ramírez AN
The home visiting health nurses are important man-power who can serve various and persistent rehabilitation care to disabled person in community. The Community Based Rehabilitation project (CBR) of national rehabilitation center have been carried out from 1995. As a part of that project national health center performed rehabilitation education program for home visiting health nurses. The purpose of this study is to analysis the effect of this education. In the first stage all of those groups were educated for two weeks in national rehabilitation center. But only two group nurses, one is in a urban and the other in a rural community, have been educated continually in the field through discussing rehabilitation care case study. The data in this study were gathered from three group health nurses and analysed by SAS computer program. The results about knowledge, attitude and practice changes of the three group nurses were as follows. 1. In the pre education state the mean point of all nurses' attitude for rehabilitation was 59, but in the post education state that was 90. The difference between pre and post attitude is very significant (t = -14.1, p 0.1). 6. All changes of the attitude, knowledge and practice did not affected by age (F = 0.58, p > 0.1), professional career (F = 0.61, p > 0.1), educational background (F = 0.97, p > 0.1). PMID:10437606
Jo, K S; You, I J; Bae, J H; Lee, Y J
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia maternal mortality rate is very high more than one in five women die from pregnancy or pregnancy related causes. The use of contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion is an important strategy to minimize maternal mortality rate. Among various forms of contraception, emergency contraceptives are the only one that can be used after sexual intercourse offering chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital (JUSH). METHODS: Institution base cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive was conducted at JUSH from April to June, 2011 Data was collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. RESULTS: In this study 89 women were interviewed. More than half of them (48) were from urban area and 41 were from rural area.46 (51.7%) of them were single. Of all the respondents only nine women had awareness about emergency contraceptive. Seven of the women mentioned pills as emergency contraception and only two of them mentioned both pills and injectable as emergency contraception. All of them have positive attitude towards emergency contraception but none of them have ever used emergency contraceptives. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: The finding revealed pregnancy among women of 15-19 years was very common. The knowledge and practice of emergency contraception is very low. But there is high positive attitude towards emergency contraceptives. Since there is much deficit on knowledge of women on emergency contraceptives, in addition to making them accessible; programs targeted at promotion and education of emergency contraceptives is helpful to prevent unwanted pregnancy.
Tesfaye T; Tilahun T; Girma E
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia maternal mortality rate is very high more than one in five women die from pregnancy or pregnancy related causes. The use of contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion is an important strategy to minimize maternal mortality rate. Among various forms of contraception, emergency contraceptives are the only one that can be used after sexual intercourse offering chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital (JUSH). Methods Institution base cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive was conducted at JUSH from April to June, 2011Data was collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Results In this study 89 women were interviewed. More than half of them (48) were from urban area and 41 were from rural area.46 (51.7%) of them were single. Of all the respondents only nine women had awareness about emergency contraceptive. Seven of the women mentioned pills as emergency contraception and only two of them mentioned both pills and injectable as emergency contraception. All of them have positive attitude towards emergency contraception but none of them have ever used emergency contraceptives. Conclusion and recommendation The finding revealed pregnancy among women of 15-19 years was very common. The knowledge and practice of emergency contraception is very low. But there is high positive attitude towards emergency contraceptives. Since there is much deficit on knowledge of women on emergency contraceptives, in addition to making them accessible; programs targeted at promotion and education of emergency contraceptives is helpful to prevent unwanted pregnancy.
Tesfaye Tatek; Tilahun Tizta; Girma Eshetu
Full Text Available Background: This study examined the practices, knowledge, attitudes, and the reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure of HIV-positive patients with regard to the disclosure of HIV results at Betesda Clinic in Windhoek, Namibia.Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine knowledge, attitudes, and practices of HIV-positive patients regarding the disclosure of HIV status at Betesda Clinic in Namibia, and to determine the reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure.Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study and 263 HIV-positive patients were enrolled in the study.Results: Analyses revealed that knowledge on disclosure was good, with 68% who thought it was important. The majority (73%) have disclosed and 60% disclosed within 1 week of receiving their results. The most common reasons for disclosure were that 32% needed help, 25% wanted his or her partner to go for testing, and 20% wanted to let relatives know. Reasons for non-disclosure were mainly the fear of gossip (79%). Seventy-three per cent had disclosed to their partners, and 23% had disclosed to more than one person. Peoples reactions were supportive in 43%, whereas 29% understood, 9% accepted and 6% were angry. Upon disclosure 40% received help, 24% of partners were tested, 23% received psychological support and 5% were stigmatised. Disclosure was higher amongst the married and cohabitating.Conclusion: The attitude was positive with regard to knowledge of disclosure, with most participants thinking that disclosure was important and good. The attitudes and actual practices of disclosure were encouraging; however, people are disclosing only to trustedindividuals in the society and the fear of stigma is still present although the actual stigma was very low.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B (HB) is a serious global public health problem. This study aims to evaluate Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) towards Hepatitis B (HB) among healthy population of Quetta city, Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional, descriptive study was undertaken. One thousand healthy individuals (aged 18 years and above) were approached for the study. KAP towards HB was assessed by using a pre validated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used for elaborating patients demographic characteristics. Inferential statistics (MannWhitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test) were used for comparison while Spearmans rho correlation was used to identify association between the study variables. All analyses were performed using SPSS 16.0. Results Out of 1000 distributed questionnaires, 780 were returned with a response rate of 78.0%. Four hundred and twenty (53.8%) respondents were male with mean age of 32.76?±?9.40 year. Two hundred and eight (26.7%) had intermediate level of education and 354 (45.4%) were unemployed. Mean scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 8.74?±?2.7, 3.72?±?1.2 and 2.76?±?1.1 respectively. Significant and positive linear correlations between knowledge-attitude (r?=?0.296, p? Conclusion Results from the current study heighted poor KAP of healthy population towards HB. The positive linear correlations reaffirms that better knowledge can lead to positive attitude and subsequently in good practices. This will further help in prevention and management of HB. Therefore, extensive health educational campaign should be provided to general population and especially to the residents of rural areas.
ul Haq Noman; Hassali Mohamed; Shafie Asrul A; Saleem Fahad; Farooqui Maryam; Aljadhey Hisham
BACKGROUND: Nurses' knowledge, sensitivity and attitudes about pain in children and its management affect their response and therefore management of pediatric pain. Children in critical care units undergo more painful procedures than those in general wards. AIMS: To study the knowledge, attitude and practice of nursing personnel catering to critically ill children in a developing country. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire-based survey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The survey was carried out in a tertiary care teaching hospital on nursing personnel in three pediatric/neonatal intensive care units. The domains studied were: i. Training and experience, ii. Knowledge of pediatric pain, iii. Individual attitude towards pain in children, iv. Personal practice(s) for pain alleviation, v. Pain assessment, and vi. Non-pharmacological measures adopted. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Descriptive statistics and logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 81 nursing personnel working in the three critical care units, 56 (69.1%) responded to the questionnaire. Only one-third of them had received formal training in pediatric nursing. Fifty percent of the respondents felt that infants perceive less pain than adults. Training in pediatric nursing was a significant contributing factor in the domain of knowledge (P=0.03). Restraint and distraction were the common modalities employed to facilitate painful procedures. Scientific approaches like eutectic mixture of local anesthetic and the judicious use of sedatives were not adopted routinely. Observing a child's face and posture were widely used parameters to assess pain (83%). None of the three critical care areas used a scoring system to assess pain. CONCLUSIONS: There are several lacunae in the knowledge and practice of nurses in developing countries which need to be improved by training.
Mathew PJ; Mathew JL; Singhi S
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to HIV and AIDS among teenagers in rural schools in Vhembe district. This study focused on teenagers sources of knowledge about HIV/AIDS; their knowledge of how to avoid contracting HIV/AIDS; their knowledge of the methods of transmission of the disease; their knowledge of condoms and usage levels; and people with whom they are comfortable to talk about HIV/AIDS. This was a quantitative descriptive research design where a random sample of 128 participants between the ages of 14 and 19 years was selected. The participants were in grades 8 to 12. The study recommended that holistic HIV/AIDS preventive programmes which were culture and gender sensitive be developed. Custodians of culture should be involved in dealing with HIV/AIDS. Parents should also play their role in discussing HIV/AIDS with their children in a non-threatening environment.
M. Davhana-Maselesele; L.L. Lalendle; U. Useh
Dog bites are a significant pediatric public health challenge in rural China. This study evaluated the effect of various sources of dog-safety information on children's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices with dogs. A total of 1925 children (grade 3-6) between 6 and 15 years old in four rural regions across China participated between May and September 2012. Results showed that teachers and especially parents were effective information sources for children to learn about dog safety. Learning from peers and children teaching themselves were ineffective education strategies. Multi-source learning (from both parents and teachers) did not differ from single-source learning (from parents but not teachers) but did exceed learning from teachers but not parents or no learning from adults. Older age was associated with greater safety knowledge but also riskier practices with dogs. Girls generally held more safety knowledge, less risky attitudes/beliefs and safer practices than boys. Neither age nor gender interacted with information sources on outcome measures. In conclusion, parents appear to play a major role in educating children in rural China on dog safety. Future dog safety interventions might focus on changing cognition and behavior as well as delivering basic knowledge to youth through teachers and especially parents. PMID:23792615
Shen, J; Li, S; Xiang, H; Pang, S; Xu, G; Yu, G; Schwebel, D C
Dog bites are a significant pediatric public health challenge in rural China. This study evaluated the effect of various sources of dog-safety information on children's knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices with dogs. A total of 1925 children (grade 3-6) between 6 and 15 years old in four rural regions across China participated between May and September 2012. Results showed that teachers and especially parents were effective information sources for children to learn about dog safety. Learning from peers and children teaching themselves were ineffective education strategies. Multi-source learning (from both parents and teachers) did not differ from single-source learning (from parents but not teachers) but did exceed learning from teachers but not parents or no learning from adults. Older age was associated with greater safety knowledge but also riskier practices with dogs. Girls generally held more safety knowledge, less risky attitudes/beliefs and safer practices than boys. Neither age nor gender interacted with information sources on outcome measures. In conclusion, parents appear to play a major role in educating children in rural China on dog safety. Future dog safety interventions might focus on changing cognition and behavior as well as delivering basic knowledge to youth through teachers and especially parents.
Shen J; Li S; Xiang H; Pang S; Xu G; Yu G; Schwebel DC
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess, by means of a self administered structured questionnaire, the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of physical education teachers in Bangalore city with regards to emergency management of dental injuries. The questionnaire surveyed the physical education teacher?s background, knowledge of management of tooth fracture, avulsion, luxation injuries, it also investigated physical education teacher?s attitude and the way they handle the injuries. The sample consisted 580 teachers from 700 selected schools in Bangalore city. Chi-square test was applied to test the significance between trained and untrained teachers. Among the population 70% were males physical education teachers 30% were females. 95% of the teachers had physical education training and 5% did not have the training. 95% of the population had first aid component and 5% did not have. Only 25% of trained physical education teachers had correct knowledge about tooth identification and 17% among untrained teachers. 81% of trained teachers answered correctly regarding management of fractured anterior teeth against 27.5% of untrained teachers (P< 0.0002). The present report indicates that there is lack of knowledge and practice among physical education teachers in Bangalore city regarding emergency management of dental trauma. Educational programs to improve the knowledge and awareness among the teachers have to be implemented.
Mohandas U; Chandan G
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of self-medication among first-year medical students of the Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was an anonymous, questionnaire-based, descriptive study. A prevalidated questionnaire, containing open-ended and close-ended questions, was administered to the subjects. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 12 and the results expressed as counts and percentages. RESULTS: Out of the 134 respondents, 43 (32.1%) were males and 91 (67.9%) were females; their mean age in years +/- SD was 18.01 +/- 0.78. The respondents' knowledge about appropriate self-medication was poor, but knowledge of the benefits and risks of self-medication was adequate. The respondents found self-medication to be time-saving, economical, convenient and providing quick relief in common illnesses. Important disadvantages of self-medication mentioned were the risk of making a wrong diagnosis, inappropriate drug use and adverse effects. The majority (76.9%) of the respondents had a positive attitude favoring self-medication. Self-medication was practiced by 44.8% of the subjects. The most common indications for self-medication were to relieve the symptoms of headache (70.9%), cough, cold and sore throat (53.7%), stomachache (32.8%) and fever (29.9%). Analgesics (81.3%) were the most common drugs used for self-medication. The practice of self-medication was appropriate in only 14.2% of cases. CONCLUSION: Knowledge about appropriate self-medication was poor, attitude towards self-medication was positive, and the practice of self-medication was common and often inappropriate.
James H; Handu SS; Al Khaja KA; Otoom S; Sequeira RP
Full Text Available "nBackground: Lack of nutritional knowledge is one of the most important reasons of nutritional problems and consequently improper practice, which can lead to several complications. This study has been designed in order to compare knowledge, attitude and practices of the urban and rural households regarding iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in Boushehr, Golestan and Sistan & Balouchestan provinces in 2004."nMethods: The sampling method at household's level in each province was the single-stage cluster sampling with equal size clusters. The necessary data were gathered with a structured questionnaire and via the interviews between the questioners and the eligible people in each household. Comparison of frequency of variables between urban and rural areas were tested by chi square test."nResults: A total of 2306 households were selected as overall sample size. In urban areas, people recognized iron food sources better than rural areas. Knowledge level of respondents about vulnerable group for IDA and the favorite attitude of households toward IDA were better in urban areas of Sistan & Blouchestan and Golestan provinces. In Sistan & Balouchestan and Golestan, rural households who drank tea immediately before or after meal was more than urban ones. The majority of pregnant and lactating mothers (except for rural areas of Bushehr) did not take iron supplement regularly. Less than 60 percent of children used iron drop regularly."nConclusion: Knowledge, attitude, and practice levels of households toward IDA were not acceptable. One of the best ways of improving nutritional practice is nutritional education with focus on applying available food resources.
R Heshmat; B Azemati; AA Keshtkar; F Salehi; Z Abdollahi; F Kolahdouz; H PourAram; F Farivar; M Bagheri; R Sheykh-ol-Eslam; A Nadim
Abstract Background Audits have shown numerous deficiencies in the quality of hypertension and diabetes primary care in Barbados, despite distribution of regional guidelines. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices, and the barriers faced by primary care ...
Adams O; Carter Anne O
OBJECTIVES: This study explored sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices of female only-child undergraduates and made a comparison with students with siblings. METHODS: Anonymously completed questionnaires were received from 4,769 female undergraduates, recruited using randomized cluster sampling by type of university and students' major and grade. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effects of only-child on sexual knowledge, attitudes and practices among female undergraduates. RESULTS: Of 4,769 female undergraduate students, 41.0% were only-child and 59.0% were students with siblings. Compared with students with siblings, only-child students scored higher on sex-related knowledge, were more inclined to agree with premarital sex, multiple sex partners, one-night stands, extramarital lovers and homosexuality, and were more likely to have a boyfriend and experience sexual intercourse (73.6% vs. 61.4%; 24.0% vs. 14.0%). Only-children were less likely to experience coercion at first sex and have first sexual intercourse with men not their "boyfriends" than children with siblings (3.3% vs. 6.4%; 20.7% vs. 28.8%). There were no significant differences on other risky sexual behaviors (e.g. multiple sex partners and inconsistent condom use) between the only-child students and students with siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual knowledge, attitudes and some practices of only-child female undergraduates were different from students with siblings. Intervention should be designed according to different requirements of only-children and non-only-children.
Li S; Chen R; Cao Y; Li J; Zuo D; Yan H
This article presents the results of the study on knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) on dengue in an urban community in Northeast of Brazil, and the risk situations involved in its transmission. The study was observational and used a semi-structured survey composed of questions about the disease and vector control measures, which was answered by residents of selected households (IC 95%) of the community of Santa Rosa, in the city of Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Pernambuco State. The variables of the KAP were classified into appropriate, regular and insufficient. There is adequate knowledge about the characteristics of the vector and regular regarding the disease and the activities of control. The population does not know that the insecticide used in water is chemical and uses this water for domestic consumption and drinking. Regarding government activity the knowledge was insufficient. It also demonstrates a non appropriate attitude regarding the prevention of dengue and insufficient practice in the prevention of the vector in the household. The practice of water care was adequate for 41% of residents. The local risk situations raised are related to the intermittency in water and also behavioral. PMID:21503482
dos Santos, Solange Laurentino; Cabral, Ana Catarina Dos Santos Pereira; Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva
Full Text Available This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of learners on issues related to water, sanitation and hygiene in selected schools in Vhembe District, South Africa. The methodology relied on a questionnaire, an inspection of sanitary facilities and discussion with the school authorities. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. The study revealed that the level of knowledge about waterborne diseases was relatively high (76.7 ± 1.75%), but knowledge on transmission routes was inadequate. The majority of the respondents had no knowledge when it comes to water-based diseases and their prevention (78.4 ± 1.71%).The attitude and practice on hygiene was also found to be high (91.40 ± 1.16%). Some schools from the urban area had proper handwashing facilities, but there was no soap available. The borehole water quality for rural schools appeared clear, but the microbial quality was unknown. The water supply and sanitation facilities were inadequate in rural schools, with no handwashing areas and no sanitary bins for girls. Some schools had toilets with broken doors which did not offer privacy. The only water tap, located at the centre of the school premises, was not enough for the whole school community.
Jerry E. Sibiya; Jabulani Ray Gumbo
Full Text Available Food handlers have a prime role to play in food businesses, and that is to guarantee that meals served are hygienic for consumption. Conscious or inadvertent contamination of such food places consumers at risk of suffering from food- borne illnesses. For this reason the study was carried out to document the food hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices of some food handlers, in food businesses in Accra, Ghana and also to determine the microbiological load of the foods sold by the food businesses. The study targeted food handlers in the hotel industry. The study involved a field survey, followed by a laboratory assessment of microbiological status of food samples obtained from the sampled hotels. Cross tabulations and chi squared tests (5% significance level) as well as frequency distributions were used to analyze the data obtained from the field survey. Data obtained from the laboratory assessment were also compared to standard values of microbiological counts. Majority of respondents were between the ages of 30 - 40 years (42.9%) with tertiary or post secondary education. Food hygiene knowledge and attitudes were satisfactory, however its practice was challenging. Gender, age and educational level of respondents did not influence their food hygiene practices. Microbial counts of all food samples was generally high ranging from 1.2 × 105 CFU/g to 1.1 × 108 CFU /g. The total coliform counts of foods ranged from 1.0 × 104 CFU/g to 5.0 × 106 CFU/g, and these were obtained from three out of the five hotel kitchens sampled. The study concluded that, the food hygiene knowledge and attitudes of the food handlers did not result in efficient food hygiene practices.
George Amponsah Annor; Ekua Anamoaba Baiden
PURPOSE: To increase usage of the herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine at an academic medical center by studying physicians' knowledge, attitudes, practices, and perceived barriers and analyze the findings by practice setting. METHODS: A cross-sectional Internet-based survey administered to all 266 general internal medicine physicians in 4 clinical settings at an academic medical center between October 6 and December 12, 2011. Outcomes measures included knowledge questions regarding the disease and vaccine recommendations, Likert-type items about physician attitudes and practices, and questions about barriers and proposed interventions to improve utilization. RESULTS: Response rate was 33.5% (89 of 266). Responders did not answer all questions. Only 66% (42 of 64) responded that HZ vaccination was an important clinical priority, and 48% (38 of 79) reported that less than 10% of their patients received the HZ vaccine. 95% responded that the influenza (61 of 64) and 92% that the pneumococcal (59 of 64) vaccines were important. Approximately 53% (42 of 79) and 51% (40 of 78) reported that more than 75% of their patients received these vaccines, respectively. Top barrier to vaccination was cost to patients (51 of 66; 77%). Lack of awareness of national recommendations (46 of 65, 71%) varied by setting. Physicians' preferred interventions included nurse-initiated prompting about vaccination (36 of 75, 48%) and chart reminders (34 of 74, 46%). CONCLUSIONS: Not only increased knowledge but also a change in attitudes and practice are needed to enhance implementation of national recommendations. To improve use of this vaccine, physicians including ophthalmologists need to recommend it more strongly.
Elkin Z; Cohen EJ; Goldberg JD; Gillespie C; Li X; Jung J; Cohen M; Park L; Perskin MH
Full Text Available Introduction: The balanced nutritional diet and intake of milk and dairy products is one of the main determinants of child health and their success in school. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of education on KAP of middle school girls about milk and dairy products. Methods and Materials: This quasi experimental study was carried out on 106 second grade middle school students which were matched by parent education level, job and family size. Subjects were divided to case (group two classes with 52 students) and control (group two classes with 54 students) randomly. Data were collected with a questionnaire which was included four parts: demographic questions and questions regard knowledge, attitude and practice of students about milk and dairy products. In the pretest both group completed the questionnaire. According to the results an educational interventional program were designed and implemented for case group. After two months post test were carried out. Data were analyzed by SPSS soft ware and suitable tests such as paired t-test were used as well. Results: The paired ttest showed a significant increase in scores of knowledge, attitude and practice of case group after intervention (P= 0.000). But increase in scores of their practice was not significant (P= 0.06). There was no significant increase in scores of attitude (P= 0.11) and practice (P= 0.68) of control group and the score of their knowledge was increased significantly (P= 0.000). However the difference between increase scores in case and control groups was significant (P= 0.000). Conclusion: According to the results education has a positive effect on KAP of middle school girls about intake of milk and dairy products and due to low KAP scores of students, seams mass health education should be provided for all students.
Mahmoud Vakili; Mohammad-Hosein Baghiani-Moghadam; Asiye Pirzadeh; Mahbobe Dehghani
Full Text Available This study was done to explore the effect of women`s group counseling on knowledge, attitude and practice of their husbands concerning family planning in Zahedan in 2002. A quasi-experimental study (before and after) was carried out. Forty-four married women with two or more children who had not used contraceptive methods were non-randomly selected from three Health Centers. Before intervention, women and their husbands were interviewed to complete a questionnaire to determine their educational needs, then the women attend three sessions in 5 8-9 member groups. One month after intervention they were asked to complete the same questionnaire and a check list was filled. The mean score, Standard Deviation (SD), paired t-test, Mc-nemar and Chi-square were used for analysis. The finding showed significant difference between the mean scores of knowledge (p<0.001) and attitude (p<0.001) of both of women and their husbands before and after intervention. Moreover, 43% of the couples used one of the modern contraceptive methods after intervention (p<0.00001). Statistic paired t-test with p<0.001 showed that the difference between the knowledge and attitude scores before and after the intervention is significant. Moreover, 43% of the couples used one of the methods after intervention (p<0.00001). According to the results, wives` counseling is recommended to enhance men involvement and to improve family planning programs.
Fereshteh Najafi; Fatemeh Rakhshani
It is widely accepted that the occupational therapy profession needs to incorporate research findings into clinical practice so as to improve client outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes toward evidence-based practice (EBP) of occupational therapy students in the Republic of Ireland. A validated questionnaire was used to survey the population of final-year students from the four universities in Ireland in 2008. There was a response rate of 77% (n?=?86) to the Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviour Questionnaire. All students reported that they had a clear understanding of EBP and were willing to practice EBP in the future. The majority (85%, n?=?73) reported accessing evidence weekly or more often. Lack of time and fieldwork educators not practising EBP were important barriers for 31% (n?=?27) and 27% (n?=?23), respectively. Over half (55%, n?=?47) reported difficulty in finding evidence. The internet (28%, n?=?24) and textbooks (27%, n?=?23) were the most popular sources of evidence. Limitations include the self-report, cross-sectional design. Future research could include longitudinal studies to understand the transfer of learning into clinical practice.
Stronge M; Cahill M
This article reports the validation of an assessment instrument designed to measure the outcomes of training in evidence-based practice (EBP) in the context of dentistry. Four EBP dimensions are measured by this instrument: 1) understanding of EBP concepts, 2) attitudes about EBP, 3) evidence-accessing methods, and 4) confidence in critical appraisal. The instrument-the Knowledge, Attitudes, Access, and Confidence Evaluation (KACE)-has four scales, with a total of thirty-five items: EBP knowledge (ten items), EBP attitudes (ten), accessing evidence (nine), and confidence (six). Four elements of validity were assessed: consistency of items within the KACE scales (extent to which items within a scale measure the same dimension), discrimination (capacity to detect differences between individuals with different training or experience), responsiveness (capacity to detect the effects of education on trainees), and test-retest reliability. Internal consistency of scales was assessed by analyzing responses of second-year dental students, dental residents, and dental faculty members using Cronbach coefficient alpha, a statistical measure of reliability. Discriminative validity was assessed by comparing KACE scores for the three groups. Responsiveness was assessed by comparing pre- and post-training responses for dental students and residents. To measure test-retest reliability, the full KACE was completed twice by a class of freshman dental students seventeen days apart, and the knowledge scale was completed twice by sixteen faculty members fourteen days apart. Item-to-scale consistency ranged from 0.21 to 0.78 for knowledge, 0.57 to 0.83 for attitude, 0.70 to 0.84 for accessing evidence, and 0.87 to 0.94 for confidence. For discrimination, ANOVA and post hoc testing by the Tukey-Kramer method revealed significant score differences among students, residents, and faculty members consistent with education and experience levels. For responsiveness to training, dental students and residents demonstrated statistically significant changes, in desired directions, from pre- to post-test. For the student test-retest, Pearson correlations for KACE scales were as follows: knowledge 0.66, attitudes 0.66, accessing evidence 0.74, and confidence 0.76. For the knowledge scale test-retest by faculty members, the Pearson correlation was 0.79. The construct validity of the KACE is equivalent to that of instruments that assess similar EBP dimensions in medicine. Item consistency for the knowledge scale was more variable than for other KACE scales, a finding also reported for medically oriented EBP instruments. We conclude that the KACE has good discriminative validity, responsiveness to training effects, and test-retest reliability.
Hendricson WD; Rugh JD; Hatch JP; Stark DL; Deahl T; Wallmann ER
This article reports the validation of an assessment instrument designed to measure the outcomes of training in evidence-based practice (EBP) in the context of dentistry. Four EBP dimensions are measured by this instrument: 1) understanding of EBP concepts, 2) attitudes about EBP, 3) evidence-accessing methods, and 4) confidence in critical appraisal. The instrument-the Knowledge, Attitudes, Access, and Confidence Evaluation (KACE)-has four scales, with a total of thirty-five items: EBP knowledge (ten items), EBP attitudes (ten), accessing evidence (nine), and confidence (six). Four elements of validity were assessed: consistency of items within the KACE scales (extent to which items within a scale measure the same dimension), discrimination (capacity to detect differences between individuals with different training or experience), responsiveness (capacity to detect the effects of education on trainees), and test-retest reliability. Internal consistency of scales was assessed by analyzing responses of second-year dental students, dental residents, and dental faculty members using Cronbach coefficient alpha, a statistical measure of reliability. Discriminative validity was assessed by comparing KACE scores for the three groups. Responsiveness was assessed by comparing pre- and post-training responses for dental students and residents. To measure test-retest reliability, the full KACE was completed twice by a class of freshman dental students seventeen days apart, and the knowledge scale was completed twice by sixteen faculty members fourteen days apart. Item-to-scale consistency ranged from 0.21 to 0.78 for knowledge, 0.57 to 0.83 for attitude, 0.70 to 0.84 for accessing evidence, and 0.87 to 0.94 for confidence. For discrimination, ANOVA and post hoc testing by the Tukey-Kramer method revealed significant score differences among students, residents, and faculty members consistent with education and experience levels. For responsiveness to training, dental students and residents demonstrated statistically significant changes, in desired directions, from pre- to post-test. For the student test-retest, Pearson correlations for KACE scales were as follows: knowledge 0.66, attitudes 0.66, accessing evidence 0.74, and confidence 0.76. For the knowledge scale test-retest by faculty members, the Pearson correlation was 0.79. The construct validity of the KACE is equivalent to that of instruments that assess similar EBP dimensions in medicine. Item consistency for the knowledge scale was more variable than for other KACE scales, a finding also reported for medically oriented EBP instruments. We conclude that the KACE has good discriminative validity, responsiveness to training effects, and test-retest reliability. PMID:21293036
Hendricson, William D; Rugh, John D; Hatch, John P; Stark, Debra L; Deahl, Thomas; Wallmann, Elizabeth R
The home visiting health nurses are important man-power who can serve various and persistent rehabilitation care to disabled person in community. The Community Based Rehabilitation project (CBR) of national rehabilitation center have been carried out from 1995. As a part of that project national health center performed rehabilitation education program for home visiting health nurses. The purpose of this study is to analysis the effect of this education. In the first stage all of those groups were educated for two weeks in national rehabilitation center. But only two group nurses, one is in a urban and the other in a rural community, have been educated continually in the field through discussing rehabilitation care case study. The data in this study were gathered from three group health nurses and analysed by SAS computer program. The results about knowledge, attitude and practice changes of the three group nurses were as follows. 1. In the pre education state the mean point of all nurses' attitude for rehabilitation was 59, but in the post education state that was 90. The difference between pre and post attitude is very significant (t = -14.1, p < 0.0001). 2. In the pre education state the mean point of all nurses' knowledge for rehabilitation was 45, but in the post education state that was 78. The difference between pre and post knowledge is very significant (t = -12.7, p < 0.0001). 3. In the pre education state the mean point of all nurses' practice for rehabilitation care was 37, but in the post education state that was 62. The difference between pre and post practice is very significant (t = -7.3, p < 0.0001). 4. In practice point, the two group nurses who have been educated continuously were superior to the other (t = -3.9, p < 0.001). 5. All points between the urban and rural nurses were no significant differences (p > 0.1). 6. All changes of the attitude, knowledge and practice did not affected by age (F = 0.58, p > 0.1), professional career (F = 0.61, p > 0.1), educational background (F = 0.97, p > 0.1).
Jo KS; You IJ; Bae JH; Lee YJ
Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: School health workers have an important role in education and prevention of common oral and dental diseases. An organized program can be helpful in training and shaping the proper behavior. This study has evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practice of schools health workers in Tabriz about oral and dental health in 2007-2008."nMaterials and Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was performed in primary schools in Tabriz. Questionnaires were sent to the schools that had health workers. Levels of the knowledge, attitude and practice of the health workers who had answered this questionnaire were evaluated. SPSS software and independent T-Test and Paired- Sample T-Test were used for analyzing the results."nResults: Fifty eight out of 64 school health workers were women. Mean age of school health workers was 45 years. Forty four of school health workers had passed special course about oral health and dental health. 49 of them had passed special educational course the mean of acquired knowledge score was 6.77 out of 10 and women's scores were significantly higher. Also women had more work experience than men. The mean of acquired attitude and practice scores were 7.42 and 7.14 out of 10, respectively."nConclusion: Findings show that performing of the educational courses during work and experience has an effective role in the scales of the health workers. Progress in this situation can be achieved by retraining programs and accessible pamphlets.
Taghizadeh Ganji A.; Jafari A.; Poorgholi N.; Iranizadeh H.
Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was done among students of four senior secondary schools including two boys and two girls schools of rural Delhi to know the knowledge, attitude, belief and practices regarding AIDS. A large majority (83.0%) of students though had heard about AIDS, yet majority of them did not know the possible methods for prevention of AIDS. There were only 27.1% girls who knew about regular condom usage. Half of them had permissible attitude for pre-maritial sex, while sexual activity was observed in one-fourth students. Students were less reluctant to discuss about AIDS than sex, and teachers were preferred as compared to parents in this regard. School is an ideal setting to educate adolescents regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and safer sex behaviour.
Sharma A; Sehgal V
Full Text Available Abstract Background Governments in several countries attempt to strengthen user participation through instructing health care organisations to plan and implement activities such as user representation in administrational boards, improved information to users, and more individual user participation in clinical work. The professionals are central in implementing initiatives to enhance user participation in organisations, but no controlled studies have been conducted on the effect on professionals from implementing institutional development plans. The objective was to investigate whether implementing a development plan intending to enhance user participation in a mental health hospital had any effect on the professionals' knowledge, practice, or attitudes towards user participation. Methods This was a non-randomized controlled study including professionals from three mental health hospitals in Central Norway. A development plan intended to enhance user participation was implemented in one of the hospitals as a part of a larger re-organizational process. The plan included i.e. establishing a patient education centre and a user office, purchasing of user expertise, appointing contact professionals for next of kin, and improving of the centre's information and the professional culture. The professionals at the intervention hospital thus constituted the intervention group, while the professionals at two other hospitals participated as control group. All professionals were invited to answer the Consumer Participation Questionnaire (CPQ) and additional questions, focusing on knowledge, practice, and attitudes towards user participation, two times with a 16 months interval. Results A total of 438 professionals participated (55% response rate). Comparing the changes in the intervention group with the changes in the control group revealed no statistically significant differences at a 0.05 level. The implementation of the development plan thus had no measurable effect on the professionals' knowledge, practice, or attitudes at the intervention hospital, compared to the control hospitals. Conclusion This is the first controlled study on the effect on professionals from implementing a development plan to enhance user participation in a mental health hospital. The plan had no effect on professionals' knowledge, practice, or attitudes. This can be due to the quality of the development plan, the implementation process, and/or the suitability of the outcome measures.
Rise Marit By; Grimstad Hilde; Solbjør Marit; Steinsbekk Aslak
Full Text Available Background: Recent raise in litigation againsthealthcare practitioners is definitely an issueof immediate concern and may reflect an in-crease in unethical practices by them. Profes-sional relations between physicians and nursesmay have differences with respect to their atti-tudes towards patient-care. Aim and Objec-tives: To assess the knowledge of, and attitudesto healthcare ethics among north Indian physi-cians and nurses. Material and Methods: Thepresent cross sectional study was carried outamong 298 physicians and 107 nurses of threemedical colleges of northern India in the monthof July-August 2011 using pretested self ad-ministered questionnaire. Data analysis wasdone using SPSS version 20. Result and Con-clusion: There was a statistically significantdifference between the opinion of physiciansand nurses with respect to adherence to confi-dentiality, paternalistic attitude of doctors (doc-tors should do their best for the patient irre-spective of the patient?s opinion), informingclose relatives of a patients for consent proce-dures. The study highlighted gaps in the knowl-edge about practical aspects of health care eth-ics among physicians and nurses which theyencounter in day to day practice at workplace.Measures of workplace education like sensiti-zation workshops, CME?s, conferences onhealth care ethics would assist in bridging thisgap to a certain extent.
Mukul Chopra; Anu Bhardwaj; Prassana Mithra; Abhishek Singh; Adiba Siddiqui; Rajesh DR
BACKGROUND: In 2006 the Shaw Trust charity found high levels of ignorance and poor preparedness to deal with mental health problems among 480 senior employers in the UK. The UK government, non-governmental organisations and Time to Change (TTC) have since provided relevant assistance to employers. AIMS: To examine whether there have been improvements in mental health-related knowledge, attitudes and workplace practices among British senior employers between 2006 and 2010. METHOD: A telephone survey was conducted of senior British employers (n = 480 in 2006 and n = 500 in 2009 and 2010). RESULTS: An increased awareness of common mental health problems was detected. Employers continued to believe that job candidates should disclose a mental health problem, but became less likely to view colleagues' attitudes as a barrier to employing someone with such a problem. Formal policies on mental health and the use of workplace accommodations became increasingly common. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with those of the TTC national public attitudes and the Viewpoint survey of service users between 2008 and 2010, which showed improved public attitudes to mental illness and a reduction in experiences of discrimination in employment.
Henderson C; Williams P; Little K; Thornicroft G
Full Text Available Background: Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease that is associated with serious morbidity and is a disease of public health concern because of the case load and the social stigma attached to the disease. Aim: To understand the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, leprosy amongst healthcare providers in Assam, India. Settings and Design: This cross-sectional study was conducted during March to June 2007 in different health institutions of the Kamrup district of Assam. Results: Among the program managers interviewed, only half were organizing training sessions, and 37.5% were involved in supervision of the program activities at the periphery level. Among the program managers who were involved with leprosy elimination, only half were organizing training session and 37.5% were involved in supervision of the program activities at the periphery level. Medical officers consistently demonstrated higher knowledge about leprosy, followed by health supervisors and multipurpose workers (MPWs), including nursing staff. Regarding training status with regard to leprosy, 90% of medical officers, 80% of health supervisors and around 87% of MPWs (83% of male MPWs and 89% of female MPWs) had attended training programs on leprosy. Regarding WHO MDT, 80% of health supervisors, 84.8% of male MPWs and 86.2% of female MPWs had an idea of MDT and treatment duration of various categories of patients. Conclusions: These observations suggest that there appear to be adequate knowledge and positive behavior among healthcare providers with regard to leprosy in this part of India. However, there is still a need to organize training programs at regular intervals to train new recruits, as well as reinforce and update the knowledge of those already trained.
Kar Sumit; Ahmad S; Pal Ranabir
Full Text Available Background: The major factor limiting the use of EC may be inadequate information about their effectiveness and availability or unfavourable opinions about their safety due to misinformation. So the study was carried to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of EC among engineering college girls. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in an engineering college. All girls from a field were included in the study. Data was collected by a predesigned, pre-tested, self-administered multiple response questionnaires. Results: A total of 8(5.7%) reported that they had previously used ECPs. An association was found between users and their level of knowledge. Users had Average/Good knowledge as compared to nonusers (OR-12.51). A strong association was found between source of information and level of knowledge. In other words, respondent receiving information from the Health Personnel (OR 21.49) and Audio-Visual Media (OR 10.2) were more likely to have good or average knowledge as compared to family and friends (OR 6). Conclusion: Knowledge of emergency contraception by students is low and the method is still underused. Strategies to promote use of emergency contraception should be focused on spreading accurate information through medical sources, which have been found to be reliable and associated with good knowledge on emergency contraception.
Nisha Relwani, Ajeet Saoji, N.B.Kasturwar, Jaydeep.Nayse, Mohd.Junaid, Poonam Dhatrak
BACKGROUND: Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is one among different approaches which have been implemented as an attempt to slow the spread of HIV infection and minimize its impact at the individual, family and society level. VCT is perceived to be an effective strategy in risk reduction among sexually active young people like tertiary level students. Ethiopia as a country with high burden of HIV started responding to the epidemic by preparing and updating guidelines on VCT. The objective of this study was to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) for HIV among university students in North West Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted from February to May 2010 using a stratified sampling method to enroll students from different faculties into the study. A total of 330 university students filled in a self-administered questionnaire with response rate of 97.3%. Main outcome measures included level of knowledge, attitude and practice of VCT for HIV. A chi-square test was used to determine an association between a number of independent factors and dependant variables.Result: About 66.1% of the study participants were males with a mean age of 20 years. Majority (75.6%) of the respondents were Orthodox with 63% reported living in urban areas before joining the university. From the study participants 86.3% were knowledgeable on VCT, 73.3% had positive attitude towards VCT for HIV and 61.8% had had VCT for HIV in the past. Previous residence before joining the university, level of education, sex and religion were among the sociodemographic variables that showed statistically significant association with the one or more of the outcome variables. Fear of positive results, stigma and discrimination following the positive results were reported as main barriers for VCT uptake. CONCLUSION: The findings reveal important barriers for VCT uptake and suggest strategies to reduce stigma and discrimination.
Addis Z; Yalew A; Shiferaw Y; Alemu A; Birhan W; Mathewose B; Tachebele B
Full Text Available Background: Contraception is as old as mankind.In view of increasing population theres need for awareness regarding the use of various contraceptive methods. Aims and Objectives: To assess the Knowledge, Attitude & Practice regarding the various contraceptive methods in a rural setup of Hoskote. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out at MVJ, UHC & PHC of Hoskote Taluk on OPD basis. Data was collected by a pre-designed questionnaire at the OPD. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. People were simultaneously educated regarding the various contraceptive methods. Results: Total sample size was 150 of which 75 were males and 75 females. Knowledge about contraceptives was seen more in males (93.3%) when compared to females (72%). 95.2% of gradates had knowledge regarding the methods of contraception. This suggests that the knowledge about contraception is better perceived and understood among the literate group. Most common method of contraceptive practiced was barrier methods (40%), followed by sterilization procedure (20%), IUCD (18.67%), OCP (12%), coitus interruptus (8.67%) and emergency contraception (0.67%). Conclusion: There has been a considerable improvement among the people even in rural setup regarding the contraceptive use, but there still exists lack of awareness and knowledge regarding the use of contraceptive methods in some small groups of people. IEC activities have to be increased especially for females of this rural setup.
Yogendra V, Shuaib Ahmed, Sana Jaweriya, Sagorika Mullick
INTRODUCTION: Poor hygiene practices and inadequate sanitary conditions play major roles in the increased burden of communicable diseases within developing countries. This study evaluated the KAP of hygiene among rural school children in Ethiopia and assessed the extent to which proper knowledge of hygiene was associated with personal hygiene characteristics. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was comprised of 669 students who were interviewed by trained staff Participants were in grades 1-6 at Angolela Primary School, located in rural Ethiopia. Data consisted of hygiene and hand washing practices, knowledge about sanitation, personal hygiene characteristics, and presence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection. Results. Approximately 52% of students were classified as having adequate knowledge of proper hygiene. Most students reported hand washing before meals (99.0%), but only 36.2% reported using soap. Although 76.7% of students reported that washing hands after defecation was important, only 14.8% reported actually following this practice. Students with adequate knowledge of proper hygiene were more likely to have clean clothes (AOR 1.62, CI 1.14-2.29) and to have a lower risk of parasitic infection (AOR 0.78, CI 0.56-1.09) although statistical significance was not achieved for the latter DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Study findings underscore the need for more hand washing and hygiene education in schools; and provide objective evidence that may guide the development of comprehensive health and hygiene intervention programs in rural Ethiopian schools. Successful implementation of these programs is likely to substantially attenuate the transmissible disease burden borne by school children in rural settings.
Vivas AP; Gelaye B; Aboset N; Kumie A; Berhane Y; Williams MA
OBJECTIVE: To determine and compare attitudes, skills, and practices in childhood obesity management in 4 European countries with different obesity prevalence, health care systems, and economic situations. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was distributed to primary health care providers from France, Italy, Poland, and Ukraine. The questionnaire was returned by 1119 participants with a response rate of 32.4%. RESULTS: The study revealed that most of the primary health care providers were convinced of their critical role in obesity management but did not feel sufficiently competent to perform effectively. The adherence to recommended practices such as routine weight and height measurements, BMI calculation, and plotting growth parameters on recommended growth charts was poor. Most primary health care providers recognized the need for continuing professional education in obesity management, stressing the importance of appropriate dietary counseling. CONCLUSIONS: The study underlines insufficient implementation of national guidelines for management of obesity regardless of the country and its health system. It also makes clear that the critical problem is not elaboration of guidelines but rather creating support systems for implementation of the medical standards among the primary care practitioners.
Mazur A; Matusik P; Revert K; Nyankovskyy S; Socha P; Binkowska-Bury M; Grzegorczyk J; Caroli M; Hassink S; Telega G; Malecka-Tendera E
Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacies of the three long acting beta2-agonists (Salmeterol, Formoterol and Bambuterol) in south Indian population. This prospective multi-centered study conducted in various hospitals on basis of block randomization method using St. Georges respiratory questionnaire and assess pulmonary function using spirometer. Out of 85 patients, 25 received Salmeterol, 35 received Formoterol and 25 received Bambuterol, showed variable improvement in the quality of life from baseline and clinical improvements. Change in overall scores from baseline was 56.33 units for Salmeterol, 61.91 units for Formoterol and 54.54 units for Bambuterol. Pulmonary function tests showed a better result for Salmeterol. Knowledge, attitude and practice of patients were improved at the end of the study and showed better compliance that had a good impact on the quality of life of the patients. Salmeterol has shown a better improvement and correlation in case of both quality of life and pulmonary function tests, when compared with others. Formoterol showed a better quality of life but a correlation with the pulmonary function tests was not seen like Salmeterol. The proportion of patients showed increase in knowledge, attitude and practice as well as the compliance by the end of the study.
Siraj Sundaran; N. Premkumar; S.D.Rajendran; S. Mohammed Saji
Full Text Available Context: Use of steroids in septic shock is an issue of contention, more so with two major trials reporting conflicting results. Aims: To assess the current knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) related to the role of steroids in septic shock among intensivists practising in Hyderabad. Setting, Design, Materials and Methods: Questionnaires containing 10 questions pertaining to the role of steroids in septic shock, were distributed to 76 intensivists during the monthly critical care meeting. Results: A great majority of intensivists (82%) agreed that the role of steroids is restricted to septic shock not responding to vasopressors. There was no clear consensus regarding the role of corticotropin stimulation test or the timing of total cortisol level testing, if it has to be performed. Hydrocortisone was clearly the choice of steroid for most intensivists and intravenous bolus injection being the preferred route of administration. There was no agreement regarding the dose of steroids, the role of fludrocortisone and whether steroids should be tapered. Most of the respondents did not extend the steroid therapy beyond seven days and the most common side effect reported was hyperglycemia. Conclusion: There is a lot of ambiguity in the knowledge, attitudes or practices regarding role of steroids in septic shock among intensivists in Hyderabad. Uniform policies and protocols need to be devised at institutional level, with multispecialty inputs, and doctors need to be familiarized accordingly.
Juneja Deven; Gopal Palepu; Satapathy Rashmi; Raya Ravichandra; Madgundi Venugopal
Assessing erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in farm workers across agricultural seasons can be used to monitor risks of pesticide exposure. We surveyed a total of 403 households in Nepal and adopted the Test-mate ChE Cholinesterase Test System to monitor AChE activity across season on the 127 individuals of the sampled households. The study aims to (i) document knowledge and practices of pesticide use among farmers and (ii) present the relationship between farmers' reported acute health symptoms and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase depression. We found low levels of pesticide use hygiene and high levels of individuals' knowledge on the local environmental impacts of pesticide use. Safety measures taken against potential risks of pesticides exposure were inadequate. Exposure to organophosphates significantly reduced AChE activity across season, but was not sufficient enough to claim clinical symptoms whereas exposure to the pyrethroid insecticides and fungicides were sufficient enough to claim acute symptoms of poisoning.
Atreya K; Sitaula BK; Overgaard H; Bajracharya RM; Sharma S
Full Text Available Background: South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills) were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. Study Design: A descriptive epidemiological study. Materials and Methods: Both medical and paramedical (n = 428) providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively ( P P 2 = 0.35). Conclusion: Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills.
Kishore Vertika; Misro Man; Nandan Deoki
Little is known about the information on sexually transmitted disease (STD)/AIDS in the population working in congregating trading markets in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted among three big congregating trading markets in Hefei City. Seven hundred fifty-two market vendors completed a questionnaire, 333 of two markets provided specimen for STD/HIV testing. The majority of market vendors in China are sexually active youths and adults, and have little education. The market vendors had poor knowledge of STD/AIDS. The rates of correct answers to questions about STD/AIDS varied between 21.1%-81.9%. More than 50% of the market vendors had a negative attitude toward HIV-infected individuals. Among the subjects, 27.6% had had premarital or extramarital sex; 15.9% reported using condoms in the past 12 months. Among those who provided specimens, 3.9% were identified with STD, approximately 9 times higher than that in the general population of Hefei (0.4%). Our study suggests China should implement STD/HIV prevention interventions for market vendors to prevent STD/HIV infection.
Hu Z; Wang D; Liu H; Yang S; Ye D; Cao H; Zhang X
OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge, attitudes, and barriers associated with the practice of emergency contraception (EC) among women from the state of Sikkim, India. METHODS: Between November 15, 2011, and June 14, 2012, trained female medical officers and interns used a standard questionnaire to interview 1474 women of reproductive age attending 2 outpatient gynecology clinics. RESULTS: Of those who agreed to participate, 40.6% had ever heard of EC, and EC awareness was particularly low (6.4%) among illiterate women. The most common sources of EC information were electronic media (77.1%), friends and relatives (33.8%), and health personnel (30.4%). Overall, 71.9% of the participants who had heard of EC did not know the timeframe when it should be used. Only 19.6% of the women who had ever heard of EC had adequate knowledge of it, and only 15.1% of these (or 6.1% of the total sample) had ever used EC. The most common barriers to using EC were inadequate knowledge of it, its perceived non-availability, considering it an abortifacient, and religious beliefs. CONCLUSION: Knowledge and practice of EC was low among the women interviewed. There is a need for intensive information EC on the available methods and their correct timing.
Rahman H; Khalda E; Kar S; Kharka L; Bhutia GP
Para-medical workers (PMWs) are first contacts for suspected Swine flu patients and also the media to spread key messages regarding its prevention and control strategies. Present study was conducted to ascertain knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Swine flu among para-medical workers in a tertiary care hospital. A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted among PMWs during May-July, 2010. KAP regarding Swine flu was collected through pre-designed questionnaire and information on attitude towards Swine flu was also collected through FGD-free list analysis. Data was analysed using Epi_Info and Anthropac software. A total of 237 PMWs responded. Majority of the PMWs knew about signs and symptoms (89.03%), mode of transmission (91.56%) and route of transmission (91.98%) of Swine flu. Television (67.51%) was the major source of information. 75.53% and 58.65% PMWs respectively knew about organ of the body chiefly affected and type of specimen to be collected during Swine flu. 196 (82.7%) and 191 (80.59%) PMWs respectively knew about availability of vaccine and treatment against Swine flu. 94.09% PMWs stated that extra precautions such as use of face mask, frequent handwashing, use of gloves etc. should be taken while handling any suspected Swine flu case and 73.84% PMWs do take such precautions. 80.17% PMWs opined that epidemic of Swine flu can be halted at current stage. In the present study, PMWs possessed good knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Swine flu and this fact should be utilized while designing and guiding containment strategies against existing Swine flu epidemic.
Datta SS; Kuppuraman D; Boratne AV; Abraham SB; Singh Z
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a harmful traditional practice with severe consequences for the health and well-being of girls and women. Health care professionals (HCPs) are therefore expected to be aware of how to identify and manage these consequences in order to ensure that those affected by the practice receive quality health care. Moreover, their integration and legitimacy within the communities allow them to play a key role in the prevention of the practice. Nevertheless, the perception of HCPs on FGM/C has been barely explored in African contexts. This study seeks to contribute to this field of knowledge by examining the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding FGM/C among HCPs working in rural settings in The Gambia. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was designed through a quantitative methodology, following a multiethnic approach. A pre-tested questionnaire with open and closed-ended questions was created. Forty medical students from the Community-based Medical Programme were trained to administer the questionnaire, face to face, at village health facilities in rural areas of The Gambia. A final sample of 468 HCPs included all nurse cadres and midwives. RESULTS: A significant proportion of Gambian HCPs working in rural areas embraced the continuation of FGM/C (42.5%), intended to subject their own daughters to it (47.2%), and reported having already performed it during their medical practice (7.6%). However, their knowledge, attitudes, and practices were shaped by sex and ethnic identity. Women showed less approval for continuation of FGM/C and higher endorsement of the proposed strategies to prevent it than men. However, it was among ethnic groups that differences were more substantial. HCPs belonging to traditionally practicing groups were more favourable to the perpetuation and medicalisation of FGM/C, suggesting that ethnicity prevails over professional identity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate an urgent need to build HCP's capacities for FGM/C-related complications, through strategies adapted to their specific characteristics in terms of sex and ethnicity. A culturally and gender sensitive training programme might contribute to social change, promoting the abandonment of FGM/C, avoiding medicalisation, and ensuring accurate management of its health consequences.
Kaplan A; Hechavarría S; Bernal M; Bonhoure I
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is becoming increasingly prevalent among children in China. Poor parent knowledge and attitudes often contribute to inappropriate management practices, leading to deficiencies in the care process. We aimed to document the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of parents of children with asthma and analyze how knowledge and attitudes relate to practices. Our secondary objective was to identify the factors associated with parent KAP scores. Methods A KAP questionnaire was distributed to parents caring for 2960 children (014 years) diagnosed with asthma for at least 3 months from Chinas 29 provinces. A 50-item questionnaire was devised for this cross-sectional survey based on a comprehensive review of the subject. Questionnaires were scored on 30 items regarding parent asthma-related KAP, with one point for every correct response and a possible range of 013 for knowledge, 07 for attitudes and 010 for practices. Higher scores indicated better KAP. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with practices and combined KAP scores. Results The response rate was 83.95% (2485/2960). Only 18.31% (455/2485) of parents correctly answered ? 60% of the knowledge questions (mean = 5.69). Most (89.85%; 2226/2485) gave positive responses to ? 60% of the attitude questions (mean = 5.23) while 67.89% (1687/2485) correctly answered ? 60% of the practices questions (mean = 6.19). Knowledge and attitudes were positively associated with pulmonary function testing, regular physician visits, monitoring with a peak flow meter and the Childrens Asthma Control Test questionnaire, avoidance of asthma triggers, using an inhaled ?2 receptor agonist and adherence to medication regimen (p ? 0.05). Attitudes were also associated with allergen testing. In logistic regression analysis, high KAP scores (dichotomized by a cut-off score of 18) were positively associated with food allergy, rhinitis, physician visits, frequency of visits and parent education (p 1). Conclusions Generally, the parents KAP were poor. A gap between recommended and actual practice was observed, which may be related to inadequate knowledge about and poor attitudes toward childhood asthma. Improving knowledge and attitudes may encourage better practices among parents of children with asthma.
Zhao Jing; Shen Kunling; Xiang Li; Zhang Guoqing; Xie Meng; Bai Juan; Chen Qiyi
Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of HIV infection and AIDS is rising in Nigeria. Surgeons are at risk of occupationally acquired infection as a result of intimate contact with the blood and body fluids of patients. This study set out to determine the knowledge, attitude and risk perception of Nigerian surgery residents to HIV infection and AIDS. Methods A self-administered postal questionnaire was sent to all surgery trainees in Nigeria in 1997. Results Parenteral exposure to patients' blood was reported as occurring 92.5% times, and most respondents assessed their risk of becoming infected with HIV as being moderate at 15%. The majority of the respondents were not aware of the CDC guidelines on universal precautions against blood-borne pathogens. Most support a policy of routinely testing all surgical patients for HIV infection but 76.8% work in centers where there is no policy on parenteral exposure to patients' blood and body fluids. Most (85.6%) do not routinely use all the protective measures advocated for the reduction of transmission of blood borne pathogens during surgery, with the majority ascribing this to non-availability. Most want surgeons to be the primary formulators of policy on HIV and surgery while not completely excluding other stakeholders. Conclusions The study demonstrates the level of knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian surgery trainees in 1997 and the need for policy guidelines to manage all aspects of the healthcare worker (HCW), patients, and HIV/AIDS interaction.
Adebamowo Clement A; Ezeome Emma R; Ajuwon Johnson A; Ogundiran Temidayo O
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Globally, condom is an important method of family planning and prevention of sexually transmitted infections especially human immune deficiency virus HIV/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS. Family planning saves lives of women and children and improves the quality of life. This study was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices in addition to socio-demographic factors of condom use among males in Erbil governorate. Subjects and method: A cross sectional study conducted on randomly selected sample of 600 males aged 15-49 years from 3 districts of Erbil governorate of Iraqi Kurdistan region by using multistage cluster sampling method to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practice of condom use. Results: Only 12% of respondents had ever used condoms. The main reason for condom use was for family planning in about 91.7%. About a quarter of respondents reported knowing how to use condom correctly. Condoms were considered by respondents as an effective method of contraception and prevention of sexually transmitted infections 33.2% and 28.3% respectively. While 30.3% of them believed that condom use had some harmful effects. The main reason to non condom use was lack of need in 45.5%, fertility related reasons in 17% and the use of other methods by the female partner 13.6%. Although 64% of respondents heard about AIDS /HIV and 71.7% about STIS in general, only few felt that they are at risk of STIs 9.5% and HIV infection 8.5%. Conclusion: The study showed that the rate of condom use was low among the studied sample. This was due to lack of knowledge about proper and effective use of condoms, low perception of risk of HIV and other STIs, misperception about harmful effects of condoms and the use of other family planning methods by respondents and their female sexual partner.
Aziz Sulaiman Ismael; Jwan M. Sabir Zangana
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Globally, condom is an important method of family planning and prevention of sexually transmitted infections especially human immune deficiency virus HIV/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS. Family planning saves lives of women and children and improves the quality of life. This study was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices in addition to socio-demographic factors of condom use among males in Erbil governorate. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: A cross sectional study conducted on randomly selected sample of 600 males aged 15-49 years from 3 districts of Erbil governorate of Iraqi Kurdistan region by using multistage cluster sampling method to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practice of condom use. RESULTS: Only 12% of respondents had ever used condoms. The main reason for condom use was for family planning in about 91.7%. About a quarter of respondents reported knowing how to use condom correctly. Condoms were considered by respondents as an effective method of contraception and prevention of sexually transmitted infections 33.2% and 28.3% respectively. While 30.3% of them believed that condom use had some harmful effects. The main reason to non condom use was lack of need in 45.5%, fertility related reasons in 17% and the use of other methods by the female partner 13.6%. Although 64% of respondents heard about AIDS /HIV and 71.7% about STIS in general, only few felt that they are at risk of STIs 9.5% and HIV infection 8.5%. CONCLUSION: The study showed that the rate of condom use was low among the studied sample. This was due to lack of knowledge about proper and effective use of condoms, low perception of risk of HIV and other STIs, misperception about harmful effects of condoms and the use of other family planning methods by respondents and their female sexual partner.
Ismael AS; Sabir Zangana JM
Background Mongolia is undergoing rapid epidemiological transition with increasing urbanisation and economic development. The lifestyle and health of Mongolians are changing as a result, shown by the 2005 and 2009 STEPS surveys (World Health Organization's STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance) that described a growing burden of Non-Communicable Diseases and injuries (NCDs). This study aimed to assess, describe and explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian adult population around NCDs in order to better understand the drivers and therefore develop more appropriate solutions to this growing disease burden. In addition, it aimed to provide data for the evaluation of current public health programs and to assist in building effective, evidence-based health policy. Methods/design This national survey consisted of both quantitative and qualitative methods. A quantitative household-based questionnaire was conducted using a nationally representative sampleof 3854 rural and urban households. Participants were selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique in 42 regions across Mongolia, including rural and urban sites. Permanent residents of sampled households were eligible for recruitment, if aged between 15-64 years. This quantitative arm was then complemented and triangulated with a qualitative component: twelve focus group discussions focusing on diet, exercise and alcohol consumption. Discussions took place in six sites across the country, facilitated by local, trained health workers. These six sites were chosen to reflect major Mongolian cultural and social groups. Discussion KAP surveys are well represented in the literature, but studies that aim to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of a population around NCDs remain scarce. This is despite the growing number of national epidemiological surveys, such as STEPS, which aim to quantify the burden of these diseases but do not explore the level of population-based awareness, understanding, risk-perception and possible motivation for change. Therefore this paper will contribute to building a knowledge base of NCD KAP survey methodology for future use in epidemiology and research worldwide.
Demaio, Alessandro R; Dugee, Otgontuya
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o conhecimento, atitudes e práticas sobre a TB em uma unidade prisional e na rede pública de saúde (RPS). METODOLOGIA: Foi realizado estudo transversal com aplicação do questionário KAP (knowledge, atittudes and practices) na coleta de dados. Participaram 141 detentos, 115 funcionários do presídio e 158 da RPS. O programa Epi-Info versão 6.04 foi utilizado para comparação de proporções com significância estatística para p OBJECTIVE: To analyze the knowledge, attitudes and practices about TB in a prison and in public health services (PHS). METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out and KAP (knowledge, attitudes and practices) questionnaire was applied to 141 prisoners, 115 prison's employees and 158 PHS workers. Epi-Info version 6.04 was used for comparison of proportions with statistic significance at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Mistaken concepts on TB were observed among the three searched groups. PHS also showed basic errors on TB knowledge thus pointing out imperfections on training. CONCLUSION: KAP revealed efficient for data collection of general knowledge items but was limited on practices and attitudes and so its use as the only tool for data collection about knowledge, attitudes and practices on TB is not advisable. It is suggested its regular use to aid educational activities and considering the high prevalence of TB among prisoners, it is noted the need to involve the Departments of Health in the supervision of educational activities in the prison system.
Sérgio Ferreira Júnior; Helenice Bosco de Oliveira; Letícia Marin-Léon
Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza is a considerable threat to global public health. Prevention and control depend on awareness and protective behaviours of the general population as well as high risk-groups. This study aims to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to avian influenza among poultry workers in Nepal. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional study design, using a structured questionnaire administered in face-to-face interviews with 96 poultry workers age 15 and above from the Rupandehi district in Nepal. Results The majority of respondents were male (80%), mean age was 35 (SD = 11.6). Nearly everybody was aware that AI cases had been detected in Nepal and that poultry workers were at risk for infection. The major sources of AI information were radio, TV and newspapers. Knowledge about preventive measures was high with regard to some behaviours (hand washing), but medium to low with regard to others (using cleaning and disinfecting procedures or protective clothing). Poultry workers who got their information from TV and newspapers and those who were more afraid of contracting AI had higher knowledge than those who did not. Being employed as compared to being an owner of a poultry farm as well as having a high level of knowledge was associated with practising more preventive behaviours. While on one hand many specific government control measures found a high degree of acceptance, a majority of study participants also thought that government control and compensation measures as a whole were insufficient. Conclusions The study provides information about knowledge and practices regarding avian influenza among poultry workers in Nepal. It highlights the importance of targeting lack of knowledge as well as structural-material barriers to successfully build preparedness for a major outbreak situation.
Neupane Dinesh; Khanal Vishnu; Ghimire Kamal; Aro Arja R; Leppin Anja
Full Text Available Prevention and management of obesity largely depends on patient motivation and education and these, in turn, can be greatly facilitated by adequate baseline data on the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of patients. The aim of this study is to assess KAP on obesity among Bangladeshi type 2 diabetics. Under a cross-sectional design 160 type 2 diabetics were selected from outpatient department of Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders. A standard questionnaire was constructed in local language and interview was administrated. Age and body mass index (BMI) of the respondents were 45.17±5.68 years and 25.6 ±4 kg/m2 respectively. Among them 45% were male, 38% had primary education, 25% belonged to normal weight, 1/2 of them were overweight and rest were obese. KAP score of the respondents was [mean ±SD(%)] 60.03±13.82, 79.30±8.27, 55.50±19.21 respectively. Majority were unaware about ideal body weight, energy requirement and the weight measurement techniques. A substantial proportion of the respondents considered fast food, soft drinks, mayonnaise as healthier food. Majority of them positively agreed on willingness to follow proper diet, maintaining ideal body weight, dietary management and exercise. More than half of the normal weight and overweight respondents did exercise >45 min, while 1/3 obese did not do exercise (35%). KAP score were significantly associated with respondents level of education (P=0.0001, P=0.007, P=0.05 respectively) practice score was significantly associated with sex (P=0.0001), occupation (P=0.003) and BMI (P=0.0001). There is a need for increased effort towards developing and making education programs focusing on empowering the persons to transform their knowledge and attitude into practice.
Farzana Saleh; Shirin Jahan Mumu; Ferdous Ara; Liaquat Ali; Sharmin Hossain; Kazi Rumana Ahmed
Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this survey was to show the knowingness and standings of infertile male patient that attending Kamal Al Samaraee fertility center, about IVF and IUI procedures in clinical practice. Approach: A cross sectional study done and data were collected during two months period using special form of questionnaire, the total sample was 203 male patients Were performed using descriptive rates and percentages, procedures included Pearson?s product- moment correlation were included. Results: The first part showed the demographic data and there was a significant positive correlation between the patient?s knowledge about (ART) and level of education (r = 0.703988) and their knowledge and duration of infertility (r = 0.607133) respectively. The second part of the study showed lack of knowledge about some aspects of assisted reproductive technique as a procedure and as a technical details, most of the participant don?t know whether IUI need general anesthesia or not (41%), the same thing is true for (IVF) technique, also 41% of the sample didn?t know whether fertilization of ova done outside the wife body or not., the third part showed the attitudes of participants were (80%) of the participants refused gamete donation. Conclusion: it was obvious that there was lack of knowledge about many aspects of (ART), also the attitudes of the participants was highly influenced by cultural and religious believes therefore, education is needed to make the general community aware of the various aspects of (ART), on the other hand we recommended that a governmental legislative and financial support should be made for the promotion of assisted reproductive technique in Iraq.
Lujain A.A. Khazrajy; Mohammed A.A. Abayechi
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B (HBV) is the leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of people with chronic HBV and the associated factors. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at an outpatient adult hepatology clinic at a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur. A self-administered questionnaire was administered on a one-to-one basis to assess knowledge, attitudes, and lifestyle practices of people with chronic HBV. Results The response rate was 89% (n?=?483/543). Participants had a mean age of 46.3 (±14.7) years and the mean duration of HBV from time of diagnosis was 12.2 (±8.8) years. The mean knowledge score was 12.57/20 (standard deviation: ±4.4, range: 019). Participants aged 3039?years, with higher educational attainment, employed in professional jobs, longer duration of diagnosis and those without cirrhosis had significantly higher knowledge scores. Age, education level and duration of diagnosis were significant predictors of the knowledge score on standard multiple regression analysis. More than half of the participants were worried of spreading HBV infection to family and friends and worried since the diagnosis. A third of the participants (33.5%) were embarrassed to reveal their diagnosis to the public but most of them (93.6%) would inform their family. Those who reported feeling worried since their diagnosis were more likely to be middle-aged, of Malay ethnicity, have shorter duration of diagnosis of less than 10?years and have received therapy. About half of the participants (50.6%) did not share dining utensils and the majority (93.2%) believed that HBV can be transmitted by sharing of eating and drinking utensils. Older patients were significantly less likely to share utensils. Those who felt worried since diagnosis had significant higher knowledge of HBV. Conclusion The findings highlight the stigma and misconceptions that still exist among the HBV patients. More patient and public education about HBV and its prevention are essential to increase awareness and to demystify the disease.
Mohamed Rosmawati; Ng Chirk; Tong Wen; Abidin Suraya; Wong Li; Low Wah
Paediatricians were surveyed about baby walker knowledge, attitudes, and practice. Advising about walkers was associated with working in community paediatrics, treating walker related injuries, knowledge about walkers, and positive attitudes towards walker health promotion. Greater knowledge about walkers was associated with more negative attitudes to walkers. Educating paediatricians and parents about the risks of, and alternatives to using walkers is important. PMID:14670775
Rhodes, K; Kendrick, D; Collier, J
Paediatricians were surveyed about baby walker knowledge, attitudes, and practice. Advising about walkers was associated with working in community paediatrics, treating walker related injuries, knowledge about walkers, and positive attitudes towards walker health promotion. Greater knowledge about walkers was associated with more negative attitudes to walkers. Educating paediatricians and parents about the risks of, and alternatives to using walkers is important.
Rhodes K; Kendrick D; Collier J
AIM: To examine the opinions of physicians in Bahrain regarding their role in obesity control, and to evaluate their knowledge, attitudes and practices towards obesity prevention and management in primary health care. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of physicians in Bahrain. A single-stage cluster sample was used, which included twelve health centres and 107 physicians. Ninety-seven physicians participated in the study with a 90% response rate. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure physicians' knowledge and practices, their perceived role and potential limitations. Correction for design effect and finite population were considered in the analysis. RESULTS: The majority of physicians in Bahrain (92%) were aware of the obesity epidemic and 60% of them felt capable of assuming a major role in obesity control, regardless of their negative views towards the success rates of weight management. Only 36% agreed that they had effective weight-management practices. They were knowledgeable about weight-loss goals and showed a reasonable level of obesity identification, especially as part of chronic disease care (71%). Physicians reported a high rate of utilization of various weight-loss strategies, except for pharmacotherapy and surgery. The major barriers identified in patient care included time constraints (91%), lack of specialty clinics (81%), absence of guidelines (78%) and an inadequate number of dietitians (71%). Sixty-four per cent reported that training in lifestyle counselling and behaviour modification are important requirements. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians in Bahrain showed a reasonable level of interest in participating in obesity prevention and management. It seems that there would be a good opportunity for better practice if physicians were supported with appropriate training and the constraints of their working environment were adequately addressed.
Al-Ghawi A; Uauy R
Full Text Available Although in Colombia screening programs of cervical cancer have achieved high levelsof coverage, cervical cancer has the first places in incidence and mortality. There isthe need to identify factors influencing it, among them is to investigate the level ofawareness of women about the screening test, their attitudes to screening and itspractices. For this we made a survey of 505 women 13 to 60 years who have had sexual life, living in the cities of Cartagena and Sincelejo (Colombia).The results showthat virtually all women have knowledge of cervical cytology, 94.5% of women havemade at least once. This percentage is higher in the range of 40 to 60 years where itreaches 99% in younger women this percentage decrease. In defining its usefulness,only 73.8% responded accurately. 50% reported unpleasant aspects related to themaking of the cytology, such as fear, and fear of a cancer diagnosis. A fail to rememberis the main factor for not claiming the results.These data show that the percentage ofwomen with sexual life that ignores the usefulness of cytology or never have practicedis minimal, which leads to the conclusion that ineffective screening programs to reducecervical cancer rates depends on other factors that should be investigated.RESUMEN:Aunque en Colombia los programas de prevención del cáncer de cérvix han alcanzadoaltos niveles de cobertura, todavía este ocupa los primeros lugares en incidencia ymortalidad. Existe la necesidad de identificar los factores que influyen en ello, por tantoes importante investigar el nivel de conocimiento de las mujeres sobre la prueba detamizaje, su actitud frente a la misma y sus prácticas relacionadas. Se realizó encuestaa 505 mujeres entre 13 y 60 años edad, que habían tenido vida sexual, residentes en lasciudades de Cartagena y Sincelejo (Colombia). Los resultados revelan que prácticamentetodas las mujeres tienen conocimientos sobre citología cérvico-uterina. El 94.5% delas mujeres se la han realizado por lo menos una vez. Este porcentaje es mayor en elrango de 40 a 60 años donde alcanza el 99%, y en las de menor edad este porcentajedisminuye. Al definir su utilidad: solo el 73.8% respondió de manera acertada. El 50%refieren aspectos desagradables en relación con la toma de la citología, como el miedoy el temor a un diagnóstico de cáncer y el olvido es el principal factor para no reclamarlos resultados. Estos datos demuestran que el porcentaje de mujeres con vida sexualque desconocen la utilidad de la citología o nunca se la han practicado es mínimo, locual permite concluir que la ineficacia de los programas de tamizaje para disminuir lascifras de cáncer de cérvix en nuestro medio depende de otros factores que deben serevaluados.
Barrrios-Garcia Lia; Benedetti-Padrón Inés; Alvis-Estrada Luis; Arroyo-Salgado Bárbara
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to review knowledge, attitudes and practices related to sexual transmitted diseases (STD) and HIV/AIDS among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Senegal. METHOD: The study was undertaken from February 1st to June 30th 2007, in three capitals cities in Senegal (one national, and two regional). It concerned the MSM that benefited from at least one of services of an MSM association. Studied variables included socio demographic characteristics, sexual practices, as well as knowledge and attitudes related to STDs and VIH/AIDS. Interviews took place during appointments obtained by direct phone call or by two MSM leaders intermediary. Data were seized and analyzed with Epi2000 Software. RESULTS: Among 245 registered MSM, 63 had a precise contact (address and/or phone number), and 49 aged in average of 25 years were investigated. Among them, one was illiterate, five studied Koran, seven Arab and 36 French. The socio-professional categories differentiated two officials, two merchants, one mechanic, one fighter, five artists, five restorers, seven tailors, 11 students, and 15 unemployed. The associations, to which 35 HSH belonged, were related to sexuality (66%), religion (20%), social matters (8%) and economy (6%). Sexual habits, according to anal intercourse, differentiated the "Ubbi" or receptive/passive (57%), the "Yoos" or incertif/active (25%), the "Ubbi/Yoos" who play the two roles (14%) and the "neitherUbbi/norYoos" who had other practices than anal (4%). Practices between men, concerned mutual strokes (100%), fellatio (61%) and anal intercourse (49%), counted 45% for remuneration, 35% of multi-unprotected partnership, and 12% of breaking condom. Practices with women were reported by 15 MSM (31%). Concerning STDs, at least one sign was reported by 43 MSM, one transmission way by 42, one mean of protection by 47; and the first recourse was a health system for 36 MSM. The test of HIV/AIDS screening was done by 38 HSH among which 30 withdrew the results. The "Ubby" adhered much more to associations, and practiced less unprotected vaginal intercourses and multi partnerships. CONCLUSION: Sexual relations between men, in Senegal, constitute a factor of propagation for STDs and HIV/AIDS. Beliefs, values, and popular reactions still limit the big principles (liberty, equality, solidarity, and participation) of preventive and curative care. Therefore, ethics and effectiveness must be conciliated to face more MSM needs, for a better health of the populations.
Ndiaye P; Fall A; Tal-Dia A; Faye A; Diongue M
BACKGROUND: There is no study available on the frequency, predisposing factors and outcome of needle stick injury (NSI) in cytopathologists who perform fine needle aspiration (FNA). AIM: To know the frequency, circumstances and sequlae of NSI sustained by cytopathologists, assess their knowledge about risks of NSI and attitudes and practices towards use of standard precautions and post-injury wound care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study design: cross sectional. Setting: Tertiary care teaching and non-teaching hospitals and private laboratories. Data collection method: Knowledge, attitude and practices survey using a questionnaire. RESULTS: Majority (90.5%) of the respondents have had NSI in their total career. In the previous year, more than half (71.4%) had at least one NSI (mean 3.2). NSI was the most common in index finger of non-dominant hand (59.6%) and occurred during step two of FNA procedure when the needle was being manipulated within the lump. The major predisposing factors were uncooperative patients (88.9%), small children (54%), deep masses (36.5%), hot humid climate (88.9%), heavy workload (76.2%) and poor administrative arrangement (54%). The adherence to standard precautions was not optimal (74.6%). None of them reported NSI to the authorities, nor investigated source patient or themselves. 82.5% of the respondents were not aware of any formal exposure reporting system in their hospital. CONCLUSION: Cytopathologists frequently experience NSI while performing FNA. Frequency of injury is also related to patient characteristics and work site factors. Education and motivation for adhering to standard precautions and post-exposure prophylaxis are often lacking.
Kumar N; Sharma P; Jain S
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES.: To describe the level of knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported quality of practice in pain assessment among nurses of Mainland China and explore links with current hospital pain policy and continuing education. BACKGROUND.: Knowledge is necessary for skilled pain assessment among nurses. Little is currently known regarding knowledge, attitude toward, and self reported pain assessment by nurses from Mainland China. METHODS.: Quantitative research and cross-sectional convenience sampling assessed nursing knowledge, attitude, and practice among 101 nurses working in high-level hospitals in Mainland China. RESULTS.: 81.2% of nurses participating in the survey were from high-level (level three) hospitals in Mainland China. 24.8% of the nurses attended continuing education in pain assessment. No nurses from the 76 hospital staffs surveyed were able to recall any hospital policy regarding pain assessment. Knowledge regarding pain assessment was rated at 1.9 (SD?=?1.6) on a (0-7) scale. 27.7% of nurses possessed a positive attitude toward pain assessment. Pain assessment was not routine in most of the hospitals surveyed. Nurses who attended continuing education showed greater knowledge and more positive attitudes regarding pain assessment but did not show improvement in their quality of practice. CONCLUSIONS.: This study identified inadequate knowledge and low level of self-reported pain assessment practice among nurses working in high-level hospitals in Mainland China. Current education did not influence nursing self-reported pain assessment practice. Knowledge of pain evaluation should be improved through newer approaches to education. A better policy framework for pain evaluation may also contribute to improvement.
Ying Ge T; Konstantatos AH; Cai Fang Z; Ying HJ; Ai Fen Y; Boyd D
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES.: To describe the level of knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported quality of practice in pain assessment among nurses of Mainland China and explore links with current hospital pain policy and continuing education. BACKGROUND.: Knowledge is necessary for skilled pain assessment among nurses. Little is currently known regarding knowledge, attitude toward, and self reported pain assessment by nurses from Mainland China. METHODS.: Quantitative research and cross-sectional convenience sampling assessed nursing knowledge, attitude, and practice among 101 nurses working in high-level hospitals in Mainland China. RESULTS.: 81.2% of nurses participating in the survey were from high-level (level three) hospitals in Mainland China. 24.8% of the nurses attended continuing education in pain assessment. No nurses from the 76 hospital staffs surveyed were able to recall any hospital policy regarding pain assessment. Knowledge regarding pain assessment was rated at 1.9 (SD?=?1.6) on a (0-7) scale. 27.7% of nurses possessed a positive attitude toward pain assessment. Pain assessment was not routine in most of the hospitals surveyed. Nurses who attended continuing education showed greater knowledge and more positive attitudes regarding pain assessment but did not show improvement in their quality of practice. CONCLUSIONS.: This study identified inadequate knowledge and low level of self-reported pain assessment practice among nurses working in high-level hospitals in Mainland China. Current education did not influence nursing self-reported pain assessment practice. Knowledge of pain evaluation should be improved through newer approaches to education. A better policy framework for pain evaluation may also contribute to improvement. PMID:23755821
Ying Ge, Tong; Konstantatos, Alex H; Cai Fang, Zhang; Ying, Hu Jia; Ai Fen, Ye; Boyd, Dana
Full Text Available Its a cross sectional observational study conducted in outpatient clinic of OBG, SDMCMS&H, Dharwad between July-December 2012. 200 married women between 20-45 yrs were interviewed with predesigned questionnaire. Effort was made to identify reasons for wide gap between knowledge and practice of contraception. All women knew atleast one method of contraception but 48% were using some sort of contraception. Most known method was female sterilization, least known were injectables and male sterilization. Common method chosen was female sterilization (70.8%). None adopted male sterilization. Reasons for not using contraception were desire to have child (25%), desire for boys (13.4%), worried about side effect (16.3%), opposition from family members (11.5%), felt pregnancy was naturally spaced (11.5%), no specific reasons (10.5%), couldnt avail contraceptive facilities (5.7%), inconvenient to use (5.7%). Educational and motivational activities from doctors and health workers is needed to promote the use of contraception. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000): 172-176
Sunita TH; Rathnamala M Desai
Full Text Available This study examines demographic, cognitive and behavioral factors that predict pediatric dog-bite injury risk in rural China. A total of 1,537 children (grades 46) in rural regions of Anhui, Hebei and Zhejiang Provinces, China completed self-report questionnaires assessing beliefs about and behaviors with dogs. The results showed that almost 30% of children reported a history of dog bites. Children answered 56% of dog-safety knowledge items correctly. Regressions revealed both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors predicted childrens risky interactions with dogs and dog-bite history. Boys behaved more riskily with dogs and were more frequently bitten. Older children reported greater risks with dogs and more bites. With demographics controlled, attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, exposure frequency, and dog ownership predicted childrens self-reported risky practice with dogs. Attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, dog exposure, and dog ownership predicted dog bites. In conclusion, both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors influenced rural Chinese childrens dog-bite injury risk. Theory-based, empirically-supported intervention programs might reduce dog-bite injuries in rural China.
Jiabin Shen; Shaohua Li; Huiyun Xiang; Shulan Pang; Guozhang Xu; David C. Schwebel
This is a survey of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding HIV testing among 187 female family members affiliated with the Honduran Armed Forces and civilian controls. Prior HIV testing was reported by 45%, and 94% expressed willingness to be tested in the future. Pregnancy was the reason for 73% of prior tests, but only 49% of the 149 women with prior pregnancies reported prior tests. Although most women tested for HIV did so during pregnancy, there appears to be a gap in understanding that the rationale is to help prevent maternal-child transmission at birth or through breast-feeding. Military-affiliated women were more likely to describe themselves as being knowledgeable of HIV/AIDS, 95% versus 82% (p < 0.01), but there were few differences in knowledge between groups. Positive perceptions of confidentiality, test accuracy, and self-awareness of HIV were associated with prior testing. Although these differences may point to HIV/AIDS educational areas that should be emphasized for a particular population, the overall content that should be provided to military or civilian families is the same.
Hickey PW; Kuehn DR; Aviles R; Yu C; Watson CM; Medina R; Lopez M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community Based Interactive Approach-diabetes mellitus (CBIA-DM) is an active self-learning method. This study is aimed at improving type 2 diabetic patients' knowledge, attitude and practice on diabetes self-care by implementing the CBIA-DM strategy. Time series, pre and post quasi-experimental design, Intervention group underwent CBIA-DM, DM-club and Normal-care group acted as control. Data were collected in pre-intervention, immediately, one, three and six months post intervention. Ranging scores for pre and post test questionnaires were: knowledge (018) and attitude (945); categorizing as rational scales of the scores in good, fair and poor. Practicing in diabetes self-care was assessed using 12 questionnaires, and categorized as adhere and not adhere to DM self-care. Effectiveness of CBIA-DM was evaluated based on the increasing number of participants in good knowledge and attitude levels, and adherence in practicing diabetes self-care. Results CBIA-DM group shows increasing number of participants in good level of knowledge from 40?% (n?=?30) up to 80?% at M?+?3 with scores significantly improved from 13.1?±?2.4 up to 15.4?±?2.0 (Wilcoxon test, p? Conclusions CBIA-DM strategy is effective to improve diabetic patients knowledge, attitude and practice on diabetes self-care. Repeating and improving the strategy program is needed to sustain the impact.
Hartayu Titien; MI Mohamed; Suryawati Sri
Full Text Available This study was undertaken in Mpwapwa District in Central Zone of Tanzania between July to August, 2009 to assess knowledge, attitude and practice towards modern contraceptives among married women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Specific objectives of the study were to ascertain knowledge and attitude towards modern contraceptives, to determine the extent of use of modern contraceptives and identify factors associated with current use of modern contraceptive in the study population. Study design involved a crosssectional survey that involved 160 women randomly selected from eight villages with nearly equal number of respondents per village. Data from respondents were collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Furthermore, eight Focus Groups Discussions (FGDs), with one FGD per village were also carried out to collect qualitative information. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program version 12 was used to analyse quantitative data. Qualitative data were analysed using Content Analysis (CA). Results of this study revealed knowledge of modern contraceptives in a study population to be high. Furthermore, findings of this study indicated substantial proportion of respondents to have positive attitude towards modern contraceptives and hence more room for increasing modern contraceptive use in a study population. For example, half (50%) of respondent that were aware of modern contraceptives thought that benefits of modern contraceptives outweigh negative effects and 42% agreed that they could recommend use of modern contraceptive to a friend. However, despite presence of positive attitude towards modern contraceptives by a good number of women in a study population, negative attitude of husband towards modern contraceptives can be one of the obstacles for the success of campaigns to increase modern contraceptive use in the study area. Two- third (65.8%) of study participants indicated that their husband doesnt approve modern contraceptives. Regarding contraceptive prevalence rate in the target group (i.e., proportion currently use modern contraceptives), although there was some improvement compared to the past national averages, however, the obtained figure (25%) was far (too low) from the desired national target of 60%. Results for Binary Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis indicated that Likelihood (chances) of being current user of modern contraceptives by a woman increased significantly by having secondary education and higher (Odds ratio (OR) = 15.18, p<0.05), having higher number of living children (i.e., 4 and above) (OR = 19.68, p<0.01), spousal communication on modern contraceptives (OR = 1.84, p<0.05), woman participation in decision making regarding fertility in a family (OR = 19.40, p<0.05) , husband approval of modern contraceptives (OR = 18.46, p<0.01) and having positive attitudes towards modern contraceptives (OR = 8.50, p<0.05) (i.e., thinking that benefits of modern contraceptives outweighs negative effects) compared to the counterparts. The Odds (chances) of being current user of modern contraceptive by a woman decreased by living more than 5 km from nearest health facility (OR = 0.67, p<0.05) and if had ever encountered side effects (OR = 0.44, p<0.05). Based on these findings recommendations for improving modern contraceptive use in a study population have been indicated.
J. Lwelamira; G. Mnyamagola; M.M. Msaki
AIM: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and fatigue. It is a less frequently diagnosed disease in China, thus Chinese rheumatologists may have lower awareness of FM compared with colleagues in Western countries. The aim of this study is to investigate the perceptions of FM in Chinese rheumatologists and analyze their therapeutic approach in clinical practice. METHOD: An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted among a nationwide sample of Chinese rheumatologists at the 15th National Rheumatology Conference in 2010. The 20-question survey included questions regarding background, work experience, perceptions of diagnosis and behaviors of treatment related to FM. Continuing medical education (CME) information was also collected in the survey. RESULTS: Seven hundred and seven rheumatologists responded to the questionnaire, a response rate of 60%. Less than one-fifth of the respondents were experienced in dealing with FM. Although most of the respondents regarded FM as a distinct pathological entity, nearly 30% of Chinese rheumatologists believed that FM was only a psychological disorder. The respondents recognized some of the FM-related symptoms, but had limited knowledge on the diagnostic criteria. Eighty percent of the respondents declared they had difficulties in treating FM patients. However, nearly all (90.8%) respondents believed that the prognosis of FM patients was usually benign. Our data also showed that most Chinese rheumatologists were eager for CME on FM. CONCLUSION: The awareness and perception of FM are still low among Chinese rheumatologists. CME on FM is needed for improving the quality of health care in China.
Mu R; Li C; Zhu JX; Zhang XY; Duan TJ; Feng M; Wang GC; Zhang FC; Li ZG
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to the availability of the specific pandemic vaccine, strategies to mitigate the impact of the disease typically involved antiviral treatment and non-pharmaceutical community interventions. However, compliance with these strategies is linked to risk perceptions, perceived severity and perceived effectiveness of the strategies. In 2010, we undertook a study to examine the knowledge, attitudes, risk perceptions, practices and barriers towards influenza and infection control strategies amongst domestic and international university students. Methods A study using qualitative methods that incorporated 20 semi-structured interviews was undertaken with domestic and international undergraduate and postgraduate university students based at one university in Sydney, Australia. Participants were invited to discuss their perceptions of influenza (seasonal vs. pandemic) in terms of perceived severity and impact, and attitudes towards infection control measures including hand-washing and the use of social distancing, isolation or cough etiquette. Results While participants were generally knowledgeable about influenza transmission, they were unable to accurately define what pandemic influenza meant. While avian flu or SARS were mistaken as examples of past pandemics, almost all participants were able to associate the recent swine flu situation as an example of a pandemic event. Not surprisingly, it was uncommon for participants to identify university students as being at risk of catching pandemic influenza. Amongst those interviewed, it was felt that students were capable of fighting off any illness. The participants nominated hand washing as the most feasible and acceptable compared with social distancing and mask use. Conclusions Given the high levels of interaction that occurs in a university setting, it is really important that students are informed about disease transmission and about risk of infection. It may be necessary to emphasize that pandemic influenza could pose a real threat to them, that it is important to protect oneself from infection and that infection control measures can be effective.
Seale Holly; Mak Jackie PI; Razee Husna; MacIntyre C
BACKGROUND: Prior to the availability of the specific pandemic vaccine, strategies to mitigate the impact of the disease typically involved antiviral treatment and "non-pharmaceutical" community interventions. However, compliance with these strategies is linked to risk perceptions, perceived severity and perceived effectiveness of the strategies. In 2010, we undertook a study to examine the knowledge, attitudes, risk perceptions, practices and barriers towards influenza and infection control strategies amongst domestic and international university students. METHODS: A study using qualitative methods that incorporated 20 semi-structured interviews was undertaken with domestic and international undergraduate and postgraduate university students based at one university in Sydney, Australia. Participants were invited to discuss their perceptions of influenza (seasonal vs. pandemic) in terms of perceived severity and impact, and attitudes towards infection control measures including hand-washing and the use of social distancing, isolation or cough etiquette. RESULTS: While participants were generally knowledgeable about influenza transmission, they were unable to accurately define what 'pandemic influenza' meant. While avian flu or SARS were mistaken as examples of past pandemics, almost all participants were able to associate the recent "swine flu" situation as an example of a pandemic event. Not surprisingly, it was uncommon for participants to identify university students as being at risk of catching pandemic influenza. Amongst those interviewed, it was felt that 'students' were capable of fighting off any illness. The participant's nominated hand washing as the most feasible and acceptable compared with social distancing and mask use. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high levels of interaction that occurs in a university setting, it is really important that students are informed about disease transmission and about risk of infection. It may be necessary to emphasize that pandemic influenza could pose a real threat to them, that it is important to protect oneself from infection and that infection control measures can be effective.
Seale H; Mak JP; Razee H; MacIntyre CR
Full Text Available Background and purpose: There are more than five million neonatal death around the world of which %19 was because of Asphyxia at birth time. In our country, there has been educational program in order to decrease the mortality caused by Asphyxia and to practice a scientific method for resuscitation. This study was conducted to determine the rate of knowledge, attitude and practice for every learner of neonatal resuscitation in the governmental hospitals of Mazandaran province in 2005(1384).Materials and Methods: current study was a descriptive cross sectional done on All Trainees who had professional direct contact with birth Asphyxia. We selected exactly 137 people who had attended Neonatal Resuscitation Workshop for three days.Results: The subjects under the study were %62/8 midwife and %89/8 women. Data show that % 44.5 had good knowledge and % 11.7 had very good knowledge on neonatal Resuscitation. The highest acknowledge was %93/4 and %89/1 on chest compression and breath stimulation way respectively. Data also suggested that totally % 96.34 of the subjects had good and very good attitudes towards neonatal resuscitation. The results show that only % 38.4 of the subjects under the study had a good level practice and their attitudes in terms of age were significantly different (P<0.01). Also, their practice on job showed a significant difference (P<0.017). In the study, there was a converse relation between age and professional experience which was r = 0.25 and r = 0.26, respectively.Conclusion: Results obtained suggest that the amount of knowledge and practice for the subjects under the study was average, but their attitudes towards neonatal resuscitation was good. There fore, according to the positive attitude of the subjects,there must be a trend to promote knowledge and practice.
M. Ahmady, M.Sc; E. Nasiri, M.Sc; A. Emady, M.D; R. Mohammad Poor, M.D
Abstract Background Deficiencies in the quality of diabetes and hypertension primary care and outcomes have been documented in Barbados. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices, and the barriers faced by people with diabetes and hypertension in Barbados th...
Adams O Peter; Carter Anne O
Abstract Background Community Based Interactive Approach-diabetes mellitus (CBIA-DM) is an active self-learning method. This study is aimed at improving type 2 diabetic patients' knowledge, attitude and practice on diabetes self-care by implementing the CBIA-DM strategy. Time series...
Hartayu Titien; MI Mohamed; Suryawati Sri
BACKGROUND: In 2010, malaria caused approximately 216 million infections in people and 655,000 deaths. In the United States, imported malaria cases occur every year, primarily in returning travelers and immigrants from endemic countries. In 2010, five Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases occurred among crew members of one US commercial airline company (Airline A). This investigation aimed to assess the malaria prevention knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Airline A crew members to provide information for potential interventions. METHODS: The web link to a self-administered on-line survey was distributed by internal company communications to Airline A pilots and flight attendants (FA) eligible for international travel. The survey collected demographic information as well as occupation, work history, and malaria prevention education. RESULTS: Of approximately 7,000 nonrandomly selected crew members, 220 FA and 217 pilots completed the survey (6%). Respondents correctly identified antimalarial medication (91% FA, 95% pilots) and insect repellents (96% FA, 96% pilots) as effective preventive measures. While in malaria-intense destinations, few FA and less than half of pilots always took antimalarial medication (4% FA, 40% pilots) yet many often spent greater than 30 minutes outdoors after sundown (71% FA, 66% pilots). Less than half in both groups always used insect repellents (46% FA, 47% pilots). Many respondents were unaware of how to get antimalarial medications (52% FA, 30% pilots) and were concerned about their side effects (61% FA, 31% pilots). CONCLUSION: Overall, FA and pilots demonstrated good knowledge of malaria prevention, but many performed risky activities while practicing only some recommended malaria preventive measures. Malaria prevention education should focus on advance notification if traveling to a malaria-endemic area, how to easily obtain antimalarial medications, and the importance of practicing all recommended preventive measures.
Selent M; de Rochars VM; Stanek D; Bensyl D; Martin B; Cohen NJ; Kozarsky P; Blackmore C; Bell TR; Marano N; Arguin PM
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mongolia is undergoing rapid epidemiological transition with increasing urbanisation and economic development. The lifestyle and health of Mongolians are changing as a result, shown by the 2005 and 2009 STEPS surveys (World Health Organization's STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance) that described a growing burden of Non-Communicable Diseases and injuries (NCDs). This study aimed to assess, describe and explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian adult population around NCDs in order to better understand the drivers and therefore develop more appropriate solutions to this growing disease burden. In addition, it aimed to provide data for the evaluation of current public health programs and to assist in building effective, evidence-based health policy. Methods/design This national survey consisted of both quantitative and qualitative methods. A quantitative household-based questionnaire was conducted using a nationally representative sample of 3854 rural and urban households. Participants were selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique in 42 regions across Mongolia, including rural and urban sites. Permanent residents of sampled households were eligible for recruitment, if aged between 15-64 years. This quantitative arm was then complemented and triangulated with a qualitative component: twelve focus group discussions focusing on diet, exercise and alcohol consumption. Discussions took place in six sites across the country, facilitated by local, trained health workers. These six sites were chosen to reflect major Mongolian cultural and social groups. Discussion KAP surveys are well represented in the literature, but studies that aim to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of a population around NCDs remain scarce. This is despite the growing number of national epidemiological surveys, such as STEPS, which aim to quantify the burden of these diseases but do not explore the level of population-based awareness, understanding, risk-perception and possible motivation for change. Therefore this paper will contribute to building a knowledge base of NCD KAP survey methodology for future use in epidemiology and research worldwide.
Demaio Alessandro R; Dugee Otgontuya; Amgalan Gombodorj; Maximenco Elena; Munkhtaivan Adiya; Graeser Silke; Kryger Tine; Oyunbileg Janchiv; Jousilahti Pekka; De Courten Maximilian; Enkhtuya Palam
Full Text Available Background and Aim: The role of caretakers at day-care centers has become more imperative in promoting oral health care in children since many new mothers opt to work outside their homes, leaving their children at day-care centers. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among secondary caretakers of children attending day-care centers. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional exploratory study conducted among secondary caretakers in Kubang Kerian, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four caretakers fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria participated in the study. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire addressing various aspects of knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health in children. Analysis was done using SPSS version 12.0. Results: The knowledge of factors causing dental caries was found to be good among majority of the caretakers, but the concepts of transmissibility of caries and effect of hidden sugars were not evident. Seventy one percent did not know that frequent bottle feeding could cause tooth decay. Attitudes seemed to be governed by the cultural practices of the region rather than the knowledge obtained. The knowledge was not translated to practice adequately. Giving sweetened liquid in bottles was practiced by 53% of the caretakers. Conclusion: Implementation of nursery-based oral health promotion programs for secondary caretakers is needed to counteract early childhood caries.
Mani S; Aziz A; John J; Ismail N
In order to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of the rural Thar Desert population about malaria and its vectors, a total of 345 heads of households, including housewives, suffering with malaria were surveyed randomly, along with the same number of healthy control subjects, in four villages of Jodhpur and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan, north-western India. Results showed that in the traditionally hypoendemic Thar Desert, with low levels of immunity against malaria particularly Plasmodium falciparum, a large segment of rural people were equally less aware about the dangers of the disease. About three-fourths of the studied population did not quite comprehend the purpose of the five decade-old National Anti Malaria Programme, while nearly 50% respondents were reluctant to accept the programme lacking the component of community participation but directly targetting on the control of the disease. Consequently, about 50% malaria patients and 60% healthy subjects lacked in taking initiative to resort to any anti-mosquito or anti-malaria measure to protect themselves, although 27% malaria patients and 2.9% healthy subjects acknowledge correct causes of malaria. This study, being the first of its kind in a desert community currently facing emergence of P. falciparum-dominated malaria outbreaks, is a testimony to the hitherto prevalent deep gaps in knowledge about the disease, and its results warrant sincere efforts to link up the malaria control programme with the community participation for protection against this scourage in future.
Yadav SP; Tyagi BK; Ramnath T
BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) and hematological patients needing blood/ blood product transfusion are particularly vulnerable to blood born infections (BBI) including viral hepatitis. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of these target groups regarding viral hepatitis B (HBV) transmission and its change with implementing infection control policy and procedures. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire with closed questions was used to evaluate KAP including vaccination status in 2 target groups, in Children Hospital, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt: 184 nurses and 210 children and adolescents with blood diseases. One year after instituting infection control as a part of hospital procedures, the same questionnaire was reused to evaluate KAP towards HBV. RESULTS: Baseline knowledge regarding HBV transmission, sequelae and preventive measures, was poor in both groups. Among nurses, only 62% wore gloves on withdrawing or giving blood to patients, 43.5% routinely washed hands between patients and 37.5% reported exposure after sharp injury. Only 38% of patients and 40% of nurses received HBV vaccination. Targeted infection control policy and procedures significantly improved KAP regarding HBV in both groups. Vaccination coverage significantly increased and reached 88.7% for nurses and 72% for patients. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital based infection control units with established policy and procedures against BBI significantly improved KAP towards HBV including a significant increase in vaccination intake.
Al-Tawil MM; El-Gohary EE; El-Sayed MH
This is a survey of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding HIV testing among 187 female family members affiliated with the Honduran Armed Forces and civilian controls. Prior HIV testing was reported by 45%, and 94% expressed willingness to be tested in the future. Pregnancy was the reason for 73% of prior tests, but only 49% of the 149 women with prior pregnancies reported prior tests. Although most women tested for HIV did so during pregnancy, there appears to be a gap in understanding that the rationale is to help prevent maternal-child transmission at birth or through breast-feeding. Military-affiliated women were more likely to describe themselves as being knowledgeable of HIV/AIDS, 95% versus 82% (p self-awareness of HIV were associated with prior testing. Although these differences may point to HIV/AIDS educational areas that should be emphasized for a particular population, the overall content that should be provided to military or civilian families is the same. PMID:24083927
Hickey, Patrick W; Kuehn, Devon R; Aviles, Ricardo; Yu, Clifton; Watson, Christopher M; Medina, Rita; Lopez, Mario
OBJECTIVE: Identifying the knowledge, attitudes and practices of doctors working in public hospitals in the Cundinamarca department, Colombia, regarding complementary and alternative medicine. METHODS: This was a descriptive, quantitative observational study. The target population consisted of general practitioners and specialists involved in the 37 public hospitals in the Cundinamarca department from December 2009 to March 2010. The sample included 280 doctors (using 95 % confidence level and 0.5% error). RESULTS: There was 93 % misunderstanding of complex medical systems and 91 % regarding therapeutic systems. However, 41 % of the doctors surveyed wished to receive formal training in the area of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and 15 % had some training in this area. 18 % referred patients for CAM-related treatment and 25 % had received MAC treatment. Half of the doctors considered that CAM should be taught to medical students. 40 % considered that CAM should be included in the compulsory health plan in Colombia. CONCLUSIONS: A positive trend regarding CAM was related to a doctor's age and experience. It was also believed that demonstrable scientific evidence was available regarding CAM so they wished to receive formal education in this area. These drugs were perceived to be useful, in current use and recommended concerning their personal life and everyday medical practice, making explicit the need for access to MAC through the compulsory Colombian health plan.
Sierra-Ríos SP; Urrego-Mendoza DZ; Jaime-Jaimes JD
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence based medicine plays a crucial role as a tool that helps integrate research evidence into clinical practice. However, few reports have yet to examine its application in daily practice among resident physicians in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes towards and knowledge of EBM among resident physicians in Japanese and determine perceived barriers to its use. Findings A cross-sectional, self-administered anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 60 resident staffs at Saga University Hospital in Japan. Forty residents completed and returned the questionnaire. Fifty four percent of respondents understood the basic terminology of EBM, 3% could explain this to others, and 41% indicated they would like to understand the terminology more. Thirteen percent admitted having a good understanding of EBM basic skills. Fifty respondents indicated having read EBM sources, but only 3% indicated that they use these sources in clinical decision making. The most prominent barriers of EBM application revealed in this study were insufficient time to access the sources, a lack of native language references, and insufficient basic EBM skills, but not scepticism about the EBM concept. Conclusions In general, respondents positively welcomed EBM, and moderately understood and knew basic EBM skill; however, barriers in its application were shown to exist.
Risahmawati Risahmawati RM; Emura Sei SE; Nishi Tomoko TN; Koizumi Shunzo SK
BACKGROUND: Underreporting of spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) is a threat to pharmacovigilance. Various factors related with the knowledge and attitudes are responsible for underreporting of ADRs. AIMS: The study was aimed at investigating the knowledge and attitudes of doctors to ADR reporting. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. One hundred and eight questionnaires were administered to doctors working in a teaching hospital with an ADR monitoring center. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: The descriptive statistics were used for responses to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward ADR reporting. Pearson's Chi-square test was used to observe the association of knowledge and attitude with experience and position. RESULTS: The response rate was 62.9%. Spontaneous reporting rate was found to be 19.1%. The major factors found to be responsible for underreporting of ADR include inadequate risk perception about newly marketed drugs (77.9%), fear factor (73.5%), diffidence (67.7%), lack of clarity of information on ADR form about reporting (52.9%), lethargy (42.7%), insufficient training to identify ADRs (41.2%), lack of awareness about existence of pharmacovigilance program (30.9%) and ADR monitoring center in the institute (19.1%), and inadequate risk perception of over-the-counter (OTC) product (20.6%) and herbal medicines (13.2%). Experience and position did not influence the knowledge and attitudes of doctors. CONCLUSION: The deficiencies in knowledge and attitudes require urgent attention not only to improve the rate of spontaneous reporting, but also for enhanced safety of the patients and society at large.
Khan SA; Goyal C; Chandel N; Rafi M
BACKGROUND: Despite continuous efforts by the government and private sectors, malaria is still a public health problem in rural Peninsular Malaysia. This study investigated household knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding malaria in two malaria endemic communities, forest-aboriginal and rural communities, in the Lipis district of Pahang state, Malaysia. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study with a semi-structured questionnaire was carried out among 100 and 123 households from forest-aboriginal and rural areas, respectively. RESULTS: Knowledge about malaria and its transmission is significantly higher among the rural participants than the aborigines (86.2% vs 76%, p < 0.01). However, use of medicinal plants and beliefs in witchcraft and sorcery in treating febrile diseases were significantly higher among the aboriginal population (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences between the two communities in terms of the knowledge about malaria symptoms, attitudes towards its severity and practices in preventive measures against malaria by using mosquito bed nets. However, the knowledge and practice of different preventive measures to combat malaria, such as insecticide and the elimination of breeding areas, was significantly higher among the rural population than the aborigines (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Both communities were aware of malaria as a disease, but knowledge, attitudes and practices were inadequate. Providing efficient health education to people residing in malaria endemic areas would improve their understanding about malaria prevention in order to bring about the elimination of malaria from the country.
Al-Adhroey AH; Nor ZM; Al-Mekhlafi HM; Mahmud R
Full Text Available Introduction: Iodine, vitamin A and iron are most important micronutrients in global public health terms; their lack represents a major threat to the health and development of populations the world over, particularly children in low-income countries. To combat the deficiency of micronutrients, awareness of their importance and their source plays vital role. Objective: to assess knowledge regarding important micronutrients in tribal students. Methodology: It is a cross sectional study conducted in 348 secondary school students of tribal area. Observations: Questionnaire regarding knowledge revealed that 83 (23.9%) student had never heard of vitamin A, while 103 (29.6%) and 72 (20.7%) student had never heard of Iron and Iodine respectively. Gender wise analysis revealed that overall knowledge of micronutrients is comparatively higher among the girls. Recommendations: School children should be specially targeted in IEC campaign to decrease burden of micronutrient deficiency. Micronutrients should be included in school syllabus.
Modi Bhavesh, Patel Prakash, Sutariya Shailesh, Dave Paresh
Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practices. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire carried out among 1695 female university students in a public university in Malaysia. Results Respondents had low scores for knowledge of reproduction and pregnancy (median=4, of maximum score 10), contraceptive uses (median=6, of maximum score 16) and contraceptive availability (median=3, of maximum score 13). The majority of women surveyed do not have liberal values in relation to premarital sexual behaviour (median=37, of maximum 40); higher scores on this scale corresponded to opposing premarital sex. The multivariate analyses showed that ethnic group was the strongest correlate of knowledge and attitude scores; being of Malay Muslim ethnicity was associated significantly with lower knowledge scores and premarital sex permissiveness. Other significant correlates were year of study, maternal occupational groups, level of religious faith, dating status and urbanrural localities. Level of premarital sex permissiveness was inversely correlated with reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score, and contraceptive knowledge scores. Conclusion Reproductive health knowledge and attitudes were intricately linked to religious values and cultural norms differences surrounding sexual issues.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is still a leading cause of preventable brain damage, physical and mental handicap, and early death among infants in many communities. Greater awareness is needed among all health workers. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge of primary health care workers about the description, causes, effective treatment, and sequelae of NNJ. Methods The setting was a local government area i.e. an administrative district within the south-western part of Nigeria. Community health workers in this area were interviewed by means of a self-administered questionnaire which focused on awareness and knowledge of neonatal jaundice and its causes, treatment and complications. Results Sixty-six community health workers participated in the survey and male-to-female ratio was 1:5. Their work experience averaged 13.5 (SD 12.7) years. Only 51.5% of the respondents gave a correct definition of NNJ. 75.8 % knew how to examine for this condition while 84.9 % knew at least two of its major causes in our environment. Also, only 54.5 % had adequate knowledge of effective treatment namely, phototherapy and exchange blood transfusion. Rather than referring affected babies to hospitals for proper management, 13.4 %, 10.4 % and 3 % of the participants would treat with ineffective drugs, natural phototherapy and herbal remedies respectively. None of the participants knew any effective means of prevention. Conclusion Primary health care workers may have inadequate knowledge and misconceptions on NNJ which must be addressed concertedly before the impact of the condition on child health and well-being can be significantly reduced. We recommend regular training workshops and seminars for this purpose.
Ogunfowora Olusoga B; Daniel Olusoji J
|Despite scientific advances in pain management, inadequate pain relief in hospitalized patients continues to be an on-going phenomenon. Although nurses do not prescribe medication for pain, the decision to administer pharmacological or other interventions for pain relief is part of nursing practice. Nurses play a critical role in the relief of
Despite scientific advances in pain management, inadequate pain relief in hospitalized patients continues to be an on-going phenomenon. Although nurses do not prescribe medication for pain, the decision to administer pharmacological or other interventions for pain relief is part of nursing practice. Nurses play a critical role in the relief of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency contraception (EC) is a type of modern contraception which is indicated after unprotected sexual intercourse when regular contraception is not in use. The importance of EC is evident in preventing unintended pregnancies and its ill consequences like unintended child delivery or unsafe abortion, which are the most common causes of maternal mortality. Therefore, EC need to be available and used appropriately as a backup in case regular contraception is not used, misused or failed. Knowing that Ethiopia is one of the countries with highest maternal mortality rate, this study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of EC, and to further elucidate the relationship between these factors and some socioeconomic and demographic characteristics among female undergraduate students of Addis Ababa University (AAU). This information will contribute substantially to interventions intended to combat maternal mortality. Methods A Cross-sectional quantitative study among 368 AAU undergraduate students was conducted using self-administered questionnaire. Study participants were selected by stratified random sampling. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS Version 17. Results were presented using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation and logistic regression. Results Among the total participants (n = 368), only 23.4% were sexually active. Majority (84.2%) had heard of EC; 32.3% had a positive attitude towards it. The main source of information reported by the respondents was Media (69.3%). Among those who were sexually active, about 42% had unprotected sexual intercourse. Among those who had unprotected sexual intercourse, 75% had ever used EC. Sexually active participants had significantly better attitude towards EC than sexually inactive participants (crude OR 0.33(0.15-0.71)); even after adjusting for possible confounders such as age, region, religion, ethnicity, marital status, department and family education and income (adj. OR 0.36(0.15-0.86)). Conclusions The study showed high EC awareness and usage in contrast to other studies in the city, which could be due to the fact that university students are relatively in a better educational level. Therefore, it is highly recommended that interventions intended to combat maternal mortality through contraceptive usage need to be aware of such information specific to the target groups.
Ahmed Fatuma A; Moussa Kontie M; Petterson Karen O; Asamoah Benedict O
INTRODUCTION: 26% of people living with HIV in the UK remain undiagnosed and over 50% of adults with HIV are significantly immunocompromised at the time of diagnosis. Current guidelines recommend routine testing in all patients presenting with a range of conditions in low prevalence areas (< 2/1000). METHODS: The authors conducted an online survey of the knowledge, attitudes and practice of non-HIV specialist physicians with regard to HIV testing in two areas of the UK with a lower prevalence of HIV. Key outcomes included recognition of recommended clinical indications for HIV testing and perceived barriers to performing HIV tests more routinely. All responses were collected in July 2009. RESULTS: Recommended indications for HIV testing were identified by 0-43.7% of 119 respondents. 47.9% cited a low prevalence of HIV as a barrier to routine testing. 88% of 60 consultant physicians were unaware of current guidelines on testing for HIV. CONCLUSION: The authors found a low awareness of current guidance on testing for HIV and a high level of perceived barriers to testing. Reducing the high number of late diagnoses is a clinical and public health priority. To achieve this, the authors recommend improved policy dispersal coupled with education that targets perceived barriers to testing.
Hunter E; Perry M; Leen C; Premchand N
BACKGROUND: Injuries from occupational accidents are associ-ated with agents of biological risk, as they are the gateway to serious and potentially lethal infectious diseases that can be spread by contact between people. Several studies have demonstrated that dental students are among the most vulnerable to blood-borne exposure. OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding risk of HIV transmission through accidental needlestick injury amongst dental students and providing supportive and proper guidelines regarding needlestick injuries and HIV infection. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study done at a dental college attached to a tertiary care hospital, which included third, fourth year students and interns. The results obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using Chi-square test. RESULTS: Of the 120 students, 13 (11%) were not even aware that virus could be transmitted through infected needle. A significant proportion of the third year students i.e. 27 (67.5%) were not aware of correct method of disposal of disposable needles and syringes as against interns 17 (42.5%). Around 31 (26%) said that they would promote active bleeding at the site of injury and 37 (30%) said they would take post-exposure prophylaxis. CONCLUSION: Dental professionals are at a risk of occupational acquisition of HIV primarily due to accidental exposure to infected blood and body fluids. There is a need of correcting the existing misconceptions through education programs early in the course and providing supportive and proper guidelines regarding needlestick injuries and HIV infection.
Guruprasad Y; Chauhan DS
Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is often associated with severe morbidity and mortality especially when the patients present late. A major reason why patients present late is the lack of awareness about breast cancer, its complications and the management. Methods: The study was carried out using a structured questionnaire. A total of 400 female civil servants were enlisted in the study, but only 385 respondents completed and returned the forms. Results: Two hundred and seventy seven (72.0%) respondents had tertiary level of education. Sixty six (17.1%) respondents were in the 30-34-year age group. Three hundred and twelve (81.0%) respondents knew correctly that breast lump is usually the first symptom of presentation of breast cancer. One hundred and forty four (37.5%) respondents knew that a positive family history of breast cancer is a risk factor, while two hundred and seventy four (71.2%) respondents answered that cancer of one breast in a woman increases her chances of having cancer of the other breast. Three hundred and twenty one (83.4%) respondents knew that breast cancer could spread from one breast to the other and two hundred and thirty (59.7%) knew that breast cancer could spread to other parts of the body. One hundred and eighty three (47.5%) respondents would visit the hospital as the first reaction if they were to detect a breast lump, while twenty three (6.0%) respondents would ignore the lump. While three hundred and twenty seven (85.0%) respondents have heard of breast self- examination, only one hundred (26.0%) could correctly describe the procedure of breast self -examination. While one hundred and thirty five (35.0%) respondents have heard of mammography, only twenty seven (7%) respondents go for yearly mammography screening. Three hundred and seventy two (96.6%) respondents know that mastectomy is done as part of the management of breast cancer, but only forty nine (12.7%) respondents have heard about conservative surgery. Conclusion: The level of awareness about breast cancer among civil servants in Benin City is low. There is the need to organize series of health education programs to enlighten the women about breast cancer. This can be done by government agencies or the non-governmental organizations. If properly executed, it may influence the attitude of women in Benin City about breast diseases and encourage early presentation to the hospital.
Osime O; Okojie O; Aigbekaen E; Aigbekaen I
Full Text Available Background: Young people are attracted by body art and consider it as a way of being different. Body art (tattoos, piercing, etc.) represents an important socio-cultural phenomenon which is not risk free for health. Existing literature, moreover, points out that deviant behaviours and unhealthy lifestyles are significantly associated with body art.Objective and methods: The research was aimed to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of university students towards body art, highlighting the association between body art and some demographic variables, deviant behaviours, unhealthy lifestyles, knowledge of health risks and medical complications potentially involved. Data came from a cross-sectional study conducted on a sample, selected at random, of 1.200 undergraduate university students, (570, human sciences; 630, scientific areas). The instrument for the survey was a 21 item multiple choice questionnaire. Data was codified and statistical analysis was computed through Epi-Info and Openstat software.Results: Students from a scientific background showed a higher rate of interest, (p<0.01) for the argument of body art. About one third of the surveyed individuals had at least one body art. Cultural choice and gender was associated with body art. Males, especially from the scientific area, were more attracted by temporary body art, while females preferred permanent tattoos. Students from humanistic backgrounds were associated with one body art and those from a scientific area with more than one (p<0.01). Unemployment, lack of partnership and family attitude towards body art, were positively associated with students body art. Body art was strictly associated with different unhealthy lifestyles, such as drug, alcohol and tobacco consumption, problem gambling and sexual activity before 18 years of age. A relevant part of students considered piercing and tattooing as having no consequences for infections and/or disease.Conclusions: Body art was associated with unhealthy ifestyles and may be considered an indicator of risk taking behaviours. Individuals had no accurate idea of the consequences for their health and body, apart from a generic risk of infections. Education is a necessary tool for the modification of lifestyles and as a form of prevention ensuring the correct understanding and assessment of the health risk involved.
Enza Sidoti; Gabriele Paolini; Giuseppe Tringali
OBJECTIVES: Traditionally, summative practical examination in anatomy takes the form of 'spotters' consisting of a stream of prosections, radiological images and dissections with pins indicating specific structures. Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz facility in Moodle (a free, open-source web application for producing modular internet-based courses) in addition to the traditional format. This paper reports on an investigation into students' perceptions of each assessment environment. METHODS: Over a 3-year period, practical assessment in anatomy was conducted either in traditional format or online via learning management software called Moodle. All students exposed to the two examination formats at the College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, were divided into two categories: junior (Year 3) and senior (Year 4). An evaluation of their perception of both examination formats was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of restricted and free response items. RESULTS: More than half of all students expressed a clear preference for the online environment and believed it was more exam-friendly. This preference was higher amongst senior students. Compared to females, male students preferred the online environment. Senior students were less likely to study on cadavers when the examination was conducted online. Specimen quality, ability to manage time, and seating arrangements were major advantages identified by students who preferred the online format. CONCLUSION: Computer-based practical examinations in anatomy appeared to be generally popular with our students. The students adopted a different approach to study when the exam was conducted online as compared to the traditional 'steeplechase' format.
Inuwa IM; Taranikanti V; Al-Rawahy M; Habbal O
BACKGROUND: Farmers in the developing world are at risk of pesticide exposure, particularly in low-income countries with a sizable agricultural sector like Ethiopia. The present investigation provides baseline data to develop strategies for the control of pesticide exposure and the prevention of pesticide poisoning. METHODS: A questionnaire survey of a stratified random sample of peasant farmers belonging to peasant associations was conducted. RESULTS: Most surveyed farmers sprayed pesticides without any personal protective equipment. The majority of participants reported using empty pesticide containers for drinking and food storage. Twenty percent of farmers applied pesticides by sweeping with plant leaves in a hazardous manner. CONCLUSIONS: Ethiopian peasant farmers appeared to have limited knowledge of the hazards of pesticides and generally did not handle pesticides in a safe manner. Active health education campaigns and appropriate training programs should be instigated to promote safe use of pesticides.
Karunamoorthi K; Mohammed A; Jemal Z
We explored views toward and use of malaria prevention and treatment measures among pregnant women in Jharkhand, India. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews and six focus group discussions (total = 73 respondents) with pregnant women in urban, semi-urban, and rural locations in a region with moderate intensity malaria transmission. Most respondents ranked malaria as an important health issue affecting pregnant women, had partially correct understanding of malaria transmission and prevention, and reported using potentially effective prevention methods, usually untreated bed nets. However, most conveyed misinformation and described using unproven prevention and/or treatment methods. Many described using different ineffective traditional malaria remedies. The majority also showed willingness to try new prevention methods and take medications if doctor-prescribed. Misconceptions and use of unproven prevention and treatment methods are common among pregnant women in eastern India. Policy makers should focus on improving knowledge and availability of effective malaria control strategies in this population.
Sabin LL; Rizal A; Brooks MI; Singh MP; Tuchman J; Wylie BJ; Joyce KM; Yeboah-Antwi K; Singh N; Hamer DH
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) has consistently been found to afflict one in twenty pregnant women and is therefore considered a leading cause of physical injury, mental illness and adverse pregnancy outcome. A general antenatal screening policy has been advocated, though compliance with such guidelines tends to be low. We therefore attempted to identify potential barriers to IPV screening in a context where no guidelines have been instigated yet. Methods Questionnaire-based Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice survey among obstetrician-gynaecologists in Flanders, Belgium (n = 478). Results The response rate was 52.1% (249/478). Gynaecologists prove rather unfamiliar with IPV and therefore largely underestimate the extent of the problem. Merely 6.8% (17/249) of the respondents ever received or pursued any kind of education on IPV. Accordingly they do feel insufficiently skilled to deal with IPV, yet sufficiently capable of recognizing IPV among their patients. Survey participants largely refute the incentive of universal screening in favour of opportunistic screening and do not consider pregnancy as a window of opportunity for routine screening. They do consider screening for IPV as an issue of medical liability and therefore do not suffer from a lack of motivation to screen. In addition, obstetrician-gynaecologists do believe that screening for IPV may be an effective means to counteract abusive behaviours. Yet, their outcome expectancy is weighed down by their perceived lack of self-efficacy in dealing with IPV, by lack of familiarity with referral procedures and by their perceived lack of available referral services. Major external or patient-related barriers to IPV screening included a perceived lack of time and fear of offending or insulting patients. Overall, merely 8.4 % (21/245) of gynaecologists in this survey performed some kind of IPV questioning on a regular basis. Finally, physician education was found to be the strongest predictor of a positive attitude towards screening and of current screening practices. Conclusion Endorsement of physician training on IPV is an important first step towards successful implementation of screening guidelines for IPV. Additional introduction of enabling and reinforcement strategies such as screening tools, patient leaflets, formal referral pathways, and physician feedback may further enhance compliance with screening recommendations and guidelines.
Roelens Kristien; Verstraelen Hans; Van Egmond Kathia; Temmerman Marleen
BACKGROUND: Since malaria is one of the foremost public health problems in Ethiopia, assessment of situation of the disease, and communities' knowledge and perceptions about malaria is necesary to institute appropriate preventive and control measures. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess malaria prevalence and knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) about the disease among ShewaRobit Town community, northeastern Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Shewa Robit Town from October to November 2011. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. A total of 425 individuals were examined for malaria using thin and thick Giemsa stained blood film, and 284 of the participants were interviewed to assess their KAP about malaria. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess predictor factors for malaria prevalence. RESULTS: All respondents had ever heard of malaria. Most of the respondents (85.2%) attributed the cause of malaria to mosquito bite. However, some of the respondents (>20%) mentioned lack of personal hygiene, exposure to cold weather, hunger, chewing maize stalk, body contact with malaria patient and flies as the causes of malaria. Sleeping under mosquito nets, draining stagnant water and indoor residual spraying were the most frequently mentioned malaria preventive measures perceived and practiced by the respondents. Among 425 individuals examined for malaria, only 2.8% were positive for Plasmodium parasites. Living in houses made of wall without hole, sprayed with insecticide within the last 12 hours and located at a distance of greater than 500 meters from potential mosquito breeding sites as well as knowing and using of mosquito net were significant predictors of low malaria prevalence among the study participants. CONCLUSIONS: A high level of knowledge about the cause, transmission and preventive methods of malaria was detected among the community in Shewa Robit Town. However, a considerable proportion had misconception about the cause and transmission of malaria suggesting the necessity of health education to raise the community's awareness about the disease.
Abate A; Degarege A; Erko B
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding the use of vitamin supplements among patients visiting Out-Patient clinics of a teaching hospital.Methods: Four hundred patients were interviewed during the period of July to September 2008, at the Out-patient clinics, Aga Khan University hospital, Karachi. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect information. It consisted of questions regarding demographics, awareness of vitamin supplements and its consumption, reasons for usage and its effects. The purpose of the study was explained and assurance of confidentiality was given. After obtaining written consent, eligible individuals were interviewed. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 19.0 was used to analyze the data.Results: The results revealed that 98?0of the respondents were aware of vitamin supplements. The most known vitamin was found to be Vitamin C (16.9?20with Vitamin K being the least well known(0.4? while 51.8?0of the respondents were unaware of the harmful effects of vitamin supplements. The results also showed that 84.8?0of the study population had taken vitamin supplements, and 79?0of the participants considered that vitamin supplementsto be helpful. Taking vitamin supplements as a compensation for the deficiencies in the body was the most frequently chosen answer (17.7?20as the reason for use of vitamin supplements. On the other hand, a majority of the population was unaware of the indications for use of vitamin supplements.Conclusion: This study highlights a very significant yet ignored issue of vitamin supplementation in Pakistan. A need exists to inform the general population about the use of vitamin supplementation. The media and the medical community are required to play their role in this regard. Short/ refresher training courses are needed for doctors to update and disseminate adequate knowledge of vitamin supplementation to their patients.
Waris Qidwai; Zahra Aziz Samani; Iqbal Azam; Saima Lalani
As a result of sub-optimal immunization levels, measles has re-emerged in the EU since 2008 (30 567 cases in 2011), and nearly half of the cases reported are in France. Our objectives were to assess knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices of French general practitioners (GPs) towards measles and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination. In 2012, we surveyed 329 GPs in southeastern France. Forty-five percent reported that they saw patients with measles in 2011. They considered the risk of complications low among 2-5-year-old children and young adults without co-morbidity. Twenty percent knew that two MMR doses are 99% effective in preventing measles. Nearly all (95%) GPs stated that they verified the MMR status for patients <30 years old in 2011 (42% systematically, 37% often, 15% sometimes). Seventy-nine percent reported proposing MMR vaccination to non-immune relatives in contact with a patient with measles. Participation in continuing medical education courses and considering measles to be a serious disease were independently associated with such post-exposure vaccination. GPs considered the following were potential barriers to the second dose of MMR (MMR2): parents/patients' belief that measles is harmless (80%), parents/patients' fear of the vaccine's side effects (50%), difficulty in documenting vaccination (48%) and lack of reminders for MMR2 (16%). Finally, some GPs also had misconceptions about the severity of measles (13%) and the usefulness of MMR2 (12%), which also served as barriers. In conclusion, it is essential to raise GPs' awareness of this disease and fill any gaps in their knowledge, by providing them with evidence-based information on measles and MMR vaccination.
Pulcini C; Massin S; Launay O; Verger P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge, attitudes and practices of community members and healthcare providers in rural northern Ghana regarding clean delivery are not well understood. This study explores hand washing/use of gloves during delivery, delivering on a clean surface, sterile cord cutting, appropriate cord tying, proper cord care following delivery, and infant bathing and cleanliness. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results 253 respondents participated, including women with newborn infants, grandmothers, household and compound heads, community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and formally trained health care providers. There is widespread understanding of the need for clean delivery to reduce the risk of infection to both mothers and their babies during and shortly after delivery. Despite this understanding, the use of gloves during delivery and hand washing during and after delivery were mentioned infrequently. The need for a clean delivery surface was raised repeatedly, including explicit discussion of avoiding delivering in the dirt. Many activities to do with cord care involved non-sterile materials and practices: 1) Cord cutting was done with a variety of tools, and the most commonly used were razor blades or scissors; 2) Cord tying utilized a variety of materials, including string, rope, thread, twigs, and clamps; and 3) Cord care often involved applying traditional salves to the cord - including shea butter, ground shea nuts, local herbs, local oil, or red earth sand. Keeping babies and their surroundings clean was mentioned repeatedly as an important way to keep babies from falling ill. Conclusions This study suggests a widespread understanding in rural northern Ghana of the need for clean delivery. Nonetheless, many recommended clean delivery practices are ignored. Overarching themes emerging from this study included the increasing use of facility-based delivery, the disconnect between healthcare providers and the community, and the critical role grandmothers play in ensuring clean delivery practices. Future interventions to address clean delivery and prevention of neonatal infections include educating healthcare providers about harmful traditional practices so they are specifically addressed, strengthening facilities, and incorporating influential community members such as grandmothers to ensure success.
Moyer Cheryl A; Aborigo Raymond; Logonia Gideon; Affah Gideon; Rominski Sarah; Adongo Philip B; Williams John; Hodgson Abraham; Engmann Cyril
BACKGROUND: Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to decreasing maternal mortality in low-resource settings. ANC clinics provide resources to improve nutrition and health knowledge and promote preventive health practices. We sought to compare the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) among women seeking and not-seeking ANC in rural Kenya. METHODS: Data from a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Western Province, Kenya were used. Nutrition knowledge (NKS), health knowledge (HKS), attitude score (AS), and dietary diversity score (DDS) were constructed indices. ?2 test and Student's t-test were used to compare proportions and means, respectively, to assess the difference in KAP among pregnant women attending and not-attending ANC clinics. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess the impact of the number of ANC visits (none, <4, ?4) on knowledge and practice scores, adjusting for maternal socio-demographic confounders, such as age, gestational age, education level and household wealth index. RESULTS: Among the 979 pregnant women in the survey, 59% had attended ANC clinics while 39% had not. The mean (±SD) NKS was 4.6 (1.9) out of 11, HKS was 6.2 (1.7) out of 12, DDS was 4.9 (1.4) out of 12, and AS was 7.4 (2.2) out of 10. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and DDS were not significantly different between ANC clinic attending and non-attending women. Among women who attended ANC clinics, 82.6% received malaria and/or antihelmintic treatment, compared to 29.6% of ANC clinic non-attendees. Higher number of ANC clinic visits and higher maternal education level were significantly positively associated with maternal health knowledge. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial opportunities exist for antenatal KAP improvement among women in Western Kenya, some of which could occur with greater ANC attendance. Further research is needed to understand multi-level factors that may affect maternal knowledge and practices.
Perumal N; Cole DC; Ouédraogo HZ; Sindi K; Loechl C; Low J; Levin C; Kiria C; Kurji J; Oyunga M
Full Text Available Background: Statistics have shown that since 1988, a significant percentage of males are unwilling to seek medical care. The question is if they had the knowledge, worked in the health system and were educated, would this be any different? Aim: The current study aims to fill this void in the literature by examining the perception of rural male health workers (from the Western Region) about prostate examination, and why they are reluctant to inquire about the probability of having, or the likelihood of not having prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: The study utilized primary cross-sectional data that was collected during February and March 2008 from 170 males (ages 29 years and older), health-care workers who were employed in particular rural health institutions in Jamaica (i.e. Western Regional Health Authority). SPSS was used to analyze the data. Results: When the respondents were asked Have you ever heard about the screening procedure for prostate? 71.2% indicated yes, but only 27.1% had got their prostate checked by a health practitioner. When respondents were asked to state what influenced their choice of not doing a digital rectal examination, 20.6% indicated comfort level; 9.4% stated the gender of the health practitioner, 5.3% mentioned fear and others did not respond. Of those who had the examination 2 years ago, 96.5% did not state the choice of method. Conclusion: The current study is limited in terms of its generalizability to rural males or rural males in Western Jamaica, but it does provide an insight into the difficulty of men in breaking away from culture.
Paul Andrew Bourne
Despite the advances in medical technology, health care improvements have not always been accompanied by commensurate attention to the child's well-being. Psychological and emotional status of children during hospital treatment is often underestimated. Namely, certain kind of institutional negligence is frequently present in everyday practice in children's institutions. Many hospitals in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) have become child-friendly during the implementation of the Project on Child-Friendly Hospitals supported by UNICEF and WHO. Apart from the introduction of child friendly environment, staff in hospitals was trained to provide a holistic approach. The program was closely linked to the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative that supported breastfeeding. A few years thereafter, our focus is still on the physical treatment of sick children, whereas the attention to their anxieties, fears and suffering has failed. A more serious approach to this problem is needed and should begin at an educational level in medical school programs. Accordingly, our philosophy (mission) should change from a mechanical (techno-) medicine to holistic medicine.
Sumanovi?-Glamuzina D; Sesar I; Krito B; Ostoji? L
Despite the advances in medical technology, health care improvements have not always been accompanied by commensurate attention to the child's well-being. Psychological and emotional status of children during hospital treatment is often underestimated. Namely, certain kind of institutional negligence is frequently present in everyday practice in children's institutions. Many hospitals in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H) have become child-friendly during the implementation of the Project on Child-Friendly Hospitals supported by UNICEF and WHO. Apart from the introduction of child friendly environment, staff in hospitals was trained to provide a holistic approach. The program was closely linked to the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative that supported breastfeeding. A few years thereafter, our focus is still on the physical treatment of sick children, whereas the attention to their anxieties, fears and suffering has failed. A more serious approach to this problem is needed and should begin at an educational level in medical school programs. Accordingly, our philosophy (mission) should change from a mechanical (techno-) medicine to holistic medicine. PMID:23806965
Sumanovi?-Glamuzina, Darinka; Sesar, Irena; Krito, Branka; Ostoji?, Ljerka
Full Text Available Background: The major part of demand for blood in India has been meeting through voluntary blood donations. The healthy, active and receptive huge student population is potential blood donors to meet safe blood requirements. However, there is a paucity of studies on awareness and attitude among health science students on voluntary blood donation. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitude about blood donation among health science students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 410 health sciences students from different streams in a University campus of South India through a structured survey questionnaire in the year 2009. Results: The overall knowledge on blood donation was good, but majority (62%) of students never donated blood. Knowledge level was found highest among allied health science (53.1%) and lowest among pharmacy students (20.7%). Feeling of medically unfit and never thought of blood donation were the major reasons for not donating blood. A significant association was observed between different streams of students and levels of knowledge and attitude about blood donation. Conclusion: This study elicits the importance of adopting effective measures in our campuses to motivate about voluntary blood donation among students.
Sabu Karakkamandapam; Remya A; Binu VS; Vivek Raghavan
Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: Emergency contraception is a method which used after unprotected intercourse and declines the rate of unintended pregnancy. In spite of efficacy and safty of this method, its rate of use is low. Major obstacle of regular use of this method is insufficient information of the health care providers, which in turn, causes low prescription of this method and consequently insatiable practice.Materials and Methods: This research is a correlative study to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of practitioners and midwives working in health centers of the main cities of Mazandaran province about contraception. In this research 150 research units were selected using a multiple sampling method A questionnair was used for data, collection, completed by experienced persons who at health centers. To analyze the data descriptive statistics and c2, T-test, regression analysis and correlation were used.Results: The results showed that the level of knowledge of subjects were : 35/5% good, 38% medium and 26% poor. Negative correlation was seen between knowledge and age and job background but no correlation between knowledge and other factors. Also most of the subject had a positive attitude toward emergency contraception (60.7%) and 39.3% of them had a negative attitude about this method. 54.4% of subject had a good practice and 45.6 % had a bad practice. Practice showed a statistical correlation with gender and job however there was no was correlation between practice and other factors.Conclusion: Data indicated the necessity of regular retraining courses or workshops on family planning spechially about emergency contraception to increase knowledge of research units about this method.
B. Jamali; H. Azimi Orimi
Full Text Available The Health Belief model says for communities to take part in an activity, they need to perceive the risk of failing to take part and the benefits associated with taking part. A study was carried out in Luvuvhu catchment of South Africa to evaluate community knowledge, attitudes, practices and perceptions relating to water quality and safety. The study was divided into two parts. The first part involved a population of over 8000 people and participatory tools were used to speed up the data collection process. The participants were divided into sessions of 45 people each. Each session was divided into 3 groups of 15 people each and each group was then given an assignment to work on and write the findings on flipcharts. Each group then presented at a plenary and the research assistants recorded the findings. The second part was based on the findings from the first part of the study. One major finding was that the communities relied on the physical appearance of water to decide whether the water is safe or not for domestic use. Therefore, the second study aimed at determining the point at which the communities would stop using water for various domestic uses based on the turbidity of the water. Samples of the water with predetermined turbidity values were shown to 1000 participants and each of the participants was asked to indicate where he or she would use the water for various domestic uses such as drinking, cooking, bathing and washing utensils. Although the communities had a wealth of knowledge and practices relating to water quality and safety, their perception of safety using turbidity as an indicator did not tally with scientifically accepted guidelines. Some participants were willing to accept water with turbidity values as high as 39 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for drinking which is above the recommended maximum turbidity levels in water for domestic use in South African National Standards (SANS 241) of 5 NTU. The communities in Luvuvhu catchment are at risk of contracting water borne diseases and they require health education to raise their level of awareness regarding water quality and safety issues.
L. Nare; N. Potgieter
BACKGROUND: Awareness of individuals' knowledge and predicting their behavior and emotional reactions is crucial when evaluating clinical preparedness for influenza pandemics with a highly pathogenic virus. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) relating to avian influenza (H5N1) virus infection among residents in communities where H5N1 patients occurred in Vietnam has not been reported. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Face-to-face interviews including KAP survey were conducted in Bac Kan province, located in the northeast mountainous region of Vietnam. Participants were residents who lived in a community where H5N1 cases have ever been reported (event group, n?=?322) or one where cases have not been reported (non-event group, n?=?221). Data on emotional reactions of participants and healthcare-seeking behavior after the event in neighboring areas were collected as well as information on demographics and environmental measures, information sources, and KAP regarding H5N1. These data were compared between two groups. Higher environmental risk of H5N1 and improper poultry-handling behaviors were identified in the event group. At the time of the event, over 50% of the event group sought healthcare for flu-like symptoms or because they were scared. Awareness of the event influenced KAP scores. Healthcare-seeking behavior and attention to H5N1 poultry outbreaks diminished in the event group as time passed after the outbreak compared with the non-event group. Factors that motivated participants to seek healthcare sooner were knowledge of early access to healthcare and the risk of eating sick/dead poultry, and perception of the threat of H5N1. CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of H5N1 patients in neighboring areas can provoke panic in residents and influence their healthcare-seeking behavior. Periodic education to share experiences on the occurrence of H5N1 patients and provide accurate information may help prevent panic and infection and reduce mortality. Local conditions should be taken into account when emphasizing the need for early access to healthcare.
Manabe T; Tran TH; Doan ML; Do TH; Pham TP; Dinh TT; Tran TM; Dang HM; Takasaki J; Ngo QC; Ly QT; Kudo K
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of intervention for knowledge-attitude-practice on AIDS among the peasant workers in construction site. METHODS: 646 persons of 8 construction sites were chosen as intervention object by cluster sampling. The intervention mainly include health education at construction site, peer education, giving free condoms and providing free counseling service and so on. RESULTS: The score of HIV/AIDS knowledge improve more after intervention (15.10 +/- 6.02 before intervention vs. 11.41 +/- 6.57 after intervention). The mistake answer rates of transmission knowledge decreased 10.29%-19.66% after intervention. The attitude to HIV/AIDS suffers improved significantly. 74.7% of the peasant workers had often used condom in their unsafely sexual intercourse after intervention from 52.27% before intervention. CONCLUSION: The intervention among peasant workers were effective and might be extend to similar population on HIV/AIDS.
Huang F; Cheng H; Wang J; Yang L
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of health education on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) with regards to use of a plant molluscicide in snail control. DESIGN: Repeat cross sectional survey. SETTING: Chiweshe communal lands. SUBJECTS: Males and females--age range 13 to 87 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in: KAP after health education, water usage pattern, water contact behaviour, willingness to participate in use of P. dodecandra. RESULTS: A high proportion of the community indicated prior knowledge of schistosomiasis during both knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) surveys. In the follow up KAP survey changes in the community's water contact behaviour as well as their practices in relation to sanitation were reported. The involvement of the community in the application of P. dodecandra during the course of the study ensured continued support and participation of the community. This was evidenced in the follow up survey when it was apparent that the community's attitude towards schistosomiasis had been influenced by the different activities that had taken place. CONCLUSION: Changes in the community's KAP with regards to schistosomiasis control, can be interpreted as an indication of the impact of the health education delivered during the course of the study. Health education should, therefore, precede programmes that require full participation of the community, as this enables the community to make informed decisions regarding their participation.
Gwatirisa PR; Ndamba J; Nyazema NZ
Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to identify the extent of dental caries occurrence and to relate it with the dental health knowledge, attitude and practice among adolescents in Ibadan North (LGA) of Oyo State Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Self structured questionnaire and dental examination were instruments used for obtaining the necessary information. A total number of six hundred and thirty seven adolescents, who were drawn from ten schools within Ibadan North (LGA) of Oyo State Nigeria, participated in the study. Participants displayed significantly high knowledge, positive attitude and sound practices towards dental health. Percentage dental caries occurrence was 6.1% and this was found to be prevalent among females (69.2%), among those within the age bracket 14-16 years (61.5%) and those attending public Schools (76.9%). Dental caries occurrence among these adolescents was also observed to be negatively correlated with their dental health knowledge (r = -0.026), attitude (r = -0.031) and practice (r = -0.060). Health instructional programs that encourage healthful dental habits among adolescents should be intensified in schools.
B.O. Ogundele; S.E. Ogunsile
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of injury prevention training. DESIGN: Cluster randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Primary care facilities in the East Midlands area of the United Kingdom. SUBJECTS: Midwives and health visitors. INTERVENTION: Evidence based training session on the risks associated with baby walkers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measures were knowledge of baby walker use and walker related injury, attitudes towards walkers and towards walker education, and practices relating to walker health education. RESULTS: Trained midwives and health visitors had greater knowledge of the risks associated with baby walkers than untrained midwives and health visitors (difference between the means 0.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.12 to 0.33). Trained health visitors had more negative attitudes to baby walkers (difference between the means 0.35; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.59) and more positive attitudes towards baby walker health education (difference between the means 0.31; 95% CI 0.00 to 0.62) than untrained health visitors. Midwives who had been trained were more likely to discuss baby walkers in the antenatal period than those who were not trained (odds ratio 9.92; 95% CI 2.02 to 48.83). CONCLUSIONS: Injury prevention training was associated with increased knowledge, more negative attitudes towards walkers, and more positive attitudes towards walker education. Trained midwives were more likely to give advice antenatally. Training did not impact on other practices. Larger trials are required to assess the impact of training on parental safety behaviours, the adoption of safety practices, and injury reduction.
Woods A; Collier J; Kendrick D; Watts K; Dewey M; Illingworth R