Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism.Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%. The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9; (c nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27; and (d eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8. A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035. The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66, 24.12 (SD=2.99, and 0.66 (SD=1.15 respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005 and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001.Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.
Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, Ind...
Paramasivam Parimalam; Raghavan Premalatha; Srinivasan Padmini; Kumar Ganguli
Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, pharmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigi...
Palaian S; Mi, Ibrahim; Mishra P.
Introduction: cervical cancer (CC) is the second most frequent cancer in women in theworld, South America and Colombia. It represents the fourth cause of death by cancerin the world, the third cause in South America and the first cause in Colombia. The interesanprincipalrisk factor is the persistent infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). TheCC can be prevented and the patient can be treated if it is detected early.Objective: to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices about Hu...
Castro Reyes Elkin Mauricio; Miranda Machado Pablo Andrés; Borre Arrieta Orlando
Introduction: Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with ?high morbidity and mortality among patients. The data from NHMS III has reported that the ?present prevalence of DM in Malaysia has exceeded the projected prevalence for the year 2025 as ?estimated by the International Diabetes Federation.1 Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and ?practices (KAP) is a crucial element of DM control.2 However, very few studies have focused on ?this area and t...
Shu Hui Ng, ?.; Kheng Hooi Chan; Zi Yang Lian; Yee Hooi Chuah; Aishath Noora ?Waseem; Amudha Kadirvelu
Purpose: Nutrition is an important component of any physical fitness program.The main dietary goal for active individuals is to obtain adequate nutrition to optimize health fitness and to increase sports performance. The present study aims to assess the nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice among the selected athletes. Methods: Athletes from five different private colleges situated in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 102 athletes, 32 sportsmen belong to V...
Peerkhan Nazni; Srinivasan Vimala
Full Text Available Background: The principles of pharmaceutical care are embedded in the concept of Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP. GPP is poorly applied in community pharmacies not only in Asian countries, but even in United States and Europe. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of the community pharmacists in Iran, regarding GPP. Methods: A total of 794 pharmacists were evaluated with a reliable and validated KAP (Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice questionnaire regarding GPP in September 2008. Results: The most important finding in the present study was the pharmacists low knowledge (Mean= 13.42 and practice (Mean= 29.85 level about GPP, while their attitude towards this subject was at a high level (Mean= 74.83. Increase in their knowledge of good pharmacy practice aligned with an increase in their attitudes towards this issue. Also increase in our pharmacists knowledge and attitude aligned with an increase in quality of their practice. Conclusion: The current practice of Iranian community pharmacists needs further improvement. National pharmaceutical organizations should organize educational programs for the community pharmacists to equip them for their main role in community practice: promoting rational drug use. Keywords: Pharmacy, Knowledge, Attitude
Mohammad Reza Javadi
Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to find out knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of epilepsy among 12 th -class students in Uttarakhand state. Secondly data of Uttarakhand was compared with KAP study from other parts of the country. Materials and Methods: All 12 th - class students studying in six schools of randomly selected 36 villages in Chakrata block of Dehradun district of Uttarakhand state were provided a printed questionnaire having answer as "yes or no". This questionnaire used was used previously by various authors and validated for KAP analysis. These filled questionnaires were collected by village health workers and medical officer. Results: This study conducted on 219, 12 th -class students revealed that epilepsy was heard by 98%, 74.9% thought epilepsy a mental disease and 4.8% believed that it is contagious. Negative attitude showed as nearly 2/3 rd students stated that epilepsy is hindrance in marriage and occupation. Nearly 41% would use onion or shoe for terminating seizure attack. Ayurvedic treatment was preferred over allopathic drugs. Conclusions: Study on 12 th -class students of Uttarakhand revealed poor knowledge, attitude and practice for epilepsy and needs special education program to dispel these misconceptions.
Full Text Available Introduction. In a time that economic classification of nations is largely dependant on their scientific output, our country "Iran" in comparison to it"s facilities, has fewer scienilfic producilon than accepted. For programming to increase quantity and quality of research, at first, should carefully recognise the present condition. This study was done to survay attitiude, knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (IUMSHS about research. Methods. Questionnaires were distribiuted among interns (n=234 who their names and sites had extracted. Students enterance year to university was between 1992 to 1994. So, they were at the end of their staying in university. Results. Average grade of knowledge was 2.92±2 (from whole grade= 10. This grade did not depend on stage of preparing thesis. The most true answer was in writing of purpose and the least was in sampling, medline and role of variables in study. Attitude in 78.2 percent, indicate agreement with necessity of learning research concept. 54.2 percent agree with necessity of participailon in at least one research project in educational period in university, but 41.8 percent believe that research activity in present condition is wasting the time. The answerers who at least had parilcipated in one research project were 11.9 percent and the highest knowledg"s grade was in these students. Discussion. Despite the positive attitude of interns to learn the research concept, their knowledge level in comparison with other Iranian univercities and other univercities" students in the world, was very low. Although more than half of them have positive attitude to participation in research project, their practice was insignificant. Radical changes in education system and management seems to be necessary.
The nutritional care of patients is one of the primary responsibilities of all registered nurses (Persenius et al, 2008). A poor nutritional status can lead to malnutrition, which can have serious consequences for an individual\\'s quality of life (Field and Smith, 2008). This paper commences with an introduction to the concept of nutrition, provides an overview of nutritional guidelines and nutritional screening tools which identify those at risk of malnutrition. It reviews the literature on nurses\\' knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care and debates challenges and opportunities encountered to help nurses ensure adequate patient nutrition.
The current study was aimed to assess Saudi school students' knowledge, attitude and practice about medicines. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used anonymously among 15-20 year-old adolescents attending tertiary schools in Taif City, KSA. A total of 1022 students completed the questionnaires. Only 15.4% of the respondents knew the medicines' uses. Most of the students 79.6% affirmed that they used to take medicines after consulting physicians, and 45.1% of the students thought that tablet size affects the medicine's efficacy. More than half of the students knew that high temperatures affect the efficacy of medicines, there was a significant difference between rural and urban areas (P = 0.005). Physicians (50.6%) and community pharmacists (15.7%), were the main students' reliable sources of information about medicines. The majority of the students 70.5% were interested in learning more about medicines. The younger students ?18 years wish to learn more than the older ones (P attitudes about medicines. Low level of knowledge may expose adolescents to health-related problems. Educational efforts are important to improve students' practice toward medicines. PMID:25061406
Eldalo, Ahmed S; Yousif, Mirghani A; Abdallah, Mustafa Awad
Pesticides, despite their known toxicity, are widely used in developing countries. Evaluating the pattern of their use would be interesting to assess the appropriateness of adequate intervention. Using a standardized questionnaire, a knowledge, attitude, and practice study was performed in two Lebanese regions, in which a group of agricultural workers was compared to workers of the general population and a third group of pesticide distributors. Agricultural workers were exposed to pesticides during cropping, mixing, loading, and application (100%). They had low pesticide knowledge scales compared to pesticide distributors and to the general population workers (PPesticide safety education is necessary in order to induce protective behavior among agricultural workers. The general population may also benefit from increasing their awareness regarding pesticides. PMID:14643280
Salameh, Pascale R; Baldi, Isabelle; Brochard, Patrick; Abi Saleh, Bernadette
Full Text Available Introduction: cervical cancer (CC is the second most frequent cancer in women in theworld, South America and Colombia. It represents the fourth cause of death by cancerin the world, the third cause in South America and the first cause in Colombia. The interesanprincipalrisk factor is the persistent infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV. TheCC can be prevented and the patient can be treated if it is detected early.Objective: to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices about HumanPapillomavirus (HPV in adolescent students of secondary.Methods: an analytical, observational and cross sectional study was performed withthe application of a survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP, to studentsof secondary of two schools of the city of Cartagena, Colombia, between July andDecember of 2011.Results: 10.8% of the polled adolescents replied that they knew the condilomatosis,infectious disease of sexual transmission caused by HPV and 20,1% have knowledgeabout the connection between cervical cancer and HPV infection.Conclusion: there is low knowledge about HPV infection and its association with CC,just like good attitudes with respect to the use of prevention methods of HPV infectionand early detection methods of CC and inadequate practices, mainly in the vaccinationprogramming against HPV. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:275-281RESUMEN:frecuente en mujeres en el mundo, América Latina y Colombia. Representa la cuartacausa de muerte por cáncer en el mundo, la tercera en America del Sur y la primera enColombia. El factor de riesgo principal es la infección persistente con el Virus del PapilomaHumano (VPH. El CACU puede prevenirse y curarse si se detecta tempranamente.Objetivo: establecer conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas acerca del VPH enadolescentes estudiantes de secundaria.Metodología: estudio observacional analítico de corte transversal realizado con laaplicación de una encuesta de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP, a estudiantesde secundaria de dos colegios de la ciudad de Cartagena, Colombia, en el periodocomprendido entre julio y diciembre de 2011.Resultados: el 10.8% de las adolescentes encuestadas respondió que conocía lacondilomatosis, enfermedad infecciosa de transmisión sexual causada por el VPH y el20,1% tiene conocimiento de la relación del cáncer de cuello uterino con la infecciónpor VPH.Conclusiones: se observa bajo conocimiento acerca de la infección por VPH y suasociación con el CACU, buenas actitudes con respecto a la utilización de métodosde prevención de la infección por VPH y de métodos de detección precoz de CACU yprácticas deficientes, principalmente en la cobertura de vacunación contra el VPH. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:275-281
Castro Reyes Elkin Mauricio
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001 or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001, if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003 and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001. Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6% and fertile outpatients (71.5%. Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%, using alternative medicine (42%, engaging in physical exercise (39%, eating certain foods (22%, and quitting smoking (12%. Conclusion: These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. Keywords: infertility, knowledge, attitude, practice, KAP, misconceptions
Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, pharmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance in Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH, a tertiary care teaching hospital attached to the regional pharmacovigilance center in western Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using a pretested (Cronbach alpha=0.72 questionnaire having 25 questions (15 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitude and 5 on practice. The correct/positive responses were given a score of 2 and the wrong/negative responses 1, maximum possible score of 50. Results: A total of 131 responses were obtained among which 42 were incomplete and remaining 89 [females 49 (55.1%] were analyzed. Of the 89 professionals, 29 (32.6% were doctors, 46 (51.8 nurses and 14 (15.7% pharmacists. The mean age was 28.32 (SD=8.46 years and the median (interquartile range of duration of the service 14.5 (6-36 months. The total KAP scores was 40.06 (SD=3.51 for doctors, 38.92 (SD=4.83 for pharmacists, and 35.82 (SD=3.75 for nurses. Among the 89 professionals, 59 (62.3% had not reported even a single ADR to the pharmacovigilance center. Conclusion: The healthcare professionals at the MTH had a poor KAP towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance and there is a need for educational and awareness intervention for these professionals.
Background Migrant populations are at high risk of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among fishermen in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion with ambivalent attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS a...
Zafar, Mubashir; Nisar, Nighat; Kadir, Masood; Fatmi, Zafar; Ahmed, Zeeshan; Shafique, Kashif
Nigerian secondary students were surveyed regarding selected environmental issues to determine prevailing knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Students performed very poorly in the knowledge component of the questionnaire and demonstrated negative attitudes towards issues. Students also indicated practices that were harmful to a healthy
Mansaray, A.; Ajiboye, J. O.
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been realized as a primary cause of death in women for almost a century. However, the relationship between womens knowledge, their wish and action on practicing heart healthy lifestyle is still vague. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the association between knowledge and attitude, knowledge and practice and attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women in Kelantan. Methods/ Study Design: A cross sectional stud...
Ranimah Yahya; Rosediani Muhamad; Harmy Mohamed Yusoff
Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among the college students.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the Government College, Gangtok, Sikkim, during the month of April 2009 to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among 156 students enrolled in the first year bachelor course. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis.Results: 98% (153/156) of the students had knowledge about family planning and ...
Prachi Renjhen; Ashwini Kumar; Sanjay Pattanshetty; Afrin Sagir; Charmaine Minoli Samarasinghe
Dentists are usually the first group who can examine patients for oral cancer and the early diagnosis highly depends on their knowledge. In this study, we aim to survey the Iranian dentists' knowledge, attitude, and behaviors regarding oral cancer. A valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire was designed and sent to 150 dentists. Responses to the questionnaires were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Just one fifth of the dentists reported to perform oral cancer examination for all of their patients in age of 40 and above and about 34 % of them were knowledgeable. They mostly claimed that the lack of knowledge is the main barriers to the provision of routine oral cancer examinations. The opinion of dentists about the effectiveness of continuing education courses supports the development of these courses on oral cancer. Besides, more emphasis should be placed on oral cancer prevention in dental schools. PMID:23508899
Razavi, Sayed Mohammad; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Foroohandeh, Mehrdad; Doost, Mostafa Emami; Tahani, Bahareh
Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of the breast cancer in medical community. The study was carried out in the Department of Oncology, Service Hospital, Lahore and completed in one month. Subjects and Methods: About 200 female doctors and nurses of the Hospital were involved. Each subject was asked to fill up a pro forma designed to assess knowledge, risk factors and preventive practices of the breast cancer. Using non-probability convenience sampling technique, breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography was performed as screening of breast cancer. Results: A majority had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening method for the early detection of breast cancer. Majority had the consensus on the benefit of mammography. Conclusions: The study shows that although medical professionals had fairly good knowledge about screening methods and risk factors of breast cancer. Their preventive practices were scanty in high risk population and, therefore, physicians and nurses need proper training. (author)
Background: Spontaneous reporting is an important tool in pharmacovigilance. However, its success depends on cooperative and motivated prescribers. In order to improve the reporting rate, it is essential to improve the Knowledge, Attitude and the Practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals with regards to the ADR reporting and the pharmacovigilance. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of pharmacovigilance among private prescribers of R...
Karelia, Bharti N.; Piparava, Kiran G.
Background: Good knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of HIV prevention are essential in order not to acquire HIV infection and to prevent the disease from spreading. A proper and well functioning prevention of HIV requires clear and relevant information and instructions from health care givers. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning HIV prevention among Burmese migrant workers in Thailand and compare these between genders. Meth...
A study of 4,976 high-school students in Israel, representative of this age group for the entire country except for 13 percent who attend religious schools, revealed that about one-third of the boys aged 14-15 and almost one-half of those in the 16-17 age category have had sexual intercourse. The respective figures for girls are 6 percent and 16 percent. Age at onset of sexual activity was found to be higher and the level of knowledge about the same as in reports from the Western world. Students of Oriental origin, as well as those considering themselves religious or traditional tended to be less active sexually, more conservative in their attitudes, and less knowledgeable. In contrast, students of both sexes residing in kibbutzim were found to be more active sexually and more knowledgeable. A double standard for girls was accepted, especially among the female respondents, except in the kibbutzim. A subgroup of girls highly sexually active, in contrast to their own attitudes, has been identified, and possible reasons for this discordance discussed. As sexual activity among teenagers is becoming more prevalent, comprehensive and early sex education school programs should be encouraged. PMID:717616
Lancet, M; Modan, B; Kavenaki, S; Antonovski, H; Shoham, I
The report presents the first attempt of the IMA-AKN Sinha Institute of continuing medical and health education and research to study the knowledge, attitude and practice of doctors regarding torture. Although, majority of the doctors in India are aware of various national and international human rights institutions, but they seem not to be aware of the human rights of the detainees. It is interesting to note that the doctors are aware of the long term physical and psychological effects of torture and also agreed that physical examination is not sufficient to detect torture sequelae. A large number of doctors have seen cases of torture, and were willing to treat them and felt reasonably competent. A significant number of doctors justified use of coercive technique and manhandling in dealing with detainees by law enforcement agencies. A small number of doctors expressed their unwillingness to get involved in the treatment of the victims of torture due to medicolegal consequence. The dissemination of information on human rights and medical ethics and incorporating them into the medical curriculum at undergraduate and postgraduate training was emphasised by majority of the respondents. Almost unanimous view was expressed by respondents on the importance of the role of medical ethics and the profession's responsibility to its members. An important finding of the study is the need for IMA to help establishing counselling and rehabilitation centres for treatment of torture victims and educate its members. A large number of doctors mentioned the need of initiating community action in case of rape, child abuse, dowry victims and sexual harassment. Further, a majority of respondents expressed the view that the medical association should take the responsibilities of protecting the doctors who fearlessly testify cases of torture besides disciplining doctors who facilitate torture. Respondents felt that the reasons for doctors' participation in torture need further study. It is encouraging that most of the responding physicians are willing to take up training and become counsellor for victims of torture to be able to provide treatment, counselling and rehabilitation. PMID:11002645
Sobti, J C; Chapparawal, B C; Holst, E
The aim of this study was to examine epilepsy sufferers' attitudes to and knowledge of their condition, the effect of epilepsy on their lives and their views on the management they had received, and to compare knowledge and attitudes with those of a control group of non-sufferers. A questionnaire was completed by 29 patients with epilepsy and 32 control group subjects from two general practices. It was found that people with epilepsy knew little more than those without epilepsy regarding the ...
Dawkins, J. L.; Crawford, P. M.; Stammers, T. G.
A benchmark study was carried out on the knowledge surrounding, attitudes toward, and use of institutional repositories at Mozambican Universities, especially with regard to their medical faculties. This benchmark study was part of a two-step research set-up which examined: The level of knowledge, the attitudes and practices (KAP) of university library users in Mozambique; Factors or interventions that could have an effect on the KAP of library users in the near future; How the spread of info...
Dam, H.; Madzija, T.; Martinho, A.; Waete, R.
This report describes the development and measurement characteristics of a new measure of smoking knowledge, attitudes, and practices (S-KAP) among treatment providers. Data are based on survey responses from 336 paid staff working in one of three drug abuse treatment or HIV care settings. Exploratory factor analysis, used to examine the factor structure, pointed towards five underlying factors: a single knowledge factor, three attitude factors (treatment barriers, counse...
Delucchi, Kevin L.; Tajima, Barbara; Guydish, Joseph
Introduction. In a time that economic classification of nations is largely dependant on their scientific output, our country "Iran" in comparison to it"s facilities, has fewer scienilfic producilon than accepted. For programming to increase quantity and quality of research, at first, should carefully recognise the present condition. This study was done to survay attitiude, knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (IUMSHS) about research....
Talaei, M.; Roohi, S.; Sabet, B.; Baghaei, A. M.; Bahman Ziari, P.
Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of the periodontal health maintenance and promotion in diabetes mellitus has been supported. Evidence showed that many patients are unaware about effects of diabetes mellitus on oral health. The aim of this study is to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practice of diabetic patients concerning the risk of periodontal disease and prevention. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 156 diabetic patients referring to Yazd Diabetic Research Center were recruited by random selection. Patients completed questionnaires, which included 29 questions about their knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health in diabetes mellitus. The data was scored and analyzed. Result: The results showed knowledge (58.64 and attitude (46.86 scores of diabetic patients were moderate, while their practice (24.3 score were poor. There is statistical significant relation between mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with their educational level and age. Conclusion: This study showed knowledge, attitude and practice level of diabetic patients were insufficient on oral health care.
Fazele Atarbashi Moghadam
We investigated knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of prescribers concerning piperacillin-tazobactam use at 4 Emory University-affiliated hospitals. Discussions during focus groups indicated that the participants' perceived knowledge of clinical criteria for appropriate piperacillin-tazobactam use was inadequate. Retrospective review of medical records identified inappropriate practices. These findings have influenced ongoing interventions aimed at optimizing piperacillin-tazobactam use. PMID:17080393
Antoine, Theresa L; Curtis, Amy B; Blumberg, Henry M; Desilva, Kathryn; Fransua, Mesfin; Gould, Carolyn V; King, Mark; Kraman, Alice A; Pack, Jan; Ribner, Bruce; Seybold, Ulrich; Steinberg, James P; Wells, Jane B; Sinkowitz-Cochran, Ronda L; Cardo, Denise; Jernigan, John A; Gaynes, Robert P
Full Text Available In this study, knowledge, attitude and practice about mercury hygiene of dentist who have private offices in Isfahan were evaluated. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2001-2002. One hundred and sixteen of dentists were selected by random sampling. Data were collected using a standard questionnaire. T-student test, Chi-square test, Fisher"s exact test and Spearman correlation test have been used to analyse data. It was shown that dentists knowledge about mercury hygiene was not acceptable. However the mean of their attitude score was more than scale mean and most of them had a positive attitude toward improvement of mercury hygiene in their offices. According to the results, dent ist"s practice, in this regard proved weak. There was no significant correlation between knowledge and practice and between attitude and practice (P > 0.05. In order to improve dentists" knowledge, training them is supposed. Because of no significant correlation between their knowledge and practice, surveillance seems necessary.
Community knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices are essential in any diarrhoea research. This cross-sectional study addresses these questions ill a semi-urban community in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The study included 344 subjects and 276 controls v/ all age groups. Most people had reasonable knowledge of diarrhoea. Mothers o/ children with diarrhoea continued to fired them during the attack. However, some community practices were found to be harmful. The majority of di...
Bella, Hassan; Ai-freihi, Hussein; El-mousan, Mohammed; Danso, Kingsley Twum; Sohaibani, Mohamed; Khazindar, Ms Samar
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health research training is an essential component of medical education and a vital exercise to help develop physician research skills. This study was carried out to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards research amongst a group of Post Graduate Medical Trainees (PGMTs' at Aga Khan University (AKU, Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional health research survey was carried out on all PGMTs' at AKU Pakistan. AKU is a tertiary care health facility which offers residency in 28 specialties and fellowship in 16 programs. Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to health research were assessed using a pretested, structured and validated questionnaire. Health research related practices of the residents were examined using questions graded on Likert scale. Results Mean percentage score ± SD on the knowledge scale was 36.9% ± 20.2 and 47.19% ± 25.18 on the attitude scale. Of 104(55.6% who had previously participated in research 28(26.9% had been involved in basic science research only, 62(59.6% in clinical research and 14(13.5% had participated in both clinical and basic science research projects. 88(47.1% planned to pursue a future research career. Those who planned to pursue a future research career had more positive health research attitudes p Conclusion PGMTs' demonstrate inadequate knowledge, while they have moderate attitudes towards health research. Residency training and research facilities at the institution need to undergo major transformation in order to encourage meaningful research by resident trainees.
This descriptive study investigated the nutrition-related knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in India. Data relating to nutritional KAP and sociodemographic profile were gathered from a sample of 400 PLHIV from New Delhi, India, using preset multiple-choice questionnaire. The knowledge on HIV/AIDS was low; nutritional knowledge was moderate as 80% of respondents could answer 4 out of 7 questions correctly. The attitude toward disease and food was positive but the application of nutritional knowledge was lacking as indicated by the moderate practice score of 8.1 +/- 2.3 out of a total score of 15. There were no significant differences in scores between genders. The PLHIV had knowledge about importance of nutrition during infection, had positive attitude toward the disease and the importance of nutrition during the course of the disease but translation of this knowledge into practice was low. Thus, there is a need for continuous interventions primarily aiming at behaviour change to convert knowledge into healthy dietary practices. PMID:23930337
Anand, Deepika; Puri, Seema
Background: School personnel are important for communicating with parents about school vaccination programs and recognizing influenza outbreaks. This study examined knowledge, attitudes, and practices of school personnel regarding seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza, vaccinations, and school outbreak investigations. Methods: Data were analyzed from
Ha, Chrysanthy; Rios, Lenoa M.; Pannaraj, Pia S.
The terms of agreement of the Rural Water-Borne Disease Control Project called for a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study relating to water and sanitation in rural Swaziland. The purpose of the study was to provide: (1) baseline data for the design of a national health education strategy aimed at reducing the incidence of water-borne
Green, Edward C.
This study assessed how knowledge of soy protein and its relationship to heart disease influences the attitudes and practices of college students. Results showed that family members, schools, and newspapers were the primary sources of students' nutritional information. One fourth of the participating students answered at least four nutrition
Herring, Theresa A.; Bakhiet, Raga M.
A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) among rural migrants was conducted in Shanghai, China. An anonymous questionnaire was administered face-to-face. Among 2,690 participants, 78% reported having had lifetime sexual intercourse with 41.3% of singles reporting sexual intercourse, 9.2%
He, Na; Zhang, Jinling; Yao, Jinjian; Tian, Xiuhong; Zhao, Genming; Jiang, Qingwu; Detels, Roger
An intervention study was set up through the School Civic Clubs to improve Botswana children's environmental knowledge, attitudes and practices. The underlying assumption in using this informal approach was based on the premise that the school time table is already overcrowded and that the infusion approach currently adopted in the country has not
Ajiboye, Josiah O.; Silo, Nthalivi
Full Text Available A cross-sectional study regarding knowledge, attitude & practices of family planning was conducted in an immunization center of Indore district. All the females coming to immunization center for vaccinating their infants were interviewed using a pretested, semi structured Performa during a fixed study period. The performa included details like socio demographic features, questions related to knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP regarding contraceptive use. Results showed poor contraceptive knowledge amongst females. 18% KAP Gap was found in total subjects. Maximum KAP Gap was found in the 19-21year age group. The KAP Gap was not significantly more in Muslim women as compare to Hindu women. The KAP Gap was more in Housewives than other occupations. Knowledge of various family planning methods should be provided to all the females coming to health center.
Priyanka Mahawar, Shweta Anand, Deepa Raghunath, Sanjay Dixit
It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27) in the Central Plateau. The m...
Leilah Zahedi; Emma Sizemore; Stuart Malcolm; Emily Grossniklaus; Oguchi Nwosu
Detection of probable harmful consequences arised from the usage of pharmaceutical products requires decisive, continuous and close monitoring by medical staff whom should have knowledge of adverse drug reactions and they should also have to report any suspected instances, when any kind of adverse drug reactions have been observed. This study has been carried out on the knowledge, attitude and practice of nurses towards pharmacovigilance in the Taleqani medical, teaching and treatment center ...
Hajebi, Giti; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Zian, Aed
Diarrhoea and water-borne diseases are leading causes of mortality in developing countries. To understand the socio-cultural factors impacting on water safety, we documented knowledge, attitudes and practices of water handling and usage, sanitation and defecation in rural Tamilnadu, India, using questionnaires and focus group discussions, in a village divided into an upper caste Main village and a lower caste Harijan colony. Our survey showed that all households stored drinking water in wide-mouthed containers. The quantity of water supplied was less in the Harijan colony, than in the Main village (Pfood, ingesting hair, mud or mosquitoes. Among 97 households interviewed, 30 (30.9%) had toilets but only 25 (83.3%) used them. Seventy-two (74.2%) of respondents defecated in fields, and there was no stigma associated with this traditional practice. Hand washing with soap after defecation and before meals was common only in children under 15 years (86.4%). After adjusting for other factors, perception of quantity of water received (P<0.001), stated causation of diarrhoea (P=0.02) and low socio-economic status (P<0.001) were significantly different between the Main village and the Harijan colony. Traditional practices may pose a significant challenge to programmes aimed at toilet usage and better sanitation. PMID:17765275
Banda, Kalyan; Sarkar, Rajiv; Gopal, Srila; Govindarajan, Jeyanthi; Harijan, Bhim Bahadur; Jeyakumar, Mary Benita; Mitta, Philip; Sadanala, Madhuri Evangeline; Selwyn, Tryphena; Suresh, Christina Rachel; Thomas, Verghese Anjilivelil; Devadason, Pethuru; Kumar, Ranjit; Selvapandian, David; Kang, Gagandeep; Balraj, Vinohar
Full Text Available Objective: Health care workers especially medical students are at risk of being exposed to blood-borne pathogens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of medical students towards standard isolation precautions (SIP. Methods: A standardized questionnaire was completed by 148 medical students from April to July of year 2009 to seek their knowledge, attitude and practice towards standard isolation precautions in a clinical setting at Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Results: The mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice towards standard isolation precautions were 6.8±2.1 (maximum 10, 16.6±4.2 (maximum 20, and 18.05 ± 4.5 (maximum 30 respectively. Significant differences were observed between practice of female and male (P < 0.008 and also knowledge of year 6 and year 7 students (P <0.021. Conclusion: Education on infection control based on standard isolation precaution must be stressed and barriers of appropriate practice must be removed.
Abstract Background Studies have revealed that visiting poultry markets and direct contact with sick or dead poultry are significant risk factors for H5N1 infection, the practices of which could possibly be influenced by people's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) associated with avian influenza (AI). To determine the KAPs associated with AI among the Chinese general population, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in China. Methods We used standardized...
Cheng Xiaowen; Yu Zhangda; Li Leilei; Huai Yang; Liao Qiaohong; Zhou Hang; Zhou Lei; Peng Zhibin; Ye Min; Zhang Shunxiang; Wu Jiabing; Shi Ying; Xiang Nijuan; Su Weike; Wu Xiaomin
Abstract Background The potential contribution of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) studies to malaria research and control has not received much attention in most southern African countries. This study investigated the local communities' understanding of malaria transmission, recognition of signs and symptoms, perceptions of cause, treatment-seeking patterns, preventive measures and practices in order to inform the country's proposed malaria elimination programme in S...
Govender Dayanandan; Kunene Simon; Lh, Mabaso Musawenkosi; Hlongwana Khumbulani W; Maharaj Rajendra
Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD has been realized as a primary cause of death in women for almost a century. However, the relationship between womens knowledge, their wish and action on practicing heart healthy lifestyle is still vague. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the association between knowledge and attitude, knowledge and practice and attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women in Kelantan. Methods/ Study Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of 448 women attended primary care facilities in Kelantan were included in this study. Twostage sampling process was used to select clinics in all districts in Kelantan followed by female participants from selected clinics attendance lists. Recruited were non illiterate young adult women up to 65 years of age and without psychotic symptoms. Consented participants were given a set of validated KAP questionnaire that should be completed within 15 minutes. Findings: The respondents mean age was about 40 years with majority of them having secondary educational level and coming from low socio-economic group. Among them, 56.8% involved in tobacco products and 41.3% reported as having CVD related medical illnesses, especially obesity (23.7% and hypertension (17.6%. About 56.2% had family history of CVD risk. Only 26.8% of them obtained the CVD information from health care workers. The good knowledge, attitude and practice score were 55.6%, 55.1 % and 51.1% accordingly. There were significant association between attitude and knowledge, practice and knowledge and practice and attitude which were found to be strong (0.10, 0.20, (0.10, 0.18 and (0.26, 0.40 95% CI, respectively and is independent with socio-demographic and personal disease characteristic. Conclusion: Positive relationship between knowledge, attitude and practice will encourage primary care doctors to take this challenge to educate, motivate community and provide full support to those who wish to modify their lifestyle.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate whether paediatricians have appropriate knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours regarding vaccinations for infants in Italy. Methods A random sample of 500 paediatricians received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire covering demographic and professional characteristics; knowledge about the mandatory, recommended, and not indicated vaccinations for infants; attitudes about vaccinations for infants; behaviour regarding current administration or willingness to administer mandatory or recommended vaccinations for infants and immunization education programs of the parents. Results Only 42.3% paediatricians knew all recommended vaccinations for infants and this knowledge was significantly higher in females, in those who worked a higher number of hours for week, and in those who use guidelines for immunization practice. Only 10.3% had a very favourable attitude towards the utility of the recommended vaccinations for infants and this was significantly higher in those who administered recommended vaccinations for infants. A large proportion (82.7% of paediatricians routinely informed the parents about the recommended vaccinations for infants and this appropriate behaviour was significantly higher among younger, in those with a higher number of years in practice, and in those who administered the recommended vaccinations for infants. Conclusion Training and educational interventions are needed in order to improve knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours regarding vaccinations for infants among paediatricians.
Full Text Available Improper practices and lack of knowledge by food handlers are contributing factors for the spread of foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice of food handlers in military hospitals in Jordan. A Self completed questionnaire was answered by 200 employees; 150 military employees and 50 civilian employees in 7 Jordanian military hospitals selected randomly one from the capital Amman and two from the three provinces. The results showed that the means of the percentage scores for the knowledge, attitude, practice, were 84.82, 88.88, 89.43, respectively and the overall knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP mean percentage score was 87.88. A significant difference (P 0.05 in these values was observed between the military and civilian employee. The mean percentage scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 88.5, 93.2, and 91.4, respectively for military employee compared to those for civilian employee of 73.7, 75.8, and 83.5, respectively. A significant difference for the overall (KAP mean percentage score was also observed between gender, education and specific occupation of the food handler. Female KAP percentage mean score was 90.0 and that for males was 86.6; The college or university educations employee had a mean score of 91.6 while the elementary school education employee had a mean score of 79.7; The nutritionists and cooks had statistically similar means of 91.6 but these occupations significantly differ from the waiters 84.4 and cleaners 80.2.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction This study was conducted in Brazil and Colombia,where dengue is endemic and vector control programs use chemical insecticides. Methods We identified [...] knowledge, attitudes, and practices about dengue and determined the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti in one Brazilian and four Colombian communities. Results The surveys show knowledge of the vector, but little knowledge about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Vector infestation indices show Brazil to have good relative control, while Colombia presents a high transmission risk. Conclusions Given the multidimensionality of dengue control, vertical control strategies are inadequate because they deny contextualized methods, alternative solutions, and local empowerment.
Solange Laurentino dos, Santos; Gabriel, Parra-Henao; Mírcia Betânia Costa e, Silva; Lia Giraldo da Silva, Augusto.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude, practice and preferences on contraceptive methods among the female population, to determine the association between knowledge and attitude on contraceptive methods with the variables.Materials and methods: A Descriptive survey of 136 females between 18- 45 year of age were done using a structured knowledge questionnaire, structured attitude scale and opinionnaire on practice and preference during the month of January 2012 to February 2012 at Moodu Alevoor village, Udupi district, Karnataka. Simple random sampling was used to select the village and purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample.Results: It was shown that 48.5% were of 26-35 years of age, 92% were Hindus, 45.6% had higher secondary education, 41.2% were house wives, 55.9% had family monthly income below 5000 rupees, 49.3% were from nuclear family, 64% were married between 19-25 years, 43.3% had 2-3 years of married life and 52.2% had one pregnancy. Majority (55.9% had one living child and 98.5% got information through health personnel. Majority (67.60% had moderate knowledge on contraceptive methods and 17.60% had high knowledge. Majority (87.50% had favourable attitude and 12.50% had unfavourable attitude towards contraceptive methods. From the group of studied women 38.23% did not use any contraceptive methods, 19.85% used OCPs and minimum 1.47% used injection as contraceptive method. In this study 37.5% preferred OCPs as Rank 1, male condom (22.1% as Rank 2 and injection (16.3% as Rank 3. There was association between knowledge with educational status(c2 = 47.14, p=0.001, occupation (c2 =15.81, p=0.044, family monthly income (c2 =6.473, p=0.039 and duration of marriage (c2=6.721, p=0.035. There was no association between attitude and the studied variables.Conclusion: The study showed that majority of the females had moderate knowledge and favourable attitude
Sonam Zangmu Sherpa
Background: Epilepsy, one of the most common serious chronic brain disorders, is poorly understood by the public and has been associated with numerous misconceptions and beliefs. This, coupled with its sometimes dramatic clinical manifestations, has often resulted in a strong social stigma.Objective: This study was conducted to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices toward epilepsy among preparatory school students in Mekelle, North Ethiopia.Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire used ...
Mulat Gedefa; Tesfaye Wolde; Gebremedhin Solomon
This paper presents the findings of a field survey of supposedly educated young Malaysians regarding their knowledge of landslide as an environmental hazard and their attitudes and practice regarding landslide issues. The respondents were undergraduate students of Penangs Universiti Sains Malaysia whose RST (Restu, Saujana, Tekun) residential hostels were chosen for the study due to their location on a mountainous terrain. A total of 343 students participated in the survey. The resul...
Jamilah Ahmad; Habibah Lateh
Background: In 2009, 48% of males aged 15 or over in Mongolia consumed tobacco, placing Mongolia among the countries with the highest prevalence of male smokers in the world. Importantly, tobacco use is one of the four major risk factors contributing to the global burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) the leading cause of mortality in Mongolia. However, the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian population with regards to smoking are largely unmeasured. In this context, ...
Demaio, Alessandro R.; Nehme, Jessica; Otgontuya, Dugee; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Enkhtuya, Palam
The aim of this study is to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of Iranian households and health staff on nutrition at province level. The sampling method in NUTRIKAP survey for households in each province is single-stage cluster sampling and the size of clusters is equal. The sampling method for health staff in each province is stratified random sampling. Samples are selected from physicians, health experts, health technicians, nutritionists and health assistants (Behvarz). Overall, 1...
Azemati, Bahar; Heshmat, Ramin; Sanaei, Maryam; Salehi, Forouzan; Sadeghi, Farzaneh; Ghaderpanahi, Maryam; Mirarefin, Mojde; Abdollahi, Zahra; Rezaei Hemami, Mohsen; Larijani, Bagher
Objectives: Pregnant women are more susceptible to periodontal disease like gingivitis. Periodontal disease may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is no published literature on dental health in pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. The objective of this study was to assess womens knowledge and attitude towards oral and dental health during pregnancy and to examine their self-care practices in relation to oral and dental health. This study was carried out at the maternal c...
Sunita Bamanikar; Liew Kok Kee
Hypertension is a major problem that will most certainly grow with increase in the number of older people as the population continues to age. Its complications have estimated reduction in life expectancy and number of Quality of life years. The aim of the study was to study the Knowledge, Attitude ,Practice (KAP) in the management of hypertension among old age people. Purposive random sampling technique was adapted for the study. The total sample constituted 1200 elderly w...
Roopa, K. S.; Rama Devi, G.
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) due to Leishmania (V.) braziliensis are endemic in Paraguay. We performed a series of knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) surveys simultaneously with individuals in endemic communities in San Pedro department (n = 463), health professionals (n = 25), and patients (n = 25). Results showed that communities were exposed to high risk factors for transmission of L. braziliensis. In logistic regression analysis, age was the onl...
Amp Xf Nica Ruoti, M.; Rolando Oddone; Nathalie Lampert; Elizabeth Orué; Miles, Michael A.; Neal Alexander; Rehman, Andrea M.; Rebecca Njord; Stephanie Shu; Susannah Brice; Bryony Sinclair; Alison Krentel
Introduction: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading killer not only in men but also in women worldwide and primary target for prevention. However, majority initial researchers believed it was mainly a mens disease that resulted in fewer women being informed regarding the disease.Aim and Objectives: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women attended outpatient clinics with Family Medicine Specia...
Rosediani Muhamad; Ranimah Yahya; Harmy Mohamed Yusoff
Background: Oral cancer has emerged as a significant cause of global public health concern. If a cancerous lesion is diagnosed in primary stages, the survival rate would be higher. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of general dentist regarding oral cancer in Sari, Iran . Methods: This cross sectional analytical study was performed on general dentists of Sari, Iran. The dentists were given a questionnaire including dem...
Mohammad Mehdizadeh; Maryam Seyed Majid; Saber Sadeghi; Mahtab Hamzeh
High salt intake is important risk factor for hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice regarding salt intake in rural population in continental Croatia. Data were obtained by standardized questionnaire in 928 adult subjects (586 women and 342 men). Results have shown low level of awareness (~60%) of salt risk. Women were more aware about the harmful effects of salt and could identify some food with hig...
Bojan Jelakovi?; Patricija Luketi?; Dragana Juri?; ivka Dika; Jovana ?uri?; Ksenija Vitale; Slavica Paradinovi?
Introduction: The importance of the periodontal health maintenance and promotion in diabetes mellitus has been supported. Evidence showed that many patients are unaware about effects of diabetes mellitus on oral health. The aim of this study is to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practice of diabetic patients concerning the risk of periodontal disease and prevention. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 156 diabetic patients referring to Yazd Diabetic Research Center were re...
Fazele Atarbashi Moghadam; Ahmad Haerian; Maryam Sadat Salami; Mohammad Hasan Akhavan Karbasi; Roham Fakhr-Tabatabayi; Farzane vaziri
AIMTo determine the level of correct knowledge about common eye disease and attitudes towards blindness prevention and treatment, and how these factors influence self care practices in a population based sample.?METHODSA cluster random sample of the Victorian population was interviewed. The study population comprised residents aged 40 years of age or older living in five randomly selected Melbourne metropolitan suburbs and four randomly selected rural areas of Victoria. Questions wer...
Livingston, P.; Mccarty, C.; Taylor, H.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM:Many pediatric oral diseases are preventable if physicians recognize and encourage preventivecare and refer patients to dentists whenever necessary. Parents usually visit pediatricians for routine care during the firstfew years of a childs life. Therefore, pediatricians have can assist dental professionals by educating parents to maintaintheir children's oral health.The main objective of this study was to determine knowledge, attitude, and practices ofpediatricians about the oral disease prevention.METHODS:A piloted questionnaire was completed by volunteer pediatricians and pediatric residents in Kerman, Iran. Itcomprised a series of questions including sociodemographic and practice characteristics, knowledge about the riskfactors for oral diseases, attitude toward oral disease prevention, practicing preventive care for oral diseases, andinformation about oral diseases.RESULTS:Overall, 60 subjects participated in the study. Less thanhalf of the respondents knewall the main risk factorsof dental caries, gingivitis, and malocclusion. There was also a positive attitude that caries can be prevented (100%.Less than 10% of the participants prescribeddietary fluoride supplements for their patients.CONCLUSIONS:Although we found inadequate knowledge about oral and dental diseases among pediatricians, themajority of our subjects believed that they had animportant responsibility in preventing oral diseases
Elham Bozorgmehr DDS
Being responsible for providing care for HIV/AIDS in a society, physicians should be knowledgeable and have favourable attitudes. We designed a cross-sectional study to assess knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS of private practicing physicians in Mashhad, Iran. A total of 346 general practitioners and specialists completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires with response rate of 91.1%. For knowledge questions, the mean proportion of correct responses was 53.5% (±13.2). Misconceptions about HIV transmission were the main areas of insufficient knowledge. Surprisingly only 20% knew how to manage a patient who had experienced sexual contact with an HIV-positive partner. While 84% disagreed that 'HIV-infected individuals deserved to catch infection' owing to high-risk behaviours, 38% sympathized less with people who were infected via extramarital sex. It seems that knowledge and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS among the studied physicians is not favourable and is an area that requires attention to enable effective management of the disease in Iran. PMID:22930308
Hedayati-Moghaddam, M R; Moradi Marjaneh, M; Mashhadi, I Eftekharzadeh
Full Text Available Hypertension is a major problem that will most certainly grow with increase in the number of older people as the population continues to age. Its complications have estimated reduction in life expectancy and number of Quality of life years. The aim of the study was to study the Knowledge, Attitude ,Practice (KAP in the management of hypertension among old age people. Purposive random sampling technique was adapted for the study. The total sample constituted 1200 elderly with hypertension residents of urban Bangalore, of which 600 were men and 600 were women between the age group of 65-76 years. The tool used for the study was Structured Interview Schedule (SIS developed by the investigators on demographic profile and on KAP in the management of hypertension and the tool was administered to 1200 old age people. The obtained data was subjected to statistical analysis by applying percentage mean, and 't' test. The findings revealed that the scores on the knowledge segment indicated a moderate to good knowledge among the respondents. The mean scores on attitude indicated that the groups showed a fair and healthy attitude towards hypertension. The mean scores on practice showed a moderate level to cope with hypertension.
Roopa, K. S.
Objectives: To determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among specialiststhat is, dermatologists, gynaecologists and urologists, and general practitioners (GPs) in Karachi, Pakistan.
Khandwalla, H.; Luby, S.; Rahman, S.
Full Text Available Background: ICT competencies are now essential for nurses in optimizing their care services and their training. Objective: To analyze knowledge, attitudes and practices related to ICT, in de population of public hospital and ISPs nurses of Alto Paraná, Paraguay. Methods: A quantitative, descriptive and transversal study was conducted. Data were collected from 130 professionals, during June and July of the year 2011, through interviews and by application of a questionnaire of open and closed questions and a Likert scale.Results: The dimensions of knowledge and use shows elementary levels, but the attitude toward ICT is favorable. Discussion: This last fact and the finding of a predominantly young population suggest that interventions aimed at training have a high probability of success.
Carmen Noelia Espínola López
Iran is in the malaria pre-elimination stage. In this situation community based strategies are important for malaria control. In order to intensify elimination activities we need to have a better understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of malaria prevention in the community. We carried out a KAP study in one malaria endemic district in southern Iran in 2009 using a structured questionnaire. Five villages with indigenous malaria cases during the previous year and a high potential for anopheline mosquito breeding were selected. All the households in each village were visited and the head of the household or other responsible adult was interviewed. Data were analyzed using SPSS 11.5. A total of 494 respondents from the five villages participated. More than 33% of people in the study area were living in sheds with poor facilities. The illiteracy level of the studied population was high (44.2%) and significantly affected the knowledge and practices of the respondents about malaria control (pmosquitoes were the vector. Most people knew at least one symptom of the disease. The practices of respondents were 59.5% for bednet use and 9.3% for screening windows. The knowledge, attitudes and practices of respondents in this survey about malaria control were good in some cases, but in general needed to be improved with educational programs. PMID:21706926
Hanafi-Bojd, A A; Vatandoost, H; Oshaghi, M A; Eshraghian, M R; Haghdoost, A A; Abedi, F; Zamani, Gh; Sedaghat, M M; Rashidian, A; Madani, A H; Raeisi, A
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Hypertension is a global health hazard and most cases are first attended to by the physicians. Achieving a control will depend on the knowledge, attitude and practice of the physicians. We therefore determined the knowledge, attitude and practices of physicians on the detection and treatment of arterial hypertension in north-central Nigeria. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 100 of the 250 physicians attending a continuing medical education lecture series in Bida was conducted using a pre-validated self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age of the physicians was 41.05 ± 8.71 years and 59 (73.8% were males. Forty-one (51.2% of them have practiced for more than 10 years. Arterial hypertension was considered an important health problem by 93.8% of the physicians, 30% of them believed that it should not be referred to a specialist. Majority of the physicians request for urinalysis (96.2%, electrocardiogram (95.0%, fasting blood glucose (88.8%, blood urea nitrogen (98.8% and fasting lipid profile (97.5% to either assess target organ damage or associated co-morbid conditions. Fifty-seven (71.2% of the physicians prescribe diuretics as the initial drug. However, the knowledge of the other drugs on initiation of therapy of mild uncomplicated hypertension was poor. The sources of information on arterial hypertension by physicians were scientific programs (73.8%, drug companies (38.8% and journals in 11.3%. Conclusion: The knowledge, attitude and practice of physicians in the detection and management of hypertension were modest. Educative programs like continuing medical education, seminars, and conferences on cardiovascular disorders are advised to be organized regularly to strengthen these and update the physicians.
Umar Gati Adamu
Full Text Available Background: Oral cancer has emerged as a significant cause of global public health concern. If a cancerous lesion is diagnosed in primary stages, the survival rate would be higher. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of general dentist regarding oral cancer in Sari, Iran . Methods: This cross sectional analytical study was performed on general dentists of Sari, Iran. The dentists were given a questionnaire including demographic characteristics of the dentists and questions about knowledge, attitude and practice regarding oral cancer. Data were subjected to SPSS 18 .0. Quantitative data were reported as mean (±SD and qualitative data were shown as percent. Kolmogorov - Smirnoff sample test, t - test (p<0.07 was considered statistically significant equivalent nonparametric test and Spearmans rho test was used for sta tistical analysis . Results: Total mean score of knowledge, mean score of females and mean score of males was 20.88±8.53, 20.96±7.62 and 20.71±10.43, respectively. Age and sex had no correlation with score of knowledge. Conclusion: Dentists of Sari do not ha ve enough knowledge about oral cancer
387 mothers in Mehrauli block of Delhi were interviewed regarding their knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices regarding measles. 98.4% enumerated one or the other symptoms, fever being the commonest. 77.5% were aware of the infectious nature and 97% had favourable attitude regarding feeding the child during measles. The commonest foodstuff given was cowmilk and khichdi. 95.1% of the respondents intended to apply local herbs on eruptions. There was a variety of local medicines for home treatment and Laung, Tulsi leaves and Kishmish being the practice in descending order of preference. 98.4% respondents favoured giving special nutritional care during the attack of measles to their children. PMID:14768831
Aggarwal, Kamal; Kannan, A T; Chhabra, Pragti; Kumar, Parveen; Trikha, V K
ABSTRACT This study was conducted to assess mental health knowledge, attitude and practices among health care workers in Belize before and immediately after a competency based training program in mental health. A baseline Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) survey was given to health personnel, mainly nurses, working primary and secondary care. The intervention was a 13-week face-to-face training course for health care professionals with the objective of increasing their competency in me...
Bennett, Eleanor Davis
Mongolia has a high and increasing burden of hypertension and related disease, with cardiovascular diseases among the leading causes of death. Yet little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian population with regards to blood pressure. With this in mind, a national Non-Communicable Diseases knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on blood pressure was implemented in late 2010. This paper reports on the findings of this research.
Demaio, Alessandro R; Otgontuya, Dugee
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in Ethiopia and the Amhara region. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and health-seeking practice in this region is essential to plan, implement, and evaluate advocacy, communication, and social mobilization work. This may improve the case detection rate. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of patients toward TB in the Eastern Amhara region of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among suspect...
Esmael, Ahmed; Ali, Ibrahim; Agonafir, Mulualem; Desale, Adinew; Yaregal, Zelalem; Desta, Kassu
Full Text Available Emergency Contraception (EC is used within a few days of unprotected sex to prevent an unintended pregnancy. About one quarter of pregnancies in south of Iran are unintended. EC is important option that women can use after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure for preventing of unplanned pregnancies and adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Health staff have influence on womens contraceptive behavior and their knowledge and attitudes about EC can affect womens contraceptive behaviors. Data are lacking about the knowledge, attitude and practice of hormonal EC method among health staff in Bushehr state, south of Iran. A cross-sectional study using self administered questionnaire was conducted. A sample of 170 health staff were surveyed. The mean age of respondents was 30.6±5.1. Overall 6.5% of participants had poor knowledge, 25.2% moderate knowledge, 68.3% good knowledge about EC. Half of participants had positive and half had negative attitude towards the EC method. Midwives and family health workers were more knowledgeable (p<0.05 and more frequently counseled women about EC than general practitioners (GPs (p<0.001. The most cited reason for EC prescriptions were rupture condom and none use of contraception. Our findings showed despite of majority of health staff had good knowledge about EC, their knowledge about the indications for prescription of EC and its side effects was inadequate. The educational efforts for health staff should be focused more on the specific aspects of EC method. GPs also should be more involved in family planning program.
Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Fissure sealant therapy is a national program in elementary schools in Iran. Therefore, evaluation of the parents' knowledge and attitude is necessary to improve the program."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study, Iranian students were chosen in a randomized cluster manner. The questionnaires were filled-out by students' parents to evaluate their general information, knowledge, and attitude. Moreover, students were examined for having any fissure-sealed teeth. Data were collected and analyzed by multiple logistic regression tests."nResults: 414 boy students and their parents were participated in this study. 57.6% of parents knew that fissure sealant prevents the caries and 44.5% believed that fissure sealant is important to prevent caries. However, only 8.9% of children had fissure sealant. Parents' knowledge was significantly related to the source of oral health information and oral health education. Regular dental visits and high level education was effective in increasing the knowledge about sealant therapy. There was a significant relation between parents' attitude toward fissure sealant and level of education, oral health education and numbers and times of dental visit (P<0.001. There were a significant relation between tooth sealing and parents' oral health information."nConclusion: Regular dental visits and oral health education have positive role in parent's knowledge and attitude and practice. So parents must be encouraged to have regular dental visit and dentists must be emphasized to give them necessary education. School is the best place for giving proper information to parents.
Full Text Available Introduction: The harmful effects of cigarette smoking on oral health are well established. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and attitude of dental patients about the effects of smoking on oral health and their cessation efforts.Methods and materials: In this descriptive analysis-cross sectional study, 905 patients from dental clinics in Kerman were selected. They were asked to complete a self- administered structured questionnaire on the effects of smoking on oral health. The questionnaire consisted of questions about demographic data, smoking status, patients' knowledge and attitude about the effects of smoking and cessation efforts of them. Finally, data was analyzed with SPSS program, t test and x2 test.Result: A total 905 patients (53% men and 47% women were studied. The mean age was 32.76 ± 9.509. The prevalence of smoking was 20.5%. The relationship between sex and education and smoking was significant (p value = 0.0001. Mean Knowledge score was 53.95%. Smoking patients and men were significantly less aware of the effects of smoking on oral health. In this study, 54.9% of smoking patients had tried to quit smoking. Only 12.2% had taken counselling. The attitude toward cigarettes was passive.Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the knowledge about effects of smoking on oral health, especially oral cancer, was low. Therefore dentists have a key role for awarding their patients of such effects and are placed to be have a key role in tobacco prevention and cessation.Keywords: Cigarette, Oral manifestations, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Dental patients
Full Text Available Abstract Many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medicines, especially those available over-the-counter, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals such as general practitioners and pharmacists. The primary aim of this review therefore, was to investigate the literature relating to health professionals' and women's knowledge, attitudes and practices towards medication use and safety in breastfeeding. The limited literature that was uncovered identified that general practitioners and pharmacists have poor knowledge, but positive attitudes, and variable practices that are mostly guided by personal experience. They tend to make decisions about the use of a medicine whilst breastfeeding based on the potential 'risk' that it poses to the infant in terms of possible adverse reactions, rather than its 'compatibility' with breast milk. The decision-making process between health professionals and women is usually not a negotiated process, and women are often asked to stop breastfeeding whilst taking a medicine. Women, in turn, are left dissatisfied with the advice received, many choosing not to initiate therapy or not to continue breastfeeding. Some directions for future research have been suggested to address the issues identified in this critical area. This review is important from a societal perspective because many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medications, especially those available without prescription, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals, which is ultimately influenced by their knowledge, attitudes and practices. However, there is an absence of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials on the safety of medications taken during breastfeeding, which naturally would hinder health professionals from appropriately advising women. It is equally important to know about women's experiences of advice received from health professionals, and whether there is consistency between recommendations made across resources on medication safety in breastfeeding, in order to gain a full understanding of the issues prevalent in this area of practice.
Full Text Available Introduction: Coronary heart disease (CHD is a leading killer not only in men but also in women worldwide and primary target for prevention. However, majority initial researchers believed it was mainly a mens disease that resulted in fewer women being informed regarding the disease.Aim and Objectives: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women attended outpatient clinics with Family Medicine Specialists in Kelantan from June to December 2010.Methods/ Study Design: A total of 448 women from 7 out of 14 clinics run by Specialist with age ranged between 25 and 65 years were selected via systematic random sampling in the ratio of 1:2 based on clinic attendance lists. Excluded were those who illiterate and having psychotic symptoms. All of consented participants were given a set of validated KAP questionnaire to be completed within 15 minutes.Findings: Majority of respondents were Malays with mean age of 39.9 years. Among them, 3.1% were smokers and 41.1% claimed having medical illness, the commonest was obesity (23.6%. About 87% of women knew that smoking is a risk factor. However, less than 20% knew about menopause. More than 80% knew typical symptoms whereas less than half realised atypical symptoms. Less than 20% of them knew the cholesterol risk target. Only 13% of women practiced exercise as required. The mean (SD for knowledge and practice score were 70.6 (13.76 and 63.7(13.59 accordingly. The median (IQR for attitude score was 88.2 (14.71. Thus the good knowledge, attitude and practice score were 55.6%, 55.1 % and 51.1% respectively.Conclusion: A structured educational programme and utilization of available CVD guidelines should be reinforced as a better preventive strategy to overcome this problem.
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria has become a global phenomenon, mainly due to the inappropriate use of antibiotics. There are no studies in Lebanon to assess the public's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of antibiotic usage. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire completed by a random convenience sample of 500 people. Nearly half of the respondents (46.1%) demonstrated moderate knowledge levels, while 40.6% demonstrated moderate attitudes. Although 80.2% knew that antibiotics are anti-bacterial, 73.5% did not know that antibiotics are not anti-viral. Moreover, 68.3% of respondents reported consuming antibiotics 1-3 times per year, while 22.4% consumed antibiotics on their own accord. Approximately 66.7% realized that abusing antibiotics could lead to resistance. Participant knowledge and attitudes were significantly associated with monthly family income, educational level, place of residency, having medical insurance, working in the health sector or having a relative working in the health sector. Nation-wide awareness campaigns targeting susceptible demographics should be initiated. PMID:25154919
Mouhieddine, Tarek H; Olleik, Zeinab; Itani, Muhieddine M; Kawtharani, Soumayah; Nassar, Hussein; Hassoun, Rached; Houmani, Zeinab; Zein, Zeinab El; Fakih, Ramy; Mortada, Ibrahim K; Mohsen, Youssef; Kanafani, Zeina; Tamim, Hani
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatricians are in an ideal position to advise families about the prevention and management of oral diseases in children. The objective of the study was to determine knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding the prevention of oral diseases among pediatricians in Italy. Methods A systematic random sample of 1000 pediatricians received a questionnaire on socio-demographic and practice characteristics; knowledge on risk factors; attitude and practices towards the prevention of oral diseases. Results A total of 507 pediatricians participated. More than half knew the main risk factors for oral diseases and this knowledge was higher in primary care pediatricians (p = 0.007, in those with a higher number of hours worked per week (p = 0.012, and who believed that oral diseases may be prevented (p = 0.017. Pediatricians with higher knowledge about the main risk factors (p = 0.006 believe that they have an important role in preventing oral diseases and that they can perform an oral examination. Almost all (89% prescribed fluoride supplements and those younger (p = 0.016, with a higher number of patients seen in workday (p = 0.001, with longer practice activity (p = 0.004, those who believe that fluoride is effective in preventing caries (p p = 0.002 were more likely to prescribe fluoride. One-fourth and 40.6% provides and recommends a dental visit once a year and primary care pediatricians (p = 0.014 and those who believed that routine visit is important in preventing oral diseases (p Conclusion The results showed a lack of knowledge among pediatricians although almost all believed that they had an important responsibility in preventing oral diseases and provided an oral examination.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to assess the level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and its risk factors, attitude towards HIV/AIDS and AIDS patients and its transmission and to identify high risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS among university students in Xinjiang. Methodology: A crosssectional survey was conducted among students enrolled in two universities, the Xingjiang University (XU and Xinjiang Medical University (XMU. Data was collected using self-administered standardized questionnaire on attitude and practice regarding HIV/AIDS among 200 students randomly selected students from XU and 200 students from XMU Result: Among the 400 students who participated in the study Overall, the mean knowledge score was 19.3 +5.5. Their knowledge score ranges from 2 to 30. Mean knowledge scores is significantly different by ethnicity, sex, subject major, and year of study in university. Only 33.3% of the respondents had positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS patient. With regards high risk behavior associated with HIV transmission, 15.8% had at least 1 risk behavior related to unprotected sexual exposure Conclusion: HIV/AIDS health education efforts should be intensified in non-medical universities, among female students, first year students and Uyghur and other minorities. About two-thirds of the university students in Xinjiang had negative attitude towards HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS patients. At the same time about 15% of these students reported having at least 1 high risk behavior related to sex and unprotected sex.
To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of physicians regarding the management of medications in Ramadan we used a self-administered questionnaire on a target sample of 381 physicians at Jordan University Hospital, King Abdulla University Hospital and a number of private clinics in Amman, during September and October of 2008. A total of 297 questionnaires were returned. Physicians' KAP about management of medications in Ramadan was generally insufficient. The main factors that affected KAP were age, nationality, specialty, and country and year of last qualification (P practices were in line with religious opinion in regard to which routes of drug administration can nullify fasting, indicating that physicians have adequate knowledge in this area. PMID:24932935
Jaber, D; Albsoul-Younes, A; Wazaify, M
In an effort to improve intervention strategies, community knowledge, attitudes, and practices on schistosomiasis were evaluated using focus group discussions involving 237 participants, in eight Schistosoma mansoni high prevalence districts in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya. The majority of participants reported having heard about schistosomiasis through schools, posters, radio announcements, and community gatherings. Participants had a variety of beliefs about contracting schistosomiasis, including associating it with dirty drinking water and uncooked or contaminated food. Avenues for seeking treatment included health centers, spiritual intervention, herbal treatments, and medicine shops, with health centers receiving the most mention. Barriers to schistosomiasis control included attitudes of community members toward the infection, especially misconceptions that lead to stigma and the perception that diagnosis and treatment are expensive. Schools were the most common avenue for receiving information, suggesting that the existing education infrastructure can be used for health education and improved sensitization about schistosomiasis control programs. PMID:24534810
Musuva, Rosemary M; Awiti, Alphonce; Omedo, Martin; Ogutu, Michael; Secor, W Evan; Montgomery, Susan P; Alaii, Jane; Mwinzi, Pauline N M
This study was conducted to determine the nutritional knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of male and female bodybuilding trainers in Ahwaz, one of the 7 major cities of Iran. KAP questionnaires which contained information about nutrients, food groups, using of supplements and ergogenic aids, were completed by trainers. Sixty three certified male bodybuilding trainers (37.9 ? 2.7 y) and 30 certified female trainers (37.3 ? 8.1 y) were recruited from all clubs of the city. All of the ...
Seyed Mohamad Hosein Mosavi Jazayeri; Reza Amani
A study of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) among rural migrants was conducted in Shanghai, China. An anonymous questionnaire was administered face-to-face. Among 2,690 participants, 78% reported having had lifetime sexual intercourse with 41.3% of singles reporting sexual intercourse, 9.2% having had multiple sex partners in the past year, only 19% of the participants always using condoms whereas 61.6% did not use in their sexual acts in ...
He, Na; Zhang, Jinling; Yao, Jinjian; Tian, Xiuhong; Zhao, Genming; Jiang, Qingwu; Detels, Roger
The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey.
Demaio, Alessandro R; Dugee, Otgontuya
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that is underreported in many countries, including Trinidad and Tobago, because of a low level of awareness of the disease. A knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) survey concerning leptospirosis was carried out on 800 households throughout Trinidad to determine the level of awareness of the disease in the country. Of the participants, 52.4% had heard of leptospirosis but approximately half of these did not know any signs or symptoms of the disease. Knowledge of leptospirosis was not related to level of education of people, but to geographical location. Approximately 82% of participants were involved in at least one risk activity, the most common of which was walking barefooted outdoors. The animal which most participants were in contact with was the dog. Of the 53% of participants who had seen a mouse or rat around the house, 5% utilized the free control services of the regional corporation. Approximately 66% of participants were not satisfied with the services provided by the regional corporation. There was a positive attitude towards general health and good sanitary practices among the Trinidad population, but there was also a lack of knowledge of leptospirosis. The low level of awareness of leptospirosis in Trinidad makes it a disease of public health importance, as it is often mistaken for dengue which is more well-known in the country. PMID:24038186
Mohan, Andrea R M; Chadee, Dave D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead is a highly toxic and pervasive metal. Chronic exposure to low levels is responsible for significant health effects, particularly in children. Prevention remains the best option for reducing childhood lead exposure, however the knowledge, attitudes and practices to lead exposure in many developing countries is not known. Methods: We conducted four focus group discussions (FGD to evaluate knowledge attitudes and practices to lead exposure in Nigeria. An FGD guide was developed from the literature and preliminary discussion with members of the public. Participants in the FGD were randomly selected from adults living in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria in 2004. Results We found that there was limited awareness of the sources of lead exposure in the domestic environment and participants had little knowledge of the health effects of chronic low-dose lead exposure. Conclusion We conclude that the findings of this study should be used, in conjunction with others, to develop appropriate health education intervention for lead exposure in the domestic environment.
Sridhar Mynepalli KC
Full Text Available It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27 in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27 of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective screen-and-treat programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population.
It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27) in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27) of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective "screen-and-treat" programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population. PMID:25390794
Zahedi, Leilah; Sizemore, Emma; Malcolm, Stuart; Grossniklaus, Emily; Nwosu, Oguchi
Full Text Available Traffic accidents compromises a large quantity of peoples annually, and is one of the most important causes of death in Iran. Human factors are amongst of the most leading causes of traffic accident mortality and morbidity and this study is conducted to evaluate the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of drivers regarding driving laws in Tehran. Two hundred and twenty drivers were selected randomly in this cross sectional study. Cluster sampling with 10 participant in each cluster was used for selection of participants. 22 points were defined using a random sample of telephone numbers. Distribution points was such as one point were selected in each zone of municipality zones. Ten consecutive drivers passing the specified point were interviewed by an interviewer and a senior officer of Traffic Control Organization of Tehran was responsible for assessment of practices. Reliability of questionnaire was evaluated using alpha chronbach coefficient and construct validity was assessed by Principal component Analysis method. Chi square and odds ratio (OR were used for assessment of relation between qualitative variables, when appropriate. Two hundred and twenty drivers were recruited in this study. Suitable Knowledge, Attitude and practice were seen in 67.7, 56.4 and 47.7 percent of respondents respectively. When adjusted using logistic regression analysis, we did not observe any relation between these three variables. There was a significant relation between knowledge and age; and also between practice and education, marital status, occupation and type of automobile. We conclude that practice of drivers of Tehran are weak regarding traffic laws and there is an emergent need for research and intervention in this regard.
The authors describe the development and administration of a substance use attitudes questionnaire to social work students and clinicians, physician assistant students and practitioners, and medical interns. The general purpose for the Attitudes Survey was to collect baseline data regarding past training, current attitudes, beliefs, practices, and
Alexander, Dale; Waters, Vicki; McQueen, Katie; Basinger, Scott
This study was undertaken in Mpwapwa District in Central Zone of Tanzania between July to August, 2009 to assess knowledge, attitude and practice towards modern contraceptives among married women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Specific objectives of the study were to ascertain knowledge and attitude towards modern contraceptives, to determine the extent of use of modern contraceptives and identify factors associated with current use of modern contraceptive in the study population. Study d...
Lwelamira, J.; Mnyamagola, G.; Msaki, M. M.
The purpose of this study was to assess, by means of a self administered structured questionnaire, the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of physical education teachers in Bangalore city with regards to emergency management of dental injuries. The questionnaire surveyed the physical education teacher?s background, knowledge of management of tooth fracture, avulsion, luxation injuries, it also investigated physical education teacher?s attitude and the way they handle the i...
Mohandas U; Chandan G
Background: School teachers by virtue of their training can influence a large number of children thereby play major role in the planning and implementation of oral health preventive programs. Hence, this study was undertaken with the objective of assessing the knowledge, attitude and practice of school teachers towards oral health. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey conducted among school teachers of the city of Pondicherry. A structured questionnaire was used and 212 teachers were assessed on their knowledge on oral health, attitude and practice regarding their personal oral health, attitude regarding oral health of children and status of oral health education at the schools. All data collected was entered into SPSS version 21.0. Results: Around 47% of the participants felt that bacteria and sugar are the main causes of dental caries, while 42% felt that plaque and calculus are the main agents for periodontal disease. Around 82.5% teachers brushed twice daily. However, only 32% felt it is necessary to visit dentist regularly. While 86% of the teachers felt that childrens teeth should be checked by dentist, only 51% agreed that it is their duty to impart oral health education to the students. Conclusion: The knowledge regarding oral health among school teachers was fair. Oral Health education must be imparted to preschool and primary school teachers as a part of National Oral Health care Program on a regular basis and further studies must be done to assess their awareness levels and make the necessary changes in further education modules. PMID:25302258
P., Sivsankar; M.A., Easwaran; L., Subitha; N., Bharath; K., Rajeswary; S., Jeyalakshmi
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Jordan, as in neighboring countries in the Middle East, higher education and higher employment rates in recent years among women have had an impact on traditionally based infant feeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate practice, knowledge and attitude to breastfeeding and to assess factors associated with breastfeeding among women in the north of Jordan. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out between 15 July 2003 and 15 August 2003. A total of 344 women with children aged between 6 months and 3 years from five different villages in the north of Jordan were randomly selected and interviewed. Information regarding participants' demographics, infant feeding in first six months of life, knowledge and attitude towards breastfeeding was collected. Results Full breastfeeding was reported by 58.3%, mixed feeding was reported by 30.3% and infant formula feeding was reported by 11.4%. Almost one third of the full breastfeeding group did so for 612 months, and almost two thirds did continue breastfeeding for more than one year. Employed women were more likely not to practice full breastfeeding compared to unemployed women (odds ratio 3.34, 95% CI 1.60, 6.98, and women who had caesarian delivery were more likely not to practice full breastfeeding compared to those who had vaginal delivery (odds ratio 2.36, 95% CI 1.17, 4.78. Jordanian women had a positive attitude but work place and short maternity leaves had a negative impact on breastfeeding. Conclusion This study showed that a high proportion of Jordanian women did breastfeed for more than one year. However, working women and those who deliver by caesarean section were less likely to breastfeed. It is speculated that adopting facilitatory measures at hospitals and work place could increase the rate of full breastfeeding.
Full Text Available Background: Adrenal insufficiency is a common occurrence in the critically ill and it is essential that intensivists and endocrinologists involved in the care of these patients have a good understanding of the concepts related to this condition. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices about adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill among the endocrinologists and intensivists practicing in the city of Chennai. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires containing ten questions pertaining to adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill were sent to a total of six endocrinologists and 52 intensivists practicing in Chennai. Results: About 77% of all the respondents agreed to the fact that adrenal insufficiency is a frequent occurrence in critical illness. But 57% of them felt that there is no need for routine evaluation of critically ill patients for adrenal insufficiency. Random serum cortisol was selected by 62% of the responders as the method for evaluating adrenal function in the critically ill. There is clearly no agreement among the endocrinologists or the intensivists on the various cut off levels for diagnosis. Neither is there a clear consensus on the method followed for treatment of patients with adrenal insufficiency in the critical care unit. Conclusion: There is no concordance in the knowledge, attitudes or practices on adrenal insufficiency in the critically ill among the endocrinologists and intensivists in Chennai. There is a need for developing standard diagnostic and treatment guidelines and making it available for all the practicing endocrinologists and intensivists.
Full Text Available As a person gets older he/she is prone to many diseases. Among them diabetes mellitus is most prevalent. Diabetes is the major threat to the growing elderly population, the existence of this condition markedly increases multi-systemic complications. Hence the study on knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP in the management of diabetes among elderly people was envisioned. The study was conducted with an objective to study the KAP in the management of diabetes among elderly people. A total sample of 1200, constituting of 600 men and 600 women, between the age group of 65-76 years were randomly selected from 30 areas of urban Bangalore. A Structured Interview Schedule (SIS developed by the investigators to study the KAP in the management of diabetes among elderly. The obtained data was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis by applying percentage analysis, chi-square and 't' test. The results showed moderate knowledge, fair attitude and not so good practice in the management of diabetes among the respondents.
Roopa, K. S
Background: Community pharmacies are now frequently being visited by customers/patients to seek oral advice. Malaysian community pharmacists are also found to be experiencing an increased demand of oral health advices by their visiting customers. Aims/Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the knowledge, attitude, and practice of the final year Bachelor of Pharmacy students in a private university toward oral health, as these students will be the future pharmacists. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among final year undergraduate pharmacy students by using self-administered questionnaire. It was conducted as a classroom survey. Raosoft software was used to determine the minimum required sample size. Results: The demographic distribution of the respondents was separated into gender, ethnicity, and state of origin. Over 83.8% of the participants were females, with Chinese ethnicity dominating (78.4%) compared to others, and the distribution showed 11 different states of origin. Conclusions: This research finding shows that pharmacy students have positive attitude toward oral health despite having poor knowledge and mediocre practice principles regarding oral health. PMID:25452930
Rajiah, Kingston; Ving, Chow Jun
This study assessed knowledge, attitudes and practices of health-care providers towards waste management at Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt. In this cross-sectional study 110 physicians, 151 nurses and 89 housekeepers were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Housekeepers were significantly more knowledgeable than physicians or nurses about hospital policies and systems for waste disposal, but less so about specific details of disposal. Housekeepers also had the highest overall scores for attitudes to waste disposal among the 3 groups. Significantly more nurses had satisfactory practice scores (84.0%) than did physicians (67.3%) (housekeepers were not assessed). Training and duration of work experience were not significantly associated with knowledge, attitude and practice scores, except for nurses with longer work experience, who were more likely to have satisfactory knowledge about waste disposal than less experienced nurses. PMID:24952293
Hakim, S A; Mohsen, A; Bakr, I
Full Text Available Background: Epilepsy, one of the most common serious chronic brain disorders, is poorly understood by the public and has been associated with numerous misconceptions and beliefs. This, coupled with its sometimes dramatic clinical manifestations, has often resulted in a strong social stigma.Objective: This study was conducted to find out knowledge, attitudes and practices toward epilepsy among preparatory school students in Mekelle, North Ethiopia.Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire used previously by various authors was self-administered to 391 students studying in four preparatory schools in Mekelle, North Ethiopia.Results: About 85.7% had heard about epilepsy, 19.23% had read on the subject, 67.03% had known someone with epilepsy and 57.14% had witnessed a seizure. Those who would offer equal employment opportunities to people with epilepsy (PWE, refuse to associate with, or refuse to marry PWE represented 64%, 16.8%, and 44.8%, respectively. Negative attitudes seemed to be reinforced by beliefs that epilepsy is evil spirit (33.24%, contagious (28.6% or a kind of insanity (51.6%. Majority of respondents (70.33% opted for Holy water, followed by physicians (64.01%, traditional healer (44.78% and prayers (32.14%.Conclusions: The study revealed practices and knowledge toward epilepsy were limited, especially with respect to epilepsys cause, manifestation, and management. Moreover, there were statistically significant differences between respondents attitude with respect to epilepsy based on age, gender, level of education, religion and school category.
Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is considered as the most economical and easily accessible complete nutrition for every new born child. Knowledge, attitude and practices associated with infant feeding forms an essential need felt for the intervention program designed to bring about positive behavioural change in infant health. Objective: to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of infant feeding among infant mothers. Methodology: This is community based cross-sectional study conducted in Vantamuri PHC area with the sample size of 401mothers. Percentage and chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis. Results: In this study, only 9.23% of mothers had good knowledge about infant feeding while majority of mothers (79.05% had average knowledge. Others had poor knowledge about the same. 22.44% of mothers had highly positive attitude towards infant feeding while majority (59.6% had average attitude. 17.96% of mothers had poor attitude towards the same. Regarding practice, 13.97% of mothers did good practice, 7.73% of mothers practiced negatively and majority (78.3% were on an average. Conclusion: The breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and practices about infant feeding are suboptimal among infant mothers and those who were well informed, do not practice it willingly.
Baburaddi M. Kengalagutti
Full Text Available Abstract Background Late presentation of patients at advanced stages when little or no benefit can be derived from any form of therapy is the hallmark of breast cancer in Nigerian women. Recent global cancer statistics indicate rising global incidence of breast cancer and the increase is occurring at a faster rate in populations of the developing countries that hitherto enjoyed low incidence of the disease. Worried by this prevailing situation and with recent data suggesting that health behavior may be influenced by level of awareness about breast cancer, a cross-sectional study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of community-dwelling women in Nigeria towards breast cancer. Methods One thousand community-dwelling women from a semi-urban neighborhood in Nigeria were recruited for the study in January and February 2000 using interviewer-administered questionnaires designed to elicit sociodemographic information and knowledge, attitude and practices of these women towards breast cancer. Data analysis was carried out using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS version 8.2. Results Study participants had poor knowledge of breast cancer. Mean knowledge score was 42.3% and only 214 participants (21.4% knew that breast cancer presents commonly as a painless breast lump. Practice of breast self examination (BSE was low; only 432 participants (43.2% admitted to carrying out the procedure in the past year. Only 91 study participants (9.1% had clinical breast examination (CBE in the past year. Women with higher level of education (X2 = 80.66, p 2 = 47.11, p Conclusion The results of this study suggest that community-dwelling women in Nigeria have poor knowledge of breast cancer and minority practice BSE and CBE. In addition, education appears to be the major determinant of level of knowledge and health behavior among the study participants. We recommend the establishment and sustenance of institutional framework and policy guidelines that will enhance adequate and urgent dissemination of information about breast cancer to all women in Nigeria.
Okonofua Friday E
Full Text Available An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1 associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05 more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure.
Anne M. Riederer
The aim of this study was to propose an alternative approach to traditional knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) studies to enhance the quality of data on which educational health programmes are based. The methodology proposed and illustrated involved a triangulation of approaches derived from linguistics, cognitive science, and medical laboratory sciences. Three diarrhoeal health talks (educational messages) as given to mothers in three primary-care facilities in Borno State (Northeast Nigeria) were subjected to a linguistics analysis. Relationships were then sought between the ontology of knowledge in the health talks as revealed by the text analysis and two other kinds of data, namely: (a) mothers' answers to a set of ecologically-sensitive reasoning questions that test how much relevant inferential knowledge the health talks allow for and (b) results of microbiological and biochemical analyses of salt-sugar rehydration solutions prepared by mothers participating in the study. The findings of the study show a relationship between contents/formatting of the health talks and the extent to which relevant inferential competence was supported or demonstrated by mothers. It was also evident that the laboratory analyses could be related either directly to the health talks or indirectly in terms of what the health talks need to emphasize on. The conclusion shows how the methodology proposed addresses shortcomings of traditional KAP studies in respect of the gap between health knowledge and practice. PMID:13677440
Antia, B E; Omotara, B A; Rabasa, A I; Addy, E O; Tomfafi, O A A; Anaso, C C
Full Text Available Background: Healthcare-associated tuberculosis (TB has become a major occupational hazard for healthcare workers (HCWs. HCWs are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Whenever there is a possibility of exposure, implementation of infection prevention and control (IPC practices is critical. Objective: Following a high incidence of TB among HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital in Lesotho, a study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of HCWs regarding healthcare-associated TB infection and infection controls. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed in June 2011; it involved HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital who were involved with patients and/or sputum. Stratified sampling of 140 HCWs was performed, of whom, 129 (92.0% took part. A self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was used. Results: Most respondents (89.2% had appropriate knowledge of transmission, diagnosis and prevention of TB; however, only 22.0% of the respondents knew the appropriate method of sputum collection. All of the respondents (100.0% were motivated and willing to implement IPC measures. A significant proportion of participants (36.4% reported poor infection control practices, with the majority of inappropriate practices being the administrative infection controls (> 80.0%. Only 38.8% of the participants reported to be using the appropriate N-95 respirator. Conclusion: Poor infection control practices regarding occupational TB exposure were demonstrated, the worst being the first-line administrative infection controls. Critical knowledge gaps were identified; however, there was encouraging willingness by HCWs to adapt to recommended infection control measures. Healthcare workers are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Implementation of infection prevention and control practices is critical whenever there is a possibility of exposure.
Lesley T. Bhebhe
Abstract Although the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months, only 14.6% of babies born in the District of Columbia (DC) reached this goal. Breastfeeding support from providers has been shown to increase exclusive breastfeeding. We aim (1) to describe breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes, (2) to determine the presence of breastfeeding in routine prenatal discussions, and (3) to determine the knowledge of facility adoption of the Perinatal Care (PC) Core Measure Set among DC ACOG members. A survey sent to DC ACOG members assessed knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to breastfeeding and evaluated participants' barriers to breastfeeding counseling, management of breastfeeding challenges, and awareness of facility adoption of the PC Core Measure Set. All 29 respondents reported breastfeeding as the best infant nutrition and that physicians should encourage breastfeeding. However, despite 75% reporting counseling most of their patients regarding breastfeeding, only 27% reported that most of their patients were breastfeeding at the postpartum visit. Participants scored 83% correct on knowledge-based questions. Perceived barriers to breastfeeding counseling included lack of time (66%), reimbursement (10%), and competence in managing breastfeeding problems (7%). Most respondents were unsure of both adoption of, and breastfeeding data collection for, the PC Core Measure Set (52% and 55%, respectively). Participants had knowledge gaps and identified barriers to discussing breastfeeding. There was limited awareness of hospital data collection about breastfeeding. These results indicate a need for more breastfeeding education among DC obstetricians-gynecologists and better outreach about the PC Core Measure Set. PMID:25389912
Sims, Alexandra M; Long, Sahira A; Tender, Jennifer A F; Young, Michal A
Background: The school oral health education program is believed to be a cost-effective method for promoting oral health. The KAP (knowledgeattitudepractice) model of oral health education is often the foundation of most health education programs. Objectives: To assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and oral health care practices among 11- to 13-year-old children and the association of knowledge with attitude, oral health care practices, and dental caries prevalence. Design: Cross-se...
Sanskriti Khanal; Ramya Shenoy; Arathi Rao; Baranya Shrikrishna Suprabha
Dengue fever (DF) is an acute febrile disease, caused by infection of dengue virus transmitted by the female Aedes mosquito. This is the second leading cause of deaths in Champasack Province, where Pakse district has the highest number of this outbreak. This cross-sectional study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of people regarding dengue disease in 9 villages of the Pakse district from July to September 2006. Purposive sampling was done to collect data from 230 subjects. They had a fair knowledge about the vector 163 (70.9%). For 101 (43.9%) respondents, their main source of information about dengue was their friends or relatives. It is encouraging that 217 (94.3%) respondents had a positive attitude that DF can be treated, and that 222 (96.5%) knew they should visit a doctor when they suffer from it. About 196 (85.2%) people stored water at home but infrequently changed it. The study indicated that the community was quite familiar with Dengue, but that there was some confusion about vaccination and water storage for domestic use. Dengue awareness activity should be included at the school and college level. Radio and television should play an important role in conveying health information to the public, and regular visits of health personnel to the villagers should be ensured. PMID:19358473
Nalongsack, Soodsada; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Morita, Satoshi; Sosouphanh, Keo; Sakamoto, Junichi
Full Text Available Background: Considering the significant role of consumers awareness about food labels in making healthy food choices, this study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and prac-tice of university students about food labeling.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 332 students aged 18-25 yr in five different academic ma-jors (including Nutrition, Public Health, Health Services Administration, Paramedical and En-gineering were asked to complete an approved questionnaire contained fifteen questions. The chi-square test was applied to examine the differences across various major groups.Results: 89.2% of the students believed that food labels had effect on nutritional awareness. 77.4% were agreed with the usefulness of the food labels and 79.2% did not feel that nutrition claims on food label were truthful. For 84% of students, the expiry date and storage conditions information were the most important informational cues to appear on the food labels. From 47.6% of students who reported the use of nutrition facts label in their often or always shopping; only 32.3% used the information on labels to fit the food into their daily diet. Surprisingly, fatty acids were the least noteworthy items (1.9% on nutrition facts labels. Regarding students major, there was significant difference in their knowledge, attitude and practice about truth of the nutri-tion claims, using food labels and importance of health claims (P<0.05.Conclusion: Food labels were more useful tools for students and had an effect on their nutri-tional awareness. Designing and implementation of the educational programs in order to increase the level of knowledge about food labels is suggested.
Aida Malek Mahdavi
Detection of probable harmful consequences arised from the usage of pharmaceutical products requires decisive, continuous and close monitoring by medical staff whom should have knowledge of adverse drug reactions and they should also have to report any suspected instances, when any kind of adverse drug reactions have been observed. This study has been carried out on the knowledge, attitude and practice of nurses towards pharmacovigilance in the Taleqani medical, teaching and treatment center in Tehran, before and after an ADR educational program. This study was commenced in March 2005 and ended in October 2005, using a questionnaire through two steps. In every step, 150 questionnaires were distributed in various wards of the Taleqani Hospital. Collected data were entered into the Excel software and then data analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. Familiarity of nurses with the ADR center and its duties is the first step in training how to report ADR, and could help to enhance thire awareness. The use of lecture training for increasing the awareness of nurses was found to be very effective. Regression multivariable analyses showed that the knowledge of nurses, regarding previous familiarity with the ADR center is better than the others (r = 0.38, P = 0.01), and the attitude of female nurses is better than males (r = 0.27, P = 0.01). According to the statistical results, the knowledge of nurses before the seminar was significantly less than the knowledge after the seminar (P= 0.0001), but there was no significant effect on the attitude (P= 0.05). Regarding the submission place of ADR reports, only 3.4% of nurses pointed out to the ADR center. Before and after training, a limited duration of time was reported to be the most restricted factor for clinical recognition of adverse drugs. Based on the results of this study, it is necessary to offer continuous ADR educational program until we reach the point that voluntary reporting of adverse drug reactions becomes conventional and habitual among the nursing staff. PMID:24363728
Hajebi, Giti; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Zian, Aed
In Italy since 2007 vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is offered to 11-year-old females, whereas vaccination for older age groups is still a matter of debate. To assess Italian young women's knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention a cross-sectional study among young women aged 18-26 years was conducted in 2008. The survey collected information on in-depth awareness and knowledge regarding Pap testing, HPV infection, HPV vaccine and cervical cancer. The response rate was 57.7% with a wide range of variability (34-84%) amongst local health units. Among 667 women who participated in the survey poor awareness and various misconceptions regarding HPV and cervical cancer prevention were detected. Overall women were found to be more knowledgeable about Pap smears and cervical cancer than about HPV infection and the HPV vaccine. Respondents pointed to their healthcare providers as their most trusted source for medical information. Understanding women's knowledge on cervical cancer prevention, as well as related factors is important in helping to achieve and maintain adherence to cervical cancer preventive strategies. Moreover in order to minimize cervical cancer risk by improving women's adherence to preventive strategies, appropriate and adequate information dissemination, and guidance from health professionals appear to be crucial elements. PMID:22300719
Donati, Serena; Giambi, Cristina; Declich, Silvia; Salmaso, Stefania; Filia, Antonietta; Ciofi degli Atti, Marta Luisa; Alibrandi, Maria Pia; Brezzi, Silvia; Carozzi, Francesca; Collina, Natalina; Franchi, Daniela; Lattanzi, Amedeo; Meda, Margherita; Minna, Maria Carmela; Nannini, Roberto; Gallicchio, Giuseppina; Bella, Antonino
"nBackground and Aims: Fissure sealant therapy is a national program in elementary schools in Iran. Therefore, evaluation of the parents' knowledge and attitude is necessary to improve the program."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study, Iranian students were chosen in a randomized cluster manner. The questionnaires were filled-out by students' parents to evaluate their general information, knowledge, and attitude. Moreover, students...
Golestan B.; Amir Soltani M; Jafari A; Bahrami N
Full Text Available High salt intake is important risk factor for hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice regarding salt intake in rural population in continental Croatia. Data were obtained by standardized questionnaire in 928 adult subjects (586 women and 342 men. Results have shown low level of awareness (~60% of salt risk. Women were more aware about the harmful effects of salt and could identify some food with higher concentration of salt. Participants were not aware through which food is the highest salt intake. Our results urge the need for national projects and public health campaigns that would raise the awareness of salt intake, need for health education particularly for rural population. Food industry and nutritionists should become partners in this initiative.
This case-control study aimed to assess tuberculosis (TB) awareness and its associated sociodemographic characteristics in Gezira, Sudan. New smear-positive TB patients registered in Gezira in 2010 (n = 425) and age-matched controls who attended the same health facilities for other reasons (n = 850) formed the study sample. Awareness was measured using a modified standard World Health Organization TB knowledge, attitude and practice instrument. There was no significant difference between TB cases and the controls in overall levels of TB awareness. About two-thirds of TB cases and controls had good TB awareness. Respondents' sex was associated with awareness among the controls. Age, level of education, type of residence and type of occupation were significantly associated with TB awareness, whereas marital status had no effect. The good level of TB awareness found among TB cases and controls is a baseline for further TB awareness-raising among the Gezira population.
Suleiman, M M A; Sahal, N
A baseline assessment of tuberculosis infection control (TB IC) knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) was conducted among staff in a resource-limited rural South African hospital where nosocomially transmitted multi- and extensively drug-resistant (M/XDR) TB had been reported. Assessment consisted of anonymous questionnaires and direct observation during July-September 2007, soon after the report of M/XDR-TB. Data were obtained from 57 questionnaires and 10h of direct observation. While knowledge and attitudes were generally supportive of TB IC implementation, 49.1% of staff felt that the hospital did not care about them and/or was not working to prevent staff TB infections, and 42.9% were less willing to continue as a healthcare worker because of staff TB/MDR-TB/XDR-TB deaths. Practices were variable. The recent appointment of an IC officer and implementation of natural ventilation were strengths, but the facility lacked a TB IC policy, the patient TB screening process was inadequate, and 41.5% of respondents were unaware of their personal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status. Respondents reported a number of barriers to TB IC implementation such as concerns about the confidentiality of staff health information, the stigma of TB and HIV, inadequate resources, and patient non-compliance. Assessment of staff KAP provided useful data regarding deficits and barriers to TB IC, and helped to focus subsequent IC strategies. Given the critical importance of reducing nosocomial TB transmission, it is recommended that facilities should conduct simplified TB IC assessment, ensure the confidentiality of staff health information, address the stigma of TB/HIV, and implement multi-faceted TB IC facility and behavioural change interventions. Behavioural science methods have the potential to improve TB IC research and implementation. PMID:21978608
Kanjee, Z; Catterick, K; Moll, A P; Amico, K R; Friedland, G H
Background To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. Methods Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.15 and associations were tested using the Pearson's Chi square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of knowledge status and motivation of organ donation. Results Knowledge about organ donation was significantly associated with education (p = 0.000) and socioeconomic status (p = 0.038). 70/198 (35.3%) people expressed a high motivation to donate. Allowance of organ donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate (p = 0.000). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant (p < 0.05) independent predictors of knowledge status of organ donation. For motivation, multiple logistic regression revealed that higher socioeconomic status, adequate knowledge score and belief that organ donation is allowed in religion were significant (p < 0.05) independent predictors. Television emerged as the major source of information. Only 3.5% had themselves donated an organ; with only one person being an actual kidney donor. Conclusion Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures should be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars. PMID:19534793
Saleem, Taimur; Ishaque, Sidra; Habib, Nida; Hussain, Syedda Saadia; Jawed, Areeba; Khan, Aamir Ali; Ahmad, Muhammad Imran; Iftikhar, Mian Omer; Mughal, Hamza Pervez; Jehan, Imtiaz
Background Dengue fever (DF) is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. In this decade it has expanded to new countries and from urban to rural areas. Nepal was regarded DF free until 2004. Since then dengue virus (DENV) has rapidly expanded its range even in mountain regions of Nepal, and major outbreaks occurred in 2006 and 2010. However, no data on the local knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of DF in Nepal exist although such information is required for prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a community based cross-sectional survey in five districts of central Nepal between September 2011 and February 2012. We collected information on the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants and their knowledge, attitude and practice regarding DF using a structured questionnaire. We then statistically compared highland and lowland communities to identify possible causes of observed differences. Principal Findings Out of 589 individuals interviewed, 77% had heard of DF. Only 12% of the sample had good knowledge of DF. Those living in the lowlands were five times more likely to possess good knowledge than highlanders (P<0.001). Despite low knowledge levels, 83% of the people had good attitude and 37% reported good practice. We found a significantly positive correlation among knowledge, attitude and practice (P<0.001). Among the socio-demographic variables, the education level of the participants was an independent predictor of practice level (P<0.05), and education level and interaction between the sex and age group of the participants were independent predictors of attitude level (P<0.05). Conclusion Despite the rapid expansion of DENV in Nepal, the knowledge of people about DF was very low. Therefore, massive awareness programmes are urgently required to protect the health of people from DF and to limit its further spread in this country. PMID:25007284
Dhimal, Meghnath; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Dhimal, Mandira Lamichhane; Gautam, Ishan; Singh, Shanker Pratap; Bhusal, Chop Lal; Kuch, Ulrich
Contraceptive use and fertility rates vary substantially among developing countries. In some sub-Saharan African countries, fewer than 10% of married women use contraception. Despite all efforts by governments to ensure availability of the products, prevalence has remained low. We conducted a community-based study to examine contraceptive knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among married women in Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to study 200 women in Samaru community of Zaria, Nigeria. Mean age of the respondents was 30.6 +/- 1.5 years. In this study contraceptive prevalence was 12.5% and respondents had a positive attitude towards family planning. Thirty years after Alma Ata of which one of the components is to ensure maternal and child health (MCH) and family planning, contraceptive use in most of the communities in Northern Nigeria is low. There is urgent need to step-up public awareness campaigns on family planning to ensure wide spread acceptability and utilization among women within reproductive age group. PMID:22066332
Aliyu, A A; Shehu, A U; Sambo, M N; Sabitu, K
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) due to Leishmania (V.) braziliensis are endemic in Paraguay. We performed a series of knowledge, attitudes, and practice (KAP) surveys simultaneously with individuals in endemic communities in San Pedro department (n = 463), health professionals (n = 25), and patients (n = 25). Results showed that communities were exposed to high risk factors for transmission of L. braziliensis. In logistic regression analysis, age was the only factor independently associated with having seen a CL/MCL lesion (P = 0.002). The pervasive attitude in communities was that CL was not a problem. Treatment seeking was often delayed, partly due to secondary costs, and inappropriate remedies were applied. Several important cost-effective measures are indicated that may improve control of CL. Community awareness could be enhanced through existing community structures. Free supply of specific drugs should continue but ancillary support could be considered. Health professionals require routine and standardised provision of diagnosis and treatment algorithms for CL and MCL. During treatment, all patients could be given simple information to increase awareness in the community. PMID:23690792
Ruoti, Mónica; Oddone, Rolando; Lampert, Nathalie; Orué, Elizabeth; Miles, Michael A; Alexander, Neal; Rehman, Andrea M; Njord, Rebecca; Shu, Stephanie; Brice, Susannah; Sinclair, Bryony; Krentel, Alison
This study examined the knowledge, attitude and practice of private medical practitioners in Calabar on abortion, post-abortion case and post-abortion family planning. Forty eight private practitioners who were proprietors of private clinics in the city were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The results showed that 22.9% of the doctors routinely terminate unwanted pregnancies when requested to do so by women, while 83.3% of them treat women who experience complications of unsafe abortion. The major reasons given by some of the doctors for not terminating unwanted pregnancies were religious, moral and ethical considerations rather than respect for the Nigerian abortion law. Only 18.2% of the doctors use standard procedures such as manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) for the management of patients with abortion and abortion complications. A good number of them did not routinely practice integrated post-abortion family planning and STDs management. There is need for a comprehensive programme of retraining of private medical practitioners in Calabar on the principles and practices of safe abortion, post-abortion care and family planning. These aspects of reproductive health need to be integrated into the medical training curricula in Nigeria. It is believed that this approach would help reduce the present high rate of abortion-related morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. PMID:15055147
Etuk, S J; Ebong, I F; Okonofua, F E
In June and July 1996, a knowledge, attitude and practice survey concerning seafood poisonings was conducted in Tuléar Province, 41 villages spread along 300 km of cost, with some 34,000 inhabitants, were included in the survey. 84 seafood poisonings after fish, shark and turtle meals occurred during the period 1931 to 1995; 14 of them were responsible of deaths. The family of toxic fishes are Clupeidae, Tetraodontidae, Scaridae and Siganidae. Sphyrna lewini is the shark species the most often responsible for poisonings. Three turtle species are involved in poisonings: Eretmochelys imbricata, Chelonia mydas and Dermochelys coriacea. Clinical patterns were related to marine toxins. Although the communities were aware of the risks, there was no change in seafood meal practice. Preventive measures are not very often used. Practical techniques to detect toxins, although very simple, are not systematically carried out. For a better understanding of the seafood poisoning risk in Madagascar, a retrospective survey in the villages located in coastal areas all around Madagascar was to be carried out in 1997. An eco-toxicological survey will likewise probably be organised in an Indian Ocean regional approach. PMID:10214522
Robinson, R; Champetier de Ribes, G; Ranaivoson, G; Rejely, M; Rabeson, D
Full Text Available Purpose: A lot of accidents occur in the laboratory due to lack of proper knowledge regarding laboratory safety measures, indifferent attitude & improper implementation of safe laboratory practices. In view of this, the present study on knowledge, Attitude & Practice (KAP of laboratory safety measures was carried out among paramedical staff of laboratory services of tertiary care teaching hospital, western India. Method: This was a comparative study which used a standardized, structured self-administered questionnaire to survey knowledge, attitude and practice of paramedical staff. The KAP study enrolled 81 respondents. Results: Regarding knowledge- the majority knew the very important issues related with laboratory safety like Post Exposure Prophylaxis (96.55% & discarding of blood samples (93.10% etc. In regard to attitude towards the scientific process, all are very much aware about importance of protective devices (i.e. Wearing Gloves and Biomedical waste management. In regard to the practice in laboratory, the entire study subject group (100% replied âYESâ in each question that shows the good quality work of the laboratory. Conclusion: The induction training on Laboratory safety is very important and motivating exercise for improving the laboratory safety measures.
Hansa M Goswami, Sumeeta T Soni, Sachin M Patel, Mitesh K Patel
Surveys and observations were undertaken in selected primary schools in Ghana to determine whether principals' and teachers' attitudes towards and knowledge of inclusive education, as well as principals' expectations of teachers in implementing inclusion, were predictors of effective teaching practices in their classrooms. The sample of 128
Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa; Desai, Ishwar
Objective: Active involvement by parents may contribute substantially to the success of school-based programs to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA). In China, little is known about parental understanding of CSA. This study investigated Chinese parents' knowledge, attitudes, and communication practices with their children about CSA. Method: Six
Chen, JingQi; Dunne, Michael P.; Han, Ping
Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.
Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca
The objective of this pilot study was to assess and describe changes in knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding influenza vaccination in an inner city setting using an interactive computer-based educational program. A convenience sample of ninety participants whose children were in the age group of 6 months to 5 years was enrolled in this
Joshi, Ashish; Lichenstein, Richard; King, James; Arora, Mohit; Khan, Salwa
Dengue fever is a major public health problem in Malaysia. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever among a selected population in Malaysia. A descriptive, community-based, cross sectional study was conducted with 300 participants from three different geographical settings in urban, semi-urban, and rural areas within the states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever. Mean age of respondents was 34.4 (+/- 5.7) years, and the age ranged from 18 to 65 years. The majority of respondents were married (54.7%), Malays (72.7%) and heard about dengue fever (89.7%). Television was the common source of information about dengue fever (97.0%). Participants answered 4 out of 15 items of knowledge incorrectly. There was no significant association between knowledge score and socio-demographic factors. About one-fifth of the respondents (24%) believed that immediate treatment is not necessary for dengue fever, and the majority of them were not afraid of the disease (96.0%). Attitudes toward dengue fever were significantly associated with the level of education and employment status (p dengue fever (p = 0.030). There is a need to increase health promotion activities through campaigns and social mobilization to increase knowledge regarding dengue fever. This would help to mold positive attitudes and cultivate better preventive practices among the public to eliminate dengue in the country. PMID:23682436
Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Mohanad Rahman, Alwan; Alshagga, Mustafa Ahmed; Saif-Ali, Riyadh
Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding rabies in Bohol, Philippines were assessed following introduction of the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Programme. A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 460 households chosen utilizing the WHO's Expanded Programme on Immunization coverage cluster survey technique with population proportionate to size. Scores for KAP were evaluated using linear regression. The majority of households had heard of rabies (94%); however, specific knowledge of rabies was limited. Only 18% knew to report a suspected rabid dog to the authorities. In multivariate analyses, having known someone with rabies had the greatest effect on knowledge scores. Employment (professional or non-professional) had the greatest effect on attitudes scores, and only the knowledge score was significantly associated with higher practices scores. Several factors, notably, personal experience with rabies, affect KAP in Bohol. The programme should continue to focus on education and include personal accounts to underscore why rabies prevention and control is so important. PMID:24093635
Davlin, S L; Lapiz, S M; Miranda, M E; Murray, K O
Full Text Available Background /Objective: Sixty percent of all smokers in the United States (U.S. try smoking cigarettes before they are 18 years old. Family and peer behavior (subjective norm, and attitude may influence young people to initiate smoking. The aims of this study were to 1 determine if attitude, subjective norm, and knowledge could predict smoking behaviors; 2 identify reasons for smoking; 3 determine if there were differences in attitudes toward smoking between smokers and non-smokers; and 4 determine smokers intent to quit. Methods: The population of interest included individuals age 30 or younger. The instrument, in the form of an online Tobacco Survey, was distributed via email, Facebook®, and other social media. The survey was created on Survey Monkey.com®. Data were collected for nine months and analyzed using SPSS® version 17 for Windows®. Results: Cronbachs alpha for the primary factors were high to adequate, attitude a = .89, knowledge a = .71, and subjective norm a = .67. Results suggested subjective norm and attitude may predict smoking but knowledge was not a predictor. Over 70% of the smokers tried their first cigarette before the age of 18 years. Most reported reasons for smoking were alcohol consumption, smoking with friends in social settings, stress relief, and relaxation. Seventy-five percent of the smokers agreed that smoking was addictive and knowledge was high regarding the hazards of smoking. Less than 50% of the smokers planned to quit within the next year. Conclusions: Tobacco use among adolescents and young adults may be directly influenced by overall attitude and peer and family smoking behaviors. Knowledge of the hazards of smoking does not appear to influence smoking behaviors; therefore it is recommended health care providers, and others in a position to influence young people, focus on changing attitudes about smoking.
Barbara J. Ganley
This study was conducted on prison inmates in Sindh to determine whether HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and beliefs can predict their practices which risk HIV infection. A pre-designed questionnaire was administered in this cross-sectional study to collect the data on HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, practices and demographic variables in a systematic sample of 3,395 prison inmates during July 1994. The data on responses of inmates to HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs were analyzed and a clear interpretable factor structure emerged for each set of questions labeled as knowledge, attitude and beliefs. Similarly based on responses of inmates to practice questions, three factors emerged and were labeled as heterosexuality, homosexuality and drugs. The standardized factor scores of inmates for each of these six factors were computed and used in further analyses. Multiple linear regression analyses were carried out separately using heterosexuality, homosexuality and drugs factors score as dependent variables to identify if any of the independent variables (demographic variables, knowledge beliefs and attitude) predict these practice factors. The model for heterosexuality explained 23% of the variance and included HIV/AIDS related knowledge, beliefs, age, ethnicity and marital status and duration of imprisonment (F = 84.33, p homosexuality together explained 10% of the variance and included significant contribution by belief, martial status, ethnicity, education, age and duration of imprisonment (F = 24.76, p < 0.001; R2= 0.10). The model for drugs had significant contributions from HIV/AIDS related beliefs, marital status and ethnicity (F = 20.10, p < 0.001; R2= 0.03). Implications of prevention program based on these results are considered. PMID:11556589
Akhtar, S; Luby, S P; Rahbar, M H; Azam, I
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses, including household pets. Although pet ownership is common in most countries and non-pet owners may have frequent contact with pets, there is limited knowledge of the publics pet contact practices and awareness of zoonotic disease risks from pets. The objective of this study was to characterize the general publics knowledge, attitudes and risks related to pet ownership and animal contact in southern Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. A single adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Seventy five percent (641/853 of individuals approached completed the questionnaire. Pet ownership and contact were common; 64% of participants had a pet in their household and 37% of non-pet owning households had a member with at least weekly animal contact outside the home. Pet ownership was high (55% for households with individuals at higher risk for infections (i.e., Conclusions These results suggest that there is a need for accessible zoonotic disease information for both pet and non-owning households, with additional efforts made by veterinary, human and public health personnel. Immediate educational efforts directed toward households with individuals at higher risk to infections are especially needed.
Stull Jason W
Full Text Available Unplanned teenage pregnancy constitutes an important health problem, whilst contraceptive services are free throughout South Africa and the number of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP services is increasing. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of secondary school girls towards contraception in Thulamela Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls, the sample consisting of 273 girls in Grades 1012. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data and analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Findings showed that respondents were aware of different contraceptive methods that can prevent pregnancy. However, most did not have knowledge of the emergency contraceptive, intra-uterine device and female condom. Pressure from male partners, fear of parental reaction to the use of contraceptives, reluctance to use contraceptives, poor contraceptive education and lack of counselling were seen as the main causes of ineffective contraceptive use and non-utilisation. Possible modalities of intervention deal with providing contraceptive counselling and care to empower these school girls to make informed choices on reproductive health.
Dorah U. Ramathuba
Injuries to children arising from home accidents are an increasing community health concern. The aim of this cross-sectional study in Qalubeya governorate, Egypt was to measure the incidence and types of home injuries affecting rural children aged up to 12 years and to assess their mothers' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about first aid and its associated factors. An interview questionnaire was completed by 1450 rural mothers. The incidence of home injuries in the previous 4 weeks was 38.3% (57.5% were boys). Cut wounds, falls and fractures, burns, poisoning and foreign body aspiration were the common forms of home injuries. Mothers answered an average of 11.0 (SD 5.3) out of 29 KAP questions correctly. Younger age of mother, higher level of education, higher socioeconomic status, being in paid employment, source of knowledge about first aid and having attended a training course on first aid were significant predictors of better KAP among mothers. PMID:23301356
Eldosoky, R S H
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The epidemic of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa varies significantly across countries in the region with high prevalence in Southern Africa and Nigeria. Cancer is increasingly identified as a complication of HIV infection with higher incidence and mortality in this group than in the general population. Without cancer prevention strategies, improved cancer treatment alone would be an insufficient response to this increasing burden among people living with HIV (PLHIV. Although previous studies have noted low levels of awareness of cancers in sub-Saharan Africa none has examined the knowledge and perceptions of cancer among people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods Focus group discussions (FGD and Key Informant Interviews (KII were carried out in 4 high volume tertiary care institutions that offer HIV care and treatment in Nigeria. FGD and KII assessed participants knowledge of cancer, attitudes towards cancer risk and cancer screening practices. Results The mean age (SD of the FGD participants was 38 (2.8 years. Most participants had heard about cancer and considered it a fatal disease but displayed poor knowledge of the causes of cancer in general and of AIDs associated cancers in particular. PLHIV in Nigeria expressed fear, denial and disbelief about their perceived cancer risk. Some of the participants had heard about cancer screening but very few participants had ever been screened. Conclusion Our findings of poor knowledge of cancer among PLHIV in Nigeria indicate the need for health care providers and the government to intervene by developing primary cancer prevention strategies for this population.
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the nutritional knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of male and female bodybuilding trainers in Ahwaz, one of the 7 major cities of Iran. KAP questionnaires which contained information about nutrients, food groups, using of supplements and ergogenic aids, were completed by trainers. Sixty three certified male bodybuilding trainers (37.9 ? 2.7 y and 30 certified female trainers (37.3 ? 8.1 y were recruited from all clubs of the city. All of the male and 47% of the female trainers have prescribed diet program for their trainees (P<0.001 and it showed that there was a significant (P<0.001 relationship between their diet prescription and their educational degrees. None of the female trainers neither use nor advise anabolic hormones such as Nandrolon; however 62% of the male trainers have advised hormones to their trainees while only 50% of them use hormones themselves. 96.8% of the trainers did not know that minerals and 88.2% did not know water are essential nutrients; and more than 90% did not realize that fat and sugars are as food groups. The training courses and educational levels of trainers are positively related to their practices. All of the trainers need more theoretical and applied nutritional education.
Seyed Mohamad Hosein Mosavi Jazayeri
Breast cancer is the most common and most preventable cancer in women and early detection has the important role in reducing its morbidity and mortality, so increase 95% survival time. The present study conducted to compare the effects of two educational methods on knowledge, attitude and practices of Arak physicians. An interventional study after randomized allocation of each 64 physician to any of two different educational methods (video and systematic review) used to compare knowledge; att...
Mohammadbeigi, A.; Moshfeghi, K.
This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of learners on issues related to water, sanitation and hygiene in selected schools in Vhembe District, South Africa. The methodology relied on a questionnaire, an inspection of sanitary facilities and discussion with the school authorities. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. The study revealed that the level of knowledge about waterborne diseases was relatively high (76.7 ± 1.75%), but knowle...
Jabulani Ray Gumbo; Sibiya, Jerry E.
BACKGROUND: Awareness of individuals' knowledge and predicting their behavior and emotional reactions is crucial when evaluating clinical preparedness for influenza pandemics with a highly pathogenic virus. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) relating to avian influenza (H5N1) virus infection among residents in communities where H5N1 patients occurred in Vietnam has not been reported. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Face-to-face interviews including KAP survey were conducted in Bac Kan pr...
Manabe, T.; Tran, Th; Doan, Ml; Do, Th; Pham, Tp; Dinh, Tt; Tran, Tm; Dang, Hm; Takasaki, J.; Ngo, Qc; Ly, Qt; Kudo, K.
Reported are the results of a study of the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about kala-azar of the inhabitants of two villages (Titaria and Haraincha) situated in terai (plain) areas of Nepal. The villagers had poor knowledge about the transmission of kala-azar, with most villagers perceiving that mosquitos, instead of sandflies, were responsible for transmission of the infection. Most also failed to recognize the common symptoms of kala-azar. The majority of the respondents, 78.9% in...
Koirala, S.; Parija, S. C.; Karki, P.; Das, M. L.
Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 and Its Prevention: A Cross Sectional Study on Patients Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among l study on Patients Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among patients attending Primary Health Care Clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Full Text Available The World Health Organization confirmed that the novel influenza A, H1N1 as a pandemic on 11 June 2009. After less than three months, 182 countries were affected by the pandemic accounting for about 150,000 infected cases and 3000 mortality. Successful H1N1 pandemic management strategies shaped by making changes in health behavior. The aim of this study was to document patients knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP regarding the pandemic influenza A (H1N1 and its prevention. We performed a cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP on preventive measures of Influenza A (H1N1 involving 322 patients attending Klinik Kesihatan Jinjang, a primary health care clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from May 10 to 26, 2010 using a face to face interview with a structured pre-tested questionnaire. The majority of the respondents were females (56.8%, Malays (43.2% aged between 18-27 years old (28.9%. There were significant association between knowledge on the complication of H1N1, effectiveness of the treatment, preventive measures of Influenza A (H1N1 and race (p<0.001 and educational level (p<0.001. There were also significant associations between attitude scores of these patients and their gender (p=0.03, and educational level (p=0.001. Practice scores related to H1N1 were found to be significantly associated with race (p<0.001 and educational level (p<0.001. The significant associations were observed between knowledge and attitude (p<0.001, knowledge and practices (p<0.001, as well as attitude and practices related to H1N1 (p<0.001. Knowledge has a crucial effect on patients attitude and practice particularly in a pandemic spread. So health policy makers should attempt to disseminate information about preventive measures to community in order to improve their preventive practices during pandemics.
Latiffah Abdul Latiff
Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential contribution of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP studies to malaria research and control has not received much attention in most southern African countries. This study investigated the local communities' understanding of malaria transmission, recognition of signs and symptoms, perceptions of cause, treatment-seeking patterns, preventive measures and practices in order to inform the country's proposed malaria elimination programme in Swaziland. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was undertaken in four Lubombo Spatial Development Initiative (LSDI sentinel sites in Swaziland. These sentinel sites share borders with Mozambique. A structured questionnaire was administered to 320 randomly selected households. Only one adult person was interviewed per household. The interviewees were the heads of households and in the absence of the heads of households responsible adults above 18 years were interviewed. Results A substantial number of research participants showed reasonable knowledge of malaria, including correct association between malaria and mosquito bites, its potential fatal consequences and correct treatment practices. Almost 90% (n = 320 of the respondents stated that they would seek treatment within 24 hours of onset of malaria symptoms, with health facilities as their first treatment option. Most people (78% perceived clinics and vector control practices as central to treating and preventing malaria disease. Indoor residual spraying (IRS coverage and bed net ownership were 87.2% and 38.8%, respectively. IRS coverage was in agreement with the World Health Organization's (WHO recommendation of more than 80% within the targeted communities. Conclusion Despite fair knowledge of malaria in Swaziland, there is a need for improving the availability of information through the preferred community channels, such as tinkhundlas (districts, as well as professional health routes. This recommendation emerges along with the documented evidence suggesting that as the level transmission and disease decreases so does the perception about the importance of malaria control activities. Finally, given the relatively moderate ownership of bed net there is a need for future studies to evaluate the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs compared with IRS.
Background and Aim: Prevalence of malnutrition is high in under-5 years old children and mothers nutritional knowledge, attitude, practice(KAP) is associated to nutritional status of children and lack of nutritional knowledge and their poor practices can be considered of prominent causes of children malnutrition. This study carried out to assess the nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers. Materials and Methods: In this study a group of 632 mothers who had at least one chil...
Moradi-shahrebabak, H.; Dorosti-motlagh, A. R.; Sadrzadeh, M. Hoseini H.
Livestock diseases and other animal health events are a threat to achieving sustainable livestock industry. The knowledge of trace-back and the practice of providing feedback on diseases encountered in slaughtered animals from the abattoir to the farm can help limit the spread as well as manage potential future incidents of such diseases. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of 200 willing livestock traders on traceability in Bodija Municipal Abattoir, south-western Nigeria. The results reveal that the majority of these traders had poor knowledge (79.5 %) and practices (74.0 %) of traceability, though 89.5 % demonstrated good attitudes. While 22.9 % knew that traceability could be an effective means to control diseases, only a lower proportion (9.0 %) knew the health status of the animals being purchased. Though 29.0 % reported the diseases encountered in their animals during slaughter to the farm, only 9.5 % followed up to ensure the farmers take steps at preventing further occurrence of the reported diseases. While age (p?=?0.000; 0.014) and education (p?=?0.000; 0.000) were both significant for good knowledge and attitudes, frequency of condemned cases (p?=?0.000) and length of years in the trade (p?=?0.004) were, respectively, significant for good knowledge and attitudes with none associated with practice. These poor levels of knowledge and practices of traceability are a threat to sustainable livestock industry, food security and human health; hence, there is an urgent need to institute national feedback mechanism on slaughtered animals in order to strengthen interventions against diseases at farm levels. PMID:24030103
Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Ocheja, Samuel E
The University of British Columbia Geriatric Dentistry Program (GDP) offers dental services and provides a comprehensive in-service education program for nursing and residential care-aide (RCA) staff in the provision of daily mouth care for elders in various long-term care (LTC) facilities in Vancouver. This study examined the general impact of the education initiative at one LTC site. A survey (N=90), semi-structured open-ended interviews (N=26), and product audits were conducted to 1) examine the impact of the GDP education initiative on the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices of RCAs and nursing staff regarding the provision of daily mouth care; 2) identify the enablers and barriers that influenced the provision of daily mouth care practices, policies, and protocols using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model of health promotion research; and 3) assess the self-perceptions of RCAs and nursing staff members regarding their oral health. A knowledge gap was evident in some key areas pertaining to prevention of dental diseases. Twenty-five percent of residents were missing toothbrushes and toothpaste for daily mouth care. Residents who exhibit resistance to mouth care tended not to receive regular care, while issues such as time, increased workload, limited staff, and the lack of an accountability structure are disenabling factors for provision of daily mouth care. Results suggest that the impact of educational interventions is affected by the quality of in-service education, an absence of identified predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors, and a strong commitment among LTC staff to the provision of daily mouth care for frail elders. PMID:19433533
Dharamsi, Shafik; Jivani, Khairun; Dean, Charmaine; Wyatt, Chris
Full Text Available Background and Aims : Dentists have usually a critical role in diagnosing oral cancer lesions in their early stages. In this study we aimed to assess the senior dental student and dentists knowledge, attitude and behaviors regarding oral cancer in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: A valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire was designed to assess the current practice, knowledge and attitude of general dentists working in Isfahan-Iran and senior dental students regarding oral cancer lesions. The questionnaire was consisted of questions to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding diagnosis, risk factors and prognosis of oropharyngeal cancerous lesions. The frequencies of answers to questions in sections of practice and attitude (just for dentists and sum score of questions in knowledge section were calculated and compared using statistical analysis regarding age, sex, duration of experience and practice setting p ublic/private of participants. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, chi-square, linear regression and logistic regression. Results: 139 questionnaires from dentists and 57 questionnaires from students were returned. The mean score of dentists knowledge was 5.41 out of 13 (CI95%=5.03-7.79 . Significant differences were observed among dentists regarding their experience (P=0.001. Only one fifth of the dentists in our survey reported to perform oral cancer examination for all of their patients in age of 40 and above and just about 34% of dentists gained acceptable level of knowledge. Among senior dental students, the status of knowledge was better as about 58% of them gained the level of acceptance (P=0.01. Conclusion: Although dentists were willing to follow the diagnostic protocol for oral cancer, they were mostly unsatisfied with the level of their knowledge. Therefore, this study highlights the need for educational planning and training activities in general dentists with regard to the risk factors and early detection of oral cancers.
Sayed Mohamad Razavi
Full Text Available Background: South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. Study Design: A descriptive epidemiological study. Materials and Methods: Both medical and paramedical (n = 428 providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively ( P < 0.05 correlated with their knowledge. Training resulted a significant ( P < 0.05 improvement in knowledge, attitude and dispensing practice of the providers. Knowledge and training combined together contributed 35% to the dispensing practice (R 2 = 0.35. Conclusion: Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills.
Full Text Available Introduction: There is concerned in Latin America due to the little or no impact that have had prevention programs in the reduction of cases of uterine cervical neoplasm. Different aspects should be looked at and analyzed.Objective: To determine the knowledge, practice and attitude of women from themunicipality of Pinillos, Colombia, relating to the use of uterine cervical cytology asdiagnostic techniques of early lesions of uterine cervix that entail uterine cervicalneoplasm.Methods: Descriptive study carried out in Pinillos, Bolívar, Colombia. A survey was filledout by 260 women who had had sexual life.Results: 85.4% of the polled patients know what an uterine cervical cytology is.Practically all the polled women know what the usefulness of cytology is. 99.6%recognizes that cytology is important. 88.5% has done the cytology during her life, witha median of 4 done cytologies.Conclusions: The ignorance, the lack of practice and the bad attitude towards therealization of the cytology are not the main causes of that uterine cervical neoplasm hadnot diminished. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2013;4(1:54-59RESUMENIntroducción: existe preocupación en América Latina por el poco o ningún impacto enreducción de casos, que han tenido los programas de prevención del cáncer del cuellouterino. Diferentes aspectos se deben analizar.Objetivo: determinar el conocimiento, práctica y actitud de las mujeres del municipiode Pinillos, Colombia, sobre el uso de la citología cérvico-uterina como método dediagnóstico de las lesiones tempranas del cuello uterino, que conlleven al cáncer decérvix.Metodología: estudio descriptivo realizado en el municipio de Pinillos, Bolívar, Colombia.Se realizó una encuesta a 260 mujeres que habían tenido vida sexual.Resultados: el 85.4% de las pacientes encuestadas saben que es la citología cérvicouterina.Prácticamente todas las mujeres encuestadas saben para qué sirve la citología.El 99.6% reconoce que realizarse la citología es importante. El 88.5% si se ha realizadola citología durante su vida, con una mediana de 4 citologías realizadas.Conclusiones: el desconocimiento, la falta de práctica y la mala actitud hacia larealización de la citología no es la principal causa que el cáncer de cérvix no hayadisminuido. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2013;4(1:54-59
Full Text Available AIM: Adverse drug reaction is noxious and unwanted reaction to drugs at dose used in humans for diagnosis, treatment or prophylaxis. Adverse drug reaction monitoring is an area of drug information that has been given little attention yet. Spontaneous reporting is currently the major back bone for the detection of adverse drug reactions. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of adverse drug reaction reporting among health professionals in selected health facilities in southwest Ethiopia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study design was used among health professionals in selected health facilities in January 2010. Prescribers other than physicians, junior pharmacy technicians and also health assistants were excluded. Data was collected using self administered questionnaires from volunteered physicians (Medical interns and above, nurses (Diploma and above and Pharmacy professionals (Diploma and above and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. RESULTS: A total of 82 health professionals were participated in the study. From those 82 participants, only 19 (23.17% and 21 (25.61% knew the existence of national reporting system and a yellow card of adverse drug reaction reporting form. Thirteen (15.85% participants encountered adverse drug reaction in the past 12 months in their clinical activities, but none of them reported to responsible body. Even though the participants knowledge and practice were inadequate, most of the respondents 47 (57.31% agreed that adverse drug reaction reporting is part of duty of them and important to the public in general and to the patient in particular. CONCLUSION: There was no documentation and reporting of adverse drug reaction, which might partly be explained by lack of knowledge and misconceptions about spontaneous reporting. Our study strongly suggests that there is a great need to create awareness and to promote the reporting of adverse drug reaction amongst health professionals, which will lay a solid foundation for healthcare professionals to be diligently involved in quality pharmacovigilance and spontaneous reporting in their future practices. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 397-406
Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo
Medical waste management (MWM) is an important public health concern worldwide. Although physicians must participate in medical waste management, their personal and organizational predictors in this process are unknown. This study aimed to the determinants of physicians' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to MWM in eight hospitals of Mazandaran province, northern Iran. A validated, reliable self-administered questionnaire was used including 30 questions about the respondents' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) and personal and professional variables. Of a total of 200 physicians, 150 persons completed the questionnaire (response rate of 75%). The average score (± SD) for physicians' knowledge was 6.50 (± 1.50) out of 10, whereas those for attitudes and practices were 4.44 (± 0.88) and 4.02 (± 1.35) out of 5, respectively. Surgeons and orthopaedists had the lowest scores, whereas para-clinical specialists and internal medicine specialists had the highest scores. The score of knowledge showed significant differences among speciality groups and the various speciality groups' scores differed significantly only for knowledge (P = 0.024) and the mean of total KAP was significantly different between educational and non-educational hospitals (P < 0.05). As hospital type and physician speciality was related to the KAP concerning MWM, therefore it is recommend that all hospitals should develop appropriate protocols for medical waste management based on the this variables using a participatory process with teamwork and continuous training. PMID:22517529
Jabbari, H; Farokhfar, M; Jafarabadi, M Asghari; Taghipour, H; Bakhshian, F; Rohane, S
Conclusions: The reasons for self-medication were similar among medical and non-medical students, but positive attitude and knowledge toward self-medication was more among the medical students. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 988-994
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate knowledge, or inappropriate practice, of breastfeeding may lead to undesirable consequences. The aim of this study was to assess breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP among female teachers in the Abha Female Educational District and identify factors that may affect breastfeeding practice in the study population. Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among school teachers in Abha Female Educational District during the months of April to June, 2011. Breastfeeding KAP of participants who had at least one child aged five years or younger at the time of the study were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire, based on their experience with the last child. Results A total of 384 women made up of 246 (61.1% primary-, 89 (23.2% intermediate- and 49 (12.8% high-school teachers participated in the study. One hundred and nineteen participants (31% started breastfeeding their children within one hour of delivery, while exclusive breastfeeding for 6?months was reported only by 32 (8.3% participants. Insufficient breast milk and work related problems were the main reasons given by 169 (44% and 148 (38.5% of participants, respectively, for stopping breastfeeding before two years. Only 33 participants (8.6% had attended classes related to breastfeeding. However, 261 participants (68% indicated the willingness to attend such classes, if available, in future pregnancies. Conclusions This study revealed that breast milk insufficiency and adverse work related issues were the main reasons for a very low rate of exclusive breastfeeding among female school teachers in Abha female educational district, Saudi Arabia. A very low rate of attending classes addressing the breastfeeding issues during pregnancy, and an alarming finding of a high percentage of babies receiving readymade liquid formula while still in hospital, were also brought out by the present study. Such findings, if addressed comprehensively by health care providers and decision-makers, will lead to the improvement of breastfeeding practices in the study community.
Al-Binali Ali Mohamed
Full Text Available Purpose : To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among the different health care workers (HCWs on nosocomial infections. Methods : A total of 150 HCWs, doctors (n=50, nurses (n=50 and ward aides (n=50 were included. A questionnaire was administered to the HCWs to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practices on nosocomial infections. A scoring system was devised to grade those (KAP score. They were further subjected to a series of similar questionnaires at intervals of 6, 12 and 24 months after an education module. Subjects in each category of staff (n=10 were observed for compliance to hand washing practices in the ward in the post-education period. Statistical analysis was done using statistical software. Results : The study showed an increase in the number of subjects in each category scoring good and excellent in the post-education questionnaire; however this declined with the progress of time. It was observed that the compliance level to hand washing practices differed among the different HCWs. Total compliance was 63.3% and ward aides were most compliant 76.7% (adjusted Wald 95% CI= 58.80-88.48. Conclusions : Education has a positive impact on retention of knowledge, attitudes and practices in all the categories of staff. There is a need to develop a system of continuous education for all the categories of staff. In order to reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections, compliance with interventions are mandatory.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify maternal knowledge, attitude and practice about immunization and to determine maternal characteristics and the determinants of full immunization status among respondents of children aged five years. MATERIAL & METHODS: A cross sectional survey by random sampling technique. 250 working and non-working mothers having children below 5 year of age were chosen for the study. Bareilly city was intentionally chosen for the convenience of the researcher. RESULTS: From total 250 mothers 28.66% house wives and 45.57% working women completely immunized their children whereas 71.34% house wives & 54.43% working women partially immunized their children. Gender bias was an importent factor among families for complete immunization but not very significant. Economic status also played significant role as higher economic status was found positive co-relation with complete immunization. Significant difference was found between educated and uneducated mothers with reference to complete immunization of their children. The paramedical workers were found to be the major source of information to the attendants of completely and partially immunized Community leader, T.V. Radio and relative on the other hand were found to be the most important source of information among partially immunized children.
The prevalence of HIV infection in Swaziland (26%) is among the highest in the world. We investigated nutritional knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) and the influence of sociodemographic factors on KAP among pregnant and lactating women living with HIV in the Manzini region of Swaziland. Interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire to collect data from 324 subjects seeking healthcare from selected regional hospitals, health centres, and clinics in Manzini region. The results showed mean percentage scores of nutritional knowledge (67%), attitude (67%), and practices (51%) whereby educational level (p = 0.002), employment status (p = 0.009), income (p = 0.008), religion (p = 0.007), type of accommodation (p = 0.006), type of transport used when going for shopping (p = 0.001), and BMI (p = 0.015) were significantly associated with nutritional practices. Significant positive correlations between nutritional KAP were observed: nutritional K and A (r = 0.155, p = 0.005), nutritional K and P (r = 0.456, p = 0.001), and nutritional A and P (r = 0.230, p = 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that type of transport used when going for shopping (p = 0.002), educational level (p = 0.001), income (p = 0.001), employment (p = 0.038), knowledge of food proportion in a plate (p = 0.000), a positive attitude towards high-fibre diet (p = 0.004), and eating a variety of foods (p = 0.006) were predictors of nutritional practices. Educational level was identified as a common predictor of nutritional knowledge, attitude, and practices, suggesting that both formal and informal education systems are potential factors influencing dietary practices among pregnant and lactating women living with HIV in Swaziland. PMID:25076663
Masuku, Sakhile K S; Lan, Shu-Jan J
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Oyo is an urban community in Oyo state of south-western Nigeria andit is holoendemic for malaria. Information was collected on the knowledge, attitudes and practices(KAP of inhabitants of Oyo town in relation to malaria.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 192 households with the aid of self- or researcher-administeredquestionnaires was carried out to identify factors associated with the disease in the area.Results: About 93.2% (n=192 of respondents recognized mosquito bites as the cause of malaria. Asmall proportion of children (13.7% and adults (5.3% received prompt treatment; however, moreadults (65.8% got correct dosage of antimalarials than children (38.7%. About 90% of suspectedmalaria cases in children and adults were first treated at home with local herbs or drugs, purchasedfrom medicine stores. The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs was scarce as only 16.7% ofhouseholds used them for their children. Other reported malaria prevention methods include theuse of insecticides (79.7% and herbs (44.3%. In all, 17 (8.9% of households did not have screeningnets on their windows and 6.3% of 175 households with screening nets on their windows had rustyand torn nets. The level of education of heads of households was a strong predictor of positivemalaria-related KAP. Window types and environmental hygiene were associated with prevalenceof malaria in households.Interpretation & conclusion: The control of malaria cannot be achieved without full involvementof the affected communities; the available tools for control can only be effective and sustainable ifthe local communities are mobilized and empowered with knowledge. It is suggested that healtheducation campaigns be intensified; chemist shop-keepers and mothers being important targetgroups
A.A. Adedotun, O.A. Morenikeji , A.B. Odaibo
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Parental anxiety and apprehension is related to inadequate knowledge of fever and febrile convulsion. AIMS: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the parents of children with febrile convulsions. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire based study in a tertiary care centre carried over a period of one year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 140 parents of consecutive children presenting with febrile convulsion were enrolled. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square test. RESULTS: 83 parents (59.3% could not recognise the convulsion; 90.7% (127 did not carry out any intervention prior to getting the child to the hospital. The commonest immediate effect of the convulsion on the parents was fear of death (n= 126, 90% followed by insomnia (n= 48, 34.3%, anorexia (n= 46, 32.9%, crying (n= 28, 20% and fear of epilepsy (n= 28, 20%. Fear of brain damage, fear of recurrence and dyspepsia were voiced by the fathers alone (n= 20, cumulative incidence 14.3%. 109 (77.9% parents did not know the fact that the convulsion can occur due to fever. The long-term concerns included fear of epilepsy (n= 64, 45.7% and future recurrence (n= 27, 19.3% in the affected child. For 56 (40% of the parents every subsequent episode of fever was like a nightmare. Only 21 parents (15% had thermometer at home and 28 (20% knew the normal range of body temperature. Correct preventive measures were known only to 41 (29.2%. Awareness of febrile convulsion and the preventive measures was higher in socio-economic grade (P< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The parental fear of fever and febrile convulsion is a major problem with serious negative consequences affecting daily familial life.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have revealed that visiting poultry markets and direct contact with sick or dead poultry are significant risk factors for H5N1 infection, the practices of which could possibly be influenced by people's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs associated with avian influenza (AI. To determine the KAPs associated with AI among the Chinese general population, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in China. Methods We used standardized, structured questionnaires distributed in both an urban area (Shenzhen, Guangdong Province; n = 1,826 and a rural area (Xiuning, Anhui Province; n = 2,572 using the probability proportional to size (PPS sampling technique. Results Approximately three-quarters of participants in both groups requested more information about AI. The preferred source of information for both groups was television. Almost three-quarters of all participants were aware of AI as an infectious disease; the urban group was more aware that it could be transmitted through poultry, that it could be prevented, and was more familiar with the relationship between AI and human infection. The villagers in Xiuning were more concerned than Shenzhen residents about human AI viral infection. Regarding preventative measures, a higher percentage of the urban group used soap for hand washing whereas the rural group preferred water only. Almost half of the participants in both groups had continued to eat poultry after being informed about the disease. Conclusions Our study shows a high degree of awareness of human AI in both urban and rural populations, and could provide scientific support to assist the Chinese government in developing strategies and health-education campaigns to prevent AI infection among the general population.
Full Text Available Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the dog owners, their association with dogs, knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies. Associations between demographic variables and knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using ?2 analysis. Also, 188 brain samples from slaughtered dogs were analysed for presence of rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Fifteen (7.89% had rabies antigen. Record files and vaccination certificates of dogs presented to the State Veterinary Hospital Wukari were assessed for anti rabies vaccination coverage. Out of the 200 dog owners, only 26 (13% knew that rabies virus can be found in nervous tissue, 121 (60.5% were aware that rabies can be spread through the saliva of a rabid animal, but majority of respondents 172 (86% did not know the age for first vaccination of dogs against rabies. Dog owners who were civil servants were 4.8 times more likely to have good knowledge (OR=4.84, 95% CI on OR 1.09-21.44 than those of other occupation groups. Positive attitude towards rabies increased with increase in age of dog owners, with respondents within the age group 20-30 years more likely to have negative attitude than those over 40 years. Civil servants were 9.8 times more likely to have good practice than other occupation groups. Rabies antigen was detected in 7.98% of slaughtered dogs. Out of 8370 dogs presented to the hospital between January 2003 and December 2012, only 1128 (13.50% received anti rabies vaccine. Inadequate knowledge of some aspects of rabies, negative attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, the presence of rabies antigen in some dogs slaughtered for human consumption and low vaccination coverage in dogs are indicative of high risk of exposure of dog owners and dog meat processors to rabies. There is therefore a need for educational programmes targeted at dog owners to increase their level of knowledge and reduce the risk of exposure to rabies.
Veronica O. Ameh
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although dietary supplements (DS are widely sold in pharmacies, the legal, ethical, and practice responsibilities of pharmacists with respect to these products have not been well defined. This systematic review of pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviours toward DS is intended to inform pharmacy regulators' and educators' decision making around this topic. Methods Eligible studies were identified through a systematic database search for all available years through to March 2006. Articles were analyzed for this review if they included survey data on U.S. or Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, or professional practice behaviors toward DS published in 1990 or later. Results Due to the heterogeneity of the data, it was not possible to draw a conclusion with respect to pharmacists' general attitudes toward DS. Approximately equal numbers of pharmacists report positive as well as negative attitudes about the safety and efficacy of DS. There is strong agreement among pharmacists for the need to have additional training on DS, increased regulation of DS, and quality information on DS. In addition, survey data indicate that pharmacists do not perceive their knowledge of DS to be adequate and that pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS. Despite this, a large proportion of pharmacists reported receiving questions about DS from patients and other health care practitioners. Conclusion Further research is needed to explore the factors that influence pharmacists' beliefs and attitudes about DS, to accurately evaluate pharmacists' knowledge of DS, and to uncover the reasons why pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS.
Full Text Available Background: The school oral health education program is believed to be a cost-effective method for promoting oral health. The KAP (knowledgeattitudepractice model of oral health education is often the foundation of most health education programs. Objectives: To assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and oral health care practices among 11- to 13-year-old children and the association of knowledge with attitude, oral health care practices, and dental caries prevalence. Design: Cross-sectional design, involving 858 children studying in class seven at various schools in the city of Mangalore, India. The children were selected using stratified random sampling method. Prevalence of dental caries was determined using decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT index. A self-administered questionnaire on self-care practices in oral health, knowledge, and attitude toward oral health care was filled by children. The association of different variables with knowledge was analyzed using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The dental caries prevalence was 59.4%, and 54.5% had low knowledge. They lacked knowledge regarding use of fluoridated toothpaste and did not use them. Children with low knowledge had significantly higher odds of having DMFT ? 1, not using fluoridated toothpaste, and being afraid of going to the dentist due to possible pain. There was no association of other oral health care practices and attitudes with knowledge. Conclusion: Oral health care practices and attitudes are not fully explained by knowledge, and other models of health education need to be considered.
Objective: This study was carried out to clarify the potential health-risk and to determinant the prevalence of antenatal rubella infection in North-Central, Nigeria.Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was carried out among pregnant women to establish the knowledge, attitude and practices with regards to antenatal rubella infection in early pregnancy in Ilorin. A total of 92 subjects were recruited by simple random selection from the antenatal clinics of the University...
Oluwapelumi Olufemi Adeyemi; Olajide Olubunmi Agbede; Olatunji Matthew Kolawole; Anthony Okoh
This study was done to explore the effect of women`s group counseling on knowledge, attitude and practice of their husbands concerning family planning in Zahedan in 2002. A quasi-experimental study (before and after) was carried out. Forty-four married women with two or more children who had not used contraceptive methods were non-randomly selected from three Health Centers. Before intervention, women and their husbands were interviewed to complete a questionnaire to determine their education...
Fereshteh Najafi; Fatemeh Rakhshani
Background: Recent raise in litigation againsthealthcare practitioners is definitely an issueof immediate concern and may reflect an in-crease in unethical practices by them. Profes-sional relations between physicians and nursesmay have differences with respect to their atti-tudes towards patient-care. Aim and Objec-tives: To assess the knowledge of, and attitudesto healthcare ethics among north Indian physi-cians and nurses. Material and Methods: Thepresent cross sectional study was carried ...
Mukul Chopra; Anu Bhardwaj; Prassana Mithra; Abhishek Singh; Adiba Siddiqui; Dr, Rajesh
This study compares cigarette smoking knowledge, attitudes, and practices (S-KAP) of opioid- and other substance-dependent patients and their multidisciplinary staff at an outpatient perinatal substance abuse treatment center. Consenting patients (n=95) and staff (n=41) concurrently completed a modified form of the S-KAP survey instrument. 95% of patients reported currently smoking, and half endorsed wanting to quit smoking now. This patient desire to quit smoking was significantly unde...
Chisolm, Margaret S.; Brigham, Emily P.; Lookatch, Samantha J.; Tuten, Michelle; Strain, Eric C.; Jones, Hendre?e E.
Abstract Background Avian influenza is a considerable threat to global public health. Prevention and control depend on awareness and protective behaviours of the general population as well as high risk-groups. This study aims to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to avian influenza among poultry workers in Nepal. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional study design, using a structured questionnaire administered in face-to-face interv...
Neupane Dinesh; Khanal Vishnu; Ghimire Kamal; Aro Arja R; Leppin Anja
Full Text Available Purpose : We present the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP among diabetic patients regarding eye complications and their care. Materials and Methods : A cross sectional study was conducted in 2008 at seven regions of Oman. Arabic speaking nurses interviewed diabetics at clinics. They used a closed ended questionnaire with 15 questions. The responses were analyzed and the KAP were grouped into excellent (>80%, good (60 to 79%, average (40 to 59%, poor (20 to 39% and very poor (< 20%. They were also compared among epidemiologic variants. Result : Of the 750 participants, ?Excellent?, grade of knowledge about diagnosis and eye care was present in 547 (72.9% and 135 (18% persons respectively. The ?excellent? grade of attitude about eye involvement and eye care was found in 135 (18% and 224 (29.9% participants. The practice for undergoing eye check up and accepting treatment was of ?excellent? grade in 390 (52% and 594 (79.2% respectively. Age (OR = 0.98, Sharqiya region (OR = 25 and ?5 to 9? duration of DM (OR = 2.1 were associated with the knowledge. ?< 1 year? duration (OR = 0.3 and Dhakhiliya region (OR = 39 were associated with the attitude while ?5 to 9 year? duration (OR = 3.4 was associated with better practices. Conclusions : Knowledge about eye complications and care is satisfactory among persons with diabetes. However, levels of attitude and practice were less than desired and should be improved. This could strengthen program approach for early detection and care of eye complications of diabetes in Oman.
Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought inf...
Ameh, Veronica O.; Dzikwi, Asabe A.; Umoh, Jarlath U.
There is a need to better understand communities' knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of neglected tropical diseases to improve prevention and control efforts. We studied the socio-cultural aspects of parasitic worm infections in two villages (Mélapleu and Zouatta II) of western Côte d'Ivoire, where research and control activities have been implemented. Zouatta II was exposed to a community-based approach, while school-based interventions were implemented in Mélapleu. KAP surveys wer...
Acka, Cinthia A.; Raso, Giovanna; N Goran, Elie?zer K.; Tschannen, Andres B.; Bogoch, Isaac I.; Se?raphin, Essane; Tanner, Marcel; Obrist, Brigit; Utzinger, Ju?rg
Abstract Background Both conflict and HIV affect sub-Saharan Africa, and supportive approaches for HIV prevention among refugees are crucial. Peer education has been associated with improved HIV outcomes, though relatively little research has been published on refugee settings. The primary objective of this study was to assess whether exposure to refugee peer education was associated with improved HIV knowledge, attitudes, or practice outcomes among refugees in Guinea. Second...
von Roenne Anna; Kollie Sarah; Souare Yaya; Howard Natasha; Woodward Aniek; Borchert Matthias
Abstract Background Prior to the availability of the specific pandemic vaccine, strategies to mitigate the impact of the disease typically involved antiviral treatment and non-pharmaceutical community interventions. However, compliance with these strategies is linked to risk perceptions, perceived severity and perceived effectiveness of the strategies. In 2010, we undertook a study to examine the knowledge, attitudes, risk perceptions, practices and barriers towards inf...
Seale Holly; Pi, Mak Jackie; Razee Husna; MacIntyre C
Abstract Background Several public health strategic interventions are required for effective prevention and control of avian influenza (AI) and it is necessary to create a communication plan to keep families adequately informed on how to avoid or reduce exposure. This investigation determined the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors relating to AI among an adult population in Italy. Methods From December 2005 to February 2006 a random sample of 1020 adults receiv...
Marinelli Paolo; Albano Luciana; Abbate Rossella; Di Giuseppe Gabriella; Angelillo Italo F.
Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common and most preventable cancer in women and early detection has the important role in reducing its morbidity and mortality, so increase 95% survival time. The present study conducted to compare the effects of two educational methods on knowledge, attitude and practices of Arak physicians. An interventional study after randomized allocation of each 64 physician to any of two different educational methods (video and systematic review used to compare knowledge; attitude and practices score variation about breast cancer screening skills. Data collection carried out with structured questionnaire and entered to SPSS software. Data analyzed by t-test, paired t-test and Man-Whitney test in significant level of 0.05. Mean of total score of knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP showed a significant difference before and after training and the total score of KAP increase (p0.05. Although KAP in Arak physician is appropriate and any educational program increase their KAP level, but continuing and repetition of educational courses seems to be necessary.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in low-and-middle income countries. Young and unmarried women constitute a high risk group for unsafe abortions. It has been estimated that widespread use of emergency contraception may significantly reduce the number of abortion-related morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and experiences on emergency contraceptive pills by the university students in Cameroon in order to develop and refine a national health programme for reducing unwanted pregnancies and their associated morbidity and mortality. Methods A convenient sample of 700 students of the University of Buea (Cameroon was selected for the study. Data was collected by a self-administered, anonymous and pre-tested questionnaire. Results The response rate was 94.9% (664/700. General level of awareness of emergency contraceptive pills was 63.0% (418/664. However, knowledge of the general features of emergency contraceptive pills was low and misinformation was high among these students. Knowledge differed according to the source of information: informal source was associated with misinformation, while medical and informational sources were associated with better knowledge. Although the students generally had positive attitudes regarding emergency contraceptive pills, up to 65.0% (465/664 believed that emergency contraceptive pills were unsafe. Those with adequate knowledge generally showed favourable attitudes with regards to emergency contraceptive pills (Mann-Whitney U = 2592.5, p = 0.000. Forty-nine students (7.4% had used emergency contraceptive pills themselves or had a partner who had used them. Conclusion Awareness of emergency contraception pills by Cameroonian students is low and the method is still underused. Strategies to promote use of emergency contraception should be focused on spreading accurate information through medical and informational sources, which have been found to be reliable and associated with good knowledge on emergency contraceptive pills.
Full Text Available Introduction- This study was undertaken to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of self-medication among second-year nursing students of the NRIIMS, Visakhapatnam. Materials & methods: This was an anonymous, questionnaire-based, descriptive study. A prevalidated questionnaire, containing open-ended and close-ended questions, was administered to the subjects. Data were analyzed using MS-Excel and the results were expressed as counts and percentages. Results: Out of the 35 respondents, everyone responded with one or the other drug. The respondents' knowledge about appropriate self-medication was poor, but knowledge of the benefits and risks of self-medication was adequate. The respondents found self-medication to be time-saving, economical, convenient and providing quick relief in common illnesses. Important disadvantages of self-medication mentioned were the risk of making a wrong diagnosis, inappropriate drug use and adverse effects. The majority (40% of the respondents had a positive attitude favoring self-medication. The most common indications for self-medication were to relieve the symptoms of headache (31.43%, fever (31.43%, cough & cold (22.83%.Analgesics ( were the most common drugs used for self-medication. Knowledge about appropriate self-medication was adequate, attitude towards self-medication was positive, and the practice of self-medication was common and often inappropriate.
Resistance to antimicrobial agents has increased for reasons relating to the use and misuse of antimicrobials in human, agriculture and aquaculture. Antimicrobial use is quite high during mass gatherings such as the Hajj pilgrimage. To reduce non-prescription use and inappropriate prescribing of antimicrobials, a more thorough understanding of their use and the motives behind why patients request, even demand, antimicrobials, fail to adhere to the prescription is important. Therefore, we conducted a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) survey among Australian Hajj pilgrims in Mecca during Hajj 2013 using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire concerning antimicrobial use. Our sample consisted of 229 adult Australian subjects. Mean age was 42.4 (SD±12.7) years, 178 (77.9%) were male and 80 (34.9%) used antimicrobials during their stay in Saudi Arabia. Twenty four (30.0%) obtained these in Saudi Arabia, mainly without prescription, and about half (38, 47.5%) brought them from Australia. Of the respondents, 55.8% believed that antibiotics are effective against viruses, 53.6% thought that antibiotics are effective against common cold and flu, 78.6 % that humans themselves can become resistant to antibiotics and 75.9% knew that overuse or unnecessary use of antibiotics can cause them to lose effectiveness. This study has revealed that Hajj pilgrims have inappropriate access to antimicrobials in Saudi Arabia as well as in Australia. A large scale education campaign and tighter control on prescribing and dispensing of antimicrobials could improve the appropriate antimicrobial use among Hajj pilgrims. PMID:25019233
Azeem, Mohammad; Tashani, Mohamed; Barasheed, Osamah; Heron, Leon; Hill-Cawthorne, Grant A; Haworth, Elizabeth; Dwyer, Dominic E; Rashid, Harunor; Booy, Robert
Full Text Available In this study, the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pesticide use and the levels of exposure of farmers and residents to organophosphorous and/or carbamates pesticides were evaluated in two rural settings in Brazil. A questionnaire was completed by 112 farm workers aged ?18 years. Almost all farmers acknowledged that pesticides were potentially harmful to their health (87.5%; however, over half rarely (48.2% or never (7.2% used personal protective devices (PPDs. An association was found (p = 0.001 between the work regimen and the use of PPDs, with more frequent equipment use among hired laborers than those involved in family agriculture. A significant correlation (p = 0.027 was found between the reporting of adverse symptoms and the use of backpack sprayers. Mean AChE activities of farmers (n = 64 and residents (n = 18 during the exposure and non-exposure periods were significantly lower than their control groups. Mean BChE activities of farmers and residents were significantly lower than their controls during the exposure period. Among the 60 farmers that had blood samples collected in both the exposure and non-exposure (baseline periods, 10 (16.7% had AChE depletion of over 30% during the exposure period compared with the baseline level. Six residents living on the same farms also presented this depletion. AChE was over 30% higher than the baseline level for 19 farmers (31.7%, indicating a reboot effect. Special education programs are needed in these regions to promote the safe use of pesticides in the field to decrease the risks from exposure to pesticides for farmers, and from secondary exposure to these compounds for their families.
Eloisa Dutra Caldas
The authors empirically investigated the relative ordering of knowledge, attitudes, and practices in behavior change models and its relation to communicating health-related information. Considerable research has been conducted in the area of behavior change to identify and measure the presence of knowledge, attitudinal, and practice levels for many behaviors. The literature is reviewed. The authors' investigation consisted of interviewing 1680 men and women in Lima, Cusco, Huaraz, Puno, and Chimbote--5 large Peruvian cities--in 3 urban probability household surveys conducted in August 1994, January 1995, and January 1996. Six possible knowledge, attitude, and practice permutations are developed with regard to contraception in Peru. People may use contraceptive methods before they become fully knowledgeable about their chosen methods. In so doing, these users may become misinformed about contraceptive practice and become dissatisfied contraceptive users who discontinue contraceptive use. Media campaigns designed to inform the public can help produce a more satisfied and sustainable contraceptive user base. The informed choice approach can be the basis for effective communication strategies. PMID:12293436
Valente, T W; Paredes, P; Poppe, P R
CBPP is an important transboundary disease in sub-Saharan Africa whose control is urgent. Participatory data collection involving 52 focus group discussions in 37 village clusters and key informant interviews, a cross-sectional study involving 232 households and a post-vaccination follow up involving 203 households was carried out in 2006-2007 in Narok South district of Kenya. This was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices (KAPP) associated with control of CBPP as well as the adverse post-vaccination reactions in animals in order to advice the control policy. The community perceived trans-boundary CBPP threat to their cattle. They had traditional disease coping mechanisms and were conversant with CBPP prevention and control with 49.8% (95%CI: 42.8-56.7%) giving priority to CBPP control. However, 12.9% (95%CI: 9.0-18.1%) of pastoralists had no knowledge of any prevention method and 10.0% (95%CI: 6.5-14.7%) would not know what to do or would do nothing in the event of an outbreak. Although 43.5% (95%CI: 37.1-50.2%) of pastoralists were treating CBPP cases with antimicrobials, 62.5% (95%CI: 52.1-71.7%) of them doubted the effectiveness of the treatments. Pastoralists perceived vaccination to be the solution to CBPP but vaccination was irregular due to unavailability of the vaccine. Vaccination was mainly to control outbreaks rather than preventive and exhibited adverse post-vaccination reactions among 70.4% (95%CI: 63.6-76.5%) of herds and 3.8% (95%CI: 3.5-4.2%) of animals. Consequently, nearly 25.2% (95%CI: 18.5-33.2%) of pastoralists may resist subsequent vaccinations against CBPP. Pastoralists preferred CBPP vaccination at certain times of the year and that it is combined with other vaccinations. In conclusion, pastoralists were not fully aware of the preventive measures and interventions and post-vaccination reactions may discourage subsequent CBPP vaccinations. Consequently there is need for monitoring and management of post vaccination reactions and awareness creation on CBPP prevention and interventions and their merits and demerits. CBPP vaccine was largely unavailable to the pastoralists and the preference of the pastoralists was for vaccination at specified times and vaccine combinations which makes it necessary to avail the vaccine in conformity with the pastoralists preferences. In addition, planning vaccinations should involve pastoralists and neighbouring countries. As the results cannot be generalized, further studies on CBPP control methods and their effectiveness are recommended. PMID:24768437
Kairu-Wanyoike, S W; Kiara, H; Heffernan, C; Kaitibie, S; Gitau, G K; McKeever, D; Taylor, N M
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to HIV and AIDS among teenagers in rural schools in Vhembe district. This study focused on teenagers sources of knowledge about HIV/AIDS; their knowledge of how to avoid contracting HIV/AIDS; their knowledge of the methods of transmission of the disease; their knowledge of condoms and usage levels; and people with whom they are comfortable to talk about HIV/AIDS. This was a quantitative descriptive research design where a random sample of 128 participants between the ages of 14 and 19 years was selected. The participants were in grades 8 to 12. The study recommended that holistic HIV/AIDS preventive programmes which were culture and gender sensitive be developed. Custodians of culture should be involved in dealing with HIV/AIDS. Parents should also play their role in discussing HIV/AIDS with their children in a non-threatening environment.
Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an educational program based on Health Belief Model on knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) in patients with Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) referred to Razi Hospital in Iran. Mater...
Roya Sadeghi; Azar Tol; Masoud Baikpour; Azita Moradi; Mostafa Hossaini
A survey of 33 male and 5 female prisoners examined their knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission modes, current sexual behavior and safe sex practices, and sources of AIDS information and degree of trust in these sources. Discusses implications for social work practices and development of AIDS education for prisoners. (SV)
Miah, M. Mizanur Rahman; Olivero, J. Michael
"n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:The food handling employee education program improves food safety. Determining knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) level of workers who prepare, distribute and sale the food products make easy to control food safety. This study aimed to evaluate effects of intensive food safety education course on KAP of food handlers. in Kermanshah."nMaterials andMethods: Knowledge, attitude and practice of 370workers of variety of food handling fields were studied befor...
Rezaee, M.; Almasi, A.; Pirsaheb, M.
Background and Objective : This study aims to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards tuberculosis (TB) among treatment partners seen at the out-patient department (OPD) of the Lady Hill Urban Health Care Centre, KMC, Mangalore from April to May 2009. Methodology: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards TB among treatment partners (age more than 12 years old; pediatric age group was excluded) seen at the OPD. A p...
The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 1219 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P<0.001). Advertisements were the main source of ...
Abdulrahman Musaiger; Nisreen Zagzoog
Full Text Available Background: Emergency Contraceptive (EC is a type of modern contraception that is indicated after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure. Use of EC with in a defined time period could prevent unwanted pregnancy and its damaging consequences like unintended child birth and unsafe abortion. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of emergency contraceptives among female preparatory students in Mekelle, North Ethiopia. Method: A cross sectional study was conducted among 366 female students at Atse Yohanesse preparatory school from January to May 2013. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select study participants. Data processing and analyzing was done using statistical package for social sciences version 20. Result: In this study, about 90.7% of the respondents had heard about emergency contraceptives. The major sources of information were mass media, club in school and friends. About 277 (75.7% of the students had good knowledge about EC. The older age was significantly associated with the students awareness (AOR = 2.32, 95% CI: 1.23-4.37. The majority (229(64.9% of respondents had a positive attitude towards EC. Age and ethnic group were significantly associated with the students attitude towards EC. Among those respondents who used contraceptives, 60.5% of them responded to use EC. About two-third (67.4% of ever users of EC had good knowledge of the correct time of taking EC after unprotected sexual intercourse. Conclusion: Although the findings of this study showed high prevalence of knowledge and attitude towards EC among respondents, the improvement of female students knowledge about specific details of the method and timely utilization of emergency contraception is still required.
Full Text Available The risk of unhealthy disposal of solid waste is one of the important problems in many societies, and recycling is considered as a solution for managing solid wastes. Environmental knowledge and attitude of young people (like students appears to be crucial as their point of view ultimately plays an important role in providing solution to future environmental problems. In this study the knowledge, attitude and practice of Yazd University of Medical Sciences students in respect of disposal of solid wastes and the important factors were studied. Two hundred thirty seven students were included in this cross-sectional study, selected from 5 schools of this university. Data collected by a self administered questionnaire containing four sections, were analyzed using SPSS for Windows. The mean grade of knowledge of men and women was 13.53 and 12.38, of 20, respectively. The difference between the knowledge of males and females was significant (P< 0.016. On the whole the knowledge of the students was not appropriate. About 66% of students did not have any action in segregation and recycling of solid wastes. It is concluded that all students must take part in formal and informal education classes to promote their knowledge in this regard.
MH Ehrampoush , MH Baghiani Moghadam
This article presents the results of the study on knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) on dengue in an urban community in Northeast of Brazil, and the risk situations involved in its transmission. The study was observational and used a semi-structured survey composed of questions about the disease and vector control measures, which was answered by residents of selected households (IC 95%) of the community of Santa Rosa, in the city of Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Pernambuco State. The variables of the KAP were classified into appropriate, regular and insufficient. There is adequate knowledge about the characteristics of the vector and regular regarding the disease and the activities of control. The population does not know that the insecticide used in water is chemical and uses this water for domestic consumption and drinking. Regarding government activity the knowledge was insufficient. It also demonstrates a non appropriate attitude regarding the prevention of dengue and insufficient practice in the prevention of the vector in the household. The practice of water care was adequate for 41% of residents. The local risk situations raised are related to the intermittency in water and also behavioral. PMID:21503482
dos Santos, Solange Laurentino; Cabral, Ana Catarina Dos Santos Pereira; Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva
Changing environmental conditions have increased the transmission period for both dengue and malaria. Annual incidence of malaria in 2006 alone was 247 million cases leading to nearly 881 000 deaths; whereas another 50 to 100 million dengue infections, associated with an overall mortality of 2.5%, are expected each year. In Pakistan, like many developing nations with endemic malaria, an empirical clinical diagnosis is usually made, due to a lack of resources and availability of diagnostic facilities. Since both diseases are endemic in the same population and presenting symptoms are similar a thorough knowledge of both diseases is essential for improving diagnosis on clinical grounds. Thus our study aims were to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practices of family medicine practitioners with regard to dengue and malaria and thereby assess the need for further training. Ninety consenting general practitioners (GPs) in different towns of Karachi, Pakistan were administered an extensive questionnaire of 50 questions regarding their knowledge, attitudes and practices on management of dengue and malaria. The authors concluded that despite possessing basic knowledge of the disease, the majority of GPs in the area needed training regarding both diseases and their management. Key targets identified for training programs included clinical diagnosis and management of endemic vector borne diseases. PMID:24038185
Thaver, Ali M; Sobani, Zain A; Qazi, Fahad; Khan, Maryam; Zafar, Afia; Beg, M Asim
Full Text Available This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of learners on issues related to water, sanitation and hygiene in selected schools in Vhembe District, South Africa. The methodology relied on a questionnaire, an inspection of sanitary facilities and discussion with the school authorities. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. The study revealed that the level of knowledge about waterborne diseases was relatively high (76.7 ± 1.75%, but knowledge on transmission routes was inadequate. The majority of the respondents had no knowledge when it comes to water-based diseases and their prevention (78.4 ± 1.71%.The attitude and practice on hygiene was also found to be high (91.40 ± 1.16%. Some schools from the urban area had proper handwashing facilities, but there was no soap available. The borehole water quality for rural schools appeared clear, but the microbial quality was unknown. The water supply and sanitation facilities were inadequate in rural schools, with no handwashing areas and no sanitary bins for girls. Some schools had toilets with broken doors which did not offer privacy. The only water tap, located at the centre of the school premises, was not enough for the whole school community.
Jabulani Ray Gumbo
This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of learners on issues related to water, sanitation and hygiene in selected schools in Vhembe District, South Africa. The methodology relied on a questionnaire, an inspection of sanitary facilities and discussion with the school authorities. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. The study revealed that the level of knowledge about waterborne diseases was relatively high (76.7 ± 1.75%), but knowledge on transmission routes was inadequate. The majority of the respondents had no knowledge when it comes to water-based diseases and their prevention (78.4 ± 1.71%).The attitude and practice on hygiene was also found to be high (91.40 ± 1.16%). Some schools from the urban area had proper handwashing facilities, but there was no soap available. The borehole water quality for rural schools appeared clear, but the microbial quality was unknown. The water supply and sanitation facilities were inadequate in rural schools, with no handwashing areas and no sanitary bins for girls. Some schools had toilets with broken doors which did not offer privacy. The only water tap, located at the centre of the school premises, was not enough for the whole school community. PMID:23736657
Sibiya, Jerry E; Gumbo, Jabulani Ray
In a clinic-based study, the extent to which diabetes knowledge, attitude and compliance related to glycemic control was explored. Three hundred Saudi diabetic women aged 20 years and above were randomly selected from the register of the Diabetics and Endocrine Centre in Dammam, in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia and personally interviewed using a pre-structured questionnaire. As an index of glycemic control, the glycated hemoglobin was assayed using a microcolumn technique. The main findings were: generally low score levels of knowledge, attitude and compliance. THe mean glycated hemoglobin was significantly higher in type I (IDDM) (10.2 +/- 2.2%) than in type 2 (NIDDM) diabetic respondents (9.1 +/- 2.0%), P = 0.001. Evidence from this study suggests there is a need for sustained active patient education, support and evaluation, in order to increase patient involvement and self-reliance in the management of their diabetes. It is recommended that diabetes care be principally the responsibility of appropriately trained and culturally compatible members of the primary health care team working in partnership with other secondary care services. Medical audit of diabetes at the primary health care level would improve clinical performance in this field. PMID:17589175
Binhemd, T A
Full Text Available This study was done to explore the effect of women`s group counseling on knowledge, attitude and practice of their husbands concerning family planning in Zahedan in 2002. A quasi-experimental study (before and after was carried out. Forty-four married women with two or more children who had not used contraceptive methods were non-randomly selected from three Health Centers. Before intervention, women and their husbands were interviewed to complete a questionnaire to determine their educational needs, then the women attend three sessions in 5 8-9 member groups. One month after intervention they were asked to complete the same questionnaire and a check list was filled. The mean score, Standard Deviation (SD, paired t-test, Mc-nemar and Chi-square were used for analysis. The finding showed significant difference between the mean scores of knowledge (p<0.001 and attitude (p<0.001 of both of women and their husbands before and after intervention. Moreover, 43% of the couples used one of the modern contraceptive methods after intervention (p<0.00001. Statistic paired t-test with p<0.001 showed that the difference between the knowledge and attitude scores before and after the intervention is significant. Moreover, 43% of the couples used one of the methods after intervention (p<0.00001. According to the results, wives` counseling is recommended to enhance men involvement and to improve family planning programs.
The Philippines is currently the world's leading supplier of seafarers aboard foreign vessels, accounting for nearly a quarter of the world's maritime industry. Seafarers, being mobile, have a significant contribution impact on the worldwide spread of infectious diseases such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs). This study aims to determine the level of knowledge, as well as the attitudes and practices (KAP) of male Filipino seafarers regarding sexual health. A cross-sectional survey was administered through convenience sampling of male Filipino seafarers. The respondents showed the least knowledge about prevention, followed by transmission of STIs. The respondents showed adequate knowledge about risk factors such as multiple sex partners, and about transmission such as vertical spread. In addition, the respondents indicated their attitude and level of responsibility in informing their sexual partners in case they contract STIs and avoidance of high-risk partners. They also showed attitudes that predispose them to high-risk behaviour such as decreased sexual sensation caused by use of condoms and added pleasure in having intercourse with strangers. The majority of respondents were sexually active. Most have STI/HIV screening as part of their pre-employment medical exam. Positive practices include use of condoms, voluntary medical evaluation for STI's, and avoidance of high-risk partners. Negative practices include going to bars closely linked with prostitution, and most of the respondents had had sexual intercourse with sex workers overseas. Male seafarers appear to have double standards regarding women as sexual partners - about half had intercourse outside their stable relationships. They perceive protection as their sole discretion. PMID:21348016
Guevara, N; Pineda, M; Dorotan, M; Ghimire, K; Co, M; Guzman, A; Postrano, L
Background Vaccines are the most successful and cost-effective public health interventions available to avert vaccine-preventable diseases and deaths. Despite progress in the field of adolescent health, many young people in Africa still get sick and die from vaccine-preventable diseases due to lack of vaccination. Parents, adolescents and teachers are key players with regard to implementation of adolescent vaccination policies. Therefore, understanding their knowledge, attitudes and practices towards adolescent vaccination may provide clues on what can be done to improve vaccine uptake among adolescents. The aim of this study is to conduct a qualitative and quantitative systematic review on knowledge, attitudes and practices on adolescent vaccination among parents, teachers and adolescents in Africa. Methods We will include both quantitative and qualitative primary studies. Eligible quantitative studies include both intervention and observational studies. Qualitative studies to be included are focus group discussions, direct observations, in-depth interviews and case ethnographic studies. We will search PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, Web of Science, WHOLIS, Africa Wide and CINAHL for eligible studies with no time and language limits. We will also check reference lists of included studies for other eligible reports. Two authors will independently screen the search output, select studies and extract data, resolving discrepancies by consensus and discussion. We will analyse qualitative data using thematic analysis where applicable, and quantitative studies findings will be presented in a narrative synthesis form based on the outcomes. Discussion The findings from this systematic review will guide the identification of gaps on knowledge, attitudes and practices among the key role players on adolescent vaccination. We anticipate that our findings will guide the development of adolescent-focused vaccination policy in Africa, which is virtually non-existent at present. Systematic review registration This review is registered with PROSPERO, registration number CRD42014010395. PMID:25200458
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF) is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. In this decade it has expanded to new countries and from urban to rural areas. Nepal was regarded DF free until 2004. Since then dengue virus (DENV) has rapidly expanded its range even in mountain regions of Nepal, and major outbreaks occurred in 2006 and 2010. However, no data on the local knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of DF in Nepal exist although such information is required for ...
Dhimal, Meghnath; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Dhimal, Mandira Lamichhane; Gautam, Ishan; Singh, Shanker Pratap; Bhusal, Chop Lal; Kuch, Ulrich
Full Text Available Dental caries comprise the single most chronic disease affecting children today. Evidence increasingly suggests that for successful prevention of dental caries, preventive interactions must begin within the first year of life. Pediatricians are responsible for the primary care of the child and are well positioned to begin this process if they recognize and encourage good preventive habits and refer appropriately. Insufficient information about their role in prevention of dental caries led us to conduct a survey among pediatricians in Bangalore urban to determine their knowledge, attitude and practice in prevention of dental caries.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Governments in several countries attempt to strengthen user participation through instructing health care organisations to plan and implement activities such as user representation in administrational boards, improved information to users, and more individual user participation in clinical work. The professionals are central in implementing initiatives to enhance user participation in organisations, but no controlled studies have been conducted on the effect on professionals from implementing institutional development plans. The objective was to investigate whether implementing a development plan intending to enhance user participation in a mental health hospital had any effect on the professionals' knowledge, practice, or attitudes towards user participation. Methods This was a non-randomized controlled study including professionals from three mental health hospitals in Central Norway. A development plan intended to enhance user participation was implemented in one of the hospitals as a part of a larger re-organizational process. The plan included i.e. establishing a patient education centre and a user office, purchasing of user expertise, appointing contact professionals for next of kin, and improving of the centre's information and the professional culture. The professionals at the intervention hospital thus constituted the intervention group, while the professionals at two other hospitals participated as control group. All professionals were invited to answer the Consumer Participation Questionnaire (CPQ and additional questions, focusing on knowledge, practice, and attitudes towards user participation, two times with a 16 months interval. Results A total of 438 professionals participated (55% response rate. Comparing the changes in the intervention group with the changes in the control group revealed no statistically significant differences at a 0.05 level. The implementation of the development plan thus had no measurable effect on the professionals' knowledge, practice, or attitudes at the intervention hospital, compared to the control hospitals. Conclusion This is the first controlled study on the effect on professionals from implementing a development plan to enhance user participation in a mental health hospital. The plan had no effect on professionals' knowledge, practice, or attitudes. This can be due to the quality of the development plan, the implementation process, and/or the suitability of the outcome measures.
Rise Marit By
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) was first detected in Cambodia in 2010. The disease was responsible for high morbidity and high mortality in adult pigs and the outbreak had a costly impact on those farmers affected. The aim of this study was to generate a better understanding of Cambodian swine producers' behaviour, in relation to PRRS and its control, in areas that have previously been affected by the disease. A survey of the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAPs) of pig owners with regard to PRRS was conducted in semi-commercial and backyard farms in Takeo province in southeast Cambodia. The survey was designed to assess knowledge of PRRS disease and its transmission, farmers' attitudes and practices related to preventive and control measures, knowledge on vaccination and perception towards local veterinary authority activities. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise qualitative data, while multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the association between selected outcomes and a number of hypothetical predictors. When presented with clinical signs typical of PRRS, most farmers identified an infectious disease as the most likely explanation for the listed clinical conditions. Farmers were also confident in recognising direct contact between pigs as one of the main ways of disease transmission; however, other viral transmission patterns typical of PRRS were mostly unknown or ignored. In general, male farmers and farmers with a higher level of education were more likely to have a better knowledge of transmission routes between pigs. In terms of attitude towards control measures, vaccination and disinfection were perceived as the most effective control practices. Farmers with a better knowledge of vaccine protocols were more likely to find vaccination effective. Village animal health workers (VAHWs) were generally in contact more with backyard farmers, while semi-commercial farmers were more prone to treat pigs themselves, raising the issue of easy and uncontrolled access to medication and vaccination. In general, farmers had a positive attitude towards local veterinarians, and lack of contact between farmers and the veterinary authority was associated more with logistic constraints than with farmers' mistrust towards the authority. PMID:24472214
Tornimbene, B; Chhim, V; Sorn, S; Drew, T W; Guitian, J
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in Ethiopia and the Amhara region. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and health-seeking practice in this region is essential to plan, implement, and evaluate advocacy, communication, and social mobilization work. This may improve the case detection rate. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of patients toward TB in the Eastern Amhara region of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among suspected and confirmed TB patients who were 18 years of age and older. For this purpose, 422 participants were enrolled. A structured and pre-validated questionnaire was used to collect data. In addition ?(2) and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to see an association with different variables. The mean and median knowledge score of respondents about pulmonary TB was 6.81 and 7, respectively. The majority of respondents had several misconceptions in all aspects of the most infectious form of TB. About half of the respondents did not know the current free cost of TB diagnosis and treatment. The 69.9% of respondents claimed that cost is the main reason for not getting care. The majority of respondents had several misconceptions about TB. The TB control program needs to consider advocacy, communication, and social mobilization for addressing the gap in the study sites. PMID:23419364
Esmael, Ahmed; Ali, Ibrahim; Agonafir, Mulualem; Desale, Adinew; Yaregal, Zelalem; Desta, Kassu
Full Text Available Background: Recent raise in litigation againsthealthcare practitioners is definitely an issueof immediate concern and may reflect an in-crease in unethical practices by them. Profes-sional relations between physicians and nursesmay have differences with respect to their atti-tudes towards patient-care. Aim and Objec-tives: To assess the knowledge of, and attitudesto healthcare ethics among north Indian physi-cians and nurses. Material and Methods: Thepresent cross sectional study was carried outamong 298 physicians and 107 nurses of threemedical colleges of northern India in the monthof July-August 2011 using pretested self ad-ministered questionnaire. Data analysis wasdone using SPSS version 20. Result and Con-clusion: There was a statistically significantdifference between the opinion of physiciansand nurses with respect to adherence to confi-dentiality, paternalistic attitude of doctors (doc-tors should do their best for the patient irre-spective of the patient?s opinion, informingclose relatives of a patients for consent proce-dures. The study highlighted gaps in the knowl-edge about practical aspects of health care eth-ics among physicians and nurses which theyencounter in day to day practice at workplace.Measures of workplace education like sensiti-zation workshops, CME?s, conferences onhealth care ethics would assist in bridging thisgap to a certain extent.
There have been several studies of the diffusion of new management accounting practices. This study adds a new dimension: in order to indicate the number of practices associated with the respondents, their interrelationships, the respondents, were asked to answer questions in a questionnaire covering four variables: level of knowledge, level of attitude, priority of usage, and level of benefit for 15 new accounting practices. The survey includes a sample of 119 large and medium-sized privately owned manufacturing and non-manufacturing companies, comprising 15 new or recently developed management accounting practices. Our results reveal that companies in general experience a high level of benefit from the practices. However, significance differences between low priority of usage and high number of practices associated with the company are very likely to contribute to a more modest level of benefits. About 20 percent of the companies associate themselves with four to six projects on new accounting practices intheir organization, which might lead to poor performance and high failure rates. Comments from the respondents also show that companies have mixed feelings concerning the practices and those companies seldom use a theoretical concept but are inspired to design home-made models. This also confirms that accounting practices are used for inspiration of design. The findings can provide a further basis for the discussion and development of a theory for new management accounting models.
Nielsen, Steen; Melander, Preben
Objective To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of inhabitants of an endemic area in Fars province toward cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Methods The study was carried out in Lapui district in Fars province, south of Iran, one of the most important foci of CL in this province. Sample size (237 residents) was calculated based on population. House-to-house survey was done to collect the data regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the inhabitants. The head of each household was interviewed by a trained staff to assess his/her KAP related to CL. A semi-structured KAP questionnaire was used for data collection. Results Mean age of participants was 39 and more than half of the respondents were in the age group of 31-40. Males constituted 172 (72.5%) of subjects. Most of the respondents (84.3%) were literate. The majority of the study population (83%) had heard about Salak (local name for CL) and most of these respondents (91%) were aware that CL is presented with a cutaneous lesion. Nearly two-third of the participants (63.5%) stated the bite of mosquito (not specifically sandflies) for CL transmission. The respondents' attitude regarding the treatment of CL was not satisfactory since only 48% believed that CL can be treated by medicine. A noticeable proportion of respondents (21%) believed in indigenous medicine for the treatment of CL. A small proportion of respondents (14%) stated that traditional healers are good at treating this disease. More than two-third (69%) of respondents believed that the disease is preventable although most of interviewees did not know about preventive measures. Conclusions In this study, insufficient knowledge of community about infection nature, vector, transmission mode and preventive measures of CL, highlights the needs for a health education initiative to enhance the awareness of people about CL. This would improve inhabitants' contribution in control program of CL in this area. PMID:25183278
Sarkari, Bahador; Qasem, Asgari; Shafaf, Mohammad Reza
HIV and AIDS have posed various medical, nutritional, social and economic problems, female-headed households being the most affected. Poor nutritional knowledge and dietary practices common among the most affected households significantly contribute to the rapid progression of HIV. However, very little data exist concerning these aspects of nutrition among women living with HIV and AIDS in resource-limited settings, such as Uganda. The aim of the study was to investigate the gaps in nutrition...
Bukusuba, John; Kikafunda, Joyce K.; Whitehead, Roger G.
Full Text Available Background: Contraception is as old as mankind.In view of increasing population theres need for awareness regarding the use of various contraceptive methods. Aims and Objectives: To assess the Knowledge, Attitude & Practice regarding the various contraceptive methods in a rural setup of Hoskote. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out at MVJ, UHC & PHC of Hoskote Taluk on OPD basis. Data was collected by a pre-designed questionnaire at the OPD. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. People were simultaneously educated regarding the various contraceptive methods. Results: Total sample size was 150 of which 75 were males and 75 females. Knowledge about contraceptives was seen more in males (93.3% when compared to females (72%. 95.2% of gradates had knowledge regarding the methods of contraception. This suggests that the knowledge about contraception is better perceived and understood among the literate group. Most common method of contraceptive practiced was barrier methods (40%, followed by sterilization procedure (20%, IUCD (18.67%, OCP (12%, coitus interruptus (8.67% and emergency contraception (0.67%. Conclusion: There has been a considerable improvement among the people even in rural setup regarding the contraceptive use, but there still exists lack of awareness and knowledge regarding the use of contraceptive methods in some small groups of people. IEC activities have to be increased especially for females of this rural setup.
Yogendra V, Shuaib Ahmed, Sana Jaweriya, Sagorika Mullick
Full Text Available Background: Adolescent sexuality is leading to adolescent pregnancy, unsafe abortion, Reproductive Tract Infections, Sexually transmitted infections. Therefore, studying knowledge, attitude and practice regarding this problem among school adolescents is an essential issue, which can support to overcome young people from sexual related problems. Methods: This study was cross sectional study conducted in Wardha district of Maharashtra among school going adolescents. Data was collected by the means of anonymous questionnaire after taking the informed consent. Results: In our study total 375 students were included in the study, amongst 192 were girls and 183 were boys. Majority of students belong to age group of 13-15 years. Nearly 50% of students were knowing about basic reproductive physiology. Amongst the total 375 participants, 184 (49% students had ever heard about any of contraceptive method while 51 % of totally unaware. Among total students having knowledge of contraception, 38.7% knew about condoms, oral contraceptive pills as method of contraception were known to 88 students (23.5% while knowledge of emergency contraception was very low. The knowledge of females was higher as compared to males regarding oral and emergency contraception. 15% of total adolescents accepted that they have used condom. The proportion of males using condoms was higher as compared to females. Conclusions: The adolescents need to be provided with correct knowledge for behavior change, to stop their undesirable practices for healthy life. There was an evident gap between knowledge and practices with respect to the sexual practices of youth which needs to be bridged. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 903-908
Abstract Background Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to decreasing maternal mortality in low-resource settings. ANC clinics provide resources to improve nutrition and health knowledge and promote preventive health practices. We sought to compare the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) among women seeking and not-seeking ANC in rural Kenya. Methods Data from a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Western Province, Kenya were used. Nutrition knowledge (NKS), health know...
Perumal, Nandita; Cole, Donald C.; Oue?draogo, Hermann Z.; Sindi, Kirimi; Loechl, Cornelia; Low, Jan; Levin, Carol; Kiria, Christine; Kurji, Jaameeta; Oyunga, Mary
Background: Febrile convulsion is one of the most common problems in children aged 5 months to 6 years. The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of an educational program on mothers for prevention of febrile seizure in children. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, 88 mothers were chosen who were divided into intervention and control groups, randomly. Data of the control and intervention groups were collected in two stages, before intervention and 1 month after intervention, by a validated and reliable questionnaire. The intervention consisted of three educational sessions, each one lasting for 60 min. Data were analyzed using chi-square, t-test and paired t-test. Findings: Age average of subjects in the intervention group and in the control group was 26.75 and 26.84 years, respectively. The results showed a significant increase in the knowledge (P < 0.001), attitude (P = 0.04) and practice (P = 0.01) in the intervention group 1 month after intervention compared with that before intervention, while such an increase was not seen in the control group. Conclusion: This study confirmed the efficiency of educational interventions in improving mother's knowledge, attitude and practice regarding prevention of febrile seizure in children. PMID:24083276
Najimi, Arash; Dolatabadi, Nayereh Kasiri; Esmaeili, Ahmad Ali; Sharifirad, Gholam Reza
Full Text Available Context: Use of steroids in septic shock is an issue of contention, more so with two major trials reporting conflicting results. Aims: To assess the current knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP related to the role of steroids in septic shock among intensivists practising in Hyderabad. Setting, Design, Materials and Methods: Questionnaires containing 10 questions pertaining to the role of steroids in septic shock, were distributed to 76 intensivists during the monthly critical care meeting. Results: A great majority of intensivists (82% agreed that the role of steroids is restricted to septic shock not responding to vasopressors. There was no clear consensus regarding the role of corticotropin stimulation test or the timing of total cortisol level testing, if it has to be performed. Hydrocortisone was clearly the choice of steroid for most intensivists and intravenous bolus injection being the preferred route of administration. There was no agreement regarding the dose of steroids, the role of fludrocortisone and whether steroids should be tapered. Most of the respondents did not extend the steroid therapy beyond seven days and the most common side effect reported was hyperglycemia. Conclusion: There is a lot of ambiguity in the knowledge, attitudes or practices regarding role of steroids in septic shock among intensivists in Hyderabad. Uniform policies and protocols need to be devised at institutional level, with multispecialty inputs, and doctors need to be familiarized accordingly.
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is considered a public health problem worldwide, and incidence in Colombia is 12,000 cases per year. Colombia has implemented control programs for years which have often overlooked the social, economic, and demographic characteristics of the regions where the disease occurs. As part of an epidemiological study, this article presents the results of a survey on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to leishmaniasis in rural populations in Acandí in the Colombian Darién. Qualitative and quantitative tools were used (ethnography and surveys, respectively). The results show scarce knowledge among the population on basic aspects such as recognition of the sand fly vector. There were also differences in KAP according to gender and type of population, rather than by geographic area. The study points to government neglect as a critical factor in the persistence of the disease. PMID:25388316
Carrillo-Bonilla, Lina María; Trujillo, Juan José; Alvarez-Salas, Lizeth; Vélez-Bernal, Iván Darío
Full Text Available Abstract Background Misuse of antimicrobials (AMs and antimicrobial resistance (AMR are global concerns. The present study evaluated knowledge, attitudes and practices about AMR and AM prescribing among medical doctors in two large public hospitals in Lima, Peru, a middle-income country. Methods Cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire Results A total of 256 participants completed the questionnaire (response rate 82%. Theoretical knowledge was good (mean score of 6 ± 1.3 on 7 questions in contrast to poor awareness ( Conclusions This survey revealed topics to address during future AM prescribing interventions such as dissemination of information about local AMR rates, promoting confidence in the quality of locally available AMs, redaction and dissemination of local AM guidelines and addressing the general public, and exploring the possibilities of internet-based training.
Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer mortality among women with the vast majority of patients in developing countries. Bhutanese refugees in the United States are from South Central Asia, the 4th leading region of the world for cervical cancer incidence. Over the past few years, Bhutanese refugees have increased significantly in Nebraska. This study evaluates current knowledge of cervical cancer and screening practices among the Bhutanese refugee women in Omaha, Nebraska. The study aimed to investigate cervical cancer and screening knowledge and perceptions about the susceptibility and severity of cervical cancer and perceived benefits and barriers to screening. Self-administered questionnaires and focus groups based on the Health Belief Model were conducted among 42 healthy women from the Bhutanese refugee community in Omaha. The study revealed a significant lack of knowledge in this community regarding cervical cancer and screening practices, with only 22.2 % reporting ever hearing of a Pap test and 13.9 % reporting ever having one. Only 33.3 % of women were in agreement with their own perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. Women who reported ever hearing about the Pap test tended to believe more strongly about curability of the disease if discovered early than women who never heard about the test (71.4 vs. 45.0 %, for the two groups. respectively). Refugee populations in the United States are in need for tailored cancer education programs especially when being resettled from countries with high risk for cancer. PMID:25060231
Haworth, Rebecca J; Margalit, Ruth; Ross, Christine; Nepal, Tikka; Soliman, Amr S
Full Text Available Purpose: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs are adverse consequences of drug therapy. ADRs are representing a major concern of health systems in terms of early recognition, proper management and prevention. Under reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs is a common problem in Pharmacovigilance programs. Poor perceptions of doctors about ADRs and risk management have contributed to high rate of ADR under-reporting in India. Underreporting has also been attributed to lack of time to doctor, misconceptions about spontaneous reporting and lack of information on how to report, where to report and a lack of availability of report forms, and also physicians' attitudes to ADRs. The objective of our study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of health care professional towards Pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions in a tertiary care hospital, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaires based study was carried out in Post graduate students and faculties of tertiary care hospital attached with Govt. Medical College, Bhavnagar, Gujarat. Post graduate students and faculties of different clinical subjects working in the tertiary care teaching hospital, Bhavnagar, Gujarat (India were enrolled and present throughout in study. 22 questionnaires about knowledge, attitude and practices towards ADRs and Pharmacovigilance were developed and peer viewed of all questionnaires by expert faculties from Pharmacology department. We were contacted directly to post graduate students and faculties of respective clinical department, questionnaires were distributed, 30 minutes time given to filled form. Any clarification and extra time was needed, provided to them. The filled KAP questionnaires were analyzed in question wise and their percentage value was calculated by using Microsoft excel spread sheet and online statistical software. Results: In study, postgraduate residents (n=81 and faculties (n=63 from different clinical departments were present throughout study. Of all post graduate students, an average 27.82% and 40.76% faculties were true knowledge about ADRs and Pharmacovigilance. From attitude of students and faculties towards reporting ADRs, an average 91.77% and 91.53% were agreed to reporting ADRs is necessary, mandatory and increased patients safety. In practice based questionnaires, 74.07% students and 71.43% faculties found difficulty like non-availability of ADR form, do not have time, patient co-operation etc. to report ADR. 47.62% in faculties and 43.21% in students said managing patient are more important than reporting ADR. Only 11.11% and 12.35% of faculties and students were found the factors like how to report, where to report etc. discouraging factors for reporting ADRs. Conclusion: From our study, we concluded that post graduate students and faculties of tertiary care hospital have better attitude towards reporting ADRs, but have lack of knowledge and practices of ADRs. The majority of postgraduate students and faculties were felt ADR reporting and monitoring is very important but few had ever reported ADRs because lack of motivation and knowledge about ADR.
Dr.Mukeshkumar B Vora
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 1219 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P<0.001. Advertisements were the main source of information on energy drinks (43%. The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%, to try them (51.9% and to get energy (43%, albeit with significant differences between genders (P<0.001. About half of the adolescents did not know the ingredients of these drinks, and 49% did not know that they contain caffeine (P-values <0.006 and <0.001 between genders, respectively. The greater majority (67% considered energy drinks to be soft drinks. The study indicates the need for Saudi adolescents to be warned on the over-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks.
The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12-19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; Penergy drinks (43%). The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%), to 'try them' (51.9%) and 'to get energy' (43%), albeit with significant differences between genders (Pdrinks, and 49% did not know that they contain caffeine (P-values energy drinks to be soft drinks. The study indicates the need for Saudi adolescents to be warned on the over-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks. PMID:24576364
Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Zagzoog, Nisreen
Full Text Available Malnutrition and growth failure are prevalent among Persons with Disabilities (PWD and most trainers or care givers in the Community-based Rehabilitation (CBR centres had limited knowledge in nutrition management for this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study was to develop and examine the validity and reliability of an evaluation instrument, Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Questionnaire in Persons with Disabilities (KAP-nOKU among trainers in CBR centres, Malaysia. KAP-nOKU was a guided self-administered questionnaire and consisted of 30 knowledge, 15 attitude and 15 practice items. After items generation, it was assessed the content validity by an expert panel; and face validity by nine care givers for spastic children. The revised questionnaire was further pre-tested. This pilot study was a cross-sectional survey and recruited 165 trainers from CBR centres in Perlis, Pulau Pinang and Perak, Malaysia. Item analysis or construct validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability of KAP-nOKU were examined. Five sub-domains were constructed for knowledge domain and three factor-solutions emerged for attitude and practice domains, respectively. Items with low factor loading and correlation were removed. Internal consistency was good-to-excellent for knowledge (KR20 = 0.63, attitude (CA = 0.67 and practice (CA = 0.82 domains. Test-retest reliability- the intraclass correlation coefficients for knowledge, attitude and practice domains were 0.59, 0.73 and 0.91 (p<0.05. The finalized KAP-nOKU after analysis contained 57 items-29 knowledge, 13 attitude and 15 practice items. KAP-nOKU was an adequately valid and reliable questionnaire which can serve as an assessment tool to evaluate the effectiveness of nutrition education among trainers or care givers in rehabilitation centres, Malaysia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is becoming increasingly prevalent among children in China. Poor parent knowledge and attitudes often contribute to inappropriate management practices, leading to deficiencies in the care process. We aimed to document the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of parents of children with asthma and analyze how knowledge and attitudes relate to practices. Our secondary objective was to identify the factors associated with parent KAP scores. Methods A KAP questionnaire was distributed to parents caring for 2960 children (014 years diagnosed with asthma for at least 3 months from Chinas 29 provinces. A 50-item questionnaire was devised for this cross-sectional survey based on a comprehensive review of the subject. Questionnaires were scored on 30 items regarding parent asthma-related KAP, with one point for every correct response and a possible range of 013 for knowledge, 07 for attitudes and 010 for practices. Higher scores indicated better KAP. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with practices and combined KAP scores. Results The response rate was 83.95% (2485/2960. Only 18.31% (455/2485 of parents correctly answered ? 60% of the knowledge questions (mean = 5.69. Most (89.85%; 2226/2485 gave positive responses to ? 60% of the attitude questions (mean = 5.23 while 67.89% (1687/2485 correctly answered ? 60% of the practices questions (mean = 6.19. Knowledge and attitudes were positively associated with pulmonary function testing, regular physician visits, monitoring with a peak flow meter and the Childrens Asthma Control Test questionnaire, avoidance of asthma triggers, using an inhaled ?2 receptor agonist and adherence to medication regimen (p ? 0.05. Attitudes were also associated with allergen testing. In logistic regression analysis, high KAP scores (dichotomized by a cut-off score of 18 were positively associated with food allergy, rhinitis, physician visits, frequency of visits and parent education (p 1. Conclusions Generally, the parents KAP were poor. A gap between recommended and actual practice was observed, which may be related to inadequate knowledge about and poor attitudes toward childhood asthma. Improving knowledge and attitudes may encourage better practices among parents of children with asthma.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o conhecimento, atitudes e práticas sobre a TB em uma unidade prisional e na rede pública de saúde (RPS. METODOLOGIA: Foi realizado estudo transversal com aplicação do questionário KAP (knowledge, atittudes and practices na coleta de dados. Participaram 141 detentos, 115 funcionários do presídio e 158 da RPS. O programa Epi-Info versão 6.04 foi utilizado para comparação de proporções com significância estatística para p OBJECTIVE: To analyze the knowledge, attitudes and practices about TB in a prison and in public health services (PHS. METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out and KAP (knowledge, attitudes and practices questionnaire was applied to 141 prisoners, 115 prison's employees and 158 PHS workers. Epi-Info version 6.04 was used for comparison of proportions with statistic significance at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Mistaken concepts on TB were observed among the three searched groups. PHS also showed basic errors on TB knowledge thus pointing out imperfections on training. CONCLUSION: KAP revealed efficient for data collection of general knowledge items but was limited on practices and attitudes and so its use as the only tool for data collection about knowledge, attitudes and practices on TB is not advisable. It is suggested its regular use to aid educational activities and considering the high prevalence of TB among prisoners, it is noted the need to involve the Departments of Health in the supervision of educational activities in the prison system.
Sérgio Ferreira Júnior
Background Mongolia is undergoing rapid epidemiological transition with increasing urbanisation and economic development. The lifestyle and health of Mongolians are changing as a result, shown by the 2005 and 2009 STEPS surveys (World Health Organization's STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance) that described a growing burden of Non-Communicable Diseases and injuries (NCDs). This study aimed to assess, describe and explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian adult population around NCDs in order to better understand the drivers and therefore develop more appropriate solutions to this growing disease burden. In addition, it aimed to provide data for the evaluation of current public health programs and to assist in building effective, evidence-based health policy. Methods/design This national survey consisted of both quantitative and qualitative methods. A quantitative household-based questionnaire was conducted using a nationally representative sampleof 3854 rural and urban households. Participants were selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique in 42 regions across Mongolia, including rural and urban sites. Permanent residents of sampled households were eligible for recruitment, if aged between 15-64 years. This quantitative arm was then complemented and triangulated with a qualitative component: twelve focus group discussions focusing on diet, exercise and alcohol consumption. Discussions took place in six sites across the country, facilitated by local, trained health workers. These six sites were chosen to reflect major Mongolian cultural and social groups. Discussion KAP surveys are well represented in the literature, but studies that aim to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of a population around NCDs remain scarce. This is despite the growing number of national epidemiological surveys, such as STEPS, which aim to quantify the burden of these diseases but do not explore the level of population-based awareness, understanding, risk-perception and possible motivation for change. Therefore this paper will contribute to building a knowledge base of NCD KAP survey methodology for future use in epidemiology and research worldwide.
Demaio, Alessandro R; Dugee, Otgontuya
Full Text Available Prevention and management of obesity largely depends on patient motivation and education and these, in turn, can be greatly facilitated by adequate baseline data on the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of patients. The aim of this study is to assess KAP on obesity among Bangladeshi type 2 diabetics. Under a cross-sectional design 160 type 2 diabetics were selected from outpatient department of Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders. A standard questionnaire was constructed in local language and interview was administrated. Age and body mass index (BMI of the respondents were 45.17±5.68 years and 25.6 ±4 kg/m2 respectively. Among them 45% were male, 38% had primary education, 25% belonged to normal weight, 1/2 of them were overweight and rest were obese. KAP score of the respondents was [mean ±SD(%] 60.03±13.82, 79.30±8.27, 55.50±19.21 respectively. Majority were unaware about ideal body weight, energy requirement and the weight measurement techniques. A substantial proportion of the respondents considered fast food, soft drinks, mayonnaise as healthier food. Majority of them positively agreed on willingness to follow proper diet, maintaining ideal body weight, dietary management and exercise. More than half of the normal weight and overweight respondents did exercise >45 min, while 1/3 obese did not do exercise (35%. KAP score were significantly associated with respondents level of education (P=0.0001, P=0.007, P=0.05 respectively practice score was significantly associated with sex (P=0.0001, occupation (P=0.003 and BMI (P=0.0001. There is a need for increased effort towards developing and making education programs focusing on empowering the persons to transform their knowledge and attitude into practice.
Kazi Rumana Ahmed
Background Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common involvement in the role of food handlers of nurses or domestic staff, not specifically trained about food hygiene and HACCP, may represent a further cause of concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety of the nursing staff of two hospitals in Palermo, Italy. Association with some demographic and work-related determinants was also investigated. Methods The survey was conducted, by using a semi-structured questionnaire, in March-November 2005 in an acute general hospital and a paediatric hospital, where nursing staff is routinely involved in food service functions. Results Overall, 401 nurses (279, 37.1%, of the General Hospital and 122, 53.5%, of the Paediatric Hospital, respectively) answered. Among the respondents there was a generalized lack of knowledge about etiologic agents and food vehicles associated to foodborne diseases and proper temperatures of storage of hot and cold ready to eat foods. A general positive attitude towards temperature control and using clothing and gloves, when handling food, was shared by the respondents nurses, but questions about cross-contamination, refreezing and handling unwrapped food with cuts or abrasions on hands were frequently answered incorrectly. The practice section performed better, though sharing of utensils for raw and uncooked foods and thawing of frozen foods at room temperatures proved to be widely frequent among the respondents. Age, gender, educational level and length of service were inconsistently associated with the answer pattern. More than 80% of the respondent nurses did not attend any educational course on food hygiene. Those who attended at least one training course fared significantly better about some knowledge issues, but no difference was detected in both the attitude and practice sections. Conclusion Results strongly emphasize the need for a safer management of catering in the hospitals, where non professional food handlers, like nursing or domestic staff, are involved in food service functions. PMID:17407582
Buccheri, Cecilia; Casuccio, Alessandra; Giammanco, Santo; Giammanco, Marco; La Guardia, Maurizio; Mammina, Caterina
Full Text Available Abstract Background Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common involvement in the role of food handlers of nurses or domestic staff, not specifically trained about food hygiene and HACCP, may represent a further cause of concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety of the nursing staff of two hospitals in Palermo, Italy. Association with some demographic and work-related determinants was also investigated. Methods The survey was conducted, by using a semi-structured questionnaire, in March-November 2005 in an acute general hospital and a paediatric hospital, where nursing staff is routinely involved in food service functions. Results Overall, 401 nurses (279, 37.1%, of the General Hospital and 122, 53.5%, of the Paediatric Hospital, respectively answered. Among the respondents there was a generalized lack of knowledge about etiologic agents and food vehicles associated to foodborne diseases and proper temperatures of storage of hot and cold ready to eat foods. A general positive attitude towards temperature control and using clothing and gloves, when handling food, was shared by the respondents nurses, but questions about cross-contamination, refreezing and handling unwrapped food with cuts or abrasions on hands were frequently answered incorrectly. The practice section performed better, though sharing of utensils for raw and uncooked foods and thawing of frozen foods at room temperatures proved to be widely frequent among the respondents. Age, gender, educational level and length of service were inconsistently associated with the answer pattern. More than 80% of the respondent nurses did not attend any educational course on food hygiene. Those who attended at least one training course fared significantly better about some knowledge issues, but no difference was detected in both the attitude and practice sections. Conclusion Results strongly emphasize the need for a safer management of catering in the hospitals, where non professional food handlers, like nursing or domestic staff, are involved in food service functions.
La Guardia Maurizio
Osteoporosis is a growing chronic health problem that could result in mortalities and poor living quality. This study aimed at assessing the awareness of adults in Riyadh about this disease and its associated factors as well as compare KAP levels of men and women. A cross sectional study including 505 participants was conducted in several malls of Riyadh city during March 2012, selected by stratified random sampling technique. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. 86% of the participants had heard of osteoporosis. Media was the main source for Participants' knowledge; the mean knowledge score was 56.6% of the maximum achievable score. There was significant differences in knowledge scores by educational level, employment, income and residence (P = 0.005), (P = 0.008) (P = 0.0122) and (P = 0.009), respectively. Participants had low frequencies of preventive practices, especially females who had a mean total score equivalent to 48.8% of the maximum score, while males' mean score was 54.7% (P = 0.000). Perceived susceptibility was higher among females (83 vs. 74%, P = 0.000), and thus had less perception of the barriers to preventive actions, than men (49.6 vs. 55.5%, P = 0.000). Self-efficacy and perceived benefits had the highest scores (95% of the maximum achievable scores). Considerable number of adult males and females are unaware about osteoporosis. Since there is deficiency in the knowledge, and poor application of the preventive actions. Therefore, Education programs are needed to improve awareness and motivating healthy behaviours. PMID:23780302
Barzanji, Afraa Talal; Alamri, Fahad Abdulrahman; Mohamed, Ashry Gad
Background To assess the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice (KAP) amongst the general community regarding type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in rural Bangladesh. Methods Data was collected using cluster random sampling from 3104 adults residing in a rural district in Bangladesh. Participants underwent a KAP questionnaire survey regarding assessing diabetes, socio-demographic and medical history. Descriptive, Chi-square and regression analyses were performed. Results Participants were aged between 30 and 89 years (M ?=?51, SD ?=?11.8) and 65.5% were female. The prevalence of diabetes was found to be 8.3%. The majority (93%) reported to have heard of diabetes, yet only 4% knew what a glucose tolerance test was. Only 50% reported that they knew physical inactivity was a risk factor. Age, gender, level of education and socio-economic status (SES) were significantly associated with KAP. A lower proportion (41%) of older participants (aged ?65 years) reported that they knew that dietary modifications assist in diabetes control compared to those aged less than 35 years (69%), p<0.001. Males (? ?=?0.393, 95% CI?=?0.1420.643), and any level of education compared to no schooling (? ?=?0.726, 95% CI?=?0.596, 0.857) reported significantly more knowledge, after multivariate adjustments for covariates. Participants aged under 35 years, (odds ratio (OR) ?=?1.73, 95% CI ?=?1.222.43) had significantly higher positive attitudes towards treatments of diabetes compared to those aged ?65 years. Of the 99 people with known diabetes, more than 50% (n?=?52) never had their blood sugar levels checked since diagnosis. Conclusions Knowledge of diabetes and its risk factors is very limited in rural Bangladesh, even in persons diagnosed with type 2 DM. The development of public health programmes to increase knowledge of diabetes and its complications is required to assist people living in rural Bangladesh to control and management of diabetes. PMID:25313643
Islam, Fakir M. Amirul; Chakrabarti, Rahul; Dirani, Mohamed; Islam, M. Tauhidul; Ormsby, Gail; Wahab, Mohamed
Public health campaigns have improved knowledge on UVR-associated skin cancer risk and increased sun protection awareness. However, tanned skin is still a common beauty ideal. The relationship between knowledge, attitudes and protective behavior is not fully understood yet. A population-based survey was thus performed in the district of Erlangen involving 2,619 parents of 3- to 6-year old children. By means of a self-administered standardized questionnaire parental knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, their attitudes towards tanning and details of protective measures taken for their children were assessed. The study analyzed specifically the impact of parental tanning attitudes on sun-protective measures for their children while controlling for parental knowledge about skin cancer risk factors. While parental knowledge was significantly (inversely) associated with agreement to the statement "Tanned skin is healthy skin", this was not the case for "Tanning makes me look better". Overall, tanning affirmative attitudes were inversely associated with protective measures taken for the children, whereas parental knowledge had a positive impact on sun protection at the beach only. Multivariable analyses provided evidence for an effect of parental attitude on protective behavior independent of parental knowledge. Tanning attitudes and tanned skin as the misguided ideal of beauty need to be addressed in future public health campaigns to enhance the effectiveness of preventive activities in changing sun protective behavior. PMID:24802677
Gefeller, Olaf; Li, Jiang; Uter, Wolfgang; Pfahlberg, Annette B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B (HBV is the leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of people with chronic HBV and the associated factors. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at an outpatient adult hepatology clinic at a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur. A self-administered questionnaire was administered on a one-to-one basis to assess knowledge, attitudes, and lifestyle practices of people with chronic HBV. Results The response rate was 89% (n?=?483/543. Participants had a mean age of 46.3 (±14.7 years and the mean duration of HBV from time of diagnosis was 12.2 (±8.8 years. The mean knowledge score was 12.57/20 (standard deviation: ±4.4, range: 019. Participants aged 3039?years, with higher educational attainment, employed in professional jobs, longer duration of diagnosis and those without cirrhosis had significantly higher knowledge scores. Age, education level and duration of diagnosis were significant predictors of the knowledge score on standard multiple regression analysis. More than half of the participants were worried of spreading HBV infection to family and friends and worried since the diagnosis. A third of the participants (33.5% were embarrassed to reveal their diagnosis to the public but most of them (93.6% would inform their family. Those who reported feeling worried since their diagnosis were more likely to be middle-aged, of Malay ethnicity, have shorter duration of diagnosis of less than 10?years and have received therapy. About half of the participants (50.6% did not share dining utensils and the majority (93.2% believed that HBV can be transmitted by sharing of eating and drinking utensils. Older patients were significantly less likely to share utensils. Those who felt worried since diagnosis had significant higher knowledge of HBV. Conclusion The findings highlight the stigma and misconceptions that still exist among the HBV patients. More patient and public education about HBV and its prevention are essential to increase awareness and to demystify the disease.
Full Text Available Many studies indicate that the nutritional knowledge and practice of adolescent girls are inadequate. Few surveys were performanced about effect of nutrition education on knowledge, attitude and practice in this vulnerable group. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two nutrition education methods (guidebook and group discussion on the nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice of first-grade guidance school girl students in Tehran s 8th district, in 2003.A total of 300 students were selected from 11 guidance schools by simple random sampling and divided into three 100-student groups: 1-guide-book, 2-group discussion, and 3-control. Data on the nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice were collected using pretest and posttest questionnaires. The students in group1 were given the guide-book and required to study it at home, while group 2 students were told to discuss among themselves the contents of the guide-book. The control group were given nothing to study or to do. The pre-test showed that the mean scores of nutrition knowledge (K, attitude (A and practice (P were not statistically different among the 3 groups. The scores for the 3 variables increased in the guide-book and discussion groups significantly at the end of the study period (in all cases, p<0.001, while the inter-group comparisons also showed that the K and A scores were statistically different among the 3 groups; the P, however, was not different among them. Conclusion: Both methods (guide-book and group discussionincreased the level of nutritional knowledge and attitude as compared to (a the control group,and (b the initial values. Also both methods increased the level of nutritional practice as compared to (b the initial values. The group discussion method was more effective than the guide-book method in the promotion of the nutritional knowledge of the students.
Full Text Available Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM is a harmful traditional practice that is deeply rooted in Africa. It has been outlawed in Bayelsa state of Nigeria but there is evidence that its performance by traditional circumcisers and health professionals continues. Aim: The study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of FGM among doctors and nurses/midwives practising in public secondary and tertiary hospitals in Bayelsa state. Methods: One hundred and ninety seven (197 structured questionnaires were administered to all available doctors and nurses/midwives in the study hospitals for self-completion. Epi-Info version 3.5.1 was used to analyse data. Results: All the respondents were aware of FGM. A higher proportion of nurses/midwives than doctors had ever been asked and had ever treated patients with complications of FGM. More than 90% of respondents said it was not a good practice. Out of the 70 female respondents, 19 (27.1% said they were circumcised. Only one nurse/midwife admitted to performing FGM presently. Conclusion: Doctors and nurses/midwives practicing in the study hospitals were well aware of FGM and were favourably disposed towards its elimination. Efforts should be made to reinforce this position.
Full Text Available Although in Colombia screening programs of cervical cancer have achieved high levelsof coverage, cervical cancer has the first places in incidence and mortality. There isthe need to identify factors influencing it, among them is to investigate the level ofawareness of women about the screening test, their attitudes to screening and itspractices. For this we made a survey of 505 women 13 to 60 years who have had sexual life, living in the cities of Cartagena and Sincelejo (Colombia.The results showthat virtually all women have knowledge of cervical cytology, 94.5% of women havemade at least once. This percentage is higher in the range of 40 to 60 years where itreaches 99% in younger women this percentage decrease. In defining its usefulness,only 73.8% responded accurately. 50% reported unpleasant aspects related to themaking of the cytology, such as fear, and fear of a cancer diagnosis. A fail to rememberis the main factor for not claiming the results.These data show that the percentage ofwomen with sexual life that ignores the usefulness of cytology or never have practicedis minimal, which leads to the conclusion that ineffective screening programs to reducecervical cancer rates depends on other factors that should be investigated.RESUMEN:Aunque en Colombia los programas de prevención del cáncer de cérvix han alcanzadoaltos niveles de cobertura, todavía este ocupa los primeros lugares en incidencia ymortalidad. Existe la necesidad de identificar los factores que influyen en ello, por tantoes importante investigar el nivel de conocimiento de las mujeres sobre la prueba detamizaje, su actitud frente a la misma y sus prácticas relacionadas. Se realizó encuestaa 505 mujeres entre 13 y 60 años edad, que habían tenido vida sexual, residentes en lasciudades de Cartagena y Sincelejo (Colombia. Los resultados revelan que prácticamentetodas las mujeres tienen conocimientos sobre citología cérvico-uterina. El 94.5% delas mujeres se la han realizado por lo menos una vez. Este porcentaje es mayor en elrango de 40 a 60 años donde alcanza el 99%, y en las de menor edad este porcentajedisminuye. Al definir su utilidad: solo el 73.8% respondió de manera acertada. El 50%refieren aspectos desagradables en relación con la toma de la citología, como el miedoy el temor a un diagnóstico de cáncer y el olvido es el principal factor para no reclamarlos resultados. Estos datos demuestran que el porcentaje de mujeres con vida sexualque desconocen la utilidad de la citología o nunca se la han practicado es mínimo, locual permite concluir que la ineficacia de los programas de tamizaje para disminuir lascifras de cáncer de cérvix en nuestro medio depende de otros factores que deben serevaluados.
Full Text Available This study examines demographic, cognitive and behavioral factors that predict pediatric dog-bite injury risk in rural China. A total of 1,537 children (grades 46 in rural regions of Anhui, Hebei and Zhejiang Provinces, China completed self-report questionnaires assessing beliefs about and behaviors with dogs. The results showed that almost 30% of children reported a history of dog bites. Children answered 56% of dog-safety knowledge items correctly. Regressions revealed both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors predicted childrens risky interactions with dogs and dog-bite history. Boys behaved more riskily with dogs and were more frequently bitten. Older children reported greater risks with dogs and more bites. With demographics controlled, attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, exposure frequency, and dog ownership predicted childrens self-reported risky practice with dogs. Attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, dog exposure, and dog ownership predicted dog bites. In conclusion, both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors influenced rural Chinese childrens dog-bite injury risk. Theory-based, empirically-supported intervention programs might reduce dog-bite injuries in rural China.
David C. Schwebel
Full Text Available This study was undertaken in Mpwapwa District in Central Zone of Tanzania between July to August, 2009 to assess knowledge, attitude and practice towards modern contraceptives among married women of reproductive age (15-49 years. Specific objectives of the study were to ascertain knowledge and attitude towards modern contraceptives, to determine the extent of use of modern contraceptives and identify factors associated with current use of modern contraceptive in the study population. Study design involved a crosssectional survey that involved 160 women randomly selected from eight villages with nearly equal number of respondents per village. Data from respondents were collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Furthermore, eight Focus Groups Discussions (FGDs, with one FGD per village were also carried out to collect qualitative information. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program version 12 was used to analyse quantitative data. Qualitative data were analysed using Content Analysis (CA. Results of this study revealed knowledge of modern contraceptives in a study population to be high. Furthermore, findings of this study indicated substantial proportion of respondents to have positive attitude towards modern contraceptives and hence more room for increasing modern contraceptive use in a study population. For example, half (50% of respondent that were aware of modern contraceptives thought that benefits of modern contraceptives outweigh negative effects and 42% agreed that they could recommend use of modern contraceptive to a friend. However, despite presence of positive attitude towards modern contraceptives by a good number of women in a study population, negative attitude of husband towards modern contraceptives can be one of the obstacles for the success of campaigns to increase modern contraceptive use in the study area. Two- third (65.8% of study participants indicated that their husband doesnt approve modern contraceptives. Regarding contraceptive prevalence rate in the target group (i.e., proportion currently use modern contraceptives, although there was some improvement compared to the past national averages, however, the obtained figure (25% was far (too low from the desired national target of 60%. Results for Binary Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis indicated that Likelihood (chances of being current user of modern contraceptives by a woman increased significantly by having secondary education and higher (Odds ratio (OR = 15.18, p<0.05, having higher number of living children (i.e., 4 and above (OR = 19.68, p<0.01, spousal communication on modern contraceptives (OR = 1.84, p<0.05, woman participation in decision making regarding fertility in a family (OR = 19.40, p<0.05 , husband approval of modern contraceptives (OR = 18.46, p<0.01 and having positive attitudes towards modern contraceptives (OR = 8.50, p<0.05 (i.e., thinking that benefits of modern contraceptives outweighs negative effects compared to the counterparts. The Odds (chances of being current user of modern contraceptive by a woman decreased by living more than 5 km from nearest health facility (OR = 0.67, p<0.05 and if had ever encountered side effects (OR = 0.44, p<0.05. Based on these findings recommendations for improving modern contraceptive use in a study population have been indicated.
Full Text Available Introduction : Hypertension (HTN is a common serious health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality rates .At the same time ,HTN is widely prevalent all over the world including Egypt. For many people, the primary care physician is their first point of contact with the health care system, as well as their main source of preventive and essential care. Objective: Assessing knowledge, attitude and practices of primary health care physicians towards screening patients for hypertension in Cairo. Methodology:A cross-sectional study , conducted in the primary health care centres (PHCC in Nasr city, which was chosen randomly to represent Cairo city , where all doctors working in these centres were asked to complete a self administered structured and open ended questionnaire contained the relevant variables : Results: About 90% of the studied physicians were convinced with the importance of routine measuring blood pressure for risky patients and 79% stated that role of the PHC physician should be the early detection of HTN. As regards knowledge towards HTN items, only 23.5% knew the prevalence and 18.5% knew the most recent definition and grading. The practices of the doctors towards screening patients for HTN ,showed that only 63.9% of the doctors usually perform accurate and enough procedures to diagnose HTN patients and 46.2% routinely screen patients around forty years old while only 43.7% were regularly checking up the accuracy of the used sphygmomanometers . Conclusion: The participating physicians had poor knowledge towards some important items especially the prevalence and new classification of HTN. Their practices were not optimal as regards the accurate diagnosis of HTN and routine checkup and measuring blood pressure for people attending the PHC clinics. Recommendations to manage these defects were suggested.
Ayman S. Abdelhady
Full Text Available Aims And Objective: To study knowledge, attitude and practice of epilepsy among patients and family members residing in urban slum.METHODOLGY: Study Design- Hospital based cross-sectional study. Study Place- UHTC, Shahganj, Aurangabad. Study Period- 1st to 29th Feb 2012(one month. Sample-KAP study was conducted by face to face interview of 100 persons including patients and family members of epilepsy using a predesigned and pretested questionnaire. Results: A large majority (95% of PWE had heard about epilepsy and (53% knew that epilepsy is an organic brain problem. Only 4% consider epilepsy as contagious. Negative attitude was observed with respect to not allowing a child with epilepsy to study in only (18%, objecting children to play with a child with epilepsy (12%, and unsuccessful marriage (19% Negative attitude was reflected in the belief that epilepsy is due previous life sins (5% About 73% people believed that allopath is a better option than ayurvedic (25%. A very small proportion, i.e. only 2% believed that holy treatment with worship is effective to treatment of epilepsy. About 40% felt that epilepsy can be cured, but almost 60% thought that a person with epilepsy has to take lifelong treatment. In response to first aid measures in response to epileptic fits, 60% preferred that they would take the person to a hospital, 23% felt that they would put a shoe or onion on nose, 15% would splash water over the face, and 2% would make the person hold a bunch of keys. Discussion. Analysis of Indian data revealed regional differences in KAP which could be attributed to local factors, such as literacy, awareness about epilepsy, and practice of different systems of medicine. Some of the differences can also be attributed to category of study population whether it included patients or non epilepsy individuals, since the former are likely to have less negative attitudes than the public. There is a need to create awareness about epilepsy on a nation-wide basis to dispel the misconceptions and stigma through effective and robust programs with the aim to lessen the disease burden.
Dixit J V
Full Text Available Its a cross sectional observational study conducted in outpatient clinic of OBG, SDMCMS&H, Dharwad between July-December 2012. 200 married women between 20-45 yrs were interviewed with predesigned questionnaire. Effort was made to identify reasons for wide gap between knowledge and practice of contraception. All women knew atleast one method of contraception but 48% were using some sort of contraception. Most known method was female sterilization, least known were injectables and male sterilization. Common method chosen was female sterilization (70.8%. None adopted male sterilization. Reasons for not using contraception were desire to have child (25%, desire for boys (13.4%, worried about side effect (16.3%, opposition from family members (11.5%, felt pregnancy was naturally spaced (11.5%, no specific reasons (10.5%, couldnt avail contraceptive facilities (5.7%, inconvenient to use (5.7%. Educational and motivational activities from doctors and health workers is needed to promote the use of contraception. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 172-176
Full Text Available Background and purpose: There are more than five million neonatal death around the world of which %19 was because of Asphyxia at birth time. In our country, there has been educational program in order to decrease the mortality caused by Asphyxia and to practice a scientific method for resuscitation. This study was conducted to determine the rate of knowledge, attitude and practice for every learner of neonatal resuscitation in the governmental hospitals of Mazandaran province in 2005(1384.Materials and Methods: current study was a descriptive cross sectional done on All Trainees who had professional direct contact with birth Asphyxia. We selected exactly 137 people who had attended Neonatal Resuscitation Workshop for three days.Results: The subjects under the study were %62/8 midwife and %89/8 women. Data show that % 44.5 had good knowledge and % 11.7 had very good knowledge on neonatal Resuscitation. The highest acknowledge was %93/4 and %89/1 on chest compression and breath stimulation way respectively. Data also suggested that totally % 96.34 of the subjects had good and very good attitudes towards neonatal resuscitation. The results show that only % 38.4 of the subjects under the study had a good level practice and their attitudes in terms of age were significantly different (P<0.01. Also, their practice on job showed a significant difference (P<0.017. In the study, there was a converse relation between age and professional experience which was r = 0.25 and r = 0.26, respectively.Conclusion: Results obtained suggest that the amount of knowledge and practice for the subjects under the study was average, but their attitudes towards neonatal resuscitation was good. There fore, according to the positive attitude of the subjects,there must be a trend to promote knowledge and practice.
M. Ahmady, M.Sc
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to the availability of the specific pandemic vaccine, strategies to mitigate the impact of the disease typically involved antiviral treatment and non-pharmaceutical community interventions. However, compliance with these strategies is linked to risk perceptions, perceived severity and perceived effectiveness of the strategies. In 2010, we undertook a study to examine the knowledge, attitudes, risk perceptions, practices and barriers towards influenza and infection control strategies amongst domestic and international university students. Methods A study using qualitative methods that incorporated 20 semi-structured interviews was undertaken with domestic and international undergraduate and postgraduate university students based at one university in Sydney, Australia. Participants were invited to discuss their perceptions of influenza (seasonal vs. pandemic in terms of perceived severity and impact, and attitudes towards infection control measures including hand-washing and the use of social distancing, isolation or cough etiquette. Results While participants were generally knowledgeable about influenza transmission, they were unable to accurately define what pandemic influenza meant. While avian flu or SARS were mistaken as examples of past pandemics, almost all participants were able to associate the recent swine flu situation as an example of a pandemic event. Not surprisingly, it was uncommon for participants to identify university students as being at risk of catching pandemic influenza. Amongst those interviewed, it was felt that students were capable of fighting off any illness. The participants nominated hand washing as the most feasible and acceptable compared with social distancing and mask use. Conclusions Given the high levels of interaction that occurs in a university setting, it is really important that students are informed about disease transmission and about risk of infection. It may be necessary to emphasize that pandemic influenza could pose a real threat to them, that it is important to protect oneself from infection and that infection control measures can be effective.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mongolia is undergoing rapid epidemiological transition with increasing urbanisation and economic development. The lifestyle and health of Mongolians are changing as a result, shown by the 2005 and 2009 STEPS surveys (World Health Organization's STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance that described a growing burden of Non-Communicable Diseases and injuries (NCDs. This study aimed to assess, describe and explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian adult population around NCDs in order to better understand the drivers and therefore develop more appropriate solutions to this growing disease burden. In addition, it aimed to provide data for the evaluation of current public health programs and to assist in building effective, evidence-based health policy. Methods/design This national survey consisted of both quantitative and qualitative methods. A quantitative household-based questionnaire was conducted using a nationally representative sample of 3854 rural and urban households. Participants were selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique in 42 regions across Mongolia, including rural and urban sites. Permanent residents of sampled households were eligible for recruitment, if aged between 15-64 years. This quantitative arm was then complemented and triangulated with a qualitative component: twelve focus group discussions focusing on diet, exercise and alcohol consumption. Discussions took place in six sites across the country, facilitated by local, trained health workers. These six sites were chosen to reflect major Mongolian cultural and social groups. Discussion KAP surveys are well represented in the literature, but studies that aim to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of a population around NCDs remain scarce. This is despite the growing number of national epidemiological surveys, such as STEPS, which aim to quantify the burden of these diseases but do not explore the level of population-based awareness, understanding, risk-perception and possible motivation for change. Therefore this paper will contribute to building a knowledge base of NCD KAP survey methodology for future use in epidemiology and research worldwide.
Demaio Alessandro R
Tuberculosis is prevailing in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan. Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of private practitioners (PPs) regarding tuberculosis management have been reported only in urban areas of Pakistan. This survey was conducted for the first time in a rural area of Sindh, Pakistan. This survey was conducted in January 2007 at Thatta, a rural district of Sindh, Pakistan. Study subjects were twenty-two allopathic qualified (MBBS) doctors of district Thatta, who were practicing in private setups for at least last one year. Before TB-DOTS training PPs had filled the KAP questionnaire regarding tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and management through DOTS. Survey data was analysed through SPSS version 11.05 software. On average, five TB suspects per month were seen by each PP. Only 14% of PPs advised sputum microscopy solely for pulmonary TB diagnosis, while 86% of PPs used different combination of tests (chest x-ray/sputum microscopy/ESR/tuberculin test) for TB diagnosis. Over 40% PPs did not prescribe TB treatment regimen according to TB-DOTS category. Majority PPs (85%) did not follow the treatment through sputum microscopy and instead relied on clinical improvement and x-ray clearance. Nearly 60% of TB patients at PPs clinic did not show compliance to the TB treatment and none of PPs were following the retrieval of default cases. A gross lack of PPs knowledge and right practice regarding TB diagnosis and management through DOTS was identified and needement through DOTS was identified and needed to be addressed through providing DOTS training. (author)
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Analisar o conhecimento, atitudes e práticas sobre a TB em uma unidade prisional e na rede pública de saúde (RPS). METODOLOGIA: Foi realizado estudo transversal com aplicação do questionário KAP (knowledge, atittudes and practices) na coleta de dados. Part [...] iciparam 141 detentos, 115 funcionários do presídio e 158 da RPS. O programa Epi-Info versão 6.04 foi utilizado para comparação de proporções com significância estatística para p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To analyze the knowledge, attitudes and practices about TB in a prison and in public health services (PHS). METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out and KAP (knowledge, attitudes and practices) questionnaire was applied to 141 prisoners, 115 priso [...] n's employees and 158 PHS workers. Epi-Info version 6.04 was used for comparison of proportions with statistic significance at p
Sérgio, Ferreira Júnior; Helenice Bosco de, Oliveira; Letícia, Marin-Léon.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Analisar o conhecimento, atitudes e práticas sobre a TB em uma unidade prisional e na rede pública de saúde (RPS). METODOLOGIA: Foi realizado estudo transversal com aplicação do questionário KAP (knowledge, atittudes and practices) na coleta de dados. Part [...] iciparam 141 detentos, 115 funcionários do presídio e 158 da RPS. O programa Epi-Info versão 6.04 foi utilizado para comparação de proporções com significância estatística para p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To analyze the knowledge, attitudes and practices about TB in a prison and in public health services (PHS). METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out and KAP (knowledge, attitudes and practices) questionnaire was applied to 141 prisoners, 115 priso [...] n's employees and 158 PHS workers. Epi-Info version 6.04 was used for comparison of proportions with statistic significance at p
Sergio, Ferreira Junior; Helenice Bosco de, Oliveira; Leticia, Marin-Leon.
Public health campaigns have improved knowledge on UVR-associated skin cancer risk and increased sun protection awareness. However, tanned skin is still a common beauty ideal. The relationship between knowledge, attitudes and protective behavior is not fully understood yet. A population-based survey was thus performed in the district of Erlangen involving 2,619 parents of 3- to 6-year old children. By means of a self-administered standardized questionnaire parental knowledge about risk facto...
Olaf Gefeller; Jiang Li; Wolfgang Uter; Pfahlberg, Annette B.
Emergency contraception amongst female college students - knowledge, attitude and practice / La contraception d'urgence chez les étudiantes inscrites dans l'enseignement supérieur -connaissances, attitudes et pratiques
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUD: Unwanted teenage pregnancies have a notable detrimental impact on the learners' trajectory and have been associated with jeopardising the students' educational progress and future career prospects. These pregnancies are mostly unplanned and unintended and many are terminated, either legal [...] ly or illegally. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the contributory role played by the knowledge, attitude and practices of female college students with respect to the utilisation of emergency contraceptives. SETTING: Three tertiary institutions in Dessie, Ethiopia. METHODS: Quantitative self-administered questionnaires were used to collect descriptive data from 352 female college students. RESULTS: The study revealed that there was a high percentage (78.3%) of unwanted pregnancies amongst those engaging in sex. Significantly, nearly half (43.3%) of these unwanted pregnancies resulted in abortion. Only 10% of the students sampled admitted to ever having used emergency contraception. Even though more than half (69.9%) of the students knew about emergency contraception, only 27% of them felt confident that they understood when it was most effective. CONCLUSION: These and other observed findings confirm the need for improvement of female college students' knowledge and timely utilisation of emergency contraception.
Wendwosen T., Nibabe; Tennyson, Mgutshini.
The aim of our study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding HIV/AIDS in the city of Kribi, southern region of Cameroon. In November 2012, a questionnaire composed of 20 items was administered by trained staff from the Biomedical Sciences Department of the University of Dschang to 200 students selected from four population groups: high school students, local traders, tourism personnel (staff of bars, restaurants, hotels, nightclubs), and motorcycle taxi drivers. A cluster sampling method was used to select the first three groups while motorcycle taxi drivers were selected by the method of all comers. KAP regarding HIV/AIDS was found to be fragmentary in the studied population. Only 6.5% systematically uses condoms, 59% believe that AIDS can be cured by traditional medicine and religious faith and 40.9% developed stigmatizing behaviour toward HIV infected people. Among participants there is a wide discrepancy between knowledge and social behaviours toward HIV/AIDS. Strategic and continuous awareness campaigns that are culturally and socially tailored are urgently needed. PMID:25353268
Sanou, Sobze Martin; Fokam, Joseph Martin; Mabvouna, Biguioh Rodriguez; Guetiya, Wadoum Raoul; Sali, Ben Bechir Adogaye; Teikeu, Tessa Vivaldi Vladimir; Nafack, Sonkeng Sonia; Panà, Augusto; Colizzi, Vittorio; Russo, Gianluca
In order to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of the rural Thar Desert population about malaria and its vectors, a total of 345 heads of households, including housewives, suffering with malaria were surveyed randomly, along with the same number of healthy control subjects, in four villages of Jodhpur and Jaisalmer districts of Rajasthan, north-western India. Results showed that in the traditionally hypoendemic Thar Desert, with low levels of immunity against malaria particularly Plasmodium falciparum, a large segment of rural people were equally less aware about the dangers of the disease. About three-fourths of the studied population did not quite comprehend the purpose of the five decade-old National Anti Malaria Programme, while nearly 50% respondents were reluctant to accept the programme lacking the component of community participation but directly targetting on the control of the disease. Consequently, about 50% malaria patients and 60% healthy subjects lacked in taking initiative to resort to any anti-mosquito or anti-malaria measure to protect themselves, although 27% malaria patients and 2.9% healthy subjects acknowledge correct causes of malaria. This study, being the first of its kind in a desert community currently facing emergence of P. falciparum-dominated malaria outbreaks, is a testimony to the hitherto prevalent deep gaps in knowledge about the disease, and its results warrant sincere efforts to link up the malaria control programme with the community participation for protection against this scourage in future. PMID:10810601
Yadav, S P; Tyagi, B K; Ramnath, T
Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the main determinants of public immunization success is health professionals' support and recommendations. Little is known about the physicians' level of support and intentions regarding A(H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination. The aim of this survey was to document Canadian family physicians' and paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP as well as their intentions regarding A(H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccines right before the beginning of the largest immunization campaign in Canadian history. Findings A self-administered, anonymous, mail-based questionnaire was sent to a random sample of family physicians and to all paediatricians practicing in Canada. All 921 questionnaires received by October 29 2009 were included in the analysis. Between 72% and 92% of respondents agreed with the statements regarding vaccine safety, effectiveness and acceptability. More than 75% of respondents intended to recommend the A(H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine to their patients and to get vaccinated themselves. The most significant factors associated with the intention to recommend A(H1N1 pandemic vaccines were physicians' intention to be vaccinated against influenza themselves and the perceived acceptability of the vaccine by the vaccinators. Conclusions Most Canadian family physicians and paediatricians surveyed were supportive of the A(H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination before its implementation and large media coverage.
Bettinger Julie A
This study explored the knowledge, attitude, practice and barriers to prescribe human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines among private primary care physicians in Hong Kong. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted by sending letters to doctors who had joined a vaccination program for school girls. From 720 surveys sent, 444 (61.7%) completed questionnaires were returned and analyzed. For knowledge, few responded to questions accurately on the prevalence of cervical HPV (27.9%) and ge...
Wong, Martin C. S.; Lee, Albert; Ngai, Karry L. K.; Chor, Josette C. Y.; Chan, Paul K. S.
Introduction: The waste generated during the delivery of health care services carries a high potential of infection and injury than any other type of waste. Previous studies in India show that the awareness and practices on bio-medical waste management among health care personnel was dismal and hence studies are required to know the current status. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice about bio-medical waste management among health care personnel working in KVG Medical C...
Imaad Mohammed Ismail; Kulkarni, Annarao G.; Kamble, Suchith V.; Borker, Sagar A.; Rekha R; Amruth M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practices. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire carried out among 1695 female university students in a public university in Malaysia. Results Respondents had low scores for knowledge of reproduction and pregnancy (median=4, of maximum score 10, contraceptive uses (median=6, of maximum score 16 and contraceptive availability (median=3, of maximum score 13. The majority of women surveyed do not have liberal values in relation to premarital sexual behaviour (median=37, of maximum 40; higher scores on this scale corresponded to opposing premarital sex. The multivariate analyses showed that ethnic group was the strongest correlate of knowledge and attitude scores; being of Malay Muslim ethnicity was associated significantly with lower knowledge scores and premarital sex permissiveness. Other significant correlates were year of study, maternal occupational groups, level of religious faith, dating status and urbanrural localities. Level of premarital sex permissiveness was inversely correlated with reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score, and contraceptive knowledge scores. Conclusion Reproductive health knowledge and attitudes were intricately linked to religious values and cultural norms differences surrounding sexual issues.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite continuous efforts by the government and private sectors, malaria is still a public health problem in rural Peninsular Malaysia. This study investigated household knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP regarding malaria in two malaria endemic communities, forest-aboriginal and rural communities, in the Lipis district of Pahang state, Malaysia. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study with a semi-structured questionnaire was carried out among 100 and 123 households from forest-aboriginal and rural areas, respectively. Results Knowledge about malaria and its transmission is significantly higher among the rural participants than the aborigines (86.2% vs 76%, p Conclusions Both communities were aware of malaria as a disease, but knowledge, attitudes and practices were inadequate. Providing efficient health education to people residing in malaria endemic areas would improve their understanding about malaria prevention in order to bring about the elimination of malaria from the country.
Al-Mekhlafi Hesham M
Full Text Available Background: Tight glycemic control in the critically ill is known to reduce both the morbidity and the mortality. It is essential that intensivists and endocrinologists involved in the care of these patients have a good understanding of the concepts related to this condition. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices about achieving tight glycemic control in the critically ill among the endocrinologists and intensivists practicing in the city of Chennai. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires containing ten questions pertaining to clinical outcomes, drawbacks, target levels of glycemic control and insulin regimen in achieving tight glycemia in the critically ill were sent to a total of six endocrinologists and 52 intensivists practicing in Chennai. Results: All those who were administered the questionnaires responded. Majority of the responders (88% believed in tight glycemic control in the critically ill because of better outcomes from hospitalization. A minority did not for fear of hypoglycemia. Fifty percent agreed on the cut off value of 110 mg/dL as followed in the Van den Berghe study. Seventy percent used glucometer for monitoring sugar levels. Most preferred using regular insulin as infusion. Conclusions: There seems to be a good understanding and standard practices among the endocrinologists and intensivists in achieving strict glycemic control in the critically ill. Setting up of standard intensive care unit glycemic control protocols will settle all the methodological differences and make the practices more uniform.
We determined the attitudes toward and practices regarding soil-transmitted helminthes (STH) control among parents and school teachers to identify reasons behind attitudes and practices that do not promote STH control. Written knowledge, attitudes and practices surveys were distributed to parents (N = 531) and teachers (N = 105) of students at 11 elementary schools in Guimaras Province, the Philippines. The survey addressed attitudes about mass drug administration (MDA), knowledge about STH control, hygienic practices, and acceptability of distributing deworming tablets among teachers. More than 90% of parents and teachers held favorable attitudes towards MDA. Sixty-nine percent of parents and 75.5% of teachers believed stool exams were necessary before MDA. Thirty-seven percent of parents stated they would not allow teachers to administer deworming tablets and 91.5% of parents feared teachers would not detect side effects of the medication. Forty-eight percent of teachers felt they could safely give deworming tablets and 81.4% of teachers were afraid of managing the side effects of deworming tablets. Forty-seven point eight percent of parents and 42.2% of teachers stated defecation in the open occured in their community. Although attitudes toward STH control were largely favorable, misconceptions about the MDA strategy, lack of support for teachers giving deworming tablets, and the practice of open defecation still exist as barriers to STH control efforts. The next step to achieve effective STH control will be to clarify misconceptions in education campaigns, to train teachers about medication administration, campaign to improve sanitation and hygiene and begin targeted mass treatment in Guimaras, the Philippines. PMID:24437309
Parikh, Divya Sinha; Totañes, Francis I G; Tuliao, Alex H; Ciro, Raezelle N T; Macatangay, Bernard J C; Belizario, Vicente Y
Despite scientific advances in pain management, inadequate pain relief in hospitalized patients continues to be an on-going phenomenon. Although nurses do not prescribe medication for pain, the decision to administer pharmacological or other interventions for pain relief is part of nursing practice. Nurses play a critical role in the relief of
Full Text Available Abstract Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ is still a leading cause of preventable brain damage, physical and mental handicap, and early death among infants in many communities. Greater awareness is needed among all health workers. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge of primary health care workers about the description, causes, effective treatment, and sequelae of NNJ. Methods The setting was a local government area i.e. an administrative district within the south-western part of Nigeria. Community health workers in this area were interviewed by means of a self-administered questionnaire which focused on awareness and knowledge of neonatal jaundice and its causes, treatment and complications. Results Sixty-six community health workers participated in the survey and male-to-female ratio was 1:5. Their work experience averaged 13.5 (SD 12.7 years. Only 51.5% of the respondents gave a correct definition of NNJ. 75.8 % knew how to examine for this condition while 84.9 % knew at least two of its major causes in our environment. Also, only 54.5 % had adequate knowledge of effective treatment namely, phototherapy and exchange blood transfusion. Rather than referring affected babies to hospitals for proper management, 13.4 %, 10.4 % and 3 % of the participants would treat with ineffective drugs, natural phototherapy and herbal remedies respectively. None of the participants knew any effective means of prevention. Conclusion Primary health care workers may have inadequate knowledge and misconceptions on NNJ which must be addressed concertedly before the impact of the condition on child health and well-being can be significantly reduced. We recommend regular training workshops and seminars for this purpose.
Daniel Olusoji J
Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is still a leading cause of preventable brain damage, physical and mental handicap, and early death among infants in many communities. Greater awareness is needed among all health workers. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge of primary health care workers about the description, causes, effective treatment, and sequelae of NNJ. Methods The setting was a local government area i.e. an administrative district within the south-western part of Nigeria. Community health workers in this area were interviewed by means of a self-administered questionnaire which focused on awareness and knowledge of neonatal jaundice and its causes, treatment and complications. Results Sixty-six community health workers participated in the survey and male-to-female ratio was 1:5. Their work experience averaged 13.5 (SD 12.7) years. Only 51.5% of the respondents gave a correct definition of NNJ. 75.8 % knew how to examine for this condition while 84.9 % knew at least two of its major causes in our environment. Also, only 54.5 % had adequate knowledge of effective treatment namely, phototherapy and exchange blood transfusion. Rather than referring affected babies to hospitals for proper management, 13.4 %, 10.4 % and 3 % of the participants would treat with ineffective drugs, natural phototherapy and herbal remedies respectively. None of the participants knew any effective means of prevention. Conclusion Primary health care workers may have inadequate knowledge and misconceptions on NNJ which must be addressed concertedly before the impact of the condition on child health and well-being can be significantly reduced. We recommend regular training workshops and seminars for this purpose. PMID:16441888
Ogunfowora, Olusoga B; Daniel, Olusoji J
Abstract Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is still a leading cause of preventable brain damage, physical and mental handicap, and early death among infants in many communities. Greater awareness is needed among all health workers. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge of primary health care workers about the description, causes, effective treatment, and sequelae of NNJ. Methods The setting was a local government area i.e. an administrative di...
Daniel Olusoji J; Ogunfowora Olusoga B
Full Text Available Background. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of obstetricians and gynecologists regarding the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC recommendations for prevention of healthcare-associated group A streptococcal (GAS infections as well as general management of pregnancy-related and postpartum infections are unknown. Methods. Questionnaires were sent to 1300 members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Results. Overall, 53% of providers responded. Postpartum and postsurgical infections occurred in 3% and 7% of patients, respectively. Only 14% of clinicians routinely obtain diagnostic specimens for postpartum infections; providers collecting specimens determined the microbial etiology in 28%. Microbiologic diagnoses were confirmed in 20% of postsurgical cases. Approximately 13% and 15% of postpartum and postsurgical infections for which diagnoses were confirmed were attributed to GAS, respectively. Over 70% of clinicians were unaware of CDC recommendations. Conclusions. Postpartum and postsurgical infections are common. Providing empiric treatment without attaining diagnostic cultures represents a missed opportunity for potential prevention of diseases such as severe GAS infections.
Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to clarify the potential health-risk and to determinant the prevalence of antenatal rubella infection in North-Central, Nigeria.Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was carried out among pregnant women to establish the knowledge, attitude and practices with regards to antenatal rubella infection in early pregnancy in Ilorin. A total of 92 subjects were recruited by simple random selection from the antenatal clinics of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.Results: Results showed that congenitally defective eyes or ears were regarded as a greater burden to bear than a congenitally defective heart. Pregnant mothers are more likely to abort a congenitally defective fetus before term. Multigravid pregnant women are more likely to have an abortion (X2 = 12.48, df = 4, p = 0.014, just as married pregnant women were more likely to abort a congenitally defective fetus before term (X2 = 23.64, df = 4, p = 0.0.Conclusion: It is a general assumption that Nigeria today is majorly rural, therefore, health educational activities for prompt antenatal reporting in sub-urban Ilorin, and Nigeria as a whole, may be a relevant intervention for pregnant women.
Oluwapelumi Olufemi Adeyemi
The major objective of this study was to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices about HIV testing services and the uptake of this service amongst girls aged 15-19 in selected secondary schools in Malawi. A questionnaire was administered to 457 students and 18 focus group discussions and 45 in-depth interviews were conducted. The study found that almost every student knew about HTC but uptake was low as only about a third of the students reported having been tested. The uptake of this service also increased with age. Most of those tested wanted to know their sero-status. Others were tested because it was a requirement. Sixty nine per cent of the girls who did not go for the HIV test was mainly because either they were not sexually active or they felt they were not at risk. During FGDs some students did not test because they feared their parents would think they were sexually promiscuous. This study demonstrates the need for intensive campaigns among adolescent girls and their parents to create awareness about the importance of HIV testing as this is an entry point for all HIV and AIDS services. PMID:24689317
Munthali, Alister C; Mvula, Peter M; Maluwa-Banda, Dixie
There is strong evidence that razors, barber's scissors, nail files and body piercing instruments are risk factors for transmission of hepatitis B and C. to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding hepatitis B and C virus among barbers in Sana'a city. KAP study was conducted from July-September 2011. Two hundred and thirty four barbershops were surveyed. Out of 234 barber shops, 73.1% heard about viral hepatitis B and C. The awareness of modes of transmission of hepatitis and the different sources/risk factors were moderate, ranging from 51.6% who knew that hepatitis can be transmitted through sexual transmitted to 82.1% who knew that hepatitis can be transmitted through blood transfusion. 54.9% of barbers did not agree that it was essential to have periodic tests for HBV and HCV; however, 67.5%would themselves like to be tested for these infections. 32% washed their hands before attending each client, 59% cleaned instruments with disinfectant between clients, 96.1% washed razors with tap water before use on a new client, 92.6% also washed their razors with an antiseptic solution after every use, 87% used a new blade on new clients and 55% used disinfectants for skin cuts. In Yemen, a large number of barbers are shaving clients with an old style razor with a permanent blade. There is moderate awareness about the various modes of transmission of hepatitis among the barbers. PMID:22198003
Al-Rabeei, Nabil Ahmed; Al-Thaifani, Abdulhameed Ali; Dallak, Abdulsalam Mohammed
Full Text Available This study sought to examine the knowledge attitudes and practices of leaders in the tourism industry with regards to the possible contributions solar energy could provide to sustainable tourism development in Zimbabwe. This is in light of the fact that, this form of renewable energy could be harnessed for the benefit of tourism development throughout the country in view of the chronic shortages of electricity. An accidental sample of 25 leaders in the tourism industry running operations along a selected tourism route was surveyed to fulfill the objectives of the study. Their responses to a series of questions were reviewed comparatively to derive conclusions, which form the basis for recommended strategies and action plans. The research concluded that accurate information about the potential of solar energy needs to be disseminated to practitioners in the tourism industry for them to consider it as a viable alternative source of power. It is also recommended that government and other stakeholders in the energy sector step up efforts to make solar energy resources more readily accessible in the country.
The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of private medical practitioners in Enugu, South-eastern Nigeria, on abortion and post-abortion care. It was a cross-sectional study of private medical practitioners in the study area using self-administered structured questionnaires. The results showed that 32.3% of the doctors terminate unwanted pregnancies when requested to do so. The majority of them (51.6%) use D&C in combination with manual vacuum aspiration for the termination of pregnancies in the first trimester. A total of 61 (63.5%) respondents offered various types of post-abortal care (PAC) services, while 42 (43.8%) of them screened women with abortion complications for sexually transmitted infections. For the doctors who do not terminate unwanted pregnancies, their main reasons were religious and moral considerations rather than obedience to the Nigerian abortion laws. We conclude that the majority of private medical practitioners in Enugu, South-eastern Nigeria, do not terminate unwanted pregnancies because of their religious beliefs. PMID:19603321
Onah, H E; Ogbuokiri, C M; Obi, S N; Oguanuo, T C
Full Text Available
Background: Young people are attracted by body art and consider it as a way of being different. Body art (tattoos, piercing, etc. represents an important socio-cultural phenomenon which is not risk free for health. Existing literature, moreover, points out that deviant behaviours and unhealthy lifestyles are significantly associated with body art.
Objective and methods: The research was aimed to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of university students towards body art, highlighting the association between body art and some demographic variables, deviant behaviours, unhealthy lifestyles, knowledge of health risks and medical complications potentially involved. Data came from a cross-sectional study conducted on a sample, selected at random, of 1.200 undergraduate university students, (570, human sciences; 630, scientific areas. The instrument for the survey was a 21 item multiple choice questionnaire. Data was codified and statistical analysis was computed through Epi-Info and Openstat software.
Results: Students from a scientific background showed a higher rate of interest, (p<0.01 for the argument of body art. About one third of the surveyed individuals had at least one body art. Cultural choice and gender was associated with body art. Males, especially from the scientific area, were more attracted by temporary body art, while females preferred permanent tattoos. Students from humanistic backgrounds were associated with one body art and those from a scientific area with more than one (p<0.01. Unemployment, lack of partnership and family attitude towards body art, were positively associated with students body art. Body art was strictly associated with different unhealthy lifestyles, such as drug, alcohol and tobacco consumption, problem gambling and sexual activity before 18 years of age. A relevant part of students considered piercing and tattooing as having no consequences for infections and/or disease.
Conclusions: Body art was associated with unhealthy ifestyles and may be considered an indicator of risk taking behaviours. Individuals had no accurate idea of the consequences for their health and body, apart from a generic risk of infections. Education is a necessary tool for the modification of lifestyles and as a form of prevention ensuring the correct understanding and assessment of the health risk involved.
Background: Healthcare-associated tuberculosis (TB) has become a major occupational hazard for healthcare workers (HCWs). HCWs are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Whenever there is a possibility of exposure, implementation of infection prevention and control (IPC) practices is critical. Objective: Following a high incidence of TB among HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital in Lesotho, a study was carried out to...
Bhebhe, Lesley T.; Cornel Van Rooyen; Steinberg, Wilhelm J.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV has consistently been found to afflict one in twenty pregnant women and is therefore considered a leading cause of physical injury, mental illness and adverse pregnancy outcome. A general antenatal screening policy has been advocated, though compliance with such guidelines tends to be low. We therefore attempted to identify potential barriers to IPV screening in a context where no guidelines have been instigated yet. Methods Questionnaire-based Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice survey among obstetrician-gynaecologists in Flanders, Belgium (n = 478. Results The response rate was 52.1% (249/478. Gynaecologists prove rather unfamiliar with IPV and therefore largely underestimate the extent of the problem. Merely 6.8% (17/249 of the respondents ever received or pursued any kind of education on IPV. Accordingly they do feel insufficiently skilled to deal with IPV, yet sufficiently capable of recognizing IPV among their patients. Survey participants largely refute the incentive of universal screening in favour of opportunistic screening and do not consider pregnancy as a window of opportunity for routine screening. They do consider screening for IPV as an issue of medical liability and therefore do not suffer from a lack of motivation to screen. In addition, obstetrician-gynaecologists do believe that screening for IPV may be an effective means to counteract abusive behaviours. Yet, their outcome expectancy is weighed down by their perceived lack of self-efficacy in dealing with IPV, by lack of familiarity with referral procedures and by their perceived lack of available referral services. Major external or patient-related barriers to IPV screening included a perceived lack of time and fear of offending or insulting patients. Overall, merely 8.4 % (21/245 of gynaecologists in this survey performed some kind of IPV questioning on a regular basis. Finally, physician education was found to be the strongest predictor of a positive attitude towards screening and of current screening practices. Conclusion Endorsement of physician training on IPV is an important first step towards successful implementation of screening guidelines for IPV. Additional introduction of enabling and reinforcement strategies such as screening tools, patient leaflets, formal referral pathways, and physician feedback may further enhance compliance with screening recommendations and guidelines.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding the use of vitamin supplements among patients visiting Out-Patient clinics of a teaching hospital.Methods: Four hundred patients were interviewed during the period of July to September 2008, at the Out-patient clinics, Aga Khan University hospital, Karachi. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect information. It consisted of questions regarding demographics, awareness of vitamin supplements and its consumption, reasons for usage and its effects. The purpose of the study was explained and assurance of confidentiality was given. After obtaining written consent, eligible individuals were interviewed. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 19.0 was used to analyze the data.Results: The results revealed that 98?0of the respondents were aware of vitamin supplements. The most known vitamin was found to be Vitamin C (16.9?20with Vitamin K being the least well known(0.4? while 51.8?0of the respondents were unaware of the harmful effects of vitamin supplements. The results also showed that 84.8?0of the study population had taken vitamin supplements, and 79?0of the participants considered that vitamin supplementsto be helpful. Taking vitamin supplements as a compensation for the deficiencies in the body was the most frequently chosen answer (17.7?20as the reason for use of vitamin supplements. On the other hand, a majority of the population was unaware of the indications for use of vitamin supplements.Conclusion: This study highlights a very significant yet ignored issue of vitamin supplementation in Pakistan. A need exists to inform the general population about the use of vitamin supplementation. The media and the medical community are required to play their role in this regard. Short/ refresher training courses are needed for doctors to update and disseminate adequate knowledge of vitamin supplementation to their patients.
This study was conducted to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) about kidney diseases among medical officers working in different hospitals of Lahore.Doctors working on the medical floors of different tertiary care teaching hospitals (Mayo Hospital (MH), Sir Ganga Ram Hospital (SGRH), Service Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Fatima Memoral Hospitals (FMH), Lahore General Hospitals (LGH), Shalamar Hospital (SH), Jinnah hospital (JH)) of Lahore were included in the study. Each doctor was given a questionnaire comprising of 28 questions. Each participant was given 10-15 minutes for completing the questionnaire at the spot. Categorization of doctors according to the KAP score was done as poor (70%).Results: One hundred eighty five doctors participated in the study who fulfilled the criteria. In this study majority 134 (62.6%) of the doctors were not taught about nephrology during their graduation which was statistically significant. Most of the doctors either had some knowledge or didn't know about procedures done in nephrology. Majority of the doctors 208(97.2%) know that nephrology deals with medical diseases of the kidney which was statistically significant. Most of the doctors 138(64.5) feel that nephrology services are insufficient in their hospital. More than 90% doctors want that kidney diseases should be taught during MBBS curriculum and separate nephrology department should be established which was statistically significant. Most of the doctors don't know the management of hyperkalemia very well. About 90% of the doctors know that there are five stages of CKD. Majority of the doctors know that ACE inhibitors are used in hypertension and diabetic nephropathy. They also know that urine complete examination help in early detection of diabetic nephropathy which was statistically significant.Conclusion:Most of the doctors have poor to average knowledge and practice about kidney diseases. Most of the doctors think that nephrology services are insufficient in their hospitals and it must be taught during graduation. Separate nephrology department should be established for creating awareness about kidney diseases. (author)
Full Text Available It is well known that the management of hypertension reduces the incidence further complications like myocardial infarction, stroke and vascular complications. Hypertension is a major health problem with individual, social and economical consequences. Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP surveys are important and effective in terms of providing baseline for evaluating intervention programmes. In this brief review the role of pharmacist in hypertension better understanding of knowledge attitude and practice towards disease management was assessed. The data cited in this brief review were mainly selected the articles from Medline/Pub Med. The articles associated with Hypertension and Knowledge attitude and practice were randomly selected.The results obtained that pharmacological and non-pharmacological benefits can be achieved through the patients understanding of disease, medications & lifestyle modification when the pharmacist provides them with useful practical information, particularly counseling to hypertension. Acknowledgment of the role pharmacist in hypertension would be conducive to better understanding the pathogenesis of hypertension, and provide new insight for improved treatment and prevention.
Biradar S S
Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose: Emergency contraception is a method which used after unprotected intercourse and declines the rate of unintended pregnancy. In spite of efficacy and safty of this method, its rate of use is low. Major obstacle of regular use of this method is insufficient information of the health care providers, which in turn, causes low prescription of this method and consequently insatiable practice.Materials and Methods: This research is a correlative study to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of practitioners and midwives working in health centers of the main cities of Mazandaran province about contraception. In this research 150 research units were selected using a multiple sampling method A questionnair was used for data, collection, completed by experienced persons who at health centers. To analyze the data descriptive statistics and c2, T-test, regression analysis and correlation were used.Results: The results showed that the level of knowledge of subjects were : 35/5% good, 38% medium and 26% poor. Negative correlation was seen between knowledge and age and job background but no correlation between knowledge and other factors. Also most of the subject had a positive attitude toward emergency contraception (60.7% and 39.3% of them had a negative attitude about this method. 54.4% of subject had a good practice and 45.6 % had a bad practice. Practice showed a statistical correlation with gender and job however there was no was correlation between practice and other factors.Conclusion: Data indicated the necessity of regular retraining courses or workshops on family planning spechially about emergency contraception to increase knowledge of research units about this method.
Full Text Available Background: Statistics have shown that since 1988, a significant percentage of males are unwilling to seek medical care. The question is if they had the knowledge, worked in the health system and were educated, would this be any different? Aim: The current study aims to fill this void in the literature by examining the perception of rural male health workers (from the Western Region about prostate examination, and why they are reluctant to inquire about the probability of having, or the likelihood of not having prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: The study utilized primary cross-sectional data that was collected during February and March 2008 from 170 males (ages 29 years and older, health-care workers who were employed in particular rural health institutions in Jamaica (i.e. Western Regional Health Authority. SPSS was used to analyze the data. Results: When the respondents were asked Have you ever heard about the screening procedure for prostate? 71.2% indicated yes, but only 27.1% had got their prostate checked by a health practitioner. When respondents were asked to state what influenced their choice of not doing a digital rectal examination, 20.6% indicated comfort level; 9.4% stated the gender of the health practitioner, 5.3% mentioned fear and others did not respond. Of those who had the examination 2 years ago, 96.5% did not state the choice of method. Conclusion: The current study is limited in terms of its generalizability to rural males or rural males in Western Jamaica, but it does provide an insight into the difficulty of men in breaking away from culture.
Paul Andrew Bourne
Full Text Available The Health Belief model says for communities to take part in an activity, they need to perceive the risk of failing to take part and the benefits associated with taking part. A study was carried out in Luvuvhu catchment of South Africa to evaluate community knowledge, attitudes, practices and perceptions relating to water quality and safety. The study was divided into two parts. The first part involved a population of over 8000 people and participatory tools were used to speed up the data collection process. The participants were divided into sessions of 45 people each. Each session was divided into 3 groups of 15 people each and each group was then given an assignment to work on and write the findings on flipcharts. Each group then presented at a plenary and the research assistants recorded the findings. The second part was based on the findings from the first part of the study. One major finding was that the communities relied on the physical appearance of water to decide whether the water is safe or not for domestic use. Therefore, the second study aimed at determining the point at which the communities would stop using water for various domestic uses based on the turbidity of the water. Samples of the water with predetermined turbidity values were shown to 1000 participants and each of the participants was asked to indicate where he or she would use the water for various domestic uses such as drinking, cooking, bathing and washing utensils. Although the communities had a wealth of knowledge and practices relating to water quality and safety, their perception of safety using turbidity as an indicator did not tally with scientifically accepted guidelines. Some participants were willing to accept water with turbidity values as high as 39 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU for drinking which is above the recommended maximum turbidity levels in water for domestic use in South African National Standards (SANS 241 of 5 NTU. The communities in Luvuvhu catchment are at risk of contracting water borne diseases and they require health education to raise their level of awareness regarding water quality and safety issues.
Background and Aim: The role of caretakers at day-care centers has become more imperative in promoting oral health care in children since many new mothers opt to work outside their homes, leaving their children at day-care centers. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among secondary caretakers of children attending day-care centers. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional exploratory study conducted amo...
Mani S; Aziz A; John J; Ismail N.
To assess the awareness of Pharmacovigilance among the medical graduates and to evaluate the need of inclusion of KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practice) of Pharmacovigilance in Internship Training Programme as an educational intervention.Material and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Internship orientation program in a rural hospital of central India. It was a Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study in which 65 Interns (medical graduates) were participated. Semi-structured, Pre-Des...
VARMA SUSHIL KUMAR; KALE RANJANA; NAGPURE SHAILESH; BAHEKAR SATISH
Abstract Background Influenza is one of the most common vaccine-preventable diseases in travellers. By performing two cross-sectional questionnaire surveys during winter 2009 and winter 2010 among European travellers to resource-limited destinations, we aimed to investigate knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding seasonal influenza vaccination. Methods Questionnaires were distributed in the waiting room to the visitors of the University of Zurich Cent...
Szucs Thomas D; Hatz Christoph; Mütsch Margot; Pfeil Alena
Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are common in children and represent a significant cause of antibiotic abuse which contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance. A survey was conducted in Cyprus in 2006 to assess parents and pediatricians Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) concerning the role of antibiotics in children with URTIs. A school-based stratified geographic clustering sampling was used and a pre-tested KAP questionnaire was distributed. A different qu...
Christos Hadjichristodoulou; George Syrogiannopoulos; Maria Theodoridou; Sotiria Panagakou; Adamos Hadjipanayis; Vassiliki Papaevangelou; Andreas Rouusounides
The purpose of this study was to determine nurses knowledge, attitude and practice on the initial management of acute poisoning among adult casualties seen at Accident and Emergency Department (AED), Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). The study was cross sectional. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were employed. The target population were all nurses working at AED, KNH. Purposive sampling was used to select study subjects. Sample size included all Accident and Em...
Japheth Rutto; James Mwaura; Angeline Chepchirchir; Theresa Odero
Acute infectious diseases are the main problem in undeveloped countries, but still an important sociomedical problem in the developed world, due to high morbidity and mortality rates, economical losses and the suffering they cause. The aim of this study was to determine specific risk factors connected with knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP study) of adult inhabitants of the Republic of Serbia, which contribute to the appearance of infectious diseases according to territory (Belgrade, Voj...
Branislav Petrovic; Slobodanka Basic; Branislav Tiodorovi?; Aleksandar Visnjic; Slavica Zizic; Sladjana Jovic
Background Child marriage (<18 years) is prevalent in Pakistan which is associated with negative health outcomes. Our aim is to describe womens knowledge and attitude towards child marriage practice who themselves were married as children. Methods Women of reproductive age (1549 years) who were married prior to 18 years, for at least 5 years and had at least one child birth were recruited from most populous slum areas of Lahore, Pakistan. Themes for the interview were develop...
Nasrullah, Muazzam; Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Abbas, Safdar; Safdar, Rabia; Shaukat, Mahwish; Kra?mer, Alexander
A large proportion of mosquito larval habitats in urban and rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa are man-made. Therefore, community-based larval source management (LSM) could make a significant contribution to malaria control in an integrated vector management approach. Here we implemented an exploratory study to assess malaria prevalence and people's knowledge, attitudes and practices on malaria transmission, its control and the importance of man-made aquatic habitats for the development ...
Imbahale, S. S.; Fillinger, U.; Githeko, A.; Mukabana, W. R.; Takken, W.
Background: In South Africa the teenage fertility rate is high. About 42% of women have theirsexual debut by 18 years of age and 5% by 15. These young women are also at risk of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Despitewidespread availability of contraception, 18% of sexually active teenagers do not use any. Previous research on the knowledge of, attitudes to and practices of contraception by teenagers has focused on older adolescents.Objec...
Pamela Mda; Don OMahony; Parimalarani Yogeswaran; Graham Wright
Background : School health program (SHP) is an important component of the overall health care delivery system of any country. In developing countries such as Nigeria where infant and early childhood mortality is high its importance cannot be overemphasized. For this reason and the recent action plan of the Federal Government of Nigeria concerning SHP, the knowledge, attitude and practice of SHP among head teachers of primary schools in a Local Government Area in Nigeria was eva...
Ofovwe G; Ofili A
BackgroundLymphatic filariasis (LF) is a major cause of permanent disability in many tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Malaysia is one of the countries in which LF is an endemic disease. Five rounds of the mass drug administration (MDA) program have been conducted in Malaysia as part of the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) by year 2020. This study investigated the level of awareness of LF and the MDA program in a population living in an endemic area of the country.MethodsA descriptive cross-sectional survey that involved 230 respondents (¿15 years old) living in the LF endemic communities of Terengganu state in Peninsular Malaysia was performed. Demographic, socioeconomic, and knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) data of the respondents were obtained using pre-tested questionnaires and were analyzed using SPSS software version 13.0.ResultsMore than 80% of the respondents were aware of LF and the common symptoms of the disease. Moreover, about 70% of the respondents that were aware of LF indicated that it is a problematic disease. Approximately 77% of the respondents indicated that filariasis is transmitted by mosquitoes. Two-thirds of respondents preferred hospital treatment for illness; however, only 12% had participated and/or received treatment for LF during an MDA program. Only 35% of the respondents that participated in this research were aware of the MDA program that had taken place in the area. None of the respondents had knowledge of the drug used in the treatment of LF. The findings from this research indicated that there was no significant association between LF awareness and with gender, age group, educational status, occupation, or socio-economic status of the respondents (P >0.05).ConclusionA good proportion of the respondents are aware of LF, its mode of transmission and symptoms, however they demonstrated a poor knowledge of MDA which took place in the study area. For greater understanding of LF in the Malaysian population, there is a need for an enhancement in the delivery of health education and information programs and mass mobilization campaigns in endemic communities. PMID:25428558
Al-Abd, Nazeh M; Nor, Zurainee; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Mansor, Marzida; Kassim, Mustafa
Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to identify the extent of dental caries occurrence and to relate it with the dental health knowledge, attitude and practice among adolescents in Ibadan North (LGA of Oyo State Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Self structured questionnaire and dental examination were instruments used for obtaining the necessary information. A total number of six hundred and thirty seven adolescents, who were drawn from ten schools within Ibadan North (LGA of Oyo State Nigeria, participated in the study. Participants displayed significantly high knowledge, positive attitude and sound practices towards dental health. Percentage dental caries occurrence was 6.1% and this was found to be prevalent among females (69.2%, among those within the age bracket 14-16 years (61.5% and those attending public Schools (76.9%. Dental caries occurrence among these adolescents was also observed to be negatively correlated with their dental health knowledge (r = -0.026, attitude (r = -0.031 and practice (r = -0.060. Health instructional programs that encourage healthful dental habits among adolescents should be intensified in schools.
Hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes are established risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. In the past decade a general increase in CVD risk factors in the population aged 65 and older, along with suboptimal control rates, have occurred. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, the authors describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Iranian females regarding risk factors for CVD, in an attempt to help with the development of strategies to control risk factors and CVD. Participants were 200 women ages 15-49 referred to health centers in Yazd, selected from four different centers. Data were gathered through a questionnaire consisting of demographics and questions related to KAP. The validity of the questionnaire was determined by a health education specialist, with its reliability determined by piloting and measuring the related Cronbach's alpha (Alpha = 0.720). Measuring knowledge of CVD on a scale of 0-20, the mean knowledge score was 10.203.91. More than 76% of the participants knew that CVD is preventable. Ninety-one percent liked exercising and believed that exercising would make them feel better. The average mean scores for attitudes of participants toward CVD were 30.31 ± 3.21 out of 36. The authors conclude that there is a need for enhancing mothers' general knowledge about the disease, because of the increasing rates of CVD in females. This will lead to improvements in attitude and practice. Furthermore, learning in groups of 12 can be a beneficial educational method. PMID:23638684
Mazloomy, Seyed Said; Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hosein; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hasan; Baghianimoghadam, Behnam; Mazidi, Maysam; Mozayan, Mohammad Reza
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had misconception about transmission of HIV infection should not be allowed to work in the clinic or hospital. 36% of male and 9% of female students admitted indulging in safe sexual practices mostly with their friends.
Amalraj Edwin R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is a good time to develop healthy lifestyle habits including regular exercise and good nutrition. Programs of physical exercise for pregnant women have been recommended; however, there are few references on this subject in the literature. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of pregnant women with respect to appropriate physical exercise during pregnancy, and also to investigate why some women do not exercise during pregnancy. Methods A descriptive study was conducted in which 161 women of 18 to 45 years of age were interviewed in the third trimester of pregnancy. These women were receiving prenatal care at National Health Service (SUS primary healthcare units and had no pathologies for which physical exercise would constitute a risk. The women were selected at an ultrasonography clinic accredited to the SUS in Campinas, São Paulo. A previously elaborated knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP questionnaire was used to collect data, which were then stored in an Epinfo database. Statistical analysis was conducted using Pearson's chi-square test and Fisher's exact test to evaluate the association between the study variables (p Results Almost two-thirds (65.6% of the women were sufficiently informed about the practice of physical exercise during pregnancy and the vast majority (93.8% was in favor of it. Nevertheless, only just over 20% of the women in this sample exercised adequately. Significant associations were found between an adequate knowledge of physical exercise during pregnancy and education level (p = 0.0014 and between the adequate practice of physical exercise during pregnancy and having had fewer pregnancies (p = 0.0001. Lack of time and feeling tired and uncomfortable were the principal reasons given by the women for not exercising. Conclusion These results suggest that women's knowledge concerning the practice of physical exercise during pregnancy is reasonable and their attitude is favorable; however, relatively few actually exercise during pregnancy.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Both conflict and HIV affect sub-Saharan Africa, and supportive approaches for HIV prevention among refugees are crucial. Peer education has been associated with improved HIV outcomes, though relatively little research has been published on refugee settings. The primary objective of this study was to assess whether exposure to refugee peer education was associated with improved HIV knowledge, attitudes, or practice outcomes among refugees in Guinea. Secondary objectives were to assess whether gender, age, or formal education were more strongly associated than peer education with improved HIV outcomes. Methods Data was collected by cross-sectional survey from 889 reproductive-age men and women in 23 camps in the Forest Region of Guinea. Selected exposures (i.e. peer education, gender, formal education, age were analysed for associations with HIV outcomes using logistic regression odds ratios (OR. Results Most participants (88% had heard of HIV, particularly those exposed to peer or formal education. Most correctly identified ways to protect themselves, while maintaining misconceptions about HIV transmission. Women and those exposed to either peer or formal education had significantly fewer misconceptions. Half of participants considered themselves at risk of HIV, women with 52% higher odds than men (adjusted OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.01-2.29. Participants exposed to peer education had more than twice the odds of reporting having made HIV-avoidant behavioural changes than unexposed participants (72% versus 58%; adjusted OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.52-4.08. While women had 57% lower odds than men of reporting HIV-avoidant behavioural changes (OR 0.43, 95%CI 0.31-0.60, women exposed to peer education had greater odds than exposed men of reporting HIV-avoidant changes (OR 2.70 versus OR 1.95. Staying faithful (66% was the most frequent behavioural change reported. Conclusions Peer education was most strongly associated with reported HIV-avoidant behaviour change. Gender was most associated with HIV knowledge and risk perception. Refugee women had fewer misconceptions than men had, but were more likely to report HIV risk and less likely to report making behavioural changes. Peer education appears promising for HIV interventions in chronic-emergency settings, if gender disparities and related barriers to condom usage are also addressed.
von Roenne Anna
Rabies a disease as old as our civilization, continues to be the most feared of all communicable diseases. Despite the availability the state-of-the-art tools which ensure near cent percent protection against rabies, India is the largest contributant to rabies mortality in the world. A multicentric study was carried out from April 2001 to September 2002 with the objective of assessing the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and practices (KAP) about animal bites and rabies in the general community. The proforma for interviewing the general community was developed and used after field testing. The study was carried out at six selected centres across the country viz. Delhi, Hyderabad, Raipur, Jamnagar, Coonoor and Rajahmundry and was co-ordinated by National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD), Delhi, after thorough briefing of designated nodal officers. A total of 1129 (male: female :: 48.5: 51.5) persons in the age group of 18 to 80 years were interviewed in this study. Of these about 751% of the individuals had attended school at some level and rest were illiterates. 68.7% people had heard about rabies. In 60.7% of cases the community associates rabies with dog bite only. Knowledge about appropriate wound toilet was found to be inadequate. Only 360 (31.9%0/) people felt that washing the wound with soap and water was the best option. Application of indigenous products like chillies (11.4%), turmeric (5.6%), lime (6.8%), kerosene oil (2.3%), herbal paste (4.2%) etc was suggested along with visit to occult medicine practitioner (1.5%) as part of the bite wound management. People were not aware of number of injections needed for treatment of animal bites. Multiple reasons viz negligence and ignorance 354 (31.4%), fear of multiple painful injections 365 (32.3%), expensive treatment 169 (15%) and long course requiring daily visits to anti-rabies clinics 73 (6.5%) were cited as reasons for non-compliance of treatment. KAP study suggests that there is need to create awareness amongst the masses regarding epidemiology of the disease and merits of prompt and appropriate post exposure treatment through enhanced IEC activities. PMID:17913213
Ichhpujani, R L; Chhabra, Mala; Mittal, Veena; Bhattacharya, D; Singh, J; Lal, Shiv
Full Text Available Background: Adolescence (10-19 years is one of the most challenging periods in human development. A second period of rapid growth occurs during the teen years. Not much information is available on the effect of the socio-economic status on the outcome of nutrition education in teenage girls. Objective : The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of socio- economic status on the efficacy of nutrition education in promoting the nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice in first-grade guidance school girls in Tehran. Material & Methods: A total of 300 students were selected from 11 guidance schools by simple sampling and divided into three groups: 1- guide-book, 2- group discussion, 3- control. The knowledge and attitude data were collected using pre-test and post-test questionnaires and the personal-socioeconomic data were collected using general questionnaires. The students in group 1 were given the guide-book and required to study it at home, while group 2 students were told to discuss among themselves the contents of the guide-book. The control group was given nothing to study or to do. Results: Nutrition education did not have a significant effect on the increase in the attitude score in the students whose grade-point average and their mothers education level were high. (p= 0.13, p=0.29. Only mothers education level independently from the type of education was associated with the difference of knowledge score means (p =0.07.There was interaction between nutritional education and monthly pocket- money with regard to the increase in the knowledge score (p =0.03. Conclusion: Overall, exception of monthly pocket money, the effect of education on the nutritional knowledge and attitude was independent from other variables. Only mothers education associate with the difference of knowledge score means.
Taslimi Taleghani M
Management literature highlights several potential benefits of institutionalized socialization practices that attempt to increase cohesiveness among employees. This article posits that such practices might also contribute to a biased perception of internally generated knowledge and therefore to a greater reluctance to adopt external knowledge enhancing the so-called not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome. Drawing on multi-informant survey data, the authors find that institutionalized socialization practices are associated with the NIH syndrome. This association is however muted in highly technologically specialized companies.
Burcharth, Ana Luiza de Araújo; Fosfuri, Andrea
Background. Hand hygiene is recognized as the leading measure to prevent cross-transmission of microorganisms. Regarding hospital acquired infections, the compliance of nurses with hand washing guidelines seems to be vital in preventing the disease transmission among patients. There is a paucity of studies exploring this subject in Asia. Especially medical and nursing student's knowledge of standard hand hygiene precautions is rarely compared. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 98 medical and 46 nursing students in a tertiary medical college in India. Knowledge was assessed using WHO hand hygiene questionnaire. Attitude and practices were evaluated by using another self-structured questionnaire. Z test was used to compare the percentage of correct responses between medical and nursing students. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Only 9% of participants (13 out of 144) had good knowledge regarding hand hygiene. Nursing students knowledge (P = 0.023) , attitude (P = 0.023), and practices (P < 0.05) were significantly better than medical students. PMID:24967144
Nair, Sreejith Sasidharan; Hanumantappa, Ramesh; Hiremath, Shashidhar Gurushantswamy; Siraj, Mohammed Asaduddin; Raghunath, Pooja
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence exists regarding the full prevention of HCV transmission to hemodialysis patients by implementing universal precaution. However, little information is available regarding the frequency with which hospitals have adopted evidence-based practices for preventing HCV infection among hemodialysis patients. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted among nurses in Calabria region (Italy in order to acquire information about the level of knowledge, the attitudes and the frequencies of evidence-based practices that prevent hospital transmission of HCV. Methods All 37 hemodialysis units (HDU of Calabria were included in the study and all nurses were invited to participate in the study and to fill in a self-administered questionnaire. Results 90% of the nurses working in HDU participated in the study. Correct answers about HCV pattern of transmission ranged from 73.7% to 99.3% and were significantly higher in respondents who knew that isolation of HCV-infected patients is not recommended and among those who knew that previous bloodstream infections should be included in medical record and among nurses with fewer years of practice. Most correctly thought that evidence-based infection control measures provide adequate protection against transmission of bloodborne pathogens among healthcare workers. Positive attitude was significantly higher among more knowledgeable nurses. Self-reporting of appropriate handwashing procedures were significantly more likely in nurses who were aware that transmission of bloodborne pathogens among healthcare workers may be prevented through adoption of evidence-based practices and with a correct knowledge about HCV transmission patterns. Conclusions Behavior changes should be aimed at abandoning outdated practices and adopting and maintaining evidence-based practices. Initiatives focused at enabling and reinforcing adherence to effective prevention practices among nurses in HDU are strongly needed.
Background: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer modality in female worldwide. Avoiding the risk factors can reduce its incidence and adhering to screening and early detection can reduce its mortality. A sufficient knowledge regarding the risk factors and screening modalities is therefore essential. We assessed the knowledge level about these parameters in our staff nurses. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was performed. Knowledge regarding the risk factors and screening modalities were categorised into good, fair, poor and very poor categories. Results: Knowledge regarding most of the factors was found to be fair. A few things were termed as good knowledge like role of breast-feeding in protecting against breast cancer. Practice regarding the screening modalities was not satisfactory. Only a few nurses had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening modalities. Practice of the Screening modalities was also poor. Conclusion: There is a need to improve the nursing curriculum, training at the workplace and motivate them for screening practices. They should be encouraged to talk to their patients and their female attendants about prevention and early detection of breast cancer. (author)
Full Text Available Objective: Based on the survey of the knowledge-attitude-belief and practice to tobacco control between Chinese and foreign medical students in Soochow University, the authors intended to explore the current situation, differences and influencing factors of Chinese and foreign medical students, in order to provide a reference for tobacco control policies and measures set by the Medical College of Soochow University. Methods: By stratified sampling, we selected 200 Chinese medical students and 200 foreign medical students of Medical College in different grades and different majors, and adopted anonymous questionnaires to investigate. Results: The smoking rates of Chinese and foreign male medical students were 7.4%, 15.5% respectively , while female medical students' smoking rates were 0.0, 8.1% respectively. Foreign medical students daily smoking was mostly 4~10, which was significantly greater than the Chinese medical students ?P<0.05?; besides, the identification degree to the responsibilities and duties for smoking control of the professional medical staff were both higher. The influence of the different smoking rates between Chinese and foreign medical students was mainly ethnic background, and the influences of the different smoking behavior mainly depended on their knowledge and attitude towards tobacco control. Conclusion: There is a need for schools to adopt health education measure to promote the school tobacco control based on the differences of the knowledge-attitude-belief and practice to tobacco control between Chinese and Foreign Medical students. Help medical students to translate knowledge of tobacco control they have already mastered into belief, and further affect their behavior.
In November 1999 a survey has been conducted in four district of Lindi Region, in order to assess the knowledge, Attitude and Practice of adolescents with regard to Reproductive to Health and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS. A total of 1560 standard VI student in 48 schools have been included in the survey. Among those 903 were girls and 657 were boys. The mean age of students in the sample was 14.8 years, girls on average being slightly younger than boys. The age r...
Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar si el contenido periodístico que promueven los medios escritos de comunicación colectiva de Costa Rica contribuyen a fortalecer los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas, de la población en relación con el dengue. Método: Se tomó en cuenta 269 artículos aparecidos en 12 medios de [...] comunicación escrita que se publicaron durante los años 2006, 2007 y 2008. Resultados: De acuerdo con el análisis, en un 66.6% de las informaciones se refuerzan conocimientos sobre el dengue y solo en un 33.39% de ellas, se promueven actitudes y prácticas que ayuden a mitigar el impacto que tiene la enfermedad en territorio costarricense. Conclusión: Los medios de comunicación escrita de Costa Rica privilegian las informaciones contra el dengue, reforzando los tópicos relacionados con el conocimiento. Abstract in english Objective: To determine if the promote journalistic content written mediacollective Costa Rica contribute to strengthen the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the population in relation to dengue. Method: The study covered 269 articles which were published over the years 2006, 2007, and 2008 in 1 [...] 2 written media. Result: According to the analysis, knowledge on the dengue fever is reinforced in 66.6% of the stories, while only 33.39% of them promote attitudes and practices to help mitigate the impact of the disease in Costa Rica. Conclusion: This research shows, following a content analysis, that Costa Rican written media highlight information against the dengue fever, reinforcing related topics with knowledge.
María Isabel, Solís Ramírez; Marylene, Quesada Quesada; Irisella, Gutiérrez Hernández.
Full Text Available Objectives: To compare adolescents? sexual knowledge, attitudes and practice in Serbia presently and eight years ago with the aim of establishing the progress in education and plan further actions for improving reproductive health of our adolescents. Methods: 933 high school adolescents in Northern part of Serbia, in eight high schools were involved in the study conducted in year 2008. Questionnaire made for this survey included questions about knowledge, attitudes and practices of adolescents in reproductive health (sexuality, contraception and STI. Comparison is made with the situation in year 2000. Results: Almost half of the high school adolescents are sexually active ? 44 %, the mean age of first intercourse being16 years. Only 57.3 % of adolescents use contraception regularly, 40.7 % use it sometimes and 2 % have never used it. Majority of adolescents used condom ? 58.1 %, and one quarter used a combination of several means of contraception ? 26.1 %. There is not enough knowledge about significant STIs (Chlamydia, HPV, herpes. Half of adolescents want more education on sexuality, STIs and contraception, in schools, from experts. Conclusions: There are actions being conducted in Serbia with the aim of improvement of reproductive health of young people, but organized sexual education in the schools is not yet mandatory.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar si el contenido periodístico que promueven los medios escritos de comunicación colectiva de Costa Rica contribuyen a fortalecer los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas, de la población en relación con el dengue. Método: Se tomó en cuenta 269 artículos aparecidos en 12 medios de comunicación escrita que se publicaron durante los años 2006, 2007 y 2008. Resultados: De acuerdo con el análisis, en un 66.6% de las informaciones se refuerzan conocimientos sobre el dengue y solo en un 33.39% de ellas, se promueven actitudes y prácticas que ayuden a mitigar el impacto que tiene la enfermedad en territorio costarricense. Conclusión: Los medios de comunicación escrita de Costa Rica privilegian las informaciones contra el dengue, reforzando los tópicos relacionados con el conocimiento.Objective: To determine if the promote journalistic content written mediacollective Costa Rica contribute to strengthen the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the population in relation to dengue. Method: The study covered 269 articles which were published over the years 2006, 2007, and 2008 in 12 written media. Result: According to the analysis, knowledge on the dengue fever is reinforced in 66.6% of the stories, while only 33.39% of them promote attitudes and practices to help mitigate the impact of the disease in Costa Rica. Conclusion: This research shows, following a content analysis, that Costa Rican written media highlight information against the dengue fever, reinforcing related topics with knowledge.
María Isabel Solís Ramírez
This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practice towards breast cancer and breast self-examination (BSE) among 387 (302 females and 85 males) educated Iraqis affiliated to 2 Iraqi universities. The participants were categorized into 3 occupations: student (71.3%), teaching staff (10.3%) and administrative staff (18.3%). About half of the participants had a low knowledge score (BSE, the main source of information being television. However, only 48.3% practised BSE; the most common reason for not doing so was lack of knowledge of how to perform the technique correctly. Almost 84% of the female participants were willing to instruct others in the technique of BSE. PMID:22768695
Alwan, N A S; Al-Attar, W M; Eliessa, R A; Madfaie, Z A; Tawfeeq, F N
This study assessed the preparedness of school health personnel to develop and deliver HIV/AIDS prevention education programmes for young people in China. A survey of 653 personnel working in secondary schools in 14 cities was conducted. More than 90% had basic knowledge of ways in which HIV can be transmitted, but knowledge of ways in which the virus is not transmitted needs improvement. Substantial numbers of teachers were not sure whether there was an effective preventive vaccine (42%) or did not know whether AIDS was a curable illness or not (32%). The great majority approved of AIDS prevention programmes in universities (98%) and secondary schools (91%), although fewer (58%) agreed that the topic was appropriate for primary schools. Currently, most classroom activities focuses on teaching facts about HIV/AIDS transmission, while less than half are taught about HIV/AIDS related discrimination and life skills to reduce peer pressure. Personnel with some prior training on HIV/ AIDS education (53%) had better factual knowledge, more tolerant attitudes and more confidence in teaching about HIV/AIDS than those without training. The majority of teachers indicated a need for more resource books, audiovisual products, expert guidance, school principal support and dissemination of national AIDS prevention education guidelines to schools. PMID:18839862
Chen, J Q; Dunne, M P; Zhao, D C
Full Text Available Knowledge and attitude are important factors for successful breastfeeding practice. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding among Indonesian mothers who joined mother support group (MSG program. This was a community based cross-sectional study. There were 221 mothers participated on this study. Multiple regression was used to asses the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding. Result of the study showed that knowledge and attitude influence breastfeeding practice.
Full Text Available Knowledge and attitude are important factors for successful breastfeeding practice. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding among Indonesian mothers who joined mother support group (MSG program. This was a community based cross-sectional study. There were 221 mothers participated on this study. Multiple regression was used to asses the influence of knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding. Result of the study showed that knowledge and attitude influence breastfeeding practice.
Full Text Available Background:Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in under five children in all over the world. World Health Organization in 1990, estimated that ARI constituted the most common causes of death in under five children, being responsible for 4.3 million of 12.9 million death worldwide . In developing countries 30% of mortality in under fives is due to ARI. ARI is in fact the major cause of preventable death among under five children in developing world . In this scenario study of knowledge, attitude and practice of mother, especially in this part of the world, where there is no data, is important.Objective: To study and assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding the ARI among mothers in both urban and rural communities of Burdwan district, West Bengal, India.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was covering 600 mothers living in urban and rural area of Burdwan district from October 2011 to February 2012.Result: Questionnaire regarding knowledge revealed that 40% of mothers preferred private set up as a place of choice for treatment (more in urban area 55%. 70% of mothers preferred allopathic medicine as a choice of type of treatment. 42.5% of mothers rated diseases as serious(more in urban area 55%. 50% mothers were illiterate (70% in rural area and 66.7% mothers were housewives.Conclusion: The study strongly towards the low utilization of basic health services in government set up, lack of mother's education especially in prevention and control of ARI. Health education can change health care seeking behaviors and attitude of parents and other family members to take care of the ARI child during illness.
BANDYOPADHYAY DR DEBASIS
Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency can cause anemia which may lead growth and development impairments. This study was aimed to determine serum folate levels among infants aged 68 months and the relation to infants nutritional indicators and maternal knowledge-attitude-practice about infant feeding.Methods: A crosssectional design was implemented in infants aged 68 months and their mothers as respondents who met the study criteria. Data collected among the infants included sex, age, length, weight, intake of energy, protein and folate (based on a onemonth semiquantitative FFQ and a 24hour food recall, serum folate and hemoglobin levels. Data collected among the mothers included age, education level, income based on average minimum monthly wage, knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning infants feeding, i.e. breast milk and complementary feeding practices.Results: This study found that the median of serum folate levels was 43.05 nmol/L with values ranging from 19.92 nmol/L to 104.24 nmol/L. Serum folate level had a strong positive correlation with its related factors, protein and folate intake.Conclusions: Protein-folaterich complementay food should be provided to infants aged 6 months and over to maintain serum folate level. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:138-42Keywords: Folate, infants, nutrient intake, nutritional status
HIV infection in the Islamic Republic of Iran is concentrated primarily among intravenous drug users. This study investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV/AIDS prevention of a random sample of prisoners in 5 prisons in Mazandaran province. Of 1760 individuals aged 18-65 years old completing the questionnaire, the mean age was 30.1 (SD 8.1) years (range 18 to 59 years); 95.8% were male. Respondents had an average to fairly good knowledge about HIV/AIDS, with the percentages answering correctly ranging from 11.9% to 85.9%. However many had the misconception that "HIV/AIDS does not influence Iran" and "I will not be infected with HIV/AIDS under any conditions" and 63.6% agreed that lack of religious and moral commitment could spread AIDS infection. HIV/AIDS prevention efforts are needed for prisoners in Mazandaran province. PMID:22355942
Majdi, M R; Khani, H; Azadmarzabadi, E; Montazeri, A; Hallajian, E; Babamahmodi, F; Kariminasab, M H
Full Text Available Background: In South Africa the teenage fertility rate is high. About 42% of women have theirsexual debut by 18 years of age and 5% by 15. These young women are also at risk of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Despitewidespread availability of contraception, 18% of sexually active teenagers do not use any. Previous research on the knowledge of, attitudes to and practices of contraception by teenagers has focused on older adolescents.Objectives: This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices about contraception amongst1214 year old unmarried schoolgirls with a view to inform planning of programmes to assist inreducing teenage pregnancies.Methods: A qualitative study design with purposive sampling was used to select participants from two government-run schools in King Sabata Dalindyebo Municipality. In-depth and focus group interviews were conducted after obtaining written consent from parents and assent from participants. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, translated and analysed thematically.Findings: Participants reported that young adolescents were sexually active, which included highrisk sexual behaviour such as multiple partners and casual and transactional sex. Knowledge about contraceptives varied widely. Condoms were the most preferred method of contraception, but it is unknown whether they ever used condoms as they professed to talk about the behaviour of others rather than themselves. Injectable contraceptives were believed to have long-term negative effects. Common sources of contraceptive information were friends or peers, school curriculum and to a lesser extent family members.Conclusions: Findings of the study suggest that young adolescents are sexually active and haveinadequate knowledge and misconceptions about contraception. These findings should informeducational programmes about risks of early sexual activity and about contraception.
The purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of health care workers caring for HIV-infected pregnant women. A KAP survey was formulated in order to achieve this goal. Obstetric and gynecological (OB/GYN) health care workers (n = 121) in both inpatient and outpatient settings in an academic and an affiliated community-based hospital in a large urban academic medical center in the northeastern United States were surveyed. Findings suggest that KAP requires further improvement among OB/GYN staff, particularly in the areas of prevention of HIV and psychosocial care of patients with HIV. Further research is needed to determine the best strategies to improve clinical practice for pregnant women living with HIV. PMID:23876818
Farley, Jason E; Hayat, Matthew J; Murphy, Jeanne; Sheridan-Malone, Eileen; Anderson, Jean; Mark, Hayley
BackgroundMental health services in England are smoke-free by law and expected to provide comprehensive support to patients who smoke. Although clinicians¿ knowledge in this area is reported to be limited, research exploring the issue in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) is lacking.ObjectiveTo investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of clinicians working within specialist and highly specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) relating to tobacco dependence, its treatment and its relation to mental disorder.MethodA cross-sectional survey of clinicians working across all CAMHS teams of a large UK National Health Service mental health Trust.ResultsSixty clinicians (50% response rate) completed the survey. Less than half (48.3%) believed that addressing smoking was part of their responsibility, and half (50%) asserted confidence in supporting patients in a cessation attempt. Misconceptions relating to smoking were present across all staff groups: e.g. only 40% of respondents were aware of potential interactions between smoking and antipsychotic medications, although psychiatrists were more knowledgeable than non-medical clinicians (91.6% vs 27.1%; OR 3.4, p¿<¿.001). Self-reported attendance at smoking-related training was significantly associated with more proactive clinical practice.ConclusionsThere is a need to improve clinicians¿ knowledge, capacity and confidence in effectively identifying, motivating, supporting and treating young smokers in the context of treatment for mental disorders. PMID:25424565
Kulkarni, Meghana; Huddlestone, Lisa; Taylor, Anne; Sayal, Kapil; Ratschen, Elena
Full Text Available Abstract Background Late presentation has been observed as the hallmark of breast cancer in Nigerian women and an earlier onset has been reported in this population. This study was designed to assess the awareness of female health workers about risk factors and screening methods for early detection of breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among female health workers in the two major government health institutions in Benin City, Edo State capital in Nigeria. Data analysis was by SPSS version 10 and test of significance was done with differences considered significant at p Results Three hundred and ninety-three (393 female health workers out of five hundred and five eligible subjects completed and returned the questionnaires, giving a response rate of 77.8%. One hundred and two (26% were Doctors, two hundred and fifty-four (64.6% Nurses, and thirty-seven (9.4% were Radiographers, Laboratory Scientists and Pharmacists. A high proportion of our respondents had very poor knowledge about risk factors for breast cancer (55%. The awareness of mammography as a diagnostic method was very high (80.7%, but an extremely low knowledge of mammography as a screening method was found. Mammography practice of only 3.1% was found among those above 40 years of age who qualify for routine annual screening. Relatively low knowledge (45.5% about Breast Self Examination (BSE as a screening method was found. Conclusion These female health workers who are expected to act as role models and educate the public had poor knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer and practice of breast cancer screening. There is very urgent need for regular update courses for health workers concerning breast cancer education including screening methods.
Omuemu Vivian O
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine nurses knowledge, attitude and practice on the initial management of acute poisoning among adult casualties seen at Accident and Emergency Department (AED, Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH. The study was cross sectional. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were employed. The target population were all nurses working at AED, KNH. Purposive sampling was used to select study subjects. Sample size included all Accident and Emergency (A&E nurses who met subjects inclusion criteria. Structured questionnaires, observation checklist and interview were used to collect the data. Sixty eight (82% of A&E nurses participated in this study. The study found out that with higher nursing qualification and training on courses related to emergency care, knowledge and skills of A&E nurses on the initial management of acute poisoning is enhanced. A&E nurses with lower education level had a higher mean score of positive attitude compared with nurses with higher nursing qualification. Majority 60 (88.2% of the A&E nurses indicated that, they required more training on the initial management of acute poisoning. Study recommends that A&E nurses should be trained on various types of poisoning including; assessment, clinical presentations and management to include gut decontaminations. In addition, refresher courses should be organised for those already trained. Flowcharts that will enhance easy identification and management of poisoned casualties should be put in place and utilized accordingly.
Full Text Available Background : School health program (SHP is an important component of the overall health care delivery system of any country. In developing countries such as Nigeria where infant and early childhood mortality is high its importance cannot be overemphasized. For this reason and the recent action plan of the Federal Government of Nigeria concerning SHP, the knowledge, attitude and practice of SHP among head teachers of primary schools in a Local Government Area in Nigeria was evaluated. Methods : A pre-tested questionnaire designed to evaluate the knowledge attitude and practice of SHP by the researchers was administered by assistants to 133 head teachers of 104 private and 29 public primary schools in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. The School premises were also inspected to check provision of pipe borne water, sick bay, toilet facilities and the adequacy of the school environments among other things. Results :None of the head teachers had adequate knowledge of SHP. 93.1% from private compared to 48.3% from public schools had poor knowledge of SHP (?2 = 56.86, p < 0.05. A favorable attitude was demonstrated by all the teachers. Up to 40.4% of private compared to 31.0% of public schools have SHP. Overall 27.7% of the schools had no toilet facility, 33.3% had pit latrine while 40.0% had water closet. Only 25.6% had hand washing facilities. Regarding health services, 51.0% of private schools compared to 27.6% of public schools perform medical inspection of the pupils. Similarly 39.4% private compared to 3.4% public schools have sick bay (?2 = 11.11; p < 0.05. A total of 16.5% of the schools undertake medical screening of food handlers/vendors, while 20.2% private compared to 3.4% public schools screen food handlers/vendors (?2 = 4.47; p < 0.05. Conclusion : The poor status of SHP in Nigeria may be attributed to failure of policy enunciation, poor primary health care base and lack of supervision.
Full Text Available To assess the awareness of Pharmacovigilance among the medical graduates and to evaluate the need of inclusion of KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Pharmacovigilance in Internship Training Programme as an educational intervention.Material and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Internship orientation program in a rural hospital of central India. It was a Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study in which 65 Interns (medical graduates were participated. Semi-structured, Pre-Designed, Pre-tested Questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was entered and analyzed using statistical software EPI INFO 3.5.3.Results: In our study a total of 65 medical graduates were responded and involved in the pre KAP and post KAP survey questionnaires. The overall response rate between pre intervention and post intervention was statistically significant and that shows effectiveness of educational intervention for improving awareness of Pharmacovigilance among medical graduates.Conclusion: Imparting the knowledge and awareness of Pharmacovigilance among the medical graduates by mean of continuous educational intervention would bring update of knowledge for drug safety into their everyday clinical practice and also bring the adverse drug reactions(ADRs reporting culture among them.
VARMA SUSHIL KUMAR
Full Text Available The present study aimed to access the influence of socioeconomic factors on antenatal care and delivery practices of the mother of North Bengal. A community based study was carried out among 1772 families of the 7 blocks of the two districts. Various socio economic factors were considered for the antenatal care and delivery practices. We also tried to find out the relationship between antenatal check up with perinatal mortality. The study shows that the muslim mothers, Scheduled tribe mothers, non -educated and mothers with higher age group are less interested about ANC. Family income 2000/- month showing 62.42% ANC coverage. We found that only 7.11% mother used Govt. hospital and 2.65% used private clinic. The mother with medical problems and obstetric problems has high ANC coverage. So, socioeconomic factors significantly influence the antenatal coverage and delivery practices. Hence initiative may be taken at Government and non government levels to raise knowledge, attitude and practices for the improvement of antenatal care and delivery practices of the mother at these zones.
Prabir Kumar Manna, Debasis De and Debidas Ghosh
Maltrato infantil: conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de estudiantes de Odontología de Cartagena, Colombia / Child abuse: knowledge, attitudes and practices of dental students in Cartagena, Colombia
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Describir los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre maltrato infantil en estudiantes de odontología en una universidad pública de Cartagena, Colombia. Diseño del estudio: Estudio descriptivo. Emplazamiento: Universidad pública de Cartagena, Colombia. Participantes: 208 estudiantes de [...] odontología de Cartagena (Colombia), seleccionados a través de un muestreo probabilístico. Mediciones principales: Se diseñó y utilizó un instrumento tipo cuestionario estructurado anónimo de auto-reporte para evaluar las variables: sociodemográficas, conocimientos (relacionados con maltrato físico, abuso sexual, negligencia, maltrato psicológico, indicadores de maltrato infantil y responsabilidades), actitudes, prácticas y prevalencia de posibles sospechas de casos de maltrato infantil detectados en la práctica odontológica. Los datos fueron analizados a través de distribuciones de frecuencia y proporciones. Para establecer relaciones entre la sospecha de maltrato infantil con algunas variables de interés se utilizó la prueba ?² asumiendo un límite de 0,05 para la significación. Resultados: La prevalencia actual de casos de sospecha de maltrato infantil fue del 2,4 %, y la de alguna vez del 20 %. Los conocimientos fueron buenos para el 54,3 % de los sujetos y aceptable en el 44,7 %; las actitudes favorables en el 96,1 %. De 42 estudiantes que tuvieron alguna sospecha durante su práctica, 15 manifestaron como primera acción comunicarla a su docente, seguida por comentarla a un compañero y guardar silencio. Las tres cuartas partes de los que manifestaron haber tenido una sospecha de maltrato no la consignaron en la historia clínica. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de posibles casos de maltrato infantil identificados por los estudiantes de odontología fue alta; sus conocimientos y actitudes fueron adecuados. Sin embargo, existe incongruencia con las prácticas reportadas; por esto es necesario realizar entrenamientos en la temática que brinden una mayor seguridad al estudiante en el momento de identificar y reportar los posibles casos de maltrato infantil desde la práctica odontológica. Abstract in english Objetive: to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices in dental students at the Cartagena state university, Colombia regarding child abuse. Study design: descriptive study. Location: Cartagena state university, Colombia. Participants: 208 dental students from Cartagena (Colombia), selected th [...] rough probability sampling. Main analysed data: a self-reporting anonymous structured questionnaire-type instrument was designed and used to evaluate socio-demographic variables, knowledge (related to physical abuse, sexual abuse, negligence, psychological abuse, signs of child abuse and responsibilities), attitudes, practices and prevalence of possible suspicion of cases of child abuse detected in dental practice). The data were analysed through frequency distributions and proportions. In order to determine relationships between suspicion of child abuse and some variables of interest, test ?2 was used, assuming a limit of 0.05 for significance. Results: current prevalence of suspected cases of child abuse was 2.4% and that of it occurring at sometime, 20%. Knowledge was good for 54.3% of the subjects and acceptable for 44.7%; favourable attitudes, 96.1%. Of 42 students who had some kind of suspicion during their practice, 15 stated that their first action was to report it to their teacher, followed by telling a classmate and keeping quiet. Three quarters of those who stated they had suspected abuse did not enter it in the clinical record. Conclusions: the prevalence of possible cases of child abuse identified by dental students was high; their knowledge and attitudes were appropriate. However, there is incongruence in reported practices; for this reason, it is necessary to carry out training on the subject to provide the student with greater certainty on identifying and reporting possible cases of child abuse from th
Katherine M., Arrieta Vergara; Shyrley, Díaz Cárdenas; Farith, González Martínez.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the first part of this study, we investigated the prevalence and associated key factors of soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections among Orang Asli children in rural Malaysia; an alarming high prevalence and five key factors significantly associated with infections were reported. Part 2 of this study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP on STH infections among Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out among 215 households from 13 villages in Lipis district, Pahang, Malaysia. Demographic and socioeconomic information of the participants and their KAP on STH were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results Overall, 61.4% of the participants had prior knowledge about intestinal helminths with a lack of knowledge on the transmission (28.8%, signs and symptoms (29.3% as well as the prevention (16.3%. Half of the respondents considered STH as harmful, while their practices to prevent infections were still inadequate. Significant associations between the KAP and age, gender, educational and employment status, family size, and household monthly income were reported. Moreover, significantly lower prevalence of STH infections was reported among children of respondents who wear shoes/slippers when outside the house (72.8%; 95% CI= 62.6, 80.5 vs 87.0%; 95% CI= 81.4, 91.1, wash their hands before eating (32.4%; 95% CI= 24.3, 42.2 vs 51.4%; 95% CI= 44.7, 60.1, and wash their hands after defecation (47.8%; 95% CI= 35.7, 57.1 vs 69.2%; 95% CI= 63.7, 78.7 as compared to their counterparts. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the educational level of the respondents was the most important factor significantly associated with the KAP on STH among this population. Conclusion This study reveals inadequate knowledge, attitude and practices on STH infections among Orang Asli in rural Malaysia. Hence, there is a great need for a proper health education programme and community mobilisation to enhance prevention and instil better knowledge on STH transmission and prevention. This is crucial for an effective and sustainable STH control programme to save the lives and future of the most vulnerable children in rural Malaysia.
Nasr Nabil A
Full Text Available Abstract Background China is at greatest risk of the Pandemic (H1N1 2009 due to its huge population and high residential density. The unclear comprehension and negative attitudes towards the emerging infectious disease among general population may lead to unnecessary worry and even panic. The objective of this study was to investigate the Chinese public response to H1N1 pandemic and provide baseline data to develop public education campaigns in response to future outbreaks. Methods A close-ended questionnaire developed by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention was applied to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of pandemic (H1N1 2009 among 10,669 responders recruited from seven urban and two rural areas of China sampled by using the probability proportional to size (PPS method. Results 30.0% respondents were not clear whether food spread H1N1 virusand. 65.7% reported that the pandemic had no impact on their life. The immunization rates of the seasonal flu and H1N1vaccine were 7.5% and 10.8%, respectively. Farmers and those with lower education level were less likely to know the main transmission route (cough or talk face to face. Female and those with college and above education had higher perception of risk and more compliance with preventive behaviors. Relationships between knowledge and risk perception (OR = 1.69; 95%CI 1.54-1.86, and knowledge and practices (OR = 1.57; 95%CI 1.42-1.73 were found among the study subjects. With regard to the behavior of taking up A/H1N1 vaccination, there are several related factors found in the current study population, including the perception of life disturbed (OR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.11-1.50, the safety of A/H1N1 vaccine (OR = 0.07; 95%CI 0.04-0.11, the knowledge of free vaccination policy (OR = 7.20; 95%CI 5.91-8.78, the state's priority vaccination strategy(OR = 1.33; 95%CI 1.08-1.64, and taking up seasonal influenza vaccine behavior (OR = 4.69; 95%CI 3.53-6.23. Conclusions This A/H1N1 epidemic has not caused public panic yet, but the knowledge of A/H1N1 in residents is not optimistic. Public education campaign may take the side effects of vaccine and the knowledge about the state's vaccination strategy into account.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate practices and knowledge on infectious hazards, to determine the prevalence of viral hepatitis B and C related to occupational blood exposures among health care workers, and to propose a prevention policy. This descriptive epidemiological survey, which is multicentric and cross-cutting, was carried out in 2005 in four Moroccan cities. 1562 health care workers were contacted and 1002 accepted to reply to the questionnaire (64.1%). The mean age was 39.5 +/- 6.8 years and length of service 12.6 +/- 8.3 years. Blood was identified as the product most handled by workers (91.3%), followed by dirty linen and hospital waste. The most frequently used instruments reported were hollow needles (77.9%), followed by lancets. Re-sheathing used needles was practiced by 47.3% of the personnel. Nurses, assistants and support staff have insufficient knowledge on how viral hepatitis B and C is transmitted. Only 47.4% of personnel were adequately vaccinated against hepatitis B. Post-vaccines serology was carried out on only 2.7% of the vaccinated staff. During the last twelve months, 62.8% of the persons were victim to at least one occupational blood exposures of which 8.3% were reported. Universal precautions are not widely known or applied: only 24.4% wore gloves for invasive acts and 63% correctly disinfected their hands. Viral hepatitis B and C hazards in healthcare facilities are not sufficiently taken account. The recent creation of occupational health services in hospital facilities should contribute to improve working conditions, provide for mandatory vaccination of hospital employees against viral hepatitis B, and improve and increase information and education on hazards related to occupational blood exposures for healthcare personnel. PMID:19863018
Laraqui, Omar; Laraqui, Siham; Laraqui, Salwa; Tripodi, Dominique; Ouazzani, Laaziza Chahed; Caubet, Alain; Verger, Christian; Laraqui, Chakib El Houssine
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to know the knowledge, attitude and practices of 300 married women in the reproductive age group living in different districts of Bangladesh , regarding HBV infection. Only20% of the women were found aware of the mode of transmission of HBV. However, 50% of the women were having the misconceptions regarding mode of transmission of HBV. 4% of women, 30% of children up to 5 years and 15% of children above 5year were fully immunized with hepatitis B vaccine. 80% of children up to 5years and 75% of children above 5 years were fully immunized as per universal immunization Programme. Hence, the results of the study clearly indicated the low immunization programme and this further potentiated the need to grow public awareness about vaccination against Hepatitis B by focusing the beneficial effect of of early immunization through public electronic media.
Md. Atiqur Rahman
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to know the knowledge, attitude and practices of 300 marriedwomen in the reproductive age group living in the cantonment area Sunjawan, Jammu regardingHBV infection. Only 20% of the women were found aware of the mode of transmission of HBV.However, 50% of the women were having the misconceptions regarding mode of transmission ofHBV. 4% of women, 30% of children up to 5 years and 15% of children above 5 years were fullyimmunized with hepatitis B vaccine. 80% of children up to 5 years and 75% of children above 5years were fully immunized as per universal immunization programme. Hence, the results of thestudy clearly indicated the low immunization rate with vaccine against HBV than that under universalimmunization programme and further potentiated the need for implementation of therecommendations in 9th five year plan of India regarding introduction of immunization againstHBV in universal immunization programme at the earliest .
Rashmi Sharma, C.L. Sharma, Ruchi Khajuria
This book provides knowledge engineers with practical methods for initiating, designing, building, managing, and demonstrating successful commercial expert systems. It is a record of what actually works (and does not work) in the construction of expert systems, drawn from the author's decade of experience in building expert systems in all major areas of application for American, European, and Japanese organizations.The book features:* knowledge engineering programming techniques* useful skills for demonstrating expert systems * practical costing and metrics* guidelines for using knowledge repr
Full Text Available Introduction: The waste generated during the delivery of health care services carries a high potential of infection and injury than any other type of waste. Previous studies in India show that the awareness and practices on bio-medical waste management among health care personnel was dismal and hence studies are required to know the current status. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice about bio-medical waste management among health care personnel working in KVG Medical College. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional study conducted in KVG Medical College, Sullia, India. Using convenient sampling method, a total of 120 health care personnel were selected which consisted of 4 groups with 30 each of doctors, nurses, lab-technicians and class-IV waste handlers. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Data compilation and analysis was done using SPSS 17. Results: The study revealed that knowledge regarding colour coding and risks of handling bio-medical waste was poor across all the 4 groups especially among class-IV waste handlers. Majority of the study participants had never undergone any training on bio-medical waste management and there was a felt need for the same. A meagre 36% doctors, 43% nurses, 30% lab-technicians and 13% class-IV waste handlers were discarding the bio-medical waste according to colour code. Among the class-IV waste handlers 67% reported needle stick injury. Conclusion: As the knowledge and practice regarding bio-medical waste management was poor there is a need to conduct periodic training and retraining workshops with special focus on proper use of personal protective gear.
Imaad Mohammed Ismail
Objectives: To determine the vaccination status for hepatitis B and knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding hepatitis B and C among medical students of Karachi and to evaluate the effects of gender and age on the responses, regarding vaccination and KAP for Hepatitis B and C. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 7 medical colleges/ universities of Karachi. Convenient sampling was used to collect the information. Questionnaire regarding awareness about prevention, transmission, diagnosis, treatment and vaccination availability for hepatitis B and C was completed from each individual. In addition, vaccination status of hepatitis B and the awareness of students regarding post exposure prophylaxis was also documented. One thousand five hundred and nine students participated in this study. Results: The mean age of medical students (1509) was 20.35 +- 1.72 years. Female participants were 1075 (71.2%) and 937 62.1%) of the respondents were studying in public institutions. Eighty five percent of the respondents indicated that they were aware of availability of a vaccine for hepatitis B. Only 57.1% medical students showed excellent knowledge regarding the route of spread of hepatitis B and C. Students showing good knowledge of treatment procedures for hepatitis B and C were 48.2%. Half of the respondents (49.8%) showed good knowledge regarding spread of hepatitis by dental procedures. Seventy six percent of participating medical students did not have aticipating medical students did not have any knowledge about the post exposure prophylaxis for hepatitis B and C. Seventy four percent indicated that the hepatitis patients should not be isolated. Seventy nine percent of the students reported that they were vaccinated for hepatitis B and 70.6% of them were completely vaccinated (3 doses). About half of the respondents (49.4%) indicated that they were screened for hepatitis B and only 27.1% were screened for hepatitis C. Half of the students reported that they have had needle pricks in their students career. Conclusion: The overall KAP of studied group showed satisfactory outcomes. However, some areas of knowledge and attitude need to be modified or changed altogether. (author)
Full Text Available The knowledge-based theory of the firm suggests that knowledge is the organizational asset that enables sustainable competitive advantage in hypercompetitive environments. The emphasis on knowledge intoday's organizations is based on the assumption that barriers to the transfer and replication of knowledge endow it with strategic importance. Many organizations are developing information systems designed specifically to facilitate the sharing and integration of knowledge. Such systems are referred to as Knowledge Management System (KMS. The current study provides an analysis of current practices and outcomes of KMS and the nature of KMS as they are evolving in organizations. The findings suggest that interest in KMS across a variety of industries is very high, the technological foundations are varied, and the major concerns revolve around achieving the correct amount and type of accurate knowledge andgarnering support for contributing to the KMS. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are drawn from the study findings.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies investigating the travellers knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP profile indicated an important educational need among those travelling to risk destinations. Initiatives to improve such education should target all groups of travellers, including business travellers, those visiting friends and relatives (VFRs, and elderly travellers. Methods In the years 2002 to 2009, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted at the Dutch Schiphol Airport with the aim to study trends in KAP of travel risk groups towards prevention of malaria. The risk groups last-minute travellers, solo-travellers, business travellers, VFRs and elderly travellers were specifically studied. Results A total of 3,045 respondents were included in the survey. Travellers to destinations with a high risk for malaria had significantly more accurate risk perceptions (knowledge than travellers to low-risk destinations. The relative risk for malaria in travellers to high-risk destinations was probably mitigated by higher protection rates against malaria as compared with travellers to low risk destinations. There were no significant differences in intended risk-taking behaviour. Trend analyses showed a significant change over time in attitude towards more risk-avoiding behaviour and towards higher protection rates against malaria in travellers to high-risk destinations. The KAP profile of last-minute travellers substantially increased their relative risk for malaria, which contrasts to the slight increase in relative risk of solo travellers, business travellers and VFRs for malaria. Conclusions The results of this sequential cohort survey in Dutch travellers suggest an annual 1.8% increase in protection rates against malaria coinciding with an annual 2.5% decrease in intended risk-seeking behaviour. This improvement may reflect the continuous efforts of travel health advice providers to create awareness and to propagate safe and healthy travel. The KAP profile of last-minute travellers, in particular, substantially increased their relative risk for malaria, underlining the continuous need for personal protective measures and malaria chemoprophylaxis for this risk group.
van Genderen Perry JJ
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el conocimiento, las prácticas y las actitudes sobre la enfermedad de Carrión (bartonelosis en poblaciones rurales con antecedentes de brotes epidémicos. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado en las poblaciones de Huaripampa, Orcosh y Opayaco (Ancash, Perú durante el mes de julio del 2010, utilizando una encuesta para evaluar el conocimiento, las prácticas y las actitudes sobre la enfermedad de Carrión. Se entrevistó solo a mayores de 18 años que tuviesen una antigüedad mínima de un año residiendo en esos poblados. RESULTADOS: Se realizaron encuestas a un total de 276 pobladores, de los cuales 36,6% fueron hombres y 72,5% no había oído hablar de la enfermedad de Carrión. Entre los que la conocían, la mayoría (38,7% indicó que se contagia mediante picaduras, mientras que 26% manifestó no conocer la forma de contagio. Con respecto a las acciones que deberían tomarse en caso de presentar la enfermedad de Carrión, 69,3% de los encuestados refirieron que acudirían a un centro de salud y más de la mitad informó haber recomendado prácticas preventivas a familiares o conocidos en el pasado. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de tratarse de comunidades históricamente afectadas por la enfermedad de Carrión, los pobladores de estas tres comunidades no mostraron un nivel adecuado de conocimientos, actitudes o prácticas para su prevención. En vista de ello, y teniendo en cuenta que este padecimiento ha presentado brotes cíclicos, se hace perentorio diseñar e implementar un programa que eduque a los habitantes de estos poblados -poniendo el foco en el papel de los usos y costumbres- sobre cómo prevenir la enfermedad de Carrión, así como el resto de las principales enfermedades endémicas de la región.OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices about Carrión's disease (bartonellosis in rural communities with a history of epidemic outbreaks. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in the communities of Huaripampa, Orcosh, and Opayaco (Ancash, Peru in July 2010, to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices about Carrión's disease. Interviewees were aged >18 years and had resided in the community for at least one year. RESULTS: A total of 276 residents were surveyed; 36.6% were men, and 72.5% had not heard of Carrión's disease. Of those familiar with it, most (38.7% said that it spreads through bites, and 26% did not know how it spreads. Regarding actions to take if Carrión's disease develops, 69.3% of respondents said they would go to a health center and over half reported having recommended preventive practices to relatives or acquaintances in the past. CONCLUSIONS: Even though these three communities have a history of Carrión's disease, their inhabitants did not demonstrate adequate knowledge, attitudes, or practices for preventing it. In view of this, and given that this illness has cyclical outbreaks, it is imperative to design and implement a program to educate residents of these communities-focusing on the role of habits and customs-about how to prevent Carrión's disease, as well as the region's other main endemic diseases.
Carolina Llerena Luna
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Evaluar el conocimiento, las prácticas y las actitudes sobre la enfermedad de Carrión (bartonelosis) en poblaciones rurales con antecedentes de brotes epidémicos. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado en las poblaciones de Huaripampa, Orcosh y Opayaco (Ancash, Perú) durante el mes de juli [...] o del 2010, utilizando una encuesta para evaluar el conocimiento, las prácticas y las actitudes sobre la enfermedad de Carrión. Se entrevistó solo a mayores de 18 años que tuviesen una antigüedad mínima de un año residiendo en esos poblados. RESULTADOS: Se realizaron encuestas a un total de 276 pobladores, de los cuales 36,6% fueron hombres y 72,5% no había oído hablar de la enfermedad de Carrión. Entre los que la conocían, la mayoría (38,7%) indicó que se contagia mediante picaduras, mientras que 26% manifestó no conocer la forma de contagio. Con respecto a las acciones que deberían tomarse en caso de presentar la enfermedad de Carrión, 69,3% de los encuestados refirieron que acudirían a un centro de salud y más de la mitad informó haber recomendado prácticas preventivas a familiares o conocidos en el pasado. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de tratarse de comunidades históricamente afectadas por la enfermedad de Carrión, los pobladores de estas tres comunidades no mostraron un nivel adecuado de conocimientos, actitudes o prácticas para su prevención. En vista de ello, y teniendo en cuenta que este padecimiento ha presentado brotes cíclicos, se hace perentorio diseñar e implementar un programa que eduque a los habitantes de estos poblados -poniendo el foco en el papel de los usos y costumbres- sobre cómo prevenir la enfermedad de Carrión, así como el resto de las principales enfermedades endémicas de la región. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices about Carrión's disease (bartonellosis) in rural communities with a history of epidemic outbreaks. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in the communities of Huaripampa, Orcosh, and Opayaco (Ancash, Peru) in July 2010, to asse [...] ss knowledge, attitudes, and practices about Carrión's disease. Interviewees were aged >18 years and had resided in the community for at least one year. RESULTS: A total of 276 residents were surveyed; 36.6% were men, and 72.5% had not heard of Carrión's disease. Of those familiar with it, most (38.7%) said that it spreads through bites, and 26% did not know how it spreads. Regarding actions to take if Carrión's disease develops, 69.3% of respondents said they would go to a health center and over half reported having recommended preventive practices to relatives or acquaintances in the past. CONCLUSIONS: Even though these three communities have a history of Carrión's disease, their inhabitants did not demonstrate adequate knowledge, attitudes, or practices for preventing it. In view of this, and given that this illness has cyclical outbreaks, it is imperative to design and implement a program to educate residents of these communities-focusing on the role of habits and customs-about how to prevent Carrión's disease, as well as the region's other main endemic diseases.
Carolina, Llerena Luna; Maggie, Schweig Groisman; César Augusto, Ugarte-Gil.
Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the Iranian psychiatrist's knowledge, attitude and practice about compulsory admission and its related laws.Materials and Methods: The target group of this descriptive prospective study was the entire Iranian psychiatrists whose addresses were available in Iranian psychiatry association. Assessment was performed through a self-report questionnaire, which contained 52 evaluating questions. Questionnaires were mailed to psychiatrists and assessed after they returned the answers.Results: We obtained responses from 116 psychiatrists. Twelve and a half percent of them had been complained against due to compulsory admission. More than 50% of them had studied literature crowing psychiatric health laws, and 12.1% of them had a poor knowledge reyording this literature. About 70% of them believed that the present law is not befitting with current needs. Majority of them reported that they hospitalize their patients involuntarily and they prefer their opinion on compulsory admission rather than other resources in most situations.Conclusion: These findings suggest that the present law about compulsory admission of psychiatric patients is deficient and not befitting with current needs. Furthermore, lack of education in this view is obvious and prominen
M. Valipour, M.D.
Background Schistosomiasis japonica is still endemic in the Peoples Republic of China (P.R. China) in five provinces of lake and marshland regions and in two provinces of mountainous regions. Studies elucidated that individual and community perception, attitudes towards schistosomiasis, and hygiene behaviors were crucial factors for preventing schistosomiasis. This study sought to assess the knowledge of, attitudes towards, and practices (KAP) relating to schistosomiasis in two subtypes of a mountainous region in Eryuan County, Yunnan Province, P.R. China. The studys aim is to make suggestions for establishing more specific and effective control measures for disease transmission and interruption in two subtypes of a mountainous region with low-level infection rates. Methods A cross-sectional study of 3,000 inhabitants was carried out in the Yongle (plateau basin) and Xinzhuang (plateau canyon) communities of Eryuan County, Yunnan Province in November and December 2011. Stratified cluster random sampling was undertaken using a uniform set of quantitative questionnaires administered by trained assistants. This was further supported with qualitative data from in-depth interviews (IDIs) conducted with ten farmers and ten students. All participants were examined for schistosomiasis using both a serological test (indirect hemagglutination assay [IHA]) and a stool examination (Kato-Katz). Results The total schistosomiasis knowledge rate in Yongle (83.4%) was significantly lower than that in Xinzhuang (95.5%). In both communities, among the respondents aged 15 years or below, more than one third didnt know the name, endemic areas, and animal reservoirs of schistosomiasis. The majority of respondents in Eryuan acquired their schistosomiasis knowledge from doctors, followed by handouts and hearing from others. The infection rate was once the highest in Yongle, but is now the highest in Xinzhuang, where there are more risk factors for schistosomiasis, such as frequently grazing cattle, digging vegetables or cutting grass in the field, as well as raising cattle by free grazing. Conclusion In short, Eryuan Countys overall knowledge rate of schistosomiasis was found to be high. Due to various dominating risk factors, different control strategies should be designed keeping in mind the two different subtypes of endemic areas for schistosomiasis in mountainous regions, namely plateau basins and plateau canyons. PMID:24955240
Diferenças regionais de conhecimento, opinião e uso de contraceptivo de emergência entre universitários brasileiros de cursos da área de saúde Regional differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practice in emergency contraceptive use among health sciences university students in Brazil
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as diferenças regionais de conhecimento, opinião e uso de anticoncepção de emergência entre universitários brasileiros. Questionário semi-estruturado abordando conhecimento, opinião, experiência com anticoncepção de emergência e comportamento sexual foi aplicado a adolescentes de universidades brasileiras. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste exato de Fisher e ANOVA. Diferenças foram significantes quando o valor de p The aim of this study was to evaluate regional differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practice in emergency contraception use among Brazilian university students. A sample of university students answered a semi-structured questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes, and practice related to emergency contraception and sexual behavior. Fisher's exact test and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Ninety-six percent (n = 588 of the students had heard of emergency contraception, and 19% (n = 111 knew all the situations in which emergency contraception is indicated, with statistical differences between regions of the country. Forty-two percent of sexually active women in the sample had already used emergency contraception; 35% (n = 207 of students equated emergency contraception with abortion; and 81% (n = 473 thought emergency contraception involves health risks. No significant difference was observed between regions of the country regarding use and attitudes towards emergency contraception. Inter-regional differences in knowledge had no impact on students' attitudes and practice in emergency contraception. National awareness-raising campaigns are needed to improve knowledge on emergency contraception.
Flávia Calanca da Silva
Female athletes often engage in harmful dietary and weight control practices that can impair bone health and hinder performance. To promote related positive health behavior practices, nutrition educators may be more effective if they understand the osteoporosis knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among female athletes. A questionnaire including items related to osteoporosis and dietary calcium knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral practices was administered to 114 female collegiate athletes (19.6+/-1.4 years). Self-reported intakes of dairy product consumption were also obtained; subjects were asked how many times per week they drank milk and ate cheese, yogurt, and ice cream. The mean score for osteoporosis knowledge was 7.1+/-1.9 (out of 10 items). The mean score for favorable responses to attitude items was 2.1+/-0.8 (out of 3 items). Correct responses to dietary calcium knowledge items were 2.2+/-0.7 (out of 3 items). On average, subjects consumed 2.4+/-1.6 servings of dairy products per day; 31% of subjects consumed the recommended 3 or more servings per day. Osteoporosis knowledge, osteoporosis attitudes, and dietary calcium knowledge were not correlated (p > .05) with dairy product intake. Because of the importance of achieving a high peak bone mass to prevent osteoporosis, our data suggest that further research is needed regarding other factors that might influence dairy product intake among female athletes. PMID:11915782
Turner, L W; Bass, M A
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática em relação ao uso prévio de métodos anticoncepcionais em adolescentes gestantes, bem como algumas de suas características sociodemográficas e da sua vida sexual. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, associado a inquérito conhecimento, atitude e prática. Envolveu 156 adolescentes grávidas com idade menor ou igual a 19 anos, que responderam a questionário antes da primeira consulta pré-natal, entre outubro de 1999 a agosto de 2000. Foram realizadas análises univariada e bivariada.Para esta foram utilizados os testes qui-quadrado de Pearson e de Yates e de regressão logística. RESULTADOS: As adolescentes apresentaram média de idade de 16,1 anos. Houve predomínio de primigestas (78,8%. A idade média da menarca foi 12,2 anos, sendo 14,5 anos para a primeira relação sexual. Condom (99,4% e anticoncepcional oral hormonal (98% foram os métodos anticoncepcionais mais conhecidos. Cerca de 67,3% não estavam utilizando qualquer método antes de ficar grávida. O principal motivo isolado alegado para o não uso foi o desejo de engravidar (24,5%. As adolescentes mais velhas, as que informaram professar alguma religião e as que pertenciam a uma classe socioeconômica mais alta tinham um maior conhecimento dos métodos. As adolescentes multíparas usaram com maior freqüência contraceptivos antes de ficar grávidas. CONCLUSÕES: As adolescentes mostraram ter conhecimento adequado sobre os métodos anticoncepcionais e concordaram com seu uso durante o período da adolescência. A religião, a idade e a classe socioeconômica estão relacionadas ao maior ou mais adequado conhecimento dos métodos, enquanto a multiparidade a seu maior uso. Cinqüenta e quatro por cento de adolescentes usaram algum contraceptivo na primeira relação sexual. Ocorreu um decréscimo de utilização de contraceptivos, havendo um período de tempo curto entre o início da vida sexual e a gravidez.OBJECTIVE: To describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to previous contraceptive methods used among pregnant teenagers as well as to outline some sociodemographic characteristics and sexual practices. METHODS: An observational study associated to the KAP (Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey was carried out in 156 pregnant teenagers aged 19 years or more. A structured questionnaire was applied before their first prenatal visit from October 1999 to August 2000. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed using Pearson's and Yates' chi-square test and logistic regression. RESULTS: The adolescents had an average age of 16.1 years and most were in their first pregnancy (78.8%. Average age of menarche was 12.2 years and their first sexual intercourse was at the age of 14.5 years. Condoms (99.4% and oral contraceptives (98% were the most common contraceptive methods known. Of all, 67.3% were not using any contraceptive method before getting pregnant. The main reason reported for not using any contraceptive method was wanting to get pregnant (24.5%. The older ones who reported having religious beliefs and had a higher socioeconomic status had better knowledge on contraceptive methods. Teenagers who had had previous pregnancies reported more often use of contraceptive methods before getting pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: The pregnant teenagers showed to have adequate knowledge of contraceptive methods and agreed to use them throughout their teenage years. Religion, age group, and socioeconomic status were directly related to their knowledge on contraceptive methods, and multiple pregnancies brought more awareness on that. Of all, 54% had used any contraceptive on first sexual intercourse but their use decreased over time and shortly after their first intercourse the studied teenagers got pregnant.
Márcio Alves Vieira Belo
Back Ground: Today about one fourth of biomedical waste is considered as hazardous and may affect the health of both medical personnel and general community. As medical students are going to be one of the important components of health care system, they should have proper and sufficient knowledge on biomedical waste management. So awareness about various aspects of biomedical waste management has to be assessed frequently. Objective: To know the existing awareness and knowledge about biomedic...
Singh Ajai; Srivastava Rajeshwar Nath
Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs are common in children. The cause of URTIs is usually viral, but parents' attitudes often contribute to inappropriate prescription of antibiotics, promoting antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study was to document and analyse parental beliefs on antibiotic use for children with URTIs in Greece, a country with high levels of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance. Methods A knowledge-attitude-practice questionnaire was developed and distributed to Greek parents caring for children who were 5-6 years old, between January and July of the same school year. The sample of the study contained parents from all geographic areas of Greece. Results The majority of Greek parents (80% believed that UTRIs are mostly self-limited, although 74% of them expected to receive antibiotics when such a diagnosis was given. Earache was the most common reason for which parents expected antibiotics (45%. Greek parents rarely gave antibiotics to their children without medical advice (10% and most (88% believed that unnecessary antibiotic use drives antibiotic resistance and they were happy to receive symptomatic therapy if instructed by their physician. Almost 70% of parents confused antibiotics with other medicines used for symptomatic therapy for a child with URTI. Conclusion Greek parents have a trusted relationship with their paediatrician and rarely give antibiotics without medical advice, indicating that parents contribute less than expected to antibiotic misuse. Parents also appreciate the benign course of most URTIs and the fact that unnecessary antibiotic use is harmful. More time needs to be invested in educating mostly physicians on the potential benefit from reducing antibiotic prescribing for children with URTI.
Theodoridou Maria N
Conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas dos médicos pediatras quanto ao desenvolvimento da comunicação oral Knowledge, attitudes and practices of pediatricians regarding the development of oral communication
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar os conhecimentos e as atitudes práticas de pediatras em relação à comunicação oral de crianças. MÉTODOS: foram entrevistados 79 pediatras por meio de questionário específico. O conteúdo do questionário buscava informações sobre o profissional, conhecimento das etapas do desenvolvimento da comunicação infantil, sua conduta frente a alguma queixa de suspeita de alterações da comunicação, encaminhamentos profissionais e o método utilizado como avaliação destas crianças. Os questionários foram entregues pessoalmente e respondidos manualmente pelos médicos. RESULTADOS: a maioria dos pediatras entrevistados tem conhecimento, embora básico, das alterações da comunicação infantil e o desenvolvimento da linguagem. Porém, muitos pediatras desconhecem a real atuação do fonoaudiólogo. Além disso, embora haja uma preocupação com a idade da criança falar corretamente, os médicos não realizam o encaminhamento no período adequado. CONCLUSÃO: este estudo mostra a importância da divulgação do trabalho fonoaudiológico em outros meios que não os restritos a ambientes acadêmico, científico ou clínico apenas frequentado por fonoaudiólogos, mas também por profissionais da área médica.PURPOSE: to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of pediatricians regarding the development of oral communication in children. METHODS: a total of 79 pediatricians answered a specific questionnaire. This questionnaire searched information about the professional, professional knowledge of the stages of the children communication development, the behavior before some complaint of communication disorders, referring and method used for evaluating these children. The questionnaires were delivered personally and answered manually by the doctors. RESULTS: most interviewed pediatricians have knowledge, though basic, on some language disorders. However, many pediatricians are not aware on the role played by speech pathologists. Moreover, even though there is concern on the correct speech of children, pediatricians do not refer them at adequate time. CONCLUSION: this study shows the importance to publish the role of speech pathologists not only in academic, scientific or clinical environments attended by speech pathologists, but also in the working places of medical professionals.
Luciana Paula Maximino
Full Text Available Emmanuelle Careau,1 Gjin Biba,1 Rosemary Brander,2 Janice P Van Dijk,2 Sarita Verma,3 Margo Paterson,2 Maria Tassone31Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitation and Social Integration, Université Laval, Québec, QC, 2Office of Interprofessional Education and Practice, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, 3Centre for Interprofessional Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaBackground: A review of the literature was undertaken by the Canadian Interprofessional Health Leadership Collaborative to investigate the content and competencies of health education programs that teach collaborative leadership and to inform the development of an international collaborative leadership curriculum.Methods: A PubMed and Google Scholar search identified the frequency of key leadership education program terms and was adjusted for six major databases. From the 2,119 references, 250 were selected in a double-blinded manner. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed to determine the patterns, types, learners, models, and competencies addressed. Cross-tabulation and analysis of correlation identified best practices and impacts on learners' knowledge, skills, attitudes/behaviors, and on health system change.Results: Four types of leadership models were formally identified, ie, traditional leadership, transformational leadership, clinical leadership, and collaborative leadership. The most identified competencies were interprofessional communication, knowledge on how to work in teams and across disciplines, and financial knowledge. The least addressed topics were social accountability and community engagement. Only 6.8% of the articles reviewed assessed the effectiveness of their program based on patient-centered outcomes and 3.6% on system change.Conclusion: This literature review focused on 250 health leadership education programs reported in peer-reviewed journals to address important questions about the competencies, best practices taught, and evaluation of effectiveness of health system change in health leadership educational programs. This review provides information that may encourage the development, implementation, and evaluation of new collaborative leadership programs. The Lancet Commission report in 2010 called for a new breed of collaborative health leader who can work across health professions in community, hospital, and primary care settings. Collaborative leaders must lead change in the face of uncertainty and ambiguity, and must strengthen and build relationships to navigate complex systems. Existing leadership programs do not adequately address the key competencies to prepare future health leaders to rise to these challenges.Keywords: leadership, health education, collaboration, curriculum, interprofessional relationships, peer review research
Background: Death related to unintended pregnancy associated events is a series public health concern in Ethiopia. This is very common in young adolescents for whom life is full of adventure and temptation with very little knowledge about the consequences of their reckless activities. Emergency contraceptives are the only method that can be used within short time after sexual intercourse, offering a second chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and...
Haftom Gebrehiwot, Berhane Gebrekidan
The Effect of the Theoretical Course of Community Oral Health on the Oral Health Prevention Knowledge, Attitude and Self-Reported Practice in Dental School Students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Evaluation of the training is a principle for successful education. This study evaluated the effect of the theoretical course of community oral health on knowledge, attitude and self-reported practice of preventive dentistry in dental students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences and assessed the students' satisfaction from the course.Materials and Methods: The intervention group comprised the forth-year students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Dental School and the controls were the forth year students of Shahid Beheshti Medical University. The questionnaire included questions on backgrounds, knowledge, attitude and practice of students towards preventive dentistry, and students' satisfaction from the course. The intervention was 17 weekly sessions (hours of the community oral health course. The sum of scores for questions on backgrounds, knowledge, attitude and practice were calculated and changes were analyzed by General Linear Model.Results: The mean baseline knowledge score in the intervention group was 16.9 (SD=4.0 and for the control group 16.3 (SD=3.5. Corresponding figures were 23.7 (SD=3.4 and 17 (SD=3.3 after intervention. General linear model showed the intervention to be successful in increasing the students' knowledge scores on preventive dentistry (P<0.0001. Most students (92% were satisfied with learning several new items during the course.Conclusion: The students' knowledge was successfully increased by passing the theoretical course of community oral health delivered by teacher-centered method of lecture. Student-centered methods may help in changing the students' attitude and practice of preventive dentistry.
This study examines demographic, cognitive and behavioral factors that predict pediatric dog-bite injury risk in rural China. A total of 1,537 children (grades 46) in rural regions of Anhui, Hebei and Zhejiang Provinces, China completed self-report questionnaires assessing beliefs about and behaviors with dogs. The results showed that almost 30% of children reported a history of dog bites. Children answered 56% of dog-safety knowledge items correctly. Regressions revealed both demographic ...
Schwebel, David C.; Shulan Pang; Guozhang Xu; Shaohua Li; Huiyun Xiang; Jiabin Shen
Full Text Available Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs are common in children and represent a significant cause of antibiotic abuse which contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance. A survey was conducted in Cyprus in 2006 to assess parents and pediatricians Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP concerning the role of antibiotics in children with URTIs. A school-based stratified geographic clustering sampling was used and a pre-tested KAP questionnaire was distributed. A different questionnaire was distributed to paediatricians. Demographic factors associated with antibiotic misuse were identified by backward logistic regression analysis. The parental overall response rate was 69.3%. Parents (N = 1,462 follow pediatricians advice and rarely administer antibiotics acquired over the counter. Although a third expects an antibiotic prescription for URTI symptoms, most deny pressuring their doctors. Low parental education was the most important independent risk factor positively related to antibiotic misuse (OR = 2.88, 95%CI 2.02 to 4.12, p < 0.001. Pediatricians (N = 33 denied prescribing antibiotics after parental pressure but admit that parents ask for antibiotics and believe they expect antibiotic prescriptions even when not needed. In conclusion, Cypriotic parents trust their primary care providers. Although it appears that antibiotic misuse is not driven by parental pressure, the pediatricians view differs.
Questionnaires about schistosomiasis and Phytolacca dodecandra, a plant molluscicide with potential to control schistosomiasis transmitting snails, were administered to 271 women and 168 men in two communal areas where the plant grows naturally, and in a further two areas where no records of the plant exist. 78.9% of the respondents thought that schistosomiasis was a dangerous disease with blood in urine being the most recognised symptom. 11.8% said that snails were involved in the transmission of the disease, although their role in sustaining the life cycle of the schistosome parasite was not understood. Knowledge about P. dodecandra was restricted to people resident in areas where the plant grows naturally and to immigrants from areas where it is known to grow. The most common use of the plant was as a floor polish. Knowledge of uses of the plant were found to be related to the sex of the respondents. Seventy-seven percent of the people interviewed were prepared to cultivate the plant for self-help schistosomiasis control programmes. Of the 23% that were not willing to cultivate P. dodecandra, 47.7% cited scarcity of land as the main obstacle. Other reasons were lack of knowledge about the plant (21%), lack of confidence in the success of such self-help programmes (11.2%) and indifference due to old age (20%). PMID:2734625
Ndamba, J; Chandiwana, S K; Makaza, N
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a global problem of extraordinary dimensions and has so far resulted in nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Health care providers (HCPs) are considered to play a pivotal role in the provision of preventive and curative services to individuals suffering from HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. Pakistan, which was previously categorised as having a low-prevalence, high-risk HIV epidemic, is now facing a concentrated HIV epidemic among its most at-risk populations such as injecting drug users. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and reported practices relating to HIV/AIDS and STIs among private and public sector health care providers providing clinical services in areas where women sell sex. This was an exploratory quantitative study, where a structured questionnaire was administered in face-to-face interviews with 200 HCPs from the public and private sectors. Knowledge about AIDS and correct diagnosis of STIs were defined as according to the national guidelines of NACP. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed to test associations between predictors and level of knowledge of STIs in each group separately. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to indicate predicting factors for correct management of STIs. Forty-five percent of the HCPs had correct knowledge about the transmission and prevention of HIV, whereas 21% had seen a patient with advanced HIV infection, on a patient with advanced HIV infection, only two HCPs had been trained to manage such cases and 82% were not aware of syndromic management of STIs. Only 10% could cite the 'correct treatment' of gonorrhoea, syphilis and vaginal discharge. The odds of having the 'correct knowledge' of diagnosing gonorrhoea and syphilis were 2.1 (CI 95%, 1.2-3.8) if the HCP was a female medical doctor working in public sector. Further intensive training is needed to improve the ability of relevant HCPs to correctly diagnose and effectively treat patients infected with HIV and STIs. (author)
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Estimar la relación entre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (comportamientos) de riesgo en la sexualidad juvenil y la estructura y percepción de funcionalidad familiar. Metodología Se realizó un estudio observacional de corte trasversal entre 13 699 adolescentes (10 a 19 años de edad) de [...] 12 colegios públicos de la localidad de Suba. Se aplicó una encuesta autodiligenciada donde se interrogó por conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos sexuales y la estructura y percepción del funcionamiento familiar. Resultados Edad media de los adolescentes 13,5 años. Prevalencia de relaciones sexuales de 17 %. El 8 % de los hogares presentan disfunción severa y 39 % son nucleares incompletos. Las mujeres tienen menos relaciones sexuales que los hombres (OR 0.53; IC 95 %; 0.47-0.59). Se presenta más relaciones sexuales cuando los adolescentes perciben de manera disfuncional a su familia (OR 2.06; IC 95 %; 1.72-2.48). Conclusiones Es más importante la percepción de función familiar que la estructura como factor de riesgo en la sexualidad de los jóvenes. Abstract in english Objective Assessing the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding high-risk sexual behaviour in adolescent sexuality as well as the structure and perception of family functionality. Methods Cross-sectional research was carried out on a population of 13,699 adolescents (ages ra [...] nging from 10 to 19) attending 12 public schools from the conurbation of Suba. A self-questionnaire was administered, focusing on sexual behaviour, knowledge, attitudes and the structure and perception of family dynamics. Results Average age was 13.5. Sexual activity prevalence was 17%. 8% of households suffered from severe dysfunction. 39% of households were incomplete nuclear ones. Females reported less sexual activity than males (0.53 OR; 0.47-0.59 95%CI). Sexual activity was more common when adolescents perceived family dysfunction (2.06 OR; 1.72-2.48 95%CI). Conclusions Perception of family function was more important than structure as a risk factor in youngsters' sexuality.
Juan C, González.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Estimar la relación entre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (comportamientos) de riesgo en la sexualidad juvenil y la estructura y percepción de funcionalidad familiar. Metodología Se realizó un estudio observacional de corte trasversal entre 13 699 adolescentes (10 a 19 años de edad) de [...] 12 colegios públicos de la localidad de Suba. Se aplicó una encuesta autodiligenciada donde se interrogó por conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos sexuales y la estructura y percepción del funcionamiento familiar. Resultados Edad media de los adolescentes 13,5 años. Prevalencia de relaciones sexuales de 17 %. El 8 % de los hogares presentan disfunción severa y 39 % son nucleares incompletos. Las mujeres tienen menos relaciones sexuales que los hombres (OR 0.53; IC 95 %; 0.47-0.59). Se presenta más relaciones sexuales cuando los adolescentes perciben de manera disfuncional a su familia (OR 2.06; IC 95 %; 1.72-2.48). Conclusiones Es más importante la percepción de función familiar que la estructura como factor de riesgo en la sexualidad de los jóvenes. Abstract in english Objective Assessing the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding high-risk sexual behaviour in adolescent sexuality as well as the structure and perception of family functionality. Methods Cross-sectional research was carried out on a population of 13,699 adolescents (ages ra [...] nging from 10 to 19) attending 12 public schools from the conurbation of Suba. A self-questionnaire was administered, focusing on sexual behaviour, knowledge, attitudes and the structure and perception of family dynamics. Results Average age was 13.5. Sexual activity prevalence was 17%. 8% of households suffered from severe dysfunction. 39% of households were incomplete nuclear ones. Females reported less sexual activity than males (0.53 OR; 0.47-0.59 95%CI). Sexual activity was more common when adolescents perceived family dysfunction (2.06 OR; 1.72-2.48 95%CI). Conclusions Perception of family function was more important than structure as a risk factor in youngsters' sexuality.
Juan C, González.
Problem Statement/ Objective: Severe dehydration due to diarrhoea leads to 19.8% of deaths among children under 5 years of age in Madagascar (1). The Ministry of Health identified infant diarrhoea as a public health priority. Several studies show that there is an association between infant and young child feeding practices and diarrhoea morbidity (2,3). A conceptual framework allowed a description of child undernutrition as immediately linked to poverty with diarrhoea as a short-term conseque...
The attitudes toward people with epilepsy are influenced by the degree of knowledge of the condition. Teachers usually do not receive any formal instruction on epilepsy during their training. This study was done to access three hundred teachers' knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy by answering a questionnaire in order to quantify their knowledge, attitude and practice toward epilepsy. Almost all the teachers had heard about epilepsy yet could not demonstrate discrimination among the stude...
Dantas Fábio Galvão; Cariri Gibran Agra; Cariri Gustavo Agra; Ribeiro Filho Antônio Roberto Vaz
A study on the Rate of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Medical Students towards Method of Medical Records Documentation at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences Affiliated Therapeutic and Teaching Centers 2003
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: History, clinical findings, procedures undertaken, and patients response to treatment are written in clinical records, hence their contents are indicators of physicians evaluation. If clinical records are provided precisely, clear and systematized, they indicate the clinical thinking of the staff and facilitate patients diagnosis process. These records have an important role in coordinating professional staff involved in patient care. Since the physicians and medical students are involved more in medical records documentation than the other hospital staff, thus, a study on their knowledge, attitude and practice towards the principles of medical records documentation is undertaken.Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study, which is done about the rate of knowledge, attitude and practice of 207 Medical students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in university hospitals. Descriptive and inferential statistical analytic methods were used for the collected data. For comparison of the hospitals, regarding observing designed principals in the completion of medical files, according to the filled questionnaires the minimum and maximum score designated as 1-5 which is very poor to excellent. Then the mean score was calculated and considered for the comparison of hospitals. For the determination of the relationship between knowledge, attitude, and practice, ? Kendalls Tau Test was used.Results: The majority of the participants had low knowledge (77.8% about medical records documentation. Most of them did not have good attitude (54.1 about completion of medical records and significance and value of medical records documentation in treatment, education, and research.Conclusion: Results indicate that incompletion of medical records at the university affiliated hospitals are due to lack of awareness of the students towards the method of medical records documentation. In addition, not considering the completion of records in evaluation of the students can affect their practice
Abstract Background Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are common in children. The cause of URTIs is usually viral, but parents' attitudes often contribute to inappropriate prescription of antibiotics, promoting antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study was to document and analyse parental beliefs on antibiotic use for children with URTIs in Greece, a country with high levels of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance. Methods A knowledge-attit...
Theodoridou Maria N; Goutziana Georgia P; Theodoridou Kalliopi M; Papaevangelou Vassiliki; Spyridis ?ikos; Panagakou Sotiria G; Syrogiannopoulos George A; Hadjichristodoulou Christos S
Conclusion: In this study very low rate of PEP utilization up on exposure to HIV risk conditions was seen even though the significant proportion of these professionals had adequate knowledge and positive attitude toward PEP. Much work had to be done by policy makers to increase the uptake of the method by health care workers to mitigate the rising epidemic of HIV/AIDS in the country. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 468-471
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish La farmacovigilancia puede ser útil para proteger a los consumidores de los efectos dañinos de los medicamentos. Los profesionales de la salud deberían considerar la comunicación de reacciones adversas de medicamentos (RAM) como una obligación profesional y deberían conocer los mecanismos de farmaco [...] vigilancia que existen en sus países. En Nepal, las actividades de farmacovigilancia comenzaron en 2004. Objetivos: El presente estudio evaluó el conocimiento, actitudes y prácticas (KAP) de los profesionales de la salud hacia las RAM y la farmacovigilancia en el Hospital Universitario de Manipal (MTH), un hospital universitario terciario ligado al centro regional de farmacovigilancia del Oeste de Nepal. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 2007 usando un cuestionario pre-evaluado (alfa de Cronbach=0,72) que tenía 25 preguntas (15 sobre conocimiento, 5 sobre actitudes y 5 sobre práctica). A las preguntas correctas se les dio una puntuación de "2' y a las respuestas incorrectas/negativas se les dio un "1', con una puntuación máxima de 50. Resultados: Se obtuvieron un total de 131 respuestas de las que 42 estaban incompletas y las restantes 89 se analizaron [49 mujeres (55,1%)]. De los 89 profesionales, 29 (33,6%) eran médicos, 46 (51,8%= enfermeras y 14 (15,7%) farmacéuticos. La media de edad era de 28,32 años (DE=8,46) y la media (rango intercuartílico) de la duración en el servicio fue 14,5 meses (6-36). Las puntuaciones totales de KAP fueron 40,06 (DE=3,51) para médicos, 39,92 (DE=4,83) para farmacéuticos y 35,82 (DE=3,75) para enfermeras. Entre los 89 profesionales, 59 (62,3%) no comunicaron ni una sola RAM al centro de farmacovigilancia. Conclusión: Los profesionales de la saludo del MTH tienen pobre KAP sobre las RAM y la farmacovigilancia, y se necesita una intervención educativa y sobre el conocimiento para estos profesionales. Abstract in english Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, p [...] harmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance in Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH), a tertiary care teaching hospital attached to the regional pharmacovigilance center in western Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using a pretested (Cronbach alpha=0.72) questionnaire having 25 questions (15 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitude and 5 on practice). The correct/positive responses were given a score of "2' and the wrong/negative responses "1', maximum possible score of "50'. Results: A total of 131 responses were obtained among which 42 were incomplete and remaining 89 [females 49 (55.1%)] were analyzed. Of the 89 professionals, 29 (32.6%) were doctors, 46 (51.8) nurses and 14 (15.7%) pharmacists. The mean age was 28.32 (SD=8.46) years and the median (interquartile range) of duration of the service 14.5 (6-36) months. The total KAP scores was 40.06 (SD=3.51) for doctors, 38.92 (SD=4.83) for pharmacists, and 35.82 (SD=3.75) for nurses. Among the 89 professionals, 59 (62.3%) had not reported even a single ADR to the pharmacovigilance center. Conclusion: The healthcare professionals at the MTH had a poor KAP towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance and there is a need for educational and awareness intervention for these professionals.
S., Palaian; M.I., Ibrahim; P., Mishra.
Nutritional knowledges, attitudes and practices in HIV patients who were receiving pharmacological treatment / CONOCIMIENTOS, ACTITUDES Y PRÁCTICAS ALIMENTARIAS EN PACIENTES DIAGNOSTICADOS CON VIH EN TRATAMIENTO FARMACOLÓGICO
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: English Abstract in spanish Antecedentes. Los hábitos alimentarios de esta población no ha sido materia de una amplia investigación, incluso concibiendo la importancia que tiene el estado nutricional en la evolución de la enfermedad y que este puede retardar el periodo de transición de la misma a etapas sintomáticas o la fase [...] SIDA. Objetivo. Describir los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas alimentarias de los pacientes diagnosticados con la infección por VIH, asintomáticos, en fase clínica con tratamiento farmacológico. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio exploratorio descriptivo utilizando una encuesta de CAP que diligenciaron voluntariamente 108 pacientes en consulta externa ambulatoria de dos instituciones privadas de Bogotá. Resultados. Se analizaron 108 encuestas en tres componentes. Conocimientos: el 58,7% refirió haber recibido información acerca de cómo debe ser su alimentación; el 32,3% fue suministrado por nutricionista. La fibra es el principal componente que tienen en cuenta a la hora de escoger alimentos (65%) y la proteína la consideran como el nutriente más benéfico (52%). Actitudes: el 61,8% manifestaron que el diagnóstico dificulta la selección y compra de alimentos por falta de información. El apetito, luego de reflexionar sobre el diagnóstico no ha sufrido cambios en el 49,5% de los participantes. Prácticas: el 75% reconoció la importancia de consumir suplementos y complementos; tan solo el 35,7% los consume. Cuando compran alimentos industrializados, el 66,4% verifica la fecha de vencimiento y el rotulado nutricional. Conclusiones. Los alimentos que más consumen son aquellos que hacen parte de la canasta básica para la población colombiana; sus hábitos no difieren significativamente del resto de población. La información en alimentación y nutrición la obtienen de fuentes no profesionales. Se evidencia una regular remisión por el médico general o tratante hacia el profesional nutricionista. Es común la práctica de automedicación y dosificación en el uso y consumo de complementos y suplementos alimenticios. Abstract in english Background. Research related to nutritional habits during the asymptomatic phase of HIV has not been well documented or is very scarce; this would include understanding the importance of nutritional status regarding disease progression and that suitable nutritional status may slow transition to symp [...] tomatic stages or AIDS stage. No studies have yet been carried out in Colombia describing nutritional habits in HIV-positive patients who have been receiving pharmacological treatment; no records have thus been kept and no advances have been made regarding this topic. Objective. Describing nutritional knowledge, attitudes and practice in asymptomatic patients diagnosed as suffering from clinical phase HIV infection receiving pharmacological treatment. Materials and methods. A descriptive exploratory study was carried out using a care and prevention (CAP)-based approach; the survey was voluntarily filled out by 108 patients who were attending outpatient consultation in two private institutions in Bogotá. Results. Three components were analysed in the 108 surveys. Knowledge. 58.7% of the patients referred to having received information about what their diet should have been like; 32.3% had their diet supplied by a nutritionist. Fibre was the main component taken into account when choosing food (65%) and protein was considered to be the most beneficial nutrient (52%). Attitude: 61.8% of the patients stated that their diagnosis hampered selecting and buying food due to a lack of information. Appetite had not undergone changes in 49.5% of the participants following reflecting on their diagnosis. Practice. 75% of the patients recognised the importance of consuming nutritional supplements and complements; however, only 35.7% of them took them. When buying industrialised/processed food, 66.4% of the patients verified the products' expiry date and/or nutritional data on the label. Concl
Jhon Jairo, Bejarano-Roncancio; Ramírez, Martha Eugenia; Valerín, Saurith-López; Otto Alberto, Sussman-Peña.
Nutritional knowledges, attitudes and practices in HIV patients who were receiving pharmacological treatment CONOCIMIENTOS, ACTITUDES Y PRÁCTICAS ALIMENTARIAS EN PACIENTES DIAGNOSTICADOS CON VIH EN TRATAMIENTO FARMACOLÓGICO
Full Text Available Background. Research related to nutritional habits during the asymptomatic phase of HIV has not been well documented or is very scarce; this would include understanding the importance of nutritional status regarding disease progression and that suitable nutritional status may slow transition to symptomatic stages or AIDS stage. No studies have yet been carried out in Colombia describing nutritional habits in HIV-positive patients who have been receiving pharmacological treatment; no records have thus been kept and no advances have been made regarding this topic. Objective. Describing nutritional knowledge, attitudes and practice in asymptomatic patients diagnosed as suffering from clinical phase HIV infection receiving pharmacological treatment. Materials and methods. A descriptive exploratory study was carried out using a care and prevention (CAP-based approach; the survey was voluntarily filled out by 108 patients who were attending outpatient consultation in two private institutions in Bogotá. Results. Three components were analysed in the 108 surveys. Knowledge. 58.7% of the patients referred to having received information about what their diet should have been like; 32.3% had their diet supplied by a nutritionist. Fibre was the main component taken into account when choosing food (65% and protein was considered to be the most beneficial nutrient (52%. Attitude: 61.8% of the patients stated that their diagnosis hampered selecting and buying food due to a lack of information. Appetite had not undergone changes in 49.5% of the participants following reflecting on their diagnosis. Practice. 75% of the patients recognised the importance of consuming nutritional supplements and complements; however, only 35.7% of them took them. When buying industrialised/processed food, 66.4% of the patients verified the products' expiry date and/or nutritional data on the label. Conclusions. The food customarily consumed by the patients was that forming part of the average Colombian population's basic weekly food basket; their habits did not significantly differ from those of the rest of the population. Dietary and nutritional information was being obtained from non-professional sources. General practitioners or specialists were referring patients to professional nutritionists; however, self-medication and dosage were common regarding the use and consumption of nutritional complements and supplements.Antecedentes. Los hábitos alimentarios de esta población no ha sido materia de una amplia investigación, incluso concibiendo la importancia que tiene el estado nutricional en la evolución de la enfermedad y que este puede retardar el periodo de transición de la misma a etapas sintomáticas o la fase SIDA. Objetivo. Describir los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas alimentarias de los pacientes diagnosticados con la infección por VIH, asintomáticos, en fase clínica con tratamiento farmacológico. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio exploratorio descriptivo utilizando una encuesta de CAP que diligenciaron voluntariamente 108 pacientes en consulta externa ambulatoria de dos instituciones privadas de Bogotá. Resultados. Se analizaron 108 encuestas en tres componentes. Conocimientos: el 58,7% refirió haber recibido información acerca de cómo debe ser su alimentación; el 32,3% fue suministrado por nutricionista. La fibra es el principal componente que tienen en cuenta a la hora de escoger alimentos (65% y la proteína la consideran como el nutriente más benéfico (52%. Actitudes: el 61,8% manifestaron que el diagnóstico dificulta la selección y compra de alimentos por falta de información. El apetito, luego de reflexionar sobre el diagnóstico no ha sufrido cambios en el 49,5% de los participantes. Prácticas: el 75% reconoció la importancia de consumir suplementos y complementos; tan solo el 35,7% los consume. Cuando compran alimentos industrializados, el 66,4% verifica la fecha de vencimiento y el rotulado nutricional. Conclusiones. Los alimentos que más consumen son aquellos que hacen parte de
Jhon Jairo Bejarano-Roncancio
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Identificar conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre dengue para orientar medidas de prevención y control. Metodología Encuesta realizada, en dos barrios de alta incidencia de dengue en Bucaramanga, mayo de 2007, mediante visita domiciliaria. Se identificaron criaderos