Compared nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and practices of health/physical education, home economics, science, and social science teachers (44 percent response rate from 1191 questionnaires mailed). Results indicate that teachers who taught something about food/nutrition have had more food/nutrition courses, higher knowledge scores, and more
Penner, Karen P.; Kolasa, Kathryn M.
Full Text Available Background: Present study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers towards infant feeding practices. Materials and methods: The mothers of infants, coming to a tertiary care centre, Ahmedabad, on outpatient basis were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire. Total 150 mothers were interviewed. Results: Out of the total, 18% mothers were illiterate.58.67% mothers have been counselled by doctor about feeding. Regarding breast feeding, 96% knew about exclusive breast feeding up to 6months. 90.67% think that colostrum is good for baby.34.67% mothers have given pre-lacteal feeds, tea and jaggery was most common.84.67% mothers knew that they should take extra food during lactation. Father (36% most commonly help in feeding while 31.33% don?t get any domestic help.78.67% women consult doctor for feeding problems. Most common reason of stopping breast feeding was inadequate milk secretion(54.67%.18% think that feeding should be stopped during illness. 75.33% women were completely satisfied with their feeding practices. Conclusion-Mothers had good knowledge about infant feeding practices. Inspite of good knowledge there are lacunae in the practices of mothers due to social and economic reasons. Level of education has positive impact on infant feeding practices. Counselling by doctors had a better impact on the attitude and practices of mothers. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(2.000: 147-150
Background Awareness of pharmacists about counterfeit drugs is necessary for health improvement in community. The purpose of the present study is to assess the knowledge and measure the professional attitude and practice of Iranian pharmacist about counterfeit drugs. In August 2008, a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study was performed in a national sample of 794 pharmacists who participated in an Iranian Pharmacist Association congress. A questionnaire was prepared to collect Demographic and professional characteristics, Knowledge, attitude and practice of pharmacists regarding counterfeit drugs. The mean percent of participants who answer each practice questions correctly is 13.62% and none of questions have more than 14.7% of correct answer, while the participants attitude towards the subject is at high level. None of demographic factors represented a significant relationship with knowledge and the only related parameters with attitude, were age and gender. Increasing age of pharmacists resulted in attitude improvement (p = 0.013) and womens attitudes were better than men (p = 0.05).The only related parameters with practice, were the number of working hours per a week and attitude. Increasing the number of working hours per a week, resulted in decreasing the desirable practice (p = 0.041) and attitude also had a direct relationship with practice (p = 0.011). Conclusion The most important finding in the present study was the pharmacists low knowledge and practice level about counterfeit drugs, while their attitude towards this subject was at a high level. The results point out the need for designing and implementing educational programs. PMID:24250525
Shahverdi, Shieda; Hajimiri, Mirhamed; Pourmalek, Farshad; Torkamandi, Hassan; Gholami, Kheirollah; Hanafi, Somayeh; Ashrafi Shahmirzadi, Nikinaz; Javadi, Mohammadreza
Background Awareness of pharmacists about counterfeit drugs is necessary for health improvement in community. The purpose of the present study is to assess the knowledge and measure the professional attitude and practice of Iranian pharmacist about counterfeit drugs. In August 2008, a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study was performed in a national sample of 794 pharmacists who participated in an Iranian Pharmacist Association congress. A questionnaire was prepared to collect Demograp...
Shahverdi, Shieda; Hajimiri, Mirhamed; Pourmalek, Farshad; Torkamandi, Hassan; Gholami, Kheirollah; Hanafi, Somayeh; Ashrafi Shahmirzadi, Nikinaz; Javadi, Mohammadreza
We asked Italian poultry workers about knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding avian influenza. It was perceived to be a low occupational hazard, and wearing protective equipment and handwashing were not routine practices. Knowledge of transmission and preventive measures should be improved. Employers and health professionals should provide more effective information.
Abbate, Rossella; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella; Marinelli, Paolo; Angelillo, Italo F.
Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and f...
Paramasivam Parimalam; Raghavan Premalatha; Srinivasan Padmini; Kumar Ganguli
Full Text Available Background: To determine the knowledge, attitude and preventive practice of women above 45 years old. Methods: A total of 770 households in Kerman (southern Iran were selected for inclusion in the study using cluster sam¬pling from April through August 2005. The interview schedule consisted of 4 parts including questions about knowledge, atti¬tude and practice (KAP and also demographic questions. The average score for KAP was 9.3 out of 21, 2.6 out of 5 and 1.5 out of 6, respectively. Results: Adequate osteoprotective exercise and sufficient calcium intake were found in 3.8% and 5.5% of subjects, respec¬tively. A significant relationship between the score of preventive practice and all the following parameters was found: level of education, hearing about osteoporosis, knowledge score, perceived barrier to preventive actions and perceived serious¬ness of osteoporosis. Conclusion: Considering the Iranian womens inaccurate or insufficient knowledge and their negative attitude to the preven¬tive actions and their weak practice in case of prevention, it is the responsibility of health policymakers and medi¬cal associations to plan for osteoporosis education and prevention initiatives.
To assess the knowledge, attitude regarding family planning and the practice of contraceptives among rural women. One-hundred women between the ages 15-45, living with their husbands and coming from rural area (villages) were interviewed. Women who were pregnant, had a child younger than 2 years, or had any medical disorder were excluded. Their knowledge, attitude and practice on contraceptives were evaluated with the help of a predesigned questionnaire. The other variables used were the age of women, parity and educational status. Descriptive analysis was conducted to obtain percentages. Out of 100 interviewed women with mean age of 29.7 years, 81(81%) had some knowledge about family planning methods. The media provided information of contraceptives in 52 out of 81 (64%) women. Regarding the usage of contraceptive methods, only 53 (53%) of the respondents were using some sort of contraception. Barrier method (condoms) was in practice by 18 (33.9%) and 12 (22.6%) of women had already undergone tubal ligation. The women using injectables and intrauterine contraceptive devices were 10 (18.8%) and 7 (13.2%) respectively. Six were using oral contraceptive pills (11.3%). Positive attitude towards contraception was shown by 76 (76%) of them, while 41(41%) stated their husbands positive attitude towards contraception. In the present study, there was a low contraceptive use among women of rural origin despite good knowledge. Motivation of couples through media and health persn of couples through media and health personnel can help to achieve positive attitude of husbands for effective use of contraceptives. (author)
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the impact of a breastfeeding promotion clinic environment project implemented by the state of Mississippi on breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, and practices of WIC clinic staff. METHODS: Thirteen pairs of matched intervention and comparison WIC clinics participated in the study. Clinical and administrative staff completed pre-test and post-test self-administered questionnaires in 1998 and 1999. RESULTS: A total of 397 staff members provided pre...
Khoury, Amal J.; Hinton, Agnes; Mitra, Amal K.; Carothers, Cathy; Foretich, Camille
Introduction: Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with ?high morbidity and mortality among patients. The data from NHMS III has reported that the ?present prevalence of DM in Malaysia has exceeded the projected prevalence for the year 2025 as ?estimated by the International Diabetes Federation.1 Assessment of knowledge, attitudes, and ?practices (KAP) is a crucial element of DM control.2 However, very few studies have focused on ?this area and t...
Shu Hui Ng, ?.; Kheng Hooi Chan; Zi Yang Lian; Yee Hooi Chuah; Aishath Noora ?Waseem; Amudha Kadirvelu
Background: The principles of pharmaceutical care are embedded in the concept of Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP). GPP is poorly applied in community pharmacies not only in Asian countries, but even in United States and Europe. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of the community pharmacists in Iran, regarding GPP. Methods: A total of 794 pharmacists were evaluated with a reliable and validated KAP (Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice) questionnaire reg...
Mohammad Reza Javadi; Kheirollah Gholami; Alireza Hayatshahi; Seyed Hamid Khooie; Meysam Esmaili; Mirhamed Hajimiri; Somayeh Hanafi; Hasan Torkamandi; Farshad Poormalek
Full Text Available Background: The principles of pharmaceutical care are embedded in the concept of Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP. GPP is poorly applied in community pharmacies not only in Asian countries, but even in United States and Europe. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of the community pharmacists in Iran, regarding GPP. Methods: A total of 794 pharmacists were evaluated with a reliable and validated KAP (Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice questionnaire regarding GPP in September 2008. Results: The most important finding in the present study was the pharmacists low knowledge (Mean= 13.42 and practice (Mean= 29.85 level about GPP, while their attitude towards this subject was at a high level (Mean= 74.83. Increase in their knowledge of good pharmacy practice aligned with an increase in their attitudes towards this issue. Also increase in our pharmacists knowledge and attitude aligned with an increase in quality of their practice. Conclusion: The current practice of Iranian community pharmacists needs further improvement. National pharmaceutical organizations should organize educational programs for the community pharmacists to equip them for their main role in community practice: promoting rational drug use. Keywords: Pharmacy, Knowledge, Attitude
Mohammad Reza Javadi
Full Text Available Introduction. In a time that economic classification of nations is largely dependant on their scientific output, our country "Iran" in comparison to it"s facilities, has fewer scienilfic producilon than accepted. For programming to increase quantity and quality of research, at first, should carefully recognise the present condition. This study was done to survay attitiude, knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (IUMSHS about research. Methods. Questionnaires were distribiuted among interns (n=234 who their names and sites had extracted. Students enterance year to university was between 1992 to 1994. So, they were at the end of their staying in university. Results. Average grade of knowledge was 2.92±2 (from whole grade= 10. This grade did not depend on stage of preparing thesis. The most true answer was in writing of purpose and the least was in sampling, medline and role of variables in study. Attitude in 78.2 percent, indicate agreement with necessity of learning research concept. 54.2 percent agree with necessity of participailon in at least one research project in educational period in university, but 41.8 percent believe that research activity in present condition is wasting the time. The answerers who at least had parilcipated in one research project were 11.9 percent and the highest knowledg"s grade was in these students. Discussion. Despite the positive attitude of interns to learn the research concept, their knowledge level in comparison with other Iranian univercities and other univercities" students in the world, was very low. Although more than half of them have positive attitude to participation in research project, their practice was insignificant. Radical changes in education system and management seems to be necessary.
Full Text Available Introduction: Intensive care unit ICU syndrome is a disorder, in which patients in an ICU or a similar setting experience anxiety, hallucination and become paranoid, severely disoriented in time and place, very agitated, or even violent, etc. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of nurses with regards to prevention of ICU syndrome (Delirium. Methods: Subjects of this research were 56 nurses with including criteria of registration in nursing, university degree and at least one month experience of working in open heart surgery ICUs. The data was gathered from 3 clusters in university hospitals equipped with open heart surgery ICUs in Tehran. All subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Moreover all subjects were observed in all shifts. During observation, two researchers observed each subject simultaneously to achieve higher accuracy of observations. Descriptive and analytic statistics were applied to analysis the data. Results: The finding of the study showed that more than 53% of the subjects had passed a continuing education course, but less than 46% of them never passed a training course on ICU. According to this research, subjects, work experience in ICUs had significant relation on their knowledge with regard to prevention of ICU psychosis. However, it has not significant relation to their attitude and skill. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, subjects have little chance to be familiar with the concepts and elements of ICU syndrome in their university program. The finding also indicated that many subjects in this study were not familiar with the important concepts such as sleep deprivation, sensory overload and sensory deprivation, etc. Ongoing progression in high-tech ICUs brings about continuing nursing education programs for all nurses. The results also showed that stress factor in ICU, such as high mortality, isolation, high workload etc. Gradually influences nurses,attitude in ICU. So, it is strongly recommended to consider rotation of nurses in order not to impose high stress to ICU nurses.
Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, pharmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance in Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH, a tertiary care teaching hospital attached to the regional pharmacovigilance center in western Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using a pretested (Cronbach alpha=0.72 questionnaire having 25 questions (15 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitude and 5 on practice. The correct/positive responses were given a score of 2 and the wrong/negative responses 1, maximum possible score of 50. Results: A total of 131 responses were obtained among which 42 were incomplete and remaining 89 [females 49 (55.1%] were analyzed. Of the 89 professionals, 29 (32.6% were doctors, 46 (51.8 nurses and 14 (15.7% pharmacists. The mean age was 28.32 (SD=8.46 years and the median (interquartile range of duration of the service 14.5 (6-36 months. The total KAP scores was 40.06 (SD=3.51 for doctors, 38.92 (SD=4.83 for pharmacists, and 35.82 (SD=3.75 for nurses. Among the 89 professionals, 59 (62.3% had not reported even a single ADR to the pharmacovigilance center. Conclusion: The healthcare professionals at the MTH had a poor KAP towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance and there is a need for educational and awareness intervention for these professionals.
Lyme disease (LD), a vector-borne disease, causes illness for many individuals in the United States. All of the conditions for the promulgation of LD are present in one Southern state in the United States; yet this state reports lower numbers of LD than adjacent states. The purpose of this study was to determine associations between this Southern state's primary care providers' knowledge and attitudes regarding the diagnosis and reporting of LD. A quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted via a mailed questionnaire by the Arkansas Department of Health to 2,693 primary care providers. Respondents were 660 primary care providers from all regions of this state. Secondary data were analyzed using descriptive, Chi square, and logistic regression techniques. Analysis results included the following: a correct response rate of 59.1 % for symptom recognition, of 46.2 % for knowledge of recommended testing processes, and of 78.9 % for knowing LD is a reportable disease. These results compared to the expected norm were significant in every area with p values of .000. Specialty, region, and years of practice were found to be confounding influences in a number of assessment areas. PMID:25187225
Hill, Dana; Holmes, Talmage
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-medication is the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat selfrecognised illnesses or symptoms and an important initial response to illnesses if successfully used. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of self medication among Medical Sciences Faculty students of Jimma University.METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Medical sciences Faculty students in 2009.The faculty and the three schools were selected by lottery method .Then, within the faculty respective number of students for each School was determined by proportion from the total sample size. Data was collected randomly from each School using self administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0RESULTS: From a total of 403 (100% participants,95 (45.89% students practiced self medication in the past two months for commonly perceived illnesses such as headache 35 (36.85%, abdominal pain 29 (30.55% and cough 33 (23.16% using mainly analgesics 40(49.38% and antibiotics 29 (35.80% mostly from drug retail outlets 88(92.63. Fifty seven (60.00% respondents can recall the dose, frequency and duration of the medicine while 38 (40% did not know. Sixty five (68.42% students agreed to practice self medication irrespective of the seriousness of illnesses.CONCLUSION: Self mediation was widely practiced for minor symptoms with both OTC and prescription only drugs. Most of respondents use self medication irrespective of the seriousness of the illnesses. Lack of proper information and the ease of access from drug outlets were the most important problems.
Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo et al.
Objectives: To find the Knowledge Attitude and Practice regarding Folic Acid Deficiency among Women of Child Bearing Age (WPCBA). To find out the Association of Education Level with Practice of Folic Acid in WPCBA.
Hisam, Aliya; Rahman, Mahmood Ur; Mashhadi, Syed Fawad
Abstract Background This study assessed the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding disinfection procedures among nurses in Italian hospitals. Methods A face-to-face interview gathered the following information: demographic and practice characteristics; knowledge about the healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and the disinfection practices; attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols and perception of the risks of acquiring/transmitting HAIs; compliance with antisep...
Albano Luciana; Di Giuseppe Gabriella; Sessa Alessandra; Angelillo Italo F.
Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is one of the prevalent and mortal cancers. The aim of the study is to assess knowledge, atti tude and practice of women toward this cancer and Pap smear. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among 402 women through a questionnaire with 5 socio-demographi c parameters and 14 questions about knowledge, attitude and practice. We ai med to know how knowledge, attitude and practice are affected by socio-demographic stat us and how practice is affected by knowledge and attitude. Results: The mean score was 4.09. Knowledge and age did not correlate directly. Old aged women had the best knowledg e. As the number of children rose, knowledge deteriorated, vi ce versa about the age of marriage and education. The clerks were better than housewives and businesswomen. Just 3.5% did not consider the regular Pap as necessary (with the lower educational level. Almost 99% intended to get more information. The minority (28.1% had the incorrect attitude toward the curability of the c ancer. Most of the women referred to do Pap due to health center personnels advice. About 80% had undesired practice. Discussion: The educated ones had more approp riate and optimistic incorrect attitude compared to the uneducated ones . As more years pass from the age of marriage, practice gets worse. All the newly married women had the desired practice, correct attitude and intended to get more inform ation. All the women who knew it unnecessary had undesired practice . Women with the desired practice had 9% more correct attitude and 9% more optimistic incorre ct attitude compared to the undesirably practicing ones. Totally, prac tice is not much influenced by attitude.
This article describes a survey conducted among medical practitioners in India. The study's objective was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of whole body donation among medical professionals in India. Outcomes and results are discussed.
Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of the breast cancer in medical community. The study was carried out in the Department of Oncology, Service Hospital, Lahore and completed in one month. Subjects and Methods: About 200 female doctors and nurses of the Hospital were involved. Each subject was asked to fill up a pro forma designed to assess knowledge, risk factors and preventive practices of the breast cancer. Using non-probability convenience sampling technique, breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography was performed as screening of breast cancer. Results: A majority had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening method for the early detection of breast cancer. Majority had the consensus on the benefit of mammography. Conclusions: The study shows that although medical professionals had fairly good knowledge about screening methods and risk factors of breast cancer. Their preventive practices were scanty in high risk population and, therefore, physicians and nurses need proper training. (author)
We sought to determine the knowledge and attitude of public health workers (PHWs) with respect to emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases and the practice of one health approach in the surveillance of zoonoses in the community. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 randomly selected districts of Nyanza province, Kenya. One hundred and ten randomly-selected PHWs were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Data were collected on their knowledge, attitudes and practices about common...
Darryn Knobel; Job Wasonga; Gamaliel Omondi; Eric Ogola; Peter Omemo
Background: As the health care field moves toward patient-centered care (PCC), increasing emphasis has been placed on the benefits of patient decision aids for promoting shared decision making (SDM). This study provides a baseline measure of knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) among Hawaii's physicians with respect to patient decision aids (DAs). Physicians throughout the State of Hawaii were invited to complete a survey assessing their knowledge, attitudes, and practices with res...
Alden, Dana L.; Friend, John; Chun, Maria Bj
Purpose: To describe Canadian Master of Physical Therapy (MPT) students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding peer mentorship. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey study was conducted. An online questionnaire was sent to 945 MPT students via e-mail, using a modified Dillman approach. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Canadian MPT students. Results: A total of 260 MPT students (27.5%) responded to the quest...
Quesnel, Martine; King, Judy; Guilcher, Sara; Evans, Cathy
The study determined the relationships between food safety knowledge and practices of hospital food handlers in Davao City and also between their attitudes and practices regarding food safety. Questionnaire patterned after the Key Food Safety Guidelines of Pacific Northwest Publications was administered to 51 food handlers to generate the data. It was found that hospital food handlers in Davao City are highly knowledgeable and have favorable attitudes in food safety. The extent of food sa...
Molina, Jason O.
The study aimed to assess the knowledge of medical doctors on the association between periodontal disease and general health and their willingness to advise their patients to seek dental treatment. In a cross-sectional survey, randomly selected medical doctors (n = 267) practicing in Nellore District were interviewed through a questionnaire survey about their knowledge of periodontal diseases and the bidirectional relationship between general health and periodontal diseases. Data were analyze...
Nagarakanti, Sreenivas; Epari, Venkatarao; Athuluru, Deepthi
OBJECTIVES To investigate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of reproductive behavior in Iranian minor thalassemia couples in Ghaemshahr City, Mazandaran, Iran. METHODS This is a cross-sectional descriptive survey conducted in 2006. Birth rates from 1997-2005 and the number of newly registered patients from at risk couples was recorded. Tools for data collection were a valid questionnaire containing epidemiologic characteristics of couples, knowledge (20 questions), attitude 20 st...
Mehrnoosh Kosaryan; Koorosh Vahidshahi; Rita Siami; Meisam Nazari; Hosein Karami; Sara Ehteshami
Introduction. In a time that economic classification of nations is largely dependant on their scientific output, our country "Iran" in comparison to it"s facilities, has fewer scienilfic producilon than accepted. For programming to increase quantity and quality of research, at first, should carefully recognise the present condition. This study was done to survay attitiude, knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (IUMSHS) about research....
Talaei, M.; Roohi, S.; Sabet, B.; Baghaei, A. M.; Bahman Ziari, P.
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the association between knowledge, attitudes and practice of oral health in 12-year-old schoolchildren, and to analyse the findings in terms of the conventional KAP health-education model and of the critical approach. Study design: This study has [...] a cross sectional design. The study participants were 1105 randomly selected 12-year-old children resident in the region of Galicia in Spain. For data collection, five teams of one dentist and one assistant were formed. The dentist carried out the physical examination and the assistant helped the subjects to answer the questionnaire. Knowledge, attitudes and practice were assessed, as well as oral health indicators. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify variables affecting practice (as measured by extent of plaque). Results: The results of this study show how that there is an important association between oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practice in 12-year-old schoolchildren in this region. However, the results also show that attitude is not totally explained by knowledge, so that attitude cannot be understood simply as an intermediate variable in a knowledge® practice causal chain. Specifically, the results indicate that sociocultural environment modifies the association knowledge, attitudes and practice. Conclusions: Within oral health education it is clearly important to increase public knowledge of the risk factors for dental disease. However, the efficacy of such education will be limited if health programs do not directly impinge on attitudes, and take into account factors related to the environment, education, social status and economic level of the targeted population.
Ernesto, Smyth; Francisco, Caamaño; Paula, Fernández-Riveiro.
The objective of this study was to evaluate nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices in Bahrain. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 1998. Highly statistically significant differences (p less than 0.0001) were observed between practitioners and students in relation to knowledge concerning recommended daily allowance. The results
Al-Madani, Khawla M.; Landman, Jacqueline; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.
Assessment of schoolchildren's knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards influenza A (H1N1) is crucial as schools play a major role in spreading the infection. The aims of this study were to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices on influenza A (H1N1) and the factors associated with practices of preventive behavior.A cross sectional study was conducted from July until December 2010. Two public secondary schools for two districts in Kelantan, Malaysia were randomly selected. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of five constructs: sociodemographic, risk factors of containing influenza A (H1N1) infection, knowledge, attitudes, and practices. The questionnaire had been te,sted for its construct validity and reliability. General linear regression was applied in the data analysis. A sample of 436 secondary school students were recruited in this study involved Malay students aged 16 years old. The total knowledge, attitudes and practices scores for the overall respondents were 69.4, 82.2, and 73.8%, respectively. The significant influencing factors for the practices of preventive behavior were attended talk on H1N1 and attitudes score.This study suggested that health education is important for promoting the health of adolescents and contributing to the overall health of the public so that they will take precautions against the H1N1 infection. PMID:23413714
Wan-Arfah, N; Norsa'adah, B; Naing, N N; Zaliha, I; Azriani, A R; Nik-Rosmawati, N H; Mohamed-Rusli, A
The study aimed to assess the knowledge of medical doctors on the association between periodontal disease and general health and their willingness to advise their patients to seek dental treatment. In a cross-sectional survey, randomly selected medical doctors (n = 267) practicing in Nellore District were interviewed through a questionnaire survey about their knowledge of periodontal diseases and the bidirectional relationship between general health and periodontal diseases. Data were analyzed through percentages. All the medical doctors (100%) were aware that there existed a relation between oral health and general health. But only 10% of respondents refer their patients to dentists without patients asking for referral. Very few respondents (21.3%) knew about different branches of dentistry. Screening and referral by healthcare professionals may benefit their patients by improving access to dental care. Therefore, there is a need to educate doctors about oral health and general health. PMID:23633790
Nagarakanti, Sreenivas; Epari, Venkatarao; Athuluru, Deepthi
We assessed knowledge, attitude, and provision of recommended fall prevention (FP) practices by employees of senior-serving organization and participation in FP practices by at-risk elders. The Washington State Department of Health administered structured telephone surveys to 50 employees and 101 elders in Washington State. Only 38% of employees felt very knowledgeable about FP, and a majority of their organizations did not regularly offer FP services. Almost half (48%) of seniors susta...
Laing, Sharon S.; Silver, Ilene F.; Sally York; Phelan, Elizabeth A.
Abstract Background Physiotherapists as primary health care practitioners are well placed in promoting physically active lifestyles, but their role and practice towards its promotion among patients in Nigeria has not been fully investigated. This study was therefore aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian physiotherapists towards promotion of non-treatment physical activity among patients. Methods Three hundred and eight practicing physiotherapists from various p...
Aweto Happiness A; Oligbo Cynthia N; Fapojuwo Oluseun A; Olawale Olajide A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Health research training is an essential component of medical education and a vital exercise to help develop physician research skills. This study was carried out to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards research amongst a group of Post Graduate Medical Trainees (PGMTs' at Aga Khan University (AKU, Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional health research survey was carried out on all PGMTs' at AKU Pakistan. AKU is a tertiary care health facility which offers residency in 28 specialties and fellowship in 16 programs. Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to health research were assessed using a pretested, structured and validated questionnaire. Health research related practices of the residents were examined using questions graded on Likert scale. Results Mean percentage score ± SD on the knowledge scale was 36.9% ± 20.2 and 47.19% ± 25.18 on the attitude scale. Of 104(55.6% who had previously participated in research 28(26.9% had been involved in basic science research only, 62(59.6% in clinical research and 14(13.5% had participated in both clinical and basic science research projects. 88(47.1% planned to pursue a future research career. Those who planned to pursue a future research career had more positive health research attitudes p Conclusion PGMTs' demonstrate inadequate knowledge, while they have moderate attitudes towards health research. Residency training and research facilities at the institution need to undergo major transformation in order to encourage meaningful research by resident trainees.
This study assessed how knowledge of soy protein and its relationship to heart disease influences the attitudes and practices of college students. Results showed that family members, schools, and newspapers were the primary sources of students' nutritional information. One fourth of the participating students answered at least four nutrition
Herring, Theresa A.; Bakhiet, Raga M.
Objectives: This study examined the knowledge, attitudes and practices of clinicians in promoting physical activity to prostate cancer survivors. Design: A purposeful sample was used and cross-sectional data were collected using an anonymous, self-reported online questionnaire or an identical paper-based questionnaire. Settings: Health services
Spellman, Claire; Craike, Melinda; Livingston, Patricia M.
Background: School personnel are important for communicating with parents about school vaccination programs and recognizing influenza outbreaks. This study examined knowledge, attitudes, and practices of school personnel regarding seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza, vaccinations, and school outbreak investigations. Methods: Data were analyzed from
Ha, Chrysanthy; Rios, Lenoa M.; Pannaraj, Pia S.
The current study explored the relationships between parenting practices and adolescent drug use. Suburban middle school students (N = 2129) completed surveys that included measures of perceived parental monitoring, discipline and setting an anti-drug message as well as measures of drug-related knowledge, attitudes and peer norms. Results
Macaulay, Araxi P.; Griffin, Kenneth W.; Gronewold, Elizabeth; Williams, Christopher; Botvin, Gilbert J.
We explored knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with the menopause transition particular to women in the multi-ethnic cultural context of Singapore. Fifty-eight Chinese, Malay, and Indian Singaporean women participated in interviews that were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Women from all three ethnicities described an attitude of acceptance surrounding menopause and the changes associated with it. While they thought it was important to be informed, they did not seek out information about menopause and did not view health professionals as useful sources of information. Management practices were diverse and rarely involved accessing health professionals. PMID:23862640
Mackey, Sandra; Teo, Stephanie Swee Hong; Dramusic, Vesna; Lee, Hwee Khim; Boughton, Maureen
Full Text Available The number of women participating in softball at the collegiate level continues to rise, yet little is known about collegiate softball players' knowledge about sport nutrition. The purpose of this study was to collect information from Mid-American Conference softball players to determine their current knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to sport nutrition and to identify their preferred sources for obtaining sport nutrition information.
Jane E. Ellery
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of B.Sc. Pharmacy students about usage and resistance of antibiotics in Trinidad and Tobago. Methods: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study involving B.Sc. Pharmacy students. The questionnaire was divided into five components including Demographics data, knowledge about antibiotic use, attitude toward antibiotic use and resistance, self-antibiotic usage and possible causes of antibiotic resistance. Data were analyzed by employing MannWhitney and Chi-square tests using SPSS version 20. Findings: The response rate was 83.07%. The results showed good knowledge of antibiotic use among students. The overall attitude of pharmacy students was poor. About 75% of participants rarely use antibiotics, whereas self-decision was the major reason of antibiotic use (40.7%) and main source of information was retail pharmacist (42.6%). Common cold and flu is a major problem for which antibiotics were mainly utilized by pharmacy students (35.2%). Conclusion: The study showed good knowledge of pharmacy students regarding antibiotic usage. However, students' attitude towards antibiotic use was poor. The study recommends future studies to be conducted with interventional design to improve knowledge and attitude of pharmacy students about antibiotic use and resistance. PMID:25710049
Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Patel, Isha; Maharaj, Sandeep; Pandey, Sureshwar; Dhingra, Sameer
Full Text Available Objective: Health care workers especially medical students are at risk of being exposed to blood-borne pathogens. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of medical students towards standard isolation precautions (SIP. Methods: A standardized questionnaire was completed by 148 medical students from April to July of year 2009 to seek their knowledge, attitude and practice towards standard isolation precautions in a clinical setting at Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Results: The mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice towards standard isolation precautions were 6.8±2.1 (maximum 10, 16.6±4.2 (maximum 20, and 18.05 ± 4.5 (maximum 30 respectively. Significant differences were observed between practice of female and male (P < 0.008 and also knowledge of year 6 and year 7 students (P <0.021. Conclusion: Education on infection control based on standard isolation precaution must be stressed and barriers of appropriate practice must be removed.
Background: The reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by nurses in hospitals is very important. Aims: This study was aimed at investigating the impact of an educational intervention to improve ADR reporting and whether trained nurses had better knowledge, attitude, and practice toward ADR reporting. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 nurses in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran were evaluated with a knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire regarding ADR reporting in March 2010. After this, an educational program about ADR was provided to nurses. Then the nurses were re-evaluated by the same questionnaire. Comparisons were made of the attitude and knowledge within nurses, before and after education. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. P < 0.05 was considered as significant level. Independent-sample t-test was used to measure the intervention effect. Results: The response rate was 61.3% (N = 184). Knowledge of nurses before the intervention was significantly less than the knowledge after the intervention (P = 0.001). Also, there was a significant effect on attitude (P = 0.002). During the follow-up period of 4 months after the intervention, 26 spontaneous reports were received. Conclusion: Continuous ADR educational program, training, and integration of ADRs reporting into the activities of the nurses would likely improve ADR reporting. PMID:24554968
Hanafi, Somayeh; Torkamandi, Hassan; Hayatshahi, Alireza; Gholami, Kheirollah; Shahmirzadi, Nikinaz Ashrafi; Javadi, Mohammad Reza
Abstract Background The potential contribution of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) studies to malaria research and control has not received much attention in most southern African countries. This study investigated the local communities' understanding of malaria transmission, recognition of signs and symptoms, perceptions of cause, treatment-seeking patterns, preventive measures and practices in order to inform the country's proposed malaria elimination programme in Swaziland. Methods...
Govender Dayanandan; Kunene Simon; Lh, Mabaso Musawenkosi; Hlongwana Khumbulani W; Maharaj Rajendra
Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD has been realized as a primary cause of death in women for almost a century. However, the relationship between womens knowledge, their wish and action on practicing heart healthy lifestyle is still vague. Aim and Objectives: This research aimed to determine the association between knowledge and attitude, knowledge and practice and attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women in Kelantan. Methods/ Study Design: A cross sectional study was conducted in Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of 448 women attended primary care facilities in Kelantan were included in this study. Twostage sampling process was used to select clinics in all districts in Kelantan followed by female participants from selected clinics attendance lists. Recruited were non illiterate young adult women up to 65 years of age and without psychotic symptoms. Consented participants were given a set of validated KAP questionnaire that should be completed within 15 minutes. Findings: The respondents mean age was about 40 years with majority of them having secondary educational level and coming from low socio-economic group. Among them, 56.8% involved in tobacco products and 41.3% reported as having CVD related medical illnesses, especially obesity (23.7% and hypertension (17.6%. About 56.2% had family history of CVD risk. Only 26.8% of them obtained the CVD information from health care workers. The good knowledge, attitude and practice score were 55.6%, 55.1 % and 51.1% accordingly. There were significant association between attitude and knowledge, practice and knowledge and practice and attitude which were found to be strong (0.10, 0.20, (0.10, 0.18 and (0.26, 0.40 95% CI, respectively and is independent with socio-demographic and personal disease characteristic. Conclusion: Positive relationship between knowledge, attitude and practice will encourage primary care doctors to take this challenge to educate, motivate community and provide full support to those who wish to modify their lifestyle.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding disinfection procedures among nurses in Italian hospitals. Methods A face-to-face interview gathered the following information: demographic and practice characteristics; knowledge about the healthcare-associated infections (HAIs and the disinfection practices; attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols and perception of the risks of acquiring/transmitting HAIs; compliance with antisepsis/disinfection procedures; and sources of information. Results Only 29% acknowledged that urinary and respiratory tract infections were the two most common HAIs and this knowledge was significantly higher in those with a higher level of education. Attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols for disinfection procedures showed a mean score of 9.1. The results of the linear regression model indicated a more positive attitude in female nurses, in those with a lower number of years of activity, and in those needing additional information about disinfection procedures. Nurses with higher educational level and with a higher perception of risk of transmitting an infectious disease while working were more likely to perform appropriate antisepsis of the surgical wound and handwashing before and after medication. Conclusions Plan of successful prevention activities about HAIs and provide pointers to help optimize disinfection procedures and infection prophylaxis and management are needed.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Introduction This study was conducted in Brazil and Colombia,where dengue is endemic and vector control programs use chemical insecticides. Methods We identified [...] knowledge, attitudes, and practices about dengue and determined the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti in one Brazilian and four Colombian communities. Results The surveys show knowledge of the vector, but little knowledge about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Vector infestation indices show Brazil to have good relative control, while Colombia presents a high transmission risk. Conclusions Given the multidimensionality of dengue control, vertical control strategies are inadequate because they deny contextualized methods, alternative solutions, and local empowerment.
Solange Laurentino dos, Santos; Gabriel, Parra-Henao; Mírcia Betânia Costa e, Silva; Lia Giraldo da Silva, Augusto.
Introduction This study was conducted in Brazil and Colombia,where dengue is endemic and vector control programs use chemical insecticides. Methods We identified knowledge, attitudes, and practices about dengue and determined the infestation levels of Aedes aegypti in one Brazilian and four Colombian communities. Results The surveys show knowledge of the vector, but little knowledge about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Vector infestation indices show Brazil to have good relative control, while Colombia presents a high transmission risk. Conclusions Given the multidimensionality of dengue control, vertical control strategies are inadequate because they deny contextualized methods, alternative solutions, and local empowerment. PMID:25626660
Santos, Solange Laurentino Dos; Parra-Henao, Gabriel; Silva, Mírcia Betânia Costa E; Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva
The food nutrition label provides the nutrition information that helps consumers on food choices and used to give us information so that customer can choose between foods. This study was aimed to determine the association between knowledge, attitude and practices on food label use and to determine the factors that influence the use of food labels during making food purchasing decision among university students. A cross-sectional study of undergraduate students at UiTM Puncak Alam in the Kuala...
Khairil Anuar, M. I.; Norazmir, M. N.; Nurliyana, G.
BACKGROUND: In response to increased referrals to geneticists and the predicted patient demand for genetic counselling, it has been proposed that some genetics services should be provided in primary care. Practice nurses are ideally placed to collect family history information and advise patients accordingly in new patient, family planning, well women/men and chronic disease clinics, but little is known about their knowledge, skills and attitudes towards providing genetic advice. OBJECTIVES: ...
Bankhead, C.; Emery, J.; Qureshi, N.; Campbell, H.; Austoker, J.; Watson, E.
A knowledge, attitude, behaviour, and practice survey was conducted among labour migrants in Tajikistan to elucidate key factors influencing access to tuberculosis diagnosis and care both in their labour destination country and at home. 509 labour migrants were interviewed in Khaton and Rasht Valley regions in Tajikistan using a standardised questionnaire. In addition, in-depth interviews were conducted among ten tuberculosis patients who had recently worked abroad. The study showed that migr...
Christopher Gilpin; Pierpaolo de Colombani; Sayohat Hasanova; Umrinisso Sirodjiddinova
Background: Oral cancer has emerged as a significant cause of global public health concern. If a cancerous lesion is diagnosed in primary stages, the survival rate would be higher. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of general dentist regarding oral cancer in Sari, Iran . Methods: This cross sectional analytical study was performed on general dentists of Sari, Iran. The dentists were given a questionnaire including dem...
Mohammad Mehdizadeh; Maryam Seyed Majid; Saber Sadeghi; Mahtab Hamzeh
This paper presents the findings of a field survey of supposedly educated young Malaysians regarding their knowledge of landslide as an environmental hazard and their attitudes and practice regarding landslide issues. The respondents were undergraduate students of Penangs Universiti Sains Malaysia whose RST (Restu, Saujana, Tekun) residential hostels were chosen for the study due to their location on a mountainous terrain. A total of 343 students participated in the survey. The resul...
Jamilah Ahmad; Habibah Lateh
High salt intake is important risk factor for hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice regarding salt intake in rural population in continental Croatia. Data were obtained by standardized questionnaire in 928 adult subjects (586 women and 342 men). Results have shown low level of awareness (~60%) of salt risk. Women were more aware about the harmful effects of salt and could identify some food with hig...
Bojan Jelakovi?; Patricija Luketi?; Dragana Juri?; ivka Dika; Jovana ?uri?; Ksenija Vitale; Slavica Paradinovi?
Hypertension is a major problem that will most certainly grow with increase in the number of older people as the population continues to age. Its complications have estimated reduction in life expectancy and number of Quality of life years. The aim of the study was to study the Knowledge, Attitude ,Practice (KAP) in the management of hypertension among old age people. Purposive random sampling technique was adapted for the study. The total sample constituted 1200 elderly w...
Roopa, K. S.; Rama Devi, G.
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the third commonest cancer in Ugandan women. Women present late for breast cancer management which leads to high mortality rates. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Ugandan women concerning breast cancer and mammography.METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study where 100 women reporting to the Radiology department were interviewed. We used consecutive sampling. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were...
Michael, Kawooya G.; Nakatudde Rebecca; Rosemary, Byanyima K.; Muyinda Zeridah; Gonzaga, Mubuuke A.; Businge Francis; Kiguli-Malwadde Elsie
Unplanned teenage pregnancy constitutes an important health problem, whilst contraceptive services are free throughout South Africa and the number of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP) services is increasing. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of secondary school girls towards contraception in Thulamela Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by convenience sampling f...
Ramathuba, Dorah U.; Khoza, Lunic B.; Netshikweta, Mutshinyalo L.
In this study, the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pesticide use and the levels of exposure of farmers and residents to organophosphorous and/or carbamates pesticides were evaluated in two rural settings in Brazil. A questionnaire was completed by 112 farm workers aged ?18 years. Almost all farmers acknowledged that pesticides were potentially harmful to their health (87.5%); however, over half rarely (48.2%) or never (7.2%) used personal protective...
Eloisa Dutra Caldas; Bruno Zago Diniz; Juciê Roniery Silva; Juliana Oliveira Pasiani; Priscila Torres
Full Text Available Objective: The Pap smear is a reliable, inexpensive and effective screening test for cervical cancer; the second most common cancer among women worldwide. We aimed to determine womens knowledge, attitudes and practice towards Pap smear and barriers for the screening in a public hospital.Materials and methods: This study, was carried out on 350 outpatient married women reffering for a visit at the clinics of the Alzahra educational hospital, Rasht- Iran, 2011. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics (24 questions, knowledge (14 questions, attitudes (11 statments and practice (10 questions towards Pap smear was completed by interview with the women. The data were analyzed using SPSS ver.13.Results: Mean age of participants was 32 (SD 12 years. Of the respondents, only 44.3% were aware of the Pap smear and 27.1% had had it at least once in their life. The most common reason for having the test was physicians or other health workers advise and for not having the test was no recommendation by health providers and lack of knowledge about Pap smear. Embarrassing, fear of the test result or economic problems mentioned by only 12 (4.2% as the main barrier. Mean (±SD knowledge score of the women who had heard about the Pap smear was 59.4 (24.3 and attitudes score of all participants was 48.5 (11.6 from possible range score of 0-100. Women with a history of Pap smear had had higher awareness and attitudes score.Conclusion: The knowledge and practice of the women was inadequate and need to be promoted. Considering the main reason mentioned by the participants for not having the test, all health providers should educate and encourage women to do regular Pap smear.
Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh- Charandabi
Although responses to 24-hour recall and knowledgeattitudepractice questionnaires are commonly used in watersanitation studies as surrogates for direct observation of behaviour, the validity of this approach is questionable. We therefore compared questionnaire data with those obtained by direct observation of practices related to water storage, handwashing, and defecation among 247 families in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh. Analysis of the results indicates that accord between the replies ...
Stanton, B. F.; Clemens, J. D.; Aziz, K. M. A.; Rahman, M.
Full Text Available We sought to determine the knowledge and attitude of public health workers (PHWs with respect to emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases and the practice of one health approach in the surveillance of zoonoses in the community. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 randomly selected districts of Nyanza province, Kenya. One hundred and ten randomly-selected PHWs were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Data were collected on their knowledge, attitudes and practices about common zoonotic diseases. Eighty-nine (81% questionnaires were received back. Eighty-seven (98% said they discuss zoonotic diseases with the local villagers during their community health work. The most commonly discussed disease was rabies (n=39. Seventy-six (85% respondents reported ever discussing zoonoses with their veterinary colleagues. Over 85% of the PHWs asked for refresher training on H1N1, and 51% require training on highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1. Despite fair knowledge of rabies among the PHWs in Nyanza province, there is need for improving their attitude of the emerging and reemerging zoonoses. There is also need to improve their practice in terms of collaboration with the veterinarians in zoonoses surveillance in the community.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the third commonest cancer in Ugandan women. Women present late for breast cancer management which leads to high mortality rates. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of Ugandan women concerning breast cancer and mammography.METHODS: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study where 100 women reporting to the Radiology department were interviewed. We used consecutive sampling. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect opinions of the participants. For data analysis, answers were described as knowledge, attitude, practice and they were correlated with control variables through the chi-square. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were also used. RESULTS: Most of the women (71% had no idea about mammography. More than 50% did not know about risk factors for breast cancer. The attitude towards mammography was generally negative. Regarding seeking for mammography; level of literacy, occupation and marital status were significant on bivariate analysis, however only level of literacy and employment remained the significant independent variables on logistic regression analysis. The main barrier to mammography was mainly lack of information. CONCLUSION: Women in this study had inadequate knowledge and inappropriate practice related to mammography as a procedure for breast cancer investigation.
Kawooya G. Michael
The promotion of healthy infant feeding is increasingly recognized as an important obesity-prevention strategy. This is relevant for American Indian populations that exhibit high levels of obesity and low compliance with infant feeding guidelines. The literature examining the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs surrounding infant feeding within the American Indian population is sparse and focuses primarily on breastfeeding, with limited information on the introduction of solid foods and related practices that can be important in an obesity-prevention context. This research presents descriptive findings from a baseline knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire on infant feeding and related behaviors administered to mothers (n=438) from five Northwest American Indian tribes that participated in the Prevention of Toddler Overweight and Teeth Health Study (PTOTS). Enrollment occurred during pregnancy or up to 6 months postpartum. The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs questionnaire focused on themes of breastfeeding/formula feeding and introducing solid foods, with supplemental questions on physical activity. Knowledge questions were multiple choice or true/false. Attitudes and beliefs were assessed on Likert scales. Descriptive statistics included frequencies and percents and means and standard deviations. Most women knew basic breastfeeding recommendations and facts, but fewer recognized the broader health benefits of breastfeeding (eg, reducing diabetes risk) or knew when to introduce solid foods. Women believed breastfeeding to be healthy and perceived their social networks to agree. Attitudes and beliefs about formula feeding and social support were more ambivalent. This work suggests opportunities to increase the perceived value of breastfeeding to include broader health benefits, increase knowledge about solid foods, and strengthen social support. PMID:24951434
Eckhardt, Cara L; Lutz, Tam; Karanja, Njeri; Jobe, Jared B; Maupomé, Gerardo; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl
Full Text Available Knowledge, attitude and practice studies have been used to understand the various factors that influence blood donation which is the basis for donor mobilization and retention strategies. Role of youngsters in voluntary blood donation is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. The present study was aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among the health care students. A validated and pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation were assessed among 371 medical students from Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Institute, Puducherry, India. Result showed that knowledge on blood donation among respondents was 44.8% (1st year 36.7%, 2nd year 42.8% and 3rd year 54.9%. About 62.6% of non-donors (1st year 51%, 2nd year 61% and 3rd year 77% showed positive attitude by expressing their willingness to donate blood while 22.8%.of the non-donors had negative attitude (1st year 33%, 2nd year 23% and 3rd year 13%. In practice 13.2% of students had donated blood (1st year 10%, 2nd year 13% and 3rd year 24%, in which 2.7% of male students alone donating blood on regular basis. Over all 3rd year student showed significantly higher knowledge compared with 1st years, in attitude and practice section 3rd year students showed significantly higher positive attitude and practice than that of 1st and 2nd years. The present study reveals that there is a positive association among knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation, which suggest that positive attitude and practice can be improved by inculcating knowledge on blood donation among college students to recruit and donate blood regularly, which will help to achieve 100% of blood donation on voluntary basis.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine current knowledge, attitudes, and management of urinary incontinence among family physicians in Canada. DESIGN: Cross-sectional mailed survey. SETTING: Family physicians in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of 1500 members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-assessed knowledge, self-reported attitudes, and rating of various tests and treatments in the investigation and management of incontinence. RESULTS: The overall unadjusted response rate was 43.3% (650/1500. Although most respondents reported that urinary incontinence was common in their practices, less than half (46.0%, 284/617 indicated that they clearly understood incontinence and just 37.9% (232/612 had an organized plan for incontinence problems. Only 35.0% (214/612 of respondents felt very comfortable dealing with incontinence. Physical examination, urodynamic studies, urinalysis, and testing blood sugar levels were all considered important investigations by more than 90% of respondents. CONCLUSION: There are wide variations in knowledge, attitudes, practices, and comfort level among family physicians dealing with urinary incontinence.
Objectives: This study had twin objectives of assessing the oral health knowledge, attitude and practices and to assess the dental caries status and treatment needs among the orphan children of orphanages of Jodhpur city, Rajasthan, India.
Hans, Rinki; Thomas, Susan; Dagli, Rushabh; Bhateja, Geetika Arora; Sharma, Akanksha; Singh, Amarpreet
Background The emergence and spread of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a growing problem worldwide, which presents a significant threat to public health globally in the 21st century. A substantial evidence has shown that the general community plays a role in the increase and spread of antibiotic resistance. The present study was designed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice towards antibiotic use. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed using a pretested self-administered questionnaire on a sample of 770 randomly selected Kuwaiti individuals. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used in data analysis. Results The response rate was 88.3%. Nearly three-quarters (72.8%) of respondents had been prescribed antibiotics within 12 months prior to the study period, and 36% of them had not finished the course of treatment. Over one-quarter (27.5%) were self-medicated with antibiotics to treat mainly common cold, sore throat and cough. Self-medication was more prevalent among those who were prescribed antibiotics and those who had attitudes towards using and accessing antibiotic inappropriately. Almost 47% of participants had low knowledge regarding action, use, safety and resistance of antibiotics. Forty one percent of respondents had attitudes towards using and accessing antibiotic inappropriately. Better knowledge was found to be a predictor for positive attitude. Respondents level of agreement that doctors often prescribe antibiotics to meet the patients expectation, and that doctors often take time to consider carefully the need for an antibiotic were 52.7% and 35.3%, respectively. Conclusions These findings will aid in the assessment of the adequacy of present public educational campaigns. Also, it will provide further insight in designing future multifaceted interventions to promote specific messages to rationalize antibiotic use, and compensate for knowledge and attitude gaps as an effort towards preventing development of antibiotic resistance. PMID:25675405
Awad, Abdelmoneim Ismail; Aboud, Esraa Abdulwahid
Full Text Available Background: Oral cancer has emerged as a significant cause of global public health concern. If a cancerous lesion is diagnosed in primary stages, the survival rate would be higher. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of general dentist regarding oral cancer in Sari, Iran . Methods: This cross sectional analytical study was performed on general dentists of Sari, Iran. The dentists were given a questionnaire including demographic characteristics of the dentists and questions about knowledge, attitude and practice regarding oral cancer. Data were subjected to SPSS 18 .0. Quantitative data were reported as mean (±SD and qualitative data were shown as percent. Kolmogorov - Smirnoff sample test, t - test (p<0.07 was considered statistically significant equivalent nonparametric test and Spearmans rho test was used for sta tistical analysis . Results: Total mean score of knowledge, mean score of females and mean score of males was 20.88±8.53, 20.96±7.62 and 20.71±10.43, respectively. Age and sex had no correlation with score of knowledge. Conclusion: Dentists of Sari do not ha ve enough knowledge about oral cancer
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Hypertension is a global health hazard and most cases are first attended to by the physicians. Achieving a control will depend on the knowledge, attitude and practice of the physicians. We therefore determined the knowledge, attitude and practices of physicians on the detection and treatment of arterial hypertension in north-central Nigeria. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 100 of the 250 physicians attending a continuing medical education lecture series in Bida was conducted using a pre-validated self administered questionnaire. Results: The mean age of the physicians was 41.05 ± 8.71 years and 59 (73.8% were males. Forty-one (51.2% of them have practiced for more than 10 years. Arterial hypertension was considered an important health problem by 93.8% of the physicians, 30% of them believed that it should not be referred to a specialist. Majority of the physicians request for urinalysis (96.2%, electrocardiogram (95.0%, fasting blood glucose (88.8%, blood urea nitrogen (98.8% and fasting lipid profile (97.5% to either assess target organ damage or associated co-morbid conditions. Fifty-seven (71.2% of the physicians prescribe diuretics as the initial drug. However, the knowledge of the other drugs on initiation of therapy of mild uncomplicated hypertension was poor. The sources of information on arterial hypertension by physicians were scientific programs (73.8%, drug companies (38.8% and journals in 11.3%. Conclusion: The knowledge, attitude and practice of physicians in the detection and management of hypertension were modest. Educative programs like continuing medical education, seminars, and conferences on cardiovascular disorders are advised to be organized regularly to strengthen these and update the physicians.
Umar Gati Adamu
Background: Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are ranked as some of the major causes of patient morbidity and mortality. Spontaneous reporting of ADRs has remained the cornerstone of pharmacovigilance and is important in maintaining patient safety. This study was conducted to assess the nurses knowledge and attitude towards pharmacovigilance, reasons for not reporting ADRs, and their pharmacovigilance practice. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was prepared to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of nurses regarding ADR reporting. In November 2009, the questionnaires were given to 500 nurses of a teaching hospital in Tehran. Findings: Knowledge and practice of participants were not satisfying; however, their attitude towards pharmacovigilance was at a high level. About 91% of the nurses had never reported an ADR. Most nurses liked to report the ADRs to the physicians (87.1%) and pharmacists in hospital's ADR center (1.8%) rather than the ADR National Center. The main cause of under-reporting of the suspected ADRs was unawareness about the existence of such a national center. Among nurses who had reported ADR for at least once, the majority preferred using phone (10 out of 50) or Yellow Cards (7 out of 50). Only 1 person out of 50 preferred using internet for submitting the reports Conclusions: Since the nurses in this study had little knowledge and poor practice regarding the pharmacovigilance and spontaneous reporting system, interventions such as holding pharmacovigilance workshops in the hospitals focusing on the aims of pharmacovigilance, completing the Yellow Card and clarifying the reporting criteria are strongly recommended. PMID:23492864
Hanafi, Somayeh; Torkamandi, Hassan; Hayatshahi, Alireza; Gholami, Kheirollah; Javadi, Mohammadreza
Mongolia has a high and increasing burden of hypertension and related disease, with cardiovascular diseases among the leading causes of death. Yet little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian population with regards to blood pressure. With this in mind, a national Non-Communicable Diseases knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on blood pressure was implemented in late 2010. This paper reports on the findings of this research.
Demaio, Alessandro R; Otgontuya, Dugee
Context: Tobacco use is an important health issue globally. It is responsible for a large number of diseases and deaths in India. Female tobacco users have additional health risks. Aims: The aim was to assess changes in pre and post-intervention tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among women from urban low socioeconomic strata, after three rounds of interventions. Subjects and Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to interview women living in low socioeconomic housing clusters in Mumbai, regarding their tobacco consumption, attitudes, and practices, by Medical Social Workers. These data were entered into IBM SPSS Statistics, version 20 and analysed. Interventions for tobacco cessation were provided 3 times over a span of 9 months, comprising of health education and counseling. Post-intervention questionnaire was introduced at 12 months. Results: There was statistically significant improvement in the knowledge of women, following the interventions, with particular reference to poor oral hygiene and tobacco use being main cause of oral cancer (P = 0.007), knowledge of ill effects of second hand smoke (P = 0.0001), knowledge about possibility of early detection of oral cancer (P = 0.0001), perception of pictorial and written warnings on tobacco products (P = 0.0001), and availability of help for quitting tobacco (P = 0.024). Conclusion: The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use is very high among urban women from lower socioeconomic strata. Therefore, tobacco awareness programs and tobacco cessation services tailor made for this group of women must be planned and implemented.
Majmudar, V. Parishi; Mishra, A. Gauravi; Kulkarni, V. Sheetal; Dusane, R. Rohit; Shastri, S. Surendra
Full Text Available Introduction: Coronary heart disease (CHD is a leading killer not only in men but also in women worldwide and primary target for prevention. However, majority initial researchers believed it was mainly a mens disease that resulted in fewer women being informed regarding the disease.Aim and Objectives: A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge, attitude and practice on cardiovascular disease among women attended outpatient clinics with Family Medicine Specialists in Kelantan from June to December 2010.Methods/ Study Design: A total of 448 women from 7 out of 14 clinics run by Specialist with age ranged between 25 and 65 years were selected via systematic random sampling in the ratio of 1:2 based on clinic attendance lists. Excluded were those who illiterate and having psychotic symptoms. All of consented participants were given a set of validated KAP questionnaire to be completed within 15 minutes.Findings: Majority of respondents were Malays with mean age of 39.9 years. Among them, 3.1% were smokers and 41.1% claimed having medical illness, the commonest was obesity (23.6%. About 87% of women knew that smoking is a risk factor. However, less than 20% knew about menopause. More than 80% knew typical symptoms whereas less than half realised atypical symptoms. Less than 20% of them knew the cholesterol risk target. Only 13% of women practiced exercise as required. The mean (SD for knowledge and practice score were 70.6 (13.76 and 63.7(13.59 accordingly. The median (IQR for attitude score was 88.2 (14.71. Thus the good knowledge, attitude and practice score were 55.6%, 55.1 % and 51.1% respectively.Conclusion: A structured educational programme and utilization of available CVD guidelines should be reinforced as a better preventive strategy to overcome this problem.
Clinical Prediction Rules (CPRs) have been developed to assist in the physiotherapy management of low back pain (LBP) although little is known about the factors that may influence their implementation in clinical practice. This study used qualitative research methodology to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices/behaviours of physiotherapists in relation to these tools. Four semi-structured focus groups involving 26 musculoskeletal physiotherapists were conducted across three Australian geographic regions. A fictitious LBP case scenario was developed and used to facilitate group discussion. Participant knowledge of CPRs was found to be mixed, with some clinicians never having previously encountered the term or concept. LBP CPRs were often conceptualised as a formalisation of pattern recognition. Attitudes towards CPRs expressed by study participants were wide-ranging with several facilitating and inhibiting views identified. It was felt that more experienced clinicians had limited need of such tools. Only a small number of participants expressed that they had ever used LBP CPRs in clinical practice. To optimise the successful adoption of an LBP CPR, researchers should consider avoiding the use of the term 'rule' and ensure that the tool and its interface are uncomplicated and easy to use. Understanding potential barriers, the needs of clinicians and the context in which CPRs will be implemented will help facilitate the development of tools with the highest potential to positively influence physiotherapy practice. PMID:24176916
Haskins, Robin; Osmotherly, Peter G; Southgate, Erica; Rivett, Darren A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatricians are in an ideal position to advise families about the prevention and management of oral diseases in children. The objective of the study was to determine knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding the prevention of oral diseases among pediatricians in Italy. Methods A systematic random sample of 1000 pediatricians received a questionnaire on socio-demographic and practice characteristics; knowledge on risk factors; attitude and practices towards the prevention of oral diseases. Results A total of 507 pediatricians participated. More than half knew the main risk factors for oral diseases and this knowledge was higher in primary care pediatricians (p = 0.007, in those with a higher number of hours worked per week (p = 0.012, and who believed that oral diseases may be prevented (p = 0.017. Pediatricians with higher knowledge about the main risk factors (p = 0.006 believe that they have an important role in preventing oral diseases and that they can perform an oral examination. Almost all (89% prescribed fluoride supplements and those younger (p = 0.016, with a higher number of patients seen in workday (p = 0.001, with longer practice activity (p = 0.004, those who believe that fluoride is effective in preventing caries (p p = 0.002 were more likely to prescribe fluoride. One-fourth and 40.6% provides and recommends a dental visit once a year and primary care pediatricians (p = 0.014 and those who believed that routine visit is important in preventing oral diseases (p Conclusion The results showed a lack of knowledge among pediatricians although almost all believed that they had an important responsibility in preventing oral diseases and provided an oral examination.
The leading cause of mortality in Mongolia is Non-Communicable Disease. Alcohol is recognised by the World Health Organization as one of the four major disease drivers and so, in order to better understand and triangulate recent national burden-of-disease surveys and to inform policy responses to alcohol consumption in Mongolia, a national Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices survey was conducted. Focusing on Non-Communicable Diseases and their risk factors, this publication explores the alcohol-related findings of this national survey.
Demaio, Alessandro R; Dugee, Otgontuya
Full Text Available It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27 in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27 of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective screen-and-treat programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population.
Full Text Available Traffic accidents compromises a large quantity of peoples annually, and is one of the most important causes of death in Iran. Human factors are amongst of the most leading causes of traffic accident mortality and morbidity and this study is conducted to evaluate the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of drivers regarding driving laws in Tehran. Two hundred and twenty drivers were selected randomly in this cross sectional study. Cluster sampling with 10 participant in each cluster was used for selection of participants. 22 points were defined using a random sample of telephone numbers. Distribution points was such as one point were selected in each zone of municipality zones. Ten consecutive drivers passing the specified point were interviewed by an interviewer and a senior officer of Traffic Control Organization of Tehran was responsible for assessment of practices. Reliability of questionnaire was evaluated using alpha chronbach coefficient and construct validity was assessed by Principal component Analysis method. Chi square and odds ratio (OR were used for assessment of relation between qualitative variables, when appropriate. Two hundred and twenty drivers were recruited in this study. Suitable Knowledge, Attitude and practice were seen in 67.7, 56.4 and 47.7 percent of respondents respectively. When adjusted using logistic regression analysis, we did not observe any relation between these three variables. There was a significant relation between knowledge and age; and also between practice and education, marital status, occupation and type of automobile. We conclude that practice of drivers of Tehran are weak regarding traffic laws and there is an emergent need for research and intervention in this regard.
This study was undertaken in Mpwapwa District in Central Zone of Tanzania between July to August, 2009 to assess knowledge, attitude and practice towards modern contraceptives among married women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Specific objectives of the study were to ascertain knowledge and attitude towards modern contraceptives, to determine the extent of use of modern contraceptives and identify factors associated with current use of modern contraceptive in the study population. Study d...
Lwelamira, J.; Mnyamagola, G.; Msaki, M. M.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Jordan, as in neighboring countries in the Middle East, higher education and higher employment rates in recent years among women have had an impact on traditionally based infant feeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate practice, knowledge and attitude to breastfeeding and to assess factors associated with breastfeeding among women in the north of Jordan. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out between 15 July 2003 and 15 August 2003. A total of 344 women with children aged between 6 months and 3 years from five different villages in the north of Jordan were randomly selected and interviewed. Information regarding participants' demographics, infant feeding in first six months of life, knowledge and attitude towards breastfeeding was collected. Results Full breastfeeding was reported by 58.3%, mixed feeding was reported by 30.3% and infant formula feeding was reported by 11.4%. Almost one third of the full breastfeeding group did so for 612 months, and almost two thirds did continue breastfeeding for more than one year. Employed women were more likely not to practice full breastfeeding compared to unemployed women (odds ratio 3.34, 95% CI 1.60, 6.98, and women who had caesarian delivery were more likely not to practice full breastfeeding compared to those who had vaginal delivery (odds ratio 2.36, 95% CI 1.17, 4.78. Jordanian women had a positive attitude but work place and short maternity leaves had a negative impact on breastfeeding. Conclusion This study showed that a high proportion of Jordanian women did breastfeed for more than one year. However, working women and those who deliver by caesarean section were less likely to breastfeed. It is speculated that adopting facilitatory measures at hospitals and work place could increase the rate of full breastfeeding.
Full Text Available Many of the known risk factors associated with low birth weight (LB W infants, such as socio-economic status, ethnicity, genetic makeup, and obstetric history, are not within a womans immediate control. However, there are many things that a woman can do to improve her chances of having a normal healthy child. Lifestyle behaviours, such as cigarette smoking, nutrition and the use of alcohol, play an important role in determining the growth of the foetus. There is a high rate of low birth weight infants bom to women living and working on the farms in the Western Cape. Very little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the women living and working on the farms that may be influencing their pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this qualitative exploratory study was to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices of reproductive age women related to lifestyle factors such as alcohol use, smoking and nutrition, and the perceptions of these factors by health care workers, in Stellenbosch and Vredendal areas (small towns in the Western Cape.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Late presentation of patients at advanced stages when little or no benefit can be derived from any form of therapy is the hallmark of breast cancer in Nigerian women. Recent global cancer statistics indicate rising global incidence of breast cancer and the increase is occurring at a faster rate in populations of the developing countries that hitherto enjoyed low incidence of the disease. Worried by this prevailing situation and with recent data suggesting that health behavior may be influenced by level of awareness about breast cancer, a cross-sectional study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of community-dwelling women in Nigeria towards breast cancer. Methods One thousand community-dwelling women from a semi-urban neighborhood in Nigeria were recruited for the study in January and February 2000 using interviewer-administered questionnaires designed to elicit sociodemographic information and knowledge, attitude and practices of these women towards breast cancer. Data analysis was carried out using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS version 8.2. Results Study participants had poor knowledge of breast cancer. Mean knowledge score was 42.3% and only 214 participants (21.4% knew that breast cancer presents commonly as a painless breast lump. Practice of breast self examination (BSE was low; only 432 participants (43.2% admitted to carrying out the procedure in the past year. Only 91 study participants (9.1% had clinical breast examination (CBE in the past year. Women with higher level of education (X2 = 80.66, p 2 = 47.11, p Conclusion The results of this study suggest that community-dwelling women in Nigeria have poor knowledge of breast cancer and minority practice BSE and CBE. In addition, education appears to be the major determinant of level of knowledge and health behavior among the study participants. We recommend the establishment and sustenance of institutional framework and policy guidelines that will enhance adequate and urgent dissemination of information about breast cancer to all women in Nigeria.
Okonofua Friday E
Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is considered as the most economical and easily accessible complete nutrition for every new born child. Knowledge, attitude and practices associated with infant feeding forms an essential need felt for the intervention program designed to bring about positive behavioural change in infant health. Objective: to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of infant feeding among infant mothers. Methodology: This is community based cross-sectional study conducted in Vantamuri PHC area with the sample size of 401mothers. Percentage and chi-square test was applied for statistical analysis. Results: In this study, only 9.23% of mothers had good knowledge about infant feeding while majority of mothers (79.05% had average knowledge. Others had poor knowledge about the same. 22.44% of mothers had highly positive attitude towards infant feeding while majority (59.6% had average attitude. 17.96% of mothers had poor attitude towards the same. Regarding practice, 13.97% of mothers did good practice, 7.73% of mothers practiced negatively and majority (78.3% were on an average. Conclusion: The breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and practices about infant feeding are suboptimal among infant mothers and those who were well informed, do not practice it willingly.
Baburaddi M. Kengalagutti
Full Text Available Background: Sleep disorders represent an under-recognised public health problem and are reported to be underdiagnosed in general practices.Aims: To examine general practitioners (GPs attitude, knowledge and practice behaviour and identify barriers to detection,diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders encountered in the Australian primary care setting.Method: Using mixed methods, quantitative data from the Dartmouth Sleep Knowledge Questionnaire (DSKQ were analysedusing MS Excel 2007. Qualitative data were obtained from one focus group and eight interviews. Data were thematicallyanalysed.Results: 15 GPs participated; seven in a focus group and eight in interviews. Scores from DSKQ suggest gaps in GPsknowledge. Qualitative analysis revealed that patients frequently presented with sleep disorders underpinned by mentalhealth disorders. GPs agreed that prescribing pharmacological interventions was undesirable and behavioural interventionswere preferred. Barriers included limited training for GPs, lack of resources, patient expectations and willingness to engagein lifestyle changes, and consultation time constraints.Discussion: Greater flexibility to investigate sleep related problems within the standard consultation and improved accessto educational activities could assist GPs. Patient factors, such as adherence to management strategies, are paramount tosuccessful management of sleep disorders; however, these obstacles to clinical practice may be difficult to overcome.Conclusion: Providing education for GPs about sleep disorders, greater flexibility within consultations may improve patientcare and patient engagement in management strategies may assist, yet a critical success factor in disease managementincludes patient engagement in management strategies.
The introduction of the 'Medical Treatment Contract Act' in the Netherlands 5 years ago, established some major rights and duties of both patients and members of the medical profession. The aim of this study was to assess Dutch dentists' knowledge, attitudes and self-efficacy with regard to several topics of this act. A questionnaire was sent to 806 dental practitioners; 41.6% of them responded. Results show that dentists are well informed about some of the most important topics of this law, such as the requirement to obtain the patient's consent to major dental treatments. The results concerning their attitude and self-efficacy, however, are less positive. A majority of the respondents believe that the principle of informed consent will lead to a commercialization of the dentist-patient relation. Also, fear for legal procedures and difficulty with what patients must be informed about appears present. It is concluded that improvement of the implementation of the requirements of this legislation in dental practice requires both a change in attitude and an enhancement of the communicative skills of dentists. PMID:11118784
Schouten, B C; Eijkman, M A; Hoogstraten, J; den Dekker, J
Full Text Available Background: Healthcare-associated tuberculosis (TB has become a major occupational hazard for healthcare workers (HCWs. HCWs are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Whenever there is a possibility of exposure, implementation of infection prevention and control (IPC practices is critical. Objective: Following a high incidence of TB among HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital in Lesotho, a study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of HCWs regarding healthcare-associated TB infection and infection controls. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed in June 2011; it involved HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital who were involved with patients and/or sputum. Stratified sampling of 140 HCWs was performed, of whom, 129 (92.0% took part. A self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was used. Results: Most respondents (89.2% had appropriate knowledge of transmission, diagnosis and prevention of TB; however, only 22.0% of the respondents knew the appropriate method of sputum collection. All of the respondents (100.0% were motivated and willing to implement IPC measures. A significant proportion of participants (36.4% reported poor infection control practices, with the majority of inappropriate practices being the administrative infection controls (> 80.0%. Only 38.8% of the participants reported to be using the appropriate N-95 respirator. Conclusion: Poor infection control practices regarding occupational TB exposure were demonstrated, the worst being the first-line administrative infection controls. Critical knowledge gaps were identified; however, there was encouraging willingness by HCWs to adapt to recommended infection control measures. Healthcare workers are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Implementation of infection prevention and control practices is critical whenever there is a possibility of exposure.
Lesley T. Bhebhe
The research centered on secondary mathematics teachers' beliefs, attitudes, knowledge base, and practices in meeting the academic and language needs of English language learners. Using socio-cultural theory and social practice theory to frame the study, the research design employed a mixed methods approach incorporating self-reported
Although the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months, only 14.6% of babies born in the District of Columbia (DC) reached this goal. Breastfeeding support from providers has been shown to increase exclusive breastfeeding. We aim (1) to describe breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes, (2) to determine the presence of breastfeeding in routine prenatal discussions, and (3) to determine the knowledge of facility adoption of the Perinatal Care (PC) Core Measure Set among DC ACOG members. A survey sent to DC ACOG members assessed knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to breastfeeding and evaluated participants' barriers to breastfeeding counseling, management of breastfeeding challenges, and awareness of facility adoption of the PC Core Measure Set. All 29 respondents reported breastfeeding as the best infant nutrition and that physicians should encourage breastfeeding. However, despite 75% reporting counseling most of their patients regarding breastfeeding, only 27% reported that most of their patients were breastfeeding at the postpartum visit. Participants scored 83% correct on knowledge-based questions. Perceived barriers to breastfeeding counseling included lack of time (66%), reimbursement (10%), and competence in managing breastfeeding problems (7%). Most respondents were unsure of both adoption of, and breastfeeding data collection for, the PC Core Measure Set (52% and 55%, respectively). Participants had knowledge gaps and identified barriers to discussing breastfeeding. There was limited awareness of hospital data collection about breastfeeding. These results indicate a need for more breastfeeding education among DC obstetricians-gynecologists and better outreach about the PC Core Measure Set. PMID:25389912
Sims, Alexandra M; Long, Sahira A; Tender, Jennifer A F; Young, Michal A
Background: The school oral health education program is believed to be a cost-effective method for promoting oral health. The KAP (knowledgeattitudepractice) model of oral health education is often the foundation of most health education programs. Objectives: To assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and oral health care practices among 11- to 13-year-old children and the association of knowledge with attitude, oral health care practices, and dental caries prevalence. Design: Cross-se...
Sanskriti Khanal; Ramya Shenoy; Arathi Rao; Baranya Shrikrishna Suprabha
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several public health strategic interventions are required for effective prevention and control of avian influenza (AI and it is necessary to create a communication plan to keep families adequately informed on how to avoid or reduce exposure. This investigation determined the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors relating to AI among an adult population in Italy. Methods From December 2005 to February 2006 a random sample of 1020 adults received a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of transmission and prevention about AI, attitudes towards AI, behaviors regarding use of preventive measures and food-handling practices, and sources of information about AI. Results A response rate of 67% was achieved. Those in higher socioeconomic classes were more likely to identify the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI. Those older, who knew the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI, and who still need information, were more likely to know that washing hands soap before and after touching raw poultry meat and using gloves is recommended to avoid spreading of AI through food. The risk of being infected was significantly higher in those from lower socioeconomic classes, if they did not know the definition of AI, if they knew that AI could be transmitted by eating and touching raw eggs and poultry foods, and if they did not need information. Compliance with the hygienic practices during handling of raw poultry meat was more likely in those who perceived to be at higher risk, who knew the hygienic practices, who knew the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI, and who received information from health professionals and scientific journals. Conclusion Respondents demonstrate no detailed understanding of AI, a greater perceived risk, and a lower compliance with precautions behaviors and health educational strategies are strongly needed.
In India, MDT was implemented through vertical programme staff of the National Leprosy Eradication Programme till the year 2001, when it was integrated into general health services (GHS). Human resource development of GHS is a vital, preparatory action for successful integration of leprosy into GHS. District Technical Support Teams (DTST) have been formed with responsibility for building the capacity of medical and paramedical staff of urban health posts (UHPs). In this context, it is necessary to know the current levels of Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) about leprosy prevailing among health staff at a given point in time, so that required knowledge and skills can be imparted, if need be. The present study is an attempt in this direction for assessing the KAP status of health staff working in Hyderabad city. 402 staff members (352 females and 50 males) working in urban health posts, the Employees State Insurance Corporation and the Central Government Health Services dispensaries in Hyderabad urban district in Andhra Pradesh were included in the study carried out in 2004 in order to assess KAP, and some operational parameters. A questionnaire was used to elicit responses of 110 medical officers in urban Hyderabad and the data were analysed and discussed. Medical officers have shown consistent higher knowledge on leprosy, followed by nursing staff as compared to other paramedical workers Only 40% of the medical officers had the opportunity of seeing at least 1 case of leprosy in their practice. Medical Officers who received training in leprosy and possessed reference material on leprosy have shown higher knowledge and practice. More than half of the study subjects did not have specific training in leprosy. Two major operational problems expressed by the medical officers were managing big crowds in OPD and time lost in meetings. 96 (87.3%) of 110 medical officers felt integration of leprosy services into general health services can be effectively implemented. 78 (71%) expressed that a leprosy patient with severe reaction needed priority attention at the out-patient department indicating good understanding of reactions in leprosy and a positive attitude towards such patients. There is a need to organize training at regular intervals to cover new persons as well as reinforcing and updating the knowledge of those already trained. PMID:17578266
Rao, P V Ranganadha; Rao, S L Narasimha; Vijayakrishnan, B; Chaudhary, A B; Peril, S; Reddy, B Pratap; Reddy, G Swamy
Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. Methods Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.15 and associations were tested using the Pearson's Chi square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of knowledge status and motivation of organ donation. Results Knowledge about organ donation was significantly associated with education (p = 0.000 and socioeconomic status (p = 0.038. 70/198 (35.3% people expressed a high motivation to donate. Allowance of organ donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate (p = 0.000. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant (p Conclusion Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures should be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Breast cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and the cause of about 18% of all malignancies in females. By breast self-examination (BSE it is possible to diagnose a breast tumor in the preliminary stages and treat it. Basic changes in the knowledge, attitude and practice of women as regards regular BES and follow-up will lead to considerable success in campaigns against breast cancer. Considering the role and responsibilities of community health workers (CHWs in the health services delivery system in the Islamic Republic of Iran, this study aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of female CHWs as regards BSE in 2006. "nMethods and Materials: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 89 female CHWs in the Iranian Mako township health houses. The data was collected through interviews using a questionnaire consisting of 4 sections, the first section containing 10 demographic questions, and the second to fourth sections containing 33 questions on knowledge, attitude, and practice. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed using the repeat testing with r=85%. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software (version 11."nResults: The data showed that the BSE knowledge of 50.6% and 49.4% of the subjects was good and moderate, respectively; 76.4% of them had a positive attitude towards BSE. The reasons for not self-examination were as follows: inability to do it alone (12.4%; fear of a positive result, i.e., existence of a tumor (1.1%; having no time (2.2%; fear of increased anxiety (5.6%; not believing in BSE, even if it was likely to have a tumor (11.2%. Further analysis of the data showed the practice of the subjects to be good, moderate, and weak in 9%, 61.8%, and 29.2% of the cases, respectively. "nThere were significant associations between knowledge and a positive attitude (p=0.038, between attitude of the unmarried subjects towards performing BSE as compared to the married subjects (p=0.00, and between attitude and practice (p=0.045."nConclusion: This study showed a moderate to good knowledge, a relatively good attitude, and a moderate practice among female CHWs in the Makoo Township, Iran, with regard to BSE. Considering the role of CHWs, improving their knowledge, attitude , and practice of BSE is essential.
OBJECTIVE: To determine current knowledge, attitudes, and management of urinary incontinence among family physicians in Canada. DESIGN: Cross-sectional mailed survey. SETTING: Family physicians in Canada. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of 1500 members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-assessed knowledge, self-reported attitudes, and rating of various tests and treatments in the investigation and management of incontinence. RESULTS: The overall unadjuste...
Kaczorowski J; Hutchison B; Jg, Swanson; Skelly J
Full Text Available High salt intake is important risk factor for hypertension, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and practice regarding salt intake in rural population in continental Croatia. Data were obtained by standardized questionnaire in 928 adult subjects (586 women and 342 men. Results have shown low level of awareness (~60% of salt risk. Women were more aware about the harmful effects of salt and could identify some food with higher concentration of salt. Participants were not aware through which food is the highest salt intake. Our results urge the need for national projects and public health campaigns that would raise the awareness of salt intake, need for health education particularly for rural population. Food industry and nutritionists should become partners in this initiative.
There is an increasing trend towards consumption of complementary and alternative herbal products in many parts of the world. A cross-sectional sample of 115 community pharmacists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was visited and information on knowledge, attitudes and practices towards herbal remedies was collected using a structured questionnaire. All pharmacists acknowledged dispensing herbal products through their pharmacies. Ginseng was the most widely used product (47%), followed by ginkgo (23%), valerian (17%) and S.t John's wort (3.5%). In general, pharmacists had poor awareness about potential herb-drug interactions. While 56% of participating pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of herbal remedies, 30% considered them to be harmless. Community pharmacists need to be better informed about herbal products. PMID:21218728
Alkharfy, K M
Full Text Available Introduction: Rabies in humans is highly fatal and ends in an extremely painful and tortuous death. Unfortunately we still have highest number of deaths due to rabies, ironically a disease preventable by modern prophylactic measures. The post-exposure prophylaxis is a life saving treatment in a definite rabid animal bite. General Practitioners (GPs act as first line care-givers for the treatment of dog bite and they are also easily approachable by the victim for the treatment to prevent rabies. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding rabies among general practitioners. Methodology: This cross sectional survey was carried out from July August 2011 in Belgaum city among 100 general practitioners using a pre tested questionnaire. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS 18 trial version. Frequencies were tabulated for demographic variables and association between variables was tested using Chi-square test. Results: Out of the total 100 general practitioners interviewed, 93 were males and 7 were females. The mean age of GPs was 42.89 years. The mean duration of practice for MBBS doctors was 19 years and for other doctors (BAMS, BHMS, RMPs was 11 years. Knowledge about various aspects of rabies was comparatively better among MBBS doctors. The knowledge regarding vaccine was very poor among the general practitioners. Conclusion: The major issue was lack of hands on training or updating the knowledge of general practitioners regarding the newer vaccines and their administration. We recommend continued medical education for general practitioners, both (MBBS and non MBBS on prevention of Rabies.
Full Text Available Purpose: A lot of accidents occur in the laboratory due to lack of proper knowledge regarding laboratory safety measures, indifferent attitude & improper implementation of safe laboratory practices. In view of this, the present study on knowledge, Attitude & Practice (KAP of laboratory safety measures was carried out among paramedical staff of laboratory services of tertiary care teaching hospital, western India. Method: This was a comparative study which used a standardized, structured self-administered questionnaire to survey knowledge, attitude and practice of paramedical staff. The KAP study enrolled 81 respondents. Results: Regarding knowledge- the majority knew the very important issues related with laboratory safety like Post Exposure Prophylaxis (96.55% & discarding of blood samples (93.10% etc. In regard to attitude towards the scientific process, all are very much aware about importance of protective devices (i.e. Wearing Gloves and Biomedical waste management. In regard to the practice in laboratory, the entire study subject group (100% replied âYESâ in each question that shows the good quality work of the laboratory. Conclusion: The induction training on Laboratory safety is very important and motivating exercise for improving the laboratory safety measures.
Hansa M Goswami, Sumeeta T Soni, Sachin M Patel, Mitesh K Patel
Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.
Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca
Objective: Active involvement by parents may contribute substantially to the success of school-based programs to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA). In China, little is known about parental understanding of CSA. This study investigated Chinese parents' knowledge, attitudes, and communication practices with their children about CSA. Method: Six
Chen, JingQi; Dunne, Michael P.; Han, Ping
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among healthcare professionals in Barbados in relation to healthcare ethics and law in an attempt to assist in guiding their professional conduct and aid in curriculum development. Methods A self-administered structured questionnaire about knowledge of healthcare ethics, law and the role of an Ethics Committee in the healthcare system was devised, tested and distributed to all levels of staff at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Barbados (a tertiary care teaching hospital during April and May 2003. Results The paper analyses 159 responses from doctors and nurses comprising junior doctors, consultants, staff nurses and sisters-in-charge. The frequency with which the respondents encountered ethical or legal problems varied widely from 'daily' to 'yearly'. 52% of senior medical staff and 20% of senior nursing staff knew little of the law pertinent to their work. 11% of the doctors did not know the contents of the Hippocratic Oath whilst a quarter of nurses did not know the Nurses Code. Nuremberg Code and Helsinki Code were known only to a few individuals. 29% of doctors and 37% of nurses had no knowledge of an existing hospital ethics committee. Physicians had a stronger opinion than nurses regarding practice of ethics such as adherence to patients' wishes, confidentiality, paternalism, consent for procedures and treating violent/non-compliant patients (p = 0.01 Conclusion The study highlights the need to identify professionals in the workforce who appear to be indifferent to ethical and legal issues, to devise means to sensitize them to these issues and appropriately training them.
HIV and AIDS have posed various medical, nutritional, social and economic problems, female-headed households being the most affected. Poor nutritional knowledge and dietary practices common among the most affected households significantly contribute to the rapid progression of HIV. However, very little data exist concerning these aspects of nutrition among women living with HIV and AIDS in resource-limited settings, such as Uganda. The aim of the study was to investigate the gaps in nutritional knowledge, attitudes, and practices and their relationship with sociodemographic characteristics in an urban population of women living with HIV and AIDS in Uganda. In total, 133 women living with HIV were interviewed using a pretested questionnaire. Most (89.5%) women reported being trained on the importance of nutrition for people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) and believed that it is very important to consume a balanced diet (99.5%). On the contrary, only 21.8% consumed at least three meals per day and 39.8% at least six food-groups. They also reported higher dependency on starchy staples while foods of animal origin and fruits that play vital immunity and protective roles were inadequately consumed. Results of bivariate analysis indicated that consumption of a diversified diet was significantly associated with access to food-aid (p=0.006), possibly because access to food-aid reportedly enhances the ability of the household to access other food items. However, much is still needed to understand the drug-food interaction and dietary diversification and enhance proper dietary practices through sustainable projects that ensure increased access to food. Support groups of the PLWHA are a good vehicle for communication of nutrition information and implementation of nutrition-related projects. PMID:20411682
Bukusuba, John; Kikafunda, Joyce K; Whitehead, Roger G
Injuries to children arising from home accidents are an increasing community health concern. The aim of this cross-sectional study in Qalubeya governorate, Egypt was to measure the incidence and types of home injuries affecting rural children aged up to 12 years and to assess their mothers' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about first aid and its associated factors. An interview questionnaire was completed by 1450 rural mothers. The incidence of home injuries in the previous 4 weeks was 38.3% (57.5% were boys). Cut wounds, falls and fractures, burns, poisoning and foreign body aspiration were the common forms of home injuries. Mothers answered an average of 11.0 (SD 5.3) out of 29 KAP questions correctly. Younger age of mother, higher level of education, higher socioeconomic status, being in paid employment, source of knowledge about first aid and having attended a training course on first aid were significant predictors of better KAP among mothers. PMID:23301356
Eldosoky, R S H
Full Text Available Unplanned teenage pregnancy constitutes an important health problem, whilst contraceptive services are free throughout South Africa and the number of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP) services is increasing. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of secondary sch [...] ool girls towards Contraception in Thulamela Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls, the sample consisting of 273 girls in Grades 10-12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data and analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Findings showed that respondents were aware of different contraceptive methods that can prevent pregnancy. However, most did not have knowledge of the emergency contraceptive, intra-uterine device and female condom. Pressure from male partners, fear of parental reaction to the use of contraceptives, reluctance to use contraceptives, poor contraceptive education and lack of counselling were seen as the main causes of ineffective contraceptive use and non-utilisation. Possible modalities of intervention deal with providing contraceptive counselling and care to empower these school girls to make informed choices on reproductive health.
Dorah U., Ramathuba; Lunic B., Khoza; Mutshinyalo L., Netshikweta.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses, including household pets. Although pet ownership is common in most countries and non-pet owners may have frequent contact with pets, there is limited knowledge of the publics pet contact practices and awareness of zoonotic disease risks from pets. The objective of this study was to characterize the general publics knowledge, attitudes and risks related to pet ownership and animal contact in southern Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. A single adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Seventy five percent (641/853 of individuals approached completed the questionnaire. Pet ownership and contact were common; 64% of participants had a pet in their household and 37% of non-pet owning households had a member with at least weekly animal contact outside the home. Pet ownership was high (55% for households with individuals at higher risk for infections (i.e., Conclusions These results suggest that there is a need for accessible zoonotic disease information for both pet and non-owning households, with additional efforts made by veterinary, human and public health personnel. Immediate educational efforts directed toward households with individuals at higher risk to infections are especially needed.
Stull Jason W
Full Text Available Unplanned teenage pregnancy constitutes an important health problem, whilst contraceptive services are free throughout South Africa and the number of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP services is increasing. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of secondary school girls towards contraception in Thulamela Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls, the sample consisting of 273 girls in Grades 1012. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data and analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Findings showed that respondents were aware of different contraceptive methods that can prevent pregnancy. However, most did not have knowledge of the emergency contraceptive, intra-uterine device and female condom. Pressure from male partners, fear of parental reaction to the use of contraceptives, reluctance to use contraceptives, poor contraceptive education and lack of counselling were seen as the main causes of ineffective contraceptive use and non-utilisation. Possible modalities of intervention deal with providing contraceptive counselling and care to empower these school girls to make informed choices on reproductive health.
Mutshinyalo L. Netshikweta
Full Text Available Objective: The study was aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices of emergency contraception among the college students. Methodology: Data was collected through self administered questionnaires, where by students were instructed what to do in introductory remark. All this was done first before being administered in the class. Then the filled questionnaires were collected. Results: Majority were not using ECP 56(46.7% with a reason of never had need for it, followed by 29 (24.2% and 28 (23.3%, with reasons of partner doesn't like it and religious reasons respectively. Cancer causation was chosen the least, 7 (5.8%. Only 23 individuals had ever used ECP in their life time, of these only 8 (34.8% followed by 6 (26.1% who had a failure in withdrawal. Only 136 individuals were able to respond to ECP using references, where by 75(55.1% said yes. Large number of individuals 114 (85.7% had never use ECP despite of sex exposure and only 19 (14.3% were able to use ECP. Majority of individuals out of 80, 66 (82.55% had a knowledge that ECP prevent pregnancy formation and few had a negative response, 7 (8.8% causes abortion, 5 (6.3% causes cancer. Conclusion: This study revealed that people in our country with much concern to bearing age group, have very little knowledge about emergency contraception. However, they are highly in need of getting it, and they are also in need of knowledge and dispensing units. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(2.000: 142-144
Kavin Nishith Shroff
This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of learners on issues related to water, sanitation and hygiene in selected schools in Vhembe District, South Africa. The methodology relied on a questionnaire, an inspection of sanitary facilities and discussion with the school authorities. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. The study revealed that the level of knowledge about waterborne diseases was relatively high (76.7 ± 1.75%), but knowle...
Jabulani Ray Gumbo; Sibiya, Jerry E.
Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 and Its Prevention: A Cross Sectional Study on Patients Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among l study on Patients Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among patients attending Primary Health Care Clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Full Text Available The World Health Organization confirmed that the novel influenza A, H1N1 as a pandemic on 11 June 2009. After less than three months, 182 countries were affected by the pandemic accounting for about 150,000 infected cases and 3000 mortality. Successful H1N1 pandemic management strategies shaped by making changes in health behavior. The aim of this study was to document patients knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP regarding the pandemic influenza A (H1N1 and its prevention. We performed a cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP on preventive measures of Influenza A (H1N1 involving 322 patients attending Klinik Kesihatan Jinjang, a primary health care clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from May 10 to 26, 2010 using a face to face interview with a structured pre-tested questionnaire. The majority of the respondents were females (56.8%, Malays (43.2% aged between 18-27 years old (28.9%. There were significant association between knowledge on the complication of H1N1, effectiveness of the treatment, preventive measures of Influenza A (H1N1 and race (p<0.001 and educational level (p<0.001. There were also significant associations between attitude scores of these patients and their gender (p=0.03, and educational level (p=0.001. Practice scores related to H1N1 were found to be significantly associated with race (p<0.001 and educational level (p<0.001. The significant associations were observed between knowledge and attitude (p<0.001, knowledge and practices (p<0.001, as well as attitude and practices related to H1N1 (p<0.001. Knowledge has a crucial effect on patients attitude and practice particularly in a pandemic spread. So health policy makers should attempt to disseminate information about preventive measures to community in order to improve their preventive practices during pandemics.
Latiffah Abdul Latiff
Background: Examining the knowledge, attitude, perceptions and practices (KAP) of the medical students regarding antibiotic resistance (ABR) and use can help us in devising suitable educational interventions for them, tailored according to their earlier held knowledge, beliefs, capabilities and experience.
Khan A K, Afzal; Banu, Gausia; K K, Reshma
Background. Breast cancer is a major public health issue and the most commonly diagnosed cancer for women worldwide. Despite lower incidence rates than those living in Western countries, breast cancer incidence among Chinese women has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies reporting the attitudes toward and practices of breast cancer screening among Chinese women. Methods. This cross-sectional study examined the practices, knowledge, and attit...
Scott Chung; Yi-Lan Liu; Tsu-Yin Wu
Full Text Available Purpose: To study the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP towards computer vision syndrome prevalent in Indian ophthalmologists and to assess whether ?computer use by practitioners? had any bearing on the knowledge and practices in computer vision syndrome (CVS. Materials and Methods: A random KAP survey was carried out on 300 Indian ophthalmologists using a 34-point spot-questionnaire in January 2005. Results: All the doctors who responded were aware of CVS. The chief presenting symptoms were eyestrain (97.8%, headache (82.1%, tiredness and burning sensation (79.1%, watering (66.4% and redness (61.2%. Ophthalmologists using computers reported that focusing from distance to near and vice versa ( P =0.006, ?2 test, blurred vision at a distance ( P =0.016, ?2 test and blepharospasm ( P =0.026, ?2 test formed part of the syndrome. The main mode of treatment used was tear substitutes. Half of ophthalmologists (50.7% were not prescribing any spectacles. They did not have any preference for any special type of glasses (68.7% or spectral filters. Computer-users were more likely to prescribe sedatives/ anxiolytics ( P = 0.04, ?2 test, spectacles ( P = 0.02, ?2 test and conscious frequent blinking ( P = 0.003, ?2 test than the non-computer-users. Conclusions: All respondents were aware of CVS. Confusion regarding treatment guidelines was observed in both groups. Computer-using ophthalmologists were more informed of symptoms and diagnostic signs but were misinformed about treatment modalities.
Full Text Available Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students? attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk factors of tobacco consumption. Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study of students from two medical colleges in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was carried out. The questionnaire used was anonymous, self-administered and developed mainly from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. Results: A total of 215 students participated in this study. Forty students (19% indicated that they smoke tobacco at the time of the study. All of them were males, which raise the prevalence among male students to 24%. Tobacco smoking was practiced by males more than females (P value < 0.0001 and by senior more than junior students (< 0.0001. About 94% of the study sample indicated that smoking could cause serious illnesses. About 90% of the students indicated that they would advice their patients to quit smoking in the future and 88% thought that smoking should be banned in public areas. Forty-four students (20% thought that smoking has some beneficial effects, mainly as a coping strategy for stress alleviation. Conclusion: Despite good knowledge about the hazards of tobacco consumption, about 25% of the medical students in this study continue to smoke. The main reported reasons should be addressed urgently by policy-makers. Special efforts should be taken to educate medical students on the effective strategies in managing stress during their study as they thought that tobacco smoking could be used as a coping strategy to face such a stress.
Full Text Available Background: South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. Study Design: A descriptive epidemiological study. Materials and Methods: Both medical and paramedical (n = 428 providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively ( P < 0.05 correlated with their knowledge. Training resulted a significant ( P < 0.05 improvement in knowledge, attitude and dispensing practice of the providers. Knowledge and training combined together contributed 35% to the dispensing practice (R 2 = 0.35. Conclusion: Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills.
Full Text Available AIM: Adverse drug reaction is noxious and unwanted reaction to drugs at dose used in humans for diagnosis, treatment or prophylaxis. Adverse drug reaction monitoring is an area of drug information that has been given little attention yet. Spontaneous reporting is currently the major back bone for the detection of adverse drug reactions. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of adverse drug reaction reporting among health professionals in selected health facilities in southwest Ethiopia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study design was used among health professionals in selected health facilities in January 2010. Prescribers other than physicians, junior pharmacy technicians and also health assistants were excluded. Data was collected using self administered questionnaires from volunteered physicians (Medical interns and above, nurses (Diploma and above and Pharmacy professionals (Diploma and above and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. RESULTS: A total of 82 health professionals were participated in the study. From those 82 participants, only 19 (23.17% and 21 (25.61% knew the existence of national reporting system and a yellow card of adverse drug reaction reporting form. Thirteen (15.85% participants encountered adverse drug reaction in the past 12 months in their clinical activities, but none of them reported to responsible body. Even though the participants knowledge and practice were inadequate, most of the respondents 47 (57.31% agreed that adverse drug reaction reporting is part of duty of them and important to the public in general and to the patient in particular. CONCLUSION: There was no documentation and reporting of adverse drug reaction, which might partly be explained by lack of knowledge and misconceptions about spontaneous reporting. Our study strongly suggests that there is a great need to create awareness and to promote the reporting of adverse drug reaction amongst health professionals, which will lay a solid foundation for healthcare professionals to be diligently involved in quality pharmacovigilance and spontaneous reporting in their future practices. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 397-406
Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo
Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed at determining the knowledge attitude and nutritional practice of female middle school students in district 4 of Isfahan. Methods: This deh1ive study was performed on 120 female students. The data were collected through a three-part self-reported questionnaire (Demographic factors knowledge BASNEF Model. To investigate the nutritional performance the participants were interviewed to recall their previous 24-hour nutrition for three days. Results: The results indicated that 37.5% of students had poor nutritional knowledge and 90% of the students had a poor nutritional practice. The results of the BASNEF part indicated that mean of belief and evaluation of behavioral outcomes was 74.6 attitude toward the behavior was 64.64 normative belief was 72.8 subjective norms was 58.9 enabling factors was 54.2 and behavioral intention was 68.9. Conclusion: A low percentage of students had good nutritional practices and in majority of cases their nutritional practice does not accord with their nutritional knowledge and attitude. These results indicate the necessity of nutritional intervention in female students.
Background Migrant wives have been increasing in some poor rural regions of China and they may bridge HIV transmission across regions. This study aimed to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices among this population in rural Anhui Province, China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted with questionnaire of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and sexual practices between June 2011 and May 2012. A total of 730 migrant wives and 207 local women were enrolled in this study. Unpaired T-test, Chi-square was utilized to compare the difference of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices between migrant wives and local women. Results Around 80% of the migrant wives were from Yunnan, Guizhou, or Sichuan Provinces. The main sources of HIV/AIDS information were TV/radio, posters, and newspapers/periodicals. HIV/AIDS knowledge level among migrant wives was significantly lower than that among local women (e.g. 47.1% vs 57.0% (pChina had a low HIV/AIDS knowledge level and high prevalence of stigma and prejudice and risky sexual behaviors. Local HIV/AIDS prevention programs should target this neglected population.
Zou, Huachun; Dai, Xin; Meng, Xiaojun; Wang, Huadong; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Yanchun; Zhang, Lin; Gao, Yongqing; Tang, Song; Xu, Tan; Sun, Wenjie; Wen, Yufeng
To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers regarding immunization of one year old child at Mawatch Goth, Kemari town, Karachi, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted among mothers having one year old child at Mawatch Goth, Kemari town, Karachi in February 2007. All mothers having less than one year old child were interviewed through a semi structured questionnaire regarding immunization knowledge attitude and practices. The data collected through a questionnaire entered and analyzed by using SPSS program version 15. Majority of the mothers were illiterate, belonging to low-income group and not aware about the name of diseases in EPI Program. Majority (70%) of women started routine immunization of the child. The reasons for missing vaccination schedule were lack of understanding of next appointment, non availability of health staff, mild flu and others reasons like household work. About thirty one percent mothers quit immunization after missing one dose. Health care staff was the main source of information. A positive attitude was reflected from both the parents towards immunization. A significant number stated that vaccination is contraindicated in mild illness of child. The knowledge of our mothers about vaccination was found inadequate with strong positive attitude and limited practices. (author)
Conclusions: The reasons for self-medication were similar among medical and non-medical students, but positive attitude and knowledge toward self-medication was more among the medical students. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 988-994
Full Text Available Introduction: the sexual and reproductive health (SSR is a general state of physical-mental and social well being. Understanding the sexual risk factors that lead to sexually transmitted diseases (ETS, allows the intervention of such factors, in order to improve this state. Methods: study of Knowledge, attitude and practices (CAP with a probabilistic sampling by stratified and multiphase conglomerates in 2812 people between the ages of 10 - 69, located in urban and rural areas; an informed consent and approval was requested, according to the norm. Results: 2241 of the urban population (84% and 426 of the rural population (16% filled out the survey. The first sexual relation among men was at the age of 15 (range 10 - 25 and in women at the age of 17 (range 10 - 38. 92% of the survey is informed in regards to ETS; Only 47 (1.7% received treatment. Conclusion: weaknesses were found in the sexual CAP that fall into a risky sexual experience and increase the risk factor for ETS. It was recommended to expand the action to strengthen the forces and promote the SSR, as well as complete sexual education according the Colombian norms.
Government of India launched PPI in 1995 to eradicate polio by the end of 2000. Despite this 733 cases were reported last year alone. There is a need to understand the reason behind high number of cases being reported even after so many years of programme implementation. This study was therefore conducted to assess knowledge of people about polio and PPI, their attitude and practice towards PPI. This cross sectional study was done in Mangalore city of Karnataka. Only houses having under five children were taken for the study. Data was collected by interviewing any adult member of the household using a pretested questionnaire. Out of 100 participants 99 were literates but only 11 knew the correct mode of transmission of polio. Twenty seven had misconception that polio is a curable disease. Only 40 participants knew that polio drops can be given to children even with mild illnesses. Few (2%) participants felt that PPI causes vaccine overdose and 8 participants thought PPI to be a substitute for routine immunization. This study identified few important misconceptions associated with polio and PPI. This needs to be addressed by large scale awareness campaigns in order to eradicate polio in the near future. PMID:23785873
Joseph, Nitin; Subba, S H; Shashidhar, Kotian M
Background: Understanding of family planning scenario among different societies and communities, which by and large reside in urban slum and rural areas, might prove useful in increasing family planning acceptance by them and decreasing population growth. Objective: To assess the sociodemographic determinants and KAP of family planning among urban slum and rural areas of Lucknow. Study Design: Cross sectional. Setting: Bal Mahila Chikitsalaya, Aliganj, in urban and Primary Health Centre, Bakshi Ka Talaab, in rural area of Lucknow. Study Period: October 2008 to April 2009. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and eightytwo postpartum women (within 42 days of delivery) who came to these health facilities for their child's vaccination were interviewed, by a preformed and pretested schedule. Results: Maximum utilization of family methods were seen among Hindu women, women of age group 30 or more, parity four and more, educational level upto high school and above and those of higher socioeconomic class. Although overall residential area (urban or rural) of women had no influence on the practice of family planning by them and all of them were willing to adopt family planning methods in future, urban women were found to have a higher level of knowledge and attitude toward modern methods of family planning. Only 2.8% were unsure of preferred method for future use. Conclusion: Family planning programs which effectively promotes the use of family planning methods, so that the trend toward increase in population could be arrested is the need of hour. PMID:24479000
Sharma, Vasundhara; Mohan, Uday; Das, Vinita; Awasthi, Shally
To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the health effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and sun exposure among medical university students in Northeast China, 385 subjects were investigated on October 2013 using a self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire. Most of the subjects knew the effects of UVR on skin cancer (95.6%) and sunburn (92.2%), but fewer knew of the eye damage that can result from UVR (27.8% cataract and 3.1% pterygium). Correspondingly, the main purpose of adopting sun protection was considered to be 'preventing sunburn' (55.4%), but 'preventing eye damage' was the least (1.8%). In actual behaviour, the eyes received the least protection as well. Although knowing the effects of UVR on vitamin D synthesis (87.3%), 66.8% of participants never or seldom increased sun exposure. Compared to men, women were more likely to reduce sun exposure (Pskin colours, different sun protection programs should be provided. In China, especially in the North, the public should be educated to moderately increase sun exposure to maintain adequate vitamin D status while also protecting against eye damage from UVR. PMID:25063981
Gao, Qian; Liu, Guangcong; Liu, Yang
The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the general knowledge bases demonstrated by school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the area of genetics, (b) the confidence levels of SLPs in providing services to children and their families with genetic disorders/syndromes, (c) the attitudes of SLPs regarding genetics and communication
Tramontana, G. Michael; Blood, Ingrid M.; Blood, Gordon W.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Oyo is an urban community in Oyo state of south-western Nigeria andit is holoendemic for malaria. Information was collected on the knowledge, attitudes and practices(KAP of inhabitants of Oyo town in relation to malaria.Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 192 households with the aid of self- or researcher-administeredquestionnaires was carried out to identify factors associated with the disease in the area.Results: About 93.2% (n=192 of respondents recognized mosquito bites as the cause of malaria. Asmall proportion of children (13.7% and adults (5.3% received prompt treatment; however, moreadults (65.8% got correct dosage of antimalarials than children (38.7%. About 90% of suspectedmalaria cases in children and adults were first treated at home with local herbs or drugs, purchasedfrom medicine stores. The use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs was scarce as only 16.7% ofhouseholds used them for their children. Other reported malaria prevention methods include theuse of insecticides (79.7% and herbs (44.3%. In all, 17 (8.9% of households did not have screeningnets on their windows and 6.3% of 175 households with screening nets on their windows had rustyand torn nets. The level of education of heads of households was a strong predictor of positivemalaria-related KAP. Window types and environmental hygiene were associated with prevalenceof malaria in households.Interpretation & conclusion: The control of malaria cannot be achieved without full involvementof the affected communities; the available tools for control can only be effective and sustainable ifthe local communities are mobilized and empowered with knowledge. It is suggested that healtheducation campaigns be intensified; chemist shop-keepers and mothers being important targetgroups
A.A. Adedotun, O.A. Morenikeji , A.B. Odaibo
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Parental anxiety and apprehension is related to inadequate knowledge of fever and febrile convulsion. AIMS: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the parents of children with febrile convulsions. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire based study in a tertiary care centre carried over a period of one year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 140 parents of consecutive children presenting with febrile convulsion were enrolled. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square test. RESULTS: 83 parents (59.3% could not recognise the convulsion; 90.7% (127 did not carry out any intervention prior to getting the child to the hospital. The commonest immediate effect of the convulsion on the parents was fear of death (n= 126, 90% followed by insomnia (n= 48, 34.3%, anorexia (n= 46, 32.9%, crying (n= 28, 20% and fear of epilepsy (n= 28, 20%. Fear of brain damage, fear of recurrence and dyspepsia were voiced by the fathers alone (n= 20, cumulative incidence 14.3%. 109 (77.9% parents did not know the fact that the convulsion can occur due to fever. The long-term concerns included fear of epilepsy (n= 64, 45.7% and future recurrence (n= 27, 19.3% in the affected child. For 56 (40% of the parents every subsequent episode of fever was like a nightmare. Only 21 parents (15% had thermometer at home and 28 (20% knew the normal range of body temperature. Correct preventive measures were known only to 41 (29.2%. Awareness of febrile convulsion and the preventive measures was higher in socio-economic grade (P< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The parental fear of fever and febrile convulsion is a major problem with serious negative consequences affecting daily familial life.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have revealed that visiting poultry markets and direct contact with sick or dead poultry are significant risk factors for H5N1 infection, the practices of which could possibly be influenced by people's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs associated with avian influenza (AI. To determine the KAPs associated with AI among the Chinese general population, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in China. Methods We used standardized, structured questionnaires distributed in both an urban area (Shenzhen, Guangdong Province; n = 1,826 and a rural area (Xiuning, Anhui Province; n = 2,572 using the probability proportional to size (PPS sampling technique. Results Approximately three-quarters of participants in both groups requested more information about AI. The preferred source of information for both groups was television. Almost three-quarters of all participants were aware of AI as an infectious disease; the urban group was more aware that it could be transmitted through poultry, that it could be prevented, and was more familiar with the relationship between AI and human infection. The villagers in Xiuning were more concerned than Shenzhen residents about human AI viral infection. Regarding preventative measures, a higher percentage of the urban group used soap for hand washing whereas the rural group preferred water only. Almost half of the participants in both groups had continued to eat poultry after being informed about the disease. Conclusions Our study shows a high degree of awareness of human AI in both urban and rural populations, and could provide scientific support to assist the Chinese government in developing strategies and health-education campaigns to prevent AI infection among the general population.
Full Text Available Background: The school oral health education program is believed to be a cost-effective method for promoting oral health. The KAP (knowledgeattitudepractice model of oral health education is often the foundation of most health education programs. Objectives: To assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and oral health care practices among 11- to 13-year-old children and the association of knowledge with attitude, oral health care practices, and dental caries prevalence. Design: Cross-sectional design, involving 858 children studying in class seven at various schools in the city of Mangalore, India. The children were selected using stratified random sampling method. Prevalence of dental caries was determined using decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT index. A self-administered questionnaire on self-care practices in oral health, knowledge, and attitude toward oral health care was filled by children. The association of different variables with knowledge was analyzed using binary logistic regression analysis. Results: The dental caries prevalence was 59.4%, and 54.5% had low knowledge. They lacked knowledge regarding use of fluoridated toothpaste and did not use them. Children with low knowledge had significantly higher odds of having DMFT ? 1, not using fluoridated toothpaste, and being afraid of going to the dentist due to possible pain. There was no association of other oral health care practices and attitudes with knowledge. Conclusion: Oral health care practices and attitudes are not fully explained by knowledge, and other models of health education need to be considered.
Background: Because human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine rates remain low, we evaluated US school nurses' knowledge, attitudes, perceptions of their role as opinion leaders, and professional practice regarding HPV vaccine, and assessed whether knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of being an opinion leader influenced their professional
Rosen, Brittany L.; Goodson, Patricia; Thompson, Bruce; Wilson, Kelly L.
Food handlers have a prime role to play in food businesses, and that is to guarantee that meals served are hygienic for consumption. Conscious or inadvertent contamination of such food places consumers at risk of suffering from food- borne illnesses. For this reason the study was carried out to document the food hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices of some food handlers, in food businesses in Accra, Ghana and also to determine the microbiological load of the foods sold by the food busin...
George Amponsah Annor; Ekua Anamoaba Baiden
Background: A fundamental determinant to medical drug safety surveillance is voluntary adverse drug reaction [ADR] reporting ; but there exists substantial under-reporting which is the main drawback of the system. The objective of the study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of ADR reporting among doctors in a tertiary health care center.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional questionnaire based study was conducted on doctors in a tertiary health care center. Participants ...
Tanya Mary Thomas; Padmaja Udaykumar; Scandashree K
This collaborative study explored nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the evidence-based practice (EBP) process. It also explored the nurses' perceptions of the barriers and facilitators that they face related to fully using EBP in the workplace. Findings will afford the healthcare system the information to develop, plan, and restructure the educational services to meet the demand of enhancing EBP strategies and utilization. PMID:25790357
Williamson, Kathleen M; Almaskari, Mohammed; Lester, Zanet; Maguire, Deborah
Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its complications are very common all over the world as well as in India. Although pharmacological measures are very useful, nonpharmacological measures can give promising results in its management. Objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of nonpharmacological measures to control symptoms in patients with GERD. Materials and Methods: An interview of total 100 patients suffering from GERD not on pharmacologic...
Abstract Background Avian influenza is a considerable threat to global public health. Prevention and control depend on awareness and protective behaviours of the general population as well as high risk-groups. This study aims to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to avian influenza among poultry workers in Nepal. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional study design, using a structured questionnaire administered in face-to-face interviews with 96 poultry workers ag...
Neupane Dinesh; Khanal Vishnu; Ghimire Kamal; Aro Arja R; Leppin Anja
Background: Sports specific dental injuries are seen to occur frequently among children and young athletes. Dental injury is a distressing event often causing psychological as well as physical problems. The risk of children getting dental injuries during sports activities can be minimized by using a mouth guard and other oro-facial protective devices. The aim of this study is to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices of physical instructors in Bangalore, regar...
Neeraja, G.; Bharadwaj, Srivats; Shah, Kinjal; Subramaniam, Priya
A research was carried out to determine the factors affecting knowledge, attitude and practice of secnodary school girls concerning Iron deficiency anemia, in Quazvin city. The study population consists of 218 Students who were randomly selected form ten secondary schools in a selected area. Aquestionnaire was prepared to collect the data and statistical tests of X2 and regression were employed to analyse the data. The results of the study indicated that 57.3 percent of students had poor know...
This study sought to examine the knowledge attitudes and practices of leaders in the tourism industry with regards to the possible contributions solar energy could provide to sustainable tourism development in Zimbabwe. This is in light of the fact that, this form of renewable energy could be harnessed for the benefit of tourism development throughout the country in view of the chronic shortages of electricity. An accidental sample of 25 leaders in the tourism industry running operati...
Alick Mhizha; Golden Mandebvu; Shepherd Nyaruwata; Zengeni, Dorothy F.
Objectives: To assess knowledge, attitude and practices about needle stick Injuries in health care workers. Study type, settings and duration: Hospital based study carried out at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, from August 2010 to November 2010. Subjects and Methods: A self administered 19 items questionnaire was prepared which contained information about needle stick injuries, its awareness, frequency of injury and the protocols that were followed after an injury had occurred. These questionnaires were given to 500 health care workers working in different wards and theaters of the hospital after obtaining their informed written consent. The health care workers included doctors, nurses and paramedical staff of Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad. The data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 15. Results: A total of 500 health care workers filled the questionnaire and returned it. Out of these 416(83.2%) reported ever experiencing needle stick injuries in their professional life. Health care workers working in Emergency department were most frequently affected (65%) followed by those working in different wards (27%) and operation theatre (8%). Most (93.6%) workers had knowledge about needle stick injuries and only 6.4% were not aware of it. Needle stick injury occurred from a brand new (unused) syringe in 51.2% cases, while in 32.8% cases, the needle caused an injury after it had been used for an injection. In 5% cases, injury ocd for an injection. In 5% cases, injury occurred with blood stained needles. The commonest reasons for needle injury in stick injuries were heavy work load (36.8%) followed by hasty work (33.6%) and needle recapping (18.6%). About 66% health care workers were already vaccinated against hepatitis B. Only 13% workers followed universal guidelines of needle stick injuries and no case was reported to hospital authorities. Conclusions: Health care workers had inadequate knowledge about the risk associated with needle stick injuries and do not follow standard preventive measures. Policy message: A standard protocol regarding the training and compliance to follow preventive measures should be followed in all health care institutions. (author)
Abstract Background Several public health strategic interventions are required for effective prevention and control of avian influenza (AI) and it is necessary to create a communication plan to keep families adequately informed on how to avoid or reduce exposure. This investigation determined the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors relating to AI among an adult population in Italy. Methods From December 2005 to February 2006 a random sample of 1020 adults received a questionnaire about socio-...
Marinelli Paolo; Albano Luciana; Abbate Rossella; Di Giuseppe Gabriella; Angelillo Italo F.
Abstract Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in low-and-middle income countries. Young and unmarried women constitute a high risk group for unsafe abortions. It has been estimated that widespread use of emergency contraception may significantly reduce the number of abortion-related morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and experiences on emergency contraceptive pills by the university students in Cameroon in order t...
Kouam Luc; Wiysonge Charles; Fomulu Nelson; Ngassa Pius; Kongnyuy Eugene J; Doh Anderson S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Gemstones have been in use as part of alternative and complementary medicine for years. However, our understanding of the perceived healing powers of gemstones is limited. An extensive literature search revealed that there is a dearth of validated information on this subject. This study was therefore undertaken to explore the various aspects of the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the public towards gemstone therapeutics. Methods A survey was performed in the Community Health Centre of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pakistan. Data collection was done via a face-to-face interview based on a structured, pre-tested questionnaire. Participants included all willing persons between 1875 years of age approached prior to their appointments at the Community Health Centre. Results The survey response rate was 86% (400/465. More than half (63% of the study population was aware of the use of gemstone therapy. One hundred fifty-six individuals believed that gemstone use impacts health. Of this group, 39% believed that gemstone use increases physical strength. 62% believed that gemstone use is based on superstitious beliefs, whereas 28% opined that it is based on religious beliefs. 38% had used gemstones therapeutics formerly, while 24% were current users. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that age status and education status were significant (p Conclusion More than half of our sample population is aware of the use of the gemstones for their various effects. Willingness to use gemstones is associated with the beliefs about the impact of gemstone therapy on health. Friends and family seem to be the major role players influencing people's willingness to use gemstones. CAM modalities should be recognized and considered as an important therapeutic option. We feel that gemstone therapy is a relatively unexplored area and more studies should, therefore, be conducted to gather more validated information on the subject.
To assess the status of, and factors associated with, residents knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to air pollution and respiratory health of children in Shanghai, we conducted a cross-sectional survey. Demographic factors associated with residents knowledge were identified by multiple logistic regressions. The questionnaires were completed by 972 participants, half from the Shanghai Children Hospital and the other half from the Jiading communities. Half of the participants scores of knowledge and attitudes were equal or greater than 8.0 on a 9-point scale, over 75% of respondents practice scores were equal to or less than 4.0. Our studies demonstrated a significant difference of average knowledge scores between the two groups (t = 1.27, p air quality and their perception of the governments efforts to alleviate it. The hospital and community groups also showed significant differences in practices geared towards protecting their childrens health. Nearly 90% of the respondents agreed that improving air quality is the responsibility of every citizen, and the joint action of governments and all citizens should be utilized for enhanced control. In addition, more resources should be allocated towards providing citizens with appropriate practices to help lessen the effects of poor air quality. PMID:25664694
Wang, Rui; Yang, Yingying; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong; Wu, Jinyi; Wang, Keran; Maddock, Jay E.; Lu, Yuanan
To assess the status of, and factors associated with, residents' knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) related to air pollution and respiratory health of children in Shanghai, we conducted a cross-sectional survey. Demographic factors associated with residents' knowledge were identified by multiple logistic regressions. The questionnaires were completed by 972 participants, half from the Shanghai Children Hospital and the other half from the Jiading communities. Half of the participants' scores of knowledge and attitudes were equal or greater than 8.0 on a 9-point scale, over 75% of respondents' practice scores were equal to or less than 4.0. Our studies demonstrated a significant difference of average knowledge scores between the two groups (t = 1.27, p air quality and their perception of the government's efforts to alleviate it. The hospital and community groups also showed significant differences in practices geared towards protecting their children's health. Nearly 90% of the respondents agreed that improving air quality is the responsibility of every citizen, and the joint action of governments and all citizens should be utilized for enhanced control. In addition, more resources should be allocated towards providing citizens with appropriate practices to help lessen the effects of poor air quality. PMID:25664694
Wang, Rui; Yang, Yingying; Chen, Renjie; Kan, Haidong; Wu, Jinyi; Wang, Keran; Maddock, Jay E; Lu, Yuanan
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B (HB is a serious global public health problem. This study aims to evaluate Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP towards Hepatitis B (HB among healthy population of Quetta city, Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional, descriptive study was undertaken. One thousand healthy individuals (aged 18 years and above were approached for the study. KAP towards HB was assessed by using a pre validated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used for elaborating patients demographic characteristics. Inferential statistics (MannWhitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test were used for comparison while Spearmans rho correlation was used to identify association between the study variables. All analyses were performed using SPSS 16.0. Results Out of 1000 distributed questionnaires, 780 were returned with a response rate of 78.0%. Four hundred and twenty (53.8% respondents were male with mean age of 32.76?±?9.40 year. Two hundred and eight (26.7% had intermediate level of education and 354 (45.4% were unemployed. Mean scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 8.74?±?2.7, 3.72?±?1.2 and 2.76?±?1.1 respectively. Significant and positive linear correlations between knowledge-attitude (r?=?0.296, p? Conclusion Results from the current study heighted poor KAP of healthy population towards HB. The positive linear correlations reaffirms that better knowledge can lead to positive attitude and subsequently in good practices. This will further help in prevention and management of HB. Therefore, extensive health educational campaign should be provided to general population and especially to the residents of rural areas.
ul Haq Noman
Full Text Available Background: This study examined the practices, knowledge, attitudes, and the reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure of HIV-positive patients with regard to the disclosure of HIV results at Betesda Clinic in Windhoek, Namibia.Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine knowledge, attitudes, and practices of HIV-positive patients regarding the disclosure of HIV status at Betesda Clinic in Namibia, and to determine the reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure.Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study and 263 HIV-positive patients were enrolled in the study.Results: Analyses revealed that knowledge on disclosure was good, with 68% who thought it was important. The majority (73% have disclosed and 60% disclosed within 1 week of receiving their results. The most common reasons for disclosure were that 32% needed help, 25% wanted his or her partner to go for testing, and 20% wanted to let relatives know. Reasons for non-disclosure were mainly the fear of gossip (79%. Seventy-three per cent had disclosed to their partners, and 23% had disclosed to more than one person. Peoples reactions were supportive in 43%, whereas 29% understood, 9% accepted and 6% were angry. Upon disclosure 40% received help, 24% of partners were tested, 23% received psychological support and 5% were stigmatised. Disclosure was higher amongst the married and cohabitating.Conclusion: The attitude was positive with regard to knowledge of disclosure, with most participants thinking that disclosure was important and good. The attitudes and actual practices of disclosure were encouraging; however, people are disclosing only to trustedindividuals in the society and the fear of stigma is still present although the actual stigma was very low.
CBPP is an important transboundary disease in sub-Saharan Africa whose control is urgent. Participatory data collection involving 52 focus group discussions in 37 village clusters and key informant interviews, a cross-sectional study involving 232 households and a post-vaccination follow up involving 203 households was carried out in 2006-2007 in Narok South district of Kenya. This was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices (KAPP) associated with control of CBPP as well as the adverse post-vaccination reactions in animals in order to advice the control policy. The community perceived trans-boundary CBPP threat to their cattle. They had traditional disease coping mechanisms and were conversant with CBPP prevention and control with 49.8% (95%CI: 42.8-56.7%) giving priority to CBPP control. However, 12.9% (95%CI: 9.0-18.1%) of pastoralists had no knowledge of any prevention method and 10.0% (95%CI: 6.5-14.7%) would not know what to do or would do nothing in the event of an outbreak. Although 43.5% (95%CI: 37.1-50.2%) of pastoralists were treating CBPP cases with antimicrobials, 62.5% (95%CI: 52.1-71.7%) of them doubted the effectiveness of the treatments. Pastoralists perceived vaccination to be the solution to CBPP but vaccination was irregular due to unavailability of the vaccine. Vaccination was mainly to control outbreaks rather than preventive and exhibited adverse post-vaccination reactions among 70.4% (95%CI: 63.6-76.5%) of herds and 3.8% (95%CI: 3.5-4.2%) of animals. Consequently, nearly 25.2% (95%CI: 18.5-33.2%) of pastoralists may resist subsequent vaccinations against CBPP. Pastoralists preferred CBPP vaccination at certain times of the year and that it is combined with other vaccinations. In conclusion, pastoralists were not fully aware of the preventive measures and interventions and post-vaccination reactions may discourage subsequent CBPP vaccinations. Consequently there is need for monitoring and management of post vaccination reactions and awareness creation on CBPP prevention and interventions and their merits and demerits. CBPP vaccine was largely unavailable to the pastoralists and the preference of the pastoralists was for vaccination at specified times and vaccine combinations which makes it necessary to avail the vaccine in conformity with the pastoralists preferences. In addition, planning vaccinations should involve pastoralists and neighbouring countries. As the results cannot be generalized, further studies on CBPP control methods and their effectiveness are recommended. PMID:24768437
Kairu-Wanyoike, S W; Kiara, H; Heffernan, C; Kaitibie, S; Gitau, G K; McKeever, D; Taylor, N M
Full Text Available Objectives: To study the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about the causes and the treatment of epilepsy in rural North West India in the year 2000 and, again after 4 years, to study the effects of health education and regular treatment on the same parameters. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted twice, in 2000 and 2004. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographic profile, seizure characteristics, knowledge regarding cause of epilepsy, details of alternative forms of treatment taken, and attitude towards medical treatment. Results: Generalized seizures were the most common (84% type of seizure, followed by partial seizures (9.4%. The most common antiepileptic drug used was phenytoin, followed by phenobarbitone. Ayurvedic treatment was the most common alternative therapy used. Evil spirits were believed to be the cause of the disease by 26.4% of the patients in 2000, but only in 11.2% in 2004. Faith in the curative power of drugs increased from 18% in 2000 to 59% in the year 2004. Polytherapy was being resorted to by 60% of patients in 2000; this was reduced to 45.6% in 2004. Conclusion: Positive attitude changes over the four years from 2000 to 2004 confirm the need for effective health education that can remove misconcepts regarding disease.
Objective: To assess the attitude to, the knowledge and practice of contraception and medical abortion in women attending the family planning clinic at the mvj medical college , hosakote , Bangalore, India.
K M, Umashankar; M N, Dharmavijaya; Kumar D E, Jayanta; K, Kala; Nagure, Abed Gulab; Ramadevi,
As part of a knowledge, attitudes, practices and empowerment (KAPE) project implemented by the United Nations University Institute for Water, Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH) in the Lake Victoria Basin, this paper reports findings from a photovoice study with women in Usoma, a lakeshore community in Western Kenya. Drawing on ecosocial and political ecology theory, findings reveal that access to water, perceptions and practices were shaped by ecological and broader structural factors. Further, collective actions to improve access were constrained by institutional and economic structures, thus (re)enforcing inequalities. PMID:25576836
Bisung, Elijah; Elliott, Susan J; Abudho, Bernard; Schuster-Wallace, Corinne J; Karanja, Diana M
Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding medical law and ethics among doctors of a medical unit in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Lahore. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Methodology: A three part self - administered structured questionnaire designed to test the knowledge and practices regarding medical law and ethics was distributed among doctors in a medical unit in Mayo Hospital, Lahore during September - October, 2012. Results: The 52 respondent doctors included in the study comprised of 20 (38.5%) house officers, 22 (42.3%) postgraduate residents and 10 (19.2%) consultants. In keeping with the Pakistan Medical and Den-tal Council code of ethics, the correct responses of house officers, postgraduate residents and consultants regarding knowledge of medical law and ethics were respectively 50%, 27.3% and 10% for patient's autonomy, 40%, 36.4% and 10% for adhering to patient's wishes, 10%, 63.6% and 50% for breaching confidentiality, 35%, 36.4% and 0% for informed consent, 10%, 22.7% and 10% for doing best regardless of patient's opinion, 5%, 31.8% and 10% for informing patient's relatives, 15%, 4.5% and 0% for treating violent patients. The practical application part of the questionnaire was a general reflection of the knowledge and attitudes. Conclusion: Most of the doctors were poorly acquainted with PMDC code of ethics. (author)
Introduction Inadequate knowledge, negative attitudes and risky practices are major hindrances to preventing the spread of HIV. This study aimed to assess HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs) of high school students in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR). Methods A cross-sectional study on unmarried male students aged between 16 and 19 years old was undertaken in 2010 to evaluate their KAPs. We selected 300 eligible grade VII students through systematic random sampling from different high schools in one province of Lao PDR. Results The majority of students surveyed were aware that HIV can be transmitted by sexual intercourse (97.7%), from mother to child (88.3%) and through sharing needles or syringes (92.0%). Misconceptions about transmission of HIV were observed among 59.3% to 74.3% of respondents. Positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS were observed among 55.7% of respondents. Nearly half of the surveyed students (45.3%) said that they would be willing to continue studying in a school with HIV-positive friends, and 124 (41.3%) said they would continue attending a school with HIV-positive teachers. Ninety-four (31.3%) students had a history of sexual intercourse, and 70.2% of these students had used a condom. However, only 43.9% said they used condoms consistently. Students with medium and high levels of knowledge were 4.3 (95% CI=2.19.0, P<0.001) and 13.3 (95% CI=6.527.4, P<0.001) times more likely to display positive attitudes towards people living with HIV. Similarly, safe practices related to safe sex were also observed among students with medium (OR=2.8, 95% CI=0.98.8, P=0.069) and high levels of knowledge (OR=1.9, 95% CI=0.66.2, P=0.284). More than three-quarters of students mentioned television and radio as major sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Conclusions Despite adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS among the school students, misconceptions about routes of transmission were found. Negative attitudes to HIV/AIDS and risky practices were also present. Educational programmes with specific interventions are recommended to increase KAPs and to prevent new HIV infections among students in Lao PDR. PMID:23481130
Thanavanh, Bounbouly; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md.; Kasuya, Hideki; Sakamoto, Junichi
Full Text Available Introduction: Inadequate knowledge, negative attitudes and risky practices are major hindrances to preventing the spread of HIV. This study aimed to assess HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs of high school students in Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR. Methods: A cross-sectional study on unmarried male students aged between 16 and 19 years old was undertaken in 2010 to evaluate their KAPs. We selected 300 eligible grade VII students through systematic random sampling from different high schools in one province of Lao PDR. Results: The majority of students surveyed were aware that HIV can be transmitted by sexual intercourse (97.7%, from mother to child (88.3% and through sharing needles or syringes (92.0%. Misconceptions about transmission of HIV were observed among 59.3% to 74.3% of respondents. Positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS were observed among 55.7% of respondents. Nearly half of the surveyed students (45.3% said that they would be willing to continue studying in a school with HIV-positive friends, and 124 (41.3% said they would continue attending a school with HIV-positive teachers. Ninety-four (31.3% students had a history of sexual intercourse, and 70.2% of these students had used a condom. However, only 43.9% said they used condoms consistently. Students with medium and high levels of knowledge were 4.3 (95% CI=2.19.0, P<0.001 and 13.3 (95% CI=6.527.4, P<0.001 times more likely to display positive attitudes towards people living with HIV. Similarly, safe practices related to safe sex were also observed among students with medium (OR=2.8, 95% CI=0.98.8, P=0.069 and high levels of knowledge (OR=1.9, 95% CI=0.66.2, P=0.284. More than three-quarters of students mentioned television and radio as major sources of information on HIV/AIDS. Conclusions: Despite adequate knowledge about HIV/AIDS among the school students, misconceptions about routes of transmission were found. Negative attitudes to HIV/AIDS and risky practices were also present. Educational programmes with specific interventions are recommended to increase KAPs and to prevent new HIV infections among students in Lao PDR.
The use of synthetic pesticides in tropical countries has increased over the years, following the intensification of agriculture. However, awareness among farmers of the importance of protecting themselves from hazards associated with pesticide application is still lacking, especially in Indonesia. This paper reports results of an inventory on knowledge and attitudes regarding pesticide use by melon farmers of a village in Central Java, Indonesia. The importance of using personal protective equipment such as hats, masks, goggles, boots, and gloves on agricultural land is known and well understood by the farmers. However, in practice, only 3.8 % were wearing glasses and 1.9 % were using boots. In fact, the masks used only consisted of a part of their shirt tied around the mouth. The farmers were not wearing long pants and shirts with long sleeves and used the same clothes for more than 1 day without washing. Almost no farmers used personal protective equipment that was standard, in good condition, and complete. Based on the results of statistical analysis, no significant relationship was found between knowledge and attitude on the required practices on the one hand and the use of personal protective equipment in practice on the other hand. This shows that improved knowledge and attitudes are not enough to change the behavior of farmers to work in a healthy and safe way. The gap between knowledge and practice needs to be bridged by a more interactive and participatory training model. It is therefore of paramount importance to develop a special toolkit for pesticide risk reduction which is developed in a participatory manner involving the farmers as the main actors through a series of focus group discussions and field simulations. PMID:25716528
Yuantari, Maria G C; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Van Straalen, Nico M; Widianarko, Budi; Sunoko, Henna R; Shobib, Muhammad N
Abstract Background Effective influenza pandemic management requires understanding of the factors influencing behavioral changes. We aim to determine the differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices in various different cohorts and explore the pertinent factors that influenced behavior in tropical Singapore. Methods We performed a cross-sectional knowledge, attitudes and practices survey in the Singapore military from mid-August to early-October 2009, among 3054 personnel in four exposur...
Lee Vernon J; Yap Jonathan; Yau Teng; Ng Tze; Tor Phern-Chern
Abstract Background Muleba district in North-western Tanzania has experienced malaria epidemics in recent years. Community knowledge, attitudes and practices are important in enhancing disease control interventions. This study investigated determinants of malaria epidemics in the study area in relation to household knowledge, attitudes and practice on malaria. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey involving 504 study participants was conducted between April and June 2007 using a st...
Kishamawe Coleman; Malima Robert; Kaatano Godfrey M; Nnko Soori E; Mwanga Joseph R; Mashauri Fabian; Kinung'hi Safari M; Magesa Stephen; Eg, Mboera Leonard
Evidence-based practice (EBP) in the clinical setting is recognized as an approach that leads to improved patient outcomes. Nurse educators (NEs), clinical coaches (CCs) and nurse specialists are in key positions to promote and facilitate EBP within clinical settings and have opportunities to advance practice. Therefore, it is important to understand their perceptions of factors promoting EBP and perceived barriers in facilitating EBP in clinical settings, before developing educational programmes. This paper reports findings from a study that aimed to explore NEs' , CCs' and nurse specialists' knowledge, skills and attitudes associated with EBP. This study used a questionnaire containing quantitative and a small number of qualitative questions to capture data collected from NEs, CCs and nurse specialists working at a tertiary health-care facility in Victoria, Australia. The questionnaire was distributed to a total of 435 people, of whom 135 responded (31%). Findings revealed that the three senior nurse groups relied heavily on personal experience, organizational policies and protocols as formal sources of knowledge. Furthermore, they had positive attitudes towards EBP. However, participants demonstrated lack of knowledge and skills in appraising and utilizing evidence into practice. They indicated a desire to seek educational opportunities to upskill themselves in the process of EBP. PMID:25355492
Malik, Gulzar; McKenna, Lisa; Plummer, Virginia
Full Text Available This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of learners on issues related to water, sanitation and hygiene in selected schools in Vhembe District, South Africa. The methodology relied on a questionnaire, an inspection of sanitary facilities and discussion with the school authorities. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. The study revealed that the level of knowledge about waterborne diseases was relatively high (76.7 ± 1.75%, but knowledge on transmission routes was inadequate. The majority of the respondents had no knowledge when it comes to water-based diseases and their prevention (78.4 ± 1.71%.The attitude and practice on hygiene was also found to be high (91.40 ± 1.16%. Some schools from the urban area had proper handwashing facilities, but there was no soap available. The borehole water quality for rural schools appeared clear, but the microbial quality was unknown. The water supply and sanitation facilities were inadequate in rural schools, with no handwashing areas and no sanitary bins for girls. Some schools had toilets with broken doors which did not offer privacy. The only water tap, located at the centre of the school premises, was not enough for the whole school community.
Jabulani Ray Gumbo
Being key health care professional, physicians, pharmacist and nurses have immense responsibility in reporting adverse drug reaction (ADR). Therefore, the study objective was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) toward pharmacovigilance and ADRs of postgraduate students of our institute. A cross-sectional questionnaires based study was carried out in postgraduate students of the clinical department at tertiary care hospital attached with Govt. Medical College, Vadodara, Gujarat (India). A total of 22 questionnaires about KAP toward ADRs and pharmacovigilance were developed and peer viewed of all questionnaires by expert faculties from our institute. We were contacted directly to postgraduate students of respective clinical department; questionnaires were distributed and taken back after 30 min. The filled KAP questionnaires were analyzed in question wise and their percentage value was calculated by using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Postgraduate residents (n = 101) from different clinical departments were enrolled in the study. Average 34.83% correct and 64.08% incorrect knowledge about ADRs and pharmacovigilance and an average 90.76% students were agreed to reporting ADRs is necessary, mandatory and increased patient's safety. Only 7.92% of postgraduate doctors were reported ADR at institute or ADR reporting center. We concluded that postgraduate students have a better attitude toward reporting ADRs, but have lack of knowledge and poor practices of ADRs. The majority of postgraduate students were felt ADR reporting and monitoring is very important, but few had ever reported ADRs because of lack of sensitization and knowledge of pharmacovigilance and ADR. PMID:25709967
Upadhyaya, Het B.; Vora, Mukeshkumar B.; Nagar, Jatin G.; Patel, Pruthvish B.
Being key health care professional, physicians, pharmacist and nurses have immense responsibility in reporting adverse drug reaction (ADR). Therefore, the study objective was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) toward pharmacovigilance and ADRs of postgraduate students of our institute. A cross-sectional questionnaires based study was carried out in postgraduate students of the clinical department at tertiary care hospital attached with Govt. Medical College, Vadodara, Gujarat (India). A total of 22 questionnaires about KAP toward ADRs and pharmacovigilance were developed and peer viewed of all questionnaires by expert faculties from our institute. We were contacted directly to postgraduate students of respective clinical department; questionnaires were distributed and taken back after 30 min. The filled KAP questionnaires were analyzed in question wise and their percentage value was calculated by using Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Postgraduate residents (n = 101) from different clinical departments were enrolled in the study. Average 34.83% correct and 64.08% incorrect knowledge about ADRs and pharmacovigilance and an average 90.76% students were agreed to reporting ADRs is necessary, mandatory and increased patient's safety. Only 7.92% of postgraduate doctors were reported ADR at institute or ADR reporting center. We concluded that postgraduate students have a better attitude toward reporting ADRs, but have lack of knowledge and poor practices of ADRs. The majority of postgraduate students were felt ADR reporting and monitoring is very important, but few had ever reported ADRs because of lack of sensitization and knowledge of pharmacovigilance and ADR. PMID:25709967
Upadhyaya, Het B; Vora, Mukeshkumar B; Nagar, Jatin G; Patel, Pruthvish B
This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of learners on issues related to water, sanitation and hygiene in selected schools in Vhembe District, South Africa. The methodology relied on a questionnaire, an inspection of sanitary facilities and discussion with the school authorities. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. The study revealed that the level of knowledge about waterborne diseases was relatively high (76.7 ± 1.75%), but knowledge on transmission routes was inadequate. The majority of the respondents had no knowledge when it comes to water-based diseases and their prevention (78.4 ± 1.71%).The attitude and practice on hygiene was also found to be high (91.40 ± 1.16%). Some schools from the urban area had proper handwashing facilities, but there was no soap available. The borehole water quality for rural schools appeared clear, but the microbial quality was unknown. The water supply and sanitation facilities were inadequate in rural schools, with no handwashing areas and no sanitary bins for girls. Some schools had toilets with broken doors which did not offer privacy. The only water tap, located at the centre of the school premises, was not enough for the whole school community. PMID:23736657
Sibiya, Jerry E; Gumbo, Jabulani Ray
Studies indicate that women in China are not frequently carrying out breast cancer prevention practices. This is assumed to be due to lack of knowledge and/or lack of personalized instruction. This study was to explore the effect of breast cancer health education on women's knowledge and attitudes on breast cancer and breast self-examination, behavior related to breast self-examination among women living in the catchment area of a community health center. A pretest and posttest assessment of a 1-h health education session was conducted with 38 participants. A telephone reminder and questionnaires were administered at 1 and 3 months after the education. Three instruments were administered at each contact to assess the knowledge and attitudes on breast cancer and behavior related to breast self-examination and accuracy of breast self-examination before education, 1- and 3-month follow-ups after education. The findings showed the incidence of self-examination, and scores on the accuracy of breast self-examination practice were significantly increased immediately following the intervention and at 1- and 3-month follow-ups. Furthermore, the scores of the health belief regarding perceived benefits, perceived competency, and perceived seriousness significantly improved. The current findings imply community-based intervention could be used to teach women about the general knowledge of breast cancer and how to perform breast self-examination correctly, especially for women who are lack of such information. PMID:24504664
Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Hu, Xiaoyan
Full Text Available Food handlers have a prime role to play in food businesses, and that is to guarantee that meals served are hygienic for consumption. Conscious or inadvertent contamination of such food places consumers at risk of suffering from food- borne illnesses. For this reason the study was carried out to document the food hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices of some food handlers, in food businesses in Accra, Ghana and also to determine the microbiological load of the foods sold by the food businesses. The study targeted food handlers in the hotel industry. The study involved a field survey, followed by a laboratory assessment of microbiological status of food samples obtained from the sampled hotels. Cross tabulations and chi squared tests (5% significance level as well as frequency distributions were used to analyze the data obtained from the field survey. Data obtained from the laboratory assessment were also compared to standard values of microbiological counts. Majority of respondents were between the ages of 30 - 40 years (42.9% with tertiary or post secondary education. Food hygiene knowledge and attitudes were satisfactory, however its practice was challenging. Gender, age and educational level of respondents did not influence their food hygiene practices. Microbial counts of all food samples was generally high ranging from 1.2 × 105 CFU/g to 1.1 × 108 CFU /g. The total coliform counts of foods ranged from 1.0 × 104 CFU/g to 5.0 × 106 CFU/g, and these were obtained from three out of the five hotel kitchens sampled. The study concluded that, the food hygiene knowledge and attitudes of the food handlers did not result in efficient food hygiene practices.
George Amponsah Annor
Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) and Its Prevention: A Cross Sectional Study on Patients Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among l study on Patients Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among patients attending Primary Health Care Clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
The World Health Organization confirmed that the novel influenza A, H1N1 as a pandemic on 11 June 2009. After less than three months, 182 countries were affected by the pandemic accounting for about 150,000 infected cases and 3000 mortality. Successful H1N1 pandemic management strategies shaped by making changes in health behavior. The aim of this study was to document patients knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) and its prevention. We perf...
Latiffah Abdul Latiff; Saadat Parhizkar; Huda Zainuddin; Chun, Goh M.; Rahiman, Mohammad Ali A.; Ramli, Nur Liyana N.; Yun, Kerk L.
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever (DF) is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. In this decade it has expanded to new countries and from urban to rural areas. Nepal was regarded DF free until 2004. Since then dengue virus (DENV) has rapidly expanded its range even in mountain regions of Nepal, and major outbreaks occurred in 2006 and 2010. However, no data on the local knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of DF in Nepal exist although such information is required for ...
Dhimal, Meghnath; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Dhimal, Mandira Lamichhane; Gautam, Ishan; Singh, Shanker Pratap; Bhusal, Chop Lal; Kuch, Ulrich
Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Determinar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas con respecto a la prueba de Papanicolaou (Pap); hallar la asociación entre la edad y grado de instrucción frente a dichas variables y describir las características sobre la práctica periódica del Pap. Diseño: Analítico y transversal. Lug [...] ar: Hospital Nacional Docente Madre-Niño San Bartolomé. Pacientes: Mujeres en edad fértil de consultorios externos. Intervenciones: Cuestionario estructurado, auto-desarrollado, durante noviembre-2005 a enero-2006. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó: X2, t student, Anova y OR. Principales medidas de resultados: Nivel de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en mujeres sobre el Pap, y asociaciones y características sobre su práctica periódica. Resultados: De 501 encuestadas, en 63% se encontró nivel bajo de conocimiento, en 66% una actitud desfavorable y en 71% una práctica incorrecta sobre la prueba de Papanicolaou; se obtuvo un OR = 1,45 (IC = 0,98 a 2,16) entre el nivel de conocimiento y la práctica correcta; la difusión por los medios de comunicación sobre el Pap fue 6,2% y la mayor barrera para no tener una práctica periódica del Pap fue el género masculino del ejecutor (34,2%). Conclusiones: Los niveles de conocimiento, actitudes y prácticas, en nuestra población, son bajos. El mayor nivel de conocimiento no está relacionado con la práctica correcta del Pap. Existe poca difusión sobre el Pap por los medios de comunicación y las limitantes a que las mujeres se tomen el Pap son principalmente psicológicas. Abstract in english Objetives: To determine the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices with respect to the Papanicolaou cervical smear test (Pap), to find association between age and learning level, and to describe the characteristics on Paps periodic practice. Design: Analytical and cross-sectional study. Settin [...] g: San Bartolome Mother and Child National Teaching Hospital. Patients: Women in fertile age. Interventions: Structured questionnaire, self-developed, from November 2005 through January 2006. X2, t student, Anova and OR were used for statistical analysis. Main outcome measures: Level of knowledge, attitudes and practices on Papanicolaou smear, as well as associations and characteristics on its periodical practice. Results: Of 501 surveys, 63% showed low level of knowledge, 66% had an unfavorable attitude, and 71% an incorrect practice of Pap smear; OR between knowledge level and correct practice was 1,45 (IC = 0,98 - 2,16). Mass media information on Pap smear was 6,2% and the greater barrier to having a Pap smear periodic practice was the performers gender (masculine) (34,2%). Conclusions: Level of knowledge, attitudes and practices in our population are low. The greater level of Pap knowledge is not related to correct practice. There is poor diffusion on Pap smear by the mass media. Observations on not having a Pap periodic practice are mainly psychological.
Fernando, Bazán; Margarita, Posso; César, Gutiérrez.
Full Text Available Background: Recent raise in litigation againsthealthcare practitioners is definitely an issueof immediate concern and may reflect an in-crease in unethical practices by them. Profes-sional relations between physicians and nursesmay have differences with respect to their atti-tudes towards patient-care. Aim and Objec-tives: To assess the knowledge of, and attitudesto healthcare ethics among north Indian physi-cians and nurses. Material and Methods: Thepresent cross sectional study was carried outamong 298 physicians and 107 nurses of threemedical colleges of northern India in the monthof July-August 2011 using pretested self ad-ministered questionnaire. Data analysis wasdone using SPSS version 20. Result and Con-clusion: There was a statistically significantdifference between the opinion of physiciansand nurses with respect to adherence to confi-dentiality, paternalistic attitude of doctors (doc-tors should do their best for the patient irre-spective of the patient?s opinion, informingclose relatives of a patients for consent proce-dures. The study highlighted gaps in the knowl-edge about practical aspects of health care eth-ics among physicians and nurses which theyencounter in day to day practice at workplace.Measures of workplace education like sensiti-zation workshops, CME?s, conferences onhealth care ethics would assist in bridging thisgap to a certain extent.
The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12-19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; PAdvertisements were the main source of information on energy drinks (43%). The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%), to 'try them' (51.9%) and 'to get energy' (43%), albeit with significant differences between genders (Peffects related to high consumption of energy drinks. PMID:24576364
Musaiger, Abdulrahman; Zagzoog, Nisreen
There have been several studies of the diffusion of new management accounting practices. This study adds a new dimension: in order to indicate the number of practices associated with the respondents, their interrelationships, the respondents, were asked to answer questions in a questionnaire covering four variables: level of knowledge, level of attitude, priority of usage, and level of benefit for 15 new accounting practices. The survey includes a sample of 119 large and medium-sized privately owned manufacturing and non-manufacturing companies, comprising 15 new or recently developed management accounting practices. Our results reveal that companies in general experience a high level of benefit from the practices. However, significance differences between low priority of usage and high number of practices associated with the company are very likely to contribute to a more modest level of benefits. About 20 percent of the companies associate themselves with four to six projects on new accounting practices intheir organization, which might lead to poor performance and high failure rates. Comments from the respondents also show that companies have mixed feelings concerning the practices and those companies seldom use a theoretical concept but are inspired to design home-made models. This also confirms that accounting practices are used for inspiration of design. The findings can provide a further basis for the discussion and development of a theory for new management accounting models.
Nielsen, Steen; Melander, Preben
HIV and AIDS have posed various medical, nutritional, social and economic problems, female-headed households being the most affected. Poor nutritional knowledge and dietary practices common among the most affected households significantly contribute to the rapid progression of HIV. However, very little data exist concerning these aspects of nutrition among women living with HIV and AIDS in resource-limited settings, such as Uganda. The aim of the study was to investigate the gaps in nutrition...
Bukusuba, John; Kikafunda, Joyce K.; Whitehead, Roger G.
This study examined smoking-related knowledge, beliefs, self-efficacy, smoking cessation practices, and barriers to providing smoking cessation services in a workforce sample. The 11 participating clinics (N=335 staff) included substance abuse treatment and HIV care clinics categorized into three types: Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) clinics, hospital-based clinics, and community-based clinics. Staff in both VAMC and hospital-based settings shared characteristics that may predict smok...
Tajima, Barbara; Guydish, Joseph; Delucchi, Kevin; Passalacqua, Emma; Chan, Mable; Moore, Matt
Full Text Available Background: Contraception is as old as mankind.In view of increasing population theres need for awareness regarding the use of various contraceptive methods. Aims and Objectives: To assess the Knowledge, Attitude & Practice regarding the various contraceptive methods in a rural setup of Hoskote. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out at MVJ, UHC & PHC of Hoskote Taluk on OPD basis. Data was collected by a pre-designed questionnaire at the OPD. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. People were simultaneously educated regarding the various contraceptive methods. Results: Total sample size was 150 of which 75 were males and 75 females. Knowledge about contraceptives was seen more in males (93.3% when compared to females (72%. 95.2% of gradates had knowledge regarding the methods of contraception. This suggests that the knowledge about contraception is better perceived and understood among the literate group. Most common method of contraceptive practiced was barrier methods (40%, followed by sterilization procedure (20%, IUCD (18.67%, OCP (12%, coitus interruptus (8.67% and emergency contraception (0.67%. Conclusion: There has been a considerable improvement among the people even in rural setup regarding the contraceptive use, but there still exists lack of awareness and knowledge regarding the use of contraceptive methods in some small groups of people. IEC activities have to be increased especially for females of this rural setup.
Yogendra V, Shuaib Ahmed, Sana Jaweriya, Sagorika Mullick
Full Text Available Background: A fundamental determinant to medical drug safety surveillance is voluntary adverse drug reaction [ADR] reporting ; but there exists substantial under-reporting which is the main drawback of the system. The objective of the study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of ADR reporting among doctors in a tertiary health care center.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional questionnaire based study was conducted on doctors in a tertiary health care center. Participants were selected randomly and those not willing to participate were excluded from the study. Collected data was assessed by frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS version 13.0.Results: 75% (45 of respondents were aware of the existence of ADR reporting system in India; on the contrary only (11.7% of respondents were aware of regional center for ADR reporting. All respondents (100% felt that seriousness of the ADR event, unusual reaction (95%, reaction to new drug (98.33%, and the certainty of ADR reaction (91.66% would encourage them to report an ADR event. However, only 15 out of 60 respondents (25% have reported ADRs.Conclusion: Though the level of knowledge about ADR reporting and the attitude towards ADR reporting were adequate, our study has shown that the actual practice of ADR reporting is unsatisfactory. This indicates that there is a need to create an awareness of the importance of ADR reporting through continuous medical education and training of ADR reporting among doctors.
Tanya Mary Thomas
Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases through the mandatory-reporting system is crucial in the planning and evaluation of disease control and prevention program. This study investigated the reporting behavior, knowledge, and attitude to reporting communicable disease in private doctors in Taiwan. The differences between the reporting and non-reporting doctors were also explored. Methods A total of 1250 clinics were randomly sampled nationwide by a 2-stage process. Data were collected from 1093 private doctors (87.4% response rate using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Four hundred and six (37.2% doctors reported having diagnosed reportable communicable diseases. Among them, 340 (83.5% have the experiences of reporting. Results The most common reasons for not reporting were "do not want to violate the patient's privacy", "reporting procedure is troublesome", and "not sure whether the diagnosed disease is reportable". Significantly higher proportions of the non-reporting doctors considered the reporting system inconvenient or were not familiar with the system. The highest percentage (65.2% of the non-reporting doctors considered that a simplified reporting procedure, among all measures, would increase their willingness to report. In addition, a significantly higher proportion of the non-reporting doctors would increase their willingness to report if there has been a good reward for reporting or a penalty for not reporting. Conclusion The most effective way to improve reporting rate may be to modify doctor's attitude to disease reporting. The development of a convenient and widely-accepted reporting system and the establishment of a reward/penalty system may be essential in improving disease reporting compliance in private doctors.
Full Text Available Purpose: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs are adverse consequences of drug therapy. ADRs are representing a major concern of health systems in terms of early recognition, proper management and prevention. Under reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs is a common problem in Pharmacovigilance programs. Poor perceptions of doctors about ADRs and risk management have contributed to high rate of ADR under-reporting in India. Underreporting has also been attributed to lack of time to doctor, misconceptions about spontaneous reporting and lack of information on how to report, where to report and a lack of availability of report forms, and also physicians' attitudes to ADRs. The objective of our study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of health care professional towards Pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions in a tertiary care hospital, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaires based study was carried out in Post graduate students and faculties of tertiary care hospital attached with Govt. Medical College, Bhavnagar, Gujarat. Post graduate students and faculties of different clinical subjects working in the tertiary care teaching hospital, Bhavnagar, Gujarat (India were enrolled and present throughout in study. 22 questionnaires about knowledge, attitude and practices towards ADRs and Pharmacovigilance were developed and peer viewed of all questionnaires by expert faculties from Pharmacology department. We were contacted directly to post graduate students and faculties of respective clinical department, questionnaires were distributed, 30 minutes time given to filled form. Any clarification and extra time was needed, provided to them. The filled KAP questionnaires were analyzed in question wise and their percentage value was calculated by using Microsoft excel spread sheet and online statistical software. Results: In study, postgraduate residents (n=81 and faculties (n=63 from different clinical departments were present throughout study. Of all post graduate students, an average 27.82% and 40.76% faculties were true knowledge about ADRs and Pharmacovigilance. From attitude of students and faculties towards reporting ADRs, an average 91.77% and 91.53% were agreed to reporting ADRs is necessary, mandatory and increased patients safety. In practice based questionnaires, 74.07% students and 71.43% faculties found difficulty like non-availability of ADR form, do not have time, patient co-operation etc. to report ADR. 47.62% in faculties and 43.21% in students said managing patient are more important than reporting ADR. Only 11.11% and 12.35% of faculties and students were found the factors like how to report, where to report etc. discouraging factors for reporting ADRs. Conclusion: From our study, we concluded that post graduate students and faculties of tertiary care hospital have better attitude towards reporting ADRs, but have lack of knowledge and practices of ADRs. The majority of postgraduate students and faculties were felt ADR reporting and monitoring is very important but few had ever reported ADRs because lack of motivation and knowledge about ADR.
Dr.Mukeshkumar B Vora
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 1219 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P<0.001. Advertisements were the main source of information on energy drinks (43%. The major reasons for consuming energy drinks were taste and flavour (58%, to try them (51.9% and to get energy (43%, albeit with significant differences between genders (P<0.001. About half of the adolescents did not know the ingredients of these drinks, and 49% did not know that they contain caffeine (P-values <0.006 and <0.001 between genders, respectively. The greater majority (67% considered energy drinks to be soft drinks. The study indicates the need for Saudi adolescents to be warned on the over-consumption of energy drinks. The study brings to attention the need for educational programmes related to increasing awareness in the community of the health effects related to high consumption of energy drinks.
Background Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a harmful traditional practice with severe consequences for the health and well-being of girls and women. Health care professionals (HCPs) are therefore expected to be aware of how to identify and manage these consequences in order to ensure that those affected by the practice receive quality health care. Moreover, their integration and legitimacy within the communities allow them to play a key role in the prevention of the practice. Nevertheless, the perception of HCPs on FGM/C has been barely explored in African contexts. This study seeks to contribute to this field of knowledge by examining the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding FGM/C among HCPs working in rural settings in The Gambia. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was designed through a quantitative methodology, following a multiethnic approach. A pre-tested questionnaire with open and closed-ended questions was created. Forty medical students from the Community-based Medical Programme were trained to administer the questionnaire, face to face, at village health facilities in rural areas of The Gambia. A final sample of 468 HCPs included all nurse cadres and midwives. Results A significant proportion of Gambian HCPs working in rural areas embraced the continuation of FGM/C (42.5%), intended to subject their own daughters to it (47.2%), and reported having already performed it during their medical practice (7.6%). However, their knowledge, attitudes, and practices were shaped by sex and ethnic identity. Women showed less approval for continuation of FGM/C and higher endorsement of the proposed strategies to prevent it than men. However, it was among ethnic groups that differences were more substantial. HCPs belonging to traditionally practicing groups were more favourable to the perpetuation and medicalisation of FGM/C, suggesting that ethnicity prevails over professional identity. Conclusions These findings demonstrate an urgent need to build HCPs capacities for FGM/C-related complications, through strategies adapted to their specific characteristics in terms of sex and ethnicity. A culturally and gender sensitive training programme might contribute to social change, promoting the abandonment of FGM/C, avoiding medicalisation, and ensuring accurate management of its health consequences. PMID:24040762
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is becoming increasingly prevalent among children in China. Poor parent knowledge and attitudes often contribute to inappropriate management practices, leading to deficiencies in the care process. We aimed to document the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of parents of children with asthma and analyze how knowledge and attitudes relate to practices. Our secondary objective was to identify the factors associated with parent KAP scores. Methods A KAP questionnaire was distributed to parents caring for 2960 children (014 years diagnosed with asthma for at least 3 months from Chinas 29 provinces. A 50-item questionnaire was devised for this cross-sectional survey based on a comprehensive review of the subject. Questionnaires were scored on 30 items regarding parent asthma-related KAP, with one point for every correct response and a possible range of 013 for knowledge, 07 for attitudes and 010 for practices. Higher scores indicated better KAP. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with practices and combined KAP scores. Results The response rate was 83.95% (2485/2960. Only 18.31% (455/2485 of parents correctly answered ? 60% of the knowledge questions (mean = 5.69. Most (89.85%; 2226/2485 gave positive responses to ? 60% of the attitude questions (mean = 5.23 while 67.89% (1687/2485 correctly answered ? 60% of the practices questions (mean = 6.19. Knowledge and attitudes were positively associated with pulmonary function testing, regular physician visits, monitoring with a peak flow meter and the Childrens Asthma Control Test questionnaire, avoidance of asthma triggers, using an inhaled ?2 receptor agonist and adherence to medication regimen (p ? 0.05. Attitudes were also associated with allergen testing. In logistic regression analysis, high KAP scores (dichotomized by a cut-off score of 18 were positively associated with food allergy, rhinitis, physician visits, frequency of visits and parent education (p 1. Conclusions Generally, the parents KAP were poor. A gap between recommended and actual practice was observed, which may be related to inadequate knowledge about and poor attitudes toward childhood asthma. Improving knowledge and attitudes may encourage better practices among parents of children with asthma.
Background Mongolia is undergoing rapid epidemiological transition with increasing urbanisation and economic development. The lifestyle and health of Mongolians are changing as a result, shown by the 2005 and 2009 STEPS surveys (World Health Organization's STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance) that described a growing burden of Non-Communicable Diseases and injuries (NCDs). This study aimed to assess, describe and explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian adult population around NCDs in order to better understand the drivers and therefore develop more appropriate solutions to this growing disease burden. In addition, it aimed to provide data for the evaluation of current public health programs and to assist in building effective, evidence-based health policy. Methods/design This national survey consisted of both quantitative and qualitative methods. A quantitative household-based questionnaire was conducted using a nationally representative sampleof 3854 rural and urban households. Participants were selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique in 42 regions across Mongolia, including rural and urban sites. Permanent residents of sampled households were eligible for recruitment, if aged between 15-64 years. This quantitative arm was then complemented and triangulated with a qualitative component: twelve focus group discussions focusing on diet, exercise and alcohol consumption. Discussions took place in six sites across the country, facilitated by local, trained health workers. These six sites were chosen to reflect major Mongolian cultural and social groups. Discussion KAP surveys are well represented in the literature, but studies that aim to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of a population around NCDs remain scarce. This is despite the growing number of national epidemiological surveys, such as STEPS, which aim to quantify the burden of these diseases but do not explore the level of population-based awareness, understanding, risk-perception and possible motivation for change. Therefore this paper will contribute to building a knowledge base of NCD KAP survey methodology for future use in epidemiology and research worldwide.
Demaio, Alessandro R; Dugee, Otgontuya
Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza is a considerable threat to global public health. Prevention and control depend on awareness and protective behaviours of the general population as well as high risk-groups. This study aims to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to avian influenza among poultry workers in Nepal. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional study design, using a structured questionnaire administered in face-to-face interviews with 96 poultry workers age 15 and above from the Rupandehi district in Nepal. Results The majority of respondents were male (80%, mean age was 35 (SD = 11.6. Nearly everybody was aware that AI cases had been detected in Nepal and that poultry workers were at risk for infection. The major sources of AI information were radio, TV and newspapers. Knowledge about preventive measures was high with regard to some behaviours (hand washing, but medium to low with regard to others (using cleaning and disinfecting procedures or protective clothing. Poultry workers who got their information from TV and newspapers and those who were more afraid of contracting AI had higher knowledge than those who did not. Being employed as compared to being an owner of a poultry farm as well as having a high level of knowledge was associated with practising more preventive behaviours. While on one hand many specific government control measures found a high degree of acceptance, a majority of study participants also thought that government control and compensation measures as a whole were insufficient. Conclusions The study provides information about knowledge and practices regarding avian influenza among poultry workers in Nepal. It highlights the importance of targeting lack of knowledge as well as structural-material barriers to successfully build preparedness for a major outbreak situation.
Osteoporosis is a growing chronic health problem that could result in mortalities and poor living quality. This study aimed at assessing the awareness of adults in Riyadh about this disease and its associated factors as well as compare KAP levels of men and women. A cross sectional study including 505 participants was conducted in several malls of Riyadh city during March 2012, selected by stratified random sampling technique. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. 86% of the participants had heard of osteoporosis. Media was the main source for Participants' knowledge; the mean knowledge score was 56.6% of the maximum achievable score. There was significant differences in knowledge scores by educational level, employment, income and residence (P = 0.005), (P = 0.008) (P = 0.0122) and (P = 0.009), respectively. Participants had low frequencies of preventive practices, especially females who had a mean total score equivalent to 48.8% of the maximum score, while males' mean score was 54.7% (P = 0.000). Perceived susceptibility was higher among females (83 vs. 74%, P = 0.000), and thus had less perception of the barriers to preventive actions, than men (49.6 vs. 55.5%, P = 0.000). Self-efficacy and perceived benefits had the highest scores (95% of the maximum achievable scores). Considerable number of adult males and females are unaware about osteoporosis. Since there is deficiency in the knowledge, and poor application of the preventive actions. Therefore, Education programs are needed to improve awareness and motivating healthy behaviours. PMID:23780302
Barzanji, Afraa Talal; Alamri, Fahad Abdulrahman; Mohamed, Ashry Gad
Background: Medical students represent a population that is at high-risk group for acquiring and spreading hepatitis B infection (HBV). Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes among male student regarding occupational risks of HBV infection. Subjects and Methods: During March 2013, a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on medical students of AlJouf University College of Medicine. Structured questionnaires of 16 different statements concerning knowledge base of HBV, attitudes as well as practices toward occupational risks of hepatitis B were distributed to 120 students. Results: Response rate of 76.7% (92/120) yielded 92 questionnaires for analysis. Majority of the students surveyed 62.0% (57/92) perceived that they are at high risk of contracting and spreading HBV. The rate of this perception among students who had a history of training on universal precautions was more than that found among those who did not have (70.8% vs. 58.8%; P < 0.01). Most of the students surveyed 63.0% (58/92) considered vaccine is safe and more than half 52.2% (48/92) were vaccinated against HBV. There were a very strong agreement about needlestick 92.4% (85/92) and blood 87.0% (80/92) as efficient modes of HBV transmission. Seventy-two percent of the participants did not have any knowledge about post-exposure prophylaxis for hepatitis B. A significant relationship was found between students who had a history of training on universal precautions and knowledge about post needlestick injury (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Infectious occupational risk of hepatitis B remains a challenge for medical students and the foundations of the medical institutes. Students must complete an infection control training before they start their clinical education. PMID:25745570
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B (HBV is the leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of people with chronic HBV and the associated factors. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at an outpatient adult hepatology clinic at a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur. A self-administered questionnaire was administered on a one-to-one basis to assess knowledge, attitudes, and lifestyle practices of people with chronic HBV. Results The response rate was 89% (n?=?483/543. Participants had a mean age of 46.3 (±14.7 years and the mean duration of HBV from time of diagnosis was 12.2 (±8.8 years. The mean knowledge score was 12.57/20 (standard deviation: ±4.4, range: 019. Participants aged 3039?years, with higher educational attainment, employed in professional jobs, longer duration of diagnosis and those without cirrhosis had significantly higher knowledge scores. Age, education level and duration of diagnosis were significant predictors of the knowledge score on standard multiple regression analysis. More than half of the participants were worried of spreading HBV infection to family and friends and worried since the diagnosis. A third of the participants (33.5% were embarrassed to reveal their diagnosis to the public but most of them (93.6% would inform their family. Those who reported feeling worried since their diagnosis were more likely to be middle-aged, of Malay ethnicity, have shorter duration of diagnosis of less than 10?years and have received therapy. About half of the participants (50.6% did not share dining utensils and the majority (93.2% believed that HBV can be transmitted by sharing of eating and drinking utensils. Older patients were significantly less likely to share utensils. Those who felt worried since diagnosis had significant higher knowledge of HBV. Conclusion The findings highlight the stigma and misconceptions that still exist among the HBV patients. More patient and public education about HBV and its prevention are essential to increase awareness and to demystify the disease.
Full Text Available Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM is a harmful traditional practice that is deeply rooted in Africa. It has been outlawed in Bayelsa state of Nigeria but there is evidence that its performance by traditional circumcisers and health professionals continues. Aim: The study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of FGM among doctors and nurses/midwives practising in public secondary and tertiary hospitals in Bayelsa state. Methods: One hundred and ninety seven (197 structured questionnaires were administered to all available doctors and nurses/midwives in the study hospitals for self-completion. Epi-Info version 3.5.1 was used to analyse data. Results: All the respondents were aware of FGM. A higher proportion of nurses/midwives than doctors had ever been asked and had ever treated patients with complications of FGM. More than 90% of respondents said it was not a good practice. Out of the 70 female respondents, 19 (27.1% said they were circumcised. Only one nurse/midwife admitted to performing FGM presently. Conclusion: Doctors and nurses/midwives practicing in the study hospitals were well aware of FGM and were favourably disposed towards its elimination. Efforts should be made to reinforce this position.
Full Text Available Although in Colombia screening programs of cervical cancer have achieved high levelsof coverage, cervical cancer has the first places in incidence and mortality. There isthe need to identify factors influencing it, among them is to investigate the level ofawareness of women about the screening test, their attitudes to screening and itspractices. For this we made a survey of 505 women 13 to 60 years who have had sexual life, living in the cities of Cartagena and Sincelejo (Colombia.The results showthat virtually all women have knowledge of cervical cytology, 94.5% of women havemade at least once. This percentage is higher in the range of 40 to 60 years where itreaches 99% in younger women this percentage decrease. In defining its usefulness,only 73.8% responded accurately. 50% reported unpleasant aspects related to themaking of the cytology, such as fear, and fear of a cancer diagnosis. A fail to rememberis the main factor for not claiming the results.These data show that the percentage ofwomen with sexual life that ignores the usefulness of cytology or never have practicedis minimal, which leads to the conclusion that ineffective screening programs to reducecervical cancer rates depends on other factors that should be investigated.RESUMEN:Aunque en Colombia los programas de prevención del cáncer de cérvix han alcanzadoaltos niveles de cobertura, todavía este ocupa los primeros lugares en incidencia ymortalidad. Existe la necesidad de identificar los factores que influyen en ello, por tantoes importante investigar el nivel de conocimiento de las mujeres sobre la prueba detamizaje, su actitud frente a la misma y sus prácticas relacionadas. Se realizó encuestaa 505 mujeres entre 13 y 60 años edad, que habían tenido vida sexual, residentes en lasciudades de Cartagena y Sincelejo (Colombia. Los resultados revelan que prácticamentetodas las mujeres tienen conocimientos sobre citología cérvico-uterina. El 94.5% delas mujeres se la han realizado por lo menos una vez. Este porcentaje es mayor en elrango de 40 a 60 años donde alcanza el 99%, y en las de menor edad este porcentajedisminuye. Al definir su utilidad: solo el 73.8% respondió de manera acertada. El 50%refieren aspectos desagradables en relación con la toma de la citología, como el miedoy el temor a un diagnóstico de cáncer y el olvido es el principal factor para no reclamarlos resultados. Estos datos demuestran que el porcentaje de mujeres con vida sexualque desconocen la utilidad de la citología o nunca se la han practicado es mínimo, locual permite concluir que la ineficacia de los programas de tamizaje para disminuir lascifras de cáncer de cérvix en nuestro medio depende de otros factores que deben serevaluados.
Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, current approaches, techniques and practices for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) among general dental practitioners and specialists in north of Saudi Arabia. Methodology A standard questionnaire based survey containing 16 multiple choice questions about techniques and treatment methods, frequency of post, type of post, choice of luting cement, core material, reason of failure of endodontic treatment was distributed by hand and through email among 255 general dentists and specialists. The data were processed by using SPSS statistical software. Results The majority of clinicians (54%) believed that post reinforces the remaining tooth structure and reduces fracture probability. The ferrule effect was considered an important factor in increasing fracture resistance of the ETT (72%). The preferred technique for restoring ETT was core material along with 12 mm of ferule (41%) followed by prefabricated post and core build up (25%). On the basis of post material, the most common was metal (43%) followed by fiber post (41%). 2/3rd length of the root canal for the post length (67%), 45mm apical seal of gutta percha after post placement (47%) and for the post diameter, 1/3rd of root diameter (51%) was agreed by most of the participants. Composite resin (61%) was the most popular material for core foundation followed by amalgam (23%). Conclusion The surveyed practitioners had a sound knowledge of the techniques and materials for restoring ETT with the exception that post reinforces the remaining tooth structure and reduces fracture probability.
Full Text Available This study was undertaken in Mpwapwa District in Central Zone of Tanzania between July to August, 2009 to assess knowledge, attitude and practice towards modern contraceptives among married women of reproductive age (15-49 years. Specific objectives of the study were to ascertain knowledge and attitude towards modern contraceptives, to determine the extent of use of modern contraceptives and identify factors associated with current use of modern contraceptive in the study population. Study design involved a crosssectional survey that involved 160 women randomly selected from eight villages with nearly equal number of respondents per village. Data from respondents were collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Furthermore, eight Focus Groups Discussions (FGDs, with one FGD per village were also carried out to collect qualitative information. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program version 12 was used to analyse quantitative data. Qualitative data were analysed using Content Analysis (CA. Results of this study revealed knowledge of modern contraceptives in a study population to be high. Furthermore, findings of this study indicated substantial proportion of respondents to have positive attitude towards modern contraceptives and hence more room for increasing modern contraceptive use in a study population. For example, half (50% of respondent that were aware of modern contraceptives thought that benefits of modern contraceptives outweigh negative effects and 42% agreed that they could recommend use of modern contraceptive to a friend. However, despite presence of positive attitude towards modern contraceptives by a good number of women in a study population, negative attitude of husband towards modern contraceptives can be one of the obstacles for the success of campaigns to increase modern contraceptive use in the study area. Two- third (65.8% of study participants indicated that their husband doesnt approve modern contraceptives. Regarding contraceptive prevalence rate in the target group (i.e., proportion currently use modern contraceptives, although there was some improvement compared to the past national averages, however, the obtained figure (25% was far (too low from the desired national target of 60%. Results for Binary Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis indicated that Likelihood (chances of being current user of modern contraceptives by a woman increased significantly by having secondary education and higher (Odds ratio (OR = 15.18, p<0.05, having higher number of living children (i.e., 4 and above (OR = 19.68, p<0.01, spousal communication on modern contraceptives (OR = 1.84, p<0.05, woman participation in decision making regarding fertility in a family (OR = 19.40, p<0.05 , husband approval of modern contraceptives (OR = 18.46, p<0.01 and having positive attitudes towards modern contraceptives (OR = 8.50, p<0.05 (i.e., thinking that benefits of modern contraceptives outweighs negative effects compared to the counterparts. The Odds (chances of being current user of modern contraceptive by a woman decreased by living more than 5 km from nearest health facility (OR = 0.67, p<0.05 and if had ever encountered side effects (OR = 0.44, p<0.05. Based on these findings recommendations for improving modern contraceptive use in a study population have been indicated.
Full Text Available Its a cross sectional observational study conducted in outpatient clinic of OBG, SDMCMS&H, Dharwad between July-December 2012. 200 married women between 20-45 yrs were interviewed with predesigned questionnaire. Effort was made to identify reasons for wide gap between knowledge and practice of contraception. All women knew atleast one method of contraception but 48% were using some sort of contraception. Most known method was female sterilization, least known were injectables and male sterilization. Common method chosen was female sterilization (70.8%. None adopted male sterilization. Reasons for not using contraception were desire to have child (25%, desire for boys (13.4%, worried about side effect (16.3%, opposition from family members (11.5%, felt pregnancy was naturally spaced (11.5%, no specific reasons (10.5%, couldnt avail contraceptive facilities (5.7%, inconvenient to use (5.7%. Educational and motivational activities from doctors and health workers is needed to promote the use of contraception. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 172-176
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to the availability of the specific pandemic vaccine, strategies to mitigate the impact of the disease typically involved antiviral treatment and non-pharmaceutical community interventions. However, compliance with these strategies is linked to risk perceptions, perceived severity and perceived effectiveness of the strategies. In 2010, we undertook a study to examine the knowledge, attitudes, risk perceptions, practices and barriers towards influenza and infection control strategies amongst domestic and international university students. Methods A study using qualitative methods that incorporated 20 semi-structured interviews was undertaken with domestic and international undergraduate and postgraduate university students based at one university in Sydney, Australia. Participants were invited to discuss their perceptions of influenza (seasonal vs. pandemic in terms of perceived severity and impact, and attitudes towards infection control measures including hand-washing and the use of social distancing, isolation or cough etiquette. Results While participants were generally knowledgeable about influenza transmission, they were unable to accurately define what pandemic influenza meant. While avian flu or SARS were mistaken as examples of past pandemics, almost all participants were able to associate the recent swine flu situation as an example of a pandemic event. Not surprisingly, it was uncommon for participants to identify university students as being at risk of catching pandemic influenza. Amongst those interviewed, it was felt that students were capable of fighting off any illness. The participants nominated hand washing as the most feasible and acceptable compared with social distancing and mask use. Conclusions Given the high levels of interaction that occurs in a university setting, it is really important that students are informed about disease transmission and about risk of infection. It may be necessary to emphasize that pandemic influenza could pose a real threat to them, that it is important to protect oneself from infection and that infection control measures can be effective.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: The role of caretakers at day-care centers has become more imperative in promoting oral health care in children since many new mothers opt to work outside their homes, leaving their children at day-care centers. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health promoting factors among secondary caretakers of children attending day-care centers. Settings and Design: This was a cross-sectional exploratory study conducted among secondary caretakers in Kubang Kerian, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four caretakers fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria participated in the study. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire addressing various aspects of knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health in children. Analysis was done using SPSS version 12.0. Results: The knowledge of factors causing dental caries was found to be good among majority of the caretakers, but the concepts of transmissibility of caries and effect of hidden sugars were not evident. Seventy one percent did not know that frequent bottle feeding could cause tooth decay. Attitudes seemed to be governed by the cultural practices of the region rather than the knowledge obtained. The knowledge was not translated to practice adequately. Giving sweetened liquid in bottles was practiced by 53% of the caretakers. Conclusion: Implementation of nursery-based oral health promotion programs for secondary caretakers is needed to counteract early childhood caries.
A survey of female commercial sex workers (CSW) in Iloilo City, Philipines, was conducted in October and November 1995 to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding HIV/AIDS to guide future education programs. CSWs in the Philippines were categorized as registered or freelance. Registered CSWs included "hospitality girls" from licensed bars, night clubs, and massage parlors who have registered with the local social hygiene clinic (SHC). Freelance CSWs are not registered. 110 registered and 46 freelance CSWs were surveyed. We compared demographic data, scores from a basic knowledge test, and preventive practices between registered and freelance CSWs. Demographic data indicate that registered CSWs often originate from provinces outside of the Visayan Islands (25%) and most have never been married (93%). Freelance CSWs included more married (11%) and separated (11%) women from nearby cities. Knowledge test scores of registered and freelance CSWs were not significantly different. 90-96% of CSWs correctly answered questions regarding modes of transmission. However, 25% still believed it is possible to contract AIDS from using a public restroom. Registered and freelance CSWs believed their risks for AIDS to be equally great. However, 38% of freelance CSWs admit to never or almost never using condoms compared to 15% of registered CSWs. Licensed establishments and a support staff at the social hygiene clinic may provide a relatively structured working environment, giving registered CSWs security and confidence to insist on condom use. In most cases, condom use seems to depend on male customer compliance, and CSWs, especially freelancers, cannot afford to insist on condom use. The CSWs indicated that they learned most about AIDS through health personnel and television. PMID:9253869
Liu, T I; So, R
Tuberculosis is prevailing in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan. Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of private practitioners (PPs) regarding tuberculosis management have been reported only in urban areas of Pakistan. This survey was conducted for the first time in a rural area of Sindh, Pakistan. This survey was conducted in January 2007 at Thatta, a rural district of Sindh, Pakistan. Study subjects were twenty-two allopathic qualified (MBBS) doctors of district Thatta, who were practicing in private setups for at least last one year. Before TB-DOTS training PPs had filled the KAP questionnaire regarding tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and management through DOTS. Survey data was analysed through SPSS version 11.05 software. On average, five TB suspects per month were seen by each PP. Only 14% of PPs advised sputum microscopy solely for pulmonary TB diagnosis, while 86% of PPs used different combination of tests (chest x-ray/sputum microscopy/ESR/tuberculin test) for TB diagnosis. Over 40% PPs did not prescribe TB treatment regimen according to TB-DOTS category. Majority PPs (85%) did not follow the treatment through sputum microscopy and instead relied on clinical improvement and x-ray clearance. Nearly 60% of TB patients at PPs clinic did not show compliance to the TB treatment and none of PPs were following the retrieval of default cases. A gross lack of PPs knowledge and right practice regarding TB diagnosis and management through DOTS was identified and needement through DOTS was identified and needed to be addressed through providing DOTS training. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mongolia is undergoing rapid epidemiological transition with increasing urbanisation and economic development. The lifestyle and health of Mongolians are changing as a result, shown by the 2005 and 2009 STEPS surveys (World Health Organization's STEPwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance that described a growing burden of Non-Communicable Diseases and injuries (NCDs. This study aimed to assess, describe and explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian adult population around NCDs in order to better understand the drivers and therefore develop more appropriate solutions to this growing disease burden. In addition, it aimed to provide data for the evaluation of current public health programs and to assist in building effective, evidence-based health policy. Methods/design This national survey consisted of both quantitative and qualitative methods. A quantitative household-based questionnaire was conducted using a nationally representative sample of 3854 rural and urban households. Participants were selected using a multi-stage cluster sampling technique in 42 regions across Mongolia, including rural and urban sites. Permanent residents of sampled households were eligible for recruitment, if aged between 15-64 years. This quantitative arm was then complemented and triangulated with a qualitative component: twelve focus group discussions focusing on diet, exercise and alcohol consumption. Discussions took place in six sites across the country, facilitated by local, trained health workers. These six sites were chosen to reflect major Mongolian cultural and social groups. Discussion KAP surveys are well represented in the literature, but studies that aim to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices of a population around NCDs remain scarce. This is despite the growing number of national epidemiological surveys, such as STEPS, which aim to quantify the burden of these diseases but do not explore the level of population-based awareness, understanding, risk-perception and possible motivation for change. Therefore this paper will contribute to building a knowledge base of NCD KAP survey methodology for future use in epidemiology and research worldwide.
Demaio Alessandro R
The aim of our study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding HIV/AIDS in the city of Kribi, southern region of Cameroon. In November 2012, a questionnaire composed of 20 items was administered by trained staff from the Biomedical Sciences Department of the University of Dschang to 200 students selected from four population groups: high school students, local traders, tourism personnel (staff of bars, restaurants, hotels, nightclubs), and motorcycle taxi drivers. A cluster sampling method was used to select the first three groups while motorcycle taxi drivers were selected by the method of all comers. KAP regarding HIV/AIDS was found to be fragmentary in the studied population. Only 6.5% systematically uses condoms, 59% believe that AIDS can be cured by traditional medicine and religious faith and 40.9% developed stigmatizing behaviour toward HIV infected people. Among participants there is a wide discrepancy between knowledge and social behaviours toward HIV/AIDS. Strategic and continuous awareness campaigns that are culturally and socially tailored are urgently needed. PMID:25353268
Sanou, Sobze Martin; Fokam, Joseph Martin; Mabvouna, Biguioh Rodriguez; Guetiya, Wadoum Raoul; Sali, Ben Bechir Adogaye; Teikeu, Tessa Vivaldi Vladimir; Nafack, Sonkeng Sonia; Panà, Augusto; Colizzi, Vittorio; Russo, Gianluca
India has approximately 5.2 million persons infected with HIV. Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) is being widely introduced in public clinics, many HIV-infected persons still seek care via the private sector. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 at six public and private sites to characterize the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of ART among patients with HIV receiving care in India. Of 1667 persons surveyed, 609 (36%) had heard of ART and 19% of these persons reported that ART could cure HIV. Twenty-four percent reported that they were currently taking ART, with 18% of these patients not actually on ART according to their provider. Major barriers to taking ART were cost (33%), lack of knowledge of ART (41%), and deferral by physician (30%). More than half of all public and private patients had not heard of CD4 (57%) or viral load testing (80%), and even fewer had received these tests (32% and 11%, respectively). Private clinic attendees were almost 4 times more likely to be on ART (35% versus 9%, p education, be partnered, have a higher income, and have had a CD4 or viral load (p public clinics. In order to make widespread dissemination of ART effective in India, further educational and programmatic efforts are likely needed to optimize access, treatment awareness, and compliance among patients with HIV. PMID:17328662
Ramchandani, Suneil R; Mehta, Shruti H; Saple, Dattatray G; Vaidya, Satish B; Pandey, Ved P; Vadrevu, Ravi; Rajasekaran, Sikhamani; Bhatia, Vandana; Chowdhary, Abhay; Bollinger, Robert C; Gupta, Amita
Background Chagas disease is a vector-borne parasitic disease of major public health importance. Current prevention efforts are based on triatomine vector control to reduce transmission to humans. Success of vector control interventions depends on their acceptability and value to affected communities. We aimed to identify opportunities for and barriers to improved vector control strategies in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. Methodology/principal findings We employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative research methods to investigate knowledge, attitudes and practices surrounding Chagas disease, triatomines and vector control in three rural communities. Our combined data show that community members are well aware of triatomines and are knowledgeable about their habits. However, most have a limited understanding of the transmission dynamics and clinical manifestations of Chagas disease. While triatomine control is not a priority for community members, they frequently use domestic insecticide products including insecticide spray, mosquito coils and plug-in repellents. Families spend about $32 US per year on these products. Alternative methods such as yard cleaning and window screens are perceived as desirable and potentially more effective. Screens are nonetheless described as unaffordable, in spite of a cost comparable to the average annual spending on insecticide products. Conclusion/Significance Further education campaigns and possibly financing schemes may lead families to redirect their current vector control spending from insecticide products to window screens. Also, synergism with mosquito control efforts should be further explored to motivate community involvement and ensure sustainability of Chagas disease vector control. PMID:24676038
Rosecrans, Kathryn; Cruz-Martin, Gabriela; King, Ashley; Dumonteil, Eric
Emergency contraception amongst female college students - knowledge, attitude and practice / La contraception d'urgence chez les étudiantes inscrites dans l'enseignement supérieur -connaissances, attitudes et pratiques
Full Text Available BACKGROUD: Unwanted teenage pregnancies have a notable detrimental impact on the learners' trajectory and have been associated with jeopardising the students' educational progress and future career prospects. These pregnancies are mostly unplanned and unintended and many are terminated, either legal [...] ly or illegally. AIM: The aim of this study was to explore the contributory role played by the knowledge, attitude and practices of female college students with respect to the utilisation of emergency contraceptives. SETTING: Three tertiary institutions in Dessie, Ethiopia. METHODS: Quantitative self-administered questionnaires were used to collect descriptive data from 352 female college students. RESULTS: The study revealed that there was a high percentage (78.3%) of unwanted pregnancies amongst those engaging in sex. Significantly, nearly half (43.3%) of these unwanted pregnancies resulted in abortion. Only 10% of the students sampled admitted to ever having used emergency contraception. Even though more than half (69.9%) of the students knew about emergency contraception, only 27% of them felt confident that they understood when it was most effective. CONCLUSION: These and other observed findings confirm the need for improvement of female college students' knowledge and timely utilisation of emergency contraception.
Wendwosen T., Nibabe; Tennyson, Mgutshini.
This study explored the knowledge, attitude, practice and barriers to prescribe human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines among private primary care physicians in Hong Kong. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted by sending letters to doctors who had joined a vaccination program for school girls. From 720 surveys sent, 444 (61.7%) completed questionnaires were returned and analyzed. For knowledge, few responded to questions accurately on the prevalence of cervical HPV (27.9%) and ge...
Wong, Martin C. S.; Lee, Albert; Ngai, Karry L. K.; Chor, Josette C. Y.; Chan, Paul K. S.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practices. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire carried out among 1695 female university students in a public university in Malaysia. Results Respondents had low scores for knowledge of reproduction and pregnancy (median=4, of maximum score 10, contraceptive uses (median=6, of maximum score 16 and contraceptive availability (median=3, of maximum score 13. The majority of women surveyed do not have liberal values in relation to premarital sexual behaviour (median=37, of maximum 40; higher scores on this scale corresponded to opposing premarital sex. The multivariate analyses showed that ethnic group was the strongest correlate of knowledge and attitude scores; being of Malay Muslim ethnicity was associated significantly with lower knowledge scores and premarital sex permissiveness. Other significant correlates were year of study, maternal occupational groups, level of religious faith, dating status and urbanrural localities. Level of premarital sex permissiveness was inversely correlated with reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score, and contraceptive knowledge scores. Conclusion Reproductive health knowledge and attitudes were intricately linked to religious values and cultural norms differences surrounding sexual issues.
Background and Objectives India has the highest annual number of maternal deaths of any country. As obstetric hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death in India, numerous efforts are under way to promote access to skilled attendance at birth and emergency obstetric care. Current initiatives also seek to increase access to active management of the third stage of labor for postpartum hemorrhage prevention, particularly through administration of an uterotonic after delivery. However, prior research suggests widespread inappropriate use of uterotonics at facilities and in communitiesfor example, without adequate monitoring or referral support for complications. This qualitative study aimed to document health providers and community members current knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding uterotonic use during labor and delivery in Indias Karnataka state. Methods 140 in-depth interviews were conducted from June to August 2011 in Bagalkot and Hassan districts with physicians, nurses, recently delivered women, mothers-in-law, traditional birth attendants (dais), unlicensed village doctors, and chemists (pharmacists). Results Many respondents reported use of uterotonics, particularly oxytocin, for labor augmentation in both facility-based and home-based deliveries. The study also identified contextual factors that promote inappropriate uterotonic use, including high value placed on pain during labor; perceived pressure to provide or receive uterotonics early in labor and delivery, perhaps leading to administration of uterotonics despite awareness of risks; and lack of consistent and correct knowledge regarding safe storage, dosing, and administration of oxytocin. Conclusions These findings have significant implications for public health programs in a context of widespread and potentially increasing availability of uterotonics. Among other responses, efforts are needed to improve communication between community members and providers regarding uterotonic use during labor and delivery and to target training and other interventions to address identified gaps in knowledge and ensure that providers and pharmacists have up-to-date information regarding proper usage of uterotonic drugs. PMID:23638148
Deepak, Nitya Nand; Mirzabagi, Ellie; Koski, Alissa; Tripathi, Vandana
Full Text Available Introduction: Iodine, vitamin A and iron are most important micronutrients in global public health terms; their lack represents a major threat to the health and development of populations the world over, particularly children in low-income countries. To combat the deficiency of micronutrients, awareness of their importance and their source plays vital role. Objective: to assess knowledge regarding important micronutrients in tribal students. Methodology: It is a cross sectional study conducted in 348 secondary school students of tribal area. Observations: Questionnaire regarding knowledge revealed that 83 (23.9% student had never heard of vitamin A, while 103 (29.6% and 72 (20.7% student had never heard of Iron and Iodine respectively. Gender wise analysis revealed that overall knowledge of micronutrients is comparatively higher among the girls. Recommendations: School children should be specially targeted in IEC campaign to decrease burden of micronutrient deficiency. Micronutrients should be included in school syllabus.
Modi Bhavesh, Patel Prakash, Sutariya Shailesh, Dave Paresh
Conclusion: Although the awareness about emergency contraceptive pills is quite high but the knowledge regarding the correct timing and usage is poor even among educated women. Apprehensions regarding the side-effects of these pills may limit their use by women. Information should be provided to women about the correct timing, side effects and precautions for using ECP.
Priya Arora, Ram C Bajpai, Rajat Srivastava
From February through April 2007, avian influenza (H5N1) was confirmed in poultry in 4 of 34 Afghan provinces. A survey conducted in 2 affected and 3 unaffected provinces found that greater knowledge about reducing exposure was associated with higher socioeconomic status, residence in affected provinces, and not owning backyard poultry.
Leslie, Toby; Billaud, Julie; Mofleh, Jawad; Mustafa, Lais; Yingst, Sam
Data from 409 Hispanic-American and 138 Anglo older women in Tucson identified few differences in their use of breast cancer screening and low levels of risk knowledge. Both groups fell well below recommended frequency of screening. Clinical examination and self-examination were used more than mammography. (SK)
Saint-Germain, Michelle A.; Longman, Alice J.
Full Text Available Our purpose was to determine pediatric endocrinologists' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices (KABPs regarding recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH treatment, examine care-related attitude consensus or discordance, and identify evidence-based practice gaps. We developed a survey for National Cooperative Growth Study (NCGS investigators ( to elicit their KABPs regarding GH stimulation testing as a diagnostic tool, IGF-1 monitoring for safety and dosing guidance, and pubertal dosing. Responses were compared with NCGS data from the last 20 years. Comparison between survey responses and NCGS data revealed potential discrepancies between expressed opinions and actual practice. In conclusion, this KABP survey, combined with NCGS data, suggests changes over time in diagnostic and rhGH-related therapeutic practices. Variability and inconsistency exist between the survey responses and practice trends over time as reflected in the NCGS database. Further study is necessary to provide evidence to guide rhGH treatment decisions.
Full Text Available Background: Emergency contraception is administered after unprotected intercourse to prevent unintended pregnancy. Sexually active young and adolescent women are at greatest risk of unintended pregnancy and thus unsafe abortion related morbidity and mortality. Objective: Purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and experiences on emergency contraceptive pill (ECP by female college students of Udaipur. Study design: Cross-sectional, pre-structured questionnaire based study. Material and methods: Study was conducted among 600 college going female students (arts, science and commerce faculty of two randomly selected girls colleges of Sukhadia University Udaipur. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions and test of significance (Chi square test and Mann Whitney U test using SPSS ver.16. Results: Students included in study were of 16-29 years age group (mean age 18.6±3.2 years, 225 (37.5% had adequate knowledge about emergency contraceptive pills, statistically significant difference in knowledge is seen among students who got knowledge from literary sources and health personnel (p<0.05. Majority of the science stream students (50% were having adequate knowledge followed by commerce and arts stream students respectively but statistically significant difference in knowledge is seen among all faculty students(p<0.05. Majority of students (78% know about the correct timing of EC pills administration. Among all the students only 201 (33.5% students shown positive attitude regarding EC pills. No significant association seen between adequate knowledge and positive attitude (p>0.05.Only 3% students had already used EC pills. Conclusion: Awareness of EC pills is low and there is a gap between knowledge and attitude. Appropriate awareness programme needed.
Arun Kumar, Keerti, Chandra P Sharma, Chetan K Jain
Objective: This study examined female college students' knowledge, attitudes, and breast cancer screening and determined significant predictors of breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammography among this population. Participants: A convenience sample of 1,074 college women from 3 universities participated in the research.
Early, Jody; Armstrong, Shelley Nicole; Burke, Sloane; Thompson, Doris Lee
A study assessed the impact of using modeling and rehearsal techniques for teaching breast self-examination to college students. Although students exposed to the techniques did not differ from a control group who read pamphlets in knowledge level, their attitudes changed somewhat. (PP)
Marty, Phillip J.; And Others
Despite scientific advances in pain management, inadequate pain relief in hospitalized patients continues to be an on-going phenomenon. Although nurses do not prescribe medication for pain, the decision to administer pharmacological or other interventions for pain relief is part of nursing practice. Nurses play a critical role in the relief of
Abstract Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is still a leading cause of preventable brain damage, physical and mental handicap, and early death among infants in many communities. Greater awareness is needed among all health workers. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge of primary health care workers about the description, causes, effective treatment, and sequelae of NNJ. Methods The setting was a local government area i.e. an administrative district within the south-western...
Daniel Olusoji J; Ogunfowora Olusoga B
Pastoralists had traditional disease coping mechanisms.Some pastoralists had no knowledge of any prevention method and others would not know what to do or would do nothing in the event of an outbreak.Pastoralists perceived vaccination to be the solution to CBPP but vaccination was irregular.Vaccination exhibited adverse post-vaccination reactions and consequently 25.2% of pastoralists may resist subsequent vaccinations against CBPP.Pastoralists preferred CBPP vaccination at cer...
Kairu-wanyoike, S. W.; Kiara, H.; Heffernan, C.; Kaitibie, S.; Gitau, G. K.; Mckeever, D.; Taylor, N. M.
There is strong evidence that razors, barber's scissors, nail files and body piercing instruments are risk factors for transmission of hepatitis B and C. to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding hepatitis B and C virus among barbers in Sana'a city. KAP study was conducted from July-September 2011. Two hundred and thirty four barbershops were surveyed. Out of 234 barber shops, 73.1% heard about viral hepatitis B and C. The awareness of modes of transmission of hepatitis and the different sources/risk factors were moderate, ranging from 51.6% who knew that hepatitis can be transmitted through sexual transmitted to 82.1% who knew that hepatitis can be transmitted through blood transfusion. 54.9% of barbers did not agree that it was essential to have periodic tests for HBV and HCV; however, 67.5%would themselves like to be tested for these infections. 32% washed their hands before attending each client, 59% cleaned instruments with disinfectant between clients, 96.1% washed razors with tap water before use on a new client, 92.6% also washed their razors with an antiseptic solution after every use, 87% used a new blade on new clients and 55% used disinfectants for skin cuts. In Yemen, a large number of barbers are shaving clients with an old style razor with a permanent blade. There is moderate awareness about the various modes of transmission of hepatitis among the barbers. PMID:22198003
Al-Rabeei, Nabil Ahmed; Al-Thaifani, Abdulhameed Ali; Dallak, Abdulsalam Mohammed
Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to clarify the potential health-risk and to determinant the prevalence of antenatal rubella infection in North-Central, Nigeria.Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey was carried out among pregnant women to establish the knowledge, attitude and practices with regards to antenatal rubella infection in early pregnancy in Ilorin. A total of 92 subjects were recruited by simple random selection from the antenatal clinics of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.Results: Results showed that congenitally defective eyes or ears were regarded as a greater burden to bear than a congenitally defective heart. Pregnant mothers are more likely to abort a congenitally defective fetus before term. Multigravid pregnant women are more likely to have an abortion (X2 = 12.48, df = 4, p = 0.014, just as married pregnant women were more likely to abort a congenitally defective fetus before term (X2 = 23.64, df = 4, p = 0.0.Conclusion: It is a general assumption that Nigeria today is majorly rural, therefore, health educational activities for prompt antenatal reporting in sub-urban Ilorin, and Nigeria as a whole, may be a relevant intervention for pregnant women.
Oluwapelumi Olufemi Adeyemi
Full Text Available
Background: Young people are attracted by body art and consider it as a way of being different. Body art (tattoos, piercing, etc. represents an important socio-cultural phenomenon which is not risk free for health. Existing literature, moreover, points out that deviant behaviours and unhealthy lifestyles are significantly associated with body art.
Objective and methods: The research was aimed to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of university students towards body art, highlighting the association between body art and some demographic variables, deviant behaviours, unhealthy lifestyles, knowledge of health risks and medical complications potentially involved. Data came from a cross-sectional study conducted on a sample, selected at random, of 1.200 undergraduate university students, (570, human sciences; 630, scientific areas. The instrument for the survey was a 21 item multiple choice questionnaire. Data was codified and statistical analysis was computed through Epi-Info and Openstat software.
Results: Students from a scientific background showed a higher rate of interest, (p<0.01 for the argument of body art. About one third of the surveyed individuals had at least one body art. Cultural choice and gender was associated with body art. Males, especially from the scientific area, were more attracted by temporary body art, while females preferred permanent tattoos. Students from humanistic backgrounds were associated with one body art and those from a scientific area with more than one (p<0.01. Unemployment, lack of partnership and family attitude towards body art, were positively associated with students body art. Body art was strictly associated with different unhealthy lifestyles, such as drug, alcohol and tobacco consumption, problem gambling and sexual activity before 18 years of age. A relevant part of students considered piercing and tattooing as having no consequences for infections and/or disease.
Conclusions: Body art was associated with unhealthy ifestyles and may be considered an indicator of risk taking behaviours. Individuals had no accurate idea of the consequences for their health and body, apart from a generic risk of infections. Education is a necessary tool for the modification of lifestyles and as a form of prevention ensuring the correct understanding and assessment of the health risk involved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge, attitudes and practices of community members and healthcare providers in rural northern Ghana regarding clean delivery are not well understood. This study explores hand washing/use of gloves during delivery, delivering on a clean surface, sterile cord cutting, appropriate cord tying, proper cord care following delivery, and infant bathing and cleanliness. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo 9.0. Results 253 respondents participated, including women with newborn infants, grandmothers, household and compound heads, community leaders, traditional birth attendants, and formally trained health care providers. There is widespread understanding of the need for clean delivery to reduce the risk of infection to both mothers and their babies during and shortly after delivery. Despite this understanding, the use of gloves during delivery and hand washing during and after delivery were mentioned infrequently. The need for a clean delivery surface was raised repeatedly, including explicit discussion of avoiding delivering in the dirt. Many activities to do with cord care involved non-sterile materials and practices: 1 Cord cutting was done with a variety of tools, and the most commonly used were razor blades or scissors; 2 Cord tying utilized a variety of materials, including string, rope, thread, twigs, and clamps; and 3 Cord care often involved applying traditional salves to the cord - including shea butter, ground shea nuts, local herbs, local oil, or red earth sand. Keeping babies and their surroundings clean was mentioned repeatedly as an important way to keep babies from falling ill. Conclusions This study suggests a widespread understanding in rural northern Ghana of the need for clean delivery. Nonetheless, many recommended clean delivery practices are ignored. Overarching themes emerging from this study included the increasing use of facility-based delivery, the disconnect between healthcare providers and the community, and the critical role grandmothers play in ensuring clean delivery practices. Future interventions to address clean delivery and prevention of neonatal infections include educating healthcare providers about harmful traditional practices so they are specifically addressed, strengthening facilities, and incorporating influential community members such as grandmothers to ensure success.
Moyer Cheryl A
Full Text Available Background: Statistics have shown that since 1988, a significant percentage of males are unwilling to seek medical care. The question is if they had the knowledge, worked in the health system and were educated, would this be any different? Aim: The current study aims to fill this void in the literature by examining the perception of rural male health workers (from the Western Region about prostate examination, and why they are reluctant to inquire about the probability of having, or the likelihood of not having prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: The study utilized primary cross-sectional data that was collected during February and March 2008 from 170 males (ages 29 years and older, health-care workers who were employed in particular rural health institutions in Jamaica (i.e. Western Regional Health Authority. SPSS was used to analyze the data. Results: When the respondents were asked Have you ever heard about the screening procedure for prostate? 71.2% indicated yes, but only 27.1% had got their prostate checked by a health practitioner. When respondents were asked to state what influenced their choice of not doing a digital rectal examination, 20.6% indicated comfort level; 9.4% stated the gender of the health practitioner, 5.3% mentioned fear and others did not respond. Of those who had the examination 2 years ago, 96.5% did not state the choice of method. Conclusion: The current study is limited in terms of its generalizability to rural males or rural males in Western Jamaica, but it does provide an insight into the difficulty of men in breaking away from culture.
Paul Andrew Bourne
Effects of an influenza prevention program using non-pharmaceutical prevention measures to improve the knowledge, attitudes and practices of elementary school students in Nakhon Phanom province, Thailand.
We evaluated an influenza prevention educational program using educational media, e-books and cartoons conducted among students in grades 4 through 6. The course was 8 hours long. The study was conducted at 4 schools; 230 students at each school were in the experimental group and 224 students at each school were in the control group (no educational intervention). The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test. The students in the experimental group had significantly greater knowledge (p<0.001), attitudes (p<0.001) and practices (p<0.001) scores after the intervention. However, the control group also had significantly greater knowledge (p<0.001) and attitudes (p<0.001) scores but not practices scores (p = 0.326). Further studies are needed to determine the factors that influenced these differences. PMID:24050096
Mangklakeeree, Nutcharat; Pinitsoontorn, Somdej; Srisaenpang, Sompong
Full Text Available The Health Belief model says for communities to take part in an activity, they need to perceive the risk of failing to take part and the benefits associated with taking part. A study was carried out in Luvuvhu catchment of South Africa to evaluate community knowledge, attitudes, practices and perceptions relating to water quality and safety. The study was divided into two parts. The first part involved a population of over 8000 people and participatory tools were used to speed up the data collection process. The participants were divided into sessions of 45 people each. Each session was divided into 3 groups of 15 people each and each group was then given an assignment to work on and write the findings on flipcharts. Each group then presented at a plenary and the research assistants recorded the findings. The second part was based on the findings from the first part of the study. One major finding was that the communities relied on the physical appearance of water to decide whether the water is safe or not for domestic use. Therefore, the second study aimed at determining the point at which the communities would stop using water for various domestic uses based on the turbidity of the water. Samples of the water with predetermined turbidity values were shown to 1000 participants and each of the participants was asked to indicate where he or she would use the water for various domestic uses such as drinking, cooking, bathing and washing utensils. Although the communities had a wealth of knowledge and practices relating to water quality and safety, their perception of safety using turbidity as an indicator did not tally with scientifically accepted guidelines. Some participants were willing to accept water with turbidity values as high as 39 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU for drinking which is above the recommended maximum turbidity levels in water for domestic use in South African National Standards (SANS 241 of 5 NTU. The communities in Luvuvhu catchment are at risk of contracting water borne diseases and they require health education to raise their level of awareness regarding water quality and safety issues.
Guidelines for infant feeding options among HIV-positive mothers are changing with informative research. Cultural factors, socialisation processes, gender dimensions and socio-economic status within communities should be considered in recommending feasible and sustainable options. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices with regards to infant feeding in the context of HIV. A cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2003 and January 2004. The study was carried out in Kosirai Division, Nandi-North District, in western Kenya. The target population was community members aged 18 - 45 years and key informants aged 18 years and above. Structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews were used to collect data. Multistage and snowball sampling methods were used to identify study participants. Quantitative data were analysed using the SPSS statistical package for social scientists (Version 12). Cross-tabulations were calculated and Pearson's chi-square test used to test significance of relationships between categorical variables. Recorded qualitative data were transcribed and coded. Themes were developed and integrated. A generation of concepts was used to organise the presentation into summaries, interpretations and text. A total of 385 individuals participated in the survey, 50% of whom were women. There were 30 key informants. Farming was the main source of income but half of the women (49.7% ) had no income. Most of the respondents (85.5% ) knew of breastfeeding as a route of HIV transmission with sex (p=0.003) and age (p=0.000) being highly associated with this knowledge. Breastfeeding was the norm although exclusive breastfeeding was not practised. Cow's milk, the main breast milk substitute, was reported as being given to infants as early as two weeks. It was the most popular (93.5% ) infant feeding option in the context of HIV/AIDS. Heating expressed milk, wet nursing and milk banks were least preferred. Thus, the social, cultural and psychological complexity of infant feeding practices should be taken into account when advocating appropriate infant feeding options. Further research is required to determine the safety of using cow's milk as an infant feeding option. Community engagement, including education and awareness strategies, specific to the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding as a mechanism to reduce the risk of HIV transmission is urgently needed. PMID:20485852
Wachira, J; Otieno-Nyunya, B; Ballidawa, J; Braitstein, P
Abstract Background Evidence exists regarding the full prevention of HCV transmission to hemodialysis patients by implementing universal precaution. However, little information is available regarding the frequency with which hospitals have adopted evidence-based practices for preventing HCV infection among hemodialysis patients. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted among nurses in Calabria region (Italy) in order to acquire information about the level of knowledge, the attitudes and th...
Bianco Aida; Bova Francesca; Ga, Nobile Carmelo; Pileggi Claudia; Pavia Maria
Postpartum women in the Honduran health system: folic acid knowledge, attitudes, and practices Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas relacionados con el ácido fólico en mujeres recién paridas en Honduras
OBJECTIVES: This study had two purposes: first, to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to folic acid and birth defects among a convenience sample of postpartum Honduran women; and second, to identify food consumption patterns in this population and determine high-consumption staples for potential folic acid fortification. METHODS: Convenience sampling methodology was used to recruit potential study participants. Participants for this study were 2 619 postpartum Honduran ...
Milla, Gayle R.; Flores, Alina L.; Edgardo Umaña; Mayes Ileana; Jorge Rosenthal
Background: In South Africa the teenage fertility rate is high. About 42% of women have theirsexual debut by 18 years of age and 5% by 15. These young women are also at risk of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Despitewidespread availability of contraception, 18% of sexually active teenagers do not use any. Previous research on the knowledge of, attitudes to and practices of contraception by teenagers has focused on older adolescents.Objec...
Pamela Mda; Don OMahony; Parimalarani Yogeswaran; Graham Wright
Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are common in children and represent a significant cause of antibiotic abuse which contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance. A survey was conducted in Cyprus in 2006 to assess parents and pediatricians Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) concerning the role of antibiotics in children with URTIs. A school-based stratified geographic clustering sampling was used and a pre-tested KAP questionnaire was distributed. A different qu...
Christos Hadjichristodoulou; George Syrogiannopoulos; Maria Theodoridou; Sotiria Panagakou; Adamos Hadjipanayis; Vassiliki Papaevangelou; Andreas Rouusounides
BackgroundLymphatic filariasis (LF) is a major cause of permanent disability in many tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Malaysia is one of the countries in which LF is an endemic disease. Five rounds of the mass drug administration (MDA) program have been conducted in Malaysia as part of the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) by year 2020. This study investigated the level of awareness of LF and the MDA program in a population living in an endemic area of the country.MethodsA descriptive cross-sectional survey that involved 230 respondents (¿15 years old) living in the LF endemic communities of Terengganu state in Peninsular Malaysia was performed. Demographic, socioeconomic, and knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) data of the respondents were obtained using pre-tested questionnaires and were analyzed using SPSS software version 13.0.ResultsMore than 80% of the respondents were aware of LF and the common symptoms of the disease. Moreover, about 70% of the respondents that were aware of LF indicated that it is a problematic disease. Approximately 77% of the respondents indicated that filariasis is transmitted by mosquitoes. Two-thirds of respondents preferred hospital treatment for illness; however, only 12% had participated and/or received treatment for LF during an MDA program. Only 35% of the respondents that participated in this research were aware of the MDA program that had taken place in the area. None of the respondents had knowledge of the drug used in the treatment of LF. The findings from this research indicated that there was no significant association between LF awareness and with gender, age group, educational status, occupation, or socio-economic status of the respondents (P >0.05).ConclusionA good proportion of the respondents are aware of LF, its mode of transmission and symptoms, however they demonstrated a poor knowledge of MDA which took place in the study area. For greater understanding of LF in the Malaysian population, there is a need for an enhancement in the delivery of health education and information programs and mass mobilization campaigns in endemic communities. PMID:25428558
Al-Abd, Nazeh M; Nor, Zurainee; Ahmed, Abdulhamid; Al-Adhroey, Abdulelah H; Mansor, Marzida; Kassim, Mustafa
Background: Emergency contraception is administered after unprotected intercourse to prevent unintended pregnancy. Sexually active young and adolescent women are at greatest risk of unintended pregnancy and thus unsafe abortion related morbidity and mortality. Objective: Purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and experiences on emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) by female college students of Udaipur. Study design: Cross-sectional, pre-structured questionnaire based study. M...
Arun Kumar, Keerti
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had misconception about transmission of HIV infection should not be allowed to work in the clinic or hospital. 36% of male and 9% of female students admitted indulging in safe sexual practices mostly with their friends.
Amalraj Edwin R
Improvement of knowledge, attitudes and practices among urban livestock farmers could have a significant impact on the reduction of many zoonotic infections in urban farming. This study aimed to describe and evaluate weak areas in knowledge, attitudes and practices with regards to brucellosis among urban and peri-urban small-scale dairy farmers in a low income country to generate information essential for control programmes and public health interventions. The cross-sectional study was conducted during six weeks in 2011. The study subjects were small-scale dairy farmers living in the urban and peri-urban area of the capital Dushanbe in Tajikistan. In total, 441 farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with questions about demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to brucellosis. Descriptive statistics were used and a logistic regression model applied to evaluate potential predictors to knowledge about brucellosis. The majority (85%) of the farmers had never heard of brucellosis. Low educational level was found to be associated with low awareness of brucellosis (P = < 0.001). Respondents who talked about animal health issues with family members or friends were less likely to have heard of brucellosis compared to those who often talked to veterinarians (P = 0.03). Sixty three per cent of the participants wanted more information about brucellosis. Seventeen per cent sold unpasteurized dairy products on a regular basis direct to consumers. Almost 30% of the households consumed unpasteurized dairy products on regular basis. A majority of the respondents did not use any protection when handling cows having an abortion or when dealing with aborted materials. Poor knowledge, high-risk behaviours and a willingness to learn more strengthens the logic for including health education as part of control programmes. PMID:25668783
Lindahl, Elisabeth; Sattorov, Nosirjon; Boqvist, Sofia; Magnusson, Ulf
Improvement of knowledge, attitudes and practices among urban livestock farmers could have a significant impact on the reduction of many zoonotic infections in urban farming. This study aimed to describe and evaluate weak areas in knowledge, attitudes and practices with regards to brucellosis among urban and peri-urban small-scale dairy farmers in a low income country to generate information essential for control programmes and public health interventions. The cross-sectional study was conducted during six weeks in 2011. The study subjects were small-scale dairy farmers living in the urban and peri-urban area of the capital Dushanbe in Tajikistan. In total, 441 farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with questions about demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to brucellosis. Descriptive statistics were used and a logistic regression model applied to evaluate potential predictors to knowledge about brucellosis. The majority (85%) of the farmers had never heard of brucellosis. Low educational level was found to be associated with low awareness of brucellosis (P = < 0.001). Respondents who talked about animal health issues with family members or friends were less likely to have heard of brucellosis compared to those who often talked to veterinarians (P = 0.03). Sixty three per cent of the participants wanted more information about brucellosis. Seventeen per cent sold unpasteurized dairy products on a regular basis direct to consumers. Almost 30% of the households consumed unpasteurized dairy products on regular basis. A majority of the respondents did not use any protection when handling cows having an abortion or when dealing with aborted materials. Poor knowledge, high-risk behaviours and a willingness to learn more strengthens the logic for including health education as part of control programmes. PMID:25668783
Lindahl, Elisabeth; Sattorov, Nosirjon; Boqvist, Sofia; Magnusson, Ulf
The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice of Breast Self-Examination (BSE) among female university students from 24 low, middle income and emerging economy countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 10,810 female undergraduate university students aged 16- 30 (mean age 20.7, SD=2.9) from 25 universities in 24 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 50.4% of the female students indicated that they knew how to conduct BSE. Among all women, 59.3% had never practiced BSE in the past 12 months, 21.3% 1-2 times, 10.3% 3-10 times, and 9.1% monthly. The proportion of monthly BSE was above 20% in Nigeria and Laos and below 2% in Bangladesh, India, Singapore, Russia, and South Africa. Logistic regression found that BSE importance or positive attitude was highly associated with BSE practice. BSE practices were found to be inadequate and efforts should be made to develop programmes that can increase knowledge related to breast cancer as well as the practice of breast self-examination. PMID:25374181
Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl
Background. Hand hygiene is recognized as the leading measure to prevent cross-transmission of microorganisms. Regarding hospital acquired infections, the compliance of nurses with hand washing guidelines seems to be vital in preventing the disease transmission among patients. There is a paucity of studies exploring this subject in Asia. Especially medical and nursing student's knowledge of standard hand hygiene precautions is rarely compared. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 98 medical and 46 nursing students in a tertiary medical college in India. Knowledge was assessed using WHO hand hygiene questionnaire. Attitude and practices were evaluated by using another self-structured questionnaire. Z test was used to compare the percentage of correct responses between medical and nursing students. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Only 9% of participants (13 out of 144) had good knowledge regarding hand hygiene. Nursing students knowledge (P = 0.023) , attitude (P = 0.023), and practices (P < 0.05) were significantly better than medical students. PMID:24967144
Nair, Sreejith Sasidharan; Hanumantappa, Ramesh; Hiremath, Shashidhar Gurushantswamy; Siraj, Mohammed Asaduddin; Raghunath, Pooja
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence exists regarding the full prevention of HCV transmission to hemodialysis patients by implementing universal precaution. However, little information is available regarding the frequency with which hospitals have adopted evidence-based practices for preventing HCV infection among hemodialysis patients. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted among nurses in Calabria region (Italy in order to acquire information about the level of knowledge, the attitudes and the frequencies of evidence-based practices that prevent hospital transmission of HCV. Methods All 37 hemodialysis units (HDU of Calabria were included in the study and all nurses were invited to participate in the study and to fill in a self-administered questionnaire. Results 90% of the nurses working in HDU participated in the study. Correct answers about HCV pattern of transmission ranged from 73.7% to 99.3% and were significantly higher in respondents who knew that isolation of HCV-infected patients is not recommended and among those who knew that previous bloodstream infections should be included in medical record and among nurses with fewer years of practice. Most correctly thought that evidence-based infection control measures provide adequate protection against transmission of bloodborne pathogens among healthcare workers. Positive attitude was significantly higher among more knowledgeable nurses. Self-reporting of appropriate handwashing procedures were significantly more likely in nurses who were aware that transmission of bloodborne pathogens among healthcare workers may be prevented through adoption of evidence-based practices and with a correct knowledge about HCV transmission patterns. Conclusions Behavior changes should be aimed at abandoning outdated practices and adopting and maintaining evidence-based practices. Initiatives focused at enabling and reinforcing adherence to effective prevention practices among nurses in HDU are strongly needed.
Full Text Available Background: Death related to unintended pregnancy associated events is a series public health concern in Ethiopia. This is very common in young adolescents for whom life is full of adventure and temptation with very little knowledge about the consequences of their reckless activities. Emergency contraceptives are the only method that can be used within short time after sexual intercourse, offering a second chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives among female college students at Mekelle town, Ethiopia.Methods: An institutional based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 616 female college students at Mekelle town from March to July, 2011. Multistage sampling technique with Probabilities proportional to size was used. Data were analyzed by SPSS window version 16.0 software package and presented using frequencies, percentages. Crude & adjusted odds ratio were used to control the possible confounding variables. Results: Of the total respondents, 393(67.3% of them replied that they have heard about emergency contraceptives. Among those who have ever heard of emergency contraceptives, 224 (57% mentioned pills only, 9 (2.3% mentioned intrauterine contraceptive devices only and 154(39.2% mentioned both pill & IUCDs. 263(45% of the respondents were knowledgeable towards ECs, and about 271(46.4% of the students had positive attitude towards emergency contraceptives. Of the sexually active respondents 70(24.2% only reported that they had used emergency contraceptive methods previously. Whereas, 219(75.8% were not used emergency contraceptives; some of the reasons were lack of knowledge about ECs (42.9%; no desire to use (22.8% and inaccessibility toward emergency contraceptives (16.4%.Conclusion: The study indicated low level of knowledge; very low level of practice and majority showed negative attitude towards emergency contraceptives.
Haftom Gebrehiwot*, Berhane Gebrekidan, Haftu Berhe and Kalayou Kidanu
Leprosy is an Infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae and acquired through droplet infection. India has been carrying the 2/3rd global leprosy burden. Inadequate or incorrect information and knowledge about the disease and its treatment are the root causes of many stigmas and inhibitions prevalent in the various sections of the community. The present study was undertaken to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding leprosy among undergraduates (final year medical students) and interns of Rural Medical College and Pravara Rural Hospital, Loni, Maharashtra, India. It is heartening to note that most of students and interns had good knowledge about regimens, counselling and were willing to work in leprosy. There were, however, misconceptions about several aspects of diseases which were more in case of final year students compared with interns. Significant improvementin the knowledge of interns in comparison offinal year MBBS students was mostly noted on the aspects like transmission of leprosy, involvement of ulnar nerve in the leprosy, immunological relevance, use of vaccine, treatment of leprosy affected person and leprosy associated stigma. This positive change in attitudes as well as knowledge highlight the requirement of proper training and clinical exposure of medical students and important role of internship. There is need to focus on important aspects (such as cardinal signs, public health aspects and definitions, infectivity, misconception about marriage in which insignificant changes were observed. PMID:21972659
Giri, P A; Phalke, D B; Aarif, S M M
Objectives: Noise is known to be one of the environmental and occupational hazards listed in the Factory and Machinery Act 1967. Quarries with loud deafening sounds from trucks and machineries pose the risk of noise-induced hearing loss to workers. This study was designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice towards noise-induced hearing loss and to determine the prevalence of noise-induced hearing loss and its associated factors among quarry workers in a north-eastern state of Mala...
Ahmad Filza Ismail; Aziah Daud; Zaliha Ismail; Baharudin Abdullah
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O câncer da mama é um dos principais problemas de saúde pública e a educação para o auto-exame mamário é uma das etapas fundamentais na identificação de tumores da mama em fase inicial. Realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de avaliar o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática do auto-exame das mamas entre usuárias de centros de saúde. MÉTODOS: Em estudo tipo inquérito CAP (conhecimento, atitude e prática foram entrevistadas 663 mulheres de 13 centros de saúde municipais selecionados de forma aleatória. O número de entrevistas em cada centro de saúde foi proporcional ao número médio mensal de mulheres atendidas. As respostas das usuárias foram descritas quanto ao conhecimento, atitude e prática, e suas respectivas adequações para o auto-exame das mamas, como previamente definido. A adequação foi comparada entre as categorias das variáveis de controle pelo teste X² RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que o conhecimento e a prática do auto-exame das mamas foram adequados em 7,4% e 16,7% das entrevistadas respectivamente, embora a atitude frente a este procedimento tenha sido adequada em 95,9% das entrevistas. O estudo também mostrou que o esquecimento desta prática foi a principal barreira para a sua não realização, sendo referido por 58,1% das mulheres. CONCLUSÕES: As mulheres que utilizaram os centros de saúde tiveram conhecimento e prática inadequados para auto-exame das mamas, apesar de apresentarem atitude adequada e favorável à realização desse procedimento.OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is one of the most important problems of public health and education regarding breast self-examination is one of the important steps for identifying breast tumors at an early stage. The present study was carried out to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of breast self-examination among patients attending health centers. METHODS: In a KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practice survey 663 women of 13 randomly selected municipal health centers were interviewed. The number of interviews in each health center was proportional to the mean number of women seen per month. In the data analysis, women's answers for knowledge, attitude and practice regarding breast self-examination were classified according to their adequacy as previously defined. Adequacy was compared among categories of control variables with X² test. RESULTS: The results showed that knowledge and practice of breast self-examination were adequate in 7.4% and 16.7%, respectively. However, attitude was adequate in 95.9% of the women interviewed. The study also showed that 58.1% of the women interviewed referred that forgetfulness was the main barrier for not performing self-examination. CONCLUSIONS: Women attending the health centers sampled in this study had inadequate knowledge and practice about breast self-examination but they had an adequate and favorable attitude about it.
Luiz Alberto Barcelos Marinho
Full Text Available Background: In South Africa the teenage fertility rate is high. About 42% of women have theirsexual debut by 18 years of age and 5% by 15. These young women are also at risk of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Despitewidespread availability of contraception, 18% of sexually active teenagers do not use any. Previous research on the knowledge of, attitudes to and practices of contraception by teenagers has focused on older adolescents.Objectives: This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices about contraception amongst1214 year old unmarried schoolgirls with a view to inform planning of programmes to assist inreducing teenage pregnancies.Methods: A qualitative study design with purposive sampling was used to select participants from two government-run schools in King Sabata Dalindyebo Municipality. In-depth and focus group interviews were conducted after obtaining written consent from parents and assent from participants. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, translated and analysed thematically.Findings: Participants reported that young adolescents were sexually active, which included highrisk sexual behaviour such as multiple partners and casual and transactional sex. Knowledge about contraceptives varied widely. Condoms were the most preferred method of contraception, but it is unknown whether they ever used condoms as they professed to talk about the behaviour of others rather than themselves. Injectable contraceptives were believed to have long-term negative effects. Common sources of contraceptive information were friends or peers, school curriculum and to a lesser extent family members.Conclusions: Findings of the study suggest that young adolescents are sexually active and haveinadequate knowledge and misconceptions about contraception. These findings should informeducational programmes about risks of early sexual activity and about contraception.
Full Text Available Ciamis district is dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF endemic area that significantly increased of number of cases on last three years period (2004-2006. This fact is a reason to conduct research that aimed to know a description a societys knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP and also to know relationships between that one with the occurrences of DHF. The research was designed using cross sectional study; 195 respondents was interviewed to know the level of societys KAP. The final results of this research was showed that the respondents KASP is good but does not give impact on occurrences of DHF cases because its practice was not done yet by societies in control DHF disease.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Late presentation has been observed as the hallmark of breast cancer in Nigerian women and an earlier onset has been reported in this population. This study was designed to assess the awareness of female health workers about risk factors and screening methods for early detection of breast cancer. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out among female health workers in the two major government health institutions in Benin City, Edo State capital in Nigeria. Data analysis was by SPSS version 10 and test of significance was done with differences considered significant at p Results Three hundred and ninety-three (393 female health workers out of five hundred and five eligible subjects completed and returned the questionnaires, giving a response rate of 77.8%. One hundred and two (26% were Doctors, two hundred and fifty-four (64.6% Nurses, and thirty-seven (9.4% were Radiographers, Laboratory Scientists and Pharmacists. A high proportion of our respondents had very poor knowledge about risk factors for breast cancer (55%. The awareness of mammography as a diagnostic method was very high (80.7%, but an extremely low knowledge of mammography as a screening method was found. Mammography practice of only 3.1% was found among those above 40 years of age who qualify for routine annual screening. Relatively low knowledge (45.5% about Breast Self Examination (BSE as a screening method was found. Conclusion These female health workers who are expected to act as role models and educate the public had poor knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer and practice of breast cancer screening. There is very urgent need for regular update courses for health workers concerning breast cancer education including screening methods.
Omuemu Vivian O
Maltrato infantil: conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de estudiantes de Odontología de Cartagena, Colombia / Child abuse: knowledge, attitudes and practices of dental students in Cartagena, Colombia
Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre maltrato infantil en estudiantes de odontología en una universidad pública de Cartagena, Colombia. Diseño del estudio: Estudio descriptivo. Emplazamiento: Universidad pública de Cartagena, Colombia. Participantes: 208 estudiantes de [...] odontología de Cartagena (Colombia), seleccionados a través de un muestreo probabilístico. Mediciones principales: Se diseñó y utilizó un instrumento tipo cuestionario estructurado anónimo de auto-reporte para evaluar las variables: sociodemográficas, conocimientos (relacionados con maltrato físico, abuso sexual, negligencia, maltrato psicológico, indicadores de maltrato infantil y responsabilidades), actitudes, prácticas y prevalencia de posibles sospechas de casos de maltrato infantil detectados en la práctica odontológica. Los datos fueron analizados a través de distribuciones de frecuencia y proporciones. Para establecer relaciones entre la sospecha de maltrato infantil con algunas variables de interés se utilizó la prueba ?² asumiendo un límite de 0,05 para la significación. Resultados: La prevalencia actual de casos de sospecha de maltrato infantil fue del 2,4 %, y la de alguna vez del 20 %. Los conocimientos fueron buenos para el 54,3 % de los sujetos y aceptable en el 44,7 %; las actitudes favorables en el 96,1 %. De 42 estudiantes que tuvieron alguna sospecha durante su práctica, 15 manifestaron como primera acción comunicarla a su docente, seguida por comentarla a un compañero y guardar silencio. Las tres cuartas partes de los que manifestaron haber tenido una sospecha de maltrato no la consignaron en la historia clínica. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de posibles casos de maltrato infantil identificados por los estudiantes de odontología fue alta; sus conocimientos y actitudes fueron adecuados. Sin embargo, existe incongruencia con las prácticas reportadas; por esto es necesario realizar entrenamientos en la temática que brinden una mayor seguridad al estudiante en el momento de identificar y reportar los posibles casos de maltrato infantil desde la práctica odontológica. Abstract in english Objetive: to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices in dental students at the Cartagena state university, Colombia regarding child abuse. Study design: descriptive study. Location: Cartagena state university, Colombia. Participants: 208 dental students from Cartagena (Colombia), selected th [...] rough probability sampling. Main analysed data: a self-reporting anonymous structured questionnaire-type instrument was designed and used to evaluate socio-demographic variables, knowledge (related to physical abuse, sexual abuse, negligence, psychological abuse, signs of child abuse and responsibilities), attitudes, practices and prevalence of possible suspicion of cases of child abuse detected in dental practice). The data were analysed through frequency distributions and proportions. In order to determine relationships between suspicion of child abuse and some variables of interest, test ?2 was used, assuming a limit of 0.05 for significance. Results: current prevalence of suspected cases of child abuse was 2.4% and that of it occurring at sometime, 20%. Knowledge was good for 54.3% of the subjects and acceptable for 44.7%; favourable attitudes, 96.1%. Of 42 students who had some kind of suspicion during their practice, 15 stated that their first action was to report it to their teacher, followed by telling a classmate and keeping quiet. Three quarters of those who stated they had suspected abuse did not enter it in the clinical record. Conclusions: the prevalence of possible cases of child abuse identified by dental students was high; their knowledge and attitudes were appropriate. However, there is incongruence in reported practices; for this reason, it is necessary to carry out training on the subject to provide the student with greater certainty on identifying and reporting possible cases of child abuse from the position of dental practice.
Katherine M., Arrieta Vergara; Shyrley, Díaz Cárdenas; Farith, González Martínez.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine nurses knowledge, attitude and practice on the initial management of acute poisoning among adult casualties seen at Accident and Emergency Department (AED, Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH. The study was cross sectional. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were employed. The target population were all nurses working at AED, KNH. Purposive sampling was used to select study subjects. Sample size included all Accident and Emergency (A&E nurses who met subjects inclusion criteria. Structured questionnaires, observation checklist and interview were used to collect the data. Sixty eight (82% of A&E nurses participated in this study. The study found out that with higher nursing qualification and training on courses related to emergency care, knowledge and skills of A&E nurses on the initial management of acute poisoning is enhanced. A&E nurses with lower education level had a higher mean score of positive attitude compared with nurses with higher nursing qualification. Majority 60 (88.2% of the A&E nurses indicated that, they required more training on the initial management of acute poisoning. Study recommends that A&E nurses should be trained on various types of poisoning including; assessment, clinical presentations and management to include gut decontaminations. In addition, refresher courses should be organised for those already trained. Flowcharts that will enhance easy identification and management of poisoned casualties should be put in place and utilized accordingly.
Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand.
More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand. PMID:25506754
Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices of practitioners in the medicine department of tertiary care teaching rural hospital with respect to antihypertensives and find out the disparity between the recommended and actual practices for pharmacological management. Methods: It was survey type of study, carried out using feedback questionnaire related to use of antihypertensives. Total 25 consultants were included in the study. Results: It was found that in mild hypertension single drug and two drugs in combination were preferred by 15 and 10 practitioners respectively. In moderate hypertension single drug, two drugs in combination, and greater than two drugs were preferred by 3, 13, and 7 practitioners respectively. In severe hypertension two drugs in combination and greater than two drugs were preferred by 16 and 9 practitioners respectively; none preferred single drug. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors /angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, Calcium channel blockers, diuretics were preferred as first line drug by 7, 4, 8, and 16 practitioners respectively. Most commonly preferred combination was Losartan and amlodipine by 16 practitioners. In pregnancy nifedipine was preferred as the first line drug while in elderly diuretics were preferred. In hypertensive patients with age less than 40 years all practitioners preferred ACEIs/ARBs. In diabetics ACEIs/ARBs was preferred by all practitioners. Each practitioner claimed to follow Joint National Committee (JNC 7 criteria. Cost of drug was an important consideration in all their prescribing patterns. Conclusion: The knowledge, attitudes and practices followed by the practitioners of Dhiraj hospital were satisfactory and guidelines oriented. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 715-717
Full Text Available Background : School health program (SHP is an important component of the overall health care delivery system of any country. In developing countries such as Nigeria where infant and early childhood mortality is high its importance cannot be overemphasized. For this reason and the recent action plan of the Federal Government of Nigeria concerning SHP, the knowledge, attitude and practice of SHP among head teachers of primary schools in a Local Government Area in Nigeria was evaluated. Methods : A pre-tested questionnaire designed to evaluate the knowledge attitude and practice of SHP by the researchers was administered by assistants to 133 head teachers of 104 private and 29 public primary schools in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. The School premises were also inspected to check provision of pipe borne water, sick bay, toilet facilities and the adequacy of the school environments among other things. Results :None of the head teachers had adequate knowledge of SHP. 93.1% from private compared to 48.3% from public schools had poor knowledge of SHP (?2 = 56.86, p < 0.05. A favorable attitude was demonstrated by all the teachers. Up to 40.4% of private compared to 31.0% of public schools have SHP. Overall 27.7% of the schools had no toilet facility, 33.3% had pit latrine while 40.0% had water closet. Only 25.6% had hand washing facilities. Regarding health services, 51.0% of private schools compared to 27.6% of public schools perform medical inspection of the pupils. Similarly 39.4% private compared to 3.4% public schools have sick bay (?2 = 11.11; p < 0.05. A total of 16.5% of the schools undertake medical screening of food handlers/vendors, while 20.2% private compared to 3.4% public schools screen food handlers/vendors (?2 = 4.47; p < 0.05. Conclusion : The poor status of SHP in Nigeria may be attributed to failure of policy enunciation, poor primary health care base and lack of supervision.
Full Text Available To assess the awareness of Pharmacovigilance among the medical graduates and to evaluate the need of inclusion of KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Pharmacovigilance in Internship Training Programme as an educational intervention.Material and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Internship orientation program in a rural hospital of central India. It was a Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study in which 65 Interns (medical graduates were participated. Semi-structured, Pre-Designed, Pre-tested Questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was entered and analyzed using statistical software EPI INFO 3.5.3.Results: In our study a total of 65 medical graduates were responded and involved in the pre KAP and post KAP survey questionnaires. The overall response rate between pre intervention and post intervention was statistically significant and that shows effectiveness of educational intervention for improving awareness of Pharmacovigilance among medical graduates.Conclusion: Imparting the knowledge and awareness of Pharmacovigilance among the medical graduates by mean of continuous educational intervention would bring update of knowledge for drug safety into their everyday clinical practice and also bring the adverse drug reactions(ADRs reporting culture among them.
VARMA SUSHIL KUMAR
Full Text Available Abstract Background China is at greatest risk of the Pandemic (H1N1 2009 due to its huge population and high residential density. The unclear comprehension and negative attitudes towards the emerging infectious disease among general population may lead to unnecessary worry and even panic. The objective of this study was to investigate the Chinese public response to H1N1 pandemic and provide baseline data to develop public education campaigns in response to future outbreaks. Methods A close-ended questionnaire developed by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention was applied to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of pandemic (H1N1 2009 among 10,669 responders recruited from seven urban and two rural areas of China sampled by using the probability proportional to size (PPS method. Results 30.0% respondents were not clear whether food spread H1N1 virusand. 65.7% reported that the pandemic had no impact on their life. The immunization rates of the seasonal flu and H1N1vaccine were 7.5% and 10.8%, respectively. Farmers and those with lower education level were less likely to know the main transmission route (cough or talk face to face. Female and those with college and above education had higher perception of risk and more compliance with preventive behaviors. Relationships between knowledge and risk perception (OR = 1.69; 95%CI 1.54-1.86, and knowledge and practices (OR = 1.57; 95%CI 1.42-1.73 were found among the study subjects. With regard to the behavior of taking up A/H1N1 vaccination, there are several related factors found in the current study population, including the perception of life disturbed (OR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.11-1.50, the safety of A/H1N1 vaccine (OR = 0.07; 95%CI 0.04-0.11, the knowledge of free vaccination policy (OR = 7.20; 95%CI 5.91-8.78, the state's priority vaccination strategy(OR = 1.33; 95%CI 1.08-1.64, and taking up seasonal influenza vaccine behavior (OR = 4.69; 95%CI 3.53-6.23. Conclusions This A/H1N1 epidemic has not caused public panic yet, but the knowledge of A/H1N1 in residents is not optimistic. Public education campaign may take the side effects of vaccine and the knowledge about the state's vaccination strategy into account.
Full Text Available Adiarsa Barat village is one of endemic area of the Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF in Karawang. That village had not touched by community empowerment yet. The purpose of this research was to know effectiveness of housewives empowerment for eradication of DHF with breeding site control. This research was an experimental quation, with intervention in one location and control in other. The final result was hoped that the respondents would increase of knowledge, attitude and practice. The data of housewife behaviour was collected by intervew. This research found that there was the increase of housewifes group behaviour, followed by the increase of housewifes behaviour at intervention area with P value 0,05.This reaserch suggested that people participation needed to be identified first then monitored periodically, so that their behaviour to eradicate DHF disease would be a habit or permanent.
Objective: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals about pharmacovigilance in Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Medical College and Hospital (DSMCH), Perambalur (Tamil Nadu), a tertiary care teaching hospital. The second primary objective was to assess the causation of underreporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) as it needs to be well-assessed in India. The secondary objective was to compare the findings of this study with the results of the published studies from India on evaluation of the KAP of pharmacovigilance among healthcare professional. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to assess the KAP regarding pharmacovigilance. The healthcare professionals (doctors, nurses, and pharmacists) working in the DSMCH, Perambalur (Tamil Nadu) during the study period were included. Only those who gave their consent to participate were included in the study. The data was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical software, version 16. Results: One hundred and fifty pretested questionnaires were distributed among the healthcare professionals and 101 responded. 62.4% healthcare workers gave correct response regarding the definition of pharmacovigilance. 75.2% of healthcare workers were aware regarding the existence of a National Pharmacovigilance Program of India. 69.3% healthcare professional agreed that ADR reporting is a professional obligation for them. Among the participants, 64.4% have experienced ADRs in patients, but only 22.8% have ever reported ADR to pharmacovigilance center. Unfortunately only 53.5% healthcare workers have been trained for reporting adverse reactions. But, 97% healthcare professionals agreed that reporting of ADR is necessary and 92.1% were of the view that pharmacovigilance should be taught in detail to healthcare professional. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that knowledge and attitude towards pharmacovigilance is gradually improving among healthcare professionals, but unfortunately the actual practice of ADR reporting is still deficient among them. PMID:25657902
Gupta, Sandeep Kumar; Nayak, Roopa P.; Shivaranjani, R.; Vidyarthi, Surendra Kumar
Full Text Available The knowledge-based theory of the firm suggests that knowledge is the organizational asset that enables sustainable competitive advantage in hypercompetitive environments. The emphasis on knowledge intoday's organizations is based on the assumption that barriers to the transfer and replication of knowledge endow it with strategic importance. Many organizations are developing information systems designed specifically to facilitate the sharing and integration of knowledge. Such systems are referred to as Knowledge Management System (KMS. The current study provides an analysis of current practices and outcomes of KMS and the nature of KMS as they are evolving in organizations. The findings suggest that interest in KMS across a variety of industries is very high, the technological foundations are varied, and the major concerns revolve around achieving the correct amount and type of accurate knowledge andgarnering support for contributing to the KMS. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are drawn from the study findings.
Attitudes, knowledge and practices of healthcare workers regarding occupational exposure of pulmonary tuberculosis / Attitudes, connaissances et pratiques des membres du personnel soignant relatives à l'exposition du personnel soignant à la tuberculose pulmonaire
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated tuberculosis (TB) has become a major occupational hazard for healthcare workers (HCWs). HCWs are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Whenever there is a possibility of exposure, implemen [...] tation of infection prevention and control (IPC) practices is critical. OBJECTIVE: Following a high incidence of TB among HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital in Lesotho, a study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of HCWs regarding healthcare-associated TB infection and infection controls. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study performed in June 2011; it involved HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital who were involved with patients and/or sputum. Stratified sampling of 140 HCWs was performed, of whom, 129 (92.0%) took part. A self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was used. RESULTS: Most respondents (89.2%) had appropriate knowledge of transmission, diagnosis and prevention of TB; however, only 22.0% of the respondents knew the appropriate method of sputum collection. All of the respondents (100.0%) were motivated and willing to implement IPC measures. A significant proportion of participants (36.4%) reported poor infection control practices, with the majority of inappropriate practices being the administrative infection controls (> 80.0%). Only 38.8% of the participants reported to be using the appropriate N-95 respirator. CONCLUSION: Poor infection control practices regarding occupational TB exposure were demonstrated, the worst being the first-line administrative infection controls. Critical knowledge gaps were identified; however, there was encouraging willingness by HCWs to adapt to recommended infection control measures. Healthcare workers are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Implementation of infection prevention and control practices is critical whenever there is a possibility of exposure.
Lesley T., Bhebhe; Cornel, Van Rooyen; Wilhelm J., Steinberg.
Full Text Available Background: Knowledge regarding Influenza A (H1N1 and its transmission and measures of prevention and control are important for individual protection as well as to contain the spread of the disease. Objective: To study the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding Influenza A (H1N1 among senior secondary school students of Kanpur. Study Design: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study. Material and Methods: This study was conducted among students of Class XI and XII of a leading private school in Kanpur. All the students present in the class at the time of the survey were included in the study. Results: Of the 483 students included in the study, 208 (43.1% knew that it was a viral disease. Of all the students, 303 (62.7% knew about the mode of transmission. Around 336 (69.6% of the students knew that fever >38°C was a major symptom. Less commonly occurring symptoms such as diarrhoea (20.9% and vomiting (14.3% were known to few students. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding Influenza A (H1N1 needs to be enhanced among senior secondary school students through appropriate awareness programs.
Objectives: To determine the vaccination status for hepatitis B and knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding hepatitis B and C among medical students of Karachi and to evaluate the effects of gender and age on the responses, regarding vaccination and KAP for Hepatitis B and C. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in 7 medical colleges/ universities of Karachi. Convenient sampling was used to collect the information. Questionnaire regarding awareness about prevention, transmission, diagnosis, treatment and vaccination availability for hepatitis B and C was completed from each individual. In addition, vaccination status of hepatitis B and the awareness of students regarding post exposure prophylaxis was also documented. One thousand five hundred and nine students participated in this study. Results: The mean age of medical students (1509) was 20.35 +- 1.72 years. Female participants were 1075 (71.2%) and 937 62.1%) of the respondents were studying in public institutions. Eighty five percent of the respondents indicated that they were aware of availability of a vaccine for hepatitis B. Only 57.1% medical students showed excellent knowledge regarding the route of spread of hepatitis B and C. Students showing good knowledge of treatment procedures for hepatitis B and C were 48.2%. Half of the respondents (49.8%) showed good knowledge regarding spread of hepatitis by dental procedures. Seventy six percent of participating medical students did not have aticipating medical students did not have any knowledge about the post exposure prophylaxis for hepatitis B and C. Seventy four percent indicated that the hepatitis patients should not be isolated. Seventy nine percent of the students reported that they were vaccinated for hepatitis B and 70.6% of them were completely vaccinated (3 doses). About half of the respondents (49.4%) indicated that they were screened for hepatitis B and only 27.1% were screened for hepatitis C. Half of the students reported that they have had needle pricks in their students career. Conclusion: The overall KAP of studied group showed satisfactory outcomes. However, some areas of knowledge and attitude need to be modified or changed altogether. (author)
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: O exame de Papanicolaou já mostrou efetividade na prevenção de câncer do colo do útero. A literatura nacional e internacional tem mostrado que o exame de Papanicolaou não tem alcançado o índice de cobertura desejado. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os conhecimentos, atitud [...] es e práticas entre mulheres em relação ao exame de Papanicolaou e verificar se existe associação entre esses comportamentos e as características sociodemográficas. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo descritivo e transversal realizado em Floriano, Piauí. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi conduzido com 493 mulheres no período de novembro de 2009 a dezembro de 2010. Utilizou-se m questionário com perguntas precodificadas, cujas respostas foram analisadas quanto à adequação dos comportamentos em relação ao exame. RESULTADOS: Os graus de adequação dos conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas em relação ao exame foram de 36,7%, 67,2% e 69,6%, respectivamente. Dentre as principais barreiras para a sua realização, destacaram-se a ausência de sintomas e a vergonha. CONCLUSÃO: As mulheres que realizam consultas periodicamente apresentam prática mais adequada, porém com baixa adequação de conhecimentos frente ao procedimento, sugerindo que não estejam recebendo as informações adequadas sobre os benefícios da realização periódica do exame de Papanicolaou. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The Papanicolaou (Pap) test has been shown to be effective in preventing cervical cancer. However, both the national and international literature shows that Pap testing has not reached the level of coverage desired. The objective of this study was to assess women's knowledge [...] , attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test and to investigate whether there are any associations between these three factors and the women's sociodemographic characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in Floriano, Piauí. METHODS : The study was conducted among 493 women between November 2009 and December 2010. A questionnaire with precoded questions was sed, and the responses were analyzed in terms of appropriateness in relation to the Pap test. RESULTS : The degrees of adequacy of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the Pap test were 36.7%, 67.2% and 69.6%, respectively. Among the main barriers against testing, absence of symptoms and a sense of embarrassment were the most notable. CONCLUSIONS: Women who visit doctors periodically had the most appropriate practices regarding the Pap test, but their knowledge of the procedure was poor. This suggests that these women were not receiving adequate information about the benefits of periodic testing.
Carla Lorenna Ferreira de, Albuquerque; Marla da Paschoa, Costa; Felipe Moreira, Nunes; Roberto Wagner Junior Freire de, Freitas; Paulo Roberto Medeiros de, Azevedo; Jose Verissimo, Fernandes; Juciane Vaz, Rego; Humberto Medeiros, Barreto.
Background Understanding peoples knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding a new infectious disease is crucial to the prevention and control of it. Human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) was first identified on March 31, 2013 in China. Out of the total number of 134 cases confirmed from March to September 2013 in China, Zhejiang Province saw the greatest number (46 cases). Objective This study employed a mobile Internet survey to assess KAP regarding H7N9 among mobile phone users in Zhejiang Province. This study intended to examine KAP by region and the association between sociodemographic variables and KAP. Methods An anonymous questionnaire was designed by Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). A cross-sectional survey was executed through a mobile Internet application platform of China Unicom in 5 regions in Zhejiang Province. Stratified and clustered sampling methods were applied and mobile phone users were invited to participate in the study voluntarily. Results A total of 9582 eligible mobile phone users participated in the survey with a response rate of 1.92% (9582/5,000,000). A total of 9105 valid responses (95.02%) were included for statistical analysis. Generally, more than three-quarters of the participants had some basic knowledge of H7N9 and held the attitude recommended by the Zhejiang CDC toward eating cooked poultry (77.55%, 7061/9105) and visiting a hospital at the occurrence of symptoms (78.51%, 7148/9105). Approximately half of the participants worried about contracting H7N9, and took preventive practices recommended by the Zhejiang CDC. But only 14.29% (1301/9105) of participants kept eating cooked poultry as usual. Although worry about H7N9 infection did not differ by region, Hangzhou saw the largest proportion of participants with knowledge of H7N9, which was probably because Hangzhou had the greatest number of H7N9 cases. KAP varied by some sociodemographic variables. Female participants were more likely to know about symptoms of H7N9 (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.08-1.61), to worry about contracting it (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04-1.27), and to report their lives being influenced by it (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.15-1.41). They were also more likely to take the recommended precautions. Male participants and younger participants were less likely to comply with advocated protective practices. Conclusions The results suggest that health education should be customized depending on sociodemographic variables to achieve more effective behavioral outcomes. PMID:25653213
Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jueman (Mandy); Wang, Zhengting; Wang, Xinyi; Cai, Jian; Chen, Yongdi; Zheng, Dawei
The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes tow...
Chaojun Xie; Chunhong Wang; Dong Zhou; Jingju Pan; Xiaodong Tan
Portugal is impacted by the rapid growth of the aging population, which has significant implications for its health care system. However, nurses have received little education focusing on the unique and complex care needs of older adults. This gap in the nurses' education has an enormous impact in their knowledge and attitudes and affects the quality of nursing care provided to older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1068 Portuguese nurses in five hospitals (northern and central region) with the following purposes: (i) explore the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about four common geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcer, incontinence, restraint use and sleep disturbance) in Portuguese hospitals; and (ii) evaluate the influence of demographic, professional and nurses' perception about hospital educational support, geriatric knowledge, and burden of caring for older adults upon geriatric nursing knowledge and attitudes. The mean knowledge and attitudes scores were 0.41 ± 0.15 and 0.40 ± 0.21, respectively (the maximum score was 1). Knowledge of nurses in Portuguese hospitals about the four geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcers, sleep disturbance, urinary incontinence and restraint use) was found inadequate. The nurses' attitudes towards caring for hospitalized older adults were generally negative. Nurses who work in academic hospitals demonstrated significantly more knowledge than nurses in hospital centers. The attitudes of nurses were significantly associated with the hospital and unit type, region, hospital educational support, staff knowledge, and perceived burden of caring for older adults. The study findings support the need for improving nurses' knowledge and attitudes towards hospitalized older adults and implementing evidence-based guidelines in their practice. PMID:24628017
de Almeida Tavares, João Paulo; da Silva, Alcione Leite; Sá-Couto, Pedro; Boltz, Marie; Capezuti, Elizabeth
Diferenças regionais de conhecimento, opinião e uso de contraceptivo de emergência entre universitários brasileiros de cursos da área de saúde Regional differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practice in emergency contraceptive use among health sciences university students in Brazil
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as diferenças regionais de conhecimento, opinião e uso de anticoncepção de emergência entre universitários brasileiros. Questionário semi-estruturado abordando conhecimento, opinião, experiência com anticoncepção de emergência e comportamento sexual foi aplicado a adolescentes de universidades brasileiras. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste exato de Fisher e ANOVA. Diferenças foram significantes quando o valor de p The aim of this study was to evaluate regional differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practice in emergency contraception use among Brazilian university students. A sample of university students answered a semi-structured questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes, and practice related to emergency contraception and sexual behavior. Fisher's exact test and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Ninety-six percent (n = 588 of the students had heard of emergency contraception, and 19% (n = 111 knew all the situations in which emergency contraception is indicated, with statistical differences between regions of the country. Forty-two percent of sexually active women in the sample had already used emergency contraception; 35% (n = 207 of students equated emergency contraception with abortion; and 81% (n = 473 thought emergency contraception involves health risks. No significant difference was observed between regions of the country regarding use and attitudes towards emergency contraception. Inter-regional differences in knowledge had no impact on students' attitudes and practice in emergency contraception. National awareness-raising campaigns are needed to improve knowledge on emergency contraception.
Flávia Calanca da Silva
Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers attitudes toknowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated therelationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers,and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledgesharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection.Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. PrincipalComponent Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression wasapplied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the majordeterminants of lawyers attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was notsignificantly related to lawyers attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitudetowards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge,although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positiveknowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also foundto significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more ITinfrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.
Wole M. Olatokun
Purpose: This work has two main objectives: 1) to obtain a set of scales for measuring the patterns, attitudes and practices of integration that can be extrapolated to different scopes (both internal and external) and participants (supplier and customer) within the supply chain; and 2) to evaluate the relations between the different components of integration. Design/methodology/approach: Based on previous literature on the content, measurement and scope of the concept of integration, a mod...
Vallet Bellmunt, Teresa; Rivera Torres, Pilar
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática em relação ao uso prévio de métodos anticoncepcionais em adolescentes gestantes, bem como algumas de suas características sociodemográficas e da sua vida sexual. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, associado a inquérito conhecimento, atitude e prática. Envolveu 156 adolescentes grávidas com idade menor ou igual a 19 anos, que responderam a questionário antes da primeira consulta pré-natal, entre outubro de 1999 a agosto de 2000. Foram realizadas análises univariada e bivariada.Para esta foram utilizados os testes qui-quadrado de Pearson e de Yates e de regressão logística. RESULTADOS: As adolescentes apresentaram média de idade de 16,1 anos. Houve predomínio de primigestas (78,8%. A idade média da menarca foi 12,2 anos, sendo 14,5 anos para a primeira relação sexual. Condom (99,4% e anticoncepcional oral hormonal (98% foram os métodos anticoncepcionais mais conhecidos. Cerca de 67,3% não estavam utilizando qualquer método antes de ficar grávida. O principal motivo isolado alegado para o não uso foi o desejo de engravidar (24,5%. As adolescentes mais velhas, as que informaram professar alguma religião e as que pertenciam a uma classe socioeconômica mais alta tinham um maior conhecimento dos métodos. As adolescentes multíparas usaram com maior freqüência contraceptivos antes de ficar grávidas. CONCLUSÕES: As adolescentes mostraram ter conhecimento adequado sobre os métodos anticoncepcionais e concordaram com seu uso durante o período da adolescência. A religião, a idade e a classe socioeconômica estão relacionadas ao maior ou mais adequado conhecimento dos métodos, enquanto a multiparidade a seu maior uso. Cinqüenta e quatro por cento de adolescentes usaram algum contraceptivo na primeira relação sexual. Ocorreu um decréscimo de utilização de contraceptivos, havendo um período de tempo curto entre o início da vida sexual e a gravidez.OBJECTIVE: To describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to previous contraceptive methods used among pregnant teenagers as well as to outline some sociodemographic characteristics and sexual practices. METHODS: An observational study associated to the KAP (Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey was carried out in 156 pregnant teenagers aged 19 years or more. A structured questionnaire was applied before their first prenatal visit from October 1999 to August 2000. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed using Pearson's and Yates' chi-square test and logistic regression. RESULTS: The adolescents had an average age of 16.1 years and most were in their first pregnancy (78.8%. Average age of menarche was 12.2 years and their first sexual intercourse was at the age of 14.5 years. Condoms (99.4% and oral contraceptives (98% were the most common contraceptive methods known. Of all, 67.3% were not using any contraceptive method before getting pregnant. The main reason reported for not using any contraceptive method was wanting to get pregnant (24.5%. The older ones who reported having religious beliefs and had a higher socioeconomic status had better knowledge on contraceptive methods. Teenagers who had had previous pregnancies reported more often use of contraceptive methods before getting pregnant. CONCLUSIONS: The pregnant teenagers showed to have adequate knowledge of contraceptive methods and agreed to use them throughout their teenage years. Religion, age group, and socioeconomic status were directly related to their knowledge on contraceptive methods, and multiple pregnancies brought more awareness on that. Of all, 54% had used any contraceptive on first sexual intercourse but their use decreased over time and shortly after their first intercourse the studied teenagers got pregnant.
Márcio Alves Vieira Belo
Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs are common in children. The cause of URTIs is usually viral, but parents' attitudes often contribute to inappropriate prescription of antibiotics, promoting antibiotic resistance. The objective of this study was to document and analyse parental beliefs on antibiotic use for children with URTIs in Greece, a country with high levels of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance. Methods A knowledge-attitude-practice questionnaire was developed and distributed to Greek parents caring for children who were 5-6 years old, between January and July of the same school year. The sample of the study contained parents from all geographic areas of Greece. Results The majority of Greek parents (80% believed that UTRIs are mostly self-limited, although 74% of them expected to receive antibiotics when such a diagnosis was given. Earache was the most common reason for which parents expected antibiotics (45%. Greek parents rarely gave antibiotics to their children without medical advice (10% and most (88% believed that unnecessary antibiotic use drives antibiotic resistance and they were happy to receive symptomatic therapy if instructed by their physician. Almost 70% of parents confused antibiotics with other medicines used for symptomatic therapy for a child with URTI. Conclusion Greek parents have a trusted relationship with their paediatrician and rarely give antibiotics without medical advice, indicating that parents contribute less than expected to antibiotic misuse. Parents also appreciate the benign course of most URTIs and the fact that unnecessary antibiotic use is harmful. More time needs to be invested in educating mostly physicians on the potential benefit from reducing antibiotic prescribing for children with URTI.
Theodoridou Maria N
Conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas dos médicos pediatras quanto ao desenvolvimento da comunicação oral Knowledge, attitudes and practices of pediatricians regarding the development of oral communication
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar os conhecimentos e as atitudes práticas de pediatras em relação à comunicação oral de crianças. MÉTODOS: foram entrevistados 79 pediatras por meio de questionário específico. O conteúdo do questionário buscava informações sobre o profissional, conhecimento das etapas do desenvolvimento da comunicação infantil, sua conduta frente a alguma queixa de suspeita de alterações da comunicação, encaminhamentos profissionais e o método utilizado como avaliação destas crianças. Os questionários foram entregues pessoalmente e respondidos manualmente pelos médicos. RESULTADOS: a maioria dos pediatras entrevistados tem conhecimento, embora básico, das alterações da comunicação infantil e o desenvolvimento da linguagem. Porém, muitos pediatras desconhecem a real atuação do fonoaudiólogo. Além disso, embora haja uma preocupação com a idade da criança falar corretamente, os médicos não realizam o encaminhamento no período adequado. CONCLUSÃO: este estudo mostra a importância da divulgação do trabalho fonoaudiológico em outros meios que não os restritos a ambientes acadêmico, científico ou clínico apenas frequentado por fonoaudiólogos, mas também por profissionais da área médica.PURPOSE: to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of pediatricians regarding the development of oral communication in children. METHODS: a total of 79 pediatricians answered a specific questionnaire. This questionnaire searched information about the professional, professional knowledge of the stages of the children communication development, the behavior before some complaint of communication disorders, referring and method used for evaluating these children. The questionnaires were delivered personally and answered manually by the doctors. RESULTS: most interviewed pediatricians have knowledge, though basic, on some language disorders. However, many pediatricians are not aware on the role played by speech pathologists. Moreover, even though there is concern on the correct speech of children, pediatricians do not refer them at adequate time. CONCLUSION: this study shows the importance to publish the role of speech pathologists not only in academic, scientific or clinical environments attended by speech pathologists, but also in the working places of medical professionals.
Luciana Paula Maximino
Conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas dos médicos pediatras quanto ao desenvolvimento da comunicação oral / Knowledge, attitudes and practices of pediatricians regarding the development of oral communication
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar os conhecimentos e as atitudes práticas de pediatras em relação à comunicação oral de crianças. MÉTODOS: foram entrevistados 79 pediatras por meio de questionário específico. O conteúdo do questionário buscava informações sobre o profissional, conhecimento das etapas do desenvol [...] vimento da comunicação infantil, sua conduta frente a alguma queixa de suspeita de alterações da comunicação, encaminhamentos profissionais e o método utilizado como avaliação destas crianças. Os questionários foram entregues pessoalmente e respondidos manualmente pelos médicos. RESULTADOS: a maioria dos pediatras entrevistados tem conhecimento, embora básico, das alterações da comunicação infantil e o desenvolvimento da linguagem. Porém, muitos pediatras desconhecem a real atuação do fonoaudiólogo. Além disso, embora haja uma preocupação com a idade da criança falar corretamente, os médicos não realizam o encaminhamento no período adequado. CONCLUSÃO: este estudo mostra a importância da divulgação do trabalho fonoaudiológico em outros meios que não os restritos a ambientes acadêmico, científico ou clínico apenas frequentado por fonoaudiólogos, mas também por profissionais da área médica. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of pediatricians regarding the development of oral communication in children. METHODS: a total of 79 pediatricians answered a specific questionnaire. This questionnaire searched information about the professional, professional knowledge [...] of the stages of the children communication development, the behavior before some complaint of communication disorders, referring and method used for evaluating these children. The questionnaires were delivered personally and answered manually by the doctors. RESULTS: most interviewed pediatricians have knowledge, though basic, on some language disorders. However, many pediatricians are not aware on the role played by speech pathologists. Moreover, even though there is concern on the correct speech of children, pediatricians do not refer them at adequate time. CONCLUSION: this study shows the importance to publish the role of speech pathologists not only in academic, scientific or clinical environments attended by speech pathologists, but also in the working places of medical professionals.
Luciana Paula, Maximino; Marina Viotti, Ferreira; Danielle Tavares, Oliveira; Dionísia Aparecida Cusin, Lamônica; Mariza Ribeiro, Feniman; Ana Carulina Pereira, Spinardi; Simone Aparecida, Lopes-Herrera.
Purpose: Effective pain management remains a serious problem in the nursing home setting. Barriers to achieving optimal pain practices include staff knowledge deficits, biases, and attitudes that influence assessment and management of the residents' pain. Design and Methods: Twelve nursing homes participated in this intervention study: six
Jones, Katherine R.; Fink, Regina; Pepper, Ginny; Hutt, Eveyln; Vojir, Carol P.; Scott, Jill; Clark, Lauren; Mellis, Karen
Full Text Available Emmanuelle Careau,1 Gjin Biba,1 Rosemary Brander,2 Janice P Van Dijk,2 Sarita Verma,3 Margo Paterson,2 Maria Tassone31Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitation and Social Integration, Université Laval, Québec, QC, 2Office of Interprofessional Education and Practice, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, 3Centre for Interprofessional Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaBackground: A review of the literature was undertaken by the Canadian Interprofessional Health Leadership Collaborative to investigate the content and competencies of health education programs that teach collaborative leadership and to inform the development of an international collaborative leadership curriculum.Methods: A PubMed and Google Scholar search identified the frequency of key leadership education program terms and was adjusted for six major databases. From the 2,119 references, 250 were selected in a double-blinded manner. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed to determine the patterns, types, learners, models, and competencies addressed. Cross-tabulation and analysis of correlation identified best practices and impacts on learners' knowledge, skills, attitudes/behaviors, and on health system change.Results: Four types of leadership models were formally identified, ie, traditional leadership, transformational leadership, clinical leadership, and collaborative leadership. The most identified competencies were interprofessional communication, knowledge on how to work in teams and across disciplines, and financial knowledge. The least addressed topics were social accountability and community engagement. Only 6.8% of the articles reviewed assessed the effectiveness of their program based on patient-centered outcomes and 3.6% on system change.Conclusion: This literature review focused on 250 health leadership education programs reported in peer-reviewed journals to address important questions about the competencies, best practices taught, and evaluation of effectiveness of health system change in health leadership educational programs. This review provides information that may encourage the development, implementation, and evaluation of new collaborative leadership programs. The Lancet Commission report in 2010 called for a new breed of collaborative health leader who can work across health professions in community, hospital, and primary care settings. Collaborative leaders must lead change in the face of uncertainty and ambiguity, and must strengthen and build relationships to navigate complex systems. Existing leadership programs do not adequately address the key competencies to prepare future health leaders to rise to these challenges.Keywords: leadership, health education, collaboration, curriculum, interprofessional relationships, peer review research
The World Health Organization confirmed that the novel influenza A, H1N1 as a pandemic on 11 June 2009. After less than three months, 182 countries were affected by the pandemic accounting for about 150,000 infected cases and 3000 mortality. Successful H1N1 pandemic management strategies' shaped by making changes in health behavior. The aim of this study was to document patients' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) and its prevention. We performed a cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) on preventive measures of Influenza A (H1N1) involving 322 patients attending Klinik Kesihatan Jinjang, a primary health care clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from May 10 to 26, 2010 using a face to face interview with a structured pre-tested questionnaire. The majority of the respondents were females (56.8%), Malays (43.2%) aged between 18-27 years old (28.9%). There were significant association between knowledge on the complication of H1N1, effectiveness of the treatment, preventive measures of Influenza A (H1N1) and race (p<0.001) and educational level (p<0.001). There were also significant associations between attitude scores of these patients and their gender (p=0.03), and educational level (p=0.001). Practice scores related to H1N1 were found to be significantly associated with race (p<0.001) and educational level (p<0.001). The significant associations were observed between knowledge and attitude (p<0.001), knowledge and practices (p<0.001), as well as attitude and practices related to H1N1 (p<0.001). Knowledge has a crucial effect on patients' attitude and practice particularly in a pandemic spread. So health policy makers should attempt to disseminate information about preventive measures to community in order to improve their preventive practices during pandemics. PMID:22980156
Latiff, Latiffah Abdul; Parhizkar, Saadat; Zainuddin, Huda; Chun, Goh M; Rahiman, Mohammad Ali A; Ramli, Nur Liyana N; Yun, Kerk L
Full Text Available Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs are common in children and represent a significant cause of antibiotic abuse which contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance. A survey was conducted in Cyprus in 2006 to assess parents and pediatricians Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP concerning the role of antibiotics in children with URTIs. A school-based stratified geographic clustering sampling was used and a pre-tested KAP questionnaire was distributed. A different questionnaire was distributed to paediatricians. Demographic factors associated with antibiotic misuse were identified by backward logistic regression analysis. The parental overall response rate was 69.3%. Parents (N = 1,462 follow pediatricians advice and rarely administer antibiotics acquired over the counter. Although a third expects an antibiotic prescription for URTI symptoms, most deny pressuring their doctors. Low parental education was the most important independent risk factor positively related to antibiotic misuse (OR = 2.88, 95%CI 2.02 to 4.12, p < 0.001. Pediatricians (N = 33 denied prescribing antibiotics after parental pressure but admit that parents ask for antibiotics and believe they expect antibiotic prescriptions even when not needed. In conclusion, Cypriotic parents trust their primary care providers. Although it appears that antibiotic misuse is not driven by parental pressure, the pediatricians view differs.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is a global problem of extraordinary dimensions and has so far resulted in nearly 25 million deaths worldwide. Health care providers (HCPs) are considered to play a pivotal role in the provision of preventive and curative services to individuals suffering from HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections. Pakistan, which was previously categorised as having a low-prevalence, high-risk HIV epidemic, is now facing a concentrated HIV epidemic among its most at-risk populations such as injecting drug users. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and reported practices relating to HIV/AIDS and STIs among private and public sector health care providers providing clinical services in areas where women sell sex. This was an exploratory quantitative study, where a structured questionnaire was administered in face-to-face interviews with 200 HCPs from the public and private sectors. Knowledge about AIDS and correct diagnosis of STIs were defined as according to the national guidelines of NACP. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed to test associations between predictors and level of knowledge of STIs in each group separately. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to indicate predicting factors for correct management of STIs. Forty-five percent of the HCPs had correct knowledge about the transmission and prevention of HIV, whereas 21% had seen a patient with advanced HIV infection, on a patient with advanced HIV infection, only two HCPs had been trained to manage such cases and 82% were not aware of syndromic management of STIs. Only 10% could cite the 'correct treatment' of gonorrhoea, syphilis and vaginal discharge. The odds of having the 'correct knowledge' of diagnosing gonorrhoea and syphilis were 2.1 (CI 95%, 1.2-3.8) if the HCP was a female medical doctor working in public sector. Further intensive training is needed to improve the ability of relevant HCPs to correctly diagnose and effectively treat patients infected with HIV and STIs. (author)
Full Text Available Objetivo Estimar la relación entre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (comportamientos) de riesgo en la sexualidad juvenil y la estructura y percepción de funcionalidad familiar. Metodología Se realizó un estudio observacional de corte trasversal entre 13 699 adolescentes (10 a 19 años de edad) de [...] 12 colegios públicos de la localidad de Suba. Se aplicó una encuesta autodiligenciada donde se interrogó por conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos sexuales y la estructura y percepción del funcionamiento familiar. Resultados Edad media de los adolescentes 13,5 años. Prevalencia de relaciones sexuales de 17 %. El 8 % de los hogares presentan disfunción severa y 39 % son nucleares incompletos. Las mujeres tienen menos relaciones sexuales que los hombres (OR 0.53; IC 95 %; 0.47-0.59). Se presenta más relaciones sexuales cuando los adolescentes perciben de manera disfuncional a su familia (OR 2.06; IC 95 %; 1.72-2.48). Conclusiones Es más importante la percepción de función familiar que la estructura como factor de riesgo en la sexualidad de los jóvenes. Abstract in english Objective Assessing the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding high-risk sexual behaviour in adolescent sexuality as well as the structure and perception of family functionality. Methods Cross-sectional research was carried out on a population of 13,699 adolescents (ages ra [...] nging from 10 to 19) attending 12 public schools from the conurbation of Suba. A self-questionnaire was administered, focusing on sexual behaviour, knowledge, attitudes and the structure and perception of family dynamics. Results Average age was 13.5. Sexual activity prevalence was 17%. 8% of households suffered from severe dysfunction. 39% of households were incomplete nuclear ones. Females reported less sexual activity than males (0.53 OR; 0.47-0.59 95%CI). Sexual activity was more common when adolescents perceived family dysfunction (2.06 OR; 1.72-2.48 95%CI). Conclusions Perception of family function was more important than structure as a risk factor in youngsters' sexuality.
Juan C, González.
Full Text Available Objetivo Estimar la relación entre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (comportamientos de riesgo en la sexualidad juvenil y la estructura y percepción de funcionalidad familiar. Metodología Se realizó un estudio observacional de corte trasversal entre 13 699 adolescentes (10 a 19 años de edad de 12 colegios públicos de la localidad de Suba. Se aplicó una encuesta autodiligenciada donde se interrogó por conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos sexuales y la estructura y percepción del funcionamiento familiar. Resultados Edad media de los adolescentes 13,5 años. Prevalencia de relaciones sexuales de 17 %. El 8 % de los hogares presentan disfunción severa y 39 % son nucleares incompletos. Las mujeres tienen menos relaciones sexuales que los hombres (OR 0.53; IC 95 %; 0.47-0.59. Se presenta más relaciones sexuales cuando los adolescentes perciben de manera disfuncional a su familia (OR 2.06; IC 95 %; 1.72-2.48. Conclusiones Es más importante la percepción de función familiar que la estructura como factor de riesgo en la sexualidad de los jóvenes.Objective Assessing the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding high-risk sexual behaviour in adolescent sexuality as well as the structure and perception of family functionality. Methods Cross-sectional research was carried out on a population of 13,699 adolescents (ages ranging from 10 to 19 attending 12 public schools from the conurbation of Suba. A self-questionnaire was administered, focusing on sexual behaviour, knowledge, attitudes and the structure and perception of family dynamics. Results Average age was 13.5. Sexual activity prevalence was 17%. 8% of households suffered from severe dysfunction. 39% of households were incomplete nuclear ones. Females reported less sexual activity than males (0.53 OR; 0.47-0.59 95%CI. Sexual activity was more common when adolescents perceived family dysfunction (2.06 OR; 1.72-2.48 95%CI. Conclusions Perception of family function was more important than structure as a risk factor in youngsters' sexuality.
Juan C González
Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the leading cancer-related cause of death among women in Nigeria. An estimated 70,700 new cases occur each year, representing one quarter of all female cancers in sub Saharan Africa. The magnitude of the problem has been under recognised and under prioritised compared with the competing health priorities of infectious diseases such as HIV/ AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Studies in the United States and Nigeria have indicated that the disease has the highest incidence among the lowest socio-economic groups especially residing in rural areas. The peak age for the disease has been shown to be within 35-45 years age group. Knowledge of the risk factors of the disease is deemed important in its early detection and prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural women with cancer of the cervix. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among 1600 rural women aged 15-55 years (randomly selected from 28 villages who were interviewed using a structured questionnaire between April and June, 2010. The majority (82.2% were married before the age of 20 years and 19.3% before 15 years, 40% in polygamous union, 22.6% have had 2 or more sexual partners, 71.3% were primi and grand multiparous, 7.5% have had previous treatment for STIs and 10.1% were on various types of contraceptive. 454 (28.4% have heard of Ca cervix, 358 (22.4% knew the location of the cervix. 2.3% had Pap smear test of which 72.6% were within 2 years. The majority (89.9% will avail themselves for screening.
John S. Bimba
Background Since antibiotic resistance has become a worldwide public health concern and is in part related to physicians lack of knowledge, it is essential to focus our attention on healthcare profession students. The present study aims at evaluating the knowledge and attitudes of the School of Medicines students towards antibiotic usage and antibiotic resistance. Methods In December 2013, a cross sectional study was conducted amongst medical, dental, nursing and other health care profession students of the School of Medicine at the University of Torino. Students of all the academic years took part in this study. Questionnaires were submitted during regular lectures (only students who attended courses on one specific day were surveyed) and the data collected was analyzed using StataMP11 statistical software. Results Overall, 1,050 students were interviewed. The response rate was 100%. Around 20% of the sample stated that antibiotics are appropriate for viral infections and 15% of the students that they stop taking those drugs when symptoms decrease. Results of the multivariate analyses showed that females were more likely than males to take antibiotics only when prescribed (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.041.98). Interestingly, students with a relative working in a health-related field, as well as those who took at least one course of antibiotics in the last year, had a lower probability of taking those drugs only under prescription (OR = 0.69 95% CI: 0.490.97 and OR = 0.38 95% CI: 0.270.53, respectively). Conclusion The present paper shows how healthcare profession students do not practice what they know. Since those students will be a behavioral model for citizens and patients, it is important to generate more awareness around this issue throughout their studies. It would be advisable to introduce a specific course and training on antibiotics in the core curriculum of the School of Medicine. PMID:25831072
Scaioli, Giacomo; Gualano, Maria R.; Gili, Renata; Masucci, Simona; Bert, Fabrizio; Siliquini, Roberta
Full Text Available Lesotho has the third highest prevalence of HIV In the world with an estimated 23% of the adult population infected. At least 70% of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have presented with oral manifestation of HIV as the first sign of the disease. Oral health workers regularly encounter patients pr [...] esenting with oral lesions associated with HIV disease and therefore need to have adequate knowledge of these conditions for diagnosis and management. The aim of the present study was to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of oral health care workers (OHCW) of Lesotho regarding the management of oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted on all 46 OHCW in 26 public and private care facilities in all ten districts of Lesotho. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather information. The response rate was 100%. Nearly all (94.7%) agreed that oral lesions are common in people living with HIV and/or AIDS. The majority (91.3%) named oral candidiasis (OC) as the most common lesion found in PLWHA while Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) (34.7%) and Oral Hairy Leukoplakia (OHL) (32.6%) were mentioned as the least common oral lesions of HIV. Most correctly identified the images of oral candidiasis (97.8%), angular cheilitis (86.9%) and herpes zoster (80.4%). Only 16.7% felt they had comprehensive knowledge of oral HIV lesions, although 84.8% reported having previously received training. Almost three quarters (71%) reported that there was no need to treat HIV positive patients differently from HIV negative patients. OHCW in Lesotho demonstrated high confidence levels in their competence in managing dental patients with oral lesions associated with HIV, however, they lacked an in-depth knowledge in this regard. Amongst this group there is a need for comprehensive training with regards to diagnosis and management of oral lesions of HIV including the training of other cadres of health care workers together with nurses and community health workers.
K J, Ramphoma; S, Naidoo.
The attitudes toward people with epilepsy are influenced by the degree of knowledge of the condition. Teachers usually do not receive any formal instruction on epilepsy during their training. This study was done to access three hundred teachers' knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy by answering a questionnaire in order to quantify their knowledge, attitude and practice toward epilepsy. Almost all the teachers had heard about epilepsy yet could not demonstrate discrimination among the stude...
Dantas Fábio Galvão; Cariri Gibran Agra; Cariri Gustavo Agra; Ribeiro Filho Antônio Roberto Vaz
A study on the Rate of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Medical Students towards Method of Medical Records Documentation at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences Affiliated Therapeutic and Teaching Centers 2003
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: History, clinical findings, procedures undertaken, and patients response to treatment are written in clinical records, hence their contents are indicators of physicians evaluation. If clinical records are provided precisely, clear and systematized, they indicate the clinical thinking of the staff and facilitate patients diagnosis process. These records have an important role in coordinating professional staff involved in patient care. Since the physicians and medical students are involved more in medical records documentation than the other hospital staff, thus, a study on their knowledge, attitude and practice towards the principles of medical records documentation is undertaken.Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study, which is done about the rate of knowledge, attitude and practice of 207 Medical students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in university hospitals. Descriptive and inferential statistical analytic methods were used for the collected data. For comparison of the hospitals, regarding observing designed principals in the completion of medical files, according to the filled questionnaires the minimum and maximum score designated as 1-5 which is very poor to excellent. Then the mean score was calculated and considered for the comparison of hospitals. For the determination of the relationship between knowledge, attitude, and practice, ? Kendalls Tau Test was used.Results: The majority of the participants had low knowledge (77.8% about medical records documentation. Most of them did not have good attitude (54.1 about completion of medical records and significance and value of medical records documentation in treatment, education, and research.Conclusion: Results indicate that incompletion of medical records at the university affiliated hospitals are due to lack of awareness of the students towards the method of medical records documentation. In addition, not considering the completion of records in evaluation of the students can affect their practice
Conclusion: In this study very low rate of PEP utilization up on exposure to HIV risk conditions was seen even though the significant proportion of these professionals had adequate knowledge and positive attitude toward PEP. Much work had to be done by policy makers to increase the uptake of the method by health care workers to mitigate the rising epidemic of HIV/AIDS in the country. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 468-471
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish La farmacovigilancia puede ser útil para proteger a los consumidores de los efectos dañinos de los medicamentos. Los profesionales de la salud deberían considerar la comunicación de reacciones adversas de medicamentos (RAM) como una obligación profesional y deberían conocer los mecanismos de farmaco [...] vigilancia que existen en sus países. En Nepal, las actividades de farmacovigilancia comenzaron en 2004. Objetivos: El presente estudio evaluó el conocimiento, actitudes y prácticas (KAP) de los profesionales de la salud hacia las RAM y la farmacovigilancia en el Hospital Universitario de Manipal (MTH), un hospital universitario terciario ligado al centro regional de farmacovigilancia del Oeste de Nepal. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 2007 usando un cuestionario pre-evaluado (alfa de Cronbach=0,72) que tenía 25 preguntas (15 sobre conocimiento, 5 sobre actitudes y 5 sobre práctica). A las preguntas correctas se les dio una puntuación de "2' y a las respuestas incorrectas/negativas se les dio un "1', con una puntuación máxima de 50. Resultados: Se obtuvieron un total de 131 respuestas de las que 42 estaban incompletas y las restantes 89 se analizaron [49 mujeres (55,1%)]. De los 89 profesionales, 29 (33,6%) eran médicos, 46 (51,8%= enfermeras y 14 (15,7%) farmacéuticos. La media de edad era de 28,32 años (DE=8,46) y la media (rango intercuartílico) de la duración en el servicio fue 14,5 meses (6-36). Las puntuaciones totales de KAP fueron 40,06 (DE=3,51) para médicos, 39,92 (DE=4,83) para farmacéuticos y 35,82 (DE=3,75) para enfermeras. Entre los 89 profesionales, 59 (62,3%) no comunicaron ni una sola RAM al centro de farmacovigilancia. Conclusión: Los profesionales de la saludo del MTH tienen pobre KAP sobre las RAM y la farmacovigilancia, y se necesita una intervención educativa y sobre el conocimiento para estos profesionales. Abstract in english Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, p [...] harmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance in Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH), a tertiary care teaching hospital attached to the regional pharmacovigilance center in western Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using a pretested (Cronbach alpha=0.72) questionnaire having 25 questions (15 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitude and 5 on practice). The correct/positive responses were given a score of "2' and the wrong/negative responses "1', maximum possible score of "50'. Results: A total of 131 responses were obtained among which 42 were incomplete and remaining 89 [females 49 (55.1%)] were analyzed. Of the 89 professionals, 29 (32.6%) were doctors, 46 (51.8) nurses and 14 (15.7%) pharmacists. The mean age was 28.32 (SD=8.46) years and the median (interquartile range) of duration of the service 14.5 (6-36) months. The total KAP scores was 40.06 (SD=3.51) for doctors, 38.92 (SD=4.83) for pharmacists, and 35.82 (SD=3.75) for nurses. Among the 89 professionals, 59 (62.3%) had not reported even a single ADR to the pharmacovigilance center. Conclusion: The healthcare professionals at the MTH had a poor KAP towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance and there is a need for educational and awareness intervention for these professionals.
S., Palaian; M.I., Ibrahim; P., Mishra.
Nutritional knowledges, attitudes and practices in HIV patients who were receiving pharmacological treatment / CONOCIMIENTOS, ACTITUDES Y PRÁCTICAS ALIMENTARIAS EN PACIENTES DIAGNOSTICADOS CON VIH EN TRATAMIENTO FARMACOLÓGICO
Full Text Available Antecedentes. Los hábitos alimentarios de esta población no ha sido materia de una amplia investigación, incluso concibiendo la importancia que tiene el estado nutricional en la evolución de la enfermedad y que este puede retardar el periodo de transición de la misma a etapas sintomáticas o la fase [...] SIDA. Objetivo. Describir los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas alimentarias de los pacientes diagnosticados con la infección por VIH, asintomáticos, en fase clínica con tratamiento farmacológico. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio exploratorio descriptivo utilizando una encuesta de CAP que diligenciaron voluntariamente 108 pacientes en consulta externa ambulatoria de dos instituciones privadas de Bogotá. Resultados. Se analizaron 108 encuestas en tres componentes. Conocimientos: el 58,7% refirió haber recibido información acerca de cómo debe ser su alimentación; el 32,3% fue suministrado por nutricionista. La fibra es el principal componente que tienen en cuenta a la hora de escoger alimentos (65%) y la proteína la consideran como el nutriente más benéfico (52%). Actitudes: el 61,8% manifestaron que el diagnóstico dificulta la selección y compra de alimentos por falta de información. El apetito, luego de reflexionar sobre el diagnóstico no ha sufrido cambios en el 49,5% de los participantes. Prácticas: el 75% reconoció la importancia de consumir suplementos y complementos; tan solo el 35,7% los consume. Cuando compran alimentos industrializados, el 66,4% verifica la fecha de vencimiento y el rotulado nutricional. Conclusiones. Los alimentos que más consumen son aquellos que hacen parte de la canasta básica para la población colombiana; sus hábitos no difieren significativamente del resto de población. La información en alimentación y nutrición la obtienen de fuentes no profesionales. Se evidencia una regular remisión por el médico general o tratante hacia el profesional nutricionista. Es común la práctica de automedicación y dosificación en el uso y consumo de complementos y suplementos alimenticios. Abstract in english Background. Research related to nutritional habits during the asymptomatic phase of HIV has not been well documented or is very scarce; this would include understanding the importance of nutritional status regarding disease progression and that suitable nutritional status may slow transition to symp [...] tomatic stages or AIDS stage. No studies have yet been carried out in Colombia describing nutritional habits in HIV-positive patients who have been receiving pharmacological treatment; no records have thus been kept and no advances have been made regarding this topic. Objective. Describing nutritional knowledge, attitudes and practice in asymptomatic patients diagnosed as suffering from clinical phase HIV infection receiving pharmacological treatment. Materials and methods. A descriptive exploratory study was carried out using a care and prevention (CAP)-based approach; the survey was voluntarily filled out by 108 patients who were attending outpatient consultation in two private institutions in Bogotá. Results. Three components were analysed in the 108 surveys. Knowledge. 58.7% of the patients referred to having received information about what their diet should have been like; 32.3% had their diet supplied by a nutritionist. Fibre was the main component taken into account when choosing food (65%) and protein was considered to be the most beneficial nutrient (52%). Attitude: 61.8% of the patients stated that their diagnosis hampered selecting and buying food due to a lack of information. Appetite had not undergone changes in 49.5% of the participants following reflecting on their diagnosis. Practice. 75% of the patients recognised the importance of consuming nutritional supplements and complements; however, only 35.7% of them took them. When buying industrialised/processed food, 66.4% of the patients verified the products' expiry date and/or nutritional data on the label. Conclusions. The food customarily consumed by the patients wa
Jhon Jairo, Bejarano-Roncancio; Ramírez, Martha Eugenia; Valerín, Saurith-López; Otto Alberto, Sussman-Peña.
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 3 559 personas (15-35 años de edad), con vistas a caracterizar los conocimientos, las actitudes y prácticas sexuales y su relación con las manifestaciones de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual y el sida en la provincia de Santiago de Cuba. De lo [...] s integrantes de la casuística, 46,4 % de quienes iniciaron sus relaciones sexuales a los 10-14 años y 82,0 % de quienes las tuvieron con personas del mismo sexo, eran varones. Respecto al condón, 18,6 % de las mujeres y 17,6 % de los hombres refirieron haberlo usado en sus primeras relaciones sexuales; pero nunca lo utilizaron 31,8 y 30,2 % de los que practicaron coito anal y vaginal, respectivamente. Entre las prácticas sexuales predominaron la penetración vaginal (94,6 %) y el sexo oral (62,0 %). La tasa de no respuesta y no participación fue de 18 %, con un intervalo de confianza de 95 %. Abstract in english A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 3 559 people (15-35 years old) was carried out, with the objective of characterizing the knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices and their relation to the manifestations of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS in Santiago de Cuba province. From the memb [...] ers of the case material, 46,4 % of those who began their sexual relations at 10-14 years and 82,0 % of those who began them with persons of the same sex, were males. Regarding condom, 18,6 % of the women and 17,6 % of the men, referred to have used it in their first sexual relations; but 31,8 and 30,2 % of those who practiced anal and vaginal coitus never used it. Among the sexual practices, vaginal penetration (94,6 %) and oral sex (62,0 %) prevailed. The rate for no answer and no participation was 18 %, with a confidence interval of 95 %.
Luis Eugenio, Valdés García; María Dolores, Malfrán García; Yoire, Ferrer Savigne; Enma, Salazar Aguilera.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of, attitudes towards, and knowledge about cigarette smoking in Ecuador in 1991. DESIGN: Survey using in-person interviews; stratified and multiple regression analyses. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: Eight hundred people (> or = 18 years old) representative of the adult populations in the cities of Quito and Guayaquil, Ecuador. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Smoking prevalence, daily cigarette consumption, reasons for smoking, desire to quit smoking, knowledge about...
Ockene, J. K.; Chiriboga, D. E.; Zevallos, J. C.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficiencies in the quality of diabetes and hypertension primary care and outcomes have been documented in Barbados. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices, and the barriers faced by people with diabetes and hypertension in Barbados that might contribute to these deficiencies. Methods Five structured focus groups were conducted for randomly selected people with diabetes and hypertension. Results Twenty-one patients (5 diabetic, 5 hypertensive, and 11 with both diseases with a mean age of 59 years attended 5 focus group sessions. Patient factors that affected care included the difficulty in maintaining behaviour change. Practitioner factors included not considering the "whole person" and patient expectations, and not showing enough respect for patients. Health care system factors revolved around the amount of time spent accessing care because of long waiting times in public sector clinics and pharmacies. Society related barriers included the high cost and limited availability of appropriate food, the availability of exercise facilities, stigma of disease and difficulty taking time off work. Attendees were not familiar with guidelines for diabetes and hypertension management, but welcomed a patient version detailing a place to record results, the frequency of tests, and blood pressure and blood glucose targets. Appropriate education from practitioners during consultations, while waiting in clinic, through support and education groups, and for the general public through the schools, mass media and billboards were recommended. Conclusions Primary care providers should take a more patient centred approach to the care of those with diabetes and hypertension. The care system should provide better service by reducing waiting times. Patient self-management could be encouraged by a patient version of care guidelines and greater educational efforts.
Adams O Peter
Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Resumen La segunda epidemia del dengue clásico se inició en Paraguay a partir de febrero de 1999. En marzo de 2000 se establece un plan de emergencia interinstitucional por decreto del Poder Ejecutivo. Objetivo: determinar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas que poseen los pobladores del barrio [...] San Pablo de la ciudad de Asunción acerca del control de los mosquitos y del dengue. Material y Método: estudio observacional, descriptivo, aplicado a residentes adultos del barrio San Pablo, a través de una encuesta durante los meses de marzo y abril/2000. El muestreo fue por conglomerados en una sola etapa. La selección de las manzanas se realizó en forma aleatoria para un n=187 viviendas, y una prevalencia esperada del 50%, con un nivel de confianza del 95%. Resultados: La prevalencia de la enfermedad fue del 41,2%. De este grupo el 66,2% el diagnóstico fue médico y el 33,8% fue empírico. El 96,8% conocía la presencia actual de una epidemia de dengue y que los mosquitos podían transmitir enfermedades. El 89% no estaba organizada en su comunidad para luchar contra el dengue; el 61,8% cumplió con las medidas higiénicas de prevención, y en el 36,2% no se constató prácticas de medidas higiénicas de prevención en el hogar. Acerca del conocimiento para eliminar los criaderos de mosquitos, el 88,2% respondió adecuadamente y el 11,2% tuvo conocimiento incompleto sobre estas medidas higiénicas. Al ser indagados dónde depositaban sus huevos los mosquitos, el 70,1% respondió "en cualquier lugar donde esté un depósito de agua limpia y estancada", y el 18,7% "en los lugares donde se arrojan los desechos". El 24,6% de la población entrevistada supo que los mosquitos podían transmitir tres enfermedades, el 85,1% incluyó al dengue en sus respuestas y el 14,4% desconoció las enfermedades transmitidas por los mosquitos. Conclusiones: 1) La población estudiada posee conocimientos adecuados con respecto a las características del dengue y el control de los mosquitos. 2) Existe escasa participación en actividades comunitarias. 3) Los conocimientos (información) adecuados no necesariamente derivan en prácticas preventivas Abstract in english The second epidemic of dengue (classic form) began in Paraguay in february 1999. An Interinstitutional Emergency Plan was set up by 2 Government decree in march 2000. Goal: To assess the knowledge attitudes and practices lo control dengue among the inhabitants of the San Pablo neighbourhood in Asunc [...] ion. Material and method: Descriptive study on adult residents of the San Pablo neighbourhood, through a poll during march and april 2000. The sampling was made in one step by conglomerates. Blocks were selected randomly for n= 187 homes, with an expected prevalence of 50% and a confidence level of 95%. Results: Prevalence of the disease was 41.2%. Physicians in 62% of the cases made diagnosis, while 33.8% were empirically diagnosed. 96.8% were aware of the current epidemic of dengue and that mosquitoes could transmit epidemic of dengue and that mosquitoes could transmit diseases. 89% were not community organized to fight against dengue. 61.8% observed the hygienic preventive measures, while 36.2% didnt. On the knowledge about how to eradicate mosquitoes lay their eggs, 70.1% answered «wherever there are clean and still waters» and 18.7% «in dumping places». 24.6% knew that mosquitoes could transmit three diseases, 85.1% included dengue in their answers, while 14.4% didnt know any disease transmitted by mosquitoes. Conclusions: 1) The surveyed population has adequate knowledge on dengue and mosquito control. 2) Communal activities and participation are scarce. 3) Adequate knowledge (information) doesnt mean necessarily preventive practices implementation
S, Benítez-Leite; ML, Machi; E, Gibert; K, Rivarola.
Full Text Available Acute infectious diseases are the main problem in undeveloped countries, but still an important sociomedical problem in the developed world, due to high morbidity and mortality rates, economical losses and the suffering they cause. The aim of this study was to determine specific risk factors connected with knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP study of adult inhabitants of the Republic of Serbia, which contribute to the appearance of infectious diseases according to territory (Belgrade, Vojvodina and Central Serbia, gender and age. The research on health conditions, health needs and utilization of health care of the population of Serbia were realized by the Public Health Institute of Serbia Dr Milan Jovanovic Batut, all IPHs in Serbia, WHO and UNICEF. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9921 persons (52% women and 48% men. Hygienic habits were on the higher level in the population of Belgrade and Vojvodina compared to the Central Serbia: washing hands before meal (88,5:90,6:87,5%, p < 0,00046, on entering home (83,1:68,6:67,5%, p < 0,50, before using the toilet (50,8:46,9:40,1%, p < 00000, after using the toilet (92,3:93,7:91,4%, p < 0,0031. Before meal, 11, 5% of adults wash hands almost never or sometimes; on coming home every third person does not wash hands, before using the toilet more than 50%, and after using the toilet almost 8%. In this way, some intestinal infectious diseases and sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhoea, syphilis, HPV can be disseminated. Women have better hygienic habits than men, and younger persons have better hygienic habits than older persons. Every fifth man and every fourth woman does not accept personal responsibility for health. Habits and behavior that decrease individual immunity presented in high percent of the population of Serbia are: inappropriate eating habits, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, stress (63,5% women and 53,3% men; only 7,9% women and 15,2% men use condom regularly for protection of STD and AIDS. The level of disease prevention knowledge is low. Utilization of health services is mostly present in the cases of illnes (44,1% and for preventive purposes in minor percent (29,9%.
Full Text Available Healthcare workers (HCWs who are employed in traditional health care workplaces face a serious danger that may threaten their life; it is their exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF. In Lebanon, the introduction of a hospital accreditation system has put a particular emphasis on staff safety, and on the evaluation of professional practice (EPP programs. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst 277 HCWs working in 4 general hospitals in South Lebanon. Objective: 1 describe the prevalence and the risk factors for occupational exposure to BBF among HCWs; 2 evaluate knowledge, attitude, and practices of HCW concerning blood-borne pathogens and adherence to universal safety precautions. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 32.14 years (SD = 10.33, 57.4% were females. 43.3% of HCWs expressed that they use gloves all the time for every activeity of care. 67.1% were aware that needles should not be recapped after use; registered nurses and nursing students were more aware than physicians and nursing assistants (nurse in this subject. 30% of HCWs declared having had at least one occupational exposure to BBF; 62.7% of all accidental exposure was reported to the department responsible for managing exposures. Percutaneous injuries were the most frequently reported. Vaccination coverage was 88.4% for hepatitis B, and 48.4% against influenza. The source patient was tested in 43.4% of reported BBF exposures. Accidental exposure to BBF was more frequent in older people (OR = 3.42; p = 0.03 and the more experienced. Subjects working in intensive care unit ward reported more exposure to BBF (OR = 3; p = 0.04. Participants incurring exposure to BBF resorted to different measures after the injury suggesting a lack of a uniform policy for post-exposure prophylaxis. Conclusion: Exposure to BBF represents an important and frequently preventable occupational hazard for HCWs in Lebanon that requires continuous EPP of HCWs, and a comprehensive approach for prevention and management.
Conhecimento, atitude e prática sobre o exame papanicolaou de prostitutas / Prostitutes' knowledge, attitude and practice concerning the papanicolaou test / Conocimiento, actitud y prática sobre el papanicolau de prostitutas
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Relações com múltiplos parceiros e não utilização do preservativo pelas prostitutas comprometem sua saúde sexual e reprodutiva. Objetivou-se no estudo identificar fatores de risco comportamentais associados ao câncer de colo uterino entre as prostitutas de Picos-PI e avaliar o conhecimento, a atitud [...] e e a prática dessas mulheres em relação ao exame Papanicolaou. Estudo exploratório e descritivo, realizado com 77 mulheres nos seus locais de trabalho, em setembro-outubro de 2010. Observou-se que existem riscos ligados à saúde sexual e reprodutiva que podem propiciar o câncer de colo uterino. Há inadequação no conhecimento, porém a atitude é apropriada, pois a quase totalidade (97,4%) afirmou que faria o exame Papanicolaou com maior frequência. Portanto, é necessário engajamento dos enfermeiros na formulação de estratégias educativas que minimizem o déficit de conhecimento da população estudada sobre Papanicolaou. Abstract in spanish Al mantener relaciones con múltiples parejas y no usar preservativo, las prostitutas ponen en peligro su salud sexual y reproductiva. El objetivo del estudio fue identificar los factores de riesgo de comportamiento asociados con el cáncer de cuello uterino entre prostitutas de Picos-PI y evaluar los [...] conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en relación de estas mujeres con relación al Papanicolaou. Estudio exploratorio y descriptivo, realizado con 77 mujeres en sus lugares de trabajo, en septiembre/octubre de 2010. Se observó que existen riesgos directamente relacionados con la salud sexual y reproductiva de prostitutas que pueden promover la aparición del cáncer del cuello uterino. Hay una falta de conocimiento, pero la actitud es apropiada, porque casi todos dijeron que harían el examen de Papanicolaou con más frecuencia, 75 (97,4%). Por lo tanto, es necesaria la participación de las enfermeras en formulación de estrategias educativas que reduzcan al mínimo el déficit de conocimiento de la población estudiada sobre el Papanicolaou. Abstract in english Prostitutes' sexual relations with multiple partners and failure to use condoms compromise their sexual and reproductive health. This study aimed to identify behavioral risk factors associated with cervical cancer among prostitutes in Picos in the state of Piauí (PI) and to evaluate these women's kn [...] owledge, attitude and practice in relation to the Papanicolaou test. This study is exploratory and descriptive and was undertaken with 77 women in their workplaces in September - October 2010. Risks were observed linked to sexual and reproductive health which can lead to cervical cancer. Their knowledge is inadequate, but the attitude is appropriate, as nearly all (97.4%) asserted that they would undertake the Papanicolaou test with greater frequency. It is therefore necessary for the nurses to engage in the formulation of educational strategies which may minimize the knowledge deficit of the population studied in relation to the Papanicolaou test.
Érica de Alencar Rodrigues, Neri; Maria Sauanna Sany de, Moura; Jardeliny Corrêa da, Penha; Thaís Gomes Oliveira dos, Reis; Priscila de Souza, Aquino; Ana Karina Bezerra, Pinheiro.
The purpose of this study is to understand nutrition knowledge, attitude, and behavior in Taiwanese elementary school children, and the relationship of these various components. The results indicated that children's knowledge was fair in nutrition basics, but poor in 'the physiological function of nutrients', 'relationships between diet/nutrients and disease', and 'the daily serving requirement for different food groups'. Children in general valued the importance of nutrition, but they did not concern the health benefit of foods in food selections. Their dietary quality was not satisfactory, and the diet of most children did not meet the recommended serving requirements for milk, vegetable, fruit, and cereals and grains groups. Positive relationships were found among nutrition knowledge, attitude, caring- about-nutrition behavior and dietary quality score. The restraint or disinhibited eating behavior of 4th to 6th graders was not serious, but a large number of children already performed some self-controlling practices to avoid obesity, but not frequently. One fourth of the students skipped meals, especially breakfast, and one quarter of 4th to 6th graders prepared their own breakfast; which may have some impact on children's diet quality. A gap was found between nutrition knowledge, attitude and eating behavior, especially vegetable and fruit consumption, indicating that the attitude toward eating for health was not strong in this age group. Future nutrition education for school children should not only include food serving requirements of food groups, but also apply appropriate theories to improve the motivation for healthy eating. PMID:17723993
Lin, Wei; Yang, Hsiao-Chi; Hang, Chi-Ming; Pan, Wen-Harn
Cancer is a life-threatening diagnosis. Fortunately, life-saving treatments are available to increase the chance of survival in many patients. Yet, many of these treatments are damaging to the reproductive organs and the patients' fertility. A cross-sectional study addressing the knowledge and practices of oncologists toward fertility preservation for male and female patients with cancer was conducted in Saudi Arabia. In 3 different regions of the country, oncologists were invited to participate in the study, through a self-administered questionnaire which was handed to them inquiring about their knowledge, attitude, and referral practices for sperm cryopreservation. Only one-half knew about intracytoplasmic sperm injection, oncologists rated their perception of the importance of cryopreservation as 7.8 ± 1.8. Their referral practice was very poor; less than 20% refer their patients to a specialist. Factors that were considered important to start discussion of cryopreservation were type of cancer, age of patient, number of children, marital status, and cost. Religion was not deemed as important as was anticipated. With regards to female fertility preservation, oncologists showed a positive attitude as revealed from their positive perception, however, their referral practices was very poor. Several gaps were present in the knowledge of oncologists, which could influence their attitude and in turn was reflected on their poor practice. Future training session should be organized to the oncologists for increasing their knowledge and enhancing their attitude. PMID:21336166
Arafa, Mostafa A; Rabah, Danny M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Audits have shown numerous deficiencies in the quality of hypertension and diabetes primary care in Barbados, despite distribution of regional guidelines. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices, and the barriers faced by primary care practitioners in Barbados concerning the recommendations of available diabetes and hypertension guidelines. Methods Focus groups using a moderator's manual were conducted at all 8 public sector polyclinics, and 5 sessions were held for private practitioners. Results Polyclinic sessions were attended by 63 persons (17 physicians, 34 nurses, 3 dieticians, 3 podiatrists, 5 pharmacists, and 1 other, and private sector sessions by 20 persons (12 physicians, 1 nurse, 3 dieticians, 2 podiatrists and 2 pharmacists. Practitioners generally thought they gave a good quality of care. Commonwealth Caribbean Medical Research Council 1995 diabetes and 1998 hypertension guidelines, and the Ministry of Health 2001 diabetes protocol had been seen by 38%, 32% and 78% respectively of polyclinic practitioners, 67%, 83%, and 33% of private physicians, and 25%, 0% and 38% of non-physician private practitioners. Current guidelines were considered by some to be outdated, unavailable, difficult to remember and lacking in advice to tackle barriers. Practitioners thought that guidelines should be circulated widely, promoted with repeated educational sessions, and kept short. Patient oriented versions of the guidelines were welcomed. Patient factors causing barriers to ideal outcome included denial and fear of stigma; financial resources to access an appropriate diet, exercise and monitoring equipment; confusion over medication regimens, not valuing free medication, belief in alternative medicines, and being unable to change habits. System barriers included lack of access to blood investigations, clinic equipment and medication; the lack of human resources in polyclinics; and an uncoordinated team approach. Patients faced cultural barriers with regards to meals, exercise, appropriate body size, footwear, medication taking, and taking responsibility for one's health; and difficulty getting time off work to attend clinic. Conclusions Guidelines need to be promoted repeatedly, and implemented with strategies to overcome barriers. Their development and implementation must be guided by input from all providers on the primary health care team.
Carter Anne O
Full Text Available A equipe de saúde tem um importante papel na educação em saúde bucal da população. O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar o nível de conhecimento, atitudes e práticas dos médicos pediatras em relação à cárie. Um total de 96 médicos pediatras que atuam no serviço público de Goiânia - GO responderam ao questionário. Destes, 94,8% e 96,9% relataram que possuem informação sobre a etiologia e prevenção da cárie, respectivamente; e 88,5% examinam os dentes durante suas consultas e orientam os pais das crianças. A higiene oral e o uso de flúor foram os métodos de prevenção mais citados, enquanto o papel do açúcar na etiologia da cárie foi reconhecido por poucos médicos. A maioria concordaram que os pediatras, juntamente com os cirurgiões-dentistas, devem atuar na educação em saúde bucal dos pacientes, mas apenas 24,0% da amostra consideraram seu próprio nível de informação satisfatório. Concluiu-se que há necessidade de um maior esclarecimento aos médicos pediatras sobre o papel da dieta na cárie dental, para que informações mais corretas sejam repassadas aos pais.Primary health workers have an important role in oral health promotion. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes and practice of pediatricians regarding dental caries. A total of 96 pediatricians working in the public health service of Goiânia - GO, Brazil, answered the questionnaire. From these, 94.8% and 96.9% reported that they were aware of dental caries etiology and prevention, respectively; and 89.6% examined children?s teeth in their consultations and gave advice to the parents. Oral hygiene and fluoride were the most commonly mentioned methods of prevention; only a few pediatricians were aware of the role of sugars in the etiology of dental caries. The majority agreed that pediatricians as well as dentists should play a role in oral health education of patients, but only 24.0% said that their own level of information was satisfactory. Pediatricians need to be better informed about the role of sugars in dental caries, so that more correct information can be given to the parents.
Maria do Carmo Matias FREIRE
Full Text Available Background: Namibia bears a large burden of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV, and the youth are disproportionately affected.Objectives: To explore the current knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of female adolescents attending family planning to HIV prevention.Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used on a sample 251 unmarried female adolescents aged from 13 years to 19 years accessing primary care services for contraception using an interviewer- administered questionnaire. Data were analysed using Epi Info 2002.Crude associations were assessed using cross-tabulations of knowledge, attitude and behaviour scores against demographic variables. Chi-square tests and odds ratios were used to assess associations from the cross-tabulations. All p-values < 0.05 were considered statisticallysignificant.Results: A quarter of sexually active teenagers attending the family-planning services did not have adequate knowledge of HIV prevention strategies. Less than a quarter (23.9% always used a condom. Most respondents (83.3% started sexual intercourse when older than 16 years, but only 38.6% used a condom at their sexual debut. The older the girls were at sexual debut, the more likely they were to use a condom for the event (8% did so at age 13 years and 100% atage 19 years.Conclusions: Knowledge of condom use as an HIV prevention strategy did not translate into consistent condom use. One alternate approach in family-planning facilities may be to encourage condom use as a dual protection method. Delayed onset of sexual activity and consistent use of condoms should be encouraged amongst schoolchildren, in the school setting.
Conocimientos, actitudes, prácticas y consumo de calcio en un grupo de mujeres adultas: Bogotá 2003-2004 / Knowledge, attitudes, practice and consumption of calcium in a group of adult females: Bogota 2003-2004
Full Text Available Para determinar conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en relación con el consumo de calcio en las mujeres usuarias del Servicio de Salud de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal. Se aplicó una encuesta a 173 mujeres con edades entre 20 y 5 [...] 0 años, muestreo no aleatorio y voluntad de participación. Se consideraron conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas frente al calcio, consumo de café y alcohol. El 52 % de las mujeres presentó un nivel medio de conocimientos y el 86 % actitudes negativas. El promedio de consumo calcio/día fue de 673,6 + 426,7 mg. El 66,6 % de participantes presentó subadecuación con respecto a la recomendación colombiana. Las mujeres se agruparon en cinco clases de acuerdo con las características comunes de sus conocimientos, actitudes o niveles de adecuación del mineral. La mayoría del grupo estudiado presentó baja ingesta de calcio, algunas veces relacionada con falta de conocimiento, actitudes negativas frente al calcio y consumo de más de 5 tazas de café al día Abstract in english With the aim of determining knowledge, attitudes and practice about calcium consumption in female users of the health care service of the National University of Colombia, an observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in which a survey was administered to 173 women aged 20-50 [...] years, willing to participate in the study, in a non-randomized sampling. Knowledge, attitudes and practices with respect to calcium, and also coffee and alcohol consumption were considered. Fifty-two percent of women showed average knowledge whereas 86% had negative attitudes. The average calcium consumption/day was 673,6 426,7 mg. 66.6% of participants reported low consumption in relation with the Colombian recommendation. The study women were grouped into 5 classes according to the common characteristics of their knowledge, attitudes or rates of calcium consumption. The majority of the studied group presented with low calcium intake, sometimes due to lack of knowledge, negative attitudes towards the use of calcium and consumption of over 5 cups of coffee per day
Magda Joana, Lagos Ruiz; Yulieth, Rocío Montenegro Castillo; Gina Paola, Niño Orbegoso; María del Pilar, Barrera Perdomo.
Conocimientos, actitudes, prácticas y consumo de calcio en un grupo de mujeres adultas: Bogotá 2003-2004 Knowledge, attitudes, practice and consumption of calcium in a group of adult females: Bogota 2003-2004
Full Text Available Para determinar conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en relación con el consumo de calcio en las mujeres usuarias del Servicio de Salud de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal. Se aplicó una encuesta a 173 mujeres con edades entre 20 y 50 años, muestreo no aleatorio y voluntad de participación. Se consideraron conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas frente al calcio, consumo de café y alcohol. El 52 % de las mujeres presentó un nivel medio de conocimientos y el 86 % actitudes negativas. El promedio de consumo calcio/día fue de 673,6 + 426,7 mg. El 66,6 % de participantes presentó subadecuación con respecto a la recomendación colombiana. Las mujeres se agruparon en cinco clases de acuerdo con las características comunes de sus conocimientos, actitudes o niveles de adecuación del mineral. La mayoría del grupo estudiado presentó baja ingesta de calcio, algunas veces relacionada con falta de conocimiento, actitudes negativas frente al calcio y consumo de más de 5 tazas de café al díaWith the aim of determining knowledge, attitudes and practice about calcium consumption in female users of the health care service of the National University of Colombia, an observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in which a survey was administered to 173 women aged 20-50 years, willing to participate in the study, in a non-randomized sampling. Knowledge, attitudes and practices with respect to calcium, and also coffee and alcohol consumption were considered. Fifty-two percent of women showed average knowledge whereas 86% had negative attitudes. The average calcium consumption/day was 673,6 426,7 mg. 66.6% of participants reported low consumption in relation with the Colombian recommendation. The study women were grouped into 5 classes according to the common characteristics of their knowledge, attitudes or rates of calcium consumption. The majority of the studied group presented with low calcium intake, sometimes due to lack of knowledge, negative attitudes towards the use of calcium and consumption of over 5 cups of coffee per day
Magda Joana Lagos Ruiz
Dental professionals may be exposed to bloodborne pathogens in their work, and dental students may be a particularly vulnerable group. Fear of exposure has also been linked to discriminatory practices. A cross-sectional survey of dental students was conducted at one U.S. dental school to assess their knowledge about the transmission of bloodborne pathogens and management of exposures; the frequency of their bloodborne pathogen exposures (BBPEs); and associations among their prior exposure, knowledge, perception of knowledge, and attitudes toward practice. Overall, 220 students (72.1 percent) responded to the survey, and 215 (70.5 percent) answered questions about exposures. The prevalence of BBPE was 19.1 percent and was greater among clinical than preclinical students (pstudents (preclinical and clinical combined) answered more survey questions correctly about transmission of bloodborne pathogens (66.7 percent) than about post-exposure management (25.0 percent). Fewer than half reported adequate knowledge of transmission and management (47.5 percent and 37.3 percent, respectively). In this context, 8.2 percent of the respondents acknowledged an unwillingness to perform procedures on patients with HIV. Since knowledge gaps may lead to failure to report incidents and delays in appropriate exposure management and some negative attitudes towards treating individuals with HIV persist, these findings justify improving BBPE education at U.S. dental schools. PMID:22473560
Myers, Julie E; Myers, Ronnie; Wheat, Mary E; Yin, Michael T
One commonly expressed goal of environmental education (EE) is to create positive attitudes. The dominant approaches emphasize factual information, assuming that attitudes will result, but results are mixed. I investigate conceptions of attitude, the psychology of attitude and how attitudes are learned. I also examine recent scholarship describing learning and teaching, since EE literature does not draw upon many of these ideas. I consider applications of these two perspectives to public schools while working within mainstream (Tbilisi) EE guidelines. It turns out to be important to identify specific, concrete objects and behaviours as targets for attitudes. "Environment" is general and abstract. Strongly related to attitudes, but little discussed, is the self-concept, which influences what one thinks, feels and does. I found that goals about attitudes can be more precisely phrased in terms of care, a positive concern for or interest in an object. I conclude that affective EE goals can be achieved through thoughtful and self-reflective care about local habitats and the species and individuals that inhabit them. Psychologists note that people are better able to manage their knowledge, to transfer ideas to new contexts, and to identify and solve problems if they learn within a group participating in realistic projects. Such interactions also integrate knowledge, skills and attitudes related to the group's work. Building on the Community of Learners model of teaching, I offer a framework for EE curriculum called Habitat Workshops. Its goals are knowledge of, care about and problem solving practices with habitats. Habitat Workshops engage classroom communities in the design and creation of local habitats within a group narrative of care and understanding. They involve both school subject knowledge as well as habitat-specific problems and responses that reflect real-world environmental issues. Habitat Workshops can be simple or progressively more complex. I provide an example of an elementary school Workshop creating habitats for Painted Lady caterpillars and butterflies. Habitat Workshops embody one conception of EE and can be integrated with other approaches. They are particularly appropriate for a student's first EE experience.
Brown, Glenn Russell
As teachers are one of the more important agents for disseminating information, a study was done to gauge the knowledge and attitude concerning Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE) amongst teachers in Malaysia. Results from the study have shown that teachers do not have adequate knowledge on the concept of RE. They also viewed education as the best strategy in ensuring the success of RE practices. Although there is an interest to know more about RE, the teachers felt that they were inadequately trained to teach this subject in schools, that there are not enough teachers to teach the subject in the schools and that this topic should be integrated as part of co-curricular activities. CETREE, as a centre for education and training in Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency has already started a curriculum to train teachers on the awareness of Renewable Energy (RE) and Energy Efficiency (EE). Result of this study indicates that more training and campaigns need to be implemented at school levels to promote the awareness on RE and EE. This paper will also discuss knowledge and attitude as important factors to consider in creating awareness on RE for the next generation. Teachers need to acquire the knowledge and positive attitude toward these concepts to become successful change agents. Media preference amongst teachers concerning ways to educate the public on RE will also be highlighted
Full Text Available Purpose: Nutrition is an important component of any physical fitness program.The main dietary goal for active individuals is to obtain adequate nutrition to optimize health fitness and to increase sports performance. The present study aims to assess the nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice among the selected athletes. Methods: Athletes from five different private colleges situated in Salem District, Tamilnadu, India were selected. A total number of 102 athletes, 32 sportsmen belong to Volleyball discipline, 25 belongs to weightlifter discipline and 45 belong to runners discipline in sports. All the selected athletes were including in the study. The Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP questionnaire contained ten questions about nutrition knowledge, nine questions about attitudes, and ten questions about dietary practice were collected from the selected athletes. Dietary composition of the sportsmen is also assessed. The collected data was coded and used for evaluation.Results: Results about KAP revealed that 42 per cent of the volleyball players had good nutritional knowledge (60 69per cent compared to weight lifters (43per cent who had satisfactory (50 59per cent knowledge about nutrition. Twenty nine per cent of the runners had very good (70 79per cent knowledge about nutrition. Regarding food consumption pattern intake of cereals, other vegetables and milk was found to be less compared to the RDA for the athletes. Among the three disciplines sports persons, the mean nutrient intake of the runners is high compared to volleyball and weight lifters.Conclusion: The sports disciplines strongly affected the nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices of sportsmen. The overall scores indicate that most sportsmen had good knowledge of nutrition and supplements.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar o grau de conhecimento, atitudes e práticas de puérperas sobre a infecção por HIV e sua prevenção. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 278 puérperas internadas no sistema de alojamento conjunto. Foram realizadas entrevistas com a utilização de um questionário para avaliar o conhecim [...] ento, a atitude e a prática sobre a infecção pelo HIV e sua prevenção. Resultados: A idade das puérperas variou de 13 a 43 anos, prevalecendo faixa entre 20 e 34 anos. Predominou escolaridade entre 8 e 11 anos de estudos e união estável. Apenas 54 (19,4%) puérperas apresentaram conhecimento adequado, 6 (2,2%) atitude e 4 (1,4%) práticas adequadas. Conclusão: O conhecimento foi inadequado devido ao baixo percentual de puérperas que souberam citar pelo menos três formas de transmissão e três formas de prevenção do vírus; a atitude inadequada foi marcada pelo elevado percentual de puérperas que percebem como "improvável" infectar-se com o HIV e "pouco provável" o mesmo ocorrer com seu parceiro. A prática inadequada foi influenciada pelo baixo percentual de realização do teste anti-HIV nos períodos preconizados e pelo não uso do preservativo durante a gravidez. Abstract in english Objective: Evaluating the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices of puerperal women on HIV infection and its prevention. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 278 puerperal women hospitalized in the rooming-in system. Interviews were carried out with the use of a questionnaire to evaluate th [...] e knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV infection and its prevention. Results: The age of puerperal women ranged from 13 to 43 years, with prevalence of the range between 20 and 34 years. The level of education between eight and 11 years of studies was predominant, as well as the stable union. Only 54 (19.4%) puerperal women showed adequate knowledge, six showed adequate attitude (2.2%) and four showed appropriate practices (1.4%). Conclusion: The knowledge was inadequate due to the low percentage of puerperal women able to mention at least three ways of transmission and three forms of preventing the virus; inadequate attitude was marked by the high percentage of puerperal women who perceive becoming infected with HIV as 'unlikely', and 'little likely' that the same occurs with their partners. The inadequate practice was influenced by the low percentage of HIV testing in the recommended periods and the lack of condom use during pregnancy.
Raquel Ferreira Gomes, Brasil; Maysa Mayran Chaves, Moreira; Liana Mara Rocha, Teles; Ana Kelve de Castro, Damasceno; Escolástica Rejane Ferreira, Moura.
Full Text Available Maternal health services are provided in Pakistan through primary, secondary and tertiary care facilities and utilization for at least one visit is up to 61% in some areas. In most rural areas, however, antenatal coverage is closer to 10% and most of Balochistan Province is rural. This study assesses the provision and utilization of antenatal care (ANC services and identifies barriers that limit utilization of the Governments routine ANC services in a tribal community in Jhal Magsi District of Balochistan Province, Pakistan. The study was conducted in the Pattri Union Council of Jhal Magsi District with both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Eight focus groups were conducted among married women and men separately in the villages of Pattri Union Council and a cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted among 513 pregnant women aged 18 to 40 years. Only 14.4% of the study respondents ever had received ANC services at a government health facility. Short distance from residence to health facility, high income, less number of parity, any education, any perceived pregnancy related problem and knowledge about ANC were positively associated with ANC (p<0.001 utilization. However attitude toward government health facility showed negative association with such ANC. A multivariable logistic model also showed significant positive association of family income, education, parity, and distance from residence to health facility with accessing ANC services. Attitude showed a negative association.
Postpartum women in the Honduran health system: folic acid knowledge, attitudes, and practices / Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas relacionados con el ácido fólico en mujeres recién paridas en Honduras
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVOS: Este estudio tuvo dos propósitos: primero, determinar los conocimientos, las actitudes y las prácticas relacionados con el ácido fólico y las malformaciones congénitas en una muestra de conveniencia de mujeres hondureñas recién paridas; y segundo, identificar los patrones de consumo de al [...] imentos en esta población y determinar los productos básicos de alto consumo para su posible fortificación con ácido fólico. MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron las posibles participantes mediante un muestreo de conveniencia. Participaron 2 619 mujeres hondureñas que habían tenido un parto normal en alguno de los 16 hospitales públicos del país o de dos hospitales de la seguridad social que prestan servicios a la clase trabajadora hondureña. En un período de 10 meses se realizaron entrevistas personales directas, orales y exhaustivas en los propios hospitales antes del alta médica. El coordinador y el equipo de investigación supervisaron las entrevistas. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de las mujeres tenían entre 16 y 29 años de edad. Aproximadamente la mitad de las encuestadas (46,4%) habían oído sobre el ácido fólico y más de la tercera parte (37,6%) sabía que era una vitamina relacionada con la prevención de malformaciones congénitas. Las mujeres encuestadas atribuyeron estas malformaciones principalmente al consumo de drogas y alcohol (20,6%) y a la insuficiente ingesta de vitaminas (18,1%); no obstante, 23,0% relacionó las malformaciones con causas místicas, míticas o religiosas. En esta población no se consumen muchos alimentos ricos en folatos, excepto frijoles colorados, naranjas y jugos de frutas naturales. Los alimentos básicos más frecuentes que podrían fortificarse con ácido fólico fueron el arroz, las pastas y las harinas de trigo y de maíz. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados de este estudio abren una posible vía para la fortificación de alimentos y, además, subrayan la necesidad de una mayor educación sobre la importancia del ácido fólico en la prevención de malformaciones del tubo neural en los fetos. Los resultados destacan la necesidad de ofrecer una educación sanitaria estandarizada a las mujeres hondureñas en edad reproductiva si se implementa de manera exitosa y sostenible el consumo de ácido fólico mediante la fortificación y suplementación de alimentos. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: This study had two purposes: first, to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to folic acid and birth defects among a convenience sample of postpartum Honduran women; and second, to identify food consumption patterns in this population and determine high-consumption st [...] aples for potential folic acid fortification. METHODS: Convenience sampling methodology was used to recruit potential study participants. Participants for this study were 2 619 postpartum Honduran women who had had a normal, in-hospital delivery in one of 16 public hospitals located throughout the country or the two social security hospitals that provide services to the Honduran working class population. Over a 10-month period, in-depth, face-to-face oral interviews, supervised by the research coordinator and staff, were conducted in-hospital prior to discharge. RESULTS: The majority of the women were between 16 and 29 years of age. Approximately half of the respondents (46.4%) had heard of folic acid and over one-third (37.6%) knew that it was a vitamin related to preventing birth defects. Birth defects were most often attributed to drug and alcohol use (20.6%) and lack of vitamin intake (18.1%), but 23.0% related defects to mystical, mythical, or religious causes. Aside from red beans, oranges, and natural fruit juices, folate-rich foods are not widely consumed by this population. The highest consumption frequency of staple foods with the potential to be fortified with folic acid were rice, white flour, corn flour, and pasta. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study provide potential avenues for food fortification, as wel
Gayle R., Milla; Alina L., Flores; Edgardo, Umaña; Mayes, Ileana; Jorge, Rosenthal.
Postpartum women in the Honduran health system: folic acid knowledge, attitudes, and practices Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas relacionados con el ácido fólico en mujeres recién paridas en Honduras
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study had two purposes: first, to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to folic acid and birth defects among a convenience sample of postpartum Honduran women; and second, to identify food consumption patterns in this population and determine high-consumption staples for potential folic acid fortification. METHODS: Convenience sampling methodology was used to recruit potential study participants. Participants for this study were 2 619 postpartum Honduran women who had had a normal, in-hospital delivery in one of 16 public hospitals located throughout the country or the two social security hospitals that provide services to the Honduran working class population. Over a 10-month period, in-depth, face-to-face oral interviews, supervised by the research coordinator and staff, were conducted in-hospital prior to discharge. RESULTS: The majority of the women were between 16 and 29 years of age. Approximately half of the respondents (46.4% had heard of folic acid and over one-third (37.6% knew that it was a vitamin related to preventing birth defects. Birth defects were most often attributed to drug and alcohol use (20.6% and lack of vitamin intake (18.1%, but 23.0% related defects to mystical, mythical, or religious causes. Aside from red beans, oranges, and natural fruit juices, folate-rich foods are not widely consumed by this population. The highest consumption frequency of staple foods with the potential to be fortified with folic acid were rice, white flour, corn flour, and pasta. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study provide potential avenues for food fortification, as well as underscore the need for further education about the role of folic acid in the prevention of neural tube defects. Results highlight that standardized health education for Honduran women of reproductive age is needed if folic acid consumption through fortification and supplementation is to be successful and sustainable.OBJETIVOS: Este estudio tuvo dos propósitos: primero, determinar los conocimientos, las actitudes y las prácticas relacionados con el ácido fólico y las malformaciones congénitas en una muestra de conveniencia de mujeres hondureñas recién paridas; y segundo, identificar los patrones de consumo de alimentos en esta población y determinar los productos básicos de alto consumo para su posible fortificación con ácido fólico. MÉTODOS: Se seleccionaron las posibles participantes mediante un muestreo de conveniencia. Participaron 2 619 mujeres hondureñas que habían tenido un parto normal en alguno de los 16 hospitales públicos del país o de dos hospitales de la seguridad social que prestan servicios a la clase trabajadora hondureña. En un período de 10 meses se realizaron entrevistas personales directas, orales y exhaustivas en los propios hospitales antes del alta médica. El coordinador y el equipo de investigación supervisaron las entrevistas. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de las mujeres tenían entre 16 y 29 años de edad. Aproximadamente la mitad de las encuestadas (46,4% habían oído sobre el ácido fólico y más de la tercera parte (37,6% sabía que era una vitamina relacionada con la prevención de malformaciones congénitas. Las mujeres encuestadas atribuyeron estas malformaciones principalmente al consumo de drogas y alcohol (20,6% y a la insuficiente ingesta de vitaminas (18,1%; no obstante, 23,0% relacionó las malformaciones con causas místicas, míticas o religiosas. En esta población no se consumen muchos alimentos ricos en folatos, excepto frijoles colorados, naranjas y jugos de frutas naturales. Los alimentos básicos más frecuentes que podrían fortificarse con ácido fólico fueron el arroz, las pastas y las harinas de trigo y de maíz. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados de este estudio abren una posible vía para la fortificación de alimentos y, además, subrayan la necesidad de una mayor educación sobre la importancia del ácido fólico en la prevención de malformaciones del tubo neural en los fetos. Los resultados destacan la necesidad de ofrecer u
Gayle R. Milla
Conhecimento, prática e atitude sobre o autoexame das mamas de mulheres de uma cidade do Nordeste do Brasil / Knowledge, practice and attitude about breast self-exam from women of a Northeastern municipality, Brazil
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática do autoexame das mamas (AEM) em mulheres do município de São Luís (MA) e os fatores sociodemográficos relacionados. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, prospectivo, com amostragem por conglomerados, no qual foram incluídas 552 mulheres de 14 setores c [...] ensitários em São Luís, no período de Janeiro a Setembro de 2003. O conhecimento, a atitude e a prática (variáveis dependentes) foram avaliados pela análise das respostas das mulheres em "adequado" ou "inadequado". As principais variáveis independentes foram: idade, escolaridade, renda familiar, situação conjugal e status menopausal. Foi realizado o teste do ?2 para a associação entre variáveis categóricas e a mensuração do Odds Ratio (OR) bruto e ajustado após análise multivariada por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: embora 1/3 da população estudada não tivesse conhecimento do AEM, o grupo de mulheres que eram informadas sobre a existência do exame possuía conhecimento (60,9%), prática (59,5%) e atitude (90%) adequados. O histórico familiar para câncer de mama (8,9%) não esteve associado a maior conhecimento e prática. A mídia mostrou-se de grande importância (63,6%) na disseminação da informação do AEM. Após análise multivariada, a mulher com parceiro (OR=1,9) apresentou maior adequação do conhecimento; o grupo de mulheres com idade maior que 50 anos (OR=11,7) teve melhor atitude quanto ao AEM; a escolaridade maior que cinco anos (OR=2) e mulher com parceiro (OR=1,7) estiveram associadas à prática mais correta do AEM. CONCLUSÃO: a maioria das pacientes conhece e pratica o AEM em São Luís e a atitude delas frente ao procedimento é extremamente positiva. Houve uma grande participação da mídia na propagação da informação sobre o AEM. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of breast self-examination (BSE) of women from the municipality of São Luís (MA), Brazil, and associated socio-demographic variables. METHODS: prospective and cross-sectional study, with conglomerate sampling, in which 552 women from 14 census [...] sections of São Luís were included during the period from January to September 2003. The knowledge, attitude and practice (dependent variables) were evaluated by means of analysis of the responses of the women as "adequate" or "inadequate". The main independent variables were: age, schooling, family income and marital and menopausal status. The ?2 test was used to determine the association between categorical variables and the measurement of the crude/adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) after multivariate analysis by means of logistic regression. RESULTS: although 1/3 of the studied population did not know about BSE, the group of women who were informed about it showed adequate knowledge (60.9%), practice (59.5%) and attitude (90%). The family history of breast cancer (8.9%) was not associated with better knowledge and practice. The media (63.6%) was found to be important in disseminating information about BSE. After multivariate analysis, women with a partner (OR=1.9) presented more adequate knowledge; women older than 50 years (OR=11.7) had a better attitude towards BSE; women with more than five years of schooling (OR=2) and with a partner (OR=1.7) were associated with a more correct practice of BSE. CONCLUSION: most of the patients know and practice the BSE in São Luís and their attitude towards the procedure is extremely positive. There was a great participation of the media in the dissemination of information concerning BSE.
Luciane Maria Oliveira, Brito; Maria Bethânia da Costa, Chein; Luiz Gustavo Oliveira, Brito; Ângela Mirella Magalhães, Amorim; Heitor Ricardo Cosiski, Marana.
Conhecimento, prática e atitude sobre o autoexame das mamas de mulheres de uma cidade do Nordeste do Brasil Knowledge, practice and attitude about breast self-exam from women of a Northeastern municipality, Brazil
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática do autoexame das mamas (AEM em mulheres do município de São Luís (MA e os fatores sociodemográficos relacionados. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal, prospectivo, com amostragem por conglomerados, no qual foram incluídas 552 mulheres de 14 setores censitários em São Luís, no período de Janeiro a Setembro de 2003. O conhecimento, a atitude e a prática (variáveis dependentes foram avaliados pela análise das respostas das mulheres em "adequado" ou "inadequado". As principais variáveis independentes foram: idade, escolaridade, renda familiar, situação conjugal e status menopausal. Foi realizado o teste do ?2 para a associação entre variáveis categóricas e a mensuração do Odds Ratio (OR bruto e ajustado após análise multivariada por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: embora 1/3 da população estudada não tivesse conhecimento do AEM, o grupo de mulheres que eram informadas sobre a existência do exame possuía conhecimento (60,9%, prática (59,5% e atitude (90% adequados. O histórico familiar para câncer de mama (8,9% não esteve associado a maior conhecimento e prática. A mídia mostrou-se de grande importância (63,6% na disseminação da informação do AEM. Após análise multivariada, a mulher com parceiro (OR=1,9 apresentou maior adequação do conhecimento; o grupo de mulheres com idade maior que 50 anos (OR=11,7 teve melhor atitude quanto ao AEM; a escolaridade maior que cinco anos (OR=2 e mulher com parceiro (OR=1,7 estiveram associadas à prática mais correta do AEM. CONCLUSÃO: a maioria das pacientes conhece e pratica o AEM em São Luís e a atitude delas frente ao procedimento é extremamente positiva. Houve uma grande participação da mídia na propagação da informação sobre o AEM.PURPOSE: to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of breast self-examination (BSE of women from the municipality of São Luís (MA, Brazil, and associated socio-demographic variables. METHODS: prospective and cross-sectional study, with conglomerate sampling, in which 552 women from 14 census sections of São Luís were included during the period from January to September 2003. The knowledge, attitude and practice (dependent variables were evaluated by means of analysis of the responses of the women as "adequate" or "inadequate". The main independent variables were: age, schooling, family income and marital and menopausal status. The ?2 test was used to determine the association between categorical variables and the measurement of the crude/adjusted Odds Ratio (OR after multivariate analysis by means of logistic regression. RESULTS: although 1/3 of the studied population did not know about BSE, the group of women who were informed about it showed adequate knowledge (60.9%, practice (59.5% and attitude (90%. The family history of breast cancer (8.9% was not associated with better knowledge and practice. The media (63.6% was found to be important in disseminating information about BSE. After multivariate analysis, women with a partner (OR=1.9 presented more adequate knowledge; women older than 50 years (OR=11.7 had a better attitude towards BSE; women with more than five years of schooling (OR=2 and with a partner (OR=1.7 were associated with a more correct practice of BSE. CONCLUSION: most of the patients know and practice the BSE in São Luís and their attitude towards the procedure is extremely positive. There was a great participation of the media in the dissemination of information concerning BSE.
Luciane Maria Oliveira Brito
Background:Prenatal screening has become an ever increasing part of antenatal care in the western part of the world. Providing women with information enabling an informed consent to prenatal examinations has been widely recommended, with women accepting or declining the screening tests offered in full understanding of pros and contra.Objective and hypothesis:To summarize current knowledge of women's expectations and attitudes concerning prenatal examinations as well as the amount of knowledge possessed by pregnant women undergoing prenatal examinations. Reasons for accepting or declining a screening test offered, as well as the influence of information in the decision-making process is also explored. Methods:The review is based on systematic search strategy in the electronic databases Medline and Science Citation. Additional studies were identified through reference lists of individual papers obtained. Results:Women in general express a positive attitude towards screening procedures in pregnancy. Women are found most knowledgeable about procedural and practical aspects but are not always aware of the purposes or any limitations of the tests offered. Understanding and interpretation of risk estimates is low and possible consequences if the test reveals a problem is seldom considered beforehand. A woman's attitude to prenatal examinations is found decisive for up-take of prenatal tests, with no association between a woman's attitude towards prenatal examinations and her knowledge of those tests. Most women consider their doctor an important source of information, and state that information has influenced their decision. Conclusions: Pregnant women favor prenatal examinations, but participation does not seem to be based on an informed consent.
Dahl, Katja; Kesmodel, Ulrik
Interprofessional education (IPE) is well-established in the professional discipline of radiography and other health and social care professions, driven by central government policies promoting interprofessional, collaborative working. The development of an appropriate knowledge base for interprofessional work is therefore important and, as a starting point, the article investigates the concept and significance of professional knowledge as a means to unravel and shed light on the potential emergence of a new body of knowledge, 'interprofessional knowledge'. The paper discusses whether the term 'interprofessional knowledge' (IPK) is meaningful and its utility for interprofessional practice, arguing that such knowledge is located within the discourse of interprofessional learning and practice. As such it is fluid and contextualised. The implications of this for all health and social care professionals, including radiographers, are elaborated to assist in future curriculum development and enhance understanding of the knowledge that underpins effective, collaborative, interprofessional practice. The paper concludes by suggesting there are a number of key implications for professional practice namely, IPE cannot teach interprofessional knowledge, rather it should facilitate interprofessional practice, through which such knowledge is construed, and person-centred care can be more effectively achieved. Second, interprofessional practice is highly contextualised by practice sice is highly contextualised by practice setting and point of service delivery. Any attempt to decontextualise it for the purpose of curriculum development would be illogical; interprofessional knowledge is in a symbiotic relationship with its prior professional knowledge. Third, the organisation of IPE would be better driven by alliances of complementary professions in order to maximise its potential effectiveness and credibility with practitioners
Pacientes em hemodiálise com fístula arteriovenosa: conhecimento, atitude e prática / Hemodialysis patients with arteriovenous fistula: knowledge, attitude and practice / Pacientes en hemodiálisis con fístula arteriovenosa: el conocimiento, la actitud y la práctica
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: Identificar o conhecimento, atitude e prática dos pacientes em hemodiálise sobre autocuidado com fístula arteriovenosa. Métodos: Estudo descritivo, corte transversal e abordagem quantitativa. Envolveu 30 pacientes que realizavam hemodiálise por meio de fístula arteriovenosa no Hospital Ba [...] rão de Lucena. Resultados: 97,7% dos pacientes apresentaram conhecimento inadequado. A atitude foi adequada em 70% dos pesquisados. A prática de autocuidado com a fístula foi inadequada em 97,7% dos pacientes. Conclusão: Apesar da maioria dos pacientes apresentarem uma atitude adequada em relação aos cuidados com a fístula, seu conhecimento e prática foram inadequados. O conhecimento inadequado, provavelmente, influenciou em uma prática inapropriada. O uso do material escrito pode ser recomendado como um instrumento facilitador para estratégias educativas posteriores, já que também permite uma leitura posterior pelo usuário, possibilitando-lhe a superação de eventuais dúvidas. Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Identificar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de autocuidado en pacientes en hemodiálisis con fístula arteriovenosa. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, con enfoque cuantitativo transversal. Fueron observados 30 pacientes sometidos a hemodiálisis a través de la fístula arteriovenosa en e [...] l Hospital Barão de Lucena. Resultados: El 97,7% de los pacientes tenían un conocimiento inadecuado. La actitud fue adecuada en 70% de los encuestados. La práctica de auto-cuidado con fístula fue inadecuado en 97,7% de los pacientes. Conclusión: La mayoría de los pacientes tuvo una actitud apropiada con el cuidado de la fístula, pero el conocimiento y la práctica eran inadecuados. El conocimiento inadecuado probablemente influyó en la práctica inadecuada. El uso de material escrito puede ser recomendado como un facilitador para el futuro instrumento de estrategias educativas, ya que permite una nueva lectura por parte del usuario. Abstract in english Objective: To identify the knowledge, attitude and practice in self-care patients receiving dialysis with arteriovenous fistula. Methods: Descriptive study and cross-sectional quantitative approach in 30 patients using the AV fistula to performed dialysis at the Barao de Lucena Hospital. Results: 9 [...] 7.7% of patients had inadequate knowledge. The attitude was adequate in 70% of those who responded the survey. The self-care practice with the fistula was inadequate in 97.7% of patients. Conclusion: Although most patients have an appropriate attitude toward the care of the fistula, their knowledge and practice were inadequate. The inadequate knowledge, probably, influenced the inadequate practice. The use of written material can be recommended as a facilitator for a future educational strategies instrument, since it also allows for subsequent reading by the user, allowing him to overcome any doubts.
Natália Ramos Costa, Pessoa; Francisca Márcia Pereira, Linhares.
Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre el dengue en las escuelas primarias de Tapachula, Chiapas, México / Dengue-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices in primary schools in Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre el dengue en alumnos de escuelas primarias de Tapachula, Chiapas, México, antes y después de una intervención educativa. MÉTODOS: El estudio se desarrolló en 19 escuelas primarias públicas seleccionadas al azar. Se aplicaron encues [...] tas de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas antes y después de una estrategia educativa a alumnos de 5º y 6º grado de nivel primario. La estrategia educativa se denominó "Escuelas sin mosquitos" e hizo énfasis en la importancia de la participación de los alumnos en el autocuidado de sus escuelas y hogares para la prevención del dengue mediante el control del vector. RESULTADOS: Se aplicaron 3 124 encuestas de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas antes y después de la estrategia educativa, a 1 562 alumnos de 5º y 6º grado (772 y 790 alumnos, respectivamente) con edades que oscilaron entre los 10 y los 12 años. El nivel de conocimiento aumentó de manera significativa en comparación con el que los alumnos tenían antes de la estrategia educativa. Los alumnos de 6º grado tenían y adquirieron significativamente más conocimiento sobre varios aspectos de la enfermedad y el vector en comparación a los de 5º grado. En todas las escuelas se hallaron recipientes con agua y 68% de las escuelas tuvieron recipientes positivos para larvas de Aedes aegypti. CONCLUSIONES: Se demostró que mediante la implementación de una estrategia educativa, aumentan el conocimiento, actitudes y prácticas de los niños sobre el autocuidado de sus escuelas y que pueden actuar como promotores del cambio de actitud sobre esta enfermedad en sus hogares. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To identify dengue-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among primary school students in Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico, before and after an educational intervention. METHODS: The study was carried out at 19 randomly selected public primary schools. Surveys of knowledge, attitudes, and [...] practices were conducted before and after educational sessions with fifthand sixth-grade elementary school students. The educational strategy "Escuelas sin mosquitos" ("Schools without Mosquitoes") emphasized the importance of students' participation in taking care of their schools and homes in order to prevent dengue through vector control. RESULTS: Before and after the educational sessions, a total of 3 124 surveys were conducted on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of 1 562 fifthand sixth-grade students (772 and 790 students, respectively) between 10 and 12 years of age. The students' level of knowledge was significantly higher after the implementation of the educational strategy. In comparison with the fifth-graders, the sixth-grade students both already had and also acquired significantly more knowledge of several aspects of the disease and the vector. In all the schools, there were containers with water identified as potential breeding sites, and in 68% of the schools, these containers tested positive for Aedes aegypti larvae. CONCLUSIONS: It was demonstrated that by implementing an educational strategy, children's knowledge, attitudes, and practices were improved in terms of taking care of their schools and promoting a change of attitude to this disease at home.
José Luis, Torres; José Genaro, Ordóñez; M. Guadalupe, Vázquez-Martínez.
Full Text Available Introduction/Objectives: On 10 August 2010 World Health Organization announced that H1N1 influenza virus had moved into the post-pandemic period and hence it is time for countries to evaluate their response to the pandemic. Many studies have been done about the public perception and behaviours toward H1N1 influenza in the western world; however none has been done so far in the Gulf countries. Therefore, this paper investigates the general public knowledge, risk perception, preventive behaviours and practices during the H1N1 pandemic in Kingdom of Bahrain, as a model for the Gulf countries.Methods: The study was conducted using a cross-sectional questionnaire based survey on 771 Bahraini individuals.Results: Despite that the public showed strong adherence to the personal protective hygiene measures, most of them underestimated the threat of H1N1 pandemic as evident in their knowledge of previous pandemics or in their susceptibility perception. Furthermore, misconceptions and wrong beliefs were common, which indicates a gap in the knowledge and practice of the public. For example, most of the public were against taking H1N1 Influenza vaccine and their negative intension was based on the alleged side effects of the vaccine.Conclusion: This study provides a baseline for an ongoing surveillance programme to help the local authorities in improving their pandemic preparatory plans, especially the governmental educational and media campaign.
Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en salud bucal de padres y cuidadores en hogares infantiles, Colombia / Knowledge, attitudes and practices in oral health of parents and caregivers in children's homes in Colombia
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en salud oral de padres y cuidadores. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Un total de 333 padres y ocho cuidadores de hogares infantiles de Colombia, durante 2010, diligenciaron encuestas y entrevistas de grupos focales. Los datos se analizaron por frecuencia [...] , usando la prueba ?2 para significancia. La información cualitativa se interpretó usando comentarios triangulados,buscando patrones y discrepancias. RESULTADOS: En los padres se observaron buenos niveles de conocimientos (58,9%) y actitudes favorables (74,5%). Para las prácticas, 50,6% de los niños duermen con los dientes cepillados y 69,6% de los padres colocan el dentífrico sobre el cepillo.En los cuidadores,se perciben actitudes positivas para desarrollar estrategias promocionales, pero consideran que los padres son los principales responsables de implementar hábitos orales saludables. CONCLUSIONES: Los padres y cuidadores manifiestan condiciones favorables dentro de sus percepciones, lo que puede ser una oportunidad para promocionar hábitos higiénicos en los niños. Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: To describe knowledge,attitudes and practices in oral health of parents and caregivers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 333 parents and eight caregivers in children's homes in Colombia in 2010 completed questionnaires and participated in focus group interviews.The data was analyzed for [...] frequency using the ?2 test to evaluate significance. The qualitative information was interpreted using triangulated comments to detect patterns and discrepancies. RESULTS: For parents, good levels of knowledge (58.9%) and favorable attitudes (74.5%) were observed. In terms of practices, 50.6% of the children brushed their teeth before bed, with 69.6% of the parents applying the toothpaste to the brush. Among caregivers, a positive attitude toward developing promotional strategies was perceived, but they considered parents to have the main responsibility in matters of healthy oral habits. CONCLUSION: Parents and caregivers demonstrated favorable conditions in terms of their perceptions, which can be considered an opportunity to promote hygiene habits in children.
Farith González, Martínez; Carmen Cecilia Sierra, Barrios; Luz Edilma Morales, Salinas.
Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en salud bucal de padres y cuidadores en hogares infantiles, Colombia Knowledge, attitudes and practices in oral health of parents and caregivers in children's homes in Colombia
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en salud oral de padres y cuidadores. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Un total de 333 padres y ocho cuidadores de hogares infantiles de Colombia, durante 2010, diligenciaron encuestas y entrevistas de grupos focales. Los datos se analizaron por frecuencia, usando la prueba ?2 para significancia. La información cualitativa se interpretó usando comentarios triangulados,buscando patrones y discrepancias. RESULTADOS: En los padres se observaron buenos niveles de conocimientos (58,9% y actitudes favorables (74,5%. Para las prácticas, 50,6% de los niños duermen con los dientes cepillados y 69,6% de los padres colocan el dentífrico sobre el cepillo.En los cuidadores,se perciben actitudes positivas para desarrollar estrategias promocionales, pero consideran que los padres son los principales responsables de implementar hábitos orales saludables. CONCLUSIONES: Los padres y cuidadores manifiestan condiciones favorables dentro de sus percepciones, lo que puede ser una oportunidad para promocionar hábitos higiénicos en los niños.OBJECTIVES: To describe knowledge,attitudes and practices in oral health of parents and caregivers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 333 parents and eight caregivers in children's homes in Colombia in 2010 completed questionnaires and participated in focus group interviews.The data was analyzed for frequency using the ?2 test to evaluate significance. The qualitative information was interpreted using triangulated comments to detect patterns and discrepancies. RESULTS: For parents, good levels of knowledge (58.9% and favorable attitudes (74.5% were observed. In terms of practices, 50.6% of the children brushed their teeth before bed, with 69.6% of the parents applying the toothpaste to the brush. Among caregivers, a positive attitude toward developing promotional strategies was perceived, but they considered parents to have the main responsibility in matters of healthy oral habits. CONCLUSION: Parents and caregivers demonstrated favorable conditions in terms of their perceptions, which can be considered an opportunity to promote hygiene habits in children.
Farith González Martínez
A research study compared the relationship of nutrition knowledge to eating practices and attitudes of female high school and college runners. Results showed that runners with greater nutrition knowledge made better food choices and ate more healthfully. This article looks at the runners' misconceptions and makes recommendations for nutrition
Wiita, Barbara; And Others
Background: Mental disorders are widely recognized as a major contributor to the global burden of disease worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge and attitude about mental illness among general public. Method: This is a cross-sectional survey conducted from October 2008 to March 2009. A questionnaire was designed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding mental illness. Results: 100 subjects were selected conveniently, of which 33 % males and 67 % females, mo...
Aile Planlamasi Klinigine Basvuran Kadinlarin Kontrasepsiyon ve Medikal Abortusa Bakislari --- Survey of knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception and medical abortion in women attending family planning clinic
Full Text Available Amac: All India Institute of Medical Sciences bunyesindeki aile planlamasi klinigine basvuran kadinlarda kontrasepsiyon ve medikal abortusa yaklasimlari, bilgileri ve uygulamalari degerlendirmek. Materyal ve Metot: Yeni Delhi All India Institute of Medical Sciences bunyesindeki aile planlamasi merkezlerine 1 Agustos 2005 ile 31 Ekim 2005 tarihleri arasinda 284 kadin basvurdu. Bunlardan gebeliklerinin sonlandirilmasini isteyen 158 kadin sorgulandi ve anket calismasina alindi. Kadinlarin yaslari 20-45 arasindaydi; 83Ã¢ÂÂu (%29.2 okuma yazma bilmiyordu, 63Ã¢ÂÂu (%22.2 ilkokul mezunu ve 138Ã¢ÂÂi (%48.6 de lise veya yuksekokul mezunuydu. Kadinlar modifiye Kuppuswamy Sosyo-Ekonomik Duzey Skalasina gore dusuk ve yuksek sosyoekonomik sinif olarak gruplandirildi: I. Ust sinif, II. Orta-ust sinif, III. Orta sinif, IV. Alt orta sinif, V. Alt sinif. Eslerin her ikisinden de onam alindi. Cesitli kontrasepsiyon yontemleri sunuldu ve memnun olduklari yontem secimi kendilerine birakildi. Sonuclar: Kadinlardan 111Ã¢ÂÂi (%39.8 korunma yontemi kullanmadi; 108Ã¢ÂÂi (%3.87 bariyer yontemi, 52Ã¢ÂÂsi (%18.31 rahim ici arac, 11Ã¢ÂÂi (%3.87 dogum kontrol haplari ve 2Ã¢ÂÂsi de (%0.7 diger yontemleri tercih etti. Gebelik sonlandirilmasini isteyenlerin %56.96Ã¢ÂÂsinda istenmeyen gebelik, %43.03Ã¢ÂÂunde basarisiz kontrasepsiyon sonucu gebelik olusmustu. Saglik problemi olan bir olgu haricinde kalitimsal bir endikasyon yoktu. Olgulardan 4Ã¢ÂÂu (%1.4 hic kullanmasalar da acil kontrasepsiyonu ve 22Ã¢ÂÂsi medikal abortusu duymustu. Olgularin 15Ã¢ÂÂi ise (%5.28 daha onceden medikal abortus islemi gecirmisti. Abortus sonrasi kadinlarin 9Ã¢ÂÂu (%3.17 dogum kontrol haplari ile, 81Ã¢ÂÂi (%28.5 rahim ici arac ile ve 62Ã¢ÂÂsi (%21.83 tup ligasyonu ile korunmayi tercih etti. Diger bir grupta 38 kadinda (%13.38 RIA cikarildi ve yeniden takildi, 35Ã¢ÂÂine (%12.32 sterilizasyon operasyonu ve 6Ã¢ÂÂsina (%2.4 gebelik istemi nedeniyle spiral cikarma islemi uygulandi. Istatistiksel analiz SPSS (Chicago ile c2 testi uygulanarak ve p degeri anlamliligi 0.05 alinarak yapildi. Tartisma: Calismaya katilan kadin populasyonunun acil kontrasepsiyon ve tibbi tahliye hakkindaki bilgileri yetersizdir.OBJECTIVE: Knowledge, attitude and practice of women attending family planning clinic at All India Institute of Medical Sciences. MATERIAL-METHODS: 284 women attending family planning clinic of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India between 1st August 2005 till 31st October 2005, of which 158 requested for medical termination of pregnancy (MTP, were interrogated on a structured questionnaire. The age of women ranged from 20-45 years, 83(29.2% were illiterate, 63(22.2% were educated until primary school and 48.6% were high school pass and above. Patients were grouped into Low and high socio-economic status according to modified Kuppuswamy Socio-economic Status Scale. I. Upper class II. Upper middle class III. Middle class IV. Lower middle class V. Lower class Consent of both husband and wife was taken. They were counseled about the various contraceptives available and chose whichever suited them best. RESULTS: 111 (39.08% were not using any contraception, 108 (38.02% barrier method, 52 (18.31% intrauterine device (IUD while oral pills by 11 (3.87% and others 2 (0.7%. The indication of MTP was unplanned pregnancy in 56.96% cases while failure of contraception in 43.03%. There was no eugenic indication while ill health in only one. 4 (1.4% women had heard about emergency contraceptive, however none had used it. 22 (7.8% women had heard of medical abortion and 15 (5.28% had undergone with satisfaction. The various methods of contraception accepted by the women post abortion were OCPs 9 (3.17%, IUD by 81 (28.5% and female sterilization by 62 (21.83%. In the other group 38 (13.38% had IUD removed and reinserted, 38 had IUD inserted while 35 (12.32% women underwent steriliza
A survey of 260 graduate social work students found their knowledge of and attitudes toward psychotropic medication uneven and lower than desirable. Results also suggest personal and professional experiences influence knowledge and attitudes. It is recommended that social work course content be expanded to include relevant information on these
Bentley, Kia J.; And Others
Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these
Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.
This study investigated the knowledge and attitudes of Jordanian school counselors toward diabetes mellitus. A sample of 295 counselors completed a questionnaire consisting of two parts concerning knowledge and attitudes. The face validity of the questionnaire was assessed using an informed panel of judges, and its reliability was established
Tannous, Adel G.; Khateeb, Jamal M.; Khamra, Hatem A.; Hadidi, Muna S.; Natour, Mayada M.
Military offenders' (N=69) attitudes towards drugs, knowledge about drugs, and reported drug abuse histories were analyzed. Results indicated a significantly positive relationship between all three variables. Military offenders who had drug use histories also had more liberal attitudes toward drug use and a greater degree of knowledge about drugs.
Ratliff, Bascom W.
There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manatí and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this setting, poverty and gender inequality were prevalent, and healthcare access was limited by long distances to the health post and long waiting times. There was a high burden of reported pain (mainly head and musculoskeletal) and chronic non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension (19%). Nearly all participants felt that they did not completely understand their diagnosed illnesses and wanted to know more. Participants preferred modern over traditional medicine, predominantly because of mistrust or lack of belief in traditional medicine. Our findings provide novel evidence concerning transitional health beliefs, hidden pain, and chronic non-communicable disease prevalence in marginalized communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Healthcare provision was limited by a breach between health education, knowledge, and access. Additional participatory research with similar rural populations is required to inform regional healthcare policy and decision-making. PMID:25688165
Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom
Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre fascioliasis en madres de una zona rural andina del norte peruano Knowledge, attitudes and practices about fascioliasis among mothers from an andean rural area of north Peru
Full Text Available Se realizó una encuesta para determinar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre fascioliasis en 62 madres de familia de una zona rural endémica de la región andina de Cajamarca, Perú. Sólo el 37,0% reconoce a la alicuya (nombre popular de la Fasciola hepática como parásito responsable de la enfermedad; 56,5 y 85,5% conocen que afecta el hígado de humanos y de los animales respectivamente; 98,4% tiene predisposición positiva para participar de charlas informativas sobre la enfermedad y 75,8% para apoyar activamente a sus autoridades en la solución del problema. El 38,7% indica que bebe emolientes en la calle y 75,6% cría animales considerados huéspedes del parásito. En conclusión, las actitudes de las encuestadas son mayoritariamente favorables para realizar actividades de prevención y control, pese a que sus conocimientos son incorrectos y el entorno familiar realiza ciertas prácticas de riesgo para la enfermedad.A survey to determine knowledge, attitudes and practices about fascioliasis was administered to 62 mothers from a rural endemic zone of Cajamarcas Andean Region, Peru. Only 37.0% recognized the alicuya (local name for Fasciola hepatica as the parasite responsible for the disease; 56.5% knows that the disease affects the liver in the humans and 85.5% knows affects also animals; 98.4% have a positive predisposition to attend informative talks about the disease and 75.8% to support their authorities actively to solve of the problem. 38.7% referred drinking emollients in the street, 75.6% have domestic animals considered host for the parasite. In conclusion, attitudes of mothers are mostly favourable for prevention and control activities, despite their mistaken knowledge risky practices for fasciolasis among members of their families.
CONOCIMIENTOS, ACTITUDES Y PRÁCTICAS RELACIONADAS CON LAS INFECCIONES DE TRANSMISIÓN SEXUAL EN ESTUDIANTES UNIVERSITARIOS / KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND PRACTICES RELATED TO SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS IN COLLEGE STUDENTS
Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar los conocimientos y prácticas de los (as) estudiantes universitarios sobre Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual Método: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, desde octubre del 2008 a diciembre del 2009, para identificar las necesidades en Salud Sexual y Reproductiva de los(as) estudi [...] antes de dos facultades de una universidad pública en el Valle del Cauca. El muestreo fue voluntario por conveniencia, logrando obtener un muestra de 1.120 estudiantes (error aceptable 45%, confianza 99,9%). Para la recolección de la información se elaboró una encuesta la cual fue respondida de manera auto diligenciada en formato electrónico. Para el análisis se utilizó el paquete estadístico Epi Info versión 6 y se utilizó la prueba Chi cuadrado para identificar significancia estadística (p Abstract in english Objective: To identify the university students knowledge and practices about the sexual transmitted diseases. Method: To identify the needs in Sexual and Reproductive Health in the students from two different faculties in the public university Valle del Cauca a descriptive study was done from Octob [...] er 2008 to December 2009. The sample was voluntary for coexistence and a population sample of 1.120 students was obtained (error 45%, reliability 99, 9%). A survey was conducted for the information gathering which was answered in an auto-conscious way in an electronic format. For the analysis, the statistic packet Epi Info 6th version was used and the Chi squared test was employed to identify the statistical significance (p
Liliana, Arias Castillo; Martha Lucía, Vásquez Truissi; Eliana Patricia, Dueñas; Lina María, García; Elsa Lucía, Tejada.
The school counseling profession is governed by national standards to promote the academic, personal, social, and career development of all students. There is an emphasis on outlining professional dispositions for school counselors. Yet, the personal values, beliefs, and attitudes that influence their interactions with students and the carrying
Jones, Shenika Juanita
Conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas de Cirurgiões-Dentistas de Anápolis-GO sobre a fitoterapia em odontologia / Knowledge, attitudes and practices of dentists from Anápolis-GO on phytotherapy in dentistry
Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em um cenário de expansão das práticas integrativas e complementares em saúde no Brasil, são escassos os estudos relacionados ao uso da fitoterapia em Odontologia. OBJETIVO: Investigar os conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas do Cirurgião-Dentista sobre a fitoterapia na prática clínic [...] a. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo transversal com um grupo de 105 Cirurgiões-Dentistas, no exercício clínico da Odontologia dos serviços público e privado, do município de Anápolis-GO (taxa de resposta de 52,5% dos 200 profissionais convidados), que responderam um questionário. RESULTADO: Cerca de 16% dos respondentes afirmaram que tiveram embasamento teórico acerca da fitoterapia e, destes, metade relatou ter tido este embasamento na Graduação. Embora mais da metade dos Cirurgiões-Dentistas (61,9%) tenha considerado viável a inserção dos fitoterápicos na prática clínica, poucos relataram prescrevê-los (12,4%) ou questionarem, durante a consulta, se os pacientes faziam uso de fitoterápicos (36,2%). Quanto à opinião sobre os fatores que dificultam a inserção dos fitoterápicos no âmbito da Odontologia, os mais citados foram o desconhecimento, a ausência de pesquisas e a falta de divulgação. Embora a maioria desconhecesse a legislação a respeito do tema, este conhecimento foi associado ao uso de fitoterapia na prática clínica (p Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Despite the expansion of complementary and integrative health practices in Brazil, there are few studies related to the use of phytotherapy in dentistry. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of dentists on phytotherapy in clinical practice. MATERIAL [...] AND METHOD: A cross-sectional study was carried out with a group of 105 dentists working as clinicians in the public and private service in the city of Anápolis-GO (response rate = 52.5% of the 200 professionals invited) who answered a questionnaire. RESULT: About 16% of respondents said they had theoretical background about phytotherapy and half of them reported having had this subject during the undergraduate programe. Although more than half of dentists (61.9%) have considered that the insertion of phytotherapy in clinical practice is feasible, only a few reported prescribing them (12.4%), or questioning, during the consultation, if their patients were having phytotherapy (36.2%). Regarding the dentists' opinions regarding the factors that hinder the inclusion of phytotherapy in the dental practice, the most frequent were lack of knowledge, lack of research and lack of information. Most of them had no knowledge on the legislation regarding phytotherapy and this was associated with its use in clinical practice (p
Liliane Braga Monteiro dos, REIS; André de Lima, FARIAS; Ângela de Paula, BOLLELLA; Hemilly Karoliny Martins, SILVA; Marcos Ítalo Carvalho, CANUTO; Janaína da Câmara, ZAMBELLI; Maria do Carmo Matias, FREIRE.
This study investigated attitudes towards older employees, perceived age discrimination, and HR practices (personnel development and reward) in 240 employees. Attitudes toward older employees were largely positive, thus supporting the notion that attitudes toward older employees are becoming increasingly positive. Older employees' attitudes towards older employees were more positive, but younger employees' attitudes were still favorable. Moreover, older and younger employees reporte...
Annette Kluge; Franciska Krings
ObBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate perceptions regarding current practices in the care of diabetic inpatients as well as the knowledge and attitudes of nursing and medical caregivers at a large secondary hospital. DESIGN AND METHODS: Doctors and nurses taking care of diabetic inpatients were surveyed to assess their knowledge of diabetes inpatient management and their attitudes towards diabetic patients. The survey made use of the diabetes knowledge questionnaire (O'Brien...
Zyl, Danie G.; Rheeder, Paul
Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre Dengue en un barrio de la ciudad de Cartagena de Indias / Knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding dengue in a neighborhood forming part of the city of Cartagena
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Identificar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre dengue en un barrio de la ciudad de Cartagena de Indias. Métodos Estudio descriptivo transversal en 870 sujetos residentes de un barrio ubicado en la zona suroriental de la ciudad. El muestreo fue probabilístico, aleatorio en tres e [...] tapas. Se indagó sobre los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre dengue. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó la base de datos Stata versión 11.1 para determinar las frecuencias absolutas y relativas de cada variable estudiada. Resultados Se encontró que el 93,7 % de los encuestados conocen que existe la enfermedad; el 49,7 % no sabe cuál es el agente causal de la enfermedad. Mientras que el 80,5 % de los encuestados manifiesta tener disposición para recibir clases de educación sanitaria. El 60,1 % de la población encuestada almacena agua en sus viviendas y el 73,8 % utiliza los tanques como recipientes. El 24,8 % manifiesta que evita tener agua estancada. Conclusiones Los habitantes ratifican la alta incidencia de casos de dengue en el barrio, la cual ha sido reportada por el ente de distrital de salud. Los conocimientos sobre dengue son escasos, se adoptan prácticas de riesgo que favorecen el desarrollo de la enfermedad; sin embargo, se evidencia una actitud favorable para el control. Se requiere, entonces, promover cambios de comportamiento no solo en la comunidad, sino también, en la manera como los programas de prevención y control se están llevando a cabo. Abstract in english Objective Identifying attitudes, practice and knowledge regarding dengue in a neighborhood of the city of Cartagena. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 870 people living in a neighborhood in the south-eastern part of Cartagena. Probabilistic, randomized, three-staged sampling was used; it w [...] as intended to ascertain attitudes, practice and knowledge about dengue. The Stata statistics package (version 11.1) was used for analyzing the data to determine the absolute and relative frequency for each variable studied. Results It was found that 93.7 % of those surveyed knew about the disease; although 49.7 % did not know what the causal agent of the disease was, 80.5 % of those surveyed did express an interest. In receiving health education classes. 60.1 % of the population surveyed here stored water in their homes and 73.8 % used tanks as containers. 24.8 % of those surveyed stated that they avoided having/using stagnant water. Conclusions The residents confirmed the high incidence of dengue cases reported by the district health department. Knowledge about dengue was limited; risky practices favoring the disease's development were adopted, but an attitude towards controlling this issue was evident. Changes in current behavior patterns must thus be promoted in the community and also regarding how prevention and control programs are being carried out.
Jacqueline, Hernández-Escolar; Claudia, Consuegra-Mayor; Yaneth, Herazo-Beltrán.
Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre Dengue en un barrio de la ciudad de Cartagena de Indias / Knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding dengue in a neighborhood forming part of the city of Cartagena
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo Identificar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre dengue en un barrio de la ciudad de Cartagena de Indias. Métodos Estudio descriptivo transversal en 870 sujetos residentes de un barrio ubicado en la zona suroriental de la ciudad. El muestreo fue probabilístico, aleatorio en tres e [...] tapas. Se indagó sobre los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre dengue. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó la base de datos Stata versión 11.1 para determinar las frecuencias absolutas y relativas de cada variable estudiada. Resultados Se encontró que el 93,7 % de los encuestados conocen que existe la enfermedad; el 49,7 % no sabe cuál es el agente causal de la enfermedad. Mientras que el 80,5 % de los encuestados manifiesta tener disposición para recibir clases de educación sanitaria. El 60,1 % de la población encuestada almacena agua en sus viviendas y el 73,8 % utiliza los tanques como recipientes. El 24,8 % manifiesta que evita tener agua estancada. Conclusiones Los habitantes ratifican la alta incidencia de casos de dengue en el barrio, la cual ha sido reportada por el ente de distrital de salud. Los conocimientos sobre dengue son escasos, se adoptan prácticas de riesgo que favorecen el desarrollo de la enfermedad; sin embargo, se evidencia una actitud favorable para el control. Se requiere, entonces, promover cambios de comportamiento no solo en la comunidad, sino también, en la manera como los programas de prevención y control se están llevando a cabo. Abstract in english Objective Identifying attitudes, practice and knowledge regarding dengue in a neighborhood of the city of Cartagena. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 870 people living in a neighborhood in the south-eastern part of Cartagena. Probabilistic, randomized, three-staged sampling was used; it w [...] as intended to ascertain attitudes, practice and knowledge about dengue. The Stata statistics package (version 11.1) was used for analyzing the data to determine the absolute and relative frequency for each variable studied. Results It was found that 93.7 % of those surveyed knew about the disease; although 49.7 % did not know what the causal agent of the disease was, 80.5 % of those surveyed did express an interest. In receiving health education classes. 60.1 % of the population surveyed here stored water in their homes and 73.8 % used tanks as containers. 24.8 % of those surveyed stated that they avoided having/using stagnant water. Conclusions The residents confirmed the high incidence of dengue cases reported by the district health department. Knowledge about dengue was limited; risky practices favoring the disease's development were adopted, but an attitude towards controlling this issue was evident. Changes in current behavior patterns must thus be promoted in the community and also regarding how prevention and control programs are being carried out.
Jacqueline, Hernández-Escolar; Claudia, Consuegra-Mayor; Yaneth, Herazo-Beltrán.
Knowledge, attitudes and practices for the prevention of diabetic foot / Conhecimento, atitudes e práticas de medidas preventivas sobre pé diabético / Conocimiento, actitudes prácticas y de escrituras de la prevención en pie diabético
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Languages: English, Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se identificar o conhecimento, as atitudes e as práticas voltadas à prevenção do pé diabético em pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Trata-se de pesquisa transversal desenvolvida em duas Unidades de Saúde da Família, no município de Picos, PI, com 85 diabéticos de ambos os sexos, media [...] nte o uso de um formulário semiestruturado, do tipo inquérito sobre Conhecimento, Atitude e Prática. Houve predominância do sexo feminino no estudo (62,4%). Sobre o conhecimento dos cuidados com os pés, 49,4% não sabiam como se faz a higiene e o que se deve observar nos pés. Nos cuidados com as unhas, 56,5% desconheciam o corte correto. Em relação às atitudes, 80% tinham disposição para executar o autocuidado. Partindo para a prática, averiguou-se que cuidados como lavagem, secagem, hidratação e massagem não eram executados juntos. É necessário o desenvolvimento de estratégias educativas para sensibilizar, tanto os diabéticos quanto os profissionais de saúde, para a eficaz prevenção do pé diabético. Abstract in spanish Este estudio tuvo como objetivo identificar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas orientadas a la prevención del pie diabético en pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Se trata de estudio transversal realizado en dos Unidades de Salud de la Familia, en la ciudad de Picos-PI, con 85 diabéticos d [...] e ambos sexos, mediante el uso de un formulario de encuesta semiestructurada conocimiento, Actitudes y Prácticas tipo. Hubo un predominio del sexo femenino en el estudio (62,4%). En el conocimiento de cuidado de los pies, el 49,4% no sabía cómo hacer la higiene y lo que quiere ver en los pies. En el cuidado de las uñas, el 56,5% desconocía el corte correcto. En cuanto a las actitudes, el 80% tuvo que realizar la prestación de cuidados personales. A partir de la práctica, se investigó que la atención como el lavado, secado, hidratación y masaje no se corrieron juntos. Es necesario desarrollar estrategias educativas para crear conciencia, tanto en diabéticos como profesionales de la salud, la prevención efectiva del pie diabético. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to identify the knowledge, attitudes and practices for the prevention of diabetic foot in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. This study was based on a cross-sectional survey conducted in two Family Health Units, in the city of Picos - PI, Brazil, with 85 diabetics [...] of both sexes, by means of a semi-structured Knowledge, Attitude and Practice questionnaire. There was a predominance of females in the study (62.4%). On the topic of foot care, 49.4% had no knowledge on hygiene or what to observe in their feet. In relation to nail care, 56.5% were unaware of the correct way to cut nails. Regarding attitudes, 80% were willing to engage in self-care. In terms of practice, results showed that activities such as washing, drying, moisturizing and massaging were not executed together. It is therefore necessary to develop educational strategies to create awareness, both for diabetics and health professionals, on the effective prevention of diabetic foot.
Natalia de Sá, Policarpo; Jayne Ramos Araujo, Moura; Eugênio Barbosa de, Melo Júnior; Paulo César de, Almeida; Suyanne Freire de, Macêdo; Ana Roberta Vilarouca da, Silva.
Vacina contra influenza: conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas de idosos em Teresina / Vaccine influenza: knowledge, attitudes and practices of elderly in Teresina / Vacuna contra gripe: conocimiento, actitudes y práctica de ancianos en Teresina
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo objetiva levantar os conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas dos idosos de uma área do Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF) sobre a vacina contra influenza e identificar os motivos que levaram alguns a não se vacinarem. Consiste em um inquérito domiciliar, em uma área do PSF de Teresina, com 74 [...] idosos a partir de 60 anos. Os resultados evidenciaram que não obstante 85,3% tenham conhecimento inadequado sobre a vacina, 89,1% são favoráveis. Os motivos mais freqüentes para a não vacinação foram doença e temor dos eventos adversos. Conclui-se que a atitude favorável a respeito da vacinação pode modificar a prática frente a ela, instaurando comportamento de autoproteção e maior adesão. Abstract in spanish Este estudio objetivo para levantar el conocimiento, práctico y actitudes envejecidos de un área del programa de la salud de Familia (PSF) en la vacuna cuenta gripe e identificar las razones que habían tomado alguno para no ser vaccined. Consiste en una investigación domiciliaria, un área del PSF de [...] Teresina, con 74 envejeció unos a partir de 60 años. El resultado había evidenciado que sin embargo 85.3% tienen conocimiento inadecuado en la vacuna, 89.1% es favorable. Las razones más frecuentes para la vacunación no habían sido enfermedad y miedo de los acontecimientos adversos. Se concluye que la actitud favorable con respecto a la vacunación puede modificar el frente práctico él, restaurando el comportamiento de la uno mismo-protección y de la mayor adherencia. Abstract in english This objective study to raise the knowledge, practical and attitudes of the aged ones of an area of the Program of Health of Família (PSF) on the vaccine it counts influenza and to identify the reasons that had taken some not to be vaccined. It consists of a domiciliary inquiry, an area of the PSF o [...] f Teresina, with 74 aged ones from 60 years. The result had evidenced that even so 85.3% have inadequate knowledge on the vaccine, 89.1% is favorable. The reasons most frequent for the vaccination had not been illness and fear of the adverse events. It is concluded that the favorable attitude regarding the vaccination can modify the practical front it, restoring behavior of self-protection and greater adhesion.
Telma Maria Evangelista de, Araújo; Fabíola Santos, Lino; Dayse Joanne Coutinho do, Nascimento; Francisca Sora Rodrigues da, Costa.
Buruli ulcer disease (BUD), a devastating tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, occurs in more than 80% of the administrative districts of Ghana. To elucidate community perceptions and understanding of the aetiology of BUD, attitudes towards Buruli patients and treatment-seeking behaviours, we conducted a survey with 504 heads of households and seven focus group discussions in Ga West District, Ghana. Although 67% of participants regarded BUD as a health problem, 53% did not know its cause. Sixteen per cent attributed the cause to drinking non-potable water, 8.1% mentioned poor personal hygiene or dirty surroundings, and 5.5% identified swimming or wading in ponds as a risk factor. About 5.2% thought that witchcraft and curses cause BUD, and 71.8% indicated that BU sufferers first seek treatment from herbalists and only refer to the hospital as a last resort. The main reasons were prospects of prolonged hospital stay, cost of transport, loss of earnings and opportunity associated with parents attending their children's hospitalization over extended period, delays in being attended by medical staff, and not knowing the cause of the disease or required treatment. The level of acceptance of BUD sufferers was high in adults but less so in children. The challenge facing health workers is to break the vicious cycle of poor medical outcomes leading to poor attitudes to hospital treatment in the community. Because herbalists are often the first people consulted by those who contract the disease, they need to be trained in early recognition of the pre-ulcerative stage of Buruli lesions. PMID:17313516
Renzaho, Andre M N; Woods, Paul V; Ackumey, Mercy M; Harvey, Simon K; Kotin, Jacob
The Canadian dairy industry has recently begun implementing an on-farm food-safety (OFFS) program called Canadian Quality Milk (CQM). For CQM to be effective, producers should be familiar with food-safety hazards in their industry and have an adequate understanding of on-farm good production practices that are necessary to ensure safe food. To assess their knowledge and attitudes towards food safety, a postal questionnaire was administered to all (n=10,474) Canadian dairy producers enrolled in dairy herd-improvement organizations in 2008. The response rate was 20.9% (2185/10,474). Most producers (88.7%) reported that they or their families consume unpasteurized milk from their bulk milk tanks and 36.3% indicated that consumers should be able to purchase unpasteurized milk in Canada. Producers who reported completion of a dairy-health management course (OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.92) and participation in CQM (OR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.97) were less likely to support the availability of unpasteurized milk for consumers, while organic producers (OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.27, 3.47), younger producers (aged organic producers (OR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.09, 3.69) and producers from Quebec compared to each other province were more likely to indicate concern about AMR. Most producers reported that Salmonella (74.2%) and Escherichia coli (73.0%) could be transmitted through contaminated beef or milk to humans, while most were not sure or did not think that Brucella (70.3%) and Cryptosporidium (88.5%) could be transmitted via these routes. Most producers did not perceive that any type of farm visitor has a high risk of introducing infectious agents into their herds. Producers rated veterinarians as very knowledgeable about OFFS (90.9% answered 4 or 5 on a five-point scale) and a favoured (73.1%) source of information about food safety. In contrast, only 13.2% and 30.2% of producers, respectively, indicated that consumers and government personnel are knowledgeable about OFFS. Targeted continuing education for dairy producers in Canada should address the major gaps in knowledge and attitudes towards food safety identified in this study, and veterinarians should be included as key knowledge-transfer informants. PMID:19962773
Young, I; Hendrick, S; Parker, S; Raji?, A; McClure, J T; Sanchez, J; McEwen, S A
Reports on a comparative study of attitudes toward the aims of practical work given by science teachers from Egypt, Korea, and the United Kingdom. Finds that all three groups express a common attitude towards the aims of practical work that reflect an acknowledgement of the methods by which scientists make new knowledge. Contains 42 references.
Swain, Julian; Monk, Martin; Johnson, Sally
This descriptive study explored the influence of specific geriatric knowledge on second and third year nursing students in their provision of care to older adults. Nineteen student participants provided qualitative data on their values and beliefs about nursing older adults prior to their attendance at a 1-h session teaching about two assessment tools: SPICES (Sleep disorders, Problems with feeding, Incontinence, Confusion, Evidence of falls, Skin breakdown) and BPI-SF (Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form). Data were again collected following a 6-week practice experience in which the same students had the opportunity to implement the tools. Four emerging themes, beliefs, knowledge, attitudes, and application, suggested how the students' geriatric knowledge and attitudes evolved and took on personal meaning in their intermediate practice experiences. Their realization of the hegemony associated with devaluing of the care of older adults warrants further examination into how geriatric knowledge is conveyed and assimilated. PMID:23465846
Potter, Gail; Clarke, Tammie; Hackett, Susan; Little, Maureen
This study assessed Australian clinicians knowledge, attitudes and referral patterns of patients with suspected Lynch syndrome for genetic services. A total of 144 oncologists, surgeons, gynaecologists, general practitioners and gastroenterologists from the Australian Medical Association and Clinical Oncology Society responded to a web-based survey. Most respondents demonstrated suboptimal knowledge of Lynch syndrome. Male general practitioners who have been practicing for ?10 years were...
Tan, Yen Y.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Andreas Obermair
The ability to locate, share, and use knowledge is vital for effective functioning of organizations. However, such knowledge processing can be complicated by increasing cultural diversity. Recent studies have suggested that a groups diversity attitudes may increase group outcomes. In this study, based on a sample consisting of 489 members of multicultural academic departments, we set out to investigate the relationship between openness to diversity (linguistic, social category, value, and informational) and group knowledge processing (knowledge location, knowledge needed, bring knowledge to bear, and personal knowledge). We found openness to linguistic and informational diversity to have positive associations with all group knowledge processing variables. Openness to value diversity was positively associated with most group knowledge processing variables, while openness to social category diversity only had a positive effect on personal knowledge.
Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan
The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting) than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, students' knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future. PMID:17911665
Tan, Xiaodong; Pan, Jingju; Zhou, Dong; Wang, Chunhong; Xie, Chaojun
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices on HIV and AIDS. A questionnaire was administered to a cross section of 259 Chinese undergraduates. Respondents were asked to provide information about knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS. Study results indicated that the majority of undergraduates had a moderate level of HIV and AIDS knowledge, acceptance and attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS. Boys had more acceptance and positive attitudes towards people with HIV and AIDS than girls. Students majoring in medicine performed better (more knowledgeable and accepting than non-medical students. Differences between students with various monthly expenditures were found-- 6.2% of students had 3-5 sexual partners which has rarely been found in Chinese students; most students did not know HIV VCT centers and most students did not show their confidence for controlling of HIV and AIDS in China. In conclusion, studentsÃ¢ÂÂ knowledge about HIV/AIDS was uneven. A peer educational program to talk about self esteem, healthy sexual attitudes, being human-accepting and loving should be developed in the near future.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Filipino Americans are the fastest growing Asian minority group in the United States. There is limited knowledge about their breast cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program, 248 Filipino American women completed baseline and follow-up surveys, while an additional 58 took part in focus groups. Results Compliance with annual clinical breast exam guidelines among women 40 to 49 years old was 43%, and annual mammography use among women 50 and over was 56%. The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program and complementary focus group study identified multiple barriers that hindered women from attending education programs, with time as the most frequently reported barrier. Conclusion The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program was reported to be a culturally acceptable and effective way of disseminating breast cancer information and one that addressed the women's most frequently reported barrier, lack of time.
Dispositivo intrauterino (DIU como anticonceptivo de emergencia: conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en proveedores de salud latinoamericanos: Encuesta Intrauterine device (IUS as emergency contraceptive: knowledge, attitude and practice among health providers in Latin-America: Survey
Full Text Available Introducción: cada año hay en el mundo cerca de 20 millones de abortos en condiciones de riesgo como consecuencia de gestaciones no planeadas que causan más de 600.000 muertes maternas. Aun aumentando la prevalencia del uso de los métodos de planificación familiar habrá situaciones que ameritan la "anticoncepción de emergencia", ya sea con preparados hormonales o T de cobre (dispositivo intrauterino después de una relación sexual sin protección. El objetivo de realizar esta encuesta en proveedores de salud de nuestra región latinoamericana, incluyendo nuestro país, fue determinar los conocimientos, las actitudes y prácticas sobre las opciones de AE, especialmente en relación con el uso de DIU en AE. Materiales y métodos: el diseño fue el de un estudio de corte transversal. Población: ginecoobstetras latinoamericanos que trabajan en servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva. Se aleatorizaron 92 direcciones por lista generada en computador de 1.500 correos electrónicos. Tamaño muestral: 46 encuestas con base en un supuesto conocimiento entre los proveedores sobre anticoncepción de emergencia del 20%, con peor aceptable del 5% e intervalo de confianza del 99%. Procedimiento: encuesta electrónica. Los investigadores recibieron solamente archivos con las encuestas y los mensajes electrónicos fueron eliminados. Se evaluaron conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas. Resultados: respondieron 55 encuestados (59,78%. El 100% estaba de acuerdo con la anticoncepción de emergencia, 49% conocían todas las opciones de anticoncepción de emergencia, sólo 60% mencionaron la píldora de solo levonorgestrel y 69% el dispositivo intrauterino. Cerca del 40% no estaba de acuerdo con el uso del dispositivo intrauterino por considerarlo abortivo (9/21 o de baja efectividad (9/21 y no hubo amplio conocimiento del límite de tiempo para su uso en anticoncepción de emergencia. Conclusión: existen grandes brechas entre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre anticoncepción de emergencia en los proveedores de servicios de salud en Latinoamérica que respondieron la encuesta.Introduction: about 20 million abortions are carried out each year around the world in risk conditions as a result of unplanned pregnancies causing more than 600,000 maternal deaths. Even though the prevalence of using family-planning methods would increased, situations will still occur warranting, "Emergency Contraception" (EC, whether with hormone preparation or Copper T (IUD following unprotected sexual relations. The objective of carrying out this survey among health providers in Latin American Region, including our country, was to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice about EC, specifically in relation to IUD use in EC. Materials and methods: design: cross-sectional study. Population: Latin-American gynaeco-obstetricians working in sexual and reproductive health services. 92 addresses were randomly chosen from a computer-generated list of 1.500 e-mail addresses. Sample size: 46 surveys based on 20% supposed knowledge amongst EC service providers, 5% worse but acceptable and 99% confidence interval. Procedure: electronic survey. The researchers only received files containing the surveys as all electronic Results: 55 people surveyed replied (59.78%. 100% agreed with EC. 49% knew about all available EC options, only 60% mentioned the Levonorgestrel pill and 69% IUD. Around 40% did not agree with using IUD as they considered it: abortion-inducing (9/21 or having low effectiveness (9/21 and there was no wide knowledge regarding the limit of time for using it in EC. Conclusion: there are great differences between knowledge, attitudes and practice amongst health service-providers in Latin-America regarding EC.
Pio Iván Gómez
Dispositivo intrauterino (DIU) como anticonceptivo de emergencia: conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en proveedores de salud latinoamericanos: Encuesta / Intrauterine device (IUS) as emergency contraceptive: knowledge, attitude and practice among health providers in Latin-America: Survey
Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: cada año hay en el mundo cerca de 20 millones de abortos en condiciones de riesgo como consecuencia de gestaciones no planeadas que causan más de 600.000 muertes maternas. Aun aumentando la prevalencia del uso de los métodos de planificación familiar habrá situaciones que ameritan la " [...] anticoncepción de emergencia", ya sea con preparados hormonales o T de cobre (dispositivo intrauterino) después de una relación sexual sin protección. El objetivo de realizar esta encuesta en proveedores de salud de nuestra región latinoamericana, incluyendo nuestro país, fue determinar los conocimientos, las actitudes y prácticas sobre las opciones de AE, especialmente en relación con el uso de DIU en AE. Materiales y métodos: el diseño fue el de un estudio de corte transversal. Población: ginecoobstetras latinoamericanos que trabajan en servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva. Se aleatorizaron 92 direcciones por lista generada en computador de 1.500 correos electrónicos. Tamaño muestral: 46 encuestas con base en un supuesto conocimiento entre los proveedores sobre anticoncepción de emergencia del 20%, con peor aceptable del 5% e intervalo de confianza del 99%. Procedimiento: encuesta electrónica. Los investigadores recibieron solamente archivos con las encuestas y los mensajes electrónicos fueron eliminados. Se evaluaron conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas. Resultados: respondieron 55 encuestados (59,78%). El 100% estaba de acuerdo con la anticoncepción de emergencia, 49% conocían todas las opciones de anticoncepción de emergencia, sólo 60% mencionaron la píldora de solo levonorgestrel y 69% el dispositivo intrauterino. Cerca del 40% no estaba de acuerdo con el uso del dispositivo intrauterino por considerarlo abortivo (9/21) o de baja efectividad (9/21) y no hubo amplio conocimiento del límite de tiempo para su uso en anticoncepción de emergencia. Conclusión: existen grandes brechas entre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre anticoncepción de emergencia en los proveedores de servicios de salud en Latinoamérica que respondieron la encuesta. Abstract in english Introduction: about 20 million abortions are carried out each year around the world in risk conditions as a result of unplanned pregnancies causing more than 600,000 maternal deaths. Even though the prevalence of using family-planning methods would increased, situations will still occur warranting, [...] "Emergency Contraception" (EC), whether with hormone preparation or Copper T (IUD) following unprotected sexual relations. The objective of carrying out this survey among health providers in Latin American Region, including our country, was to determine the knowledge, attitudes and practice about EC, specifically in relation to IUD use in EC. Materials and methods: design: cross-sectional study. Population: Latin-American gynaeco-obstetricians working in sexual and reproductive health services. 92 addresses were randomly chosen from a computer-generated list of 1.500 e-mail addresses. Sample size: 46 surveys based on 20% supposed knowledge amongst EC service providers, 5% worse but acceptable and 99% confidence interval. Procedure: electronic survey. The researchers only received files containing the surveys as all electronic Results: 55 people surveyed replied (59.78%). 100% agreed with EC. 49% knew about all available EC options, only 60% mentioned the Levonorgestrel pill and 69% IUD. Around 40% did not agree with using IUD as they considered it: abortion-inducing (9/21) or having low effectiveness (9/21) and there was no wide knowledge regarding the limit of time for using it in EC. Conclusion: there are great differences between knowledge, attitudes and practice amongst health service-providers in Latin-America regarding EC.
Pio Iván, Gómez; Hernando Guillermo, Gaitán.
Conocimientos, actitudes y práctica sobre el VIH/sida en docentes de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Mayor de San Simón / Knowledge, attitudes and practice on HIV / AIDS in teachers of the Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Mayor de San Simon
Full Text Available Objetivos: describir el nivel de conocimiento que tienen los y las docentes sobre el VIH, las actitudes hacia las personas con VIH o sida (normas sociales, machismo, homosexualidad) y sus prácticas en la atención de pacientes con VIH y su comportamiento sexual individual. Métodos: es un estudio cuan [...] titativo, descriptivo transversal, en el que se utilizó un cuestionario de 63 preguntas sobre VIH y sexualidad, dirigido a docentes de la carrera de Medicina de la Universidad Mayor de San Simón (UMSS). Los instrumentos fueron validados en 10 docentes de diferentes cursos de la UMSS, que fueron excluídos del estudio principal. Se seleccionaron 4 encuestadores en total (dos hombres y dos mujeres) que realizaron la encuesta a 97 docentes. Los datos obtenidos fueron introducidos en una base de datos diseñada en el programa SPSS 19.0. Resultados: se entrevistaron a 97 docentes, 65% hombres y 35% mujeres. La edad media es de 46 ± 8,1 años (mínima 28 y máxima 65 años). El promedio de conocimientos sobre el VIH es de 62%. El 58,8% no sabe que Santa Cruz es el departamento más afectado en Bolivia, el 68% no conoce la acción de los ARVs. El 69% no conoce la Ley del sida y 40% consideran a donadores de sangre como población de riesgo. El promedio de actitudes adecuadas fue de 92%. El 84% refiere que las personas con comportamientos de riesgo son más vulnerables a la infección. El promedio de prácticas sexuales seguras es del 77%. El 6% refiere que usa siempre condón, a veces el 51% y nunca el 17%. El 71% realizó alguna vez el test para el VIH. Conclusiones: los conceptos sobre el VIH/sida en la población estudiada son insuficientes, en tanto las actitudes y prácticas presentan mejores niveles. Existe confusión en los conceptos de riesgo en cuanto a la donación de sangre. Abstract in english Objectives: to describe the level of knowledge among the teachers about HIV, attitudes towards people with HIV or AIDS (social norms, sexism, homosexuality) and practices in the care of HIV patients and their individual sexual behavior. Methods: a quantitative study is transversal study, which used [...] a questionnaire of 63 questions about HIV and sexuality, for teachers of the School of Medicine of the Universidad Mayor de San Simón (UMSS). The instruments were validated in 10 teachers of different grades of UMSS, which were excluded from the main study. 4 interviewers were selected in total (two men and two women) who conducted the survey to 97 teachers. The data were entered into a database designed in SPSS 19.0. Results: we interviewed 97 teachers, 65% men and 35% female. The mean age was 46 ± 8.1 years (minimum 28 and maximum 65 years). The average knowledge of HIV is 62%. Overall, 58.8% did not know that Santa Cruz is the most affected department in Bolivia, 68% do not know the action of ARVs. 69% do not know the Law of AIDS and 40% consider blood donors and populations at risk. The average proper attitudes was 92%. The 84% refers to people with risky behaviors are more vulnerable to infection. The average safe sex is 77%. The 6% reported using a condom, sometimes 51% and 17% never. 71% ever performed the test for HIV. Conclusions: concepts about HIV / AIDS in the study population is inadequate, while attitudes and practices have better levels. There is confusion in the concepts of risk with regard to blood donation.
Edgar, Valdez; Jorge, Avilés; Anne, Saudan.
The attitudes toward people with epilepsy are influenced by the degree of knowledge of the condition. Teachers usually do not receive any formal instruction on epilepsy during their training. This study was done to access three hundred teachers' knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy by answering a questionnaire in order to quantify their knowledge, attitude and practice toward epilepsy. Almost all the teachers had heard about epilepsy yet could not demonstrate discrimination among the stude...
Fábio Galvão Dantas; Gibran Agra Cariri; Gustavo Agra Cariri; Antônio Roberto Vaz Ribeiro Filho
Grade-related similarities and differences in AIDS knowledge and attitudes were assessed in 441 fifth, seventh, and tenth graders from one school district. Grade level was a significant variable (p less than .01) on 53% of items. Grade-related differences in knowledge were apparent when students responded to questions tapping information not covered widely in the media and in attitudes when personal engagement in behavior was implied. Cognitive and emotional factors related to developmental milestones were postulated to account for these differences. These findings need to be considered in planning and implementing AIDS prevention programs, especially as education is begun for younger children. PMID:2232731
Brown, L K; Nassau, J H; Barone, V J
Ensuring safe drinking water remains a big challenge in developing countries where waterborne diseases cause havoc in many communities. A major challenge is limited knowledge, misinformation and attitudes that work against ensuring that drinking water is safe. This study investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices of peri-urban households in Kakamega Town of Western Kenya, concerning the collection, treatment and storage of drinking water. Alongside this we examined the role of solid ...
Kioko, Kimongu J.; Obiri, John F.
Athlete support personnel (ASP) failing to meet responsibilities under the World Anti-Doping Code risk sanction. It is unclear whether the poor knowledge of responsibilities seen in sports physicians and coaches applies to other ASP (e.g., administrators, chiropractors, family, nutritionists, physiotherapists, psychologists, and trainers). A purposive sample of Australian ASP (n?=?292) responded to a survey on knowledge of anti-doping rules (35 true/false questions), ethical beliefs and practice, and attitudes toward performance enhancement. Some ASP declined to participate, claiming doping was irrelevant to their practice. Physicians were most knowledgeable (30.8/35), with family and trainers the least (26.0/35). ASP reported that improvements were needed to support anti-doping education (e.g., basis for anti-doping) and practice (e.g., rules). ASP also had a slightly negative attitude toward performance enhancement. Linear regression showed that being a sports physician, providing support at the elite level, and 15 years of experience influenced knowledge. The results confirm gaps in knowledge, suggesting that stronger engagement with ASP anti-doping education and practice is needed. Applying the principles of andragogy could help foster active engagement through emphasis on active inquiry, rather than passive reception of content. Future work on the context within which ASP experience anti-doping is needed, exploring acquisition and translation of knowledge into practice. PMID:23692367
Mazanov, J; Backhouse, S; Connor, J; Hemphill, D; Quirk, F
This chapter introduces HRM practices that help MNCs to overcome knowledge transfer barriers (knowledge-driven HRM practices). It argues that MNCs can institute various HRM practices that impact knowledge transfer barriers associated with behavior of knowledge senders and receivers.HRM practices relevant for absorptive capacity of subsidiary employees form two groups - cognitive (job analysis, recruitment, selection, international rotation, career management, training and performance appraisal) and stimulative (promotion, performance-based compensation, internal transfer, orientation programs, job design and flexible working practices). The application of cognitive HRM practices enhances the ability of knowledge receivers to absorb transferred knowledge, while the use of stimulative HRM practices increases their motivation. Temporary and permanent types of international assignments respectively influence the ability and motivation of expatriate managers to share their knowledge.Keywords: Human Resources; Personnel; Human Resource Management; MultinationalCorporations; Organizational Innovation; Organizational Learning
OBJECTIVES: To describe oral health behaviour, illness behaviour, oral health knowledge and attitudes among 35-44 and 65-74-year-old Chinese; to analyse the oral health behaviour profile of the two age groups in relation to province and urbanisation, and to assess the relative effect of socio-behavioural risk factors on dental caries experience. METHODS: A total number of 4,398 35-44-year-olds and 4,399 65-74-year-olds were selected by multistage stratified cluster random sampling which involved 11 provinces in China. Data were collected by self-administered structured questionnaires and clinical examinations (WHO criteria). RESULTS: 32% of the 35-44-year-olds and 23% of the 65-74-year-olds brushed at least twice a day but only 5% used fluoridated toothpaste; 30% and 17% respectively performed 'Love-Teeth-Day' recommended methods of tooth brushing. A dental visit within the previous 12 months was reported by 25% of all participants and 6% had a dental check-up during the past two years. Nearly 15% of the subjects would visit a dentist if they experienced bleeding from gums; about 60% of the subjects paid no attention to signs of caries if there was no pain. Two thirds of the urban residents and one fifth of the rural participants had economic support for their dental treatment from a third party, either totally or partially. Significant variations in oral health practices were found according to urbanisation and province. At age 35-44 years 43% of participants had daily consumption of sweets against 28% at age 65-74 years. Dental caries experience was affected by urbanisation, gender, frequency, time spent on and method of tooth brushing. Knowledge of causes and prevention of dental diseases was low with somewhat negative attitudes to prevention observed. CONCLUSION: Systematic community-based oral health promotion should be strengthened and preventive-oriented oral health care systems are needed, including promotion of further self-care practices and the use of fluoridated toothpaste.
Zhu, Ling; Petersen, Poul Erik
Clinical genetic testing for specific isolated congenital heart defects (CHD) is becoming standard of care in pediatric cardiology practice. Both genetic knowledge and attitudes toward genetic testing are associated with an increased utilization of genetic testing, but these factors have not been evaluated in parents of children with CHD. We mailed a survey to measure the demographics, genetic knowledge, and attitudes towards genetic testing of parents of children with CHD who previously consented to participate in a separate research study of the genetic etiology of left ventricular outflow tract malformations (LVOT). Of the 378 eligible families, 190 (50%) returned surveys with both parents completing surveys in 97 (51%) families, resulting in 287 participants. Genetic knowledge was assessed on an adapted measure on which the mean percent correct was 73.8%. Educational attainment and household income were directly and significantly associated with genetic knowledge (P?discrimination (up to 11.2%). Parents of younger children were less likely to endorse employment or racial/social discrimination. Genetic knowledge was not correlated with specific attitudes. Among parents of children with CHD, genetic knowledge was directly associated with household income and education, but additional research is necessary to determine what factors influence attitudes towards genetic testing. PMID:25256359
Fitzgerald-Butt, Sara M; Klima, Jennifer; Kelleher, Kelly; Chisolm, Deena; McBride, Kim L
The purpose of this study was to (i) investigate attitude and menstruation-related practices in Jordanian school-aged girls; (ii) identify the influence of premenstrual preparation on girls' attitude and menstruation-related practices. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data was collected from a convenience sample of 490 school-age girls (12-18 years) from different districts in Jordan. Self-report instruments [Menstrual Attitude Questionnaire (MAQ), and Menstrual Practices Questionnaires (MPQ)] were used to assess the study variables. Descriptive statistics, correlation and chi-square tests were used to analyze the data. It was found that menstrual attitude and practices were positively correlated. Poor attitude toward menstruation and low menstrual practices were significantly associated with inadequate premenstrual preparation. There is a need to prepare girls for menstruation before menarche. The role of the schools and teachers should be reinforced through formal and well planned reproductive health educators for girls and their mothers. PMID:22621303
Jarrah, Samiha Suhail; Kamel, Andaleeb Abu
Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de los matarifes acerca de la hidatidosis/equinococosis, en dos zonas urbanas del Departamento de Ica, Perú / Knowledge, attitudes and practices of slaughters on hydatidosis/echinococcosis in two Ica Department, Peru urban areas
Full Text Available Objetivos: Determinar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP) acerca de Echinococcus granulosus e hidatidosis/equinococosis en matarifes municipales de zonas urbanas del Departamento de Ica, Perú. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo. Cincuenta y cinco trabajadores de la c [...] iudad de Ica y Chincha fueron entrevistados anónimamente acerca de E. granulosus e hidatidosis/equinococosis, en diciembre de 2000. Resultados: El metacestodo de E. granulosus fue conocido como bolsa de agua por 25 (45,5%) de los entrevistados y como quiste hidatídico por 10 (18,2%). Los vacunos y ovinos fueron identificados como los huéspedes intermediarios más frecuentes; sin embargo, no conocían los huéspedes definitivos ni los mecanismos de transmisión. La actitud de 36 (65,5%) matarifes, si estuvieran infectados, era tratarse y, si observaran helmintos en las heces de sus perros, 17 (30,9%) los sacrificarían. Veintiuno (38,2%) de los trabajadores admitieron que los quistes hidatídicos van al piso del camal, 30 (54,5%) criaban perros, 19 (63,3%) no los habían desparasitado en los últimos seis meses. Treinta (54,5%) de los matarifes realizaban beneficios clandestinos y algunos alimentaban a sus perros con vísceras parasitadas crudas. Conclusiones: Los conocimientos de los matarifes entrevistados sobre la hidatidosis/equinococosis son deficientes y las prácticas constituyen riesgo para la transmisión y diseminación de la hidatidosis. Abstract in english Objectives: To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices of slaughter workers from Ica and Chincha, Ica, Peru on Echinococcus granulosus and hydatidosis/echinococcosis. Materials and Methods: Observational, descriptive study on fifty-five workers interviewed anonymously on E. granulosus and h [...] ydatidosis/echinococcosis in December 2000. Results: The E. granulosus metacestode was called water bag by 25 (45,5%) of the workers and hydatid cysts by 10 (18,2%). The cattle and sheep were mostly identified as intermediate hosts but the workers would not know the definitive hosts or transmission mechanisms. Thirty six (65,5%) slaughters considered they would receive treatment if infected and 17 (30,9%) would eliminate their dogs if they would observe helminthes in their feces stools. A group of 21 workers (38,2%) admitted that hydatid cysts are left on the abattoir floor, 30 (54,5%) raised dogs and 19 (63,3%) had not given treatment for parasites to their pets in the past six months. Thirty (54,5%) workers made clandestine cattle slaughtering and some fed their dogs with parasitized crude viscera. Conclusions: The interviewed slaughters knowledge on hydatidosis/echinococcosis was deficient and their practices favored hydatidosis transmission and spread.
Rufino, Cabrera; Eduardo, Talavera; María del Pilar, Trillo-Altamirano.
Abstract Background During an infectious disease outbreak, it is critical to learn as much as possible about the concerns, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of the public. Such information can be crucial to the improvement of communication efforts by public health officials and clinicians. The aim of this study was to identify awareness, attitudes, and