The relationship between the nutrition knowledge and attitudes and dietary practices of adolescent female athletes was studied, using a 24-hour recall and a 48-hour food record with a modified version of the self-administered knowledge and attitude questionnaire of Werblow et al. Analysis indicated that the diets were similar to those of other teenage girls in the United States. The calculated mean values for vitamins A and C were more than 100% of the RDAs, while those for calcium and iron were less than 67% of the allowances. The mean energy value was less than recommended and may have been inadequate for the active subjects. Food consumption analysis showed that of total servings, the milk and meat groups accounted for only about 10% each and that more than 30% came from the "others" group. Although the subjects had some common misconceptions about nutrition, they were generally knowledgeable as well as positive in their attitudes toward nutrition. Nutrition knowledge and attitudes were positively correlated, indicating that the more nutrition knowledge a subject had, the more positive was the attitude toward nutrition, and vice versa. However, no significant correlation was found between nutrition knowledge or attitudes and dietary intake, suggesting that factors other than nutrition knowledge and attitudes, such as a concern for weight and a dependence on others for food selection, played a role in determining the food practices of the subjects. PMID:3989173
Perron, M; Endres, J
Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to develop a questionnaire in order to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of the faculty members and students toward plagiarism.Methods: A KAP study was conducted from June to October 2011 enrolling 390 volunteers anonymously (response rate 96%. The questionnaire included the following four parts: (a general characteristics like gender, academic degree and education level; (b nine questions regarding knowledge (Min=0, Max=9; (c nine questions regarding attitude (Min=9, Max=27; and (d eight questions regarding practice (Min=0, Max=8. A pilot study was conducted to assess reliability of the questions regarding knowledge and attitude. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the knowledge and attitude questions was 0.70 and 0.74 respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of at least once plagiarism commission was 38% (SD=0.035. The overall mean score of knowledge, attitude and practice was 5.94 (SD=1.66, 24.12 (SD=2.99, and 0.66 (SD=1.15 respectively. Knowledge of plagiarism was significantly higher among higher academic degrees and females. Their negative attitude toward plagiarism was stronger too. No statistically significant difference regarding plagiarism commission was observed among different academic degrees in both sexes. According to linear regression analysis, plagiarism commission decreased 13% per one unit increase in score of knowledge (P=0.005 and 16% per one unit increase in score of attitude (P<0.001.Conclusions: This knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP questionnaire was developed as a standard tool in order to assess perception of subjects toward plagiarism and to estimate the prevalence and the type of plagiarism commission.
To assess the knowledge, attitude regarding family planning and the practice of contraceptives among rural women. One-hundred women between the ages 15-45, living with their husbands and coming from rural area (villages) were interviewed. Women who were pregnant, had a child younger than 2 years, or had any medical disorder were excluded. Their knowledge, attitude and practice on contraceptives were evaluated with the help of a predesigned questionnaire. The other variables used were the age of women, parity and educational status. Descriptive analysis was conducted to obtain percentages. Out of 100 interviewed women with mean age of 29.7 years, 81(81%) had some knowledge about family planning methods. The media provided information of contraceptives in 52 out of 81 (64%) women. Regarding the usage of contraceptive methods, only 53 (53%) of the respondents were using some sort of contraception. Barrier method (condoms) was in practice by 18 (33.9%) and 12 (22.6%) of women had already undergone tubal ligation. The women using injectables and intrauterine contraceptive devices were 10 (18.8%) and 7 (13.2%) respectively. Six were using oral contraceptive pills (11.3%). Positive attitude towards contraception was shown by 76 (76%) of them, while 41(41%) stated their husbands positive attitude towards contraception. In the present study, there was a low contraceptive use among women of rural origin despite good knowledge. Motivation of couples through media and health personnel can help to achieve positive attitude of husbands for effective use of contraceptives. (author)
This knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) study was done in the married women of age 18-38 years in Jorpati and Gokarna village development committees of Katmandu district to evaluate the knowledge of "Facts for Life". There were 510 married women involved in this study. Altogether 28 questions were asked to each of them regarding the "Facts for Life". It includes the following five subjects: Safe motherhood, Childhood Immunization, Childhood diarrhea, Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) in childhood and hygiene. There was a significant increase in knowledge about hygiene and knowledge regarding childhood immunization than diarrhea, ARI and Safe motherhood. Results showed that the overall knowledge was at 62.8%. This shows that still more attention is needed to Nepalese women. PMID:17017397
Adhikari, Prakash; Dhungel, Sunil; Shrestha, Rajendra; Khanal, Shankar
Full Text Available Background: The principles of pharmaceutical care are embedded in the concept of Good Pharmacy Practice (GPP. GPP is poorly applied in community pharmacies not only in Asian countries, but even in United States and Europe. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of the community pharmacists in Iran, regarding GPP. Methods: A total of 794 pharmacists were evaluated with a reliable and validated KAP (Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice questionnaire regarding GPP in September 2008. Results: The most important finding in the present study was the pharmacists low knowledge (Mean= 13.42 and practice (Mean= 29.85 level about GPP, while their attitude towards this subject was at a high level (Mean= 74.83. Increase in their knowledge of good pharmacy practice aligned with an increase in their attitudes towards this issue. Also increase in our pharmacists knowledge and attitude aligned with an increase in quality of their practice. Conclusion: The current practice of Iranian community pharmacists needs further improvement. National pharmaceutical organizations should organize educational programs for the community pharmacists to equip them for their main role in community practice: promoting rational drug use. Keywords: Pharmacy, Knowledge, Attitude
Mohammad Reza Javadi
Full Text Available Objectives: This study was conducted to find out knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of epilepsy among 12 th -class students in Uttarakhand state. Secondly data of Uttarakhand was compared with KAP study from other parts of the country. Materials and Methods: All 12 th - class students studying in six schools of randomly selected 36 villages in Chakrata block of Dehradun district of Uttarakhand state were provided a printed questionnaire having answer as "yes or no". This questionnaire used was used previously by various authors and validated for KAP analysis. These filled questionnaires were collected by village health workers and medical officer. Results: This study conducted on 219, 12 th -class students revealed that epilepsy was heard by 98%, 74.9% thought epilepsy a mental disease and 4.8% believed that it is contagious. Negative attitude showed as nearly 2/3 rd students stated that epilepsy is hindrance in marriage and occupation. Nearly 41% would use onion or shoe for terminating seizure attack. Ayurvedic treatment was preferred over allopathic drugs. Conclusions: Study on 12 th -class students of Uttarakhand revealed poor knowledge, attitude and practice for epilepsy and needs special education program to dispel these misconceptions.
Full Text Available Introduction. In a time that economic classification of nations is largely dependant on their scientific output, our country "Iran" in comparison to it"s facilities, has fewer scienilfic producilon than accepted. For programming to increase quantity and quality of research, at first, should carefully recognise the present condition. This study was done to survay attitiude, knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (IUMSHS about research. Methods. Questionnaires were distribiuted among interns (n=234 who their names and sites had extracted. Students enterance year to university was between 1992 to 1994. So, they were at the end of their staying in university. Results. Average grade of knowledge was 2.92±2 (from whole grade= 10. This grade did not depend on stage of preparing thesis. The most true answer was in writing of purpose and the least was in sampling, medline and role of variables in study. Attitude in 78.2 percent, indicate agreement with necessity of learning research concept. 54.2 percent agree with necessity of participailon in at least one research project in educational period in university, but 41.8 percent believe that research activity in present condition is wasting the time. The answerers who at least had parilcipated in one research project were 11.9 percent and the highest knowledg"s grade was in these students. Discussion. Despite the positive attitude of interns to learn the research concept, their knowledge level in comparison with other Iranian univercities and other univercities" students in the world, was very low. Although more than half of them have positive attitude to participation in research project, their practice was insignificant. Radical changes in education system and management seems to be necessary.
The nutritional care of patients is one of the primary responsibilities of all registered nurses (Persenius et al, 2008). A poor nutritional status can lead to malnutrition, which can have serious consequences for an individual\\'s quality of life (Field and Smith, 2008). This paper commences with an introduction to the concept of nutrition, provides an overview of nutritional guidelines and nutritional screening tools which identify those at risk of malnutrition. It reviews the literature on nurses\\' knowledge, attitudes and practices in the provision of nutritional care and debates challenges and opportunities encountered to help nurses ensure adequate patient nutrition.
Full Text Available Organic farming is gaining popularity all over the world as it can diversify agricultural production system toward attaining improved productivity, farm income as well as food safety. The rise of organic farming was driven partly by consumers' concern with food quality and safety, as well as the protection of the environment. Organic Farming produces safe and nutritious food as it helps prevent soil pollution by stopping risky chemical reactions in the soil and avoiding produce contamination, as well as soil erosion, by wind and rain. One of the important parties that can enable the country to produce more organic products through organic farming is the growers or farmers. The final decision of farmers to use a new practice like organic farming system is usually the result of their knowledge of the practices as well as their perception. Therefore, the main purpose of this preliminary study was to investigate the knowledge, perception or attitude, and practices of vegetable growers towards organic farming. A survey method through face-to-face interview by using structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a total of 31 vegetable growers in Kundasang, Sabah which was selected by using simple random sampling method. The findings of the study show that the knowledge of the respondents on organic farming especially pertaining to the use of chemical insecticides, herbicides and fertilizers is still need to be improved, their attitude is also still negative, and they are still dependent on conventional practices (i.e. chemical especially to control pests and diseases.
Full Text Available Background: Millions of workers are occupationally exposed to dyes in the world, but little is known about their knowledge and attitudes toward the effects of dye on their health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the fabric dyers? and fabric printers? knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the health hazard of dyes. Materials and Methods: The present study was taken up in the Madurai district which is situated in the Southern Tamil Nadu, India. One hundred and forty-two workers employed in small-scale dyeing and printing units participated in a face-to-face confidential interview . Results: The mean age of fabric dyers and fabric printers was 42 years (?10.7. When enquired about whether dyes affect body organ(s, all the workers agreed that dye(s will affect skin, but they were not aware that dyes could affect other parts of the body. All the workers believed that safe methods of handling of dyes and disposal of contaminated packaging used for dyes need to be considered. It was found that 34% of the workers were using personal protective equipment (PPE such as rubber hand gloves during work. Conclusion: The workers had knowledge regarding the occupational hazards, and their attitudinal approach toward the betterment of the work environment is positive.
Full Text Available Introduction: cervical cancer (CC is the second most frequent cancer in women in theworld, South America and Colombia. It represents the fourth cause of death by cancerin the world, the third cause in South America and the first cause in Colombia. The interesanprincipalrisk factor is the persistent infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV. TheCC can be prevented and the patient can be treated if it is detected early.Objective: to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices about HumanPapillomavirus (HPV in adolescent students of secondary.Methods: an analytical, observational and cross sectional study was performed withthe application of a survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP, to studentsof secondary of two schools of the city of Cartagena, Colombia, between July andDecember of 2011.Results: 10.8% of the polled adolescents replied that they knew the condilomatosis,infectious disease of sexual transmission caused by HPV and 20,1% have knowledgeabout the connection between cervical cancer and HPV infection.Conclusion: there is low knowledge about HPV infection and its association with CC,just like good attitudes with respect to the use of prevention methods of HPV infectionand early detection methods of CC and inadequate practices, mainly in the vaccinationprogramming against HPV. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:275-281RESUMEN:frecuente en mujeres en el mundo, América Latina y Colombia. Representa la cuartacausa de muerte por cáncer en el mundo, la tercera en America del Sur y la primera enColombia. El factor de riesgo principal es la infección persistente con el Virus del PapilomaHumano (VPH. El CACU puede prevenirse y curarse si se detecta tempranamente.Objetivo: establecer conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas acerca del VPH enadolescentes estudiantes de secundaria.Metodología: estudio observacional analítico de corte transversal realizado con laaplicación de una encuesta de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP, a estudiantesde secundaria de dos colegios de la ciudad de Cartagena, Colombia, en el periodocomprendido entre julio y diciembre de 2011.Resultados: el 10.8% de las adolescentes encuestadas respondió que conocía lacondilomatosis, enfermedad infecciosa de transmisión sexual causada por el VPH y el20,1% tiene conocimiento de la relación del cáncer de cuello uterino con la infecciónpor VPH.Conclusiones: se observa bajo conocimiento acerca de la infección por VPH y suasociación con el CACU, buenas actitudes con respecto a la utilización de métodosde prevención de la infección por VPH y de métodos de detección precoz de CACU yprácticas deficientes, principalmente en la cobertura de vacunación contra el VPH. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2012;3(2:275-281
Castro Reyes Elkin Mauricio
Full Text Available Introduction: Intensive care unit ICU syndrome is a disorder, in which patients in an ICU or a similar setting experience anxiety, hallucination and become paranoid, severely disoriented in time and place, very agitated, or even violent, etc. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of nurses with regards to prevention of ICU syndrome (Delirium. Methods: Subjects of this research were 56 nurses with including criteria of registration in nursing, university degree and at least one month experience of working in open heart surgery ICUs. The data was gathered from 3 clusters in university hospitals equipped with open heart surgery ICUs in Tehran. All subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Moreover all subjects were observed in all shifts. During observation, two researchers observed each subject simultaneously to achieve higher accuracy of observations. Descriptive and analytic statistics were applied to analysis the data. Results: The finding of the study showed that more than 53% of the subjects had passed a continuing education course, but less than 46% of them never passed a training course on ICU. According to this research, subjects, work experience in ICUs had significant relation on their knowledge with regard to prevention of ICU psychosis. However, it has not significant relation to their attitude and skill. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, subjects have little chance to be familiar with the concepts and elements of ICU syndrome in their university program. The finding also indicated that many subjects in this study were not familiar with the important concepts such as sleep deprivation, sensory overload and sensory deprivation, etc. Ongoing progression in high-tech ICUs brings about continuing nursing education programs for all nurses. The results also showed that stress factor in ICU, such as high mortality, isolation, high workload etc. Gradually influences nurses,attitude in ICU. So, it is strongly recommended to consider rotation of nurses in order not to impose high stress to ICU nurses.
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Abdullah A Alabdrabalnabi,2 Rehab B Albacker,3 Umar A Al-Jughaiman,4 Samar N Hassan5 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2University of Dammam, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 3King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4King Faisal University, College of Medicine, Dammam, Saudi Arabia; 5Division of Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: Infertility places a huge psychological burden on infertile couples, especially for women. Greater knowledge of the factors affecting fertility may help to decrease the incidence of infertility by allowing couples to avoid certain risk factors. The aim of our study was (1 to assess the knowledge and attitudes of infertile and fertile Saudi participants on infertility, possible risk factors, and social consequences; and (2 to determine the practices of infertile Saudi couples to promote their fertility before having them attend an in vitro fertilization (IVF clinic. Methods and materials: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 277 fertile participants from outpatient clinics and 104 infertile patients from the IVF clinic at King Abdulaziz Medical City between June 24, 2012 and July 4, 2012, using a previously validated interview questionnaire. Descriptive and analytical statistics were applied with a significance threshold of P ? 0.05. Results: A generally poor level of knowledge (59% and a neutral attitude (76% toward infertility were reported by participants. Mistaken beliefs commonly held by the study participants regarding the causes of infertility were Djinns and supernatural causes (58.8%, black magic (67.5%, intrauterine devices (71.3%, and contraceptive pills (42.9%. The healer/Sheikh was reported as the primary and secondary preference for infertility treatment by 6.7% and 44.2% of IVF patients, respectively. Compared with fertile patients, IVF patients were significantly less likely to favor divorce (38.5% versus 57.6%; P = 0.001 or marriage to a second wife (62.5% versus 86.2%; P < 0.001, if the woman could not have a baby. The patients with infertility had more favorable attitudes toward fertility drugs (87.5% versus 68.4%; P = 0.003 and having a test tube baby (92.4% versus 70.3%; P < 0.001. Child adoption was accepted as an option for treatment by the majority of IVF patients (60.6% and fertile outpatients (71.5%. Alternative treatments previously practiced by the IVF patients to improve fertility include practicing Ruqia (61%, using alternative medicine (42%, engaging in physical exercise (39%, eating certain foods (22%, and quitting smoking (12%. Conclusion: These findings have implications for health care providers regarding the reluctance that couples experiencing fertility problems may have, at least initially, to accept some interventions required for the couple to conceive. Keywords: infertility, knowledge, attitude, practice, KAP, misconceptions
Full Text Available Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, pharmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance in Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH, a tertiary care teaching hospital attached to the regional pharmacovigilance center in western Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using a pretested (Cronbach alpha=0.72 questionnaire having 25 questions (15 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitude and 5 on practice. The correct/positive responses were given a score of 2 and the wrong/negative responses 1, maximum possible score of 50. Results: A total of 131 responses were obtained among which 42 were incomplete and remaining 89 [females 49 (55.1%] were analyzed. Of the 89 professionals, 29 (32.6% were doctors, 46 (51.8 nurses and 14 (15.7% pharmacists. The mean age was 28.32 (SD=8.46 years and the median (interquartile range of duration of the service 14.5 (6-36 months. The total KAP scores was 40.06 (SD=3.51 for doctors, 38.92 (SD=4.83 for pharmacists, and 35.82 (SD=3.75 for nurses. Among the 89 professionals, 59 (62.3% had not reported even a single ADR to the pharmacovigilance center. Conclusion: The healthcare professionals at the MTH had a poor KAP towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance and there is a need for educational and awareness intervention for these professionals.
Full Text Available Introduction: Unintended pregnancy, human immunodefi ciency virus and other sexually transmitted diseases are an important public health issue because they are associated with maternal, foetal, neonatal and other adverse outcome. Therefore preventing unintended pregnancy is the important concern. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of contraceptive among married reproductive females. Material and method: The present cross sectional study was carried out at urban health training centre of tertiary care hospital from 16th March to 16th May 2013. Total 205 married reproductive females were enrolled in the study. Result: In the study 71.22% females had awareness regarding any method of contraception. Knowledge about emergency contraceptive was quiet low (6.83%. The most common source of information on contraception was media, both printed and electronic. The most common reason for discontinuation of family planning methods was fear of side effects. Conclusion: Effort should be made to educate the public about the safety and convenience of modern, long term, reversible methods of contraception among both in health care professional and public
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Self-medication is the selection and use of medicines by individuals to treat selfrecognised illnesses or symptoms and an important initial response to illnesses if successfully used. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of self medication among Medical Sciences Faculty students of Jimma University.METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted in Medical sciences Faculty students in 2009.The faculty and the three schools were selected by lottery method .Then, within the faculty respective number of students for each School was determined by proportion from the total sample size. Data was collected randomly from each School using self administered questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0RESULTS: From a total of 403 (100% participants,95 (45.89% students practiced self medication in the past two months for commonly perceived illnesses such as headache 35 (36.85%, abdominal pain 29 (30.55% and cough 33 (23.16% using mainly analgesics 40(49.38% and antibiotics 29 (35.80% mostly from drug retail outlets 88(92.63. Fifty seven (60.00% respondents can recall the dose, frequency and duration of the medicine while 38 (40% did not know. Sixty five (68.42% students agreed to practice self medication irrespective of the seriousness of illnesses.CONCLUSION: Self mediation was widely practiced for minor symptoms with both OTC and prescription only drugs. Most of respondents use self medication irrespective of the seriousness of the illnesses. Lack of proper information and the ease of access from drug outlets were the most important problems.
Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo et al.
Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is one of the prevalent and mortal cancers. The aim of the study is to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of women toward this cancer and Pap smear.Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among 402 women through a questionnaire with 5 socio-demographic parameters and 14 questions about knowledge, attitude and practice. We aimed to know how knowledge, attitude and practice are affected by socio-demographic status and how practice is affected by knowledge and attitude.Results: The mean score was 4.09. Knowledge and age did not correlate directly. Old aged women had the best knowledge. As the number of children rose, knowledge deteriorated, vice versa about the age of marriage and education. The clerks were better than housewives and businesswomen. Just 3.5% did not consider the regular Pap as necessary (with the lower educational level. Almost 99% intended to get more information. The minority (28.1% had the incorrect attitude toward the curability of the cancer. Most of the women referred to do Pap due to health center personnels advice. About 80% had undesired practice.Discussion: The educated ones had more appropriate and optimistic incorrect attitude compared to the uneducated ones. As more years pass from the age of marriage, practice gets worse. All the newly married women had the desired practice, correct attitude and intended to get more information. All the women who knew it unnecessary had undesired practice. Women with the desired practice had 9% more correct attitude and 9% more optimistic incorrect attitude compared to the undesirably practicing ones. Totally, practice is not much influenced by attitude.
Introduction.With respect to the importance of nutritional counselling during pregnancy, the improtance of knowledge, attitude and practice of health care providers is undisputable. In this study the knowledge, attitude and practice of the health care providers in the city of shiraz with respect to the nutritional counseling in pregnancy was investigated. Methods. The survey was done upon all who practicing in MCH unit of heath care centers in the city of shiraz. The intended information...
Bromand-far, G.; Yousefi, A.; Tabatabaie, M.
Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of the breast cancer in medical community. The study was carried out in the Department of Oncology, Service Hospital, Lahore and completed in one month. Subjects and Methods: About 200 female doctors and nurses of the Hospital were involved. Each subject was asked to fill up a pro forma designed to assess knowledge, risk factors and preventive practices of the breast cancer. Using non-probability convenience sampling technique, breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography was performed as screening of breast cancer. Results: A majority had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening method for the early detection of breast cancer. Majority had the consensus on the benefit of mammography. Conclusions: The study shows that although medical professionals had fairly good knowledge about screening methods and risk factors of breast cancer. Their preventive practices were scanty in high risk population and, therefore, physicians and nurses need proper training. (author)
Objective: Objective of the present study is to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of universal work precautions amongst medical laboratory technicians in private hospitals. Methodology: Cross-sectional study of health care workers was conducted using a pretested self-administered questionnaire, which enquired about knowledge, attitude and practices of universal work precautions. The hepatitis B vaccination statuses were also asked. Results: 200 questionnaires were administered t...
All patients if given proper guidance and education regarding diabetes care would be able to make significant improvement in their life-style which is helpful for good glycemic control. Education to diabetic patients would be more effective if we know the level of knowledge, attitude and practices of our patients. Thus a study was conducted to assess the general characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices of type 2 diabetic patients attending the Out-Patient Department (OPD) of Baqai I...
Naeema Badruddin; Abdul Basit; Zafar Iqbal Hydrie, M.; Rubina Hakeem
A cross-sectional study regarding knowledge, attitude & practices of family planning was conducted in an immunization center of Indore district. All the females coming to immunization center for vaccinating their infants were interviewed using a pretested, semi structured Performa during a fixed study period. The performa included details like socio demographic features, questions related to knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding contraceptive use. Results showed poor contracep...
Background: Good knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of HIV prevention are essential in order not to acquire HIV infection and to prevent the disease from spreading. A proper and well functioning prevention of HIV requires clear and relevant information and instructions from health care givers. Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning HIV prevention among Burmese migrant workers in Thailand and compare these between genders. Meth...
Purpose: To describe Canadian Master of Physical Therapy (MPT) students' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding peer mentorship. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional survey study was conducted. An online questionnaire was sent to 945 MPT students via e-mail, using a modified Dillman approach. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Canadian MPT students. Results: A total of 260 MPT students (27.5%) responded to the quest...
In this study the mixed methods research design was used to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of secondary school science teachers in the implementation of the new Swaziland Junior Secondary Science Curriculum (SJSSC). The interactions between the teachers knowledge, attitudes, and classroom practices were also investigated. A total of 37 Form-1 Science teachers from 20 purposively selected schools in the Manzini region of Swaziland participated in the study. The 20 schools...
Background Migrant populations are at high risk of Human Immuno Deficiency Virus infection (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Studies of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and practices among fishermen in developing countries have shown gaps in knowledge and fear of contagion with ambivalent attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and inconsistent universal precautions adherence. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among adult fishermen in a coastal area of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Community based cross sectional study was conducted among fishermen in coastal area of Karachi from June to September 2012. A total of 297 adult fishermen were selected by using simple random sampling technique from different sectors of coastal village. Data were collected using a structured validated questionnaire. The frequency distribution of both dependent and independent variables were worked out. Comparisons of knowledge, attitude and practices regarding HIV/AIDS by socio-demographic characteristics were made using logistic regression. Results Out of 297 fishermen, majority had in-appropriate knowledge (93.6%), negative attitude (75.8%) and less adherent sexual practices (91.6%). In univariate analysis, lower education and higher income were significantly associated (OR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.11, 4.55), (OR = 3.04 CI 1.03-9.02, p value 0.04) with negative attitude and un-safe practices towards HIV/AIDS respectively, whereas no significant association of socio-economic characteristics with knowledge, attitude and practices were observed in multivariate analysis. Conclusions This study suggests that fishermen had very poor knowledge, negative attitudes towards HIV and AIDS and had unsafe sexual practices which suggest that they lack the basic understanding of HIV/AIDS infection. Extensive health education campaign should be provided to the vulnerable sections of the society for the control of HIV/AIDS.
The proper handling and disposal of biomedical waste (BMW) is very imperative. There is a defined set of rules for handling BMW worldwide. Unfortunately, laxity and lack of adequate training and awareness in the execution of these rules leads to staid health and environment apprehension. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of hospital staff to BMW management. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 healthcare workers from 9 hospitals, which were randomized from 32 hospitals. The most important finding was a significant (P BMW management. Twenty-nine (19.9%) members of government hospital staff and 37 (32.2%) members of staff from the private sector agreed that BMW management is not just the government's responsibility, but one that every member of personnel should share. This finding will help to address the issue more appropriately, and plan for better training programs and monitoring of BMW management systems in hospitals. PMID:23585502
Lakbala, Parvin; Lakbala, Mahboobeh
Abstract Background Physiotherapists as primary health care practitioners are well placed in promoting physically active lifestyles, but their role and practice towards its promotion among patients in Nigeria has not been fully investigated. This study was therefore aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian physiotherapists towards promotion of non-treatment physical activity among patients. Methods Three hundred and eight practicing ...
Aweto Happiness A; Oligbo Cynthia N; Fapojuwo Oluseun A; Olawale Olajide A
Full Text Available Introduction.With respect to the importance of nutritional counselling during pregnancy, the improtance of knowledge, attitude and practice of health care providers is undisputable. In this study the knowledge, attitude and practice of the health care providers in the city of shiraz with respect to the nutritional counseling in pregnancy was investigated. Methods. The survey was done upon all who practicing in MCH unit of heath care centers in the city of shiraz. The intended information was gathered using a checklist and questionnaire from 75 heath care providers. Results. Knowledge is in middle level in 60 percent, attitude is positive in 98.7 percent and practice is poor in 90.67 percent of samples. Midwifery school graduations have more knowledge than other (P < 0.05. Discussion. Education of nutritional sciences for health care providers has an important role in health promotion. During special situations such as pregnancy, this matter is more important.
Introduction. In a time that economic classification of nations is largely dependant on their scientific output, our country "Iran" in comparison to it"s facilities, has fewer scienilfic producilon than accepted. For programming to increase quantity and quality of research, at first, should carefully recognise the present condition. This study was done to survay attitiude, knowledge and practice of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services (IUMSHS) about research....
Talaei, M.; Roohi, S.; Sabet, B.; Baghaei, A. M.; Bahman Ziari, P.
This report describes the development and measurement characteristics of a new measure of smoking knowledge, attitudes, and practices (S-KAP) among treatment providers. Data are based on survey responses from 336 paid staff working in one of three drug abuse treatment or HIV care settings. Exploratory factor analysis, used to examine the factor structure, pointed towards five underlying factors: a single knowledge factor, three attitude factors (treatment barriers, counse...
Delucchi, Kevin L.; Tajima, Barbara; Guydish, Joseph
OBJECTIVES--To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of risk of occupational HIV transmission in hospital in relation to existing guidelines. DESIGN--Cross sectional anonymous questionnaire survey of all occupational groups. SETTING--One large inner city teaching hospital. SUBJECTS--All 1530 staff working in the hospital in October 1991 and 22 managers. MAIN MEASURES--Knowledge of safe working practices and hospital guidelines; attitudes towards patients with AIDS; perception of ri...
Davidson, G.; Gillies, P.
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the association between knowledge, attitudes and practice of oral health in 12-year-old schoolchildren, and to analyse the findings in terms of the conventional KAP health-education model and of the critical approach. Study design: This study has [...] a cross sectional design. The study participants were 1105 randomly selected 12-year-old children resident in the region of Galicia in Spain. For data collection, five teams of one dentist and one assistant were formed. The dentist carried out the physical examination and the assistant helped the subjects to answer the questionnaire. Knowledge, attitudes and practice were assessed, as well as oral health indicators. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify variables affecting practice (as measured by extent of plaque). Results: The results of this study show how that there is an important association between oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practice in 12-year-old schoolchildren in this region. However, the results also show that attitude is not totally explained by knowledge, so that attitude cannot be understood simply as an intermediate variable in a knowledge® practice causal chain. Specifically, the results indicate that sociocultural environment modifies the association knowledge, attitudes and practice. Conclusions: Within oral health education it is clearly important to increase public knowledge of the risk factors for dental disease. However, the efficacy of such education will be limited if health programs do not directly impinge on attitudes, and take into account factors related to the environment, education, social status and economic level of the targeted population.
Ernesto, Smyth; Francisco, Caamaño; Paula, Fernández-Riveiro.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health problem. Treatment and prevention of TB has shifted from inpatient to outpatient settings. A report from the World Health Organization has emphasized educational strategy to ensure students graduate with the appropriate knowledge, skills, and attitudes essential to the effective management of TB. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices among medical students. The survey was done from 2012 to 2013. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were assessed regarding tuberculosis with a questionnaire. Knowledge mean score of students was 16.13±2.06 and Attitude score was 36.08±3.76, Knowledge and attitude levels of students were moderate to high in the majority of them. Practice score of the study subjects was 22.77±4.95, 11.9% of students had poor practice level. 43% did not know that a sputum smear is the most important method used for diagnosis of TB. Two-thirds of them did not know the distance that should be kept from contagious patients. Half of them believed that the BCG vaccination has no role in the prevention of TB. This study concluded that more efforts should be made to improve the knowledge of students regarding TB transmission and the role of sputum smear in diagnosis. The importance of the BCG vaccination should be emphasized. PMID:24857175
Behnaz, Fatemah; Mohammadzade, Golnaz; Mousavi-E-Roknabadi, Razieh S; Mohammadzadeh, Mahmoud
Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of the periodontal health maintenance and promotion in diabetes mellitus has been supported. Evidence showed that many patients are unaware about effects of diabetes mellitus on oral health. The aim of this study is to evaluate knowledge, attitudes and practice of diabetic patients concerning the risk of periodontal disease and prevention. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 156 diabetic patients referring to Yazd Diabetic Research Center were recruited by random selection. Patients completed questionnaires, which included 29 questions about their knowledge, attitude and practice of oral health in diabetes mellitus. The data was scored and analyzed. Result: The results showed knowledge (58.64 and attitude (46.86 scores of diabetic patients were moderate, while their practice (24.3 score were poor. There is statistical significant relation between mean scores of knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with their educational level and age. Conclusion: This study showed knowledge, attitude and practice level of diabetic patients were insufficient on oral health care.
Fazele Atarbashi Moghadam
Full Text Available In this study, knowledge, attitude and practice about mercury hygiene of dentist who have private offices in Isfahan were evaluated. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2001-2002. One hundred and sixteen of dentists were selected by random sampling. Data were collected using a standard questionnaire. T-student test, Chi-square test, Fisher"s exact test and Spearman correlation test have been used to analyse data. It was shown that dentists knowledge about mercury hygiene was not acceptable. However the mean of their attitude score was more than scale mean and most of them had a positive attitude toward improvement of mercury hygiene in their offices. According to the results, dent ist"s practice, in this regard proved weak. There was no significant correlation between knowledge and practice and between attitude and practice (P > 0.05. In order to improve dentists" knowledge, training them is supposed. Because of no significant correlation between their knowledge and practice, surveillance seems necessary.
Full Text Available Background: Health sciences students are expected to have appropriate knowledge and attitudes toward medication use. However, literary evidence of such expertise among health sciences students of King Saud University is unknown. This study was completed to assess the knowledge about medicines and behavior of health science students towards safe use of medications. It also aims to assess the health knowledge, attitude and practices of the students. Methods: This cross-sectional study used a questionnaire consisting of 24 questions. This was administered by the researcher between October and December 2009 in the colleges of medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, applied medical science and nursing of the King Saud University. The survey consisted of three parts: Ten questions assessed the students knowledge on drug safety (Part 1. Four questions assessed student attitude toward medication consultations by the pharmacist (Part 2 and ten questions involved medication use practices and consultation with pharmacists (Part 3. A stratified sampling method was used to select participants. Results: Pharmacy students had better medication knowledge compared to other health sciences students especially regarding antihypertensive drugs, antibiotics, paracetamol and antacids (p<0.05. Pharmacy students showed a positive attitude regarding the trustworthiness of a pharmacist to give a consultation. Nearly all other health science students showed a negative attitude about dispensing and consultation concerning nutritional supplements by a pharmacist. All health sciences students had a similar perception toward medication use and practice. Conclusion Pharmacy students had better knowledge about medication practice compared to other health sciences students. All other health sciences students lacked the appropriate attitude and practice related to the safe use of medications.
Abdullah T. Eissa
Full Text Available Introduction: Nutritional concepts learned by young girls as would-be mothers will play an important part in childrens and family's health. This study aimed at evaluating nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice of female junior high school students in two regions of Iran. Methods: In this descriptive study, 587 female students within the age range of 11 to 16 years old were selected through random sampling in cities of Malayer and Shahrood in 2009. To evaluate the nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP, questionnaires containing items on demographic, KAP and food behaviors were used. Based on the yielded results analyzed by SPSS software Pack, those who scored 75%, within the range of 75%- 50% and lower than 50% of the highest score were considered as desirable, moderate and low, respectively. Results: On the Whole, the majority of subjects in the two cities, had moderate knowledge (59.5%, had good attitude (55.2% and had moderate practice (55.53%. Conclusions: The results showed that the subjects had moderate knowledge and practice, but since nutritional practice does not accord with their attitude, constant nutritional intervention seems necessary.
Introduction: Family physicians are the first point of medical contact for most patients, and they come into contact with a large number of smokers. Also, they are well suited to offer effective counseling to people, because family physicians already have some knowledge of patients and their social environments. Aims: The present study was conducted to assess family physicians knowledge, attitude and practice of smoking cessation counseling aiming to improve quality of smoking cessation counseling among family physicians. Materials and Methods: The study was descriptive analytic cross sectional study. It was conducted within family medicine centers. Sample was comprehensive. it included 75 family physicians. They were asked to fill previously validated anonymous questionnaire to collect data about their personal characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practice of smoking cessation counseling, barriers and recommendations of physicians. Equal or above the mean scores were used as cut off point of the best scores for knowledge, attitude and practice. Statistical Analysis: SPSS version 18 was used for data entry and statistical analysis. Results: The best knowledge, attitude and practice scores among family physicians in the study sample were (45.3 %, 93.3% and 44% respectively). Age (P = 0.039) and qualification of family physicians (P = 0.04) were significant variables regarding knowledge scores while no statistically significance between personal characteristics of family physicians and their attitude or practice scores regarding smoking cessation counseling. More than half of the family physicians recommended training to improve their smoking cessation counseling. Conclusions: Favorable attitude scores of family physicians exceed passing knowledge scores or practice scores. Need for knowledge and training are stimulus to design an educational intervention to improve quality of smoking cessation counseling.
Eldein, Hebatallah Nour; Mansour, Nadia M.; Mohamed, Samar F.
Knowledge, attitude and practice studies have been used to understand the various factors that influence blood donation which is the basis for donor mobilization and retention strategies. Role of youngsters in voluntary blood donation is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. The present study was aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among the health care students. A validated and pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge, attitude an...
Kowsalya, V.; Vijayakumar, R.; Chidambaram, R.; Srikumar, R.; Prabhakar Reddy, E.; Latha, S.; Gayathri Fathima, I.; Kishor Kumar, C.
Despite successful infant vaccination program, pertussis remains endemic in many countries. Waning immunity leaves adolescents and adults susceptible to disease and potential reservoirs of infection allowing transmission to vulnerable infants. Misdiagnosis leads to significant underestimation of disease burden and inappropriate treatment. This online survey of 517 European health care professionals (HCP) examined their knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pertussis and adult vaccinati...
Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,
Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat
Conclusions: The study showed, inspite of having good knowledge, utilization of contraceptives were less because of large family norm, religious myth, cultural and political barrier. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 385-388
We explored knowledge, attitudes, and practices associated with the menopause transition particular to women in the multi-ethnic cultural context of Singapore. Fifty-eight Chinese, Malay, and Indian Singaporean women participated in interviews that were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Women from all three ethnicities described an attitude of acceptance surrounding menopause and the changes associated with it. While they thought it was important to be informed, they did not seek out information about menopause and did not view health professionals as useful sources of information. Management practices were diverse and rarely involved accessing health professionals. PMID:23862640
Mackey, Sandra; Teo, Stephanie Swee Hong; Dramusic, Vesna; Lee, Hwee Khim; Boughton, Maureen
In this study, knowledge, attitude and practice about mercury hygiene of dentist who have private offices in Isfahan were evaluated. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2001-2002. One hundred and sixteen of dentists were selected by random sampling. Data were collected using a standard questionnaire. T-student test, Chi-square test, Fisher"s exact test and Spearman correlation test have been used to analyse data. It was shown that dentists knowledge about mercury hygiene wa...
Mortazavi, V.; Zolfaghary, B.; Shokrani, M.
Students at the University of Botswana, an at-risk group, have previously been shown to have high levels of risky sexual behavior despite widespread knowledge that these behaviors might lead to HIV-1 infection. As there have recently been considerable efforts focused on HIV-1 prevention in Botswana through nationwide media education campaigns and the opening of voluntary counselling and testing centers, re-evaluation of HIV-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices among students is needed....
Abstract Background The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among healthcare professionals in Barbados in relation to healthcare ethics and law in an attempt to assist in guiding their professional conduct and aid in curriculum development. Methods A self-administered structured questionnaire about knowledge of healthcare ethics, law and the role of an Ethics Committee in the healthcare system was devised, tested and distributed ...
Background: Understanding why people do not use family planning is critical to address unmet needs and to increase contraceptive use. According to the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011, most women and men had knowledge on some family planning methods but only about 29% of married women were using contraceptives. 20% women had an unmet need for family planning. We examined knowledge, attitudes and contraceptive practice as well as factors related to contraceptive use in Jimma zone, ...
Degfie, Tizta Tilahun; Coene, Gily; Lu?chters, Stanley; Kassahun, Wondwosen; Leye, Els; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier
Background: The reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by nurses in hospitals is very important. Aims: This study was aimed at investigating the impact of an educational intervention to improve ADR reporting and whether trained nurses had better knowledge, attitude, and practice toward ADR reporting. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 nurses in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran were evaluated with a knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questionnaire regarding ADR reporting in March 2010. After this, an educational program about ADR was provided to nurses. Then the nurses were re-evaluated by the same questionnaire. Comparisons were made of the attitude and knowledge within nurses, before and after education. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. P < 0.05 was considered as significant level. Independent-sample t-test was used to measure the intervention effect. Results: The response rate was 61.3% (N = 184). Knowledge of nurses before the intervention was significantly less than the knowledge after the intervention (P = 0.001). Also, there was a significant effect on attitude (P = 0.002). During the follow-up period of 4 months after the intervention, 26 spontaneous reports were received. Conclusion: Continuous ADR educational program, training, and integration of ADRs reporting into the activities of the nurses would likely improve ADR reporting.
Hanafi, Somayeh; Torkamandi, Hassan; Hayatshahi, Alireza; Gholami, Kheirollah; Shahmirzadi, Nikinaz Ashrafi; Javadi, Mohammad Reza
Abstract Background The potential contribution of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) studies to malaria research and control has not received much attention in most southern African countries. This study investigated the local communities' understanding of malaria transmission, recognition of signs and symptoms, perceptions of cause, treatment-seeking patterns, preventive measures and practices in order to inform the country's proposed malaria elimination programme in S...
To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of physicians regarding the management of medications in Ramadan we used a self-administered questionnaire on a target sample of 381 physicians at Jordan University Hospital, King Abdulla University Hospital and a number of private clinics in Amman, during September and October of 2008. A total of 297 questionnaires were returned. Physicians' KAP about management of medications in Ramadan was generally insufficient. The main factors that affected KAP were age, nationality, specialty, and country and year of last qualification (P < 0.05). Female physicians scored better than males, and fellows scored better than other groups for knowledge. Most physicians' attitudes and practices were in line with religious opinion in regard to which routes of drug administration can nullify fasting, indicating that physicians have adequate knowledge in this area. PMID:24932935
Jaber, D; Albsoul-Younes, A; Wazaify, M
Background: Cervical cancer is the most common genital cancer and one of the leading causes of death among female population. Fortunately, this cancer is preventable by screening for premalignant lesions but this is rarely provided and hardly utilised. We assessed the knowledge, attitude and utilisation of cervical cancer screening among market women in Sabon Gari, Zaria. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among market women. A total of 260 women were administered with questionnaires which were both self and interviewer administered. These were analysed using SPSS version 11. Results: Respondents exhibited a fair knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening (43.5%); however, their knowledge of risk factors was poor. There was generally good attitude to cervical cancer screening (80.4%), but their level of practice was low (15.4%). Conclusions: There was a fair knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Nigerian market women in this study, their practice of cervical cancer screening was poor.
Ahmed, Saad Aliyu; Sabitu, Kabiru; Idris, Suleiman Hadejia; Ahmed, Rukaiya
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assessed the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding disinfection procedures among nurses in Italian hospitals. Methods A face-to-face interview gathered the following information: demographic and practice characteristics; knowledge about the healthcare-associated infections (HAIs and the disinfection practices; attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols and perception of the risks of acquiring/transmitting HAIs; compliance with antisepsis/disinfection procedures; and sources of information. Results Only 29% acknowledged that urinary and respiratory tract infections were the two most common HAIs and this knowledge was significantly higher in those with a higher level of education. Attitudes towards the utility of guidelines/protocols for disinfection procedures showed a mean score of 9.1. The results of the linear regression model indicated a more positive attitude in female nurses, in those with a lower number of years of activity, and in those needing additional information about disinfection procedures. Nurses with higher educational level and with a higher perception of risk of transmitting an infectious disease while working were more likely to perform appropriate antisepsis of the surgical wound and handwashing before and after medication. Conclusions Plan of successful prevention activities about HAIs and provide pointers to help optimize disinfection procedures and infection prophylaxis and management are needed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate whether paediatricians have appropriate knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours regarding vaccinations for infants in Italy. Methods A random sample of 500 paediatricians received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire covering demographic and professional characteristics; knowledge about the mandatory, recommended, and not indicated vaccinations for infants; attitudes about vaccinations for infants; behaviour regarding current administration or willingness to administer mandatory or recommended vaccinations for infants and immunization education programs of the parents. Results Only 42.3% paediatricians knew all recommended vaccinations for infants and this knowledge was significantly higher in females, in those who worked a higher number of hours for week, and in those who use guidelines for immunization practice. Only 10.3% had a very favourable attitude towards the utility of the recommended vaccinations for infants and this was significantly higher in those who administered recommended vaccinations for infants. A large proportion (82.7% of paediatricians routinely informed the parents about the recommended vaccinations for infants and this appropriate behaviour was significantly higher among younger, in those with a higher number of years in practice, and in those who administered the recommended vaccinations for infants. Conclusion Training and educational interventions are needed in order to improve knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours regarding vaccinations for infants among paediatricians.
Full Text Available Improper practices and lack of knowledge by food handlers are contributing factors for the spread of foodborne outbreaks. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice of food handlers in military hospitals in Jordan. A Self completed questionnaire was answered by 200 employees; 150 military employees and 50 civilian employees in 7 Jordanian military hospitals selected randomly one from the capital Amman and two from the three provinces. The results showed that the means of the percentage scores for the knowledge, attitude, practice, were 84.82, 88.88, 89.43, respectively and the overall knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP mean percentage score was 87.88. A significant difference (P 0.05 in these values was observed between the military and civilian employee. The mean percentage scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 88.5, 93.2, and 91.4, respectively for military employee compared to those for civilian employee of 73.7, 75.8, and 83.5, respectively. A significant difference for the overall (KAP mean percentage score was also observed between gender, education and specific occupation of the food handler. Female KAP percentage mean score was 90.0 and that for males was 86.6; The college or university educations employee had a mean score of 91.6 while the elementary school education employee had a mean score of 79.7; The nutritionists and cooks had statistically similar means of 91.6 but these occupations significantly differ from the waiters 84.4 and cleaners 80.2.
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the infant oral health (IOH) related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of parents in Udaipur, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 470 parents visiting the Department of Pediatrics, Rabindranath Tagore Medical College and Hospital. A 32-item questionnaire covering socio-demographic characteristics and questions pertaining to KAP regarding IOH care was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Scheffe's test were used for the statistical analysis (P ? 0.05). Results: Majority of the parents had good knowledge regarding tooth eruption, but had a poor knowledge of cleaning (58.7%) and development of caries (48.5%). Parents in the age group of 25-30 years showed significantly higher mean knowledge (25.90 ± 3.93), attitude (15.71 ± 2.23), and practice (20.09 ± 2.50) scores. Female parents showed a significantly higher mean knowledge (21.45 ± 4.27) and attitude scores (14.97 ± 2.15) than the male parents. Conclusion: Parent's knowledge on IOH care was inadequate. Health professionals, who are the first to come into contact with expectant and new mothers, need to disseminate appropriate and accurate information about oral health-care for infants.
Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Kakatkar, Gauri; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Ramesh, Gayathri; Sandesh, Nagarajappa
Background and Objectives To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices among Gynecologists regarding oral health of expectant mothers of Vadodara city, by using self designed, structured, pre-tested close ended questionnaire. Methodology Total of 130 gynaecologists are included in the study. Ethical approval was obtained by the Ethics committee, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth, Vadodara. Prior to study, questionnaire was pre-tested and validated. Those individuals who participated in the pilot study were not considered for the main study to prevent possible bias. The informed consent was obtained and information sheet was given. The questionnaire was administered on first day of visit and on the next day it was collected back. For statistical analysis SPSS package version 17 and Pearsons Chi Square test was used. Results The study revealed that majority of gynecologists had good knowledge, attitude and practices regarding oral health of expectant mothers and there is no significant difference in relation with age, sex and years in practice. Conclusion Majority of gynecologists had good knowledge, attitude and practices but still there is a need for more active participation and involvement of medical specialists like gynecologists and pediatricians, in continuing education programs and forums on dentistry.
Shah, Harsh G.; Ajithkrishnan, CG; Sodani, Vasudha; Chaudhary, Nisarg J
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude, practice and preferences on contraceptive methods among the female population, to determine the association between knowledge and attitude on contraceptive methods with the variables.Materials and methods: A Descriptive survey of 136 females between 18- 45 year of age were done using a structured knowledge questionnaire, structured attitude scale and opinionnaire on practice and preference during the month of January 2012 to February 2012 at Moodu Alevoor village, Udupi district, Karnataka. Simple random sampling was used to select the village and purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample.Results: It was shown that 48.5% were of 26-35 years of age, 92% were Hindus, 45.6% had higher secondary education, 41.2% were house wives, 55.9% had family monthly income below 5000 rupees, 49.3% were from nuclear family, 64% were married between 19-25 years, 43.3% had 2-3 years of married life and 52.2% had one pregnancy. Majority (55.9% had one living child and 98.5% got information through health personnel. Majority (67.60% had moderate knowledge on contraceptive methods and 17.60% had high knowledge. Majority (87.50% had favourable attitude and 12.50% had unfavourable attitude towards contraceptive methods. From the group of studied women 38.23% did not use any contraceptive methods, 19.85% used OCPs and minimum 1.47% used injection as contraceptive method. In this study 37.5% preferred OCPs as Rank 1, male condom (22.1% as Rank 2 and injection (16.3% as Rank 3. There was association between knowledge with educational status(c2 = 47.14, p=0.001, occupation (c2 =15.81, p=0.044, family monthly income (c2 =6.473, p=0.039 and duration of marriage (c2=6.721, p=0.035. There was no association between attitude and the studied variables.Conclusion: The study showed that majority of the females had moderate knowledge and favourable attitude
Sonam Zangmu Sherpa
Full Text Available Emergency Contraception (EC is used within a few days of unprotected sex to prevent an unintended pregnancy. About one quarter of pregnancies in south of Iran are unintended. EC is important option that women can use after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure for preventing of unplanned pregnancies and adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Health staff have influence on womens contraceptive behavior and their knowledge and attitudes about EC can affect womens contraceptive behaviors. Data are lacking about the knowledge, attitude and practice of hormonal EC method among health staff in Bushehr state, south of Iran. A cross-sectional study using self administered questionnaire was conducted. A sample of 170 health staff were surveyed. The mean age of respondents was 30.6±5.1. Overall 6.5% of participants had poor knowledge, 25.2% moderate knowledge, 68.3% good knowledge about EC. Half of participants had positive and half had negative attitude towards the EC method. Midwives and family health workers were more knowledgeable (p
The food nutrition label provides the nutrition information that helps consumers on food choices and used to give us information so that customer can choose between foods. This study was aimed to determine the association between knowledge, attitude and practices on food label use and to determine the factors that influence the use of food labels during making food purchasing decision among university students. A cross-sectional study of undergraduate students at UiTM Puncak Alam in the Kuala...
Nurliyana, G.; Norazmir, M. N.; Khairil Anuar, M. I.
In this study, the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding pesticide use and the levels of exposure of farmers and residents to organophosphorous and/or carbamates pesticides were evaluated in two rural settings in Brazil. A questionnaire was completed by 112 farm workers aged ?18 years. Almost all farmers acknowledged that pesticides were potentially harmful to their health (87.5%); however, over half rarely (48.2%) or never (7.2%) used personal protective devices (PPDs). An associati...
Oliveira Pasiani, Juliana; Torres, Priscila; Roniery Silva, Jucie?; Zago Diniz, Bruno; Dutra Caldas, Eloisa
The aim of this study is to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of Iranian households and health staff on nutrition at province level. The sampling method in NUTRIKAP survey for households in each province is single-stage cluster sampling and the size of clusters is equal. The sampling method for health staff in each province is stratified random sampling. Samples are selected from physicians, health experts, health technicians, nutritionists and health assistants (Behvarz). Overall, 1...
Azemati, Bahar; Heshmat, Ramin; Sanaei, Maryam; Salehi, Forouzan; Sadeghi, Farzaneh; Ghaderpanahi, Maryam; Mirarefin, Mojde; Abdollahi, Zahra; Rezaei Hemami, Mohsen; Larijani, Bagher
Efforts to formalize the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in maternal and neonatal health programs have had limited success. TBAs continued attendance at home deliveries suggests potential to influence maternal and neonatal outcomes. The objective of this qualitative study was to identify and understand the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of TBAs in rural Nepal. Twenty one trained and untrained TBAs participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews about antenatal care, d...
Thatte, N.; Mullany, L. C.; Khatry, S. K.; Katz, J.; Tielsch, J. M.; Darmstadt, G. L.
A postal questionnaire was used to assess general practitioners' knowledge, attitudes and current practice of treatment regarding obesity and weight problems. Overall, 299 responses (75%) were received from general practitioners randomly selected from family practitioner committee lists in Portsmouth and Norwich. Currently 27% of the doctors were overweight and a further 3% obese. Many doctors (69%) had tried to lose weight at some time and 40% had been overweight and a further 12% obese in t...
Background: Tobacco consumption is associated with considerable negative impact on health. Health professionals, including future doctors, should have a leading role in combating smoking in the community. Objectives: The aims of the study were to assess the prevalence of smoking among medical students of newly established medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia, as well as to assess students? attitude, practice and their knowledge on the risk facto...
Al-Haqwi Ali; Tamim Hani; Asery Ali
Abstract Background To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. Methods Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.15 and associatio...
Saleem Taimur; Ishaque Sidra; Habib Nida; Hussain Syedda; Jawed Areeba; Khan Aamir; Ahmad Muhammad; Iftikhar Mian; Mughal Hamza; Jehan Imtiaz
In Kenya, HIV/AIDS is acquired almost entirely through sexual intercourse, with 20% of youth aged between 15 and 19 being infected. Correct and consistent use of condoms during sexual intercourse can greatly reduce the risk of acquiring or transmitting Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), including HIV. The purpose of this study is to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of sexual health with regard to condom use and HIV/AIDS among adolescents attending secondary schools in Kisum...
Objectives: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) iswell established world wide. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM by the people of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive household survey studyof the people living in Riyadh city, as well as the surrounding governorates. A multistage random sample was taken from1st January to the end of March 2010, with a total number of 518 participants. Data were collected u...
Abstract Background Health research training is an essential component of medical education and a vital exercise to help develop physician research skills. This study was carried out to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards research amongst a group of Post Graduate Medical Trainees (PGMTs') at Aga Khan University (AKU), Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional health research survey was carried out on all PGMTs' at AKU Pakistan. AKU is a tert...
Khan Hassan; Khan Sadaf; Iqbal Arshad
Dry eye is a common health problem worldwide, causing significant discomfort and inconvenience to sufferers. The conventional treatment of dry eye via topical administration of eye drops is deemed palliative and unsatisfactory to many. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has shown some promise in dry eye treatment; however, the extent of its use and acceptance is uncertain. We evaluated the knowledge, attitude, and practice of institutional TCM practitioners in the treatment of dry eye in Sing...
Unplanned teenage pregnancy constitutes an important health problem, whilst contraceptive services are free throughout South Africa and the number of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP) services is increasing. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of secondary school girls towards contraception in Thulamela Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by convenience sampling f...
Ramathuba, Dorah U.; Khoza, Lunic B.; Netshikweta, Mutshinyalo L.
The purpose of this study was to assess the basic knowledge, attitudes and practices about viral hepatitis B and hepatitis C among young healthy adults. A total of 2038 young healthy adults belonging to central Punjab were included in the study. A closed structured questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the individuals. A total of 602(30.74%) of respondents knew that hepatitis B and C are viral diseases. Contaminated needles/syringes, blood transfusion and used blades were identified as a mode of transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses by 84.38%, 69.58%, 25.63 individuals. About 80% replied that even if they were found positive for HBsAg and anti-HCV, they would not have further investigations/ treatment. TV was the leading source of information about these diseases. The attitudes and practices regarding exposure to risk factors were significantly poor from knowledge among young adults. A high level of public awareness, especially among the young, is critical to decrease the burden of these diseases in Pakistan in future. (author)
Full Text Available We sought to determine the knowledge and attitude of public health workers (PHWs with respect to emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases and the practice of one health approach in the surveillance of zoonoses in the community. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 randomly selected districts of Nyanza province, Kenya. One hundred and ten randomly-selected PHWs were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Data were collected on their knowledge, attitudes and practices about common zoonotic diseases. Eighty-nine (81% questionnaires were received back. Eighty-seven (98% said they discuss zoonotic diseases with the local villagers during their community health work. The most commonly discussed disease was rabies (n=39. Seventy-six (85% respondents reported ever discussing zoonoses with their veterinary colleagues. Over 85% of the PHWs asked for refresher training on H1N1, and 51% require training on highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1. Despite fair knowledge of rabies among the PHWs in Nyanza province, there is need for improving their attitude of the emerging and reemerging zoonoses. There is also need to improve their practice in terms of collaboration with the veterinarians in zoonoses surveillance in the community.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM:Many pediatric oral diseases are preventable if physicians recognize and encourage preventivecare and refer patients to dentists whenever necessary. Parents usually visit pediatricians for routine care during the firstfew years of a childs life. Therefore, pediatricians have can assist dental professionals by educating parents to maintaintheir children's oral health.The main objective of this study was to determine knowledge, attitude, and practices ofpediatricians about the oral disease prevention.METHODS:A piloted questionnaire was completed by volunteer pediatricians and pediatric residents in Kerman, Iran. Itcomprised a series of questions including sociodemographic and practice characteristics, knowledge about the riskfactors for oral diseases, attitude toward oral disease prevention, practicing preventive care for oral diseases, andinformation about oral diseases.RESULTS:Overall, 60 subjects participated in the study. Less thanhalf of the respondents knewall the main risk factorsof dental caries, gingivitis, and malocclusion. There was also a positive attitude that caries can be prevented (100%.Less than 10% of the participants prescribeddietary fluoride supplements for their patients.CONCLUSIONS:Although we found inadequate knowledge about oral and dental diseases among pediatricians, themajority of our subjects believed that they had animportant responsibility in preventing oral diseases
Elham Bozorgmehr DDS
Full Text Available Objective: Objective of the present study is to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of universal work precautions amongst medical laboratory technicians in private hospitals. Methodology: Cross-sectional study of health care workers was conducted using a pretested self-administered questionnaire, which enquired about knowledge, attitude and practices of universal work precautions. The hepatitis B vaccination statuses were also asked. Results: 200 questionnaires were administered to laboratory technicians and 154 of them were returned giving a response rate of 77%. All the participants wear gloves during laboratory work but 81.2% wear a single pair. 17.5 % of the participants claimed to know what to do if exposed to infection. 45.6% of the participants eat in the laboratory, 47.0% of them store foods and water in the refrigerators, 31.5% of them put on cosmetics in the laboratory, 12.6% smoke in the laboratory, 10.0% cut their finger nails with teeth in the laboratory. 91.5% are not immunized against hepatitis B virus (HBV. 99.0% of them do not take shower immediately after laboratory work. 82.0% of the participants do not feel that the use of masks is necessary in laboratory. Conclusion: It is concluded that the knowledge, attitude, perception, and compliance with universal work precautions amongst laboratory technicians are poor. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(1.000: 113-115
Full Text Available Hypertension is a major problem that will most certainly grow with increase in the number of older people as the population continues to age. Its complications have estimated reduction in life expectancy and number of Quality of life years. The aim of the study was to study the Knowledge, Attitude ,Practice (KAP in the management of hypertension among old age people. Purposive random sampling technique was adapted for the study. The total sample constituted 1200 elderly with hypertension residents of urban Bangalore, of which 600 were men and 600 were women between the age group of 65-76 years. The tool used for the study was Structured Interview Schedule (SIS developed by the investigators on demographic profile and on KAP in the management of hypertension and the tool was administered to 1200 old age people. The obtained data was subjected to statistical analysis by applying percentage mean, and 't' test. The findings revealed that the scores on the knowledge segment indicated a moderate to good knowledge among the respondents. The mean scores on attitude indicated that the groups showed a fair and healthy attitude towards hypertension. The mean scores on practice showed a moderate level to cope with hypertension.
Roopa, K. S.
Full Text Available Background: ICT competencies are now essential for nurses in optimizing their care services and their training. Objective: To analyze knowledge, attitudes and practices related to ICT, in de population of public hospital and ISPs nurses of Alto Paraná, Paraguay. Methods: A quantitative, descriptive and transversal study was conducted. Data were collected from 130 professionals, during June and July of the year 2011, through interviews and by application of a questionnaire of open and closed questions and a Likert scale.Results: The dimensions of knowledge and use shows elementary levels, but the attitude toward ICT is favorable. Discussion: This last fact and the finding of a predominantly young population suggest that interventions aimed at training have a high probability of success.
Carmen Noelia Espínola López
Full Text Available Background: Oral cancer has emerged as a significant cause of global public health concern. If a cancerous lesion is diagnosed in primary stages, the survival rate would be higher. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice of general dentist regarding oral cancer in Sari, Iran . Methods: This cross sectional analytical study was performed on general dentists of Sari, Iran. The dentists were given a questionnaire including demographic characteristics of the dentists and questions about knowledge, attitude and practice regarding oral cancer. Data were subjected to SPSS 18 .0. Quantitative data were reported as mean (±SD and qualitative data were shown as percent. Kolmogorov - Smirnoff sample test, t - test (p<0.07 was considered statistically significant equivalent nonparametric test and Spearmans rho test was used for sta tistical analysis . Results: Total mean score of knowledge, mean score of females and mean score of males was 20.88±8.53, 20.96±7.62 and 20.71±10.43, respectively. Age and sex had no correlation with score of knowledge. Conclusion: Dentists of Sari do not ha ve enough knowledge about oral cancer
Full Text Available Knowledge, attitude and practice studies have been used to understand the various factors that influence blood donation which is the basis for donor mobilization and retention strategies. Role of youngsters in voluntary blood donation is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. The present study was aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among the health care students. A validated and pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation were assessed among 371 medical students from Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Institute, Puducherry, India. Result showed that knowledge on blood donation among respondents was 44.8% (1st year 36.7%, 2nd year 42.8% and 3rd year 54.9%. About 62.6% of non-donors (1st year 51%, 2nd year 61% and 3rd year 77% showed positive attitude by expressing their willingness to donate blood while 22.8%.of the non-donors had negative attitude (1st year 33%, 2nd year 23% and 3rd year 13%. In practice 13.2% of students had donated blood (1st year 10%, 2nd year 13% and 3rd year 24%, in which 2.7% of male students alone donating blood on regular basis. Over all 3rd year student showed significantly higher knowledge compared with 1st years, in attitude and practice section 3rd year students showed significantly higher positive attitude and practice than that of 1st and 2nd years. The present study reveals that there is a positive association among knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation, which suggest that positive attitude and practice can be improved by inculcating knowledge on blood donation among college students to recruit and donate blood regularly, which will help to achieve 100% of blood donation on voluntary basis.
Knowledge, attitude and practice studies have been used to understand the various factors that influence blood donation which is the basis for donor mobilization and retention strategies. Role of youngsters in voluntary blood donation is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. The present study was aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among the health care students. A validated and pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation were assessed among 371 medical students from Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Institute, Puducherry, India. Result showed that knowledge on blood donation among respondents was 44.8% (1st year 36.7%, 2nd year 42.8% and 3rd year 54.9%). About 62.6% of non-donors (1st year 51%, 2nd year 61% and 3rd year 77%) showed positive attitude by expressing their willingness to donate blood while 22.8%.of the non-donors had negative attitude (1st year 33%, 2nd year 23% and 3rd year 13%). In practice 13.2% of students had donated blood (1st year 10%, 2nd year 13% and 3rd year 24%), in which 2.7% of male students alone donating blood on regular basis. Over all 3rd year student showed significantly higher knowledge compared with 1st years, in attitude and practice section 3rd year student's showed significantly higher positive attitude and practice than that of 1st and 2nd years. The present study reveals that there is a positive association among knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation, which suggest that positive attitude and practice can be improved by inculcating knowledge on blood donation among college students to recruit and donate blood regularly, which will help to achieve 100% of blood donation on voluntary basis. PMID:24498809
Kowsalya, V; Vijayakumar, R; Chidambaram, R; Srikumar, R; Reddy, E Prabhakar; Latha, S; Fathima, I Gayathri; Kumar, C Kishor
Within preliminary works to the Consensus Conference Informing women about hormone replacement therapy a survey to point out womens knowledge, attitude and practice about menopause and hormone therapy has been implemented. The survey involved representati...
A. Liberati C. Colombo P. Mosconi R. Cotichini R. Satolli S. Donati
Emergency Contraception (EC) is used within a few days of unprotected sex to prevent an unintended pregnancy. About one quarter of pregnancies in south of Iran are unintended. EC is important option that women can use after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure for preventing of unplanned pregnancies and adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Health staff have influence on women's contraceptive behavior and their knowledge and attitudes about EC can affect women's contraceptive behaviors. Data are lacking about the knowledge, attitude and practice of hormonal EC method among health staff in Bushehr state, south of Iran. A cross-sectional study using self administered questionnaire was conducted. A sample of 170 health staff were surveyed. The mean age of respondents was 30.6±5.1. Overall 6.5% of participants had poor knowledge, 25.2% moderate knowledge, 68.3% good knowledge about EC. Half of participants had positive and half had negative attitude towards the EC method. Midwives and family health workers were more knowledgeable (p<0.05) and more frequently counseled women about EC than general practitioners (GPs) (p<0.001). The most cited reason for EC prescriptions were rupture condom and none use of contraception. Our findings showed despite of majority of health staff had good knowledge about EC, their knowledge about the indications for prescription of EC and its side effects was inadequate. The educational efforts for health staff should be focused more on the specific aspects of EC method. GPs also should be more involved in family planning program. PMID:24373264
Najafi-Sharjabad, Fatemeh; Hajivandi, Abdollah; Rayani, Mohammad
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physiotherapists as primary health care practitioners are well placed in promoting physically active lifestyles, but their role and practice towards its promotion among patients in Nigeria has not been fully investigated. This study was therefore aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian physiotherapists towards promotion of non-treatment physical activity among patients. Methods Three hundred and eight practicing physiotherapists from various public and private hospitals in 14 states of Nigeria completed an adopted 20-item questionnaire, which collected information on physical activity promotion in physiotherapy practice. Result Respondents with good knowledge and attitude towards physical activity promotion in patient management were 196(63.6% and 292(94.8% respectively. Only 111 (36% of the respondents counselled more than 10 patients in the past one month on the benefits of adopting a more physically active lifestyle. Chi-square analysis showed a significant association between low practice of physical activity promotion in patient management with inadequate consultation time (?2?=?3.36, p?=?0.043, years of working experience of physiotherapists (?2?=?11.37, p =0.023 and relative physical activity levels of physiotherapists (?2?=?11.82, p?=?0.037. The need for Physical activity recommendation guideline was supported by 287 (97% respondents. Conclusion Nigerian physiotherapists have good knowledge and attitude towards promotion of physically active lifestyle in their patients but do not counsel many of them, due to insufficient consultation time. Integrating brief counselling into usual treatment sessions is perceived as the most feasible form of physical activity promotion in patient management.
Aweto Happiness A
ABSTRACT This study was conducted to assess mental health knowledge, attitude and practices among health care workers in Belize before and immediately after a competency based training program in mental health. A baseline Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) survey was given to health personnel, mainly nurses, working primary and secondary care. The intervention was a 13-week face-to-face training course for health care professionals with the objective of increasing their competency in me...
Bennett, Eleanor Davis
Purpose: A lot of accidents occur in the laboratory due to lack of proper knowledge regarding laboratory safety measures, indifferent attitude & improper implementation of safe laboratory practices. In view of this, the present study on knowledge, Attitude & Practice (KAP) of laboratory safety measures was carried out among paramedical staff of laboratory services of tertiary care teaching hospital, western India. Method: This was a comparative study which used a standardized, structu...
Mongolia has a high and increasing burden of hypertension and related disease, with cardiovascular diseases among the leading causes of death. Yet little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Mongolian population with regards to blood pressure. With this in mind, a national Non-Communicable Diseases knowledge, attitudes and practices survey on blood pressure was implemented in late 2010. This paper reports on the findings of this research.
Demaio, Alessandro R; Otgontuya, Dugee
Full Text Available Introduction: The harmful effects of cigarette smoking on oral health are well established. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and attitude of dental patients about the effects of smoking on oral health and their cessation efforts.Methods and materials: In this descriptive analysis-cross sectional study, 905 patients from dental clinics in Kerman were selected. They were asked to complete a self- administered structured questionnaire on the effects of smoking on oral health. The questionnaire consisted of questions about demographic data, smoking status, patients' knowledge and attitude about the effects of smoking and cessation efforts of them. Finally, data was analyzed with SPSS program, t test and x2 test.Result: A total 905 patients (53% men and 47% women were studied. The mean age was 32.76 ± 9.509. The prevalence of smoking was 20.5%. The relationship between sex and education and smoking was significant (p value = 0.0001. Mean Knowledge score was 53.95%. Smoking patients and men were significantly less aware of the effects of smoking on oral health. In this study, 54.9% of smoking patients had tried to quit smoking. Only 12.2% had taken counselling. The attitude toward cigarettes was passive.Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the knowledge about effects of smoking on oral health, especially oral cancer, was low. Therefore dentists have a key role for awarding their patients of such effects and are placed to be have a key role in tobacco prevention and cessation.Keywords: Cigarette, Oral manifestations, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Dental patients
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical cancer is the commonest cancer of women in Uganda. Over 80% of women diagnosed in Mulago national referral and teaching hospital, the biggest hospital in Uganda, have advanced disease. Pap smear screening, on opportunistic rather than systematic basis, is offered free in the gynaecological outpatients clinic and the postnatal/family planning clinics. Medical students in the third and final clerkships are expected to learn the techniques of screening. Objectives of this study were to describe knowledge on cervical cancer, attitudes and practices towards cervical cancer screening among the medical workers of Mulago hospital. Methods In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a weighted sample of 310 medical workers including nurses, doctors and final year medical students were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. We measured knowledge about cervical cancer: (risk factors, eligibility for screening and screening techniques, attitudes towards cervical cancer screening and practices regarding screening. Results Response rate was 92% (285. Of these, 93% considered cancer of the cervix a public health problem and knowledge about Pap smear was 83% among respondents. Less than 40% knew risk factors for cervical cancer, eligibility for and screening interval. Of the female respondents, 65% didn't feel susceptible to cervical cancer and 81% had never been screened. Of the male respondents, only 26% had partners who had ever been screened. Only 14% of the final year medical students felt skilled enough to use a vaginal speculum and 87% had never performed a pap smear. Conclusion Despite knowledge of the gravity of cervical cancer and prevention by screening using a Pap smear, attitudes and practices towards screening were negative. The medical workers who should be responsible for opportunistic screening of women they care for are not keen on getting screened themselves. There is need to explain/understand the cause of these attitudes and practices and identify possible interventions to change them. Medical students leave medical school without adequate skills to be able to effectively screen women for cervical cancer wherever they go to practice. Medical students and nurses training curricula needs review to incorporate practical skills on cervical cancer screening.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among the college students.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the Government College, Gangtok, Sikkim, during the month of April 2009 to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among 156 students enrolled in the first year bachelor course. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis.Results: 98% (153/156 of the students had knowledge about family planning and 86% (134/156 of them had heard about contraceptives. Most of them knew about condoms (85% and contraceptive pills (40% but knowledge about permanent methods and Cu-T was poor (average 12%. Most students thought contraceptives were to be used to prevent unwanted pregnancy (35% and for birth spacing (30%. 11% of students had used some form of contraceptive in the past and 7% were currently users. The most commonly used contraceptives were condoms, followed by combined use of OCP and condom. Conclusion: The study highlights the need to motivate the youth for effective and appropriate use of contraceptives when required and arrest the trend towards unwanted pregnancy.
Full Text Available Abstract Many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medicines, especially those available over-the-counter, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals such as general practitioners and pharmacists. The primary aim of this review therefore, was to investigate the literature relating to health professionals' and women's knowledge, attitudes and practices towards medication use and safety in breastfeeding. The limited literature that was uncovered identified that general practitioners and pharmacists have poor knowledge, but positive attitudes, and variable practices that are mostly guided by personal experience. They tend to make decisions about the use of a medicine whilst breastfeeding based on the potential 'risk' that it poses to the infant in terms of possible adverse reactions, rather than its 'compatibility' with breast milk. The decision-making process between health professionals and women is usually not a negotiated process, and women are often asked to stop breastfeeding whilst taking a medicine. Women, in turn, are left dissatisfied with the advice received, many choosing not to initiate therapy or not to continue breastfeeding. Some directions for future research have been suggested to address the issues identified in this critical area. This review is important from a societal perspective because many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medications, especially those available without prescription, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals, which is ultimately influenced by their knowledge, attitudes and practices. However, there is an absence of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials on the safety of medications taken during breastfeeding, which naturally would hinder health professionals from appropriately advising women. It is equally important to know about women's experiences of advice received from health professionals, and whether there is consistency between recommendations made across resources on medication safety in breastfeeding, in order to gain a full understanding of the issues prevalent in this area of practice.
Full Text Available All patients if given proper guidance and education regarding diabetes care would be able to make significant improvement in their life-style which is helpful for good glycemic control. Education to diabetic patients would be more effective if we know the level of knowledge, attitude and practices of our patients. Thus a study was conducted to assess the general characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices of type 2 diabetic patients attending the Out-Patient Department (OPD of Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology (Karachi, Pakistan. Fifty-seven percent of the patients were overweight or obese. Only 10.7% had good glycemic control. Sixty seven percent did not do exercise of any kind. The overall awareness about the risk of complications was satisfactory but the misconceptions regarding diet, insulin and diabetes were quite common. This study highlights the need for better health information to the patient through large scale awareness programmes so as to change the attitude of our public regarding diabetes.
An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention program was evaluated. One hundred and thirteen female high school varsity and junior varsity basketball players and 12 coaches participated in an 8-week educational and skills program. Demographic and injury history data were collected. At pre-intervention and at the end of season, knowledge, attitudes, and practices about ACL risk and injury prevention were assessed via questionnaires, and frequency of two-footed landings were videotaped during games. Univariate statistics described the sample. Paired t-tests evaluated the program's impact. Cronbach's alpha, correlations, and kappa statistics assessed the validity and reliability of questionnaires and video analysis. Of the 113 players, 74 completed the study. The players' mean age was 16.25 years (SD=1.07; range=14.2-18.8). Baseline knowledge score was 57.2%, practice 58.4%, and attitude 73.5%. The mean baseline knowledge score of the 12 coaches (mean age=40.8 years; SD=10.3; range=26.9-56.3) was 68.7%. Players' knowledge about ACL injury prevention improved (t=2.57; P<0.01). No changes in attitudes toward injury prevention were found (t(diff)=1.88; P<0.06). Inter-rater reliability of two-footed landings observed was acceptable (kappa=0.72). Videotape analyses revealed a 5.5% increase in landing performance (t(diff)=9.6; P<0.0001). The program increased knowledge about ACL injury risk and improved player's landing skills. PMID:18627558
Iversen, M D; Friden, C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pediatricians are in an ideal position to advise families about the prevention and management of oral diseases in children. The objective of the study was to determine knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding the prevention of oral diseases among pediatricians in Italy. Methods A systematic random sample of 1000 pediatricians received a questionnaire on socio-demographic and practice characteristics; knowledge on risk factors; attitude and practices towards the prevention of oral diseases. Results A total of 507 pediatricians participated. More than half knew the main risk factors for oral diseases and this knowledge was higher in primary care pediatricians (p = 0.007, in those with a higher number of hours worked per week (p = 0.012, and who believed that oral diseases may be prevented (p = 0.017. Pediatricians with higher knowledge about the main risk factors (p = 0.006 believe that they have an important role in preventing oral diseases and that they can perform an oral examination. Almost all (89% prescribed fluoride supplements and those younger (p = 0.016, with a higher number of patients seen in workday (p = 0.001, with longer practice activity (p = 0.004, those who believe that fluoride is effective in preventing caries (p p = 0.002 were more likely to prescribe fluoride. One-fourth and 40.6% provides and recommends a dental visit once a year and primary care pediatricians (p = 0.014 and those who believed that routine visit is important in preventing oral diseases (p Conclusion The results showed a lack of knowledge among pediatricians although almost all believed that they had an important responsibility in preventing oral diseases and provided an oral examination.
Clinical Prediction Rules (CPRs) have been developed to assist in the physiotherapy management of low back pain (LBP) although little is known about the factors that may influence their implementation in clinical practice. This study used qualitative research methodology to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices/behaviours of physiotherapists in relation to these tools. Four semi-structured focus groups involving 26 musculoskeletal physiotherapists were conducted across three Australian geographic regions. A fictitious LBP case scenario was developed and used to facilitate group discussion. Participant knowledge of CPRs was found to be mixed, with some clinicians never having previously encountered the term or concept. LBP CPRs were often conceptualised as a formalisation of pattern recognition. Attitudes towards CPRs expressed by study participants were wide-ranging with several facilitating and inhibiting views identified. It was felt that more experienced clinicians had limited need of such tools. Only a small number of participants expressed that they had ever used LBP CPRs in clinical practice. To optimise the successful adoption of an LBP CPR, researchers should consider avoiding the use of the term 'rule' and ensure that the tool and its interface are uncomplicated and easy to use. Understanding potential barriers, the needs of clinicians and the context in which CPRs will be implemented will help facilitate the development of tools with the highest potential to positively influence physiotherapy practice. PMID:24176916
Haskins, Robin; Osmotherly, Peter G; Southgate, Erica; Rivett, Darren A
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to assess the level of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and its risk factors, attitude towards HIV/AIDS and AIDS patients and its transmission and to identify high risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS among university students in Xinjiang. Methodology: A crosssectional survey was conducted among students enrolled in two universities, the Xingjiang University (XU and Xinjiang Medical University (XMU. Data was collected using self-administered standardized questionnaire on attitude and practice regarding HIV/AIDS among 200 students randomly selected students from XU and 200 students from XMU Result: Among the 400 students who participated in the study Overall, the mean knowledge score was 19.3 +5.5. Their knowledge score ranges from 2 to 30. Mean knowledge scores is significantly different by ethnicity, sex, subject major, and year of study in university. Only 33.3% of the respondents had positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS patient. With regards high risk behavior associated with HIV transmission, 15.8% had at least 1 risk behavior related to unprotected sexual exposure Conclusion: HIV/AIDS health education efforts should be intensified in non-medical universities, among female students, first year students and Uyghur and other minorities. About two-thirds of the university students in Xinjiang had negative attitude towards HIV/AIDS and HIV/AIDS patients. At the same time about 15% of these students reported having at least 1 high risk behavior related to sex and unprotected sex.
Volunteers and staff of women's organisations who are highly active in engaging and providing community service can be recruited to motivate female smokers to quit. We described the knowledge and attitudes regarding tobacco control and smoking cessation among these affiliates in Hong Kong and identified factors associated with the practices of cessation interventions. Eight of 14 women's organisations joining the Women Against Tobacco Taskforce agreed to participate. All staff, volunteers, and members of the eight organisations were invited to complete a self-administered anonymous questionnaire during July and August 2006. A total of 623 out of 771 (80.8%) affiliates responded. Their knowledge on smoking and health (mean = 3.91, SD = 1.44 on a range of 0-7), smoking related diseases (mean = 2.91, SD = 0.97 on a range of 0-4), and women-specific diseases (mean = 2.93, SD = 1.87 on a range of 0-6), was considered to be inadequate. They had positive attitudes towards tobacco control (mean = 3.31, SD = 0.55) and their own role in smoking cessation counselling (mean = 3.19, SD = 0.56) on a 4-point Likert scale and 39.3% reported had attempted to offer quitting advice. Logistic regression analysis found that participants having direct contact with smokers who had a positive attitude towards their own role in smoking cessation counselling (OR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.67-3.95) and better knowledge of smoking and smoking-related diseases (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.06-1.71) were more likely to provide cessation counselling after controlling for gender; knowledge on smoking and health, and women-specific diseases; attitude towards tobacco control, negative and positive attitudes towards female smokers, and perceived self-efficacy in smoking cessation counselling. Women's organisations showed limited support towards tobacco control and their affiliates had a limited knowledge on smoking and health but had positive attitudes. Appropriate training, capacity building and establishing rapport with women's organisations are needed to promote smoking cessation and to support tobacco control in the community. PMID:21129069
Leung, Doris Y P; Chan, Sophia S C; Fu, Idy C Y; Lam, Tai-hing
Background: The waste produced in the course of healthcare activities carries a higher potential for infection and injury than any other type of waste. Inadequate and inappropriate knowledge of handling of healthcare waste may have serious health consequences and a significant impact on the environment as well. Objective: The objective was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices of doctors, nurses, laboratory technicians, and sanitary staff regarding biomedical waste management. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was conducted among hospitals (bed capacity >100) of Allahabad city. Participants: Medical personnel included were doctors (75), nurses (60), laboratory technicians (78), and sanitary staff (70). Results: Doctors, nurses, and laboratory technicians have better knowledge than sanitary staff regarding biomedical waste management. Knowledge regarding the color coding and waste segregation at source was found to be better among nurses and laboratory staff as compared to doctors. Regarding practices related to biomedical waste management, sanitary staff were ignorant on all the counts. However, injury reporting was low across all the groups of health professionals. Conclusion: The importance of training regarding biomedical waste management needs emphasis; lack of proper and complete knowledge about biomedical waste management impacts practices of appropriate waste disposal.
Mathur, Vanesh; Dwivedi, S; Hassan, MA; Misra, RP
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that is underreported in many countries, including Trinidad and Tobago, because of a low level of awareness of the disease. A knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) survey concerning leptospirosis was carried out on 800 households throughout Trinidad to determine the level of awareness of the disease in the country. Of the participants, 52.4% had heard of leptospirosis but approximately half of these did not know any signs or symptoms of the disease. Knowledge of leptospirosis was not related to level of education of people, but to geographical location. Approximately 82% of participants were involved in at least one risk activity, the most common of which was walking barefooted outdoors. The animal which most participants were in contact with was the dog. Of the 53% of participants who had seen a mouse or rat around the house, 5% utilized the free control services of the regional corporation. Approximately 66% of participants were not satisfied with the services provided by the regional corporation. There was a positive attitude towards general health and good sanitary practices among the Trinidad population, but there was also a lack of knowledge of leptospirosis. The low level of awareness of leptospirosis in Trinidad makes it a disease of public health importance, as it is often mistaken for dengue which is more well-known in the country. PMID:24038186
Mohan, Andrea R M; Chadee, Dave D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead is a highly toxic and pervasive metal. Chronic exposure to low levels is responsible for significant health effects, particularly in children. Prevention remains the best option for reducing childhood lead exposure, however the knowledge, attitudes and practices to lead exposure in many developing countries is not known. Methods: We conducted four focus group discussions (FGD to evaluate knowledge attitudes and practices to lead exposure in Nigeria. An FGD guide was developed from the literature and preliminary discussion with members of the public. Participants in the FGD were randomly selected from adults living in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria in 2004. Results We found that there was limited awareness of the sources of lead exposure in the domestic environment and participants had little knowledge of the health effects of chronic low-dose lead exposure. Conclusion We conclude that the findings of this study should be used, in conjunction with others, to develop appropriate health education intervention for lead exposure in the domestic environment.
Sridhar Mynepalli KC
Background A major destructive earthquake is predicted to shake the Tehran city in the near future. To mitigate the damage from such earthquakes, it is necessary to assess the preparedness of people and find the related risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran city among people aged 15 years or older in 2009. 1195 of Tehran's residents were interviewed using a questionnaire. Pearson chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used in order to evaluate the factors associated with preparedness against an earthquake. Results The analysis showed that 1076 (90.0%), 1160 (97.1%), and 490 (41.0%) of the participants achieved half of the possible scores for the knowledge, attitude, and practice components, respectively. Furthermore, in multivariate analysis low knowledge (pTaghizadeh A, Hosseini M, Navidi I, Mahaki AA, Ammari H, Ardalan A. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Tehran's Inhabitants for an Earthquake and Related Determinants. PLOS Currents Disasters. 2012 Aug 6. PMID:22953240
Ostad Taghizadeh, Abbas; Hosseini, Mostafa; Navidi, Iman; Mahaki, Ali Asghar; Ammari, Hassan; Ardalan, Ali
This study was conducted to determine the nutritional knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of male and female bodybuilding trainers in Ahwaz, one of the 7 major cities of Iran. KAP questionnaires which contained information about nutrients, food groups, using of supplements and ergogenic aids, were completed by trainers. Sixty three certified male bodybuilding trainers (37.9 ? 2.7 y) and 30 certified female trainers (37.3 ? 8.1 y) were recruited from all clubs of the city. All of the ...
Seyed Mohamad Hosein Mosavi Jazayeri; Reza Amani
Full Text Available Traffic accidents compromises a large quantity of peoples annually, and is one of the most important causes of death in Iran. Human factors are amongst of the most leading causes of traffic accident mortality and morbidity and this study is conducted to evaluate the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of drivers regarding driving laws in Tehran. Two hundred and twenty drivers were selected randomly in this cross sectional study. Cluster sampling with 10 participant in each cluster was used for selection of participants. 22 points were defined using a random sample of telephone numbers. Distribution points was such as one point were selected in each zone of municipality zones. Ten consecutive drivers passing the specified point were interviewed by an interviewer and a senior officer of Traffic Control Organization of Tehran was responsible for assessment of practices. Reliability of questionnaire was evaluated using alpha chronbach coefficient and construct validity was assessed by Principal component Analysis method. Chi square and odds ratio (OR were used for assessment of relation between qualitative variables, when appropriate. Two hundred and twenty drivers were recruited in this study. Suitable Knowledge, Attitude and practice were seen in 67.7, 56.4 and 47.7 percent of respondents respectively. When adjusted using logistic regression analysis, we did not observe any relation between these three variables. There was a significant relation between knowledge and age; and also between practice and education, marital status, occupation and type of automobile. We conclude that practice of drivers of Tehran are weak regarding traffic laws and there is an emergent need for research and intervention in this regard.
Background: Fixed Dose Combinations (FDCs) improve patient compliance and decrease pill burden. However, irrational prescribing of FDCs is a major health concern. As resident doctors are primarily involved in patient management at tertiary care hospitals, knowledge about prescribing FDCs is of paramount importance. Objective: To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice, regarding use of FDCs by resident doctors at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among resident doctors working at Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, a tertiary care teaching hospital. One hundred resident doctors from the departments of medicine, obstetrics and gynaecology, surgery, paediatrics, skin and psychiatry, who gave their informed consent, were enrolled. A prevalidated questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitude and prescribing practice of fixed dose combinations was filled up. Data was analyzed with suitable statistical tests. Results: Out of the 100 residents recruited for the study, 34, 33 and 33 residents were selected from the 1st, 2nd and 3rd year respectively. The resident doctors were not aware about all of the advantages and disadvantages of FDCs. On an average, only 31% of the residents (lowest 16% among 1st year residents) had knowledge about the Essential Medicine List (EML). Knowledge about rationality of given FDCs was lacking in 81% of the residents. Only 47% could name a single banned FDC in India. Common sources of information about FDCs were medical representatives, colleagues/peers, the Monthly Index of Medical Specialities (MIMS) and Continuous Medical Education (CMEs). A majority of residents (96%) agreed that FDCs should be allowed to be marketed. The residents opined that most commonly prescribed FDCs were of antimicrobial drugs, amongst which amoxicillin + clavulanic acid was the most frequent. Conclusion: There is need to improve knowledge about rationality, EML, usage and banned FDCs in post graduate medical students to promote the rational use of drugs.
Goswami, Nimit; Gandhi, Anuradha; Patel, Prakruti; Dikshit, Ramkumar
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Jordan, as in neighboring countries in the Middle East, higher education and higher employment rates in recent years among women have had an impact on traditionally based infant feeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate practice, knowledge and attitude to breastfeeding and to assess factors associated with breastfeeding among women in the north of Jordan. Methods A cross sectional study was carried out between 15 July 2003 and 15 August 2003. A total of 344 women with children aged between 6 months and 3 years from five different villages in the north of Jordan were randomly selected and interviewed. Information regarding participants' demographics, infant feeding in first six months of life, knowledge and attitude towards breastfeeding was collected. Results Full breastfeeding was reported by 58.3%, mixed feeding was reported by 30.3% and infant formula feeding was reported by 11.4%. Almost one third of the full breastfeeding group did so for 612 months, and almost two thirds did continue breastfeeding for more than one year. Employed women were more likely not to practice full breastfeeding compared to unemployed women (odds ratio 3.34, 95% CI 1.60, 6.98, and women who had caesarian delivery were more likely not to practice full breastfeeding compared to those who had vaginal delivery (odds ratio 2.36, 95% CI 1.17, 4.78. Jordanian women had a positive attitude but work place and short maternity leaves had a negative impact on breastfeeding. Conclusion This study showed that a high proportion of Jordanian women did breastfeed for more than one year. However, working women and those who deliver by caesarean section were less likely to breastfeed. It is speculated that adopting facilitatory measures at hospitals and work place could increase the rate of full breastfeeding.
Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate whether paediatricians have appropriate knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours regarding vaccinations for infants in Italy. Methods A random sample of 500 paediatricians received a self-administered anonymous questionnaire covering demographic and professional characteristics; knowledge about the mandatory, recommended, and not indicated vaccinations for infants; attitudes about vaccinations for infa...
Anastasi Daniela; Di Giuseppe Gabriella; Marinelli Paolo; Angelillo Italo F.
In this quasi-experimental study, we have evaluated the effects of an educational program on the level of knowledge, attitude and practice methods of experimental assistant dentists in Shiraz, regarding AIDS and HIV transmission. These variables were assessed before and after an educational program, by a questionnaire and a checklist. The educational program consisted of lectures and group discussions, held in 4 sessions during one month. The second assessments of knowledge, attitude, and of ...
The purpose of this study was to assess, by means of a self administered structured questionnaire, the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of physical education teachers in Bangalore city with regards to emergency management of dental injuries. The questionnaire surveyed the physical education teacher?s background, knowledge of management of tooth fracture, avulsion, luxation injuries, it also investigated physical education teacher?s attitude and the way they handle the i...
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and skill of clinical residents in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, northwestern Iran, (as the future specialists, as well as their attitudes on the necessity of patient education, and the practice and responsibility of the residents in this field. Methods: Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of a random selection of 380 clinical residents at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences were assessed in 2011 through a comprehensive questionnaire about education. The data were analyzed using SPSS software.Results: There was no significant relationship between the two variables of sex and study period and the knowledge variable during the residency. However, there was a significant positive correlation between knowledge and age variables (P<0.05. The level of knowledge rose with aging because the amount of the model significance was less than0.05. Besides, the coefficient of sex was positive by regression analysis. There was no significant relationship between the previous variables and attitude variable. No significant relationship was seen between the previ¬ous variables and practice variable. Conclusion: The influence of age, sex, and year of study was apparent in the knowledge of the residents, but no considerable influence was shown in their practices and attitudes. Some educational strategies are needed to improve the practices and attitudes of the training group.
Full Text Available Background: Child adoption is a recommended alternative form of infertility management. Infertility is of public health importance in Nigeria and many other developing nations. This is a result of its high prevalence and especially because of its serious social implications as the African society places a passionate premium on procreation in any family setting.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of child adoption amongst women attending infertility clinics in teaching hospitals in Lagos State and to determine the factors that influence their attitude and practice towards it.
Method: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. Data were collected by using a structured questionnaire which was interviewer-administered. The study was conducted in the two teaching hospitals in Lagos State (LUTH [Lagos University Teaching Hospital] and LASUTH [Lagos State University Teaching Hospital] from amongst 350 women attending the gynaecological clinics. All the patients under management for infertility at the gynaecology clinics during the period of the study were interviewed.
Results: Many respondents (85.7% had heard of child adoption and 59.3% of them knew the correct meaning of the term. More than half of the respondents (68.3% said that they could love an adopted child but less than half of them (33.7% were willing to consider adoption. Only 13.9% has ever adopted a child. The major reason given for their unwillingness to adopt was their desire to have their own biological child. Factors that were favourable towards child adoption were Igbo tribe identity, an age above 40 years, duration of infertility above 15 years, and knowing the correct meaning of child adoption.
Conclusion: There is a poor attitude to adoption even amongst infertile couples. Interventions need to be implemented to educate the public on child adoption, to improve their attitude towards adoption and to make it more acceptable.
How to cite this article: Omosun AO, Kofoworola O. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards child adoption amongst women attending infertility clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria. Afr J Prm Health Care Fam Med. 2011;3(1, Art. #259, 8 pages. doi:10.4102/phcfm.v3i1.259
Adenike O. Omosun
Full Text Available As a person gets older he/she is prone to many diseases. Among them diabetes mellitus is most prevalent. Diabetes is the major threat to the growing elderly population, the existence of this condition markedly increases multi-systemic complications. Hence the study on knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP in the management of diabetes among elderly people was envisioned. The study was conducted with an objective to study the KAP in the management of diabetes among elderly people. A total sample of 1200, constituting of 600 men and 600 women, between the age group of 65-76 years were randomly selected from 30 areas of urban Bangalore. A Structured Interview Schedule (SIS developed by the investigators to study the KAP in the management of diabetes among elderly. The obtained data was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis by applying percentage analysis, chi-square and 't' test. The results showed moderate knowledge, fair attitude and not so good practice in the management of diabetes among the respondents.
Roopa, K. S
Full Text Available Many of the known risk factors associated with low birth weight (LB W infants, such as socio-economic status, ethnicity, genetic makeup, and obstetric history, are not within a womans immediate control. However, there are many things that a woman can do to improve her chances of having a normal healthy child. Lifestyle behaviours, such as cigarette smoking, nutrition and the use of alcohol, play an important role in determining the growth of the foetus. There is a high rate of low birth weight infants bom to women living and working on the farms in the Western Cape. Very little is known about the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the women living and working on the farms that may be influencing their pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this qualitative exploratory study was to establish the knowledge, attitudes and practices of reproductive age women related to lifestyle factors such as alcohol use, smoking and nutrition, and the perceptions of these factors by health care workers, in Stellenbosch and Vredendal areas (small towns in the Western Cape.
Full Text Available An estimated 200,000 children born in Thailand each year are at risk of prenatal exposure to pesticides and associated neurodevelopmental outcomes because of their mothers agricultural occupations. Children born to non-agricultural workers may also be at risk of exposure from other pathways of maternal pesticide exposure, including exposure through home use, diet, and other environmental media. Pesticide exposure in Thailand has been linked to unsafe practices and beliefs about pesticides. However, limited information exists on pesticide knowledge, attitudes, and practices among pregnant women in Thailand or elsewhere. Obtaining this information is essential to understand the factors associated with prenatal pesticide exposure, identify populations potentially at risk, and ultimately protect pregnant women and their children. We administered surveys to 76 pregnant women in northern Thailand and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations among pesticide-related knowledge, pregnancy trimester, and pesticide use behavior. In this pilot study, lower knowledge score and earliest trimester of pregnancy were marginally (p < 0.1 associated with unsafe practices in the home, but not at work. Women who worked in agriculture or applied pesticides before becoming pregnant, or who had a previous child were significantly (p < 0.05 more likely to engage in unsafe behaviors in the home during their current pregnancy. We preliminarily conclude that increasing pesticide-related knowledge among pregnant women may help promote safe practices and reduce prenatal exposure. Knowledge-based interventions may be most effective when implemented early in pregnancy and targeted to agricultural workers and other sub-populations at risk of pesticide exposure.
Anne M. Riederer
Full Text Available Background: Sleep disorders represent an under-recognised public health problem and are reported to be underdiagnosed in general practices.Aims: To examine general practitioners (GPs attitude, knowledge and practice behaviour and identify barriers to detection,diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders encountered in the Australian primary care setting.Method: Using mixed methods, quantitative data from the Dartmouth Sleep Knowledge Questionnaire (DSKQ were analysedusing MS Excel 2007. Qualitative data were obtained from one focus group and eight interviews. Data were thematicallyanalysed.Results: 15 GPs participated; seven in a focus group and eight in interviews. Scores from DSKQ suggest gaps in GPsknowledge. Qualitative analysis revealed that patients frequently presented with sleep disorders underpinned by mentalhealth disorders. GPs agreed that prescribing pharmacological interventions was undesirable and behavioural interventionswere preferred. Barriers included limited training for GPs, lack of resources, patient expectations and willingness to engagein lifestyle changes, and consultation time constraints.Discussion: Greater flexibility to investigate sleep related problems within the standard consultation and improved accessto educational activities could assist GPs. Patient factors, such as adherence to management strategies, are paramount tosuccessful management of sleep disorders; however, these obstacles to clinical practice may be difficult to overcome.Conclusion: Providing education for GPs about sleep disorders, greater flexibility within consultations may improve patientcare and patient engagement in management strategies may assist, yet a critical success factor in disease managementincludes patient engagement in management strategies.
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the most crucial health problems and the most common chronic disease in developed and underdeveloped countries. It is called the silent killer which is usually diagnosed incidentally. Although hypertension is a preventable and treatable condition but without treatment it leads to serious and life threatening complications such as heart, kidney and brain disorders which in most cases result in patient's disability. Prevention, plays significant role in controlling this disease which is achieved by increasing the knowledge and awareness of the public and changing their attitude and practice. METHODS: A cross-sectional, correlation-descriptive study was conducted in one stage, by one group. Two hundred and thirty four patients were recruited by random sampling among hypertensive patients referring to public health care centers in Khoor & Biabanak in Isfahan province, IRAN. Data gathering was carried out with a questionnaire. RESULTS: Our findings indicate that there is significant relationship between awareness and knowledge; awareness and attitude; awareness and practice. There is no significant relationship between knowledge and attitude or knowledge and practice. In addition, there is a significant relationship between attitude and practice of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients relatively had high awareness, knowledge, attitude and practice about their disease but their hypertension was not still under control. Several barriers are associated with uncontrolled hypertension particularly treatment-related barriers. Findings suggest further studies to determine new effective strategies to solve this problem.
Sabouhi, Fakhri; Babaee, Sima; Naji, Homayoon; Zadeh, Akbar Hassan
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is one of the most crucial health problems and most common chronic disease in developed and underdeveloped countries, which is called silent killer. Usually diagnosis happens suddenly. Despite this fact that is a preventable and treatable condition but without treatment it leads to serious and life threatening complications (such as heart, kidney and brain destruction), and in most cases these complications result in disability. It can be prevented by, increase knowledge and awareness, change attitude and practice. Prevention, plays significant role in controlling this disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional, correlation-descriptive study was conducted in one stage, by one group. Two hundred thirty four (234) patients were recruited by random sampling among hypertensive patients referring to public health care centers in Khoor & Biabanak(an area in Isfahan Iran). Data gathering was carried out with a questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out SPSS software with descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Findings indicate that there is significant relationship between awareness and knowledge; awareness and attitude; awareness and practice. There is no significant relationship between knowledge and attitude; or knowledge and practice. In addition, there is significant relationship between attitude and practice. CONCLUSIONS: Although patients relatively had high awareness, knowledge, attitude and practice about their disease but still their hypertension was not under control. Several barriers are associated with uncontrolled hypertension particularly treatment-related barriers. Findings suggest further studies to determine new effective strategies to solve this problem.
Sabouhi, Fakhri; Babaee, Sima; Naji, Homayoon; Zade, Akbar Hassan
To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of child adoption among infertile Nigerian women we undertook a questionnaire survey of 279 consecutive infertile women seen in three tertiary care centres in South Eastern Nigeria within a 9-month period. The data were analysed by means of simple percentages and descriptive and inferential statistics, using t-tests, chi-square tests and regression equations at the 95% confidence level. Two hundred and sixty-four questionnaires were analysed. Although 228 (86.4%) of the respondents were aware of child adoption, only 72 (27.3%) knew its correct meaning. Fifty-seven (21.6%) women knew how to adopt a baby while the rest did not; 183 (69.3%) respondents expressed their unwillingness to adopt a baby while the remaining 81 (30.7%) were willing. Twelve (14.8%) of these 81 respondents (or 4.5% of all respondents) had either adopted or made an effort to adopt a child at the time of the study. The major reasons given by the 183 respondents unwilling to adopt a child were: adoption not a solution to their infertility (84 respondents); adoption psychologically unacceptable (78 respondents); fear of unknown parental background (75 respondents) and abnormal behaviour in the child (75 respondents). Univariate analysis showed six factors significantly associated with a favourable attitude to child adoption: a correct knowledge of the meaning of adoption (P=0.00007), duration of infertility >5 years (P=0.0002), previous orthodox specialist treatment (P=0.0002), tubal infertility (P=0.002), no living child (P=0.02) and maternal age >35 years (P=0.03). In a multiple logistic regression involving these six factors, with attitude to adoption as the dependent variable, two factors were associated significantly with a favourable attitude to adoption: correct knowledge of the meaning of adoption (OR=1.9, P=0.04) and previous orthodox specialist treatment (OR=2.9, P=0.05). Although the majority of infertile Nigerian women have heard of child adoption, only a minority knew its real meaning, its legality and the process it entails. Approximately one-third of them were disposed favourably to adoption as a treatment option for their infertility. The Nigerian experience was compared and contrasted with the experiences of other countries. Factors associated with a favourable attitude to adoption were presented and discussed. In the presence of such factors, especially when the probability of cure of infertility is small, child adoption as a treatment option should be offered early so that willing couples can initiate the processes. PMID:12521712
Ezugwu, F O; Obi, S N; Onah, H E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer for both sexes in developed countries. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices regarding CRC of adults in Italy. Methods A random sample of 1165 adults received a self-administered questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics; knowledge regarding definition, risk factors, and screening; attitudes regarding perceived risk of contracting CRC and utility of screening tests; health-related behaviors and health care use; source of information. Results Only 18.5% knew the two main modifiable risk factors (low physical activity, high caloric intake from fat and this knowledge was significantly associated with higher educational level, performing physical activity, modification of dietary habits and physical activity for fear of contracting CRC, and lower risk perception of contracting CRC. Half of respondents identified fecal occult blood testing (FOBT as main test for CRC prevention and were more knowledgeable those unmarried, more educated, who knew the main risk factors of CRC, and have received advice by physician of performing FOBT. Personal opinion that screening is useful for CRC prevention was high with a mean score of 8.3 and it was predicted by respondents' lower education, beliefs that CRC can be prevented, higher personal perceived risk of contracting CRC, and information received by physician about CRC. An appropriate behavior of performing FOBT if eligible or not performing if not eligible was significantly higher in female, younger, more educated, in those who have been recommended by physician for undergo or not undergo FOBT, and who have not personal history of precancerous lesions and familial history of precancerous lesions or CRC. Conclusion Linkages between health care and educational systems are needed to improve the levels of knowledge and to raise CRC screening adherence.
Full Text Available Objectives: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM iswell established world wide. The present work is aimed at studying the knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM by the people of Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive household survey studyof the people living in Riyadh city, as well as the surrounding governorates. A multistage random sample was taken from1st January to the end of March 2010, with a total number of 518 participants. Data were collected using a pre-designed questionnaire through direct interview. The data was collected based on socio-demography, as well as knowledge, attitude and practice of CAM.Results: Participants were nearly sex-matched, consisting of approximately 70?0Saudi and 30?0non-Saudis. About 89?0ofthe participants had some knowledge of CAM. Mass media e.g.(T.V., newspapers and radio and family, relatives and friends represented the main sources of CAM knowledge, (46.5?0and46.3?0respectively. Nearly 85?0of participants or one of their family members has used some form of CAM before, and the most common users of CAM practices were females, housewives, and illiterate subjects (or those who could just read and write, as well as participants aged 60 years and above. Medical herbs (58.89? prayer (54? honey and bee products (54? hijama (35.71?nd cauterization or medical massage therapy (22?20were thecommonly used CAM practices. Most participants agreed that there are needs for; CAM practices (93.8? regulations for CAM(94.9? health education (96.6? specialized centers (94.8?20and CAM clinics (92.7? While only 8.3?0of participants usually discussed CAM with their physicians.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence and increased public interest in CAM use in the Riyadh region. There is a positiv eattitude towards CAM, yet most participants are reluctant to share and discuss CAM information with their physicians.
Abdullah M.N. AlBedah
Full Text Available Introduction: Carrion's disease (CD is endemic in Ocallí district. There are few studies of the knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning CD in our country, much less in this region. Therefore, it is important to provide evidence of the current state of how this disease is understood and managed by the residents of Ocallí. Objective: To determine the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding CD in persons living in Ocallí district. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional study. We used a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire previously validated and pilot tested on adults from Ocallí district between March and April 2009. Results: We enrolled 284 subjects, of whom 59.8% had a good level of knowledge, 28.2% a regular level of knowledge and 12% a low level. The average score was 7.2±2.68 ranging from 0 to 10. 95.8% of participants showed a favorable attitude to preventive measures and 65.1% had adequate practices to prevent CD.Conclusions: The residents of Ocallí district have an adequate level of knowledge, positive attitudes and adequate prevention practices related to CD. However, considering the already acceptable level of knowledge among residents, we recommend interventions such as workshops to specifically improve practices for preventing CD.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several public health strategic interventions are required for effective prevention and control of avian influenza (AI and it is necessary to create a communication plan to keep families adequately informed on how to avoid or reduce exposure. This investigation determined the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors relating to AI among an adult population in Italy. Methods From December 2005 to February 2006 a random sample of 1020 adults received a questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of transmission and prevention about AI, attitudes towards AI, behaviors regarding use of preventive measures and food-handling practices, and sources of information about AI. Results A response rate of 67% was achieved. Those in higher socioeconomic classes were more likely to identify the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI. Those older, who knew the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI, and who still need information, were more likely to know that washing hands soap before and after touching raw poultry meat and using gloves is recommended to avoid spreading of AI through food. The risk of being infected was significantly higher in those from lower socioeconomic classes, if they did not know the definition of AI, if they knew that AI could be transmitted by eating and touching raw eggs and poultry foods, and if they did not need information. Compliance with the hygienic practices during handling of raw poultry meat was more likely in those who perceived to be at higher risk, who knew the hygienic practices, who knew the modes of transmission and the animals' vehicles for AI, and who received information from health professionals and scientific journals. Conclusion Respondents demonstrate no detailed understanding of AI, a greater perceived risk, and a lower compliance with precautions behaviors and health educational strategies are strongly needed.
Background: The school oral health education program is believed to be a cost-effective method for promoting oral health. The KAP (knowledgeattitudepractice) model of oral health education is often the foundation of most health education programs. Objectives: To assess the existing knowledge, attitude, and oral health care practices among 11- to 13-year-old children and the association of knowledge with attitude, oral health care practices, and dental caries prevalence. Design: Cross-se...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Examination of consultation data in a variety of primary care settings in Tanzania shows that, while psychoses are routinely diagnosed and treated at primary care level, depression is rarely recorded as a reason for consultation. Since, epidemiological studies elswhere show that depression is a much more common disorder than psychosis, a series of studies were undertaken to elucidate this apparent paradox in Tanzania and inform mental health policy; firstly, a household prevalence study to ascertain the prevalence of common mental disorders at community level in Tanzania; secondly, a study to ascertain the prevalence of common mental disorders in primary care attenders; and thirdly, a study to ascertain the current status of the knowledge, attitude and practice pertaining to depression among primary health care workers. This paper reports the findings of the latter study. Methods All the primary health care workers (N = 14 in four primary health care centres in Tanzania were asked to complete the Depression Attitude Questionnaire, which assesses the health worker's knowledge and attitude towards the causes, consequences and treatment of depression. Results The majority of respondents felt that rates of depression had increased in recent years, believed that life events were important in the aetiology of depression, and generally held positive views about pharmacological and psychological treatments of depression, prognosis and their own involvement in the treatment of depressed patients. However, the majority of respondents felt that becoming depressed is a way that people with poor stamina deal with life difficulties. Conclusion The findings suggest a need to strengthen the training of primary health care workers in Tanzania about the detection of depression, pharmacological and psychological treatments, and psychosocial interventions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding organ donation in a selected adult population in Pakistan. Methods Convenience sampling was used to generate a sample of 440; 408 interviews were successfully completed and used for analysis. Data collection was carried out via a face to face interview based on a pre-tested questionnaire in selected public areas of Karachi, Pakistan. Data was analyzed using SPSS v.15 and associations were tested using the Pearson's Chi square test. Multiple logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of knowledge status and motivation of organ donation. Results Knowledge about organ donation was significantly associated with education (p = 0.000 and socioeconomic status (p = 0.038. 70/198 (35.3% people expressed a high motivation to donate. Allowance of organ donation in religion was significantly associated with the motivation to donate (p = 0.000. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher level of education and higher socioeconomic status were significant (p Conclusion Better knowledge may ultimately translate into the act of donation. Effective measures should be taken to educate people with relevant information with the involvement of media, doctors and religious scholars.
From March 2007 to March 2008 a cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar to estimate the prevalence of consanguinity among Qataris and to assess their knowledge of the risks and their attitudes towards the practice. A secondary objective was to test the acceptability of sixteen Likert-style questions within the Qatari population. Face-to-face interviews using a 70-item structured questionnaire were conducted by three native Arabic-speaking medical students with 362 Qatari employees. Where consanguinity existed between the employee's parents, a diagram of the consanguinal relationship (phylogram) was completed. The response rate was 93%. By phylogram, 22% of participants reported a cousin relationship between their parents (consanguinal relationship) and another 15% reported that their parents were from the same tribe (affinal relationship). With respect to their own marital decision, 68% of the respondents had been married at least once. By phylogram, 35% of these reported a consanguineous relationship (first marriage), 9% reported only an affinal relationship and 56% reported that they were not married to a blood relative. Results on the sixteen Likert-style attitude questions were stratified by consanguinity status of parents and of self. In the stratification by consanguinity status of parents the top five attitudes differed by group but there appeared to be more similarity between the consanguinal and only tribal groups. Attitudinal results were stratified by sex. Results showed that the males had a stronger belief in several of the attitudes than females with the exception of causation of genetic abnormalities and health problems. The phylogram was shown to collect more detailed and explicit data than hard-coding. With respect to knowledge, the results showed that knowledge was imperfect with high proportions of participants not knowing that consanguinity has been implicated in autosomal recessive diseases such as thalassaemia, inborn errors of metabolism, deafness, anomalies of the extremities and specific congenital heart defects. Additionally, a sizeable proportion of the participants did not know that a more distant cousin marriage (e.g. third cousin) theoretically could be a less genetically risky choice to potential offspring than a closer cousin marriage (half-first cousin). These results indicate that more effort needs to be made in developing public health strategies to improve the population's understanding of the cost-benefit analysis involved in contracting consanguineous marriages given the goal of healthy offspring. PMID:19895726
Sandridge, A L; Takeddin, J; Al-Kaabi, E; Frances, Y
"nBackground and Aims: Fissure sealant therapy is a national program in elementary schools in Iran. Therefore, evaluation of the parents' knowledge and attitude is necessary to improve the program."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study, Iranian students were chosen in a randomized cluster manner. The questionnaires were filled-out by students' parents to evaluate their general information, knowledge, and attitude. Moreover, students...
Jafari A.; Amir Soltani M; Golestan B; Bahrami N
This case-control study aimed to assess tuberculosis (TB) awareness and its associated sociodemographic characteristics in Gezira, Sudan. New smear-positive TB patients registered in Gezira in 2010 (n = 425) and age-matched controls who attended the same health facilities for other reasons (n = 850) formed the study sample. Awareness was measured using a modified standard World Health Organization TB knowledge, attitude and practice instrument. There was no significant difference between TB cases and the controls in overall levels of TB awareness. About two-thirds of TB cases and controls had good TB awareness. Respondents' sex was associated with awareness among the controls. Age, level of education, type of residence and type of occupation were significantly associated with TB awareness, whereas marital status had no effect. The good level of TB awareness found among TB cases and controls is a baseline for further TB awareness-raising among the Gezira population. PMID:24945561
Suleiman, M M A; Sahal, N; Sodemann, M; Elsony, A; Aro, A R
Reviews the research literature related to nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), human immunodeficiency virus infection, and care of people with AIDS. Gaps in knowledge and negative, fearful attitudes were identified; negative fears and attitudes decreased with the gain in accurate
Swanson, Janice M.; And Others
Full Text Available Introduction: Rabies in humans is highly fatal and ends in an extremely painful and tortuous death. Unfortunately we still have highest number of deaths due to rabies, ironically a disease preventable by modern prophylactic measures. The post-exposure prophylaxis is a life saving treatment in a definite rabid animal bite. General Practitioners (GPs act as first line care-givers for the treatment of dog bite and they are also easily approachable by the victim for the treatment to prevent rabies. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding rabies among general practitioners. Methodology: This cross sectional survey was carried out from July August 2011 in Belgaum city among 100 general practitioners using a pre tested questionnaire. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS 18 trial version. Frequencies were tabulated for demographic variables and association between variables was tested using Chi-square test. Results: Out of the total 100 general practitioners interviewed, 93 were males and 7 were females. The mean age of GPs was 42.89 years. The mean duration of practice for MBBS doctors was 19 years and for other doctors (BAMS, BHMS, RMPs was 11 years. Knowledge about various aspects of rabies was comparatively better among MBBS doctors. The knowledge regarding vaccine was very poor among the general practitioners. Conclusion: The major issue was lack of hands on training or updating the knowledge of general practitioners regarding the newer vaccines and their administration. We recommend continued medical education for general practitioners, both (MBBS and non MBBS on prevention of Rabies.
In June and July 1996, a knowledge, attitude and practice survey concerning seafood poisonings was conducted in Tuléar Province, 41 villages spread along 300 km of cost, with some 34,000 inhabitants, were included in the survey. 84 seafood poisonings after fish, shark and turtle meals occurred during the period 1931 to 1995; 14 of them were responsible of deaths. The family of toxic fishes are Clupeidae, Tetraodontidae, Scaridae and Siganidae. Sphyrna lewini is the shark species the most often responsible for poisonings. Three turtle species are involved in poisonings: Eretmochelys imbricata, Chelonia mydas and Dermochelys coriacea. Clinical patterns were related to marine toxins. Although the communities were aware of the risks, there was no change in seafood meal practice. Preventive measures are not very often used. Practical techniques to detect toxins, although very simple, are not systematically carried out. For a better understanding of the seafood poisoning risk in Madagascar, a retrospective survey in the villages located in coastal areas all around Madagascar was to be carried out in 1997. An eco-toxicological survey will likewise probably be organised in an Indian Ocean regional approach. PMID:10214522
Robinson, R; Champetier de Ribes, G; Ranaivoson, G; Rejely, M; Rabeson, D
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study is to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices among healthcare professionals in Barbados in relation to healthcare ethics and law in an attempt to assist in guiding their professional conduct and aid in curriculum development. Methods A self-administered structured questionnaire about knowledge of healthcare ethics, law and the role of an Ethics Committee in the healthcare system was devised, tested and distributed to all levels of staff at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Barbados (a tertiary care teaching hospital during April and May 2003. Results The paper analyses 159 responses from doctors and nurses comprising junior doctors, consultants, staff nurses and sisters-in-charge. The frequency with which the respondents encountered ethical or legal problems varied widely from 'daily' to 'yearly'. 52% of senior medical staff and 20% of senior nursing staff knew little of the law pertinent to their work. 11% of the doctors did not know the contents of the Hippocratic Oath whilst a quarter of nurses did not know the Nurses Code. Nuremberg Code and Helsinki Code were known only to a few individuals. 29% of doctors and 37% of nurses had no knowledge of an existing hospital ethics committee. Physicians had a stronger opinion than nurses regarding practice of ethics such as adherence to patients' wishes, confidentiality, paternalism, consent for procedures and treating violent/non-compliant patients (p = 0.01 Conclusion The study highlights the need to identify professionals in the workforce who appear to be indifferent to ethical and legal issues, to devise means to sensitize them to these issues and appropriately training them.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to HIV and AIDS among teenagers in rural schools in Vhembe district. This study focused on teenagers sources of knowledge about HIV/AIDS; their knowledge of how to avoid contracting HIV/AIDS; their knowledge of the methods of transmission of the disease; their knowledge of condoms and usage levels; and people with whom they are comfortable to talk about HIV/AIDS. This was a quantitative descriptive r...
Dengue fever is a major public health problem in Malaysia. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever among a selected population in Malaysia. A descriptive, community-based, cross sectional study was conducted with 300 participants from three different geographical settings in urban, semi-urban, and rural areas within the states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever. Mean age of respondents was 34.4 (+/- 5.7) years, and the age ranged from 18 to 65 years. The majority of respondents were married (54.7%), Malays (72.7%) and heard about dengue fever (89.7%). Television was the common source of information about dengue fever (97.0%). Participants answered 4 out of 15 items of knowledge incorrectly. There was no significant association between knowledge score and socio-demographic factors. About one-fifth of the respondents (24%) believed that immediate treatment is not necessary for dengue fever, and the majority of them were not afraid of the disease (96.0%). Attitudes toward dengue fever were significantly associated with the level of education and employment status (p dengue fever (p = 0.030). There is a need to increase health promotion activities through campaigns and social mobilization to increase knowledge regarding dengue fever. This would help to mold positive attitudes and cultivate better preventive practices among the public to eliminate dengue in the country. PMID:23682436
Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Mohanad Rahman, Alwan; Alshagga, Mustafa Ahmed; Saif-Ali, Riyadh
Purpose: This study seeks to measure the public knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to eye health and disease in New Zealand (NZ). Design/methodology/approach: A 22-item survey of 507 adults in NZ was conducted. The survey was developed using interviews and focus groups, as well as comparisons with other benchmark international studies.
Ahn, Mark J.; Frederikson, Lesley; Borman, Barry; Bednarek, Rebecca
Full Text Available Purpose: A lot of accidents occur in the laboratory due to lack of proper knowledge regarding laboratory safety measures, indifferent attitude & improper implementation of safe laboratory practices. In view of this, the present study on knowledge, Attitude & Practice (KAP of laboratory safety measures was carried out among paramedical staff of laboratory services of tertiary care teaching hospital, western India. Method: This was a comparative study which used a standardized, structured self-administered questionnaire to survey knowledge, attitude and practice of paramedical staff. The KAP study enrolled 81 respondents. Results: Regarding knowledge- the majority knew the very important issues related with laboratory safety like Post Exposure Prophylaxis (96.55% & discarding of blood samples (93.10% etc. In regard to attitude towards the scientific process, all are very much aware about importance of protective devices (i.e. Wearing Gloves and Biomedical waste management. In regard to the practice in laboratory, the entire study subject group (100% replied âYESâ in each question that shows the good quality work of the laboratory. Conclusion: The induction training on Laboratory safety is very important and motivating exercise for improving the laboratory safety measures.
Hansa M Goswami, Sumeeta T Soni, Sachin M Patel, Mitesh K Patel
Purpose: This study reports the baseline knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and personal practices of health care professionals regarding colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in the High Plains Research Network (HPRN) of rural Colorado prior to a community-based educational intervention. It also examines the association between health care staff members'
Rim, Sun Hee; Zittleman, Linda; Westfall, John M.; Overholser, Linda; Froshaug, Desiree; Coughlin, Steven S.
Full Text Available Indigenous and rural area residents are groups at high risk for tuberculosis. The strategies ofhealth promotion and disease prevention must be based on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice(CAP that communities have on this topic. Objective: to describe the CAP about tuberculosisand its association with socio-demographic aspects in Indigenous and rural area residents ofCordoba, Colombia, 2012, and assess the validity and reliability of the scale CAP. Materials andmethods: cross sectional study in 300 individuals, 100 Zenú indigenous and 200 peasants. Datawere collected through primary source, analyzes were performed using summary measures, frequencyand nonparametric statistics tests in SPSS 20. Results: CAP showed good reliability andvalidity of appearance, content and construct. In knowledge 76% presented a satisfactory level,the attitudes 77% were unsatisfactory and the 48% had good practices. There was no statisticalassociation of CAP with sex or religious beliefs, the ethnicity were statistically significant differencesin knowledge and practices. The age was statistically associated with knowledge, educationshowed association with the practices. Conclusion: there was an adequate level of knowledge abouttuberculosis, while attitudes and practices were unsatisfactory; the main factors associated withCAP were ethnicity, age and education.
Jaiberth Antonio Cardona-Arias
Full Text Available Unplanned teenage pregnancy constitutes an important health problem, whilst contraceptive services are free throughout South Africa and the number of Termination of Pregnancy (TOP services is increasing. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of secondary school girls towards contraception in Thulamela Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls, the sample consisting of 273 girls in Grades 1012. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data and analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Findings showed that respondents were aware of different contraceptive methods that can prevent pregnancy. However, most did not have knowledge of the emergency contraceptive, intra-uterine device and female condom. Pressure from male partners, fear of parental reaction to the use of contraceptives, reluctance to use contraceptives, poor contraceptive education and lack of counselling were seen as the main causes of ineffective contraceptive use and non-utilisation. Possible modalities of intervention deal with providing contraceptive counselling and care to empower these school girls to make informed choices on reproductive health.
Mutshinyalo L. Netshikweta
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many human infections are transmitted through contact with animals (zoonoses, including household pets. Although pet ownership is common in most countries and non-pet owners may have frequent contact with pets, there is limited knowledge of the publics pet contact practices and awareness of zoonotic disease risks from pets. The objective of this study was to characterize the general publics knowledge, attitudes and risks related to pet ownership and animal contact in southern Ontario, Canada. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to individuals at two multi-physician clinics in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada during 2010. A single adult from each household was invited to participate in the study. Results Seventy five percent (641/853 of individuals approached completed the questionnaire. Pet ownership and contact were common; 64% of participants had a pet in their household and 37% of non-pet owning households had a member with at least weekly animal contact outside the home. Pet ownership was high (55% for households with individuals at higher risk for infections (i.e., Conclusions These results suggest that there is a need for accessible zoonotic disease information for both pet and non-owning households, with additional efforts made by veterinary, human and public health personnel. Immediate educational efforts directed toward households with individuals at higher risk to infections are especially needed.
Stull Jason W
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the nutritional knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of male and female bodybuilding trainers in Ahwaz, one of the 7 major cities of Iran. KAP questionnaires which contained information about nutrients, food groups, using of supplements and ergogenic aids, were completed by trainers. Sixty three certified male bodybuilding trainers (37.9 ? 2.7 y and 30 certified female trainers (37.3 ? 8.1 y were recruited from all clubs of the city. All of the male and 47% of the female trainers have prescribed diet program for their trainees (P<0.001 and it showed that there was a significant (P<0.001 relationship between their diet prescription and their educational degrees. None of the female trainers neither use nor advise anabolic hormones such as Nandrolon; however 62% of the male trainers have advised hormones to their trainees while only 50% of them use hormones themselves. 96.8% of the trainers did not know that minerals and 88.2% did not know water are essential nutrients; and more than 90% did not realize that fat and sugars are as food groups. The training courses and educational levels of trainers are positively related to their practices. All of the trainers need more theoretical and applied nutritional education.
Seyed Mohamad Hosein Mosavi Jazayeri
SUMMARY Knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding rabies in Bohol, Philippines were assessed following introduction of the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Programme. A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 460 households chosen utilizing the WHO's Expanded Programme on Immunization coverage cluster survey technique with population proportionate to size. Scores for KAP were evaluated using linear regression. The majority of households had heard of rabies (94%); however, specific knowledge of rabies was limited. Only 18% knew to report a suspected rabid dog to the authorities. In multivariate analyses, having known someone with rabies had the greatest effect on knowledge scores. Employment (professional or non-professional) had the greatest effect on attitudes scores, and only the knowledge score was significantly associated with higher practices scores. Several factors, notably, personal experience with rabies, affect KAP in Bohol. The programme should continue to focus on education and include personal accounts to underscore why rabies prevention and control is so important. PMID:24093635
Davlin, S L; Lapiz, S M; Miranda, M E; Murray, K O
Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential contribution of knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP studies to malaria research and control has not received much attention in most southern African countries. This study investigated the local communities' understanding of malaria transmission, recognition of signs and symptoms, perceptions of cause, treatment-seeking patterns, preventive measures and practices in order to inform the country's proposed malaria elimination programme in Swaziland. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey was undertaken in four Lubombo Spatial Development Initiative (LSDI sentinel sites in Swaziland. These sentinel sites share borders with Mozambique. A structured questionnaire was administered to 320 randomly selected households. Only one adult person was interviewed per household. The interviewees were the heads of households and in the absence of the heads of households responsible adults above 18 years were interviewed. Results A substantial number of research participants showed reasonable knowledge of malaria, including correct association between malaria and mosquito bites, its potential fatal consequences and correct treatment practices. Almost 90% (n = 320 of the respondents stated that they would seek treatment within 24 hours of onset of malaria symptoms, with health facilities as their first treatment option. Most people (78% perceived clinics and vector control practices as central to treating and preventing malaria disease. Indoor residual spraying (IRS coverage and bed net ownership were 87.2% and 38.8%, respectively. IRS coverage was in agreement with the World Health Organization's (WHO recommendation of more than 80% within the targeted communities. Conclusion Despite fair knowledge of malaria in Swaziland, there is a need for improving the availability of information through the preferred community channels, such as tinkhundlas (districts, as well as professional health routes. This recommendation emerges along with the documented evidence suggesting that as the level transmission and disease decreases so does the perception about the importance of malaria control activities. Finally, given the relatively moderate ownership of bed net there is a need for future studies to evaluate the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs compared with IRS.
Breast cancer is the most common and most preventable cancer in women and early detection has the important role in reducing its morbidity and mortality, so increase 95% survival time. The present study conducted to compare the effects of two educational methods on knowledge, attitude and practices of Arak physicians. An interventional study after randomized allocation of each 64 physician to any of two different educational methods (video and systematic review) used to compare knowledge; att...
Reported are the results of a study of the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about kala-azar of the inhabitants of two villages (Titaria and Haraincha) situated in terai (plain) areas of Nepal. The villagers had poor knowledge about the transmission of kala-azar, with most villagers perceiving that mosquitos, instead of sandflies, were responsible for transmission of the infection. Most also failed to recognize the common symptoms of kala-azar. The majority of the respondents, 78.9% in...
Koirala, S.; Parija, S. C.; Karki, P.; Das, M. L.
The aim of this study was to evaluate regional differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practice in emergency contraception use among Brazilian university students. A sample of university students answered a semi-structured questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes, and practice related to emergency contraception and sexual behavior. Fisher's exact test and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at p students had heard of emergency contraception, and 19% (n = 111) knew all the situations in which emergency contraception is indicated, with statistical differences between regions of the country. Forty-two percent of sexually active women in the sample had already used emergency contraception; 35% (n = 207) of students equated emergency contraception with abortion; and 81% (n = 473) thought emergency contraception involves health risks. No significant difference was observed between regions of the country regarding use and attitudes towards emergency contraception. Inter-regional differences in knowledge had no impact on students' attitudes and practice in emergency contraception. National awareness-raising campaigns are needed to improve knowledge on emergency contraception. PMID:20877942
Silva, Flávia Calanca da; Vitalle, Maria Sylvia de Souza; Maranhão, Hélcio de Sousa; Canuto, Maria Helena Alves; Pires, Maria Marlene de Souza; Fisberg, Mauro
Full Text Available Purpose: To study the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP towards computer vision syndrome prevalent in Indian ophthalmologists and to assess whether ?computer use by practitioners? had any bearing on the knowledge and practices in computer vision syndrome (CVS. Materials and Methods: A random KAP survey was carried out on 300 Indian ophthalmologists using a 34-point spot-questionnaire in January 2005. Results: All the doctors who responded were aware of CVS. The chief presenting symptoms were eyestrain (97.8%, headache (82.1%, tiredness and burning sensation (79.1%, watering (66.4% and redness (61.2%. Ophthalmologists using computers reported that focusing from distance to near and vice versa ( P =0.006, ?2 test, blurred vision at a distance ( P =0.016, ?2 test and blepharospasm ( P =0.026, ?2 test formed part of the syndrome. The main mode of treatment used was tear substitutes. Half of ophthalmologists (50.7% were not prescribing any spectacles. They did not have any preference for any special type of glasses (68.7% or spectral filters. Computer-users were more likely to prescribe sedatives/ anxiolytics ( P = 0.04, ?2 test, spectacles ( P = 0.02, ?2 test and conscious frequent blinking ( P = 0.003, ?2 test than the non-computer-users. Conclusions: All respondents were aware of CVS. Confusion regarding treatment guidelines was observed in both groups. Computer-using ophthalmologists were more informed of symptoms and diagnostic signs but were misinformed about treatment modalities.
The University of British Columbia Geriatric Dentistry Program (GDP) offers dental services and provides a comprehensive in-service education program for nursing and residential care-aide (RCA) staff in the provision of daily mouth care for elders in various long-term care (LTC) facilities in Vancouver. This study examined the general impact of the education initiative at one LTC site. A survey (N=90), semi-structured open-ended interviews (N=26), and product audits were conducted to 1) examine the impact of the GDP education initiative on the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices of RCAs and nursing staff regarding the provision of daily mouth care; 2) identify the enablers and barriers that influenced the provision of daily mouth care practices, policies, and protocols using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model of health promotion research; and 3) assess the self-perceptions of RCAs and nursing staff members regarding their oral health. A knowledge gap was evident in some key areas pertaining to prevention of dental diseases. Twenty-five percent of residents were missing toothbrushes and toothpaste for daily mouth care. Residents who exhibit resistance to mouth care tended not to receive regular care, while issues such as time, increased workload, limited staff, and the lack of an accountability structure are disenabling factors for provision of daily mouth care. Results suggest that the impact of educational interventions is affected by the quality of in-service education, an absence of identified predisposing, reinforcing, and enabling factors, and a strong commitment among LTC staff to the provision of daily mouth care for frail elders. PMID:19433533
Dharamsi, Shafik; Jivani, Khairun; Dean, Charmaine; Wyatt, Chris
Background. Breast cancer is a major public health issue and the most commonly diagnosed cancer for women worldwide. Despite lower incidence rates than those living in Western countries, breast cancer incidence among Chinese women has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies reporting the attitudes toward and practices of breast cancer screening among Chinese women. Methods. This cross-sectional study examined the practices, knowledge, and attit...
Wu, Tsu-yin; Liu, Yi-lan; Chung, Scott
Abstract Background Evidence based medicine plays a crucial role as a tool that helps integrate research evidence into clinical practice. However, few reports have yet to examine its application in daily practice among resident physicians in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes towards and knowledge of EBM among resident physicians in Japanese and determine perceived barriers to its use. Findings A cross-sectional, self-administered anonymous...
Full Text Available Objective. To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of caregivers in Kingston, Jamaica, regarding childhood diarrhea and dehydration in order to determine if limited caregiver knowledge about the prevention and treatment of diarrhea and dehydration puts children at increased risk of presenting at the hospital for these concerns. Methods. The study was an observational case-control study conducted between February 1997 and May 1997 at Bustamante Hospital for Children in Kingston. Convenience sampling was used and data were collected by face-to-face interviews with two groups of caregivers of children under 5 years of age. One group (n = 117 presented with children with acute gastroenteritis, and the other group (n = 98 presented with acute concerns unrelated to gastroenteritis. While 197 of the 215 caregivers interviewed were the mother of a child, there were also 9 guardians, 5 fathers, and 4 grandmothers in the sample. Results. The mean caregiver age, level of education, and socioeconomic status were similar for the two groups. The caregivers in the gastroenteritis group were more likely to present with younger children and to have less convenient access to running water or a refrigerator. Children of caregivers who had never heard of oral rehydration therapy were at increased risk of presenting with gastroenteritis and dehydration (odds ratio [OR], 4.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-11.7, as were children of caregivers with low knowledge scores about the prevention and treatment of diarrhea and dehydration (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.8. Another independent risk factor was a caregiver's poor sense of self-reliance in managing a child's diarrhea (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.9. Conclusions. These findings highlight a need to enhance educational efforts that will empower caregivers to protect their children from diarrhea-associated morbidity and mortality.
Bachrach Lela Rose
Full Text Available Objectives: Pregnant women are more susceptible to periodontal disease like gingivitis. Periodontal disease may be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is no published literature on dental health in pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. The objective of this study was to assess womens knowledge and attitude towards oral and dental health during pregnancy and to examine their self-care practices in relation to oral and dental health. This study was carried out at the maternal child health clinic, Jubli Perak Sengkurong Health Centre, Brunei, Darussalam.Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study conducted at the maternal child health center in Brunei, Darussalam. The study group was comprised of 95 pregnant women attending the MCH clinic, Jubli Perak Sengkurong Health Centre, September 2010, using convenience sampling method. A self-administered questionnaire was used, after it was pre-tested and validated. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version16.Results: Of the total study group, 97.9% responded to the questionnaire and participated in the study. All the women brushed at least twice daily. However, only 40.9% flossed daily, 31.2% brushed after meals and 26.9% had a dental check-up at least twice a year. The knowledge related to dental care was also poor among the pregnant women. Though the majority of them (96.8% agreed that women should have a dental check-up during pregnancy, only 55.9% actually practiced this. This raises serious concern since pregnant women may need extra oral and dental care due to susceptibility to gum diseases during pregnancy, which may contribute to low birth weight babies and premature births.Conclusion: This study highlights important gaps in dental knowledge and practices related to oral and dental healthcare among pregnant women in Brunei, Darussalam. More intense dental health education, including oral health promotion in maternal child health centers can lead to improved oral and dental health, and ultimately pregnancy outcomes.
Full Text Available AIM: Adverse drug reaction is noxious and unwanted reaction to drugs at dose used in humans for diagnosis, treatment or prophylaxis. Adverse drug reaction monitoring is an area of drug information that has been given little attention yet. Spontaneous reporting is currently the major back bone for the detection of adverse drug reactions. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of adverse drug reaction reporting among health professionals in selected health facilities in southwest Ethiopia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study design was used among health professionals in selected health facilities in January 2010. Prescribers other than physicians, junior pharmacy technicians and also health assistants were excluded. Data was collected using self administered questionnaires from volunteered physicians (Medical interns and above, nurses (Diploma and above and Pharmacy professionals (Diploma and above and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. RESULTS: A total of 82 health professionals were participated in the study. From those 82 participants, only 19 (23.17% and 21 (25.61% knew the existence of national reporting system and a yellow card of adverse drug reaction reporting form. Thirteen (15.85% participants encountered adverse drug reaction in the past 12 months in their clinical activities, but none of them reported to responsible body. Even though the participants knowledge and practice were inadequate, most of the respondents 47 (57.31% agreed that adverse drug reaction reporting is part of duty of them and important to the public in general and to the patient in particular. CONCLUSION: There was no documentation and reporting of adverse drug reaction, which might partly be explained by lack of knowledge and misconceptions about spontaneous reporting. Our study strongly suggests that there is a great need to create awareness and to promote the reporting of adverse drug reaction amongst health professionals, which will lay a solid foundation for healthcare professionals to be diligently involved in quality pharmacovigilance and spontaneous reporting in their future practices. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 397-406
Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo
Full Text Available Background: South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. Study Design: A descriptive epidemiological study. Materials and Methods: Both medical and paramedical (n = 428 providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively ( P < 0.05 correlated with their knowledge. Training resulted a significant ( P < 0.05 improvement in knowledge, attitude and dispensing practice of the providers. Knowledge and training combined together contributed 35% to the dispensing practice (R 2 = 0.35. Conclusion: Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify maternal knowledge, attitude and practice about immunization and to determine maternal characteristics and the determinants of full immunization status among respondents of children aged five years. MATERIAL & METHODS: A cross sectional survey by random sampling technique. 250 working and non-working mothers having children below 5 year of age were chosen for the study. Bareilly city was intentionally chosen for the convenience of the researcher. RESULTS: From total 250 mothers 28.66% house wives and 45.57% working women completely immunized their children whereas 71.34% house wives & 54.43% working women partially immunized their children. Gender bias was an importent factor among families for complete immunization but not very significant. Economic status also played significant role as higher economic status was found positive co-relation with complete immunization. Significant difference was found between educated and uneducated mothers with reference to complete immunization of their children. The paramedical workers were found to be the major source of information to the attendants of completely and partially immunized Community leader, T.V. Radio and relative on the other hand were found to be the most important source of information among partially immunized children.
Background: Understanding of family planning scenario among different societies and communities, which by and large reside in urban slum and rural areas, might prove useful in increasing family planning acceptance by them and decreasing population growth. Objective: To assess the sociodemographic determinants and KAP of family planning among urban slum and rural areas of Lucknow. Study Design: Cross sectional. Setting: Bal Mahila Chikitsalaya, Aliganj, in urban and Primary Health Centre, Bakshi Ka Talaab, in rural area of Lucknow. Study Period: October 2008 to April 2009. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and eightytwo postpartum women (within 42 days of delivery) who came to these health facilities for their child's vaccination were interviewed, by a preformed and pretested schedule. Results: Maximum utilization of family methods were seen among Hindu women, women of age group 30 or more, parity four and more, educational level upto high school and above and those of higher socioeconomic class. Although overall residential area (urban or rural) of women had no influence on the practice of family planning by them and all of them were willing to adopt family planning methods in future, urban women were found to have a higher level of knowledge and attitude toward modern methods of family planning. Only 2.8% were unsure of preferred method for future use. Conclusion: Family planning programs which effectively promotes the use of family planning methods, so that the trend toward increase in population could be arrested is the need of hour.
Sharma, Vasundhara; Mohan, Uday; Das, Vinita; Awasthi, Shally
Achievement of the goal to eliminate measles by 2015 set by the European region of the World Health Organization (WHO) necessitates an increase in the willingness of German nationals to get vaccinated. To identify influential factors on vaccination behavior as the basis for communication measures specific to target groups, the Federal Centre for Health Education (BZgA) has conducted two representative surveys on attitude, knowledge, and practice concerning vaccination among parents of children between 0 and 13 years as well as among adolescents and adults. The parents' survey (n?=?3,002) revealed that more than one-third see measles as a harmless disease. The survey of adolescents and adults (n?=?4,483, 16-85 years) also shows that about one-quarter of the interviewees between 16 and 44 years regarded vaccination against measles as not very important. Moreover, 81?% of adults born after 1970 without sufficient existing vaccine protection were not aware of the new measles vaccination recommendation for this age group. Personal consultation with the physician was regarded as the major source of vaccination information in both surveys. About half of all persons interviewed intended to obtain information about vaccinations on the Internet. The results of these studies were used for the development of a nationwide multilevel BZgA campaign on vaccination protection against measles, its goal being to support medical professionals with comprehensive information and to enable adolescents and young adults via different communication measures to make well-informed vaccination decisions. PMID:23990089
Gaczkowska, A; Mertens, B; Reckendrees, B; Wortberg, S; Pott, E
Full Text Available Introduction: the sexual and reproductive health (SSR is a general state of physical-mental and social well being. Understanding the sexual risk factors that lead to sexually transmitted diseases (ETS, allows the intervention of such factors, in order to improve this state. Methods: study of Knowledge, attitude and practices (CAP with a probabilistic sampling by stratified and multiphase conglomerates in 2812 people between the ages of 10 - 69, located in urban and rural areas; an informed consent and approval was requested, according to the norm. Results: 2241 of the urban population (84% and 426 of the rural population (16% filled out the survey. The first sexual relation among men was at the age of 15 (range 10 - 25 and in women at the age of 17 (range 10 - 38. 92% of the survey is informed in regards to ETS; Only 47 (1.7% received treatment. Conclusion: weaknesses were found in the sexual CAP that fall into a risky sexual experience and increase the risk factor for ETS. It was recommended to expand the action to strengthen the forces and promote the SSR, as well as complete sexual education according the Colombian norms.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Prevalence of malnutrition is high in under-5 years old children and mothers nutritional knowledge, attitude, practice(KAP is associated to nutritional status of children and lack of nutritional knowledge and their poor practices can be considered of prominent causes of children malnutrition. This study carried out to assess the nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers. Materials and Methods: In this study a group of 632 mothers who had at least one child aged 6-36 month old referred to Kerman health centers were selected to evaluate their nutritional KAP. The data were collected using questionnaires and face-to-face interviews with the mothers and from children health care records. The KAP questionnaires were completed and scores were rated as: optimum, relatively optimum and poor for subjects that achieved 80% 100%, 60% 80% and < 60% of high scores respectively. Results: The findings of this study indicated that 40/2%, 73/6% and 26/9% of mothers had respectively optimum knowledge, attitude and practice. A statistically significant association was found between mother education and maternal nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice. And family income had a statistically significant association with knowledge and not with practice and attitude. There was no association between mother age and knowledge, attitude, practice. And was found a significant positive association between knowledge, attitude, practice. Conclusion: Education of mothers concerning nutritional requirements of children make them possible to benefit a proper nutritional program.
Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed at determining the knowledge attitude and nutritional practice of female middle school students in district 4 of Isfahan. Methods: This deh1ive study was performed on 120 female students. The data were collected through a three-part self-reported questionnaire (Demographic factors knowledge BASNEF Model. To investigate the nutritional performance the participants were interviewed to recall their previous 24-hour nutrition for three days. Results: The results indicated that 37.5% of students had poor nutritional knowledge and 90% of the students had a poor nutritional practice. The results of the BASNEF part indicated that mean of belief and evaluation of behavioral outcomes was 74.6 attitude toward the behavior was 64.64 normative belief was 72.8 subjective norms was 58.9 enabling factors was 54.2 and behavioral intention was 68.9. Conclusion: A low percentage of students had good nutritional practices and in majority of cases their nutritional practice does not accord with their nutritional knowledge and attitude. These results indicate the necessity of nutritional intervention in female students.
Full Text Available Research question: What is the level of knowledge , attitude, belief and practices of senior secondary students about AIDS? Objective: To document the knowledge, attitude, belief and practices about AIDS among senior secondary students. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Four senior secondary schools including two boys and two girls schools of Rural Delhi. Participants: Students of senior secondary schools. Study variables: Knowledge, attitude, belief and practices regarding AIDS. Statistical analysis: Proportions. Results: A large majority (83.0% of students though had heard about AIDS, yet majority of them did not know the possible method of prevention of AIDS. Only 27.1 % girls knew about regular condom usage. Half of them had permissible attitude for pre- marital sex while sexual activity was observed in one- fourth students. Students were less reluctant to discuss about AIDS than sex and teachers were preferred as compared to parents in this regard. Conclusion: School is an ideal setting for adolescents for educating them regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and safer sex behaviour.
To assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers regarding immunization of one year old child at Mawatch Goth, Kemari town, Karachi, Pakistan. A cross sectional study was conducted among mothers having one year old child at Mawatch Goth, Kemari town, Karachi in February 2007. All mothers having less than one year old child were interviewed through a semi structured questionnaire regarding immunization knowledge attitude and practices. The data collected through a questionnaire entered and analyzed by using SPSS program version 15. Majority of the mothers were illiterate, belonging to low-income group and not aware about the name of diseases in EPI Program. Majority (70%) of women started routine immunization of the child. The reasons for missing vaccination schedule were lack of understanding of next appointment, non availability of health staff, mild flu and others reasons like household work. About thirty one percent mothers quit immunization after missing one dose. Health care staff was the main source of information. A positive attitude was reflected from both the parents towards immunization. A significant number stated that vaccination is contraindicated in mild illness of child. The knowledge of our mothers about vaccination was found inadequate with strong positive attitude and limited practices. (author)
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Parental anxiety and apprehension is related to inadequate knowledge of fever and febrile convulsion. AIMS: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the parents of children with febrile convulsions. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective questionnaire based study in a tertiary care centre carried over a period of one year. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 140 parents of consecutive children presenting with febrile convulsion were enrolled. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Chi-square test. RESULTS: 83 parents (59.3% could not recognise the convulsion; 90.7% (127 did not carry out any intervention prior to getting the child to the hospital. The commonest immediate effect of the convulsion on the parents was fear of death (n= 126, 90% followed by insomnia (n= 48, 34.3%, anorexia (n= 46, 32.9%, crying (n= 28, 20% and fear of epilepsy (n= 28, 20%. Fear of brain damage, fear of recurrence and dyspepsia were voiced by the fathers alone (n= 20, cumulative incidence 14.3%. 109 (77.9% parents did not know the fact that the convulsion can occur due to fever. The long-term concerns included fear of epilepsy (n= 64, 45.7% and future recurrence (n= 27, 19.3% in the affected child. For 56 (40% of the parents every subsequent episode of fever was like a nightmare. Only 21 parents (15% had thermometer at home and 28 (20% knew the normal range of body temperature. Correct preventive measures were known only to 41 (29.2%. Awareness of febrile convulsion and the preventive measures was higher in socio-economic grade (P< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The parental fear of fever and febrile convulsion is a major problem with serious negative consequences affecting daily familial life.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have revealed that visiting poultry markets and direct contact with sick or dead poultry are significant risk factors for H5N1 infection, the practices of which could possibly be influenced by people's knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAPs associated with avian influenza (AI. To determine the KAPs associated with AI among the Chinese general population, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in China. Methods We used standardized, structured questionnaires distributed in both an urban area (Shenzhen, Guangdong Province; n = 1,826 and a rural area (Xiuning, Anhui Province; n = 2,572 using the probability proportional to size (PPS sampling technique. Results Approximately three-quarters of participants in both groups requested more information about AI. The preferred source of information for both groups was television. Almost three-quarters of all participants were aware of AI as an infectious disease; the urban group was more aware that it could be transmitted through poultry, that it could be prevented, and was more familiar with the relationship between AI and human infection. The villagers in Xiuning were more concerned than Shenzhen residents about human AI viral infection. Regarding preventative measures, a higher percentage of the urban group used soap for hand washing whereas the rural group preferred water only. Almost half of the participants in both groups had continued to eat poultry after being informed about the disease. Conclusions Our study shows a high degree of awareness of human AI in both urban and rural populations, and could provide scientific support to assist the Chinese government in developing strategies and health-education campaigns to prevent AI infection among the general population.
Full Text Available Introduction: Today, breast cancer is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidty and also the leading health concern of the world. Methods: This research was a descriptive study entitled; Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding prevention of breast cancer in working women of Chaloos city. The sample size of study included 612 women working in governmental centers. The instrument for data collection was a researcher made questionnaire. For data analysis, central and coefficient index chi square ,t-test ,one way analysis of variation, Kruscal Wallis, Pearson,s correlation coefficient and Fisher test were used. Results: The findings showed that the most of samples were in the 30-39 years age group,(39.7% with an educational job(83/5% and without history of breast cancer history in the family.(94/9% Results also revealed that there was a weak positive relationship between knowledge and attitude (r=0.33 .The findings showed there was a significant statistical relation between knowledge and practice (p<0.05. Also, there was a significant statistical relation between knowledge level and breast self examination (BSE, time interval and also the time of performing BSE (p<0.0001 Similarly, the highest levels of knowledge were present in women with medical education and those with a bachelors or higher degree. The results showed that attitude scores were significantly different in various age, job and educational groups, (p<0.001, p<0.05,p<0.05 respectively Conclusion: The results showed that most of the population under study had a positive attitude but didnt have good knowledge or practice.
Full Text Available Canine rabies is endemic and occurs throughout the year in all parts of Nigeria. A descriptive cross sectional study was designed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, to check for the presence of rabies antigens in brain tissue of dogs slaughtered for human consumption and to assess rabies vaccination coverage of dogs in Wukari. Structured questionnaires were prepared and administered to 200 dog owners by face to face interview. The questionnaire sought information on demographic characteristics of the dog owners, their association with dogs, knowledge, attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies. Associations between demographic variables and knowledge, attitude or practice scores were assessed using ?2 analysis. Also, 188 brain samples from slaughtered dogs were analysed for presence of rabies antigen using direct fluorescent antibody test. Fifteen (7.89% had rabies antigen. Record files and vaccination certificates of dogs presented to the State Veterinary Hospital Wukari were assessed for anti rabies vaccination coverage. Out of the 200 dog owners, only 26 (13% knew that rabies virus can be found in nervous tissue, 121 (60.5% were aware that rabies can be spread through the saliva of a rabid animal, but majority of respondents 172 (86% did not know the age for first vaccination of dogs against rabies. Dog owners who were civil servants were 4.8 times more likely to have good knowledge (OR=4.84, 95% CI on OR 1.09-21.44 than those of other occupation groups. Positive attitude towards rabies increased with increase in age of dog owners, with respondents within the age group 20-30 years more likely to have negative attitude than those over 40 years. Civil servants were 9.8 times more likely to have good practice than other occupation groups. Rabies antigen was detected in 7.98% of slaughtered dogs. Out of 8370 dogs presented to the hospital between January 2003 and December 2012, only 1128 (13.50% received anti rabies vaccine. Inadequate knowledge of some aspects of rabies, negative attitude and practice of dog owners towards rabies, the presence of rabies antigen in some dogs slaughtered for human consumption and low vaccination coverage in dogs are indicative of high risk of exposure of dog owners and dog meat processors to rabies. There is therefore a need for educational programmes targeted at dog owners to increase their level of knowledge and reduce the risk of exposure to rabies.
Veronica O. Ameh
Nursing students are strategically positioned to influence adoption of evidence-based practice within the nursing profession. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of knowledge, attitudes, use and future use of evidence-based practice among baccalaureate nursing students at two universities. A cross-sectional survey design was used to study a convenience sample of 436 nursing students (response rate of 63.3%) enrolled at two baccalaureate nursing programs at the beginning of 2007 fall semester in the United States. The surveys included demographic questionnaire and knowledge, attitudes and behaviors questionnaire for evidence-based practice. EBP Knowledge, Attitudes toward EBP and Future Use of EBP subscales demonstrated statistically significant increase in mean scores with advancing academic levels. Confidence in clinical decision-making and clinical preparedness had moderate positive correlation with EBP Use and Future use of EBP. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses indicated that the clinical preparedness and confidence in clinical decision-making were statistically significant predictor variables for EBP use and Future use of EBP. Clinically well-prepared nursing students with high confidence in clinical decision-making are most likely to use evidence-based practice, both in the present and the future. PMID:19948369
Brown, Caroline E; Kim, Son Chae; Stichler, Jaynelle F; Fields, Willa
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although dietary supplements (DS are widely sold in pharmacies, the legal, ethical, and practice responsibilities of pharmacists with respect to these products have not been well defined. This systematic review of pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, and professional practice behaviours toward DS is intended to inform pharmacy regulators' and educators' decision making around this topic. Methods Eligible studies were identified through a systematic database search for all available years through to March 2006. Articles were analyzed for this review if they included survey data on U.S. or Canadian pharmacists' attitudes, knowledge, or professional practice behaviors toward DS published in 1990 or later. Results Due to the heterogeneity of the data, it was not possible to draw a conclusion with respect to pharmacists' general attitudes toward DS. Approximately equal numbers of pharmacists report positive as well as negative attitudes about the safety and efficacy of DS. There is strong agreement among pharmacists for the need to have additional training on DS, increased regulation of DS, and quality information on DS. In addition, survey data indicate that pharmacists do not perceive their knowledge of DS to be adequate and that pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS. Despite this, a large proportion of pharmacists reported receiving questions about DS from patients and other health care practitioners. Conclusion Further research is needed to explore the factors that influence pharmacists' beliefs and attitudes about DS, to accurately evaluate pharmacists' knowledge of DS, and to uncover the reasons why pharmacists do not routinely document, monitor, or inquire about patients' use of DS.
Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture is relatively new in Malaysia. The Department of Agriculture (DOA has earmarked agricultural extension workers in the transfer of sustainable agricultural practices (SAP to farmers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of the attitude, perception, philosophy, and knowledge of extension workers in transferring SAP to Malaysian farmers. A questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of 400 extension workers associated with the DOA in west Malaysia. Quantitative data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple linear regressions (MLR. Findings supported a positive relationship between extension workers philosophy, attitude, perception, and knowledge in transferring SAP to farmers. MLR results showed that variables selected for this study explained 62.3% of the variance in transferring SAP. Results support the importance of variables among the extension workers who transfer sustainable practices to farmers.
Emergency Contraception (EC) is used within a few days of unprotected sex to prevent an unintended pregnancy. About one quarter of pregnancies in south of Iran are unintended. EC is important option that women can use after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure for preventing of unplanned pregnancies and adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes. Health staff have influence on womens contraceptive behavior and their knowledge and attitudes about EC can affect womens contracep...
Fatemeh Najafi-Sharjabad; Abdollah Hajivandi; Mohammad Rayani
Concern has been raised about inadequate pharmacology teaching in medical schools and the high incidence of prescribing errors by doctors in training. Modifications in pharmacology teaching have been carried out in many countries. The present study was carried out using a semi-structured questionnaire to obtain students' perceptions of their knowledge, attitudes, and skills with regard to different subject areas related to rational prescribing at the end of two-year activity-based pharmacolog...
Shankar, P. Ravi; Jha, Nisha; Bajracharya, Omi; Gurung, Sukh B.; Singh, Kundan K.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Unsafe abortion is a major public health problem in low-and-middle income countries. Young and unmarried women constitute a high risk group for unsafe abortions. It has been estimated that widespread use of emergency contraception may significantly reduce the number of abortion-related morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and experiences on emergency contraceptive pills by the university students in Cameroon in order to develop and refine a national health programme for reducing unwanted pregnancies and their associated morbidity and mortality. Methods A convenient sample of 700 students of the University of Buea (Cameroon was selected for the study. Data was collected by a self-administered, anonymous and pre-tested questionnaire. Results The response rate was 94.9% (664/700. General level of awareness of emergency contraceptive pills was 63.0% (418/664. However, knowledge of the general features of emergency contraceptive pills was low and misinformation was high among these students. Knowledge differed according to the source of information: informal source was associated with misinformation, while medical and informational sources were associated with better knowledge. Although the students generally had positive attitudes regarding emergency contraceptive pills, up to 65.0% (465/664 believed that emergency contraceptive pills were unsafe. Those with adequate knowledge generally showed favourable attitudes with regards to emergency contraceptive pills (Mann-Whitney U = 2592.5, p = 0.000. Forty-nine students (7.4% had used emergency contraceptive pills themselves or had a partner who had used them. Conclusion Awareness of emergency contraception pills by Cameroonian students is low and the method is still underused. Strategies to promote use of emergency contraception should be focused on spreading accurate information through medical and informational sources, which have been found to be reliable and associated with good knowledge on emergency contraceptive pills.
Full Text Available Purpose : We present the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP among diabetic patients regarding eye complications and their care. Materials and Methods : A cross sectional study was conducted in 2008 at seven regions of Oman. Arabic speaking nurses interviewed diabetics at clinics. They used a closed ended questionnaire with 15 questions. The responses were analyzed and the KAP were grouped into excellent (>80%, good (60 to 79%, average (40 to 59%, poor (20 to 39% and very poor (< 20%. They were also compared among epidemiologic variants. Result : Of the 750 participants, ?Excellent?, grade of knowledge about diagnosis and eye care was present in 547 (72.9% and 135 (18% persons respectively. The ?excellent? grade of attitude about eye involvement and eye care was found in 135 (18% and 224 (29.9% participants. The practice for undergoing eye check up and accepting treatment was of ?excellent? grade in 390 (52% and 594 (79.2% respectively. Age (OR = 0.98, Sharqiya region (OR = 25 and ?5 to 9? duration of DM (OR = 2.1 were associated with the knowledge. ?< 1 year? duration (OR = 0.3 and Dhakhiliya region (OR = 39 were associated with the attitude while ?5 to 9 year? duration (OR = 3.4 was associated with better practices. Conclusions : Knowledge about eye complications and care is satisfactory among persons with diabetes. However, levels of attitude and practice were less than desired and should be improved. This could strengthen program approach for early detection and care of eye complications of diabetes in Oman.
Background and Objectives: Globally, condom is an important method of family planning and prevention of sexually transmitted infections especially human immune deficiency virus HIV/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS. Family planning saves lives of women and children and improves the quality of life. This study was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices in addition to socio-demographic factors of condom use among males in Erbil gover...
Aziz Sulaiman Ismael; Sabir Zangana, Jwan M.
This thesis is a scientific evaluation of an implementation project of the Norwegian Guidelines on acute back pain in two Norwegian counties, Aust-Agder and Vestfold, during 2002 to 2005. The project consisted of specific interventions towards the general public, the professional health care providers, and 6 cooperating work places. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these interventions had any influence on knowledge, attitudes, and practices held by the target groups of the int...
Sustainable agriculture is relatively new in Malaysia. The Department of Agriculture (DOA) has earmarked agricultural extension workers in the transfer of sustainable agricultural practices (SAP) to farmers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of the attitude, perception, philosophy, and knowledge of extension workers in transferring SAP to Malaysian farmers. A questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of 400 extension workers associated with the DOA i...
Sustainable Agriculture is relatively new in Malaysia. The Department of Agriculture (DOA) has earmark agricultural extension workers to transfer Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP) to the farmers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of attitude, perception, philosophy, and knowledge of extension workers in transferring the SAP to Malaysian farmers. A questionnaire used to collect data from a random sample of 400 extension workers at DOA in west Malaysia. Quantitat...
Abstract Background Both conflict and HIV affect sub-Saharan Africa, and supportive approaches for HIV prevention among refugees are crucial. Peer education has been associated with improved HIV outcomes, though relatively little research has been published on refugee settings. The primary objective of this study was to assess whether exposure to refugee peer education was associated with improved HIV knowledge, attitudes, or practice outcomes among refugees in Guinea. Second...
Woodward Aniek; Howard Natasha; Souare Yaya; Kollie Sarah; von Roenne Anna; Borchert Matthias
Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practices regarding the use of vitamin supplements among patients visiting Out-Patient clinics of a teaching hospital.Methods: Four hundred patients were interviewed during the period of July to September 2008, at the Out-patient clinics, Aga Khan University hospital, Karachi. A pre-tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect information. It consisted of questions regarding demographics, awareness of vitamin supplements and its...
This study was done to explore the effect of women`s group counseling on knowledge, attitude and practice of their husbands concerning family planning in Zahedan in 2002. A quasi-experimental study (before and after) was carried out. Forty-four married women with two or more children who had not used contraceptive methods were non-randomly selected from three Health Centers. Before intervention, women and their husbands were interviewed to complete a questionnaire to determine their education...
Fereshteh Najafi; Fatemeh Rakhshani
Prevention and management of obesity largely depends on patient motivation and education and these, in turn, can be greatly facilitated by adequate baseline data on the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of patients. The aim of this study is to assess KAP on obesity among Bangladeshi type 2 diabetics. Under a cross-sectional design 160 type 2 diabetics were selected from outpatient department of Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine & Metabolic Dis...
Farzana Saleh; Shirin Jahan Mumu; Ferdous Ara; Liaquat Ali; Sharmin Hossain; Kazi Rumana Ahmed
"nBackground and Aim: School health workers have an important role in education and prevention of common oral and dental diseases. An organized program can be helpful in training and shaping the proper behavior. This study has evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practice of schools health workers in Tabriz about oral and dental health in 2007-2008."nMaterials and Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was performed in primary schools in Tabriz. Questionnaires were sen...
Taghizadeh Ganji A.; Jafari A.; Poorgholi N.; Iranizadeh H.
Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common and most preventable cancer in women and early detection has the important role in reducing its morbidity and mortality, so increase 95% survival time. The present study conducted to compare the effects of two educational methods on knowledge, attitude and practices of Arak physicians. An interventional study after randomized allocation of each 64 physician to any of two different educational methods (video and systematic review used to compare knowledge; attitude and practices score variation about breast cancer screening skills. Data collection carried out with structured questionnaire and entered to SPSS software. Data analyzed by t-test, paired t-test and Man-Whitney test in significant level of 0.05. Mean of total score of knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP showed a significant difference before and after training and the total score of KAP increase (p0.05. Although KAP in Arak physician is appropriate and any educational program increase their KAP level, but continuing and repetition of educational courses seems to be necessary.
CBPP is an important transboundary disease in sub-Saharan Africa whose control is urgent. Participatory data collection involving 52 focus group discussions in 37 village clusters and key informant interviews, a cross-sectional study involving 232 households and a post-vaccination follow up involving 203 households was carried out in 2006-2007 in Narok South district of Kenya. This was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices (KAPP) associated with control of CBPP as well as the adverse post-vaccination reactions in animals in order to advice the control policy. The community perceived trans-boundary CBPP threat to their cattle. They had traditional disease coping mechanisms and were conversant with CBPP prevention and control with 49.8% (95%CI: 42.8-56.7%) giving priority to CBPP control. However, 12.9% (95%CI: 9.0-18.1%) of pastoralists had no knowledge of any prevention method and 10.0% (95%CI: 6.5-14.7%) would not know what to do or would do nothing in the event of an outbreak. Although 43.5% (95%CI: 37.1-50.2%) of pastoralists were treating CBPP cases with antimicrobials, 62.5% (95%CI: 52.1-71.7%) of them doubted the effectiveness of the treatments. Pastoralists perceived vaccination to be the solution to CBPP but vaccination was irregular due to unavailability of the vaccine. Vaccination was mainly to control outbreaks rather than preventive and exhibited adverse post-vaccination reactions among 70.4% (95%CI: 63.6-76.5%) of herds and 3.8% (95%CI: 3.5-4.2%) of animals. Consequently, nearly 25.2% (95%CI: 18.5-33.2%) of pastoralists may resist subsequent vaccinations against CBPP. Pastoralists preferred CBPP vaccination at certain times of the year and that it is combined with other vaccinations. In conclusion, pastoralists were not fully aware of the preventive measures and interventions and post-vaccination reactions may discourage subsequent CBPP vaccinations. Consequently there is need for monitoring and management of post vaccination reactions and awareness creation on CBPP prevention and interventions and their merits and demerits. CBPP vaccine was largely unavailable to the pastoralists and the preference of the pastoralists was for vaccination at specified times and vaccine combinations which makes it necessary to avail the vaccine in conformity with the pastoralists preferences. In addition, planning vaccinations should involve pastoralists and neighbouring countries. As the results cannot be generalized, further studies on CBPP control methods and their effectiveness are recommended. PMID:24768437
Kairu-Wanyoike, S W; Kiara, H; Heffernan, C; Kaitibie, S; Gitau, G K; McKeever, D; Taylor, N M
Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia maternal mortality rate is very high more than one in five women die from pregnancy or pregnancy related causes. The use of contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion is an important strategy to minimize maternal mortality rate. Among various forms of contraception, emergency contraceptives are the only one that can be used after sexual intercourse offering chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive among women who seek abortion care at Jimma University specialized hospital (JUSH. Methods Institution base cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive was conducted at JUSH from April to June, 2011Data was collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. Results In this study 89 women were interviewed. More than half of them (48 were from urban area and 41 were from rural area.46 (51.7% of them were single. Of all the respondents only nine women had awareness about emergency contraceptive. Seven of the women mentioned pills as emergency contraception and only two of them mentioned both pills and injectable as emergency contraception. All of them have positive attitude towards emergency contraception but none of them have ever used emergency contraceptives. Conclusion and recommendation The finding revealed pregnancy among women of 15-19 years was very common. The knowledge and practice of emergency contraception is very low. But there is high positive attitude towards emergency contraceptives. Since there is much deficit on knowledge of women on emergency contraceptives, in addition to making them accessible; programs targeted at promotion and education of emergency contraceptives is helpful to prevent unwanted pregnancy.
Full Text Available Background: This study examined the practices, knowledge, attitudes, and the reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure of HIV-positive patients with regard to the disclosure of HIV results at Betesda Clinic in Windhoek, Namibia.Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine knowledge, attitudes, and practices of HIV-positive patients regarding the disclosure of HIV status at Betesda Clinic in Namibia, and to determine the reasons for disclosure and non-disclosure.Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study and 263 HIV-positive patients were enrolled in the study.Results: Analyses revealed that knowledge on disclosure was good, with 68% who thought it was important. The majority (73% have disclosed and 60% disclosed within 1 week of receiving their results. The most common reasons for disclosure were that 32% needed help, 25% wanted his or her partner to go for testing, and 20% wanted to let relatives know. Reasons for non-disclosure were mainly the fear of gossip (79%. Seventy-three per cent had disclosed to their partners, and 23% had disclosed to more than one person. Peoples reactions were supportive in 43%, whereas 29% understood, 9% accepted and 6% were angry. Upon disclosure 40% received help, 24% of partners were tested, 23% received psychological support and 5% were stigmatised. Disclosure was higher amongst the married and cohabitating.Conclusion: The attitude was positive with regard to knowledge of disclosure, with most participants thinking that disclosure was important and good. The attitudes and actual practices of disclosure were encouraging; however, people are disclosing only to trustedindividuals in the society and the fear of stigma is still present although the actual stigma was very low.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B (HB is a serious global public health problem. This study aims to evaluate Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP towards Hepatitis B (HB among healthy population of Quetta city, Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional, descriptive study was undertaken. One thousand healthy individuals (aged 18 years and above were approached for the study. KAP towards HB was assessed by using a pre validated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used for elaborating patients demographic characteristics. Inferential statistics (MannWhitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test were used for comparison while Spearmans rho correlation was used to identify association between the study variables. All analyses were performed using SPSS 16.0. Results Out of 1000 distributed questionnaires, 780 were returned with a response rate of 78.0%. Four hundred and twenty (53.8% respondents were male with mean age of 32.76?±?9.40 year. Two hundred and eight (26.7% had intermediate level of education and 354 (45.4% were unemployed. Mean scores for knowledge, attitude and practice were 8.74?±?2.7, 3.72?±?1.2 and 2.76?±?1.1 respectively. Significant and positive linear correlations between knowledge-attitude (r?=?0.296, p? Conclusion Results from the current study heighted poor KAP of healthy population towards HB. The positive linear correlations reaffirms that better knowledge can lead to positive attitude and subsequently in good practices. This will further help in prevention and management of HB. Therefore, extensive health educational campaign should be provided to general population and especially to the residents of rural areas.
ul Haq Noman
Full Text Available Background: Breast Cancer is a life threatening disease affecting women. Awareness should be created among women for early detection of breast cancer. Nurses should provide information on BSE to women popula tion as a part of their profession. The aim of this study was to assess the atti tude and practice of nurses in imparting knowledge on BSE to female patients. Methods: This cross-sectional st udy was conducted among 154 nurses from different hospitals of UAE during the period Ju ne November 2009. Self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection . Data was analysed using PASW 17 version. Results: Age group of the participants ra nged between 20 and 59 years with a mean age of 31 years and SD of 7.3 years. Majority 90.3% have positive attitude in providing knowledge regarding risk factors of breast cancer and about the purpose of performing BSE. Ei ghty eight point three percent of the nurses were with a positive attitude toward pr oviding information about BSE to all females who come to the hospital irrespective of their demand. Majority, 83.8% of the nurses reported, teaching method of BSE. Among the responde nts 60.4% reported that they follow up their clients after imparting knowledge on BSE. There was a statistically significant (p<0.001 positive correlation between attitude and practice. Conclusion: The results suggest the need of pr oving continuing educational programs to change the attitude and behavior toward s imparting knowledge of BSE which in- turn will have a positive effect on the ir practice of teac hing and motivating the women group to perform BSE.
A survey of 33 male and 5 female prisoners examined their knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission modes, current sexual behavior and safe sex practices, and sources of AIDS information and degree of trust in these sources. Discusses implications for social work practices and development of AIDS education for prisoners. (SV)
Miah, M. Mizanur Rahman; Olivero, J. Michael
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to HIV and AIDS among teenagers in rural schools in Vhembe district. This study focused on teenagers sources of knowledge about HIV/AIDS; their knowledge of how to avoid contracting HIV/AIDS; their knowledge of the methods of transmission of the disease; their knowledge of condoms and usage levels; and people with whom they are comfortable to talk about HIV/AIDS. This was a quantitative descriptive research design where a random sample of 128 participants between the ages of 14 and 19 years was selected. The participants were in grades 8 to 12. The study recommended that holistic HIV/AIDS preventive programmes which were culture and gender sensitive be developed. Custodians of culture should be involved in dealing with HIV/AIDS. Parents should also play their role in discussing HIV/AIDS with their children in a non-threatening environment.
Background Each year clusters of imported malaria cases are observed in Dutch wintersun vacationers returning from The Gambia. To gain more insight in the travel health preparation and awareness of these travellers, the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of this travel group was studied by analysing the data of the Continuous Dutch Schiphol Airport Survey. Methods In the years 2002 to 2009 a questionnaire-based survey was conducted at the Dutch Schiphol Airport with the aim to study the KAP, i.e. accuracy of risk perception (knowledge), intended risk-avoiding behaviour (attitude) and use of personal protective measures and malaria chemoprophylaxis (practice) toward prevention malaria in travellers to The Gambia. Travellers to other high-risk destinations served as controls. Results The KAP of travellers to The Gambia toward prevention of malaria was significantly better than that observed in other travellers. Trend analyses indicated that attitude improved over time in both groups but knowledge did not change. Only in travellers to high-risk countries other than The Gambia significant increases in protection rates were observed over time. Conclusions The KAP of travellers to The Gambia toward prevention of malaria was better than that observed in travellers to destinations other than The Gambia. Trend analyses revealed a significant improvement of intended risk avoiding behaviour but not in protection rates or risk perception.
Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding medical law and ethics among doctors of a medical unit in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Lahore. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Methodology: A three part self - administered structured questionnaire designed to test the knowledge and practices regarding medical law and ethics was distributed among doctors in a medical unit in Mayo Hospital, Lahore during September - October, 2012. Results: The 52 respondent doctors included in the study comprised of 20 (38.5%) house officers, 22 (42.3%) postgraduate residents and 10 (19.2%) consultants. In keeping with the Pakistan Medical and Den-tal Council code of ethics, the correct responses of house officers, postgraduate residents and consultants regarding knowledge of medical law and ethics were respectively 50%, 27.3% and 10% for patient's autonomy, 40%, 36.4% and 10% for adhering to patient's wishes, 10%, 63.6% and 50% for breaching confidentiality, 35%, 36.4% and 0% for informed consent, 10%, 22.7% and 10% for doing best regardless of patient's opinion, 5%, 31.8% and 10% for informing patient's relatives, 15%, 4.5% and 0% for treating violent patients. The practical application part of the questionnaire was a general reflection of the knowledge and attitudes. Conclusion: Most of the doctors were poorly acquainted with PMDC code of ethics. (author)
The purpose of this study was to assess, by means of a self administered structured questionnaire, the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of physical education teachers in Bangalore city with regards to emergency management of dental injuries. The questionnaire surveyed the physical education teacher's background, knowledge of management of tooth fracture, avulsion, luxation injuries, it also investigated physical education teacher's attitude and the way they handle the injuries. The sample consisted 580 teachers from 700 selected schools in Bangalore city. Chi-square test was applied to test the significance between trained and untrained teachers. Among the population 70% were males physical education teachers 30% were females. 95% of the teachers had physical education training and 5% did not have the training. 95% of the population had first aid component and 5% did not have. Only 25% of trained physical education teachers had correct knowledge about tooth identification and 17% among untrained teachers. 81% of trained teachers answered correctly regarding management of fractured anterior teeth against 27.5% of untrained teachers (P< 0.0002). The present report indicates that there is lack of knowledge and practice among physical education teachers in Bangalore city regarding emergency management of dental trauma. Educational programs to improve the knowledge and awareness among the teachers have to be implemented. PMID:19915276
Mohandas, U; Chandan, G D
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess, by means of a self administered structured questionnaire, the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of physical education teachers in Bangalore city with regards to emergency management of dental injuries. The questionnaire surveyed the physical education teacher?s background, knowledge of management of tooth fracture, avulsion, luxation injuries, it also investigated physical education teacher?s attitude and the way they handle the injuries. The sample consisted 580 teachers from 700 selected schools in Bangalore city. Chi-square test was applied to test the significance between trained and untrained teachers. Among the population 70% were males physical education teachers 30% were females. 95% of the teachers had physical education training and 5% did not have the training. 95% of the population had first aid component and 5% did not have. Only 25% of trained physical education teachers had correct knowledge about tooth identification and 17% among untrained teachers. 81% of trained teachers answered correctly regarding management of fractured anterior teeth against 27.5% of untrained teachers (P< 0.0002. The present report indicates that there is lack of knowledge and practice among physical education teachers in Bangalore city regarding emergency management of dental trauma. Educational programs to improve the knowledge and awareness among the teachers have to be implemented.
Background Dengue fever (DF) is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. In this decade it has expanded to new countries and from urban to rural areas. Nepal was regarded DF free until 2004. Since then dengue virus (DENV) has rapidly expanded its range even in mountain regions of Nepal, and major outbreaks occurred in 2006 and 2010. However, no data on the local knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of DF in Nepal exist although such information is required for prevention and control measures. Methods We conducted a community based cross-sectional survey in five districts of central Nepal between September 2011 and February 2012. We collected information on the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants and their knowledge, attitude and practice regarding DF using a structured questionnaire. We then statistically compared highland and lowland communities to identify possible causes of observed differences. Principal Findings Out of 589 individuals interviewed, 77% had heard of DF. Only 12% of the sample had good knowledge of DF. Those living in the lowlands were five times more likely to possess good knowledge than highlanders (Peducation level of the participants was an independent predictor of practice level (Peducation level and interaction between the sex and age group of the participants were independent predictors of attitude level (P<0.05). Conclusion Despite the rapid expansion of DENV in Nepal, the knowledge of people about DF was very low. Therefore, massive awareness programmes are urgently required to protect the health of people from DF and to limit its further spread in this country.
Dhimal, Meghnath; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Dhimal, Mandira Lamichhane; Gautam, Ishan; Singh, Shanker Pratap; Bhusal, Chop Lal; Kuch, Ulrich
Full Text Available "nBackground: Lack of nutritional knowledge is one of the most important reasons of nutritional problems and consequently improper practice, which can lead to several complications. This study has been designed in order to compare knowledge, attitude and practices of the urban and rural households regarding iron deficiency anemia (IDA in Boushehr, Golestan and Sistan & Balouchestan provinces in 2004."nMethods: The sampling method at household's level in each province was the single-stage cluster sampling with equal size clusters. The necessary data were gathered with a structured questionnaire and via the interviews between the questioners and the eligible people in each household. Comparison of frequency of variables between urban and rural areas were tested by chi square test."nResults: A total of 2306 households were selected as overall sample size. In urban areas, people recognized iron food sources better than rural areas. Knowledge level of respondents about vulnerable group for IDA and the favorite attitude of households toward IDA were better in urban areas of Sistan & Blouchestan and Golestan provinces. In Sistan & Balouchestan and Golestan, rural households who drank tea immediately before or after meal was more than urban ones. The majority of pregnant and lactating mothers (except for rural areas of Bushehr did not take iron supplement regularly. Less than 60 percent of children used iron drop regularly."nConclusion: Knowledge, attitude, and practice levels of households toward IDA were not acceptable. One of the best ways of improving nutritional practice is nutritional education with focus on applying available food resources.
Full Text Available Background: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD and its complications are very common all over the world as well as in India. Although pharmacological measures are very useful, nonpharmacological measures can give promising results in its management. Objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of nonpharmacological measures to control symptoms in patients with GERD. Materials and Methods: An interview of total 100 patients suffering from GERD not on pharmacological management was conducted. Their demographic details and responses to the questions were noted in the questionnaire.Results: Knowledge and practice about avoidance of large meals before lying down, avoidance of smoking, alcohol and tobacco chewing, weight loss and avoiding constricting cloths were very much compromised while knowledge and practice about avoidance of caffeine, carbonated beverages, spicy and citrus foods and fatty meals were at acceptable stage. About 20% of the study population said that GERD can be treated by drugs alone i.e. they were not aware of non-pharmacological measures. Conclusion: In patients with GERD, knowledge and practice regarding avoidance of fatty foods, spicy foods, citrus foods, caffeine and carbonated beverages is good but that of avoidance of smoking and tobacco chewing, alcohol, weight reduction, avoiding constricting cloths and avoidance of large meals before lying down is lacking. So, when we treat patients with GERD, areas of lacking knowledge and practice as mentioned above must be focused while motivating for the life style modification
Background In the northwest of Ethiopia, at the South Gondar region, there was a visceral leishmaniasis (VL) outbreak in 2005, making the disease a public health concern for the regional health authorities ever since. The knowledge on how the population perceives the disease is essential in order to propose successful control strategies. Methodology/Principal findings Two surveys on VL knowledge, attitudes and practices were conducted at the beginning (May 2009) and at the end (February 2011) of a VL longitudinal study carried out in rural communities of Libo Kemkem and Fogera, two districts of the Amhara Regional State. Results showed that VL global knowledge was very low in the area, and that it improved substantially in the period studied. Specifically, from 2009 to 2011, the frequency of proper knowledge regarding VL signs and symptoms increased from 47% to 71% (p<0.0001), knowledge of VL causes increased from 8% to 25% (p<0.0001), and knowledge on VL protection measures from 16% to 55% (p<0.0001). Moreover, the improvement observed in VL knowledge was more marked among the families with no previous history of VL case. Finally, in 2011 more than 90% of the households owned at least an impregnated bed net and had been sprayed, and attitudes towards these and other protective measures were very positive (over 94% acceptance for all of them). Conclusions/Significance In 2009 the level of knowledge regarding VL was very low among the rural population of this area, although it improved substantially in the study period, probably due to the contribution of many actors in the area. VL patients and relatives should be appropriately informed and trained as they may act as successful health community agents. VL risk behavioural patterns are subject to change as attitudes towards protective measures were very positive overall.
Lopez-Perea, Noemi; Sordo, Luis; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Cruz, Israel; Hailu, Tsegaye; Moreno, Javier; Aseffa, Abraham; Canavate, Carmen; Custodio, Estefania
Abstract Background Effective influenza pandemic management requires understanding of the factors influencing behavioral changes. We aim to determine the differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices in various different cohorts and explore the pertinent factors that influenced behavior in tropical Singapore. Methods We performed a cross-sectional knowledge, attitudes and practices survey in the Singapore military from mid-August to early-October 2009, among...
"n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:The food handling employee education program improves food safety. Determining knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) level of workers who prepare, distribute and sale the food products make easy to control food safety. This study aimed to evaluate effects of intensive food safety education course on KAP of food handlers. in Kermanshah."nMaterials andMethods: Knowledge, attitude and practice of 370workers of variety of food handling fields we...
Full Text Available The risk of unhealthy disposal of solid waste is one of the important problems in many societies, and recycling is considered as a solution for managing solid wastes. Environmental knowledge and attitude of young people (like students appears to be crucial as their point of view ultimately plays an important role in providing solution to future environmental problems. In this study the knowledge, attitude and practice of Yazd University of Medical Sciences students in respect of disposal of solid wastes and the important factors were studied. Two hundred thirty seven students were included in this cross-sectional study, selected from 5 schools of this university. Data collected by a self administered questionnaire containing four sections, were analyzed using SPSS for Windows. The mean grade of knowledge of men and women was 13.53 and 12.38, of 20, respectively. The difference between the knowledge of males and females was significant (P< 0.016. On the whole the knowledge of the students was not appropriate. About 66% of students did not have any action in segregation and recycling of solid wastes. It is concluded that all students must take part in formal and informal education classes to promote their knowledge in this regard.
MH Ehrampoush , MH Baghiani Moghadam
Background: Influenza disease is one of the oldest medical problems that can cause severe illness and high mortality rates, worldwide. In flu pandemics, medical and dental students knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) is critical to save patients life. The aim of this study was to determine the score of KAP toward the Pandemic H1N1 and their predictor factors among the medical and dental residents and fellowships of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Methods: In 2009, 125 participants were recruited in a convenient sampling cross-sectional survey. Self-reported questionnaire were used and results were analyzed applying appropriate statistical tests. Results: The mean score of participants knowledge, attitude and practice were 22.6, 21.1 and 26.5 respectively. Participants practice had significant linear positive correlation with knowledge and attitude. Also, their age was significantly and directly correlated to knowledge and practice. The educational major, age, and sex were significant predictors of responder's knowledge score and age was the only significant predictor of both attitude and practice scores. Conclusions: High knowledge is not sufficient lonely for improve attitude and practices. It seems that traditional educational models are not efficient and governments should emphasize to advanced and motivational education methods including health belief model and motivational interview at postgraduate levels. Perhaps younger students, dentists and males have less motivation to change their attitude and behavior, so we can focuses our interventions in these groups.
Askarian, Mehrdad; Danaei, Mina; Vakili, Veda
Full Text Available This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of learners on issues related to water, sanitation and hygiene in selected schools in Vhembe District, South Africa. The methodology relied on a questionnaire, an inspection of sanitary facilities and discussion with the school authorities. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Science. The study revealed that the level of knowledge about waterborne diseases was relatively high (76.7 ± 1.75%, but knowledge on transmission routes was inadequate. The majority of the respondents had no knowledge when it comes to water-based diseases and their prevention (78.4 ± 1.71%.The attitude and practice on hygiene was also found to be high (91.40 ± 1.16%. Some schools from the urban area had proper handwashing facilities, but there was no soap available. The borehole water quality for rural schools appeared clear, but the microbial quality was unknown. The water supply and sanitation facilities were inadequate in rural schools, with no handwashing areas and no sanitary bins for girls. Some schools had toilets with broken doors which did not offer privacy. The only water tap, located at the centre of the school premises, was not enough for the whole school community.
Jabulani Ray Gumbo
Studies indicate that women in China are not frequently carrying out breast cancer prevention practices. This is assumed to be due to lack of knowledge and/or lack of personalized instruction. This study was to explore the effect of breast cancer health education on women's knowledge and attitudes on breast cancer and breast self-examination, behavior related to breast self-examination among women living in the catchment area of a community health center. A pretest and posttest assessment of a 1-h health education session was conducted with 38 participants. A telephone reminder and questionnaires were administered at 1 and 3 months after the education. Three instruments were administered at each contact to assess the knowledge and attitudes on breast cancer and behavior related to breast self-examination and accuracy of breast self-examination before education, 1- and 3-month follow-ups after education. The findings showed the incidence of self-examination, and scores on the accuracy of breast self-examination practice were significantly increased immediately following the intervention and at 1- and 3-month follow-ups. Furthermore, the scores of the health belief regarding perceived benefits, perceived competency, and perceived seriousness significantly improved. The current findings imply community-based intervention could be used to teach women about the general knowledge of breast cancer and how to perform breast self-examination correctly, especially for women who are lack of such information. PMID:24504664
Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Hu, Xiaoyan
Full Text Available Food handlers have a prime role to play in food businesses, and that is to guarantee that meals served are hygienic for consumption. Conscious or inadvertent contamination of such food places consumers at risk of suffering from food- borne illnesses. For this reason the study was carried out to document the food hygiene knowledge, attitudes and practices of some food handlers, in food businesses in Accra, Ghana and also to determine the microbiological load of the foods sold by the food businesses. The study targeted food handlers in the hotel industry. The study involved a field survey, followed by a laboratory assessment of microbiological status of food samples obtained from the sampled hotels. Cross tabulations and chi squared tests (5% significance level as well as frequency distributions were used to analyze the data obtained from the field survey. Data obtained from the laboratory assessment were also compared to standard values of microbiological counts. Majority of respondents were between the ages of 30 - 40 years (42.9% with tertiary or post secondary education. Food hygiene knowledge and attitudes were satisfactory, however its practice was challenging. Gender, age and educational level of respondents did not influence their food hygiene practices. Microbial counts of all food samples was generally high ranging from 1.2 × 105 CFU/g to 1.1 × 108 CFU /g. The total coliform counts of foods ranged from 1.0 × 104 CFU/g to 5.0 × 106 CFU/g, and these were obtained from three out of the five hotel kitchens sampled. The study concluded that, the food hygiene knowledge and attitudes of the food handlers did not result in efficient food hygiene practices.
George Amponsah Annor
Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 and Its Prevention: A Cross Sectional Study on Patients Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among l study on Patients Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among patients attending Primary Health Care Clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Full Text Available The World Health Organization confirmed that the novel influenza A, H1N1 as a pandemic on 11 June 2009. After less than three months, 182 countries were affected by the pandemic accounting for about 150,000 infected cases and 3000 mortality. Successful H1N1 pandemic management strategies shaped by making changes in health behavior. The aim of this study was to document patients knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP regarding the pandemic influenza A (H1N1 and its prevention. We performed a cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP on preventive measures of Influenza A (H1N1 involving 322 patients attending Klinik Kesihatan Jinjang, a primary health care clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from May 10 to 26, 2010 using a face to face interview with a structured pre-tested questionnaire. The majority of the respondents were females (56.8%, Malays (43.2% aged between 18-27 years old (28.9%. There were significant association between knowledge on the complication of H1N1, effectiveness of the treatment, preventive measures of Influenza A (H1N1 and race (p
Kerk L Yun
Full Text Available This study was done to explore the effect of women`s group counseling on knowledge, attitude and practice of their husbands concerning family planning in Zahedan in 2002. A quasi-experimental study (before and after was carried out. Forty-four married women with two or more children who had not used contraceptive methods were non-randomly selected from three Health Centers. Before intervention, women and their husbands were interviewed to complete a questionnaire to determine their educational needs, then the women attend three sessions in 5 8-9 member groups. One month after intervention they were asked to complete the same questionnaire and a check list was filled. The mean score, Standard Deviation (SD, paired t-test, Mc-nemar and Chi-square were used for analysis. The finding showed significant difference between the mean scores of knowledge (p<0.001 and attitude (p<0.001 of both of women and their husbands before and after intervention. Moreover, 43% of the couples used one of the modern contraceptive methods after intervention (p<0.00001. Statistic paired t-test with p<0.001 showed that the difference between the knowledge and attitude scores before and after the intervention is significant. Moreover, 43% of the couples used one of the methods after intervention (p<0.00001. According to the results, wives` counseling is recommended to enhance men involvement and to improve family planning programs.
Background Primary health care (PHC) physicians will be in the forefront of managing hepatitis B (HBV) patients. In Saudi Arabia, very little is known about knowledge, attitudes, and practice of PHC physicians towards HBV. This study aimed to assess the same parameters. Methods During April 2012, a cross-sectional survey of 180 practitioners aged 38.1?±?10.3 years was carried out in the primary health care centers (PHCCs) in AlJouf Province of Saudi Arabia. The physicians were asked to fill a valid questionnaire containing their sociodemographic data, and well-modified questions regarding their knowledge base, attitudes, and practice towards HBV. Data was processed and analyzed using SPSS (version 17) program, the level of significance was set at P?0.05. Result Response rate 88.3% yielded 159 questionnaires for analysis. Majority of the physicians surveyed 128 (80.6%) believed that PHC physicians are capable to achieve a major role in the management of HBV. 119 (74.8%) physicians surveyed were willing to manage HBV patients and 127 (79.9%) believed that vaccination is the most effective means to prevent HBV. There was a statistical significant correlation between physicians qualifications and continuity of care for HBV patients (32.8% vs 23.4%; p?=?0.006), while continuality of care was more frequent among physicians with higher degrees compared to graduate physicians. Only 69 (43.4%) physicians were able to interpret HBV seromarkers. The vast majority of the physicians 142 (89.3%) were willing to subscribe in regular training programs about HBV. Conclusion Suitable attitudes with lack of knowledge are found, and practice of our physicians with regard to this significant health issue appeared inappropriate. More education focusing on HBV is recommended.
Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: School health workers have an important role in education and prevention of common oral and dental diseases. An organized program can be helpful in training and shaping the proper behavior. This study has evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practice of schools health workers in Tabriz about oral and dental health in 2007-2008."nMaterials and Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was performed in primary schools in Tabriz. Questionnaires were sent to the schools that had health workers. Levels of the knowledge, attitude and practice of the health workers who had answered this questionnaire were evaluated. SPSS software and independent T-Test and Paired- Sample T-Test were used for analyzing the results."nResults: Fifty eight out of 64 school health workers were women. Mean age of school health workers was 45 years. Forty four of school health workers had passed special course about oral health and dental health. 49 of them had passed special educational course the mean of acquired knowledge score was 6.77 out of 10 and women's scores were significantly higher. Also women had more work experience than men. The mean of acquired attitude and practice scores were 7.42 and 7.14 out of 10, respectively."nConclusion: Findings show that performing of the educational courses during work and experience has an effective role in the scales of the health workers. Progress in this situation can be achieved by retraining programs and accessible pamphlets.
Taghizadeh Ganji A.
Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was done among students of four senior secondary schools including two boys and two girls schools of rural Delhi to know the knowledge, attitude, belief and practices regarding AIDS. A large majority (83.0% of students though had heard about AIDS, yet majority of them did not know the possible methods for prevention of AIDS. There were only 27.1% girls who knew about regular condom usage. Half of them had permissible attitude for pre-maritial sex, while sexual activity was observed in one-fourth students. Students were less reluctant to discuss about AIDS than sex, and teachers were preferred as compared to parents in this regard. School is an ideal setting to educate adolescents regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and safer sex behaviour.
Primary school teachers of Udupi municipal corporation were surveyed to determine their knowledge, attitude and practice toward dental caries and periodontal disease prevention. Fourteen schools were selected by cluster sampling and the teachers working in these schools were included in the sample. The questionnaires were completed by one hundred teachers. The results showed that school dental health services must compulsorily hold demonstrations or lectures on prevention of oral diseases during school feasts and parent teacher meetings, in order to involve the teachers and parents in oral health promotion of the child. PMID:10635125
Goel, P; Shetty, V
The Health Belief model says for communities to take part in an activity, they need to perceive the risk of failing to take part and the benefits associated with taking part. A study was carried out in Luvuvhu catchment of South Africa to evaluate community knowledge, attitudes, practices and perceptions relating to water quality and safety. The study was divided into two parts. The first part involved a population of over 8000 people and participatory tools were used to speed up the data col...
Full Text Available Dental caries comprise the single most chronic disease affecting children today. Evidence increasingly suggests that for successful prevention of dental caries, preventive interactions must begin within the first year of life. Pediatricians are responsible for the primary care of the child and are well positioned to begin this process if they recognize and encourage good preventive habits and refer appropriately. Insufficient information about their role in prevention of dental caries led us to conduct a survey among pediatricians in Bangalore urban to determine their knowledge, attitude and practice in prevention of dental caries.
Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivos: Determinar los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas con respecto a la prueba de Papanicolaou (Pap); hallar la asociación entre la edad y grado de instrucción frente a dichas variables y describir las características sobre la práctica periódica del Pap. Diseño: Analítico y transversal. Lug [...] ar: Hospital Nacional Docente Madre-Niño San Bartolomé. Pacientes: Mujeres en edad fértil de consultorios externos. Intervenciones: Cuestionario estructurado, auto-desarrollado, durante noviembre-2005 a enero-2006. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó: X2, t student, Anova y OR. Principales medidas de resultados: Nivel de conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en mujeres sobre el Pap, y asociaciones y características sobre su práctica periódica. Resultados: De 501 encuestadas, en 63% se encontró nivel bajo de conocimiento, en 66% una actitud desfavorable y en 71% una práctica incorrecta sobre la prueba de Papanicolaou; se obtuvo un OR = 1,45 (IC = 0,98 a 2,16) entre el nivel de conocimiento y la práctica correcta; la difusión por los medios de comunicación sobre el Pap fue 6,2% y la mayor barrera para no tener una práctica periódica del Pap fue el género masculino del ejecutor (34,2%). Conclusiones: Los niveles de conocimiento, actitudes y prácticas, en nuestra población, son bajos. El mayor nivel de conocimiento no está relacionado con la práctica correcta del Pap. Existe poca difusión sobre el Pap por los medios de comunicación y las limitantes a que las mujeres se tomen el Pap son principalmente psicológicas. Abstract in english Objetives: To determine the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices with respect to the Papanicolaou cervical smear test (Pap), to find association between age and learning level, and to describe the characteristics on Paps periodic practice. Design: Analytical and cross-sectional study. Settin [...] g: San Bartolome Mother and Child National Teaching Hospital. Patients: Women in fertile age. Interventions: Structured questionnaire, self-developed, from November 2005 through January 2006. X2, t student, Anova and OR were used for statistical analysis. Main outcome measures: Level of knowledge, attitudes and practices on Papanicolaou smear, as well as associations and characteristics on its periodical practice. Results: Of 501 surveys, 63% showed low level of knowledge, 66% had an unfavorable attitude, and 71% an incorrect practice of Pap smear; OR between knowledge level and correct practice was 1,45 (IC = 0,98 - 2,16). Mass media information on Pap smear was 6,2% and the greater barrier to having a Pap smear periodic practice was the performers gender (masculine) (34,2%). Conclusions: Level of knowledge, attitudes and practices in our population are low. The greater level of Pap knowledge is not related to correct practice. There is poor diffusion on Pap smear by the mass media. Observations on not having a Pap periodic practice are mainly psychological.
Fernando, Bazán; Margarita, Posso; César, Gutiérrez.
Full Text Available Background: Recent raise in litigation againsthealthcare practitioners is definitely an issueof immediate concern and may reflect an in-crease in unethical practices by them. Profes-sional relations between physicians and nursesmay have differences with respect to their atti-tudes towards patient-care. Aim and Objec-tives: To assess the knowledge of, and attitudesto healthcare ethics among north Indian physi-cians and nurses. Material and Methods: Thepresent cross sectional study was carried outamong 298 physicians and 107 nurses of threemedical colleges of northern India in the monthof July-August 2011 using pretested self ad-ministered questionnaire. Data analysis wasdone using SPSS version 20. Result and Con-clusion: There was a statistically significantdifference between the opinion of physiciansand nurses with respect to adherence to confi-dentiality, paternalistic attitude of doctors (doc-tors should do their best for the patient irre-spective of the patient?s opinion, informingclose relatives of a patients for consent proce-dures. The study highlighted gaps in the knowl-edge about practical aspects of health care eth-ics among physicians and nurses which theyencounter in day to day practice at workplace.Measures of workplace education like sensiti-zation workshops, CME?s, conferences onhealth care ethics would assist in bridging thisgap to a certain extent.
There have been several studies of the diffusion of new management accounting practices. This study adds a new dimension: in order to indicate the number of practices associated with the respondents, their interrelationships, the respondents, were asked to answer questions in a questionnaire covering four variables: level of knowledge, level of attitude, priority of usage, and level of benefit for 15 new accounting practices. The survey includes a sample of 119 large and medium-sized privately owned manufacturing and non-manufacturing companies, comprising 15 new or recently developed management accounting practices. Our results reveal that companies in general experience a high level of benefit from the practices. However, significance differences between low priority of usage and high number of practices associated with the company are very likely to contribute to a more modest level of benefits. About 20 percent of the companies associate themselves with four to sixÂ projects on new accounting practices intheir organization, which might lead to poor performance and high failure rates. Comments from the respondents also show that companies have mixed feelings concerning the practices and those companies seldom use a theoretical concept but are inspired to design home-made models. This also confirms that accounting practices are used for inspiration of design. The findings can provide a further basis for the discussion and development of a theory for new management accounting models.
Nielsen, Steen; Melander, Preben
This study examined smoking-related knowledge, beliefs, self-efficacy, smoking cessation practices, and barriers to providing smoking cessation services in a workforce sample. The 11 participating clinics (N=335 staff) included substance abuse treatment and HIV care clinics categorized into three types: Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) clinics, hospital-based clinics, and community-based clinics. Staff in both VAMC and hospital-based settings shared characteristics that may predict smok...
Tajima, Barbara; Guydish, Joseph; Delucchi, Kevin; Passalacqua, Emma; Chan, Mable; Moore, Matt
A survey was conducted with 409 Hispanic and 138 Anglo women in Tucson, Arizona, to assess their knowledge of breast cancer and cancer screening tests, their attitudes toward breast cancer and cancer screening, and their use of screening tests. There were few differences between these two groups in use of breast cancer screening tests, with both group falling well below the recommended levels of screening frequency. Clinical breast exam was most often used, followed by breast self-exam, with mammography a distant third. Levels of knowledge about the risks for breast cancer and the ways to detect it were also low. Comparison with national data show Arizona women to have lower rates of breast cancer screening than the national average; this may be due to the absence of the Medicaid program in Arizona. The rates for Tucson Hispanics, although lower than that for Anglos, are comparable with the findings of other studies. More needs to be done to alert all older women about breast cancer screening, but more specific attention needs to be paid to the population of older Hispanic women. We suggest some culturally relevant strategies to address this problem. PMID:8307771
Saint-Germain, M A; Longman, A J
Objective To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of inhabitants of an endemic area in Fars province toward cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Methods The study was carried out in Lapui district in Fars province, south of Iran, one of the most important foci of CL in this province. Sample size (237 residents) was calculated based on population. House-to-house survey was done to collect the data regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the inhabitants. The head of each household was interviewed by a trained staff to assess his/her KAP related to CL. A semi-structured KAP questionnaire was used for data collection. Results Mean age of participants was 39 and more than half of the respondents were in the age group of 31-40. Males constituted 172 (72.5%) of subjects. Most of the respondents (84.3%) were literate. The majority of the study population (83%) had heard about Salak (local name for CL) and most of these respondents (91%) were aware that CL is presented with a cutaneous lesion. Nearly two-third of the participants (63.5%) stated the bite of mosquito (not specifically sandflies) for CL transmission. The respondents' attitude regarding the treatment of CL was not satisfactory since only 48% believed that CL can be treated by medicine. A noticeable proportion of respondents (21%) believed in indigenous medicine for the treatment of CL. A small proportion of respondents (14%) stated that traditional healers are good at treating this disease. More than two-third (69%) of respondents believed that the disease is preventable although most of interviewees did not know about preventive measures. Conclusions In this study, insufficient knowledge of community about infection nature, vector, transmission mode and preventive measures of CL, highlights the needs for a health education initiative to enhance the awareness of people about CL. This would improve inhabitants' contribution in control program of CL in this area.
Sarkari, Bahador; Qasem, Asgari; Shafaf, Mohammad Reza
Full Text Available Background: The major factor limiting the use of EC may be inadequate information about their effectiveness and availability or unfavourable opinions about their safety due to misinformation. So the study was carried to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of EC among engineering college girls. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in an engineering college. All girls from a field were included in the study. Data was collected by a predesigned, pre-tested, self-administered multiple response questionnaires. Results: A total of 8(5.7% reported that they had previously used ECPs. An association was found between users and their level of knowledge. Users had Average/Good knowledge as compared to nonusers (OR-12.51. A strong association was found between source of information and level of knowledge. In other words, respondent receiving information from the Health Personnel (OR 21.49 and Audio-Visual Media (OR 10.2 were more likely to have good or average knowledge as compared to family and friends (OR 6. Conclusion: Knowledge of emergency contraception by students is low and the method is still underused. Strategies to promote use of emergency contraception should be focused on spreading accurate information through medical sources, which have been found to be reliable and associated with good knowledge on emergency contraception.
Nisha Relwani, Ajeet Saoji, N.B.Kasturwar, Jaydeep.Nayse, Mohd.Junaid, Poonam Dhatrak
Full Text Available Background: Contraception is as old as mankind.In view of increasing population theres need for awareness regarding the use of various contraceptive methods. Aims and Objectives: To assess the Knowledge, Attitude & Practice regarding the various contraceptive methods in a rural setup of Hoskote. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out at MVJ, UHC & PHC of Hoskote Taluk on OPD basis. Data was collected by a pre-designed questionnaire at the OPD. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. People were simultaneously educated regarding the various contraceptive methods. Results: Total sample size was 150 of which 75 were males and 75 females. Knowledge about contraceptives was seen more in males (93.3% when compared to females (72%. 95.2% of gradates had knowledge regarding the methods of contraception. This suggests that the knowledge about contraception is better perceived and understood among the literate group. Most common method of contraceptive practiced was barrier methods (40%, followed by sterilization procedure (20%, IUCD (18.67%, OCP (12%, coitus interruptus (8.67% and emergency contraception (0.67%. Conclusion: There has been a considerable improvement among the people even in rural setup regarding the contraceptive use, but there still exists lack of awareness and knowledge regarding the use of contraceptive methods in some small groups of people. IEC activities have to be increased especially for females of this rural setup.
Yogendra V, Shuaib Ahmed, Sana Jaweriya, Sagorika Mullick
The knowledge, attitude and practice on using personal protective equipment (PPE) of rattan craftsmen to protect themselves from health effect related to sulfur dioxide exposure in Thuong Hien trade village at Kienxuong district, Thaibinh province, Vietnam was conducted using cross-sectional analytic study. The rattan craftsmen (n=403) were interviewed by face to face questionnaire. The results indicated that the level of good knowledge and good attitude was low equal 3.72% and 4.22% respecti...
Truong, Cong Dat; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark G.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological surveillance of infectious diseases through the mandatory-reporting system is crucial in the planning and evaluation of disease control and prevention program. This study investigated the reporting behavior, knowledge, and attitude to reporting communicable disease in private doctors in Taiwan. The differences between the reporting and non-reporting doctors were also explored. Methods A total of 1250 clinics were randomly sampled nationwide by a 2-stage process. Data were collected from 1093 private doctors (87.4% response rate using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Four hundred and six (37.2% doctors reported having diagnosed reportable communicable diseases. Among them, 340 (83.5% have the experiences of reporting. Results The most common reasons for not reporting were "do not want to violate the patient's privacy", "reporting procedure is troublesome", and "not sure whether the diagnosed disease is reportable". Significantly higher proportions of the non-reporting doctors considered the reporting system inconvenient or were not familiar with the system. The highest percentage (65.2% of the non-reporting doctors considered that a simplified reporting procedure, among all measures, would increase their willingness to report. In addition, a significantly higher proportion of the non-reporting doctors would increase their willingness to report if there has been a good reward for reporting or a penalty for not reporting. Conclusion The most effective way to improve reporting rate may be to modify doctor's attitude to disease reporting. The development of a convenient and widely-accepted reporting system and the establishment of a reward/penalty system may be essential in improving disease reporting compliance in private doctors.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to explore inequities in knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding tuberculosis (TB among the urban and rural populations. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted in two districts of Pakistan's Punjab province. The 1080 subjects aged 20 years and above, including 432 urban and 648 rural respondents, were randomly selected using multistage cluster sampling and interviewed after taking verbal informed consent. Logistic regression was used to calculate the crude odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI for the urban area. The differences in knowledge, attitudes, practices and information sources between the urban and rural respondents were highlighted using Pearson chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results The study revealed poor knowledge regarding TB. The deficit was greater in the rural areas in all aspects. The knowledge regarding symptoms (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.59-2.61, transmission (OR 1.93, 95% CI 1.44-2.59, prevention (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.70-2.96, duration of standard treatment (OR 1.88, 95% 1.41-2.49 and DOTS (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.43-2.38 was significantly higher in the urban areas (all P Conclusion Respondents' knowledge regarding TB was deficient in all aspects, particularly in the rural areas. Intended health seeking behavior was better in the urban areas. Television and health workers were the main sources for TB related information in both the urban as well as the rural areas. Therefore, the area of residence should be considered in tailoring communication strategies and designing future interventions for TB prevention and control.
Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacies of the three long acting beta2-agonists (Salmeterol, Formoterol and Bambuterol in south Indian population. This prospective multi-centered study conducted in various hospitals on basis of block randomization method using St. Georges respiratory questionnaire and assess pulmonary function using spirometer. Out of 85 patients, 25 received Salmeterol, 35 received Formoterol and 25 received Bambuterol, showed variable improvement in the quality of life from baseline and clinical improvements. Change in overall scores from baseline was 56.33 units for Salmeterol, 61.91 units for Formoterol and 54.54 units for Bambuterol. Pulmonary function tests showed a better result for Salmeterol. Knowledge, attitude and practice of patients were improved at the end of the study and showed better compliance that had a good impact on the quality of life of the patients. Salmeterol has shown a better improvement and correlation in case of both quality of life and pulmonary function tests, when compared with others. Formoterol showed a better quality of life but a correlation with the pulmonary function tests was not seen like Salmeterol. The proportion of patients showed increase in knowledge, attitude and practice as well as the compliance by the end of the study.
Full Text Available Background: A fundamental determinant to medical drug safety surveillance is voluntary adverse drug reaction [ADR] reporting ; but there exists substantial under-reporting which is the main drawback of the system. The objective of the study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of ADR reporting among doctors in a tertiary health care center.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional questionnaire based study was conducted on doctors in a tertiary health care center. Participants were selected randomly and those not willing to participate were excluded from the study. Collected data was assessed by frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS version 13.0.Results: 75% (45 of respondents were aware of the existence of ADR reporting system in India; on the contrary only (11.7% of respondents were aware of regional center for ADR reporting. All respondents (100% felt that seriousness of the ADR event, unusual reaction (95%, reaction to new drug (98.33%, and the certainty of ADR reaction (91.66% would encourage them to report an ADR event. However, only 15 out of 60 respondents (25% have reported ADRs.Conclusion: Though the level of knowledge about ADR reporting and the attitude towards ADR reporting were adequate, our study has shown that the actual practice of ADR reporting is unsatisfactory. This indicates that there is a need to create an awareness of the importance of ADR reporting through continuous medical education and training of ADR reporting among doctors.
Tanya Mary Thomas
Full Text Available Context: Use of steroids in septic shock is an issue of contention, more so with two major trials reporting conflicting results. Aims: To assess the current knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP related to the role of steroids in septic shock among intensivists practising in Hyderabad. Setting, Design, Materials and Methods: Questionnaires containing 10 questions pertaining to the role of steroids in septic shock, were distributed to 76 intensivists during the monthly critical care meeting. Results: A great majority of intensivists (82% agreed that the role of steroids is restricted to septic shock not responding to vasopressors. There was no clear consensus regarding the role of corticotropin stimulation test or the timing of total cortisol level testing, if it has to be performed. Hydrocortisone was clearly the choice of steroid for most intensivists and intravenous bolus injection being the preferred route of administration. There was no agreement regarding the dose of steroids, the role of fludrocortisone and whether steroids should be tapered. Most of the respondents did not extend the steroid therapy beyond seven days and the most common side effect reported was hyperglycemia. Conclusion: There is a lot of ambiguity in the knowledge, attitudes or practices regarding role of steroids in septic shock among intensivists in Hyderabad. Uniform policies and protocols need to be devised at institutional level, with multispecialty inputs, and doctors need to be familiarized accordingly.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Misuse of antimicrobials (AMs and antimicrobial resistance (AMR are global concerns. The present study evaluated knowledge, attitudes and practices about AMR and AM prescribing among medical doctors in two large public hospitals in Lima, Peru, a middle-income country. Methods Cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire Results A total of 256 participants completed the questionnaire (response rate 82%. Theoretical knowledge was good (mean score of 6 ± 1.3 on 7 questions in contrast to poor awareness ( Conclusions This survey revealed topics to address during future AM prescribing interventions such as dissemination of information about local AMR rates, promoting confidence in the quality of locally available AMs, redaction and dissemination of local AM guidelines and addressing the general public, and exploring the possibilities of internet-based training.
A cross sectional survey was conducted among Government workers and the general public in Accra, Ghana. A total of 380 persons were interviewed. Almost everybody could describe accurately, an epileptic person. However, 172 (45.3%) out of the 380 respondents did not know the cause of epilepsy, and 37.6% did not know how it could be treated. Out of the 358 responses to the cause of epilepsy, 114 (31.8%) said it was inherited disease, 100 (27.9%) said it was due to witchcraft/juju or spiritual. With respect to treatment, 150 out of 333 responses mentioned sending the individual to the medical doctor, 95 (28.5%) said the use of herbs/visits to fetish priest, 59 (17.7%) suggested prayers, 20 (6.0%) said to do nothing. For prevention, 77 (29.1%) out of 319 responses indicated prayers, 49 (15.45%) cautioned marrying into epileptic family, and 13 (4.1%) responses indicated not to touch patient fitting. Those who answered "don't know" regarding knowledge about epilepsy were mostly the young, the lower educational status and the single respondents. However, the most important characteristic of the respondent that was associated with the appropriateness of the responses was the educational status. Although a lot of misconceptions about epilepsy existed in the study population, e.g. epilepsy can be spread by contact and that epileptics must be isolated or avoided, several respondents would share a room, eat or employ persons with epilepsy. The study has shown that the traditional beliefs and attitudes about epilepsy are still held firmly by the adult working population and that the educational level of the respondent was positively related to the appropriateness of the responses. It is therefore suggested that additional efforts must be made to increase the knowledge of the general population through the use of social marketing strategies in order to improve the management of persons with epilepsy. PMID:9329281
Nyame, P K; Biritwum, R B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is becoming increasingly prevalent among children in China. Poor parent knowledge and attitudes often contribute to inappropriate management practices, leading to deficiencies in the care process. We aimed to document the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of parents of children with asthma and analyze how knowledge and attitudes relate to practices. Our secondary objective was to identify the factors associated with parent KAP scores. Methods A KAP questionnaire was distributed to parents caring for 2960 children (014 years diagnosed with asthma for at least 3 months from Chinas 29 provinces. A 50-item questionnaire was devised for this cross-sectional survey based on a comprehensive review of the subject. Questionnaires were scored on 30 items regarding parent asthma-related KAP, with one point for every correct response and a possible range of 013 for knowledge, 07 for attitudes and 010 for practices. Higher scores indicated better KAP. Chi-squared tests and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with practices and combined KAP scores. Results The response rate was 83.95% (2485/2960. Only 18.31% (455/2485 of parents correctly answered ? 60% of the knowledge questions (mean = 5.69. Most (89.85%; 2226/2485 gave positive responses to ? 60% of the attitude questions (mean = 5.23 while 67.89% (1687/2485 correctly answered ? 60% of the practices questions (mean = 6.19. Knowledge and attitudes were positively associated with pulmonary function testing, regular physician visits, monitoring with a peak flow meter and the Childrens Asthma Control Test questionnaire, avoidance of asthma triggers, using an inhaled ?2 receptor agonist and adherence to medication regimen (p ? 0.05. Attitudes were also associated with allergen testing. In logistic regression analysis, high KAP scores (dichotomized by a cut-off score of 18 were positively associated with food allergy, rhinitis, physician visits, frequency of visits and parent education (p 1. Conclusions Generally, the parents KAP were poor. A gap between recommended and actual practice was observed, which may be related to inadequate knowledge about and poor attitudes toward childhood asthma. Improving knowledge and attitudes may encourage better practices among parents of children with asthma.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Globally, condom is an important method of family planning and prevention of sexually transmitted infections especially human immune deficiency virus HIV/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome AIDS. Family planning saves lives of women and children and improves the quality of life. This study was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices in addition to socio-demographic factors of condom use among males in Erbil governorate. Subjects and method: A cross sectional study conducted on randomly selected sample of 600 males aged 15-49 years from 3 districts of Erbil governorate of Iraqi Kurdistan region by using multistage cluster sampling method to assess their knowledge, attitudes and practice of condom use. Results: Only 12% of respondents had ever used condoms. The main reason for condom use was for family planning in about 91.7%. About a quarter of respondents reported knowing how to use condom correctly. Condoms were considered by respondents as an effective method of contraception and prevention of sexually transmitted infections 33.2% and 28.3% respectively. While 30.3% of them believed that condom use had some harmful effects. The main reason to non condom use was lack of need in 45.5%, fertility related reasons in 17% and the use of other methods by the female partner 13.6%. Although 64% of respondents heard about AIDS /HIV and 71.7% about STIS in general, only few felt that they are at risk of STIs 9.5% and HIV infection 8.5%. Conclusion: The study showed that the rate of condom use was low among the studied sample. This was due to lack of knowledge about proper and effective use of condoms, low perception of risk of HIV and other STIs, misperception about harmful effects of condoms and the use of other family planning methods by respondents and their female sexual partner.
Jwan M. Sabir Zangana
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o conhecimento, atitudes e práticas sobre a TB em uma unidade prisional e na rede pública de saúde (RPS. METODOLOGIA: Foi realizado estudo transversal com aplicação do questionário KAP (knowledge, atittudes and practices na coleta de dados. Participaram 141 detentos, 115 funcionários do presídio e 158 da RPS. O programa Epi-Info versão 6.04 foi utilizado para comparação de proporções com significância estatística para p OBJECTIVE: To analyze the knowledge, attitudes and practices about TB in a prison and in public health services (PHS. METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out and KAP (knowledge, attitudes and practices questionnaire was applied to 141 prisoners, 115 prison's employees and 158 PHS workers. Epi-Info version 6.04 was used for comparison of proportions with statistic significance at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Mistaken concepts on TB were observed among the three searched groups. PHS also showed basic errors on TB knowledge thus pointing out imperfections on training. CONCLUSION: KAP revealed efficient for data collection of general knowledge items but was limited on practices and attitudes and so its use as the only tool for data collection about knowledge, attitudes and practices on TB is not advisable. It is suggested its regular use to aid educational activities and considering the high prevalence of TB among prisoners, it is noted the need to involve the Departments of Health in the supervision of educational activities in the prison system.
Sérgio Ferreira Júnior
Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza is a considerable threat to global public health. Prevention and control depend on awareness and protective behaviours of the general population as well as high risk-groups. This study aims to explore the knowledge, attitudes and practices related to avian influenza among poultry workers in Nepal. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional study design, using a structured questionnaire administered in face-to-face interviews with 96 poultry workers age 15 and above from the Rupandehi district in Nepal. Results The majority of respondents were male (80%, mean age was 35 (SD = 11.6. Nearly everybody was aware that AI cases had been detected in Nepal and that poultry workers were at risk for infection. The major sources of AI information were radio, TV and newspapers. Knowledge about preventive measures was high with regard to some behaviours (hand washing, but medium to low with regard to others (using cleaning and disinfecting procedures or protective clothing. Poultry workers who got their information from TV and newspapers and those who were more afraid of contracting AI had higher knowledge than those who did not. Being employed as compared to being an owner of a poultry farm as well as having a high level of knowledge was associated with practising more preventive behaviours. While on one hand many specific government control measures found a high degree of acceptance, a majority of study participants also thought that government control and compensation measures as a whole were insufficient. Conclusions The study provides information about knowledge and practices regarding avian influenza among poultry workers in Nepal. It highlights the importance of targeting lack of knowledge as well as structural-material barriers to successfully build preparedness for a major outbreak situation.
Full Text Available Prevention and management of obesity largely depends on patient motivation and education and these, in turn, can be greatly facilitated by adequate baseline data on the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of patients. The aim of this study is to assess KAP on obesity among Bangladeshi type 2 diabetics. Under a cross-sectional design 160 type 2 diabetics were selected from outpatient department of Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders. A standard questionnaire was constructed in local language and interview was administrated. Age and body mass index (BMI of the respondents were 45.17±5.68 years and 25.6 ±4 kg/m2 respectively. Among them 45% were male, 38% had primary education, 25% belonged to normal weight, 1/2 of them were overweight and rest were obese. KAP score of the respondents was [mean ±SD(%] 60.03±13.82, 79.30±8.27, 55.50±19.21 respectively. Majority were unaware about ideal body weight, energy requirement and the weight measurement techniques. A substantial proportion of the respondents considered fast food, soft drinks, mayonnaise as healthier food. Majority of them positively agreed on willingness to follow proper diet, maintaining ideal body weight, dietary management and exercise. More than half of the normal weight and overweight respondents did exercise >45 min, while 1/3 obese did not do exercise (35%. KAP score were significantly associated with respondents level of education (P=0.0001, P=0.007, P=0.05 respectively practice score was significantly associated with sex (P=0.0001, occupation (P=0.003 and BMI (P=0.0001. There is a need for increased effort towards developing and making education programs focusing on empowering the persons to transform their knowledge and attitude into practice.
Kazi Rumana Ahmed
Full Text Available Abstract Background Food hygiene in hospital poses peculiar problems, particularly given the presence of patients who could be more vulnerable than healthy subjects to microbiological and nutritional risks. Moreover, in nosocomial outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease, the mortality risk has been proved to be significantly higher than the community outbreaks and highest for foodborne outbreaks. On the other hand, the common involvement in the role of food handlers of nurses or domestic staff, not specifically trained about food hygiene and HACCP, may represent a further cause of concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning food safety of the nursing staff of two hospitals in Palermo, Italy. Association with some demographic and work-related determinants was also investigated. Methods The survey was conducted, by using a semi-structured questionnaire, in March-November 2005 in an acute general hospital and a paediatric hospital, where nursing staff is routinely involved in food service functions. Results Overall, 401 nurses (279, 37.1%, of the General Hospital and 122, 53.5%, of the Paediatric Hospital, respectively answered. Among the respondents there was a generalized lack of knowledge about etiologic agents and food vehicles associated to foodborne diseases and proper temperatures of storage of hot and cold ready to eat foods. A general positive attitude towards temperature control and using clothing and gloves, when handling food, was shared by the respondents nurses, but questions about cross-contamination, refreezing and handling unwrapped food with cuts or abrasions on hands were frequently answered incorrectly. The practice section performed better, though sharing of utensils for raw and uncooked foods and thawing of frozen foods at room temperatures proved to be widely frequent among the respondents. Age, gender, educational level and length of service were inconsistently associated with the answer pattern. More than 80% of the respondent nurses did not attend any educational course on food hygiene. Those who attended at least one training course fared significantly better about some knowledge issues, but no difference was detected in both the attitude and practice sections. Conclusion Results strongly emphasize the need for a safer management of catering in the hospitals, where non professional food handlers, like nursing or domestic staff, are involved in food service functions.
La Guardia Maurizio
Full Text Available Problem statement: The aim of this survey was to show the knowingness and standings of infertile male patient that attending Kamal Al Samaraee fertility center, about IVF and IUI procedures in clinical practice. Approach: A cross sectional study done and data were collected during two months period using special form of questionnaire, the total sample was 203 male patients Were performed using descriptive rates and percentages, procedures included Pearson?s product- moment correlation were included. Results: The first part showed the demographic data and there was a significant positive correlation between the patient?s knowledge about (ART and level of education (r = 0.703988 and their knowledge and duration of infertility (r = 0.607133 respectively. The second part of the study showed lack of knowledge about some aspects of assisted reproductive technique as a procedure and as a technical details, most of the participant don?t know whether IUI need general anesthesia or not (41%, the same thing is true for (IVF technique, also 41% of the sample didn?t know whether fertilization of ova done outside the wife body or not., the third part showed the attitudes of participants were (80% of the participants refused gamete donation. Conclusion: it was obvious that there was lack of knowledge about many aspects of (ART, also the attitudes of the participants was highly influenced by cultural and religious believes therefore, education is needed to make the general community aware of the various aspects of (ART, on the other hand we recommended that a governmental legislative and financial support should be made for the promotion of assisted reproductive technique in Iraq.
Lujain A.A. Khazrajy
Tuberculosis is prevailing in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan. Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of private practitioners (PPs) regarding tuberculosis management have been reported only in urban areas of Pakistan. This survey was conducted for the first time in a rural area of Sindh, Pakistan. This survey was conducted in January 2007 at Thatta, a rural district of Sindh, Pakistan. Study subjects were twenty-two allopathic qualified (MBBS) doctors of district Thatta, who were practicing in private setups for at least last one year. Before TB-DOTS training PPs had filled the KAP questionnaire regarding tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and management through DOTS. Survey data was analysed through SPSS version 11.05 software. On average, five TB suspects per month were seen by each PP. Only 14% of PPs advised sputum microscopy solely for pulmonary TB diagnosis, while 86% of PPs used different combination of tests (chest x-ray/sputum microscopy/ESR/tuberculin test) for TB diagnosis. Over 40% PPs did not prescribe TB treatment regimen according to TB-DOTS category. Majority PPs (85%) did not follow the treatment through sputum microscopy and instead relied on clinical improvement and x-ray clearance. Nearly 60% of TB patients at PPs clinic did not show compliance to the TB treatment and none of PPs were following the retrieval of default cases. A gross lack of PPs knowledge and right practice regarding TB diagnosis and management through DOTS was identified and needed to be addressed through providing DOTS training. (author)
Public health campaigns have improved knowledge on UVR-associated skin cancer risk and increased sun protection awareness. However, tanned skin is still a common beauty ideal. The relationship between knowledge, attitudes and protective behavior is not fully understood yet. A population-based survey was thus performed in the district of Erlangen involving 2,619 parents of 3- to 6-year old children. By means of a self-administered standardized questionnaire parental knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, their attitudes towards tanning and details of protective measures taken for their children were assessed. The study analyzed specifically the impact of parental tanning attitudes on sun-protective measures for their children while controlling for parental knowledge about skin cancer risk factors. While parental knowledge was significantly (inversely) associated with agreement to the statement "Tanned skin is healthy skin", this was not the case for "Tanning makes me look better". Overall, tanning affirmative attitudes were inversely associated with protective measures taken for the children, whereas parental knowledge had a positive impact on sun protection at the beach only. Multivariable analyses provided evidence for an effect of parental attitude on protective behavior independent of parental knowledge. Tanning attitudes and tanned skin as the misguided ideal of beauty need to be addressed in future public health campaigns to enhance the effectiveness of preventive activities in changing sun protective behavior. PMID:24802677
Gefeller, Olaf; Li, Jiang; Uter, Wolfgang; Pfahlberg, Annette B
Full Text Available Public health campaigns have improved knowledge on UVR-associated skin cancer risk and increased sun protection awareness. However, tanned skin is still a common beauty ideal. The relationship between knowledge, attitudes and protective behavior is not fully understood yet. A population-based survey was thus performed in the district of Erlangen involving 2,619 parents of 3- to 6-year old children. By means of a self-administered standardized questionnaire parental knowledge about risk factors for skin cancer, their attitudes towards tanning and details of protective measures taken for their children were assessed. The study analyzed specifically the impact of parental tanning attitudes on sun-protective measures for their children while controlling for parental knowledge about skin cancer risk factors. While parental knowledge was significantly (inversely associated with agreement to the statement Tanned skin is healthy skin, this was not the case for Tanning makes me look better. Overall, tanning affirmative attitudes were inversely associated with protective measures taken for the children, whereas parental knowledge had a positive impact on sun protection at the beach only. Multivariable analyses provided evidence for an effect of parental attitude on protective behavior independent of parental knowledge. Tanning attitudes and tanned skin as the misguided ideal of beauty need to be addressed in future public health campaigns to enhance the effectiveness of preventive activities in changing sun protective behavior.
In many Sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, inadequate access to safe drinking water is a serious problem with 37% in the region and 58% of rural Nigeria using unimproved sources. The global challenge to measuring household water quality as a determinant of safety is further compounded in Nigeria by the possibility of deterioration from source to point of use. This is associated with the use of decentralised water supply systems in rural areas which are not fully reticulated to the household taps, creating a need for an integrated water quality monitoring system. As an initial step towards establishing the system in the north west and north central zones of Nigeria, The Katsina State Rural Water and Sanitation Agency, responsible for ensuring access to safe water and adequate sanitation to about 6 million people carried out a three pronged study with the support of UNICEF Nigeria. Part 1 was an assessment of the legislative and policy framework, institutional arrangements and capacity for drinking water quality monitoring through desk top reviews and Key Informant Interviews (KII) to ascertain the institutional capacity requirements for developing the water quality monitoring system. Part II was a water quality study in 700 households of 23 communities in four local government areas. The objectives were to assess the safety of drinking water, compare the safety at source and household level and assess the possible contributory role of end users Knowledge Attitudes and Practices. These were achieved through water analysis, household water quality tracking, KII and questionnaires. Part III was the production of a visual documentary as an advocacy tool to increase awareness of the policy makers of the linkages between source management, treatment and end user water quality. The results indicate that except for pH, conductivity and manganese, the improved water sources were safe at source. However there was a deterioration in water quality between source and point of use in 18%, 12.5%, 27% and 50% of hand pump fitted boreholes, motorised boreholes, hand dug wells and streams respectively. Although no statistical correlation could be drawn between water management practices and water quality deterioration, the survey of the study households gave an indication of the possible contributory role of their knowledge, attitudes and practices to water contamination after provision. Some of the potential water related sources of contamination were poor source protection and location, use of unimproved water source and poor knowledge and practice of household water treatment methods, poor hand washing practices in terms of percentage that wash hands and use soap. Consequently 34 WASH departments have been created at the local government level towards establishment of a community based monitoring system and piloting has begun in Kaita local government area.
Onabolu, B.; Jimoh, O. D.; Igboro, S. B.; Sridhar, M. K. C.; Onyilo, G.; Gege, A.; Ilya, R.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B (HBV is the leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. This study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of people with chronic HBV and the associated factors. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at an outpatient adult hepatology clinic at a tertiary hospital in Kuala Lumpur. A self-administered questionnaire was administered on a one-to-one basis to assess knowledge, attitudes, and lifestyle practices of people with chronic HBV. Results The response rate was 89% (n?=?483/543. Participants had a mean age of 46.3 (±14.7 years and the mean duration of HBV from time of diagnosis was 12.2 (±8.8 years. The mean knowledge score was 12.57/20 (standard deviation: ±4.4, range: 019. Participants aged 3039?years, with higher educational attainment, employed in professional jobs, longer duration of diagnosis and those without cirrhosis had significantly higher knowledge scores. Age, education level and duration of diagnosis were significant predictors of the knowledge score on standard multiple regression analysis. More than half of the participants were worried of spreading HBV infection to family and friends and worried since the diagnosis. A third of the participants (33.5% were embarrassed to reveal their diagnosis to the public but most of them (93.6% would inform their family. Those who reported feeling worried since their diagnosis were more likely to be middle-aged, of Malay ethnicity, have shorter duration of diagnosis of less than 10?years and have received therapy. About half of the participants (50.6% did not share dining utensils and the majority (93.2% believed that HBV can be transmitted by sharing of eating and drinking utensils. Older patients were significantly less likely to share utensils. Those who felt worried since diagnosis had significant higher knowledge of HBV. Conclusion The findings highlight the stigma and misconceptions that still exist among the HBV patients. More patient and public education about HBV and its prevention are essential to increase awareness and to demystify the disease.
Full Text Available Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM is a harmful traditional practice that is deeply rooted in Africa. It has been outlawed in Bayelsa state of Nigeria but there is evidence that its performance by traditional circumcisers and health professionals continues. Aim: The study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of FGM among doctors and nurses/midwives practising in public secondary and tertiary hospitals in Bayelsa state. Methods: One hundred and ninety seven (197 structured questionnaires were administered to all available doctors and nurses/midwives in the study hospitals for self-completion. Epi-Info version 3.5.1 was used to analyse data. Results: All the respondents were aware of FGM. A higher proportion of nurses/midwives than doctors had ever been asked and had ever treated patients with complications of FGM. More than 90% of respondents said it was not a good practice. Out of the 70 female respondents, 19 (27.1% said they were circumcised. Only one nurse/midwife admitted to performing FGM presently. Conclusion: Doctors and nurses/midwives practicing in the study hospitals were well aware of FGM and were favourably disposed towards its elimination. Efforts should be made to reinforce this position.
Full Text Available Many studies indicate that the nutritional knowledge and practice of adolescent girls are inadequate. Few surveys were performanced about effect of nutrition education on knowledge, attitude and practice in this vulnerable group. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two nutrition education methods (guidebook and group discussion on the nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice of first-grade guidance school girl students in Tehran s 8th district, in 2003.A total of 300 students were selected from 11 guidance schools by simple random sampling and divided into three 100-student groups: 1-guide-book, 2-group discussion, and 3-control. Data on the nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice were collected using pretest and posttest questionnaires. The students in group1 were given the guide-book and required to study it at home, while group 2 students were told to discuss among themselves the contents of the guide-book. The control group were given nothing to study or to do. The pre-test showed that the mean scores of nutrition knowledge (K, attitude (A and practice (P were not statistically different among the 3 groups. The scores for the 3 variables increased in the guide-book and discussion groups significantly at the end of the study period (in all cases, p<0.001, while the inter-group comparisons also showed that the K and A scores were statistically different among the 3 groups; the P, however, was not different among them. Conclusion: Both methods (guide-book and group discussionincreased the level of nutritional knowledge and attitude as compared to (a the control group,and (b the initial values. Also both methods increased the level of nutritional practice as compared to (b the initial values. The group discussion method was more effective than the guide-book method in the promotion of the nutritional knowledge of the students.
Full Text Available Its a cross sectional observational study conducted in outpatient clinic of OBG, SDMCMS&H, Dharwad between July-December 2012. 200 married women between 20-45 yrs were interviewed with predesigned questionnaire. Effort was made to identify reasons for wide gap between knowledge and practice of contraception. All women knew atleast one method of contraception but 48% were using some sort of contraception. Most known method was female sterilization, least known were injectables and male sterilization. Common method chosen was female sterilization (70.8%. None adopted male sterilization. Reasons for not using contraception were desire to have child (25%, desire for boys (13.4%, worried about side effect (16.3%, opposition from family members (11.5%, felt pregnancy was naturally spaced (11.5%, no specific reasons (10.5%, couldnt avail contraceptive facilities (5.7%, inconvenient to use (5.7%. Educational and motivational activities from doctors and health workers is needed to promote the use of contraception. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 172-176
Full Text Available This study examines demographic, cognitive and behavioral factors that predict pediatric dog-bite injury risk in rural China. A total of 1,537 children (grades 46 in rural regions of Anhui, Hebei and Zhejiang Provinces, China completed self-report questionnaires assessing beliefs about and behaviors with dogs. The results showed that almost 30% of children reported a history of dog bites. Children answered 56% of dog-safety knowledge items correctly. Regressions revealed both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors predicted childrens risky interactions with dogs and dog-bite history. Boys behaved more riskily with dogs and were more frequently bitten. Older children reported greater risks with dogs and more bites. With demographics controlled, attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, exposure frequency, and dog ownership predicted childrens self-reported risky practice with dogs. Attitudes/beliefs of invulnerability, dog exposure, and dog ownership predicted dog bites. In conclusion, both demographic and cognitive/behavioral factors influenced rural Chinese childrens dog-bite injury risk. Theory-based, empirically-supported intervention programs might reduce dog-bite injuries in rural China.
David C. Schwebel
Full Text Available Introduction : Hypertension (HTN is a common serious health problem associated with high morbidity and mortality rates .At the same time ,HTN is widely prevalent all over the world including Egypt. For many people, the primary care physician is their first point of contact with the health care system, as well as their main source of preventive and essential care. Objective: Assessing knowledge, attitude and practices of primary health care physicians towards screening patients for hypertension in Cairo. Methodology:A cross-sectional study , conducted in the primary health care centres (PHCC in Nasr city, which was chosen randomly to represent Cairo city , where all doctors working in these centres were asked to complete a self administered structured and open ended questionnaire contained the relevant variables : Results: About 90% of the studied physicians were convinced with the importance of routine measuring blood pressure for risky patients and 79% stated that role of the PHC physician should be the early detection of HTN. As regards knowledge towards HTN items, only 23.5% knew the prevalence and 18.5% knew the most recent definition and grading. The practices of the doctors towards screening patients for HTN ,showed that only 63.9% of the doctors usually perform accurate and enough procedures to diagnose HTN patients and 46.2% routinely screen patients around forty years old while only 43.7% were regularly checking up the accuracy of the used sphygmomanometers . Conclusion: The participating physicians had poor knowledge towards some important items especially the prevalence and new classification of HTN. Their practices were not optimal as regards the accurate diagnosis of HTN and routine checkup and measuring blood pressure for people attending the PHC clinics. Recommendations to manage these defects were suggested.
Ayman S. Abdelhady
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community Based Interactive Approach-diabetes mellitus (CBIA-DM is an active self-learning method. This study is aimed at improving type 2 diabetic patients' knowledge, attitude and practice on diabetes self-care by implementing the CBIA-DM strategy. Time series, pre and post quasi-experimental design, Intervention group underwent CBIA-DM, DM-club and Normal-care group acted as control. Data were collected in pre-intervention, immediately, one, three and six months post intervention. Ranging scores for pre and post test questionnaires were: knowledge (018 and attitude (945; categorizing as rational scales of the scores in good, fair and poor. Practicing in diabetes self-care was assessed using 12 questionnaires, and categorized as adhere and not adhere to DM self-care. Effectiveness of CBIA-DM was evaluated based on the increasing number of participants in good knowledge and attitude levels, and adherence in practicing diabetes self-care. Results CBIA-DM group shows increasing number of participants in good level of knowledge from 40?% (n?=?30 up to 80?% at M?+?3 with scores significantly improved from 13.1?±?2.4 up to 15.4?±?2.0 (Wilcoxon test, p? Conclusions CBIA-DM strategy is effective to improve diabetic patients knowledge, attitude and practice on diabetes self-care. Repeating and improving the strategy program is needed to sustain the impact.
Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had...
Amalraj Edwin R; Chandrasekaran Nirmala; Solomon Sunithi; Sumbandam Raja P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prior to the availability of the specific pandemic vaccine, strategies to mitigate the impact of the disease typically involved antiviral treatment and non-pharmaceutical community interventions. However, compliance with these strategies is linked to risk perceptions, perceived severity and perceived effectiveness of the strategies. In 2010, we undertook a study to examine the knowledge, attitudes, risk perceptions, practices and barriers towards influenza and infection control strategies amongst domestic and international university students. Methods A study using qualitative methods that incorporated 20 semi-structured interviews was undertaken with domestic and international undergraduate and postgraduate university students based at one university in Sydney, Australia. Participants were invited to discuss their perceptions of influenza (seasonal vs. pandemic in terms of perceived severity and impact, and attitudes towards infection control measures including hand-washing and the use of social distancing, isolation or cough etiquette. Results While participants were generally knowledgeable about influenza transmission, they were unable to accurately define what pandemic influenza meant. While avian flu or SARS were mistaken as examples of past pandemics, almost all participants were able to associate the recent swine flu situation as an example of a pandemic event. Not surprisingly, it was uncommon for participants to identify university students as being at risk of catching pandemic influenza. Amongst those interviewed, it was felt that students were capable of fighting off any illness. The participants nominated hand washing as the most feasible and acceptable compared with social distancing and mask use. Conclusions Given the high levels of interaction that occurs in a university setting, it is really important that students are informed about disease transmission and about risk of infection. It may be necessary to emphasize that pandemic influenza could pose a real threat to them, that it is important to protect oneself from infection and that infection control measures can be effective.
Full Text Available Background and purpose: There are more than five million neonatal death around the world of which %19 was because of Asphyxia at birth time. In our country, there has been educational program in order to decrease the mortality caused by Asphyxia and to practice a scientific method for resuscitation. This study was conducted to determine the rate of knowledge, attitude and practice for every learner of neonatal resuscitation in the governmental hospitals of Mazandaran province in 2005(1384.Materials and Methods: current study was a descriptive cross sectional done on All Trainees who had professional direct contact with birth Asphyxia. We selected exactly 137 people who had attended Neonatal Resuscitation Workshop for three days.Results: The subjects under the study were %62/8 midwife and %89/8 women. Data show that % 44.5 had good knowledge and % 11.7 had very good knowledge on neonatal Resuscitation. The highest acknowledge was %93/4 and %89/1 on chest compression and breath stimulation way respectively. Data also suggested that totally % 96.34 of the subjects had good and very good attitudes towards neonatal resuscitation. The results show that only % 38.4 of the subjects under the study had a good level practice and their attitudes in terms of age were significantly different (P<0.01. Also, their practice on job showed a significant difference (P<0.017. In the study, there was a converse relation between age and professional experience which was r = 0.25 and r = 0.26, respectively.Conclusion: Results obtained suggest that the amount of knowledge and practice for the subjects under the study was average, but their attitudes towards neonatal resuscitation was good. There fore, according to the positive attitude of the subjects,there must be a trend to promote knowledge and practice.
M. Ahmady, M.Sc
To assess the knowledge and attitudes about dengue and practice of prevention followed by the residents of a rural area and an urban resettlement colony of East Delhi, an interview based cross sectional KAP study was undertaken in Jan 97 to Feb 97, a few months after the dengue epidemic in rural area and urban areas of East Delhi. A pre-structured and pre-tested format containing the relevant questions was administered to the subjects. A total of 687 subjects (334 rural and 353 urban) were interviewed. Nearly four fifth (82.3%) of these were aware of Dengue. Audiovisual media was the most common source of information in both the areas. Knowledge about the disease was fair to good. Fever was the commonest symptom of the disease known to 92% urban and 83% rural respondents followed by symptoms of bleeding and headache. Mosquito was known to spread the disease to 71% rural and 89% urban respondents. More than two third respondents in urban and two fifth in rural areas had used some method of mosquito control or personal protection during the epidemic. PMID:9914677
Gupta, P; Kumar, P; Aggarwal, O P
Background Chagas disease is a vector-borne parasitic disease of major public health importance. Current prevention efforts are based on triatomine vector control to reduce transmission to humans. Success of vector control interventions depends on their acceptability and value to affected communities. We aimed to identify opportunities for and barriers to improved vector control strategies in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. Methodology/principal findings We employed a sequence of qualitative and quantitative research methods to investigate knowledge, attitudes and practices surrounding Chagas disease, triatomines and vector control in three rural communities. Our combined data show that community members are well aware of triatomines and are knowledgeable about their habits. However, most have a limited understanding of the transmission dynamics and clinical manifestations of Chagas disease. While triatomine control is not a priority for community members, they frequently use domestic insecticide products including insecticide spray, mosquito coils and plug-in repellents. Families spend about $32 US per year on these products. Alternative methods such as yard cleaning and window screens are perceived as desirable and potentially more effective. Screens are nonetheless described as unaffordable, in spite of a cost comparable to the average annual spending on insecticide products. Conclusion/Significance Further education campaigns and possibly financing schemes may lead families to redirect their current vector control spending from insecticide products to window screens. Also, synergism with mosquito control efforts should be further explored to motivate community involvement and ensure sustainability of Chagas disease vector control.
Rosecrans, Kathryn; Cruz-Martin, Gabriela; King, Ashley; Dumonteil, Eric
Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 314 Trinidadian women, 40 years and older, to ascertain their breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Those with higher education had greater knowledge of the benefits of early breast cancer detection (p < .01) and knew that an abnormal mammography result (p = .01) or recall (p < .01) was not necessarily indicative of breast cancer. Inaccurate beliefs particularly that breast compression causes cancer were more likely among those with the least education (p = .04). Obesity and alcohol were identified as risk factors by 29.3% and 12.4%, respectively. Over two-thirds (70%) of mammograms were primarily the doctor's decision. Over 90% of women were satisfied post-mammography, most (94.6%) with plans for future use. Some (15.6%) reported pain and 48.7% reported discomfort, with over 70% of these finding the examination less painful than anticipated. Targeted culturally sensitive awareness campaigns are needed. Clinicians must be sensitized to their importance in recommending mammography. Data on patient satisfaction and pain perception can be publicized to encourage women who are hesitant about mammography. PMID:24509017
Gosein, Maria A; Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Narinesingh, Dylan; Ameeral, Anthony
Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective influenza pandemic management requires understanding of the factors influencing behavioral changes. We aim to determine the differences in knowledge, attitudes and practices in various different cohorts and explore the pertinent factors that influenced behavior in tropical Singapore. Methods We performed a cross-sectional knowledge, attitudes and practices survey in the Singapore military from mid-August to early-October 2009, among 3054 personnel in four exposure groups - laboratory-confirmed H1N1-2009 cases, close contacts of cases, healthcare workers, and general personnel. Results 1063 (34.8% participants responded. The mean age was 21.4 (SE 0.2 years old. Close contacts had the highest knowledge score (71.7%, p = 0.004 while cases had the highest practice scores (58.8%, p Conclusion Knowledge is a significant influence on attitudes and practices in a pandemic, and personal experience influences practice behaviors. Efforts should be targeted at educating the general population to improve practices in the current pandemic, as well as for future epidemics.
Lee Vernon J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence based medicine plays a crucial role as a tool that helps integrate research evidence into clinical practice. However, few reports have yet to examine its application in daily practice among resident physicians in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes towards and knowledge of EBM among resident physicians in Japanese and determine perceived barriers to its use. Findings A cross-sectional, self-administered anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 60 resident staffs at Saga University Hospital in Japan. Forty residents completed and returned the questionnaire. Fifty four percent of respondents understood the basic terminology of EBM, 3% could explain this to others, and 41% indicated they would like to understand the terminology more. Thirteen percent admitted having a good understanding of EBM basic skills. Fifty respondents indicated having read EBM sources, but only 3% indicated that they use these sources in clinical decision making. The most prominent barriers of EBM application revealed in this study were insufficient time to access the sources, a lack of native language references, and insufficient basic EBM skills, but not scepticism about the EBM concept. Conclusions In general, respondents positively welcomed EBM, and moderately understood and knew basic EBM skill; however, barriers in its application were shown to exist.
Emura Sei SE
Research question: What is the knowledge, attitude and practice towards HIV/AIDS in a general population? Objectives: (1) To assess the knowledge about mode of transmission, treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. (2) To study the socio demographic pattern, myths and misconceptions. Study design: Community based cross sectional study. Setting: Chunampett Village, Tamilnadu. Duration: March to May 2007. Participants: 845 both males and females abov...
Sanjay Kumar Gupta; Purty, Anil J.; Zile Singh; Bazroy, J.; Cherian, J.
Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:The food handling employee education program improves food safety. Determining knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP level of workers who prepare, distribute and sale the food products make easy to control food safety. This study aimed to evaluate effects of intensive food safety education course on KAP of food handlers. in Kermanshah."nMaterials andMethods: Knowledge, attitude and practice of 370workers of variety of food handling fields were studied before and after educational intervention course.Avalidated questionnaire about knowledge, attitude based on instruction from Ministry of Health and Medical Sciences for food handling was used for data collection. Paired t-test and ?2 were applied for statistical analysis."nResults: The results showed positive effects of education program on KAP of food handlers. There was significant increase in knowledge marks before and after intervention, 20.5+ 4.03 vs. 23.73 + 3.75 (p<0.001.Attitude and practice of participants were increased significantly before 107.2+14.6; 43.93+7.6 compared to after 112.23+14.5; 46.11+8 intervention respectively (p<0.001. The most increased mark of KAP was belonged to 21-30 years age group."nConclusion: Our findings confirm that educational intervention improved KAP of food handlers. To increase food safety, running periodical educational courses for the same filed workers with final exam and providing certificate highly recommended.
From February through April 2007, avian influenza (H5N1) was confirmed in poultry in 4 of 34 Afghan provinces. A survey conducted in 2 affected and 3 unaffected provinces found that greater knowledge about reducing exposure was associated with higher socioeconomic status, residence in affected provinces, and not owning backyard poultry.
Data from 409 Hispanic-American and 138 Anglo older women in Tucson identified few differences in their use of breast cancer screening and low levels of risk knowledge. Both groups fell well below recommended frequency of screening. Clinical examination and self-examination were used more than mammography. (SK)
Saint-Germain, Michelle A.; Longman, Alice J.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing trend of premarital sexual experience and unintended pregnancies in Malaysia warrants sustained and serious attention. The sensitivities of sex-related issues in a Muslim-majority country create various types of barriers to sexual and reproductive health information, support and practices. This study aims to gain understanding of knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of young women in Malaysia concerning reproductive, contraception and premarital sexual practices. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire carried out among 1695 female university students in a public university in Malaysia. Results Respondents had low scores for knowledge of reproduction and pregnancy (median=4, of maximum score 10, contraceptive uses (median=6, of maximum score 16 and contraceptive availability (median=3, of maximum score 13. The majority of women surveyed do not have liberal values in relation to premarital sexual behaviour (median=37, of maximum 40; higher scores on this scale corresponded to opposing premarital sex. The multivariate analyses showed that ethnic group was the strongest correlate of knowledge and attitude scores; being of Malay Muslim ethnicity was associated significantly with lower knowledge scores and premarital sex permissiveness. Other significant correlates were year of study, maternal occupational groups, level of religious faith, dating status and urbanrural localities. Level of premarital sex permissiveness was inversely correlated with reproduction and pregnancy knowledge score, and contraceptive knowledge scores. Conclusion Reproductive health knowledge and attitudes were intricately linked to religious values and cultural norms differences surrounding sexual issues.
Background: Child adoption is a recommended alternative form of infertility management. Infertility is of public health importance in Nigeria and many other developing nations. This is a result of its high prevalence and especially because of its serious social implications as the African society places a passionate premium on procreation in any family setting.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, ...
Omosun, Adenike O.; Odeyemi Kofoworola
Introduction: Iodine, vitamin A and iron are most important micronutrients in global public health terms; their lack represents a major threat to the health and development of populations the world over, particularly children in low-income countries. To combat the deficiency of micronutrients, awareness of their importance and their source plays vital role. Objective: to assess knowledge regarding important micronutrients in tribal students. Methodology: It is a cross sectional study conducte...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Emergency contraception (EC is a type of modern contraception which is indicated after unprotected sexual intercourse when regular contraception is not in use. The importance of EC is evident in preventing unintended pregnancies and its ill consequences like unintended child delivery or unsafe abortion, which are the most common causes of maternal mortality. Therefore, EC need to be available and used appropriately as a backup in case regular contraception is not used, misused or failed. Knowing that Ethiopia is one of the countries with highest maternal mortality rate, this study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of EC, and to further elucidate the relationship between these factors and some socioeconomic and demographic characteristics among female undergraduate students of Addis Ababa University (AAU. This information will contribute substantially to interventions intended to combat maternal mortality. Methods A Cross-sectional quantitative study among 368 AAU undergraduate students was conducted using self-administered questionnaire. Study participants were selected by stratified random sampling. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS Version 17. Results were presented using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation and logistic regression. Results Among the total participants (n = 368, only 23.4% were sexually active. Majority (84.2% had heard of EC; 32.3% had a positive attitude towards it. The main source of information reported by the respondents was Media (69.3%. Among those who were sexually active, about 42% had unprotected sexual intercourse. Among those who had unprotected sexual intercourse, 75% had ever used EC. Sexually active participants had significantly better attitude towards EC than sexually inactive participants (crude OR 0.33(0.15-0.71; even after adjusting for possible confounders such as age, region, religion, ethnicity, marital status, department and family education and income (adj. OR 0.36(0.15-0.86. Conclusions The study showed high EC awareness and usage in contrast to other studies in the city, which could be due to the fact that university students are relatively in a better educational level. Therefore, it is highly recommended that interventions intended to combat maternal mortality through contraceptive usage need to be aware of such information specific to the target groups.
Ahmed Fatuma A
Full Text Available Background: Emergency contraception is administered after unprotected intercourse to prevent unintended pregnancy. Sexually active young and adolescent women are at greatest risk of unintended pregnancy and thus unsafe abortion related morbidity and mortality. Objective: Purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and experiences on emergency contraceptive pill (ECP by female college students of Udaipur. Study design: Cross-sectional, pre-structured questionnaire based study. Material and methods: Study was conducted among 600 college going female students (arts, science and commerce faculty of two randomly selected girls colleges of Sukhadia University Udaipur. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions and test of significance (Chi square test and Mann Whitney U test using SPSS ver.16. Results: Students included in study were of 16-29 years age group (mean age 18.6±3.2 years, 225 (37.5% had adequate knowledge about emergency contraceptive pills, statistically significant difference in knowledge is seen among students who got knowledge from literary sources and health personnel (p<0.05. Majority of the science stream students (50% were having adequate knowledge followed by commerce and arts stream students respectively but statistically significant difference in knowledge is seen among all faculty students(p<0.05. Majority of students (78% know about the correct timing of EC pills administration. Among all the students only 201 (33.5% students shown positive attitude regarding EC pills. No significant association seen between adequate knowledge and positive attitude (p>0.05.Only 3% students had already used EC pills. Conclusion: Awareness of EC pills is low and there is a gap between knowledge and attitude. Appropriate awareness programme needed.
Arun Kumar, Keerti, Chandra P Sharma, Chetan K Jain
Objective: This study examined female college students' knowledge, attitudes, and breast cancer screening and determined significant predictors of breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammography among this population. Participants: A convenience sample of 1,074 college women from 3 universities participated in the research.
Early, Jody; Armstrong, Shelley Nicole; Burke, Sloane; Thompson, Doris Lee
A study assessed the impact of using modeling and rehearsal techniques for teaching breast self-examination to college students. Although students exposed to the techniques did not differ from a control group who read pamphlets in knowledge level, their attitudes changed somewhat. (PP)
Marty, Phillip J.; And Others
Full Text Available This study sought to examine the knowledge attitudes and practices of leaders in the tourism industry with regards to the possible contributions solar energy could provide to sustainable tourism development in Zimbabwe. This is in light of the fact that, this form of renewable energy could be harnessed for the benefit of tourism development throughout the country in view of the chronic shortages of electricity. An accidental sample of 25 leaders in the tourism industry running operations along a selected tourism route was surveyed to fulfill the objectives of the study. Their responses to a series of questions were reviewed comparatively to derive conclusions, which form the basis for recommended strategies and action plans. The research concluded that accurate information about the potential of solar energy needs to be disseminated to practitioners in the tourism industry for them to consider it as a viable alternative source of power. It is also recommended that government and other stakeholders in the energy sector step up efforts to make solar energy resources more readily accessible in the country.
To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to mold exposure in postflood New Orleans, the authors surveyed 159 residents and 76 remediation workers, using logistic regression to explore associations. Nearly all answered "yes" to the questionnaire item, "Do you think mold can make people sick?" and most knew respirators were recommended for cleaning mold. Residents (87%) and workers (47%) said they believed that television or radio were the best ways to communicate information about mold. Workers (24%) also suggested employers provided the best means for communication of this information. Few participants reliably used all recommended protective equipment. Residents cited respirator discomfort and unavailability as reasons for noncompliance; workers cited discomfort and inadequate training, with 50% reporting respirator fit testing. Spanish-speaking workers relied on employers for information. Self-employed workers used protective equipment infrequently. The authors recommend that information on postflood mold exposure be disseminated through media and employers, that protective equipment be made readily available for residents, and that workers receive better training and fit testing. In addition, they suggest that targeted approaches may benefit Spanish-speaking workers and the self-employed. PMID:17672351
Cummings, Kristin J; Van Sickle, David; Rao, Carol Y; Riggs, Margaret A; Brown, Clive M; Moolenaar, Ronald L
Objectives: Traditionally, summative practical examination in anatomy takes the form of spotters consisting of a stream of prosections, radiological images and dissections with pins indicating specific structures. Recently, we have started to administer similar examinations online using the quiz facility in Moodle (a free, open-source web application for producing modular internet-based courses) in addition to the traditional format. This paper reports on an investigation into students perceptions of each assessment environment. Methods: Over a 3-year period, practical assessment in anatomy was conducted either in traditional format or online via learning management software called Moodle. All students exposed to the two examination formats at the College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman, were divided into two categories: junior (Year 3) and senior (Year 4). An evaluation of their perception of both examination formats was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of restricted and free response items. Results: More than half of all students expressed a clear preference for the online environment and believed it was more exam-friendly. This preference was higher amongst senior students. Compared to females, male students preferred the online environment. Senior students were less likely to study on cadavers when the examination was conducted online. Specimen quality, ability to manage time, and seating arrangements were major advantages identified by students who preferred the online format. Conclusion: Computer-based practical examinations in anatomy appeared to be generally popular with our students. The students adopted a different approach to study when the exam was conducted online as compared to the traditional steeplechase format.
Inuwa, Ibrahim M; Taranikanti, Varna; Al-Rawahy, Maimouna; Habbal, Omar
Full Text Available
Background: Young people are attracted by body art and consider it as a way of being different. Body art (tattoos, piercing, etc. represents an important socio-cultural phenomenon which is not risk free for health. Existing literature, moreover, points out that deviant behaviours and unhealthy lifestyles are significantly associated with body art.
Objective and methods: The research was aimed to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of university students towards body art, highlighting the association between body art and some demographic variables, deviant behaviours, unhealthy lifestyles, knowledge of health risks and medical complications potentially involved. Data came from a cross-sectional study conducted on a sample, selected at random, of 1.200 undergraduate university students, (570, human sciences; 630, scientific areas. The instrument for the survey was a 21 item multiple choice questionnaire. Data was codified and statistical analysis was computed through Epi-Info and Openstat software.
Results: Students from a scientific background showed a higher rate of interest, (p<0.01 for the argument of body art. About one third of the surveyed individuals had at least one body art. Cultural choice and gender was associated with body art. Males, especially from the scientific area, were more attracted by temporary body art, while females preferred permanent tattoos. Students from humanistic backgrounds were associated with one body art and those from a scientific area with more than one (p<0.01. Unemployment, lack of partnership and family attitude towards body art, were positively associated with students body art. Body art was strictly associated with different unhealthy lifestyles, such as drug, alcohol and tobacco consumption, problem gambling and sexual activity before 18 years of age. A relevant part of students considered piercing and tattooing as having no consequences for infections and/or disease.
Conclusions: Body art was associated with unhealthy ifestyles and may be considered an indicator of risk taking behaviours. Individuals had no accurate idea of the consequences for their health and body, apart from a generic risk of infections. Education is a necessary tool for the modification of lifestyles and as a form of prevention ensuring the correct understanding and assessment of the health risk involved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV has consistently been found to afflict one in twenty pregnant women and is therefore considered a leading cause of physical injury, mental illness and adverse pregnancy outcome. A general antenatal screening policy has been advocated, though compliance with such guidelines tends to be low. We therefore attempted to identify potential barriers to IPV screening in a context where no guidelines have been instigated yet. Methods Questionnaire-based Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice survey among obstetrician-gynaecologists in Flanders, Belgium (n = 478. Results The response rate was 52.1% (249/478. Gynaecologists prove rather unfamiliar with IPV and therefore largely underestimate the extent of the problem. Merely 6.8% (17/249 of the respondents ever received or pursued any kind of education on IPV. Accordingly they do feel insufficiently skilled to deal with IPV, yet sufficiently capable of recognizing IPV among their patients. Survey participants largely refute the incentive of universal screening in favour of opportunistic screening and do not consider pregnancy as a window of opportunity for routine screening. They do consider screening for IPV as an issue of medical liability and therefore do not suffer from a lack of motivation to screen. In addition, obstetrician-gynaecologists do believe that screening for IPV may be an effective means to counteract abusive behaviours. Yet, their outcome expectancy is weighed down by their perceived lack of self-efficacy in dealing with IPV, by lack of familiarity with referral procedures and by their perceived lack of available referral services. Major external or patient-related barriers to IPV screening included a perceived lack of time and fear of offending or insulting patients. Overall, merely 8.4 % (21/245 of gynaecologists in this survey performed some kind of IPV questioning on a regular basis. Finally, physician education was found to be the strongest predictor of a positive attitude towards screening and of current screening practices. Conclusion Endorsement of physician training on IPV is an important first step towards successful implementation of screening guidelines for IPV. Additional introduction of enabling and reinforcement strategies such as screening tools, patient leaflets, formal referral pathways, and physician feedback may further enhance compliance with screening recommendations and guidelines.
Diarrhea constitutes a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Inappropriate drug prescribing is common in diarrhea, resulting in an increase in cost and adverse drug reactions. In Nepal, drug sellers often act as the first contact persons for the underprivileged. No information has been available regarding their knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding diarrhea management. Using a structured questionnaire, between the 1st of January and the 31st of December 2003, 109 drug sellers in eastern Nepal were interviewed about their educational status, patient/attendant presentation at the outlet and their advice to patients/attendants. Only 2.7% of drug sellers were qualified in health education. Eighty percent of the patients/attendants sought advice from the drug sellers, only 20% presented to the outlet with prescriptions. The data reveals that about half of them were taking note of the nature of the diarrhea. Although 62 (56.8%) of them were aware of dehydration, only 2 (1.8%) of them knew all three signs of dehydration (dry tongue, non-elastic skin and sunken eyes). Sixty-six (60.5%) of them knew about oral rehydration solution (ORS), its principle and the required period of administration. About 50 to 60% of them were aware of the implications resulting from dehydration from uncontrolled diarrhea and of the importance of ORS in its management. Only 20% of the drug sellers advised ORS alone, otherwise it was dispensed along with drugs, such as antimotility agents (AMA) or metronidazole. As a result of the above findings, it is important to educate the drug sellers by conferring knowledge about the ethical aspects of drugs in the management of diarrhea. PMID:16610662
Das, B P; Deo, S K; Jha, N; Rauniar, G P; Naga Rani, M A
Background: The most common complication of hospitalization in intensive care units (ICUs) is infections caused by health care. Although sepsis results in a small percentage of infections, it has a high mortality rate. Intensive care nurses play a critical role in the prevention, early detection, and beginning of therapeutic interventions in patients with sepsis. This study aimed to review the effects of an educational program on knowledge, attitude, and practice of ICU nurses in Shariati Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study on 64 nurses with at least one year of experience in ICU. The subjects were randomly selected and divided into test and control groups. Scores of knowledge, attitude, and practice of the participants were reviewed through a researcher-made questionnaire before and immediately and three weeks after a one-day workshop. Findings: Compared to baseline, there were significant increases in mean scores of knowledge, attitude, and practice in the test group immediately and three weeks after the education. Mean scores of knowledge in the test group before and immediately and 3 weeks after the intervention were 64.5, 84.9 and 85.2, respectively. The corresponding values for attitude were 73, 79.7, and 83.3. Mean scores of practice were 81.8, 90.5, and 91.3 before and immediately and 3 weeks after the intervention, respectively. In the control group, mean scores of knowledge before and immediately and 3 weeks after the educational course (which they did not attend) was 63.7, 63.9, and 63.5, respectively. Mean scores of attitude were respectively 72.8, 73.3, and 73.2 at the mentioned intervals. The corresponding values for practice were 82.1, 82.9, and 82.7. Conclusions: Training significantly improved levels of knowledge, attitude, and practice of ICU nurses in sepsis care. Therefore, compiling and organizing seminars and continuous basic educational workshops for sepsis care are recommended for health caregivers.
Yousefi, Hojatollah; Nahidian, Malihe; Sabouhi, Fakhri
Full Text Available Background: Statistics have shown that since 1988, a significant percentage of males are unwilling to seek medical care. The question is if they had the knowledge, worked in the health system and were educated, would this be any different? Aim: The current study aims to fill this void in the literature by examining the perception of rural male health workers (from the Western Region about prostate examination, and why they are reluctant to inquire about the probability of having, or the likelihood of not having prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: The study utilized primary cross-sectional data that was collected during February and March 2008 from 170 males (ages 29 years and older, health-care workers who were employed in particular rural health institutions in Jamaica (i.e. Western Regional Health Authority. SPSS was used to analyze the data. Results: When the respondents were asked Have you ever heard about the screening procedure for prostate? 71.2% indicated yes, but only 27.1% had got their prostate checked by a health practitioner. When respondents were asked to state what influenced their choice of not doing a digital rectal examination, 20.6% indicated comfort level; 9.4% stated the gender of the health practitioner, 5.3% mentioned fear and others did not respond. Of those who had the examination 2 years ago, 96.5% did not state the choice of method. Conclusion: The current study is limited in terms of its generalizability to rural males or rural males in Western Jamaica, but it does provide an insight into the difficulty of men in breaking away from culture.
Paul Andrew Bourne
Full Text Available Background: The major part of demand for blood in India has been meeting through voluntary blood donations. The healthy, active and receptive huge student population is potential blood donors to meet safe blood requirements. However, there is a paucity of studies on awareness and attitude among health science students on voluntary blood donation. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitude about blood donation among health science students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 410 health sciences students from different streams in a University campus of South India through a structured survey questionnaire in the year 2009. Results: The overall knowledge on blood donation was good, but majority (62% of students never donated blood. Knowledge level was found highest among allied health science (53.1% and lowest among pharmacy students (20.7%. Feeling of medically unfit and never thought of blood donation were the major reasons for not donating blood. A significant association was observed between different streams of students and levels of knowledge and attitude about blood donation. Conclusion: This study elicits the importance of adopting effective measures in our campuses to motivate about voluntary blood donation among students.
Full Text Available It is well known that the management of hypertension reduces the incidence further complications like myocardial infarction, stroke and vascular complications. Hypertension is a major health problem with individual, social and economical consequences. Knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP surveys are important and effective in terms of providing baseline for evaluating intervention programmes. In this brief review the role of pharmacist in hypertension better understanding of knowledge attitude and practice towards disease management was assessed. The data cited in this brief review were mainly selected the articles from Medline/Pub Med. The articles associated with Hypertension and Knowledge attitude and practice were randomly selected.The results obtained that pharmacological and non-pharmacological benefits can be achieved through the patients understanding of disease, medications & lifestyle modification when the pharmacist provides them with useful practical information, particularly counseling to hypertension. Acknowledgment of the role pharmacist in hypertension would be conducive to better understanding the pathogenesis of hypertension, and provide new insight for improved treatment and prevention.
Biradar S S
Full Text Available The Health Belief model says for communities to take part in an activity, they need to perceive the risk of failing to take part and the benefits associated with taking part. A study was carried out in Luvuvhu catchment of South Africa to evaluate community knowledge, attitudes, practices and perceptions relating to water quality and safety. The study was divided into two parts. The first part involved a population of over 8000 people and participatory tools were used to speed up the data collection process. The participants were divided into sessions of 45 people each. Each session was divided into 3 groups of 15 people each and each group was then given an assignment to work on and write the findings on flipcharts. Each group then presented at a plenary and the research assistants recorded the findings. The second part was based on the findings from the first part of the study. One major finding was that the communities relied on the physical appearance of water to decide whether the water is safe or not for domestic use. Therefore, the second study aimed at determining the point at which the communities would stop using water for various domestic uses based on the turbidity of the water. Samples of the water with predetermined turbidity values were shown to 1000 participants and each of the participants was asked to indicate where he or she would use the water for various domestic uses such as drinking, cooking, bathing and washing utensils. Although the communities had a wealth of knowledge and practices relating to water quality and safety, their perception of safety using turbidity as an indicator did not tally with scientifically accepted guidelines. Some participants were willing to accept water with turbidity values as high as 39 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU for drinking which is above the recommended maximum turbidity levels in water for domestic use in South African National Standards (SANS 241 of 5 NTU. The communities in Luvuvhu catchment are at risk of contracting water borne diseases and they require health education to raise their level of awareness regarding water quality and safety issues.
Background: Emergency contraception is administered after unprotected intercourse to prevent unintended pregnancy. Sexually active young and adolescent women are at greatest risk of unintended pregnancy and thus unsafe abortion related morbidity and mortality. Objective: Purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitude and experiences on emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) by female college students of Udaipur. Study design: Cross-sectional, pre-structured questionnaire based study. M...
Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are common in children and represent a significant cause of antibiotic abuse which contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance. A survey was conducted in Cyprus in 2006 to assess parents and pediatricians Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) concerning the role of antibiotics in children with URTIs. A school-based stratified geographic clustering sampling was used and a pre-tested KAP questionnaire was distributed. A different qu...
Andreas Rouusounides; Vassiliki Papaevangelou; Adamos Hadjipanayis; Sotiria Panagakou; Maria Theodoridou; George Syrogiannopoulos; Christos Hadjichristodoulou
A large proportion of mosquito larval habitats in urban and rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa are man-made. Therefore, community-based larval source management (LSM) could make a significant contribution to malaria control in an integrated vector management approach. Here we implemented an exploratory study to assess malaria prevalence and people's knowledge, attitudes and practices on malaria transmission, its control and the importance of man-made aquatic habitats for the development ...
Postpartum women in the Honduran health system: folic acid knowledge, attitudes, and practices Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas relacionados con el ácido fólico en mujeres recién paridas en Honduras
OBJECTIVES: This study had two purposes: first, to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to folic acid and birth defects among a convenience sample of postpartum Honduran women; and second, to identify food consumption patterns in this population and determine high-consumption staples for potential folic acid fortification. METHODS: Convenience sampling methodology was used to recruit potential study participants. Participants for this study were 2 619 postpartum Honduran ...
Milla, Gayle R.; Flores, Alina L.; Edgardo Umaña; Mayes Ileana; Jorge Rosenthal
Abstract Objective To evaluate the impacts of using SMS on improving laboratory test levels and Knowledge, Attitude, Practice (KAP) and Self Efficacy (SE) of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in Iran. Materials and methods In this randomized controlled trial study, a total of 81 type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned into two groups exp. group (n?=?43) and cont. group (n?=?38). Only exp. group received 4 messages weekly consisted of di...
To assess the awareness of Pharmacovigilance among the medical graduates and to evaluate the need of inclusion of KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practice) of Pharmacovigilance in Internship Training Programme as an educational intervention.Material and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Internship orientation program in a rural hospital of central India. It was a Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study in which 65 Interns (medical graduates) were participated. Semi-structured, Pre-Des...
Background : School health program (SHP) is an important component of the overall health care delivery system of any country. In developing countries such as Nigeria where infant and early childhood mortality is high its importance cannot be overemphasized. For this reason and the recent action plan of the Federal Government of Nigeria concerning SHP, the knowledge, attitude and practice of SHP among head teachers of primary schools in a Local Government Area in Nigeria was eva...
Ofovwe G; Ofili A
Background: Adolescence (10-19 years) is one of the most challenging periods in human development. A second period of rapid growth occurs during the teen years. Not much information is available on the effect of the socio-economic status on the outcome of nutrition education in teenage girls. Objective : The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of socio- economic status on the efficacy of nutrition education in promoting the nutritional knowledge, attitude and practice in first-g...
Taslimi Taleghani M; Djazayery A; Keshavarz S.A.; Sadrzadeh Yeganeh H.; Rahimi A
Full Text Available Background and Objective : This study aims to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards tuberculosis (TB among treatment partners seen at the out-patient department (OPD of the Lady Hill Urban Health Care Centre, KMC, Mangalore from April to May 2009. Methodology: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards TB among treatment partners (age more than 12 years old; pediatric age group was excluded seen at the OPD. A pre-validated questionnaire, which consisted of 20 questions, was distributed to treatment partners of these patients. Results: Out of the 184 respondents, 154 (83.70% were aware of and had good knowledge about TB. Eighty-one percent of the respondents had acceptable attitudes and practices toward the disease. 96% were aware that TB is a highly infectious disease, while 79.3% believed that it is a curable disease. The main source of information about tuberculosis was the mass media (newspapers, television and radio in 42.5% of the respondents. In the survey, only 16.3% patients were aware about DOTS and only 42.4% knew about free treatment services. Conclusion: There is still a need to strengthen the educational activities on TB through mass media; they are excellent venues for information-dissemination, thus, leading to better case detection.
Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to identify the extent of dental caries occurrence and to relate it with the dental health knowledge, attitude and practice among adolescents in Ibadan North (LGA of Oyo State Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. Self structured questionnaire and dental examination were instruments used for obtaining the necessary information. A total number of six hundred and thirty seven adolescents, who were drawn from ten schools within Ibadan North (LGA of Oyo State Nigeria, participated in the study. Participants displayed significantly high knowledge, positive attitude and sound practices towards dental health. Percentage dental caries occurrence was 6.1% and this was found to be prevalent among females (69.2%, among those within the age bracket 14-16 years (61.5% and those attending public Schools (76.9%. Dental caries occurrence among these adolescents was also observed to be negatively correlated with their dental health knowledge (r = -0.026, attitude (r = -0.031 and practice (r = -0.060. Health instructional programs that encourage healthful dental habits among adolescents should be intensified in schools.
Background Antenatal care (ANC) is a key strategy to decreasing maternal mortality in low-resource settings. ANC clinics provide resources to improve nutrition and health knowledge and promote preventive health practices. We sought to compare the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) among women seeking and not-seeking ANC in rural Kenya. Methods Data from a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in Western Province, Kenya were used. Nutrition knowledge (NKS), health knowledge (HKS), attitude score (AS), and dietary diversity score (DDS) were constructed indices. ?2 test and Students t-test were used to compare proportions and means, respectively, to assess the difference in KAP among pregnant women attending and not-attending ANC clinics. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess the impact of the number of ANC visits (none, NKS was 4.6 (1.9) out of 11, HKS was 6.2 (1.7) out of 12, DDS was 4.9 (1.4) out of 12, and AS was 7.4 (2.2) out of 10. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and DDS were not significantly different between ANC clinic attending and non-attending women. Among women who attended ANC clinics, 82.6% received malaria and/or antihelmintic treatment, compared to 29.6% of ANC clinic non-attendees. Higher number of ANC clinic visits and higher maternal education level were significantly positively associated with maternal health knowledge. Conclusions Substantial opportunities exist for antenatal KAP improvement among women in Western Kenya, some of which could occur with greater ANC attendance. Further research is needed to understand multi-level factors that may affect maternal knowledge and practices.
Hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes are established risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. In the past decade a general increase in CVD risk factors in the population aged 65 and older, along with suboptimal control rates, have occurred. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, the authors describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of Iranian females regarding risk factors for CVD, in an attempt to help with the development of strategies to control risk factors and CVD. Participants were 200 women ages 15-49 referred to health centers in Yazd, selected from four different centers. Data were gathered through a questionnaire consisting of demographics and questions related to KAP. The validity of the questionnaire was determined by a health education specialist, with its reliability determined by piloting and measuring the related Cronbach's alpha (Alpha = 0.720). Measuring knowledge of CVD on a scale of 0-20, the mean knowledge score was 10.203.91. More than 76% of the participants knew that CVD is preventable. Ninety-one percent liked exercising and believed that exercising would make them feel better. The average mean scores for attitudes of participants toward CVD were 30.31 ± 3.21 out of 36. The authors conclude that there is a need for enhancing mothers' general knowledge about the disease, because of the increasing rates of CVD in females. This will lead to improvements in attitude and practice. Furthermore, learning in groups of 12 can be a beneficial educational method. PMID:23638684
Mazloomy, Seyed Said; Baghianimoghadam, Mohammad Hosein; Ehrampoush, Mohammad Hasan; Baghianimoghadam, Behnam; Mazidi, Maysam; Mozayan, Mohammad Reza
Full Text Available Abstract Background Both conflict and HIV affect sub-Saharan Africa, and supportive approaches for HIV prevention among refugees are crucial. Peer education has been associated with improved HIV outcomes, though relatively little research has been published on refugee settings. The primary objective of this study was to assess whether exposure to refugee peer education was associated with improved HIV knowledge, attitudes, or practice outcomes among refugees in Guinea. Secondary objectives were to assess whether gender, age, or formal education were more strongly associated than peer education with improved HIV outcomes. Methods Data was collected by cross-sectional survey from 889 reproductive-age men and women in 23 camps in the Forest Region of Guinea. Selected exposures (i.e. peer education, gender, formal education, age were analysed for associations with HIV outcomes using logistic regression odds ratios (OR. Results Most participants (88% had heard of HIV, particularly those exposed to peer or formal education. Most correctly identified ways to protect themselves, while maintaining misconceptions about HIV transmission. Women and those exposed to either peer or formal education had significantly fewer misconceptions. Half of participants considered themselves at risk of HIV, women with 52% higher odds than men (adjusted OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.01-2.29. Participants exposed to peer education had more than twice the odds of reporting having made HIV-avoidant behavioural changes than unexposed participants (72% versus 58%; adjusted OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.52-4.08. While women had 57% lower odds than men of reporting HIV-avoidant behavioural changes (OR 0.43, 95%CI 0.31-0.60, women exposed to peer education had greater odds than exposed men of reporting HIV-avoidant changes (OR 2.70 versus OR 1.95. Staying faithful (66% was the most frequent behavioural change reported. Conclusions Peer education was most strongly associated with reported HIV-avoidant behaviour change. Gender was most associated with HIV knowledge and risk perception. Refugee women had fewer misconceptions than men had, but were more likely to report HIV risk and less likely to report making behavioural changes. Peer education appears promising for HIV interventions in chronic-emergency settings, if gender disparities and related barriers to condom usage are also addressed.
von Roenne Anna
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of knowledge, sexual practices and attitude of medical students towards AIDS/ HIV. Objective: To assess the knowledge, sexual practices and attitudes of medical students in relation to HIV/AIDS. Study Design: Cross- sectional. Participants: 409 first year medical students. Study variables: Sex knowledge, sexual practices, Attitudes, Risk perception. Results: 92% of the students had heard about AIDS predominantly through mass media. Many students had misconception about transmission of HIV infection should not be allowed to work in the clinic or hospital. 36% of male and 9% of female students admitted indulging in safe sexual practices mostly with their friends.
Amalraj Edwin R
Full Text Available This study aims at determining the knowledge, attitudes and practices of urban refugee women regarding the exclusive breastfeeding (EBF in order to promote its practice among this group of population and increase the number of women who adhere to it for achieving a better development of their children. The specific objectives of the study are to determine the urban refugee womens knowledge regarding EBF, to identify their source of information about EBF, to assess their attitudes towards EBF and to determine EBF practice rate among these women. This is a descriptive crosssectional study. It involves 90 urban refugee women who had children aged six months to two years during the period of the study. The study was conducted between January 2011 and mid-February of the same year.The main results are the following: 74.4% of the mothers have correct knowledge about the EBF, and the health facilities are reported to at 90 % their main source of the information 71.1% of the mothers have positive attitude towards EBF, but 34.4 % practised EBF up to 6 months. There is no significant correlation between the dependant and the independent variables (p > 0.05.The factors leading the mothers in the study to such low practice of EBF, which are not captured by this study, might be anchored in their cultural or traditional practices. For almost all of the mothers come from the same country: the Democratic Republic of the Congo; mainly from the East of the country.Therefore, as a recommendation, a qualitative research should diligently be conducted in order to dig up the reasons for these womens failure in practising EBF to six months. In addition, the womens sensitisation for EBF practice should continue and be enhanced.
Gedeon Jino Bahemuka
Management literature highlights several potential benefits of institutionalized socialization practices that attempt to increase cohesiveness among employees. This article posits that such practices might also contribute to a biased perception of internally generated knowledge and therefore to a greater reluctance to adopt external knowledge â?? enhancing the so-called not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome. Drawing on multi-informant survey data, the authors find that institutionalized socialization practices are associated with the NIH syndrome. This association is however muted in highly technologically specialized companies.
Burcharth, Ana Luiza de AraÃºjo; Fosfuri, Andrea
Background Sexual assault is a threat to public health in refugee and conflict affected settings, placing survivors at risk for unintended pregnancy, unsafe abortion, STIs, HIV, psychological trauma, and social stigma. In response, the International Rescue Committee developed a multimedia training tool to encourage competent, compassionate, and confidential clinical care for sexual assault survivors in low-resource settings. This study evaluated the effect of the training on healthcare providers attitudes, knowledge, confidence, and practices in four countries. Methods Using a mixed-methods approach, we surveyed a purposive sample of 106 healthcare providers before and 3 months after training to measure attitudes, knowledge, and confidence. In-depth interviews with 40 providers elaborated on survey findings. Medical record audits were conducted in 35 health facilities before and 3 months after the intervention to measure healthcare providers practice. Quantitative and qualitative data underwent statistical and thematic analysis. Results While negative attitudes, including blaming and disbelieving women who report sexual assault, did not significantly decrease among healthcare providers after training, respect for patient rights to self-determination and non-discrimination increased from 76% to 91% (p?sexual assault survivors increased from 49% to 62% (p?sexual assault are hard to change, training can improve healthcare providers respect for patient rights and knowledge and confidence in direct patient care, resulting in more competent and compassionate clinical care for sexual assault survivors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence exists regarding the full prevention of HCV transmission to hemodialysis patients by implementing universal precaution. However, little information is available regarding the frequency with which hospitals have adopted evidence-based practices for preventing HCV infection among hemodialysis patients. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted among nurses in Calabria region (Italy in order to acquire information about the level of knowledge, the attitudes and the frequencies of evidence-based practices that prevent hospital transmission of HCV. Methods All 37 hemodialysis units (HDU of Calabria were included in the study and all nurses were invited to participate in the study and to fill in a self-administered questionnaire. Results 90% of the nurses working in HDU participated in the study. Correct answers about HCV pattern of transmission ranged from 73.7% to 99.3% and were significantly higher in respondents who knew that isolation of HCV-infected patients is not recommended and among those who knew that previous bloodstream infections should be included in medical record and among nurses with fewer years of practice. Most correctly thought that evidence-based infection control measures provide adequate protection against transmission of bloodborne pathogens among healthcare workers. Positive attitude was significantly higher among more knowledgeable nurses. Self-reporting of appropriate handwashing procedures were significantly more likely in nurses who were aware that transmission of bloodborne pathogens among healthcare workers may be prevented through adoption of evidence-based practices and with a correct knowledge about HCV transmission patterns. Conclusions Behavior changes should be aimed at abandoning outdated practices and adopting and maintaining evidence-based practices. Initiatives focused at enabling and reinforcing adherence to effective prevention practices among nurses in HDU are strongly needed.
Full Text Available Background: Death related to unintended pregnancy associated events is a series public health concern in Ethiopia. This is very common in young adolescents for whom life is full of adventure and temptation with very little knowledge about the consequences of their reckless activities. Emergency contraceptives are the only method that can be used within short time after sexual intercourse, offering a second chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives among female college students at Mekelle town, Ethiopia.Methods: An institutional based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 616 female college students at Mekelle town from March to July, 2011. Multistage sampling technique with Probabilities proportional to size was used. Data were analyzed by SPSS window version 16.0 software package and presented using frequencies, percentages. Crude & adjusted odds ratio were used to control the possible confounding variables. Results: Of the total respondents, 393(67.3% of them replied that they have heard about emergency contraceptives. Among those who have ever heard of emergency contraceptives, 224 (57% mentioned pills only, 9 (2.3% mentioned intrauterine contraceptive devices only and 154(39.2% mentioned both pill & IUCDs. 263(45% of the respondents were knowledgeable towards ECs, and about 271(46.4% of the students had positive attitude towards emergency contraceptives. Of the sexually active respondents 70(24.2% only reported that they had used emergency contraceptive methods previously. Whereas, 219(75.8% were not used emergency contraceptives; some of the reasons were lack of knowledge about ECs (42.9%; no desire to use (22.8% and inaccessibility toward emergency contraceptives (16.4%.Conclusion: The study indicated low level of knowledge; very low level of practice and majority showed negative attitude towards emergency contraceptives.
Haftom Gebrehiwot*, Berhane Gebrekidan, Haftu Berhe and Kalayou Kidanu
Full Text Available Objectives: To compare adolescents? sexual knowledge, attitudes and practice in Serbia presently and eight years ago with the aim of establishing the progress in education and plan further actions for improving reproductive health of our adolescents. Methods: 933 high school adolescents in Northern part of Serbia, in eight high schools were involved in the study conducted in year 2008. Questionnaire made for this survey included questions about knowledge, attitudes and practices of adolescents in reproductive health (sexuality, contraception and STI. Comparison is made with the situation in year 2000. Results: Almost half of the high school adolescents are sexually active ? 44 %, the mean age of first intercourse being16 years. Only 57.3 % of adolescents use contraception regularly, 40.7 % use it sometimes and 2 % have never used it. Majority of adolescents used condom ? 58.1 %, and one quarter used a combination of several means of contraception ? 26.1 %. There is not enough knowledge about significant STIs (Chlamydia, HPV, herpes. Half of adolescents want more education on sexuality, STIs and contraception, in schools, from experts. Conclusions: There are actions being conducted in Serbia with the aim of improvement of reproductive health of young people, but organized sexual education in the schools is not yet mandatory.
Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar si el contenido periodístico que promueven los medios escritos de comunicación colectiva de Costa Rica contribuyen a fortalecer los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas, de la población en relación con el dengue. Método: Se tomó en cuenta 269 artículos aparecidos en 12 medios de comunicación escrita que se publicaron durante los años 2006, 2007 y 2008. Resultados: De acuerdo con el análisis, en un 66.6% de las informaciones se refuerzan conocimientos sobre el dengue y solo en un 33.39% de ellas, se promueven actitudes y prácticas que ayuden a mitigar el impacto que tiene la enfermedad en territorio costarricense. Conclusión: Los medios de comunicación escrita de Costa Rica privilegian las informaciones contra el dengue, reforzando los tópicos relacionados con el conocimiento.Objective: To determine if the promote journalistic content written mediacollective Costa Rica contribute to strengthen the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the population in relation to dengue. Method: The study covered 269 articles which were published over the years 2006, 2007, and 2008 in 12 written media. Result: According to the analysis, knowledge on the dengue fever is reinforced in 66.6% of the stories, while only 33.39% of them promote attitudes and practices to help mitigate the impact of the disease in Costa Rica. Conclusion: This research shows, following a content analysis, that Costa Rican written media highlight information against the dengue fever, reinforcing related topics with knowledge.
María Isabel Solís Ramírez
Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Determinar si el contenido periodístico que promueven los medios escritos de comunicación colectiva de Costa Rica contribuyen a fortalecer los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas, de la población en relación con el dengue. Método: Se tomó en cuenta 269 artículos aparecidos en 12 medios de [...] comunicación escrita que se publicaron durante los años 2006, 2007 y 2008. Resultados: De acuerdo con el análisis, en un 66.6% de las informaciones se refuerzan conocimientos sobre el dengue y solo en un 33.39% de ellas, se promueven actitudes y prácticas que ayuden a mitigar el impacto que tiene la enfermedad en territorio costarricense. Conclusión: Los medios de comunicación escrita de Costa Rica privilegian las informaciones contra el dengue, reforzando los tópicos relacionados con el conocimiento. Abstract in english Objective: To determine if the promote journalistic content written mediacollective Costa Rica contribute to strengthen the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the population in relation to dengue. Method: The study covered 269 articles which were published over the years 2006, 2007, and 2008 in 1 [...] 2 written media. Result: According to the analysis, knowledge on the dengue fever is reinforced in 66.6% of the stories, while only 33.39% of them promote attitudes and practices to help mitigate the impact of the disease in Costa Rica. Conclusion: This research shows, following a content analysis, that Costa Rican written media highlight information against the dengue fever, reinforcing related topics with knowledge.
María Isabel, Solís Ramírez; Marylene, Quesada Quesada; Irisella, Gutiérrez Hernández.
Full Text Available Introducción: el uso de instrumentos cortopunzantes durante la formación odontológica y la inexperiencia que tienen los estudiantes para su buen manejo incrementan el riesgo de accidentes ocupacionales. Objetivos: describir la ocurrencia de accidentes ocupacionales en estudiantes de odontología y su relación con conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre los riesgos a los que están expuestos. Métodos: la muestra estuvo conformada por 210 estudiantes que se encontraban en prácticas preclínicas y clínicas en la Universidad de Cartagena, durante el primer periodo académico de 2011. Se utilizó una encuesta estructurada para evaluar las variables de estudio. Los datos fueron analizados a través de distribuciones de frecuencia y proporciones. Para establecer relaciones entre los conocimientos, las actitudes y las prácticas con la ocurrencia de los accidentes y las variables sociodemográficas, se utilizó la prueba Ji cuadrada con un límite de significación de 0,05. Resultados: los accidentes ocupacionales estuvieron presentes en 95 (45,2 % estudiantes, se registró un nivel bueno de conocimientos en 111 (52,8 % participantes, actitudes favorables en 182 (86,6 % estudiantes y 190 (90,4 %, presentaron prácticas desfavorables; no se observaron relaciones estadísticamente significativas entre la ocurrencia de los accidentes y los conocimientos, actitudes y las practicas de los estudiantes. Conclusiones: la ocurrencia de accidentes ocupacionales se considera alta y no se relaciona con los conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas, lo que permite suponer la necesidad de un ambiente y una cultura saludable que continuamente esté educando y velando por el cumplimiento de las medidas de bioseguridad desde las practicas estudiantiles.Introduction: both the use of sharp cutting instruments for dental training and the lack of experience of the students in properly handling them increase the risk of occupational accidents. Objective: to describe the occurrence of occupational accidents in dentistry students and its relationship with the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding the risks they are exposed to. Methods: the sample included 210 dentistry students, who were in pre-clinical and clinical practices in the University of Cartagena, during the first academic period of 2011. A structured survey to evaluate the study variables was used. Frequency and ratio distributions served to analyze data. The Chi square test was used to establish relationships between knowledge, attitudes and practices and the prevalence of occupational accidents and the socio demographic variables, assuming a significance limit of 0,05. Results: ninety five students (45.2 % suffered occupational accidents; a good level of knowledge was found in 111 students (52.8 %; favorable attitudes were seen in 182 (86,6% whereas 190 (90.4 % students presented with negative practices. There was no statistically significant relationship between the occurrence of accidents and the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the students. Conclusions: the prevalence of occupational accidents is high, but unrelated to the knowledge, attitudes and practices, which allows assuming that healthy environment and culture are required to continue educating the students and ensuring compliance with the biosafety measures since the stage of student practices.
Katherine Arrieta Vergara
Full Text Available Background:Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI is responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in under five children in all over the world. World Health Organization in 1990, estimated that ARI constituted the most common causes of death in under five children, being responsible for 4.3 million of 12.9 million death worldwide . In developing countries 30% of mortality in under fives is due to ARI. ARI is in fact the major cause of preventable death among under five children in developing world . In this scenario study of knowledge, attitude and practice of mother, especially in this part of the world, where there is no data, is important.Objective: To study and assess the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding the ARI among mothers in both urban and rural communities of Burdwan district, West Bengal, India.Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was covering 600 mothers living in urban and rural area of Burdwan district from October 2011 to February 2012.Result: Questionnaire regarding knowledge revealed that 40% of mothers preferred private set up as a place of choice for treatment (more in urban area 55%. 70% of mothers preferred allopathic medicine as a choice of type of treatment. 42.5% of mothers rated diseases as serious(more in urban area 55%. 50% mothers were illiterate (70% in rural area and 66.7% mothers were housewives.Conclusion: The study strongly towards the low utilization of basic health services in government set up, lack of mother's education especially in prevention and control of ARI. Health education can change health care seeking behaviors and attitude of parents and other family members to take care of the ARI child during illness.
BANDYOPADHYAY DR DEBASIS
Full Text Available Background: Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency can cause anemia which may lead growth and development impairments. This study was aimed to determine serum folate levels among infants aged 68 months and the relation to infants nutritional indicators and maternal knowledge-attitude-practice about infant feeding.Methods: A crosssectional design was implemented in infants aged 68 months and their mothers as respondents who met the study criteria. Data collected among the infants included sex, age, length, weight, intake of energy, protein and folate (based on a onemonth semiquantitative FFQ and a 24hour food recall, serum folate and hemoglobin levels. Data collected among the mothers included age, education level, income based on average minimum monthly wage, knowledge, attitude and behavior concerning infants feeding, i.e. breast milk and complementary feeding practices.Results: This study found that the median of serum folate levels was 43.05 nmol/L with values ranging from 19.92 nmol/L to 104.24 nmol/L. Serum folate level had a strong positive correlation with its related factors, protein and folate intake.Conclusions: Protein-folaterich complementay food should be provided to infants aged 6 months and over to maintain serum folate level. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:138-42Keywords: Folate, infants, nutrient intake, nutritional status
Army barracks in Nigeria have low contraceptive prevalence rates (CPRs) and many children per family. The aim of this interventional study, involving 963 married women, is to determine the impact of health education on family planning knowledge, attitudes, and practices among married barrack women. The intervention group attended a 50-minute health talk and demonstrations on family planning methods. In the intervention group, the mean knowledge score rose significantly, from 5.5 points to 7.8 points post-intervention (t = -16.7281, p = 0.0000, df = 460). In addition, the CPR increased significantly, from 11.8% at baseline to 22.4% post-intervention (McNemar's chi2 = 125.41, p = 0.0000). Such significant changes were not noted in the control group. We conclude that health education is an effective intervention for improving knowledge about and attitudes towards contraceptives and their use among married women in military barracks in Nigeria. Intense and sustained health education is therefore recommended in addressing the low CPR in Nigeria. PMID:24796173
Abdulrazaq, A G; Kabir, S; Mohammad, N S; Suleiman, I H
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O câncer da mama é um dos principais problemas de saúde pública e a educação para o auto-exame mamário é uma das etapas fundamentais na identificação de tumores da mama em fase inicial. Realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de avaliar o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática do auto-exame das mam [...] as entre usuárias de centros de saúde. MÉTODOS: Em estudo tipo inquérito CAP (conhecimento, atitude e prática) foram entrevistadas 663 mulheres de 13 centros de saúde municipais selecionados de forma aleatória. O número de entrevistas em cada centro de saúde foi proporcional ao número médio mensal de mulheres atendidas. As respostas das usuárias foram descritas quanto ao conhecimento, atitude e prática, e suas respectivas adequações para o auto-exame das mamas, como previamente definido. A adequação foi comparada entre as categorias das variáveis de controle pelo teste X² RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que o conhecimento e a prática do auto-exame das mamas foram adequados em 7,4% e 16,7% das entrevistadas respectivamente, embora a atitude frente a este procedimento tenha sido adequada em 95,9% das entrevistas. O estudo também mostrou que o esquecimento desta prática foi a principal barreira para a sua não realização, sendo referido por 58,1% das mulheres. CONCLUSÕES: As mulheres que utilizaram os centros de saúde tiveram conhecimento e prática inadequados para auto-exame das mamas, apesar de apresentarem atitude adequada e favorável à realização desse procedimento. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is one of the most important problems of public health and education regarding breast self-examination is one of the important steps for identifying breast tumors at an early stage. The present study was carried out to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of breast self- [...] examination among patients attending health centers. METHODS: In a KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practice) survey 663 women of 13 randomly selected municipal health centers were interviewed. The number of interviews in each health center was proportional to the mean number of women seen per month. In the data analysis, women's answers for knowledge, attitude and practice regarding breast self-examination were classified according to their adequacy as previously defined. Adequacy was compared among categories of control variables with X² test. RESULTS: The results showed that knowledge and practice of breast self-examination were adequate in 7.4% and 16.7%, respectively. However, attitude was adequate in 95.9% of the women interviewed. The study also showed that 58.1% of the women interviewed referred that forgetfulness was the main barrier for not performing self-examination. CONCLUSIONS: Women attending the health centers sampled in this study had inadequate knowledge and practice about breast self-examination but they had an adequate and favorable attitude about it.
Luiz Alberto Barcelos, Marinho; Maria Salete, Costa-Gurgel; José Guilherme, Cecatti; Maria José Duarte, Osis.
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: O câncer da mama é um dos principais problemas de saúde pública e a educação para o auto-exame mamário é uma das etapas fundamentais na identificação de tumores da mama em fase inicial. Realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de avaliar o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática do auto-exame das mam [...] as entre usuárias de centros de saúde. MÉTODOS: Em estudo tipo inquérito CAP (conhecimento, atitude e prática) foram entrevistadas 663 mulheres de 13 centros de saúde municipais selecionados de forma aleatória. O número de entrevistas em cada centro de saúde foi proporcional ao número médio mensal de mulheres atendidas. As respostas das usuárias foram descritas quanto ao conhecimento, atitude e prática, e suas respectivas adequações para o auto-exame das mamas, como previamente definido. A adequação foi comparada entre as categorias das variáveis de controle pelo teste X² RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que o conhecimento e a prática do auto-exame das mamas foram adequados em 7,4% e 16,7% das entrevistadas respectivamente, embora a atitude frente a este procedimento tenha sido adequada em 95,9% das entrevistas. O estudo também mostrou que o esquecimento desta prática foi a principal barreira para a sua não realização, sendo referido por 58,1% das mulheres. CONCLUSÕES: As mulheres que utilizaram os centros de saúde tiveram conhecimento e prática inadequados para auto-exame das mamas, apesar de apresentarem atitude adequada e favorável à realização desse procedimento. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is one of the most important problems of public health and education regarding breast self-examination is one of the important steps for identifying breast tumors at an early stage. The present study was carried out to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of breast self- [...] examination among patients attending health centers. METHODS: In a KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practice) survey 663 women of 13 randomly selected municipal health centers were interviewed. The number of interviews in each health center was proportional to the mean number of women seen per month. In the data analysis, women's answers for knowledge, attitude and practice regarding breast self-examination were classified according to their adequacy as previously defined. Adequacy was compared among categories of control variables with X² test. RESULTS: The results showed that knowledge and practice of breast self-examination were adequate in 7.4% and 16.7%, respectively. However, attitude was adequate in 95.9% of the women interviewed. The study also showed that 58.1% of the women interviewed referred that forgetfulness was the main barrier for not performing self-examination. CONCLUSIONS: Women attending the health centers sampled in this study had inadequate knowledge and practice about breast self-examination but they had an adequate and favorable attitude about it.
Luiz Alberto Barcelos, Marinho; Maria Salete, Costa-Gurgel; José Guilherme, Cecatti; Maria José Duarte, Osis.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O câncer da mama é um dos principais problemas de saúde pública e a educação para o auto-exame mamário é uma das etapas fundamentais na identificação de tumores da mama em fase inicial. Realizou-se estudo com o objetivo de avaliar o conhecimento, a atitude e a prática do auto-exame das mamas entre usuárias de centros de saúde. MÉTODOS: Em estudo tipo inquérito CAP (conhecimento, atitude e prática foram entrevistadas 663 mulheres de 13 centros de saúde municipais selecionados de forma aleatória. O número de entrevistas em cada centro de saúde foi proporcional ao número médio mensal de mulheres atendidas. As respostas das usuárias foram descritas quanto ao conhecimento, atitude e prática, e suas respectivas adequações para o auto-exame das mamas, como previamente definido. A adequação foi comparada entre as categorias das variáveis de controle pelo teste X² RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que o conhecimento e a prática do auto-exame das mamas foram adequados em 7,4% e 16,7% das entrevistadas respectivamente, embora a atitude frente a este procedimento tenha sido adequada em 95,9% das entrevistas. O estudo também mostrou que o esquecimento desta prática foi a principal barreira para a sua não realização, sendo referido por 58,1% das mulheres. CONCLUSÕES: As mulheres que utilizaram os centros de saúde tiveram conhecimento e prática inadequados para auto-exame das mamas, apesar de apresentarem atitude adequada e favorável à realização desse procedimento.OBJECTIVE: Breast cancer is one of the most important problems of public health and education regarding breast self-examination is one of the important steps for identifying breast tumors at an early stage. The present study was carried out to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of breast self-examination among patients attending health centers. METHODS: In a KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practice survey 663 women of 13 randomly selected municipal health centers were interviewed. The number of interviews in each health center was proportional to the mean number of women seen per month. In the data analysis, women's answers for knowledge, attitude and practice regarding breast self-examination were classified according to their adequacy as previously defined. Adequacy was compared among categories of control variables with X² test. RESULTS: The results showed that knowledge and practice of breast self-examination were adequate in 7.4% and 16.7%, respectively. However, attitude was adequate in 95.9% of the women interviewed. The study also showed that 58.1% of the women interviewed referred that forgetfulness was the main barrier for not performing self-examination. CONCLUSIONS: Women attending the health centers sampled in this study had inadequate knowledge and practice about breast self-examination but they had an adequate and favorable attitude about it.
Luiz Alberto Barcelos Marinho
HIV infection in the Islamic Republic of Iran is concentrated primarily among intravenous drug users. This study investigated the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards HIV/AIDS prevention of a random sample of prisoners in 5 prisons in Mazandaran province. Of 1760 individuals aged 18-65 years old completing the questionnaire, the mean age was 30.1 (SD 8.1) years (range 18 to 59 years); 95.8% were male. Respondents had an average to fairly good knowledge about HIV/AIDS, with the percentages answering correctly ranging from 11.9% to 85.9%. However many had the misconception that "HIV/AIDS does not influence Iran" and "I will not be infected with HIV/AIDS under any conditions" and 63.6% agreed that lack of religious and moral commitment could spread AIDS infection. HIV/AIDS prevention efforts are needed for prisoners in Mazandaran province. PMID:22355942
Majdi, M R; Khani, H; Azadmarzabadi, E; Montazeri, A; Hallajian, E; Babamahmodi, F; Kariminasab, M H
Full Text Available Background: In South Africa the teenage fertility rate is high. About 42% of women have theirsexual debut by 18 years of age and 5% by 15. These young women are also at risk of sexuallytransmitted infections (STIs and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Despitewidespread availability of contraception, 18% of sexually active teenagers do not use any. Previous research on the knowledge of, attitudes to and practices of contraception by teenagers has focused on older adolescents.Objectives: This study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices about contraception amongst1214 year old unmarried schoolgirls with a view to inform planning of programmes to assist inreducing teenage pregnancies.Methods: A qualitative study design with purposive sampling was used to select participants from two government-run schools in King Sabata Dalindyebo Municipality. In-depth and focus group interviews were conducted after obtaining written consent from parents and assent from participants. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, translated and analysed thematically.Findings: Participants reported that young adolescents were sexually active, which included highrisk sexual behaviour such as multiple partners and casual and transactional sex. Knowledge about contraceptives varied widely. Condoms were the most preferred method of contraception, but it is unknown whether they ever used condoms as they professed to talk about the behaviour of others rather than themselves. Injectable contraceptives were believed to have long-term negative effects. Common sources of contraceptive information were friends or peers, school curriculum and to a lesser extent family members.Conclusions: Findings of the study suggest that young adolescents are sexually active and haveinadequate knowledge and misconceptions about contraception. These findings should informeducational programmes about risks of early sexual activity and about contraception.
Traditional complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) has been reported to be commonly used among individuals with HIV and AIDS disease. However a lack of communication between health care workers (HCWs) and patients as well as between HCWs and TCAM practitioners has been identified as one of the challenges that may adversely affect treatment of HIV and AIDS patients. With improved and sustained communication HCWs, patients and TCAM practitioners would be able to make informed decisions with regards to best treatment practices based on the knowledge of what is safe, effective and what is not. In order to establish a baseline understanding of the current status of interaction and communication between HCWs and TCAM profession in Durban, South Africa, the purpose of the study was to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of HCWs in the HIV and AIDS clinics towards TCAM professions. Data was collected by means of anonymous self-administered questionnaire which was distributed to HCWs in the HIV and AIDS clinics. Out of 161 HCWs in the HIV and AIDS clinics 81 HCWs returned the questionnaires resulting in 50% response rate. The results showed that participants did not possess a basic knowledge of TCAM. Out of 81 participants 23 (28%) scored zero in a true or false knowledge assessment question. PMID:23983356
Mbutho, Nozuko P; Gqaleni, Nceba; Korporaal, Charmaine M
Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers attitudes to knowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated the relationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers, and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) in the knowledge sharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method:
Olatokun, Wole M.; Elueze, Isioma N.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine nurses knowledge, attitude and practice on the initial management of acute poisoning among adult casualties seen at Accident and Emergency Department (AED, Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH. The study was cross sectional. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were employed. The target population were all nurses working at AED, KNH. Purposive sampling was used to select study subjects. Sample size included all Accident and Emergency (A&E nurses who met subjects inclusion criteria. Structured questionnaires, observation checklist and interview were used to collect the data. Sixty eight (82% of A&E nurses participated in this study. The study found out that with higher nursing qualification and training on courses related to emergency care, knowledge and skills of A&E nurses on the initial management of acute poisoning is enhanced. A&E nurses with lower education level had a higher mean score of positive attitude compared with nurses with higher nursing qualification. Majority 60 (88.2% of the A&E nurses indicated that, they required more training on the initial management of acute poisoning. Study recommends that A&E nurses should be trained on various types of poisoning including; assessment, clinical presentations and management to include gut decontaminations. In addition, refresher courses should be organised for those already trained. Flowcharts that will enhance easy identification and management of poisoned casualties should be put in place and utilized accordingly.
Full Text Available AIM: The study objective was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices on hypertension of 240 adult Nigerian Africans with hypertension and their impact on compliance with antihypertensive drugs METHOD: It was a descriptive survey of 240 consented consecutive adult patients with hypertension who attended the Cardiology Clinic of the Federal Medical Centre, Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria, between April 2008 and March 2009. The hospital is rural health institution in south west Nigeria RESULTS: One hundred and fourteen patients (47.5% were men and 126 (52.5% were women. Mean age was 48.8±13.2 years. Mean systolic and diastolic BP were 156.8±25.1 mmHg and 98.4±18.7 mmHg respectively. Only less than half (47.1% showed good knowledge of their hypertension. However, 141 (58.8% possessed good knowledge of their antihypertensive drugs. Knowledge of hypertension was better in women than in men (59.3% vs 40.7%, p=0.014. Compliance to medications was good in only 77 (32.1% of the patients. The reasons attributed to included: poor knowledge of the disease and ignorance of the need for long-term treatment (95, 32.6%; high cost of medications (63, 21.7%; religious practices and cultural beliefs (37, 12.5%; adverse drug reactions (19, 6.5%; inadequate access to medical care (18, 6.2%; and use of complimentary medications (60, 20.5%. CONCLUSION: The majority of our hypertensive patients still have a poor knowledge of their disease with a significant negative impact on compliance with medications. No doubt, there is a need to invent more effective education strategies directed towards the public in general and the patients in particular. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(2.000: 87-92
Ahmed Kayode Jimoh
Full Text Available To assess the awareness of Pharmacovigilance among the medical graduates and to evaluate the need of inclusion of KAP (Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Pharmacovigilance in Internship Training Programme as an educational intervention.Material and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Internship orientation program in a rural hospital of central India. It was a Hospital Based Cross Sectional Study in which 65 Interns (medical graduates were participated. Semi-structured, Pre-Designed, Pre-tested Questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was entered and analyzed using statistical software EPI INFO 3.5.3.Results: In our study a total of 65 medical graduates were responded and involved in the pre KAP and post KAP survey questionnaires. The overall response rate between pre intervention and post intervention was statistically significant and that shows effectiveness of educational intervention for improving awareness of Pharmacovigilance among medical graduates.Conclusion: Imparting the knowledge and awareness of Pharmacovigilance among the medical graduates by mean of continuous educational intervention would bring update of knowledge for drug safety into their everyday clinical practice and also bring the adverse drug reactions(ADRs reporting culture among them.
VARMA SUSHIL KUMAR
Full Text Available Background : School health program (SHP is an important component of the overall health care delivery system of any country. In developing countries such as Nigeria where infant and early childhood mortality is high its importance cannot be overemphasized. For this reason and the recent action plan of the Federal Government of Nigeria concerning SHP, the knowledge, attitude and practice of SHP among head teachers of primary schools in a Local Government Area in Nigeria was evaluated. Methods : A pre-tested questionnaire designed to evaluate the knowledge attitude and practice of SHP by the researchers was administered by assistants to 133 head teachers of 104 private and 29 public primary schools in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. The School premises were also inspected to check provision of pipe borne water, sick bay, toilet facilities and the adequacy of the school environments among other things. Results :None of the head teachers had adequate knowledge of SHP. 93.1% from private compared to 48.3% from public schools had poor knowledge of SHP (?2 = 56.86, p < 0.05. A favorable attitude was demonstrated by all the teachers. Up to 40.4% of private compared to 31.0% of public schools have SHP. Overall 27.7% of the schools had no toilet facility, 33.3% had pit latrine while 40.0% had water closet. Only 25.6% had hand washing facilities. Regarding health services, 51.0% of private schools compared to 27.6% of public schools perform medical inspection of the pupils. Similarly 39.4% private compared to 3.4% public schools have sick bay (?2 = 11.11; p < 0.05. A total of 16.5% of the schools undertake medical screening of food handlers/vendors, while 20.2% private compared to 3.4% public schools screen food handlers/vendors (?2 = 4.47; p < 0.05. Conclusion : The poor status of SHP in Nigeria may be attributed to failure of policy enunciation, poor primary health care base and lack of supervision.
Full Text Available The present study aimed to access the influence of socioeconomic factors on antenatal care and delivery practices of the mother of North Bengal. A community based study was carried out among 1772 families of the 7 blocks of the two districts. Various socio economic factors were considered for the antenatal care and delivery practices. We also tried to find out the relationship between antenatal check up with perinatal mortality. The study shows that the muslim mothers, Scheduled tribe mothers, non -educated and mothers with higher age group are less interested about ANC. Family income 2000/- month showing 62.42% ANC coverage. We found that only 7.11% mother used Govt. hospital and 2.65% used private clinic. The mother with medical problems and obstetric problems has high ANC coverage. So, socioeconomic factors significantly influence the antenatal coverage and delivery practices. Hence initiative may be taken at Government and non government levels to raise knowledge, attitude and practices for the improvement of antenatal care and delivery practices of the mother at these zones.
Prabir Kumar Manna, Debasis De and Debidas Ghosh
Knowledge, attitude and practice related to the pap smear test among users of a primary health unit Conocimiento, actitud y práctica relacionada al examen de colposcopia entre usuarias de una unidad básica de salud Conhecimento, atitude e prática relacionada ao exame colpocitológico entre usuárias de uma unidade básica de saúde
This KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice) study, carried out from February to June 2008, aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding the Pap smear test among users of a primary health unit (PHU) and to verify any association with sociodemographic variables. The sample was comprised of 250 women. The knowledge, attitude and practice related to the examination were adequate in 40.4%, 28% and 67.6% of respondents, respectively. The results demonstrate higher proportions of...
Full Text Available Abstract Background China is at greatest risk of the Pandemic (H1N1 2009 due to its huge population and high residential density. The unclear comprehension and negative attitudes towards the emerging infectious disease among general population may lead to unnecessary worry and even panic. The objective of this study was to investigate the Chinese public response to H1N1 pandemic and provide baseline data to develop public education campaigns in response to future outbreaks. Methods A close-ended questionnaire developed by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention was applied to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP of pandemic (H1N1 2009 among 10,669 responders recruited from seven urban and two rural areas of China sampled by using the probability proportional to size (PPS method. Results 30.0% respondents were not clear whether food spread H1N1 virusand. 65.7% reported that the pandemic had no impact on their life. The immunization rates of the seasonal flu and H1N1vaccine were 7.5% and 10.8%, respectively. Farmers and those with lower education level were less likely to know the main transmission route (cough or talk face to face. Female and those with college and above education had higher perception of risk and more compliance with preventive behaviors. Relationships between knowledge and risk perception (OR = 1.69; 95%CI 1.54-1.86, and knowledge and practices (OR = 1.57; 95%CI 1.42-1.73 were found among the study subjects. With regard to the behavior of taking up A/H1N1 vaccination, there are several related factors found in the current study population, including the perception of life disturbed (OR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.11-1.50, the safety of A/H1N1 vaccine (OR = 0.07; 95%CI 0.04-0.11, the knowledge of free vaccination policy (OR = 7.20; 95%CI 5.91-8.78, the state's priority vaccination strategy(OR = 1.33; 95%CI 1.08-1.64, and taking up seasonal influenza vaccine behavior (OR = 4.69; 95%CI 3.53-6.23. Conclusions This A/H1N1 epidemic has not caused public panic yet, but the knowledge of A/H1N1 in residents is not optimistic. Public education campaign may take the side effects of vaccine and the knowledge about the state's vaccination strategy into account.
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to know the knowledge, attitude and practices of 300 marriedwomen in the reproductive age group living in the cantonment area Sunjawan, Jammu regardingHBV infection. Only 20% of the women were found aware of the mode of transmission of HBV.However, 50% of the women were having the misconceptions regarding mode of transmission ofHBV. 4% of women, 30% of children up to 5 years and 15% of children above 5 years were fullyimmunized with hepatitis B vaccine. 80% of children up to 5 years and 75% of children above 5years were fully immunized as per universal immunization programme. Hence, the results of thestudy clearly indicated the low immunization rate with vaccine against HBV than that under universalimmunization programme and further potentiated the need for implementation of therecommendations in 9th five year plan of India regarding introduction of immunization againstHBV in universal immunization programme at the earliest .
Rashmi Sharma, C.L. Sharma, Ruchi Khajuria
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to know the knowledge, attitude and practices of 300 married women in the reproductive age group living in different districts of Bangladesh , regarding HBV infection. Only20% of the women were found aware of the mode of transmission of HBV. However, 50% of the women were having the misconceptions regarding mode of transmission of HBV. 4% of women, 30% of children up to 5 years and 15% of children above 5year were fully immunized with hepatitis B vaccine. 80% of children up to 5years and 75% of children above 5 years were fully immunized as per universal immunization Programme. Hence, the results of the study clearly indicated the low immunization programme and this further potentiated the need to grow public awareness about vaccination against Hepatitis B by focusing the beneficial effect of of early immunization through public electronic media.
Md. Atiqur Rahman
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the impacts of using SMS on improving laboratory test levels and Knowledge, Attitude, Practice (KAP and Self Efficacy (SE of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in Iran. Materials and methods In this randomized controlled trial study, a total of 81 type 2 diabetes patients were randomly assigned into two groups exp. group (n?=?43 and cont. group (n?=?38. Only exp. group received 4 messages weekly consisted of diet, exercise, medication taking and. The researchers provided the intervention for 12?weeks. Data were collected with results of laboratory tests and KAP, SE reliable and valid questionnaires and demographic characteristics list. Data gathering at the baseline of the study and after 3?months intervention and was analyzed by SPSS11.5 software using descriptive and inferential statistics methods. Results The results of this study showed that exp. group compared with cont. group improved significantly in HbA1C (p?=?0.024, LDL (p?=?0.019, cholesterol (p?=?0.002, BUN (p???0.001, micro albumin (p???0.001, knowledge (p???0.001, practice (p???0.001 and self efficacy (p???0.001. Conclusion The finding of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of intervention using SMS via mobile phone in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Thus, further studies are recommended for wide usage of distance education with mobile phone utilization.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar el conocimiento, las prácticas y las actitudes sobre la enfermedad de Carrión (bartonelosis en poblaciones rurales con antecedentes de brotes epidémicos. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal realizado en las poblaciones de Huaripampa, Orcosh y Opayaco (Ancash, Perú durante el mes de julio del 2010, utilizando una encuesta para evaluar el conocimiento, las prácticas y las actitudes sobre la enfermedad de Carrión. Se entrevistó solo a mayores de 18 años que tuviesen una antigüedad mínima de un año residiendo en esos poblados. RESULTADOS: Se realizaron encuestas a un total de 276 pobladores, de los cuales 36,6% fueron hombres y 72,5% no había oído hablar de la enfermedad de Carrión. Entre los que la conocían, la mayoría (38,7% indicó que se contagia mediante picaduras, mientras que 26% manifestó no conocer la forma de contagio. Con respecto a las acciones que deberían tomarse en caso de presentar la enfermedad de Carrión, 69,3% de los encuestados refirieron que acudirían a un centro de salud y más de la mitad informó haber recomendado prácticas preventivas a familiares o conocidos en el pasado. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de tratarse de comunidades históricamente afectadas por la enfermedad de Carrión, los pobladores de estas tres comunidades no mostraron un nivel adecuado de conocimientos, actitudes o prácticas para su prevención. En vista de ello, y teniendo en cuenta que este padecimiento ha presentado brotes cíclicos, se hace perentorio diseñar e implementar un programa que eduque a los habitantes de estos poblados -poniendo el foco en el papel de los usos y costumbres- sobre cómo prevenir la enfermedad de Carrión, así como el resto de las principales enfermedades endémicas de la región.OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices about Carrión's disease (bartonellosis in rural communities with a history of epidemic outbreaks. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted in the communities of Huaripampa, Orcosh, and Opayaco (Ancash, Peru in July 2010, to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices about Carrión's disease. Interviewees were aged >18 years and had resided in the community for at least one year. RESULTS: A total of 276 residents were surveyed; 36.6% were men, and 72.5% had not heard of Carrión's disease. Of those familiar with it, most (38.7% said that it spreads through bites, and 26% did not know how it spreads. Regarding actions to take if Carrión's disease develops, 69.3% of respondents said they would go to a health center and over half reported having recommended preventive practices to relatives or acquaintances in the past. CONCLUSIONS: Even though these three communities have a history of Carrión's disease, their inhabitants did not demonstrate adequate knowledge, attitudes, or practices for preventing it. In view of this, and given that this illness has cyclical outbreaks, it is imperative to design and implement a program to educate residents of these communities-focusing on the role of habits and customs-about how to prevent Carrión's disease, as well as the region's other main endemic diseases.
Carolina Llerena Luna
Caregiver knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding childhood diarrhea and dehydration in Kingston, Jamaica Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de los cuidadores hacia la diarrea infantil y la deshidratación en Kingston, Jamaica
Objective. To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of caregivers in Kingston, Jamaica, regarding childhood diarrhea and dehydration in order to determine if limited caregiver knowledge about the prevention and treatment of diarrhea and dehydration puts children at increased risk of presenting at the hospital for these concerns. Methods. The study was an observational case-control study conducted between February 1997 and May 1997 at Bustamante Hospital for Children in Kingston. Conve...
Lela Rose Bachrach; Julie Meeks Gardner
Full Text Available Objectives: The study examined and identified the factors that affect lawyers attitudes toknowledge sharing, and their knowledge sharing behaviour. Specifically, it investigated therelationship between the salient beliefs affecting the knowledge sharing attitude of lawyers,and applied a modified version of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA in the knowledgesharing context, to predict how these factors affect their knowledge sharing behaviour.Method: A field survey of 273 lawyers was carried out, using questionnaire for data collection.Collected data on all variables were structured into grouped frequency distributions. PrincipalComponent Factor Analysis was applied to reduce the constructs and Simple Regression wasapplied to test the hypotheses. These were tested at 0.05% level of significance.Results: Results showed that expected associations and contributions were the majordeterminants of lawyers attitudes towards knowledge sharing. Expected reward was notsignificantly related to lawyers attitudes towards knowledge sharing. A positive attitudetowards knowledge sharing was found to lead to a positive intention to share knowledge,although a positive intention to share knowledge did not significantly predict a positiveknowledge sharing behaviour. The level of Information Technology (IT usage was also foundto significantly affect the knowledge sharing behaviour of lawyers.Conclusion: It was recommended that law firms in the study area should deploy more ITinfrastructure and services that encourage effective knowledge sharing amongst lawyers.
Wole M. Olatokun
Diferenças regionais de conhecimento, opinião e uso de contraceptivo de emergência entre universitários brasileiros de cursos da área de saúde Regional differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practice in emergency contraceptive use among health sciences university students in Brazil
Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as diferenças regionais de conhecimento, opinião e uso de anticoncepção de emergência entre universitários brasileiros. Questionário semi-estruturado abordando conhecimento, opinião, experiência com anticoncepção de emergência e comportamento sexual foi aplicado a adolescentes de universidades brasileiras. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste exato de Fisher e ANOVA. Diferenças foram significantes quando o valor de p The aim of this study was to evaluate regional differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practice in emergency contraception use among Brazilian university students. A sample of university students answered a semi-structured questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes, and practice related to emergency contraception and sexual behavior. Fisher's exact test and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Ninety-six percent (n = 588 of the students had heard of emergency contraception, and 19% (n = 111 knew all the situations in which emergency contraception is indicated, with statistical differences between regions of the country. Forty-two percent of sexually active women in the sample had already used emergency contraception; 35% (n = 207 of students equated emergency contraception with abortion; and 81% (n = 473 thought emergency contraception involves health risks. No significant difference was observed between regions of the country regarding use and attitudes towards emergency contraception. Inter-regional differences in knowledge had no impact on students' attitudes and practice in emergency contraception. National awareness-raising campaigns are needed to improve knowledge on emergency contraception.
Flávia Calanca da Silva
Conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas dos médicos pediatras quanto ao desenvolvimento da comunicação oral / Knowledge, attitudes and practices of pediatricians regarding the development of oral communication
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: investigar os conhecimentos e as atitudes práticas de pediatras em relação à comunicação oral de crianças. MÉTODOS: foram entrevistados 79 pediatras por meio de questionário específico. O conteúdo do questionário buscava informações sobre o profissional, conhecimento das etapas do desenvol [...] vimento da comunicação infantil, sua conduta frente a alguma queixa de suspeita de alterações da comunicação, encaminhamentos profissionais e o método utilizado como avaliação destas crianças. Os questionários foram entregues pessoalmente e respondidos manualmente pelos médicos. RESULTADOS: a maioria dos pediatras entrevistados tem conhecimento, embora básico, das alterações da comunicação infantil e o desenvolvimento da linguagem. Porém, muitos pediatras desconhecem a real atuação do fonoaudiólogo. Além disso, embora haja uma preocupação com a idade da criança falar corretamente, os médicos não realizam o encaminhamento no período adequado. CONCLUSÃO: este estudo mostra a importância da divulgação do trabalho fonoaudiológico em outros meios que não os restritos a ambientes acadêmico, científico ou clínico apenas frequentado por fonoaudiólogos, mas também por profissionais da área médica. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of pediatricians regarding the development of oral communication in children. METHODS: a total of 79 pediatricians answered a specific questionnaire. This questionnaire searched information about the professional, professional knowledge [...] of the stages of the children communication development, the behavior before some complaint of communication disorders, referring and method used for evaluating these children. The questionnaires were delivered personally and answered manually by the doctors. RESULTS: most interviewed pediatricians have knowledge, though basic, on some language disorders. However, many pediatricians are not aware on the role played by speech pathologists. Moreover, even though there is concern on the correct speech of children, pediatricians do not refer them at adequate time. CONCLUSION: this study shows the importance to publish the role of speech pathologists not only in academic, scientific or clinical environments attended by speech pathologists, but also in the working places of medical professionals.
Luciana Paula, Maximino; Marina Viotti, Ferreira; Danielle Tavares, Oliveira; Dionísia Aparecida Cusin, Lamônica; Mariza Ribeiro, Feniman; Ana Carulina Pereira, Spinardi; Simone Aparecida, Lopes-Herrera.
Full Text Available Emmanuelle Careau,1 Gjin Biba,1 Rosemary Brander,2 Janice P Van Dijk,2 Sarita Verma,3 Margo Paterson,2 Maria Tassone31Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitation and Social Integration, Université Laval, Québec, QC, 2Office of Interprofessional Education and Practice, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, 3Centre for Interprofessional Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaBackground: A review of the literature was undertaken by the Canadian Interprofessional Health Leadership Collaborative to investigate the content and competencies of health education programs that teach collaborative leadership and to inform the development of an international collaborative leadership curriculum.Methods: A PubMed and Google Scholar search identified the frequency of key leadership education program terms and was adjusted for six major databases. From the 2,119 references, 250 were selected in a double-blinded manner. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed to determine the patterns, types, learners, models, and competencies addressed. Cross-tabulation and analysis of correlation identified best practices and impacts on learners' knowledge, skills, attitudes/behaviors, and on health system change.Results: Four types of leadership models were formally identified, ie, traditional leadership, transformational leadership, clinical leadership, and collaborative leadership. The most identified competencies were interprofessional communication, knowledge on how to work in teams and across disciplines, and financial knowledge. The least addressed topics were social accountability and community engagement. Only 6.8% of the articles reviewed assessed the effectiveness of their program based on patient-centered outcomes and 3.6% on system change.Conclusion: This literature review focused on 250 health leadership education programs reported in peer-reviewed journals to address important questions about the competencies, best practices taught, and evaluation of effectiveness of health system change in health leadership educational programs. This review provides information that may encourage the development, implementation, and evaluation of new collaborative leadership programs. The Lancet Commission report in 2010 called for a new breed of collaborative health leader who can work across health professions in community, hospital, and primary care settings. Collaborative leaders must lead change in the face of uncertainty and ambiguity, and must strengthen and build relationships to navigate complex systems. Existing leadership programs do not adequately address the key competencies to prepare future health leaders to rise to these challenges.Keywords: leadership, health education, collaboration, curriculum, interprofessional relationships, peer review research
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 3 559 personas (15-35 años de edad, con vistas a caracterizar los conocimientos, las actitudes y prácticas sexuales y su relación con las manifestaciones de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual y el sida en la provincia de Santiago de Cuba. De los integrantes de la casuística, 46,4 % de quienes iniciaron sus relaciones sexuales a los 10-14 años y 82,0 % de quienes las tuvieron con personas del mismo sexo, eran varones. Respecto al condón, 18,6 % de las mujeres y 17,6 % de los hombres refirieron haberlo usado en sus primeras relaciones sexuales; pero nunca lo utilizaron 31,8 y 30,2 % de los que practicaron coito anal y vaginal, respectivamente. Entre las prácticas sexuales predominaron la penetración vaginal (94,6 % y el sexo oral (62,0 %. La tasa de no respuesta y no participación fue de 18 %, con un intervalo de confianza de 95 %.A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 3 559 people (15-35 years old was carried out, with the objective of characterizing the knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices and their relation to the manifestations of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS in Santiago de Cuba province. From the members of the case material, 46,4 % of those who began their sexual relations at 10-14 years and 82,0 % of those who began them with persons of the same sex, were males. Regarding condom, 18,6 % of the women and 17,6 % of the men, referred to have used it in their first sexual relations; but 31,8 and 30,2 % of those who practiced anal and vaginal coitus never used it. Among the sexual practices, vaginal penetration (94,6 % and oral sex (62,0 % prevailed. The rate for no answer and no participation was 18 %, with a confidence interval of 95 %.
Luis Eugenio Valdés García
Background: In Ethiopia maternal mortality rate is very high more than one in five women die from pregnancy or pregnancy related causes. The use of contraceptives to prevent unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortion is an important strategy to minimize maternal mortality rate. Among various forms of contraception, emergency contraceptives are the only one that can be used after sexual intercourse offering chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, ...
Tesfaye, Tatek; Degfie, Tizta Tilahun; Girma, Eshetu
Background: Death related to unintended pregnancy associated events is a series public health concern in Ethiopia. This is very common in young adolescents for whom life is full of adventure and temptation with very little knowledge about the consequences of their reckless activities. Emergency contraceptives are the only method that can be used within short time after sexual intercourse, offering a second chance to prevent unwanted pregnancy. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and...
Effective surveillance is the key to effective disease control in the community. In Nigeria, it is weak with duplication of data collection and multiple reporting channels. There is also lack of clarity with regards to data submission responsibilities. However, the knowledge of reporting requirements and responsibilities among health personnel has not been examined adequately as a cause of under reporting. This study was designed to assess the knowledge of health workers about disease surveillance. A cross sectional study was conducted in six randomly selected local government areas in Yobe State, North Eastern Nigeria. A total of 144 health personnel from 88 health facilities were administered a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire and a checklist by trained research assistants. The result showed that only fifty-five (38.2%) of the respondents were aware of the national disease surveillance system. Their mean score regarding immediate notifiable diseases was 0.8 +/- 1.23 SD (maximum of 10). Thirty nine (70.9%) reported to have ever reported, while 16 (29.1%) have never reported any of the notifiable conditions. Only 12 (21.8%) of the respondents claimed to have ever received feedback on the reports they forward to higher authorities and more than 92% of the health facilities lack the DSN 001 and 002 forms. Most of the respondents 47 (85.5%) that were aware of the reporting requirements listed lack of training on disease surveillance as one of the factors affecting disease reporting. This shows that lack of knowledge of reporting requirement was identified as a major factor affecting disease surveillance among the respondents. The training and retraining of health workers responsible for data generation, collection and forwarding in health facilities on disease notification, regular feedback on diseases reported and provision of forms were recommended in order to improve the disease surveillance system. PMID:15030066
Bawa, S B; Olumide, E A A; Umar, U S
The Effect of the Theoretical Course of Community Oral Health on the Oral Health Prevention Knowledge, Attitude and Self-Reported Practice in Dental School Students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Evaluation of the training is a principle for successful education. This study evaluated the effect of the theoretical course of community oral health on knowledge, attitude and self-reported practice of preventive dentistry in dental students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences and assessed the students' satisfaction from the course.Materials and Methods: The intervention group comprised the forth-year students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Dental School and the controls were the forth year students of Shahid Beheshti Medical University. The questionnaire included questions on backgrounds, knowledge, attitude and practice of students towards preventive dentistry, and students' satisfaction from the course. The intervention was 17 weekly sessions (hours of the community oral health course. The sum of scores for questions on backgrounds, knowledge, attitude and practice were calculated and changes were analyzed by General Linear Model.Results: The mean baseline knowledge score in the intervention group was 16.9 (SD=4.0 and for the control group 16.3 (SD=3.5. Corresponding figures were 23.7 (SD=3.4 and 17 (SD=3.3 after intervention. General linear model showed the intervention to be successful in increasing the students' knowledge scores on preventive dentistry (P<0.0001. Most students (92% were satisfied with learning several new items during the course.Conclusion: The students' knowledge was successfully increased by passing the theoretical course of community oral health delivered by teacher-centered method of lecture. Student-centered methods may help in changing the students' attitude and practice of preventive dentistry.
Full Text Available Objetivo Estimar la relación entre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (comportamientos de riesgo en la sexualidad juvenil y la estructura y percepción de funcionalidad familiar. Metodología Se realizó un estudio observacional de corte trasversal entre 13 699 adolescentes (10 a 19 años de edad de 12 colegios públicos de la localidad de Suba. Se aplicó una encuesta autodiligenciada donde se interrogó por conocimientos, actitudes y comportamientos sexuales y la estructura y percepción del funcionamiento familiar. Resultados Edad media de los adolescentes 13,5 años. Prevalencia de relaciones sexuales de 17 %. El 8 % de los hogares presentan disfunción severa y 39 % son nucleares incompletos. Las mujeres tienen menos relaciones sexuales que los hombres (OR 0.53; IC 95 %; 0.47-0.59. Se presenta más relaciones sexuales cuando los adolescentes perciben de manera disfuncional a su familia (OR 2.06; IC 95 %; 1.72-2.48. Conclusiones Es más importante la percepción de función familiar que la estructura como factor de riesgo en la sexualidad de los jóvenes.Objective Assessing the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding high-risk sexual behaviour in adolescent sexuality as well as the structure and perception of family functionality. Methods Cross-sectional research was carried out on a population of 13,699 adolescents (ages ranging from 10 to 19 attending 12 public schools from the conurbation of Suba. A self-questionnaire was administered, focusing on sexual behaviour, knowledge, attitudes and the structure and perception of family dynamics. Results Average age was 13.5. Sexual activity prevalence was 17%. 8% of households suffered from severe dysfunction. 39% of households were incomplete nuclear ones. Females reported less sexual activity than males (0.53 OR; 0.47-0.59 95%CI. Sexual activity was more common when adolescents perceived family dysfunction (2.06 OR; 1.72-2.48 95%CI. Conclusions Perception of family function was more important than structure as a risk factor in youngsters' sexuality.
Juan C González
Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the leading cancer-related cause of death among women in Nigeria. An estimated 70,700 new cases occur each year, representing one quarter of all female cancers in sub Saharan Africa. The magnitude of the problem has been under recognised and under prioritised compared with the competing health priorities of infectious diseases such as HIV/ AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Studies in the United States and Nigeria have indicated that the disease has the highest incidence among the lowest socio-economic groups especially residing in rural areas. The peak age for the disease has been shown to be within 35-45 years age group. Knowledge of the risk factors of the disease is deemed important in its early detection and prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural women with cancer of the cervix. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among 1600 rural women aged 15-55 years (randomly selected from 28 villages who were interviewed using a structured questionnaire between April and June, 2010. The majority (82.2% were married before the age of 20 years and 19.3% before 15 years, 40% in polygamous union, 22.6% have had 2 or more sexual partners, 71.3% were primi and grand multiparous, 7.5% have had previous treatment for STIs and 10.1% were on various types of contraceptive. 454 (28.4% have heard of Ca cervix, 358 (22.4% knew the location of the cervix. 2.3% had Pap smear test of which 72.6% were within 2 years. The majority (89.9% will avail themselves for screening.
John S. Bimba
Background Many schools throughout the United States reported an increase in dismissals due to the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1). During the fall months of 2009, more than 567 school dismissals were reported from the state of Michigan. In December 2009, the Michigan Department of Community Health, in collaboration with the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, conducted a survey to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) of households with school-aged children and classroom teachers regarding the recommended use of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to slow the spread of influenza. Methods A random sample of eight elementary schools (kindergarten through 5th grade) was selected from each of the eight public health preparedness regions in the state. Within each selected school, a single classroom was randomly identified from each grade (K-5), and household caregivers of the classroom students and their respective teachers were asked to participate in the survey. Results In total, 26% (2,188/8,280) of household caregivers and 45% (163/360) of teachers from 48 schools (of the 64 sampled) responded to the survey. Of the 48 participating schools, 27% (13) experienced a school dismissal during the 2009 fall term. Eighty-seven percent (1,806/2,082) of caregivers and 80% (122/152) of teachers thought that the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic was severe, and >90% of both groups indicated that they told their children/students to use NPIs, such as washing hands more often and covering coughs with tissues, to prevent infection with influenza. Conclusions Knowledge and instruction on the use of NPIs appeared to be high among household caregivers and teachers responding to the survey. Nevertheless, public health officials should continue to explain the public health rationale for NPIs to reduce pandemic influenza. Ensuring this information is communicated to household caregivers and teachers through trusted sources is essential.
Shi, Jianrong; Njai, Rashid; Wells, Eden; Collins, Jim; Wilkins, Melinda; Dooyema, Carrie; Sinclair, Julie; Gao, Hongjiang; Rainey, Jeanette J.
A large proportion of mosquito larval habitats in urban and rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa are man-made. Therefore, community-based larval source management (LSM) could make a significant contribution to malaria control in an integrated vector management approach. Here we implemented an exploratory study to assess malaria prevalence and people's knowledge, attitudes and practices on malaria transmission, its control and the importance of man-made aquatic habitats for the development of disease vectors in one peri-urban lowland and two rural highland communities in western Kenya. We implemented monthly cross-sectional malaria surveys and administered a semi-structured questionnaire in 90 households, i.e. 30 households in each locality. Malaria prevalence was moderate (3.2-6.5%) in all sites. Nevertheless, residents perceived malaria as their major health risk. Thirty-two percent (29/90) of all respondents did not know that mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of malaria. Over two-thirds (69/90) of the respondents said that mosquito breeding site could be found close to their homes but correct knowledge of habitat characteristics was poor. Over one-third (26/67) believed that immature mosquitoes develop in vegetation. Man-made pools, drainage channels and burrow pits were rarely mentioned. After explaining where mosquito larvae develop, 56% (50/90) felt that these sites were important for their livelihood. Peri-urban residents knew more about mosquitoes' role in malaria transmission, could more frequently describe the larval stages and their breeding habitats, and were more likely to use bed nets even though malaria prevalence was only half of what was found in the rural highland sites (pbased programs that take people's needs into account. Innovative, community-based training programs need to be developed to increase people's awareness of man-made vector breeding sites and acceptable control methods need to be designed in collaboration with the communities. PMID:20399739
Imbahale, S S; Fillinger, U; Githeko, A; Mukabana, W R; Takken, W
Diferenças regionais de conhecimento, opinião e uso de contraceptivo de emergência entre universitários brasileiros de cursos da área de saúde / Regional differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practice in emergency contraceptive use among health sciences university students in Brazil
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as diferenças regionais de conhecimento, opinião e uso de anticoncepção de emergência entre universitários brasileiros. Questionário semi-estruturado abordando conhecimento, opinião, experiência com anticoncepção de emergência e comportamento sexual foi aplicado a [...] adolescentes de universidades brasileiras. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste exato de Fisher e ANOVA. Diferenças foram significantes quando o valor de p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate regional differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practice in emergency contraception use among Brazilian university students. A sample of university students answered a semi-structured questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes, and practice related to emergency con [...] traception and sexual behavior. Fisher's exact test and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at p
Flávia Calanca da, Silva; Maria Sylvia de Souza, Vitalle; Hélcio de Sousa, Maranhão; Maria Helena Alves, Canuto; Maria Marlene de Souza, Pires; Mauro, Fisberg.
Diferenças regionais de conhecimento, opinião e uso de contraceptivo de emergência entre universitários brasileiros de cursos da área de saúde / Regional differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practice in emergency contraceptive use among health sciences university students in Brazil
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as diferenças regionais de conhecimento, opinião e uso de anticoncepção de emergência entre universitários brasileiros. Questionário semi-estruturado abordando conhecimento, opinião, experiência com anticoncepção de emergência e comportamento sexual foi aplicado a [...] adolescentes de universidades brasileiras. Para análise estatística utilizou-se o teste exato de Fisher e ANOVA. Diferenças foram significantes quando o valor de p Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate regional differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practice in emergency contraception use among Brazilian university students. A sample of university students answered a semi-structured questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes, and practice related to emergency con [...] traception and sexual behavior. Fisher's exact test and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was set at p
Flávia Calanca da, Silva; Maria Sylvia de Souza, Vitalle; Hélcio de Sousa, Maranhão; Maria Helena Alves, Canuto; Maria Marlene de Souza, Pires; Mauro, Fisberg.
Background: Namibia bears a large burden of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), and the youth are disproportionately affected.Objectives: To explore the current knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of female adolescents attending family planning to HIV prevention.Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used on a sample 251 unmarried female adolescents aged from 13 years to 19 years accessing primary care services for contraception using an interviewer- administered questionnaire. Data were ...
Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish La farmacovigilancia puede ser útil para proteger a los consumidores de los efectos dañinos de los medicamentos. Los profesionales de la salud deberían considerar la comunicación de reacciones adversas de medicamentos (RAM) como una obligación profesional y deberían conocer los mecanismos de farmaco [...] vigilancia que existen en sus países. En Nepal, las actividades de farmacovigilancia comenzaron en 2004. Objetivos: El presente estudio evaluó el conocimiento, actitudes y prácticas (KAP) de los profesionales de la salud hacia las RAM y la farmacovigilancia en el Hospital Universitario de Manipal (MTH), un hospital universitario terciario ligado al centro regional de farmacovigilancia del Oeste de Nepal. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio transversal en 2007 usando un cuestionario pre-evaluado (alfa de Cronbach=0,72) que tenía 25 preguntas (15 sobre conocimiento, 5 sobre actitudes y 5 sobre práctica). A las preguntas correctas se les dio una puntuación de "2' y a las respuestas incorrectas/negativas se les dio un "1', con una puntuación máxima de 50. Resultados: Se obtuvieron un total de 131 respuestas de las que 42 estaban incompletas y las restantes 89 se analizaron [49 mujeres (55,1%)]. De los 89 profesionales, 29 (33,6%) eran médicos, 46 (51,8%= enfermeras y 14 (15,7%) farmacéuticos. La media de edad era de 28,32 años (DE=8,46) y la media (rango intercuartílico) de la duración en el servicio fue 14,5 meses (6-36). Las puntuaciones totales de KAP fueron 40,06 (DE=3,51) para médicos, 39,92 (DE=4,83) para farmacéuticos y 35,82 (DE=3,75) para enfermeras. Entre los 89 profesionales, 59 (62,3%) no comunicaron ni una sola RAM al centro de farmacovigilancia. Conclusión: Los profesionales de la saludo del MTH tienen pobre KAP sobre las RAM y la farmacovigilancia, y se necesita una intervención educativa y sobre el conocimiento para estos profesionales. Abstract in english Pharmacovigilance can be helpful in protecting consumers from harmful effects of medicines. Healthcare professionals should consider Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) reporting as their professional obligation and should be aware of the existing pharmacovigilance mechanisms in their countries. In Nepal, p [...] harmacovigilance activities were initiated in 2004. Objectives: The present study evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of the healthcare professionals towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance in Manipal Teaching Hospital (MTH), a tertiary care teaching hospital attached to the regional pharmacovigilance center in western Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2007 using a pretested (Cronbach alpha=0.72) questionnaire having 25 questions (15 questions on knowledge, 5 on attitude and 5 on practice). The correct/positive responses were given a score of "2' and the wrong/negative responses "1', maximum possible score of "50'. Results: A total of 131 responses were obtained among which 42 were incomplete and remaining 89 [females 49 (55.1%)] were analyzed. Of the 89 professionals, 29 (32.6%) were doctors, 46 (51.8) nurses and 14 (15.7%) pharmacists. The mean age was 28.32 (SD=8.46) years and the median (interquartile range) of duration of the service 14.5 (6-36) months. The total KAP scores was 40.06 (SD=3.51) for doctors, 38.92 (SD=4.83) for pharmacists, and 35.82 (SD=3.75) for nurses. Among the 89 professionals, 59 (62.3%) had not reported even a single ADR to the pharmacovigilance center. Conclusion: The healthcare professionals at the MTH had a poor KAP towards ADRs and pharmacovigilance and there is a need for educational and awareness intervention for these professionals.
S., Palaian; M.I., Ibrahim; P., Mishra.
Full Text Available Objetivo Identificar conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre dengue para orientar medidas de prevención y control. Metodología Encuesta realizada, en dos barrios de alta incidencia de dengue en Bucaramanga, mayo de 2007, mediante visita domiciliaria. Se identificaron criaderos y se brindó educación sobre prevención y control. La información fue analizada en EPI-INFO. Resultados En 643 de las 780 viviendas (82,4 % se logró respuesta. La mayoría de los entrevistadas eran mujeres, 518 (80,6 %, con edad promedio 39,6 años, desviación estándar (DE 16,8, escolaridad 6,2 años (DE 3.5 y 5 habitantes por vivienda. En cuanto al dengue, 433 (67,3% lo describieron como una enfermedad: muy grave 545 (84,8 %, transmitida por zancudo 242 (37,6 % y producida por virus 59 (9,2 %. Síntomas reconocidos: fiebre 570 (88,6 %, vómito 352 (54,7 %, diarrea 275 (43,0 %, cefalea 243 (37,8 %, dolor óseo 196 (30,5 % y muscular 109 (17,0 %. Para prevenirlo: evitan agua estancada 288 (44,7 %, lavan la pila 174 (27,2 %, limpian la casa 101 (15,8 % y fumigan 91 (14,2 %. Cuando alguien tiene dengue: lo llevan al médico 410 (63,8 %, al hospital 129 (20,1 % o automedica 78 (12,0 %. El índice larvario fue de 26,1 % y en 8,4 % de las viviendas hubo casos de dengue el mes anterior a la encuesta. Discusión Los conocimientos sobre dengue son escasos, las actitudes favorables al control, pero las prácticas son insuficientes. Se requiere educar y empoderar la comunidad para que participe activamente en los programas de prevención y control.Objective Identifying knowledge, attitudes and practice regarding dengue control for guiding prevention and control measures. Methods A community survey was carried out using house inspection visits during May 2007 in two neighbourhoods in Bucaramanga having a high incidence of dengue. Mosquito breeding places were identified and education concerning dengue prevention and control measures was provided. EPI-INFO was used for analysing the information so collected. Results 643 of the 780 households (82.4% responded to the survey. Most people responding (518 were female (80.6%, average age being 39.6 (16.8 standard deviation (SD, average schooling lasted 6.2 years (3.5 SD and average household size was 5 people per house. Regarding dengue, 433 people (67.3% described it as being a very serious disease; 545 (84.8% stated that it was transmitted by a mosquito vector and 242 (37.6% said that it was produced by a virus 59 (9.2%. The symptoms recognised were: fever by 570 people (88.6%, vomiting by 352 (54.7%, diarrhoea by 275 (43.0%, headache by 243 (37.8%, bone pain by 196 (30.5% and muscle pain by 109 (17.0%. For prevention, 288 (44.7% avoided stagnant water, 174 (27.2% washed out their water tanks, 91 (14.2% fumigated and 101 (15.8% cleaned their houses. When anybody had dengue, 410 of them (63.8% would go to a doctor, 129 (20.1% would go to a hospital and 78 (12.0% would treat themselves. Larval rate was 26.6% and there had been cases of dengue in 8.4% of the households during the last month. Discussion Knowledge about dengue was sketchy. Attitudes were favourable regarding dengue control but preventative practice was inadequate. The community must be educated and empowered to ensure their active participation in prevention and control programmes.
Flor de María Cáceres-Manrique
Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 3 559 personas (15-35 años de edad), con vistas a caracterizar los conocimientos, las actitudes y prácticas sexuales y su relación con las manifestaciones de las enfermedades de transmisión sexual y el sida en la provincia de Santiago de Cuba. De lo [...] s integrantes de la casuística, 46,4 % de quienes iniciaron sus relaciones sexuales a los 10-14 años y 82,0 % de quienes las tuvieron con personas del mismo sexo, eran varones. Respecto al condón, 18,6 % de las mujeres y 17,6 % de los hombres refirieron haberlo usado en sus primeras relaciones sexuales; pero nunca lo utilizaron 31,8 y 30,2 % de los que practicaron coito anal y vaginal, respectivamente. Entre las prácticas sexuales predominaron la penetración vaginal (94,6 %) y el sexo oral (62,0 %). La tasa de no respuesta y no participación fue de 18 %, con un intervalo de confianza de 95 %. Abstract in english A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 3 559 people (15-35 years old) was carried out, with the objective of characterizing the knowledge, attitudes and sexual practices and their relation to the manifestations of sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS in Santiago de Cuba province. From the memb [...] ers of the case material, 46,4 % of those who began their sexual relations at 10-14 years and 82,0 % of those who began them with persons of the same sex, were males. Regarding condom, 18,6 % of the women and 17,6 % of the men, referred to have used it in their first sexual relations; but 31,8 and 30,2 % of those who practiced anal and vaginal coitus never used it. Among the sexual practices, vaginal penetration (94,6 %) and oral sex (62,0 %) prevailed. The rate for no answer and no participation was 18 %, with a confidence interval of 95 %.
Luis Eugenio, Valdés García; María Dolores, Malfrán García; Yoire, Ferrer Savigne; Enma, Salazar Aguilera.
A study on the Rate of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Medical Students towards Method of Medical Records Documentation at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences Affiliated Therapeutic and Teaching Centers 2003
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: History, clinical findings, procedures undertaken, and patients response to treatment are written in clinical records, hence their contents are indicators of physicians evaluation. If clinical records are provided precisely, clear and systematized, they indicate the clinical thinking of the staff and facilitate patients diagnosis process. These records have an important role in coordinating professional staff involved in patient care. Since the physicians and medical students are involved more in medical records documentation than the other hospital staff, thus, a study on their knowledge, attitude and practice towards the principles of medical records documentation is undertaken.Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study, which is done about the rate of knowledge, attitude and practice of 207 Medical students of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in university hospitals. Descriptive and inferential statistical analytic methods were used for the collected data. For comparison of the hospitals, regarding observing designed principals in the completion of medical files, according to the filled questionnaires the minimum and maximum score designated as 1-5 which is very poor to excellent. Then the mean score was calculated and considered for the comparison of hospitals. For the determination of the relationship between knowledge,